Science.gov

Sample records for additional therapeutic contact

  1. A review on therapeutic contact lenses for ocular drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Maulvi, Furqan A; Soni, Tejal G; Shah, Dinesh O

    2016-10-01

    Contact lenses for ophthalmic drug delivery have become very popular, due to their unique advantages like extended wear and more than 50% bioavailability. To achieve controlled and sustained drug delivery from contact lenses, researchers are working on various systems like polymeric nanoparticles, microemulsion, micelle, liposomes, use of vitamin E, etc. Numerous scientists are working on different areas of therapeutic contact lenses to treat ocular diseases by implementing techniques like soaking method, molecular imprinting, entrapment of drug-laden colloidal nanoparticles, drug plate/film, ion ligand polymeric systems, supercritical fluid technology, etc. Though sustained drug delivery was achieved using contact lens, the critical properties such as water content, tensile strength (mechanical properties), ion permeability, transparency and oxygen permeability were altered, which limit the commercialization of therapeutic contact lenses. Also issues like drug stability during processing/fabrication (drug integrity test), zero order release kinetics (prevent burst release), drug release during monomer extraction step after fabrication (to remove un-reacted monomers), protein adherence, drug release during storage in packaging solution, shelf life study, cost-benefit analysis, etc. are still to be addressed. This review provides an expert opinion on different methodology to develop therapeutic contact lenses with special remark of their advantages and limitations.

  2. Sustained in vivo release from imprinted therapeutic contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Tieppo, A; White, C J; Paine, A C; Voyles, M L; McBride, M K; Byrne, M E

    2012-02-10

    In this paper, we demonstrate the successful in vivo extended release of a small molecular weight therapeutic, ketotifen fumarate (MW=425), from molecularly imprinted, therapeutic contact lenses. This is the first time that a steady, effective concentration of drug is maintained in the tear film from a contact lens for an extended period of time for the entire duration of lens wear. Poly(HEMA-co-AA-co-AM-co-NVP-co-PEG200DMA) soft contact lenses were prepared (100±5 μm thickness, diameter 11.8 mm, power zero), and a constant tear film concentration of 170±30 μg/mL was measured for up to 26 hrs in a New Zealand white rabbit model. The results showed a dramatic increase in ketotifen mean residence time (MRT) and bioavailability compared to topical drop therapy and drug soaked lenses. The MRT for imprinted lenses was 12.47±3.99 hrs, ~4 and 50 fold greater than non-imprinted lenses and 0.035% eye drops (Zaditor®), respectively. Furthermore, AUC(0-26 hrs) was 9 and 94 fold greater for imprinted lenses than non-imprinted lenses and eye drops, respectively. The results indicate that molecular imprinting provides an exciting rational engineering strategy for sustained release. It is clear that imprinted lenses are very promising combination devices and are much more effective and efficient delivery devices than eye drops.

  3. Cultured human ocular surface epithelium on therapeutic contact lenses

    PubMed Central

    Girolamo, Nick Di; Chui, Jeanie; Wakefield, Denis; Coroneo, Minas T

    2007-01-01

    Background This study was initiated after observation of some intriguing epithelial growth properties of contact lenses used as a bandage for patients after pterygium surgery. Aim To determine the efficacy of culturing human ocular surface epithelial cells on therapeutic contact lenses in autologous serum with a view of using this system to transfer epithelial cells to patients with persistent corneal or limbal defects. Methods Excess graft tissue resected from patients undergoing pterygium surgery (n = 3) consisting of limbal epithelium was placed on siloxane–hydrogel contact lenses (lotrafilcon A and balafilcon A). Limbal explants were cultured in media with 10% autologous serum. Morphology, proliferative capacity and cytokeratin profile were determined by phase contrast, light and electron microscopy, and immunohistochemical analysis. Results Lotrafilcon A contact lenses sustained proliferation and migration from limbal tissue. Cells became confluent after 10–14 days and consisted of 2–3 layers with a corneal phenotype (CK3+/CK12+/CK19−) and a propensity to proliferate (p63+). Electron microscopy showed microvilli on the apical surface with adhesive projections, indicating that these cells were stable and likely to survive for a long term. Growth was not observed from limbal explants cultured on balafilcon A contact lenses. Conclusion A method for culturing human ocular surface epithelium on contact lenses that may facilitate expansion and transfer of autologous limbal epithelial cells while avoiding the risks associated with transplanting allogeneic tissue has been developed. This technique may be potentially useful for the treatment of patients with limbal stem cell deficiency. PMID:16987897

  4. Controlled Release of Multiple Therapeutics from Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses

    PubMed Central

    White, Charles J.; DiPasquale, Stephen A.; Byrne, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The majority of contact lens wearers experience a significant level of ocular discomfort associated with lens wear, often within hours of wear, related to dry lenses, inflammation, protein adhesion to the lens surface, etc. Application of controlled drug release techniques has focused on the incorporation and/or release of a single comfort molecule from a lens including high molecular weight comfort agents or pharmaceutical agents. Previous studies have sought to mitigate the occurrence of only single propagators of discomfort. Clinical studies with eye drop solutions have shown that a mixture of diverse comfort agents selected to address multiple propagators of discomfort provide the greatest and longest lasting sensations of comfort for the patient. In this paper, multiple propagators of discomfort are addressed through the simultaneous release of four molecules from a novel contact lens to ensure high level of lens wear comfort. Methods Silicone hydrogel contact lenses were engineered via molecular imprinting strategies to simultaneously release up to four template molecules including hydropropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), trehalose, ibuprofen, and prednisolone. Results By adjusting the ratio of functional monomer to comfort molecule, a high level of control was demonstrated over the release rate. HPMC, trehalose, ibuprofen, and prednisolone were released at therapeutically relevant concentrations with varying rates from a single lens. Conclusions The results indicate use as daily disposable lenses for single day release or extended-wear lenses with multiple day release. Imprinted lenses are expected to lead to higher efficacy for patients compared to topical eye drops by improving compliance and mitigating concentration peaks and valleys associated with multiple drops. PMID:26945177

  5. [Allergic contact dermatitis as a consequence of additional occupations].

    PubMed

    Paravina, M; Stanojević, M; Spalević, Lj; Jovanović, D

    1994-01-01

    During discovering etiology of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) anamnesis is of great importance (date of life, profession of a patients, activities besides the profession, habits, hobbies). Many people have additional professions, habits, hobbies). Many people have additional professions, either as hobbies or as financial reasons. They can show senzibilization to substances they come to contact with. The aim of this work is to point to this possibility of generating ACD. Five petients suffering from ACD were presented. All of them were tested by standard series and by substances thej came to contact with, while going in for additional occupations. 1. A metalsmith, going in for beekeeping, had positive tests to propolis and balsam of Peru. 2. A construction worker growing fruit, hat positive tests to TMT and fingicid melpreks. 3. Stics weaver, engaging in constructions work, had positive tests to potassium bichromate. 4. Retired professor in matematics, engaged in constructions works, had positive tests to potassium bichromate, too. 5. A law student, going in for photography, had positive tests to colour film developer. The nature of allergens, length of exposure, possibilites for elimination of allergens, means of protection etc have been discussed. It was conslused that a detail examination of patients was necessary for proving causes of ACD.

  6. Hydrophobins as aqueous lubricant additive for a soft sliding contact.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghwan; Røn, Troels; Pakkanen, Kirsi I; Linder, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Two type II fungal hydrophobins, HFBI and FpHYD5, have been studied as aqueous lubricant additive at a nonpolar, compliant sliding contact (self-mated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) contact) at two different concentrations, 0.1 mg/mL and 1.0 mg/mL. The two hydrophobins are featured as non-glycosylated (HFBI, m.w. ca. 7 kDa) vs glycosylated (FpHYD5, m.w. ca. 10 kDa) proteins. Far UV CD spectra of the two hydrophobins were very similar, suggesting overall structural similarity, but showed a noticeable difference according to the concentration. This is proposed to be related to the formation of multimers at 1.0 mg/mL. Despite 10-fold difference in the bulk concentration, the adsorbed masses of the hydrophobins onto PDMS surface obtained from the two solutions (0.1 and 1.0 mg/mL) were nearly identical, suggesting that a monolayer of the hydrophobins are formed from 0.1 mg/mL solution. PDMS-PDMS sliding interface was effectively lubricated by the hydrophobin solutions, and showed a reduction in the coefficient of friction by as much as ca. two orders of magnitude. Higher concentration solution (1.0 mg/mL) provided a superior lubrication, particularly in low-speed regime, where boundary lubrication characteristic is dominant via 'self-healing' mechanism. FpHYD5 revealed a better lubrication than HFBI presumably due to the presence of glycans and improved hydration of the sliding interface. Two type II hydrophobins function more favorably compared to a synthetic amphiphilic copolymer, PEO-PPO-PEO, with a similar molecular weight. This is ascribed to higher amount of adsorption of the hydrophobins to hydrophobic surfaces from aqueous solution.

  7. Contact refusal by children following acrimonious separation: therapeutic approaches with children and parents.

    PubMed

    Dejong, Margaret; Davies, Hilary

    2013-04-01

    This paper aims to build on the existing literature, by presenting some thoughts based on clinical experience with nine families of children referred for intractable contact refusal with one parent following marital separation. This particular group of high-conflict divorce cases engenders an inordinate amount of frustration both within the courts and therapeutic agencies. We outline here our assessment process and therapeutic strategies, as well as consideration of the role of the wider professional system and the courts. We conclude that whether or not direct contact with the rejected parent is achieved, useful therapeutic work can be carried out to assist children in moving on with their lives.

  8. Diamond Nanogel-Embedded Contact Lenses Mediate Lysozyme-Dependent Therapeutic Release

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Temporarily implanted devices, such as drug-loaded contact lenses, are emerging as the preferred treatment method for ocular diseases like glaucoma. Localizing the delivery of glaucoma drugs, such as timolol maleate (TM), can minimize adverse effects caused by systemic administration. Although eye drops and drug-soaked lenses allow for local treatment, their utility is limited by burst release and a lack of sustained therapeutic delivery. Additionally, wet transportation and storage of drug-soaked lenses result in drug loss due to elution from the lenses. Here we present a nanodiamond (ND)-embedded contact lens capable of lysozyme-triggered release of TM for sustained therapy. We find that ND-embedded lenses composed of enzyme-cleavable polymers allow for controlled and sustained release of TM in the presence of lysozyme. Retention of drug activity is verified in primary human trabecular meshwork cells. These results demonstrate the translational potential of an ND-embedded lens capable of drug sequestration and enzyme activation. PMID:24506583

  9. Definition and computation of intermolecular contact in liquids using additively weighted Voronoi tessellation.

    PubMed

    Isele-Holder, Rolf E; Rabideau, Brooks D; Ismail, Ahmed E

    2012-05-10

    We present a definition of intermolecular surface contact by applying weighted Voronoi tessellations to configurations of various organic liquids and water obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. This definition of surface contact is used to link the COSMO-RS model and molecular dynamics simulations. We demonstrate that additively weighted tessellation is the superior tessellation type to define intermolecular surface contact. Furthermore, we fit a set of weights for the elements C, H, O, N, F, and S for this tessellation type to obtain optimal agreement between the models. We use these radii to successfully predict contact statistics for compounds that were excluded from the fit and mixtures. The observed agreement between contact statistics from COSMO-RS and molecular dynamics simulations confirms the capability of the presented method to describe intermolecular contact. Furthermore, we observe that increasing polarity of the surfaces of the examined molecules leads to weaker agreement in the contact statistics. This is especially pronounced for pure water.

  10. Increased osmolality of breast milk with therapeutic additives

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, L; Bokiniec, R; King, C; Weaver, G; Edwards, A

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the changes in the osmolality of expressed breast milk (EBM) after the addition of seven additives and four proprietary fortifiers commonly used during neonatal intensive care. Methods: The osmolality of 5 ml EBM was measured with increasing doses of 6% NaCl, caffeine, sodium ironedetate, folic acid, and multivitamin drops. Sodium acid phosphate and chloral hydrate were added to 8 ml EBM, and the fortifiers were added to standard volumes of EBM. Dose-effect curves were plotted, and the volume of milk that must be added to the above additives to maintain osmolality below 400 mOsm/kg was calculated. Results: The osmolality of the pure additives ranged from 242 to 951 mOsm/kg. There was a significant increase in the osmolality of EBM with increasing doses of all additives except caffeine. The osmolality of EBM with many additives in clinically used dosages potentially exceeded 400 mOsm/kg. The greatest increase occurred with sodium ironedetate syrup, where the osmolality of EBM increased to 951.57 (25.36) mOsm/kg. Proprietary fortifiers increased the osmolality of EBM to a maximum of 395 mOsm/kg. Conclusion: Routine additives can significantly increase the osmolality of EBM to levels that exceed current guidelines for premature infant feeding. A simple guide for clinical use is presented, which indicates the amount of milk required as diluent if hyperosmolality is to be avoided. PMID:15499144

  11. Deconstructing Pediatric Depression Trials: An Analysis of the Effects of Expectancy and Therapeutic Contact

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Bret R.; Sneed, Joel R.; Tandler, Jane M.; Rindskopf, David; Peterson, Bradley S.; Roose, Steven P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We investigated how study type, mean patient age, and amount of contact with research staff affected response rates to medication and placebo in acute antidepressant trials for pediatric depression. Method Data were extracted from 9 open, 4 active comparator, and 18 placebo-controlled studies of antidepressants for children and adolescents with depressive disorders. A multilevel meta-analysis examined how study characteristics affected response rates to antidepressants and placebo. Results The primary finding was a main effect of study type across patient age and contact amount, such that the odds of medication response were greater in open studies vs. placebo-controlled (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.17 – 2.99, p = 0.012) and comparator studies (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.16 – 3.48, p = 0.015) but were not significantly different between comparator and placebo-controlled studies. No significant main effects of patient age or the amount of contact with research staff were found for the analyses of response rates to medication and placebo. Response to placebo in placebo-controlled trials did significantly increase with the amount of therapeutic contact in older patients (age*contact OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 – 1.15, p = 0.038). Conclusions Whereas patient expectancy strongly influences response rates to medication and placebo in depressed adults, it appears to be less important in the treatment of children and adolescents with depression. Attempts to limit placebo response and improve the efficiency of antidepressant trials for pediatric depression should focus on other causes of placebo response apart from expectancy. PMID:21784298

  12. [Therapeutic and toxic theophylline levels in asthma attacks--is there a need for additional theophylline?].

    PubMed

    Zeidman, A; Gardyn, J; Fradin, Z; Fink, G; Mittelman, M

    1997-07-01

    Although first-line therapy for bronchial asthma has changed over the past decade to anti-inflammatory medication such as inhaled corticosteroids and cromolyn with possible addition of beta-agonists, theophylline is still useful and therefore widely used. However, several studies have raised serious questions regarding its efficacy in acute asthmatic exacerbations. These studies, the narrow therapeutic range of the drug, the frequency of side effects and interactions with common drugs, and individual variation in clearance and metabolism, have prompted its reevaluation in the management of asthma. Therapeutic serum levels of theophylline are between 10 to 20 mcg/ml. Most adults achieve these concentrations with daily slow-release oral theophylline preparations, 200-400 mg (approximately 10 mg/Kg) twice a day. However, when such a patient presents to the emergency room (ER) in an asthmatic attack, immediate intravenous theophylline is often given, regardless of maintenance treatment. Since the rationale for this common therapeutic approach has been challenged, the current study was undertaken. Serum theophylline levels were measured in 23 consecutive asthmatics presenting to the ER in an acute attack. 15 (68%) had therapeutic levels (above 10 mcg/ml) and 2 had toxic levels (above 20 mcg/ml), prior to receiving the standard intravenous theophylline dose given for an attack. These data indicate that most patients with bronchial asthma on oral maintenance theophylline do not require additional intravenous theophylline when in an attack. It probably will not benefit them and may even induce serious theophylline toxicity.

  13. Novel composite plastics containing silver(I) acylpyrazolonato additives display potent antimicrobial activity by contact.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Fabio; Palmucci, Jessica; Pettinari, Claudio; Pettinari, Riccardo; Condello, Francesca; Ferraro, Stefano; Marangoni, Mirko; Crispini, Alessandra; Scuri, Stefania; Grappasonni, Iolanda; Cocchioni, Mario; Nabissi, Massimo; Chierotti, Michele R; Gobetto, Roberto

    2015-01-07

    New silver(I) acylpyrazolonato derivatives displaying a mononuclear, polynuclear, or ionic nature, as a function of the ancillary azole ligands used in the synthesis, have been fully characterized by thermal analysis, solution NMR spectroscopy, solid-state IR and NMR spectroscopies, and X-ray diffraction techniques. These derivatives have been embedded in polyethylene (PE) matrix, and the antimicrobial activity of the composite materials has been tested against three bacterial strains (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus): Most of the composites show antimicrobial action comparable to PE embedded with AgNO3 . Tests by contact and release tests for specific migration of silver from PE composites clearly indicate that, at least in the case of the PE, for composites containing polynuclear silver(I) additives, the antimicrobial action is exerted by contact, without release of silver ions. Moreover, PE composites can be re-used several times, displaying the same antimicrobial activity. Membrane permeabilization studies and induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation tests confirm the disorganization of bacterial cell membranes. The cytotoxic effect, evaluated in CD34(+) cells by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide) and CFU (colony forming units) assays, indicates that the PE composites do not induce cytotoxicity in human cells. Studies of ecotoxicity, based on the test of Daphnia magna, confirm tolerability of the PE composites by higher organisms and exclude the release of Ag(+) ions in sufficient amounts to affect water environment.

  14. Passive solar addition to therapeutic pre-school. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    This project consisted of designing and constructing a passive solar system on a new classroom addition to the Peanut Butter and Jelly Therapeutic Pre-School in Albuquerque, NM. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the applicability of solar space heating systems to large institutional buildings, and to demonstrate the energy and cost savings available through the use of such systems. Preliminary estimates indicated that the passive solar systems will provide about 90 percent of the heating and cooling needs for the new classroom addition to the school.

  15. Tuning the Receding Contact Angle on Hydrogels by Addition of Particles.

    PubMed

    Boulogne, François; Ingremeau, François; Limat, Laurent; Stone, Howard A

    2016-06-07

    Control of the swelling, chemical functionalization, and adhesivity of hydrogels are finding new applications in a wide range of material systems. We investigate experimentally the effect of adsorbed particles on hydrogels on the depinning of contact lines. In our experiments, a water drop containing polystyrene microspheres is deposited on a swelling hydrogel, which leads to the drop absorption and particle deposition. Two regimes are observed: a decreasing drop height with a pinned contact line followed by a receding contact line. We show that increasing the particles concentration increases the duration of the first regime and significantly decreases the total absorption time. The adsorbed particles increase the pinning force at the contact line. Finally, we develop a method to measure the receding contact angle with the consideration of the hydrogel swelling.

  16. Deconstructing Pediatric Depression Trials: An Analysis of the Effects of Expectancy and Therapeutic Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Bret R.; Sneed, Joel R.; Tandler, Jane M.; Rindskopf, David; Peterson, Bradley S.; Roose, Steven P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated how study type, mean patient age, and amount of contact with research staff affected response rates to medication and placebo in acute antidepressant trials for pediatric depression. Method: Data were extracted from nine open, four active comparator, and 18 placebo-controlled studies of antidepressants for…

  17. [Weighing use and safety of therapeutic agents and feed additives (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    van der Wal, P

    1982-02-01

    (1) The pros and cons of using feed additives and therapeutic agents may be successfully weighed in the light of carefully considered consumer requirements. (2) The socio-economic interests of the producer and the welfare of the animal will also determine the response of the production apparatus to consumer requirements. (3) Consumption of the current amounts of products of animal origin and maintenance of price and quality will only be feasible in the event of rational large-scale production in which constituents used in nutrition, prophylaxis and therapeutics are highly important factors. (4) Using these ingredients should be preceded by accurate evaluation of their use and safety. Testing facilities, conduct of studies and reporting should be such as to make the results nationally and internationally acceptable to all those concerned. (5) In deciding whether feed constituents are acceptable in view of the established use and safety, compliance will have to be sought with those standards which are accepted in other fields of society. Measures which result in raising the price of food without actually helping to reduce the risks to the safety of man, animals and environment, are likely to be rejected by any well-informed consumer who is aware of the facts. (6) For accurate weighing of use and safety at a national level, possibilities are hardly adequate in Europe. Decisions reached within the framework of the European Community, also tuned to U.S.A.- conditions are rightly encouraged. A centrally managed professionally staffed and equipped test system in the European Community would appear to be indispensable.

  18. Effect of plasma treatment on the performance of two drug-loaded hydrogel formulations for therapeutic contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Patrizia; Chu, Virginia; Santos, Luís; Serro, Ana Paula; Colaço, Rogério; Saramago, Benilde

    2015-07-01

    Although the plasma technology has long been applied to treat contact lenses, the effect of this treatment on the performance of drug-loaded contact lenses is still unclear. The objective of this work is to study the effect of nitrogen plasma treatment on two drug-loaded polymeric formulations which previously demonstrated to be suitable for therapeutic contact lenses: a poly-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (pHEMA) based hydrogel loaded with levofloxacin and a silicone-based hydrogel loaded with chlorhexidine. Modifications of the surface and the optical properties, and alterations in the drug release profiles and possible losses of the antimicrobial activities of the drugs induced by the plasma treatment were assessed. The results showed that, depending on the system and on the processing conditions, the plasma treatment may be beneficial for increasing wettability and refractive index, without degrading the lens surface. From the point of view of drug delivery, plasma irradiation at moderate power (200 W) decreased the initial release rate and the amount of released drug, maintaining the drug activity. For lower (100 W) and higher powers (300 W), almost no effect was detected because the treatment was, respectively, too soft and too aggressive for the lens materials.

  19. Strength in numbers: Combining neck vibration and prism adaptation produces additive therapeutic effects in unilateral neglect

    PubMed Central

    Saevarsson, Styrmir; Kristjánsson, Árni; Halsband, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Unilateral neglect is a multifaceted disorder. Many authors have, for this reason, speculated that the best treatment for neglect will involve combinations of different therapeutic techniques. Two well known interventions, neck vibration (NV) and prism adaptation (PA), have often been considered to be among the most effective treatments for neglect. Here, two experiments were performed to explore possible additive benefits when these interventions are used in combination to treat chronic neglect. Both experimental groups received NV for 20 minutes, while the second group received simultaneous PA. The effects of treatment were measured with a time-restricted and feedback-based visual search task, which has previously been found to abolish the beneficial effects of PA, and with standard neglect tests. Baseline and intervention measures were performed on separate days. Findings for both groups indicated improved visual search following intervention, but the patients that underwent the combined intervention (NVPA) showed clear improvements on visual search based paper and pencil neglect tests unlike the NV-only group. Overall, our results suggest that PA strengthens the effects of NV and that feedback-based tasks do not abolish beneficial effects of PA, when NV is applied simultaneously. The results support the view that the most effective treatment for neglect will involve the combination of different treatments. PMID:20503132

  20. Cardiorenal axis and arrhythmias: Will renal sympathetic denervation provide additive value to the therapeutic arsenal?

    PubMed

    van Brussel, Peter M; Lieve, Krystien V V; de Winter, Robbert J; Wilde, Arthur A M

    2015-05-01

    Disruption of sympathetic tone may result in the occurrence or maintenance of cardiac arrhythmias. Multiple arrhythmic therapies that intervene by influencing cardiac sympathetic tone are common in clinical practice. These vary from pharmaceutical (β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and calcium antagonists) to percutaneous/surgical (cardiac sympathetic denervation) interventions. In some patients, however, these therapies have insufficient prophylactic and therapeutic capabilities. A safe and effective additional therapy wherein sympathetic drive is further attenuated would be expedient. Recently, renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) has been subject of research for various sympathetic nervous system-related diseases. By its presumed afferent and efferent sympatholytic effects, RSD might indirectly attenuate sympathetic outflow via the brain to the heart but might also reduce systemic catecholamine excretion and might therefore reduce catecholamine-sensitive arrhythmias. RSD is subject of research for various sympathetically driven arrhythmias, both supraventricular and ventricular. In this review, we give an overview of the rationale behind RSD as potential therapy in mediating arrhythmias that are triggered by a disrupted sympathetic nervous system and discuss the presently available results from animal and human studies.

  1. Therapeutic Array Transducer Element Using Coresonance between Hemispherical Piezoceramic Shell and Water Sphere: Effect of Load Masses of Support and Electric Contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsu, Kenji; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2012-07-01

    For therapeutic ultrasound array transducers, it is necessary to reduce the electrical impedance of their elements so that the transducer can produce high ultrasonic power at a relatively low drive voltage. For this purpose, a new concept of a breathing-mode piezoceramic transducer element has been proposed. Numerical simulation showed its low electric impedance as well as good acoustical coupling between the concave hemispherical piezoceramic shell, with a diameter on the order of a wavelength in water, and the volume of a water sphere half enclosed by the shell. In the preparation of a prototype transducer, the effect of additional load masses of the flange supporting the shell and the electric contact for driving the element was numerically analyzed in this paper.

  2. [Antibacterial effect of food additives and detergents against histamine-producing bacteria on food contact material surfaces].

    PubMed

    Kamii, Eri; Terada, Gaku; Akiyama, Junki; Isshiki, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the antibacterial activity of food additives and detergents against histamine-producing bacteria on food contact material surfaces. Based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing with Morganella morganii NBRC3848, Raoultella planticola NBRC3317 and Enterobacter aerogenes NCTC10006, we screened nine food additives and four detergents with relatively high inhibitory potency. We prepared food contact material surfaces contaminated with histamine-producing bacteria, and dipped them into fourteen agents (100 µg/mL). Sodium hypochlorite, benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, n-hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride and 1-n-hexadecylpyridinium chloride showed antibacterial activity against histamine-producing bacteria. We prepared low concentrations of the five agents (10 and 50 µg/mL) and tested them in the same way. Sodium hypochlorite showed high antibacterial activity at 10 µg/mL, and the other four showed activity at 50 µg/mL. So, washing the material surface with these reagents might be effective to prevent histamine food poisoning owing to bacterial contamination of food contact surfaces.

  3. Additional Evaluation of the Point-of-Contact Circulating Cathodic Antigen Assay for Schistosoma mansoni Infection.

    PubMed

    Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Kittur, Nupur; Ochola, Elizabeth; Cooper, Philip J; Campbell, Carl H; King, Charles H; Colley, Daniel G

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the urine-based point-of-contact cathodic circulating antigen test (POC-CCA) in Schistosoma mansoni-endemic settings in Africa indicate it has good sensitivity in detecting infections, but in areas of low prevalence, the POC-CCA can be positive for persons who are egg-negative by Kato-Katz stool assays. We examined the POC-CCA assay for: (a) batch-to-batch stability; (b) intra-reader and inter-reader variability; (c) day-to-day variability compared to Kato-Katz stool assays, and (d) to see if praziquantel (PZQ) treatment converted Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals to POC-CCA negativity. We found essentially no batch-to-batch variation, negligible intra-reader variability (2%), and substantial agreement for inter-reader reliability. Some day-to-day variation was observed over 5 days of urine collection, but less than the variation in Kato-Katz stool assays over 3 days. To evaluate the effect of treatment on Kato-Katz(-)/POC-CCA(+) children, 149 children in an area of 10-15% prevalence who were Kato-Katz(-) based on 3 stool samples but POC-CCA(+) were enrolled. Seven days after treatment (PZQ 40 mg/kg) samples were again collected and tested. Almost half (47%) POC-CCA positive children turned negative. Those still POC-CCA positive received a second treatment, and 34% of them turned POC-CCA negative upon this second treatment. Most who remained POC-CCA positive shifted each time to a "lesser" POC-CCA "level of positivity." The data suggest that most Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals harbor low-intensity infections, and each treatment kills all or some of their adult worms. The data also suggest that when evaluated by a more sensitive assay, the effective cure rates for PZQ are significantly less than those inferred from fecal testing. These findings have public health significance for the mapping and monitoring of Schistosoma infections and in planning the transition from schistosomiasis morbidity control to elimination of

  4. Additional Evaluation of the Point-of-Contact Circulating Cathodic Antigen Assay for Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mwinzi, Pauline N. M.; Kittur, Nupur; Ochola, Elizabeth; Cooper, Philip J.; Campbell, Carl H.; King, Charles H.; Colley, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the urine-based point-of-contact cathodic circulating antigen test (POC-CCA) in Schistosoma mansoni-endemic settings in Africa indicate it has good sensitivity in detecting infections, but in areas of low prevalence, the POC-CCA can be positive for persons who are egg-negative by Kato-Katz stool assays. We examined the POC-CCA assay for: (a) batch-to-batch stability; (b) intra-reader and inter-reader variability; (c) day-to-day variability compared to Kato-Katz stool assays, and (d) to see if praziquantel (PZQ) treatment converted Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals to POC-CCA negativity. We found essentially no batch-to-batch variation, negligible intra-reader variability (2%), and substantial agreement for inter-reader reliability. Some day-to-day variation was observed over 5 days of urine collection, but less than the variation in Kato-Katz stool assays over 3 days. To evaluate the effect of treatment on Kato-Katz(−)/POC-CCA(+) children, 149 children in an area of 10–15% prevalence who were Kato-Katz(−) based on 3 stool samples but POC-CCA(+) were enrolled. Seven days after treatment (PZQ 40 mg/kg) samples were again collected and tested. Almost half (47%) POC-CCA positive children turned negative. Those still POC-CCA positive received a second treatment, and 34% of them turned POC-CCA negative upon this second treatment. Most who remained POC-CCA positive shifted each time to a “lesser” POC-CCA “level of positivity.” The data suggest that most Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals harbor low-intensity infections, and each treatment kills all or some of their adult worms. The data also suggest that when evaluated by a more sensitive assay, the effective cure rates for PZQ are significantly less than those inferred from fecal testing. These findings have public health significance for the mapping and monitoring of Schistosoma infections and in planning the transition from schistosomiasis morbidity control to

  5. Impact of contacting study authors to obtain additional data for systematic reviews: diagnostic accuracy studies for hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Seventeen of 172 included studies in a recent systematic review of blood tests for hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis reported diagnostic accuracy results discordant from 2 × 2 tables, and 60 studies reported inadequate data to construct 2 × 2 tables. This study explores the yield of contacting authors of diagnostic accuracy studies and impact on the systematic review findings. Methods Sixty-six corresponding authors were sent letters requesting additional information or clarification of data from 77 studies. Data received from the authors were synthesized with data included in the previous review, and diagnostic accuracy sensitivities, specificities, and positive and likelihood ratios were recalculated. Results Of the 66 authors, 68% were successfully contacted and 42% provided additional data for 29 out of 77 studies (38%). All authors who provided data at all did so by the third emailed request (ten authors provided data after one request). Authors of more recent studies were more likely to be located and provide data compared to authors of older studies. The effects of requests for additional data on the conclusions regarding the utility of blood tests to identify patients with clinically significant fibrosis or cirrhosis were generally small for ten out of 12 tests. Additional data resulted in reclassification (using median likelihood ratio estimates) from less useful to moderately useful or vice versa for the remaining two blood tests and enabled the calculation of an estimate for a third blood test for which previously the data had been insufficient to do so. We did not identify a clear pattern for the directional impact of additional data on estimates of diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions We successfully contacted and received results from 42% of authors who provided data for 38% of included studies. Contacting authors of studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of serum biomarkers for hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in hepatitis C patients

  6. Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoplatelets with Excellent Tribological Properties under High Contact Pressure as Water-Based Lubricant Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongdong; Liu, Yuhong; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Bibo; Xu, Sailong; Luo, Jianbin

    2016-03-01

    High efficient and sustainable utilization of water-based lubricant is essential for saving energy. In this paper, a kind of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelets is synthesized and well dispersed in water due to the surface modification with oleylamine. The excellent tribological properties of the oleylamine-modified Ni-Al LDH (NiAl-LDH/OAm) nanoplatelets as water-based lubricant additives are evaluated by the tribological tests in an aqueous environment. The modified LDH nanoplatelets are found to not only reduce the friction but also enhance the wear resistance, compared with the water-based cutting fluid and lubricants containing other particle additives. By adding 0.5 wt% LDH nanoplatelets, under 1.5 GPa initial contact pressure, the friction coefficient, scar diameter, depth and width of the wear track dramatically decrease by 83.1%, 43.2%, 88.5% and 59.5%, respectively. It is considered that the sufficiently small size and the excellent dispersion of NiAl-LDH/OAm nanoplatelets in water are the key factors, so as to make them enter the contact area, form a lubricating film and prevent direct collision of asperity peaks. Our investigations demonstrate that the LDH nanoplatelet as a water-based lubricant additive has a great potential value in industrial application.

  7. Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoplatelets with Excellent Tribological Properties under High Contact Pressure as Water-Based Lubricant Additives

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongdong; Liu, Yuhong; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Bibo; Xu, Sailong; Luo, Jianbin

    2016-01-01

    High efficient and sustainable utilization of water-based lubricant is essential for saving energy. In this paper, a kind of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelets is synthesized and well dispersed in water due to the surface modification with oleylamine. The excellent tribological properties of the oleylamine-modified Ni-Al LDH (NiAl-LDH/OAm) nanoplatelets as water-based lubricant additives are evaluated by the tribological tests in an aqueous environment. The modified LDH nanoplatelets are found to not only reduce the friction but also enhance the wear resistance, compared with the water-based cutting fluid and lubricants containing other particle additives. By adding 0.5 wt% LDH nanoplatelets, under 1.5 GPa initial contact pressure, the friction coefficient, scar diameter, depth and width of the wear track dramatically decrease by 83.1%, 43.2%, 88.5% and 59.5%, respectively. It is considered that the sufficiently small size and the excellent dispersion of NiAl-LDH/OAm nanoplatelets in water are the key factors, so as to make them enter the contact area, form a lubricating film and prevent direct collision of asperity peaks. Our investigations demonstrate that the LDH nanoplatelet as a water-based lubricant additive has a great potential value in industrial application. PMID:26951794

  8. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  9. Influence of addition order and contact time on thorium(IV) retention by hematite in the presence of humic acids.

    PubMed

    Reiller, Pascal; Casanova, Florence; Moulin, Valérie

    2005-03-15

    The influence of addition order and contact time in the system hematite (alpha-Fe2O3)-humic acid (HA)-thorium(IV) (Th(IV)) was studied in batch experiments. Th(IV) is considered here as a chemical analogue of other actinides (IV). The sorption isotherms were acquired varying pH in the range 2-10 and HA concentration in the range 1-100 mg/L. As already observed by numerous authors, Th(IV) retention was hindered when HA and hematite were equilibrated beforehand during 24 h. As it has been observed in a previous study, this effect was drastic when the ratio between humic and surface (iron oxide) sites exceeds a critical value. However, when HA was added after a 24-h equilibration of the hematite-Th(IV) system, Th(IV) was barely desorbed from the iron oxide surface. Furthermore, no drastic effect of the ratio between humic and surface sites could be evidenced, as the increase of HA concentration only results in a slight monotonic decrease in Th(IV) retention. Increasing contact time between components of the systems only indicated slight Th(IV) retention variation. This was interpreted as a consequence of slow kinetic controls of both the Th(IV)-HA complexation and HA-hematite sorption.

  10. Acanthamoeba polyphaga Strain Age and Method of Cyst Production Influence the Observed Efficacy of Therapeutic Agents and Contact Lens Disinfectants

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Reanne; Heaselgrave, Wayne; Kilvington, Simon

    2003-01-01

    The effects of age in culture and the type of medium used for induction of Acanthamoeba polyphaga (Ros) cysts on susceptibilities to polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB; 3 μg/ml), chlorhexidine digluconate (30 μg/ml), myristamidopropyl dimethylamine (20 μg/ml), H2O2 (3%), and two multipurpose contact lens solutions (MPS-1 and MPS-2, based on 1 μg of PHMB per ml) were examined. Strain Ros-02 was cryopreserved on isolation in 1991, while strain Ros-91 had been in continuous axenic culture. Significant differences in susceptibilities to the disinfectants were found depending on the medium used for cyst preparation and the age of the test strain, with Ros-02 generally being more resistant. For example, the killing of Ros-91 cysts produced from an axenic culture of trophozoites in the presence of 50 mM MgCl2 by MPS-2 was 4 logs, but the killing of Ros-02 by MPS-2 was only 2 logs (P < 0.05) and killing of both strains with cysts obtained from monoxenic cultures with Escherichia coli was only 1 log (P < 0.001). Assays repeated with different batches of the various cyst types gave consistent results. A batch of Ros-91 cysts stored at 4°C and tested over an 8-week period with MPS-1 showed progressively increasing susceptibility to disinfection, although there was no loss of viability during storage (P < 0.01). These observations have important implications for the standardization and interpretation of Acanthamoeba disinfectant and therapeutic agent testing. PMID:14506012

  11. Preparation and characterization of a hydrogel carrier to deliver gatifloxacin and its application as a therapeutic contact lens for bacterial keratitis therapy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yunfeng; Lv, Hongling; Fu, Yeyun; Lu, Qingjun; Zhong, Jingxiang; Ma, Dong; Huang, Yuexin; Xue, Wei

    2013-10-01

    A soft and biocompatible hydrogel exhibiting a higher loading and the sustained release of gatifloxacin (GFLX) was developed as the potential matrix to fabricate a therapeutic contact lens for curing bacterial keratitis. 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and five other kinds of vinyl monomers with different side groups were used as co-monomers. Copolymerization took place in a cornea shaped mould via the gradient temperature-elevating method. The results of drug loading and in vitro release experiments showed that P(HEMA-co-MAA) achieved the highest drug loading of 11.78±0.77 µg mg(-1) among the obtained hydrogels, as well as a slow release. In addition, its physical properties and cytocompatibility were also proved suitable and safe for wearing on the eye surface. In animal experiments, a rat model of bacterial keratitis was established and employed to evaluate the clinical results of certain treatments employing obtained hydrogels; saline and GFLX eye drops were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Corneal abscess and opacity caused by epithelial erosion and stromal ulceration were almost healed after wearing the drug loaded P(HEMA-co-MAA) hydrogel for 48 h. Its excellent antibacterial effect was also confirmed by testing the bacterial activity in tear extraction via the streak line method.

  12. Simultaneous interpenetrating silicone hydrogel based on radical/addition polymerization for extended release of ocular therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinku; Zhang, Leilei; Zhang, Yongchun; Li, Tianduo; Huo, Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogels with interpenetrating network (IPN) can overcome thermodynamic incompatibility and obtain transparent materials with limited phase separation. In this report, hydroxyl-grafting polysiloxane (HPSO) was synthesized and transparent silicone hydrogels with interpenetrating network were simultaneously prepared based on radical polymerization of methacrylic monomer of 3-methacryloxypropyl tris(trimethylsiloxy)silane/N,N-dimethylacrylamide and addition polymerization of HPSO/isophorone diisocyanate. The silicone hydrogels were characterized by dehydration kinetics, tensile tester, light transmittance, ion permeability, oxygen permeability, and lysozyme deposition. The results show that increasing the proportion of hydrophobic network of HPSO in the IPN silicone hydrogel decreases equilibrium swelling ratio, ion permeability, Young's modulus, and lysozyme deposition; on the contrary, increased tensile strength, elongation at break and oxygen permeability. Puerarin and ketoconazole were used as models to evaluate the drug loading and in vitro release behavior of the silicone hydrogels. It is revealed that the amount of loaded drugs in the hydrogel decreases with the increase of HPSO network in the hydrogels. All the silicone hydrogels exhibit extended release behavior, especially for ketoconazole, the in vitro release is divided into two phases corresponding to the rapid release at initial 24 h and relatively slow release from 125 to 360 h.

  13. [Pregnant opioid addicted patients and additional drug intake. Part I. Toxic effects and therapeutic consequences].

    PubMed

    Hoell, Imke; Havemann-Reinecke, Ursula

    2011-10-01

    Opioid dependent patients often are dependent from the illegal consumption of heroin and, in addition, perform a polytoxicomanic way of consuming drugs. They suffer of various somatic and psychiatric diseases. Moreover, pregnancies of drug addicted women are classified as high-risk pregnancies. With respect to the particular consumed drug substances other than opioids during pregnancy variable forms of teratogenic and toxic effects can be assigned to the baby. Critical values of maternal substance abuse referring to fetal impairment do not exist. With regard to the possible teratogenic and toxic fetal effects of maternal consume of alcohol, tobacco, sedativa, cannabis, cocaine and amphetamines, withdrawal treatment of polytoxicomanic pregnant patients under inpatient medical supervision including medication if necessary represent the first-line-treatment. With respect to smoking, it is possible to detoxicate the patients also by an outpatient treatment. However, referring to heroin addiction, a maintenance therapy with L-methadone, D/L-methadone or buprenorphine should be preferred since fetal withdrawal symptoms of opioids otherwise can cause severe complications which even can lead to the loss of the fetus and also increase the risks for the mother. Increasing the dose of the opioid substitute may be necessary, for example, to avoid premature uterus contractions. It is to be pointed out that substitution treatment with methadone or buprenorphine also improve the medicinal compliance and psychosocial circumstances of the pregnant patients. Subsequent to delivery, the maintenance treatment should initially be pursued over a further period of time. In the follow up, the question of continuing with maintenance treatment or starting a withdrawal treatment of opioids should be discussed on an individual basis. To sum up, proceeded interdisciplinary care during pregnancy and afterwards by all the professions involved like general practioners as well as social workers

  14. Growth of corneal epithelial cells over in situ therapeutic contact lens after simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET).

    PubMed

    Bhalekar, Swapnil; Sangwan, Virender S; Basu, Sayan

    2013-06-27

    An 11-year-old boy underwent simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) from the healthy right eye to his left eye for total limbal stem cell deficiency. One month later, corneal surface epithelialised and whitish plaques overlying the transplants were seen inferiorly. Those plaques were adherent to the surface of the contact lens and underlying corneal surface had smooth elevations. Similar findings were noted in a 23-year man following cyanoacrylate glue application for corneal perforation. On histological and immunohistochemical analysis, cells lining the contact lenses were identified as corneal epithelial cells. These cases illustrate epithelial cell growth on the contact lens and epithelial hyperplasia on corresponding surface of the cornea. Exorbitant proliferation of the epithelial cells may be owing to young age; therefore, early contact lens removal after SLET in young age, can possibly avoid epithelial hyperplasia. This also reiterates the possibility of using contact lens as a scaffold to grow epithelial cells.

  15. Ionic liquids based on phosphonium cations as neat lubricants or lubricant additives for a steel/steel contact.

    PubMed

    Otero, Inés; López, Enriqueta R; Reichelt, Manuela; Villanueva, María; Salgado, Josefa; Fernández, Josefa

    2014-08-13

    After doing several miscibility essays with eight ionic liquids (ILs) and four base oils, the ILs tri(butyl)ethylphosphonium diethylphosphate [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4] and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [P6,6,6,14][(C2F5)3PF3] were selected to be studied as lubricant additives. The neat IL [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4], the base oils, and several blends were characterized in terms of density, viscosity, and thermal stability. The tribological performance of the miscible base oil/IL blends (1 wt %) and the neat [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4] were evaluated for the lubrication of an AISI 420 steel-100Cr6 steel contact pair. The friction coefficients and wear volumes obtained are also compared with those corresponding to the pure base oils and their mixtures with conventional additive zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP). As neat lubricants, [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4] showed the best antifriction ability, whereas in terms of wear, better results were obtained with [P6,6,6,14][(C2F5)3PF3]. However, higher improvements in both friction and wear were found for blends containing [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4]. XPS analyses of the worn surfaces lubricated with these mixtures indicated the presence of phosphorus in the tribofilm formed on the wear track. However, this compound was slightly detected on tribosamples lubricated with blends containing [P6,6,6,14][(C2F5)3PF3].

  16. Using Contact with Nature, Creativity and Rituals as a Therapeutic Medium with Children with Learning Difficulties: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Ronen

    2006-01-01

    In most cases therapy is addressed as an indoor verbal activity in which the relationship between therapist and client stands at its centre. This article proposes a different approach to therapy: conducting it creatively in nature, with the environment being used not only as a therapeutic setting but also as a medium and a partner in the process.…

  17. Combinatorial therapeutic activation with heparin and AICAR stimulates additive effects on utrophin A expression in dystrophic muscles.

    PubMed

    Péladeau, Christine; Ahmed, Aatika; Amirouche, Adel; Crawford Parks, Tara E; Bronicki, Lucas M; Ljubicic, Vladimir; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Jasmin, Bernard J

    2016-01-01

    Upregulation of utrophin A is an attractive therapeutic strategy for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Over the years, several studies revealed that utrophin A is regulated by multiple transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms, and that pharmacological modulation of these pathways stimulates utrophin A expression in dystrophic muscle. In particular, we recently showed that activation of p38 signaling causes an increase in the levels of utrophin A mRNAs and protein by decreasing the functional availability of the destabilizing RNA-binding protein called K-homology splicing regulatory protein, thereby resulting in increases in the stability of existing mRNAs. Here, we treated 6-week-old mdx mice for 4 weeks with the clinically used anticoagulant drug heparin known to activate p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and determined the impact of this pharmacological intervention on the dystrophic phenotype. Our results show that heparin treatment of mdx mice caused a significant ∼1.5- to 3-fold increase in utrophin A expression in diaphragm, extensor digitorum longus and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. In agreement with these findings, heparin-treated diaphragm and TA muscle fibers showed an accumulation of utrophin A and β-dystroglycan along their sarcolemma and displayed improved morphology and structural integrity. Moreover, combinatorial drug treatment using both heparin and 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside (AICAR), the latter targeting 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and the transcriptional activation of utrophin A, caused an additive effect on utrophin A expression in dystrophic muscle. These findings establish that heparin is a relevant therapeutic agent for treating DMD, and illustrate that combinatorial treatment of heparin with AICAR may serve as an effective strategy to further increase utrophin A expression in dystrophic muscle via activation of distinct signaling pathways.

  18. Cardiovascular pleiotropic actions of DPP-4 inhibitors: a step at the cutting edge in understanding their additional therapeutic potentials.

    PubMed

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Dhanaraj, Sokkalingam A

    2013-09-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) is a serine protease enzyme expressed widely in many tissues, including the cardiovascular system. The incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are released from the small intestine into the vasculature during a meal, and these incretins have a potential to release insulin from pancreatic beta cells of islets of Langerhans, affording a glucose-lowering action. However, both incretins are hurriedly degraded by the DPP-4. Inhibitors of DPP-4, therefore, enhance the bioavailability of GLP-1 and GIP, and thus have been approved for better glycemic management in patients afflicted with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Five different DPP-4 inhibitors, often called as 'gliptins', namely sitagliptin, vildagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin and alogliptin have been approved hitherto for clinical use. These drugs are used along with diet and exercise to lower blood sugar in diabetic subjects. T2DM is intricately related with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Growing body of evidence suggests that gliptins, in addition to their persuasive anti-diabetic action, have a beneficial pleiotropic action on the heart and vessels. In view of the fact of cardiovascular disease susceptibility of patients afflicted with T2DM, gliptins might offer additional therapeutic benefits in treating diabetic cardiovascular complications. Exploring further the cardiovascular pleiotropic potentials of gliptins might open a panorama in impeccably employing these agents for the dual management of T2DM and T2DM-associated perilous cardiovascular complications. This review will shed lights on the newly identified beneficial pleiotropic actions of gliptins on the cardiovascular system.

  19. Early treatment with addition of low dose prednisolone to methotrexate improves therapeutic outcome in severe psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Vikram K; Sharma, Anju Lath; Chauhan, Pushpinder S; Mehta, Karaninder S; Sharma, Nand Lal

    2013-05-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is increasingly being recognized to cause progressive joint damage and disability. PsA unresponsive to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the conventional first-line choice of treatment, is usually managed with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) especially methotrexate. An 18-year-old HIV-negative male had progressively severe PsA of 4-month duration that was nearly confining him to a wheel chair. He did not respond to multiple NSAIDs, alone or in combination with methotrexate (15 mg/week), given for 4 weeks. Addition of prednisolone (10 mg on alternate days) controlled his symptoms within a week. The NSAIDs could be withdrawn after 4 weeks as the treatment progressed. The doses were tapered for methotrexate (5 mg/week) and prednisolone (2.5 mg on alternate days) every 8 weekly subsequently during 15 months of follow-up without recurrence/deformities or drug toxicity. For years, the use of corticosteroids in psoriasis has been criticized for their propensity to exacerbate the skin disease on withdrawal. However, monitored use of corticosteroids, even in low doses, combined with DMARDs may be a good therapeutic option in early stage of the PsA rather than 'steroid rescue' later. This will help in early control of joint inflammation, prevent joint damage and maintain long-term good functional capacity and quality of life. This may be useful when the cost or availability of biologics precludes their use. However, we discourage the use of corticosteroids as monotherapy.

  20. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  1. Extended wear therapeutic contact lens fabricated from timolol imprinted carboxymethyl chitosan-g-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate-g-poly acrylamide as a onetime medication for glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, T S; Nair, Anoop S; Parvathy, J

    2016-12-01

    An extended wear therapeutic contact lens (TCL) for the sustained delivery of timolol maleate (TML) was fabricated based on molecular imprinting technique. The designed TCL comprised of a TML imprinted copolymer of carboxymethyl chitosan-g-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate-g-polyacrylamide (CmCS-g-HEMA-g-pAAm) embedded onto a poly HEMA matrix (pHEMA). Successful reloading of TML onto the lens was monitored using a simple and novel UV-Visible spectrophotometric method which showed an excellent reloading capacity of 6.53μgTML/TCL. The in vitro drug release profile in lacrimal fluid after each cycle was fitted onto Higuchi model of drug release suggesting diffusion release mechanism with no polymer degradation. Also, the TML release kinetics indicated a sustained drug delivery which can effectively achieve the therapeutic index of TML leading to a onetime medication for glaucoma. Biological activity of eluted drug after each cycle and cell viability of the TCL were verified using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,3-bis(2-methoxynitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-(phenylaminocarbonyl)-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide (XTT) assay, respectively.

  2. State of the art of Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food: a tool for nutraceuticals addition to foodstuff.

    PubMed

    Santini, Antonello; Novellino, Ettore; Armini, Vincenzo; Ritieni, Alberto

    2013-10-15

    Therapeutic foodstuff are a challenge for the use of food and functional food ingredients in the therapy of different pathologies. Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food (RUTF) are a mixture of nutrients designed and primarily addressed to the therapy of the severe acute malnutrition. The main ingredients of the formulation are powdered milk, peanuts butter, vegetal oil, sugar, and a mix of vitamins, salts, and minerals. The potential of this food are the low percentage of free water and the high energy and nutritional density. The high cost of the powdered milk, and the food safety problems connected to the onset of toxigenic moulds on the peanuts butter, slowed down considerably the widespread and homogenous diffusion of this product. This paper presents the state of the art of RUTF, reviews the different proposed recipes, suggests some possible new formulations as an alternative of novel recipes for this promising food.

  3. Application of contact glow discharge electrolysis method for degradation of batik dye waste Remazol Red by the addition of Fe2+ ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saksono, Nelson; Puspita, Indah; Sukreni, Tulus

    2017-03-01

    Contact Glow Discharge Electrolysis (CGDE) has been shown to degrade much weight organic compounds such as dyes because the production of hydroxil radical (•OH) is excess. This research aims to degrade batik dye waste Remazol Red, using CGDE method with the addition of Fe2+ ion. The addition of iron salt compounds has proven to increase process efficiency. Dye degradation is known by measure its absorbances with Spectrophotometer UV-Vis. The result of study showed that percentage degradation was 99.92% in 20 minutes which obtained by using Na2SO4 0.01 M, with addition FeSO4 0,1 gram, applied voltage 860 volt, and 1 wolfram anode 5 mm depth.

  4. Establishment of a reference collection of additives and an analytical handbook of reference data to support enforcement of EU regulations on food contact plastics.

    PubMed

    van Lierop, B; Castle, L; Feigenbaum, A; Ehlert, K; Boenke, A

    1998-10-01

    A collection has been made of additives that are required as analytical standards for enforcement of European Union legislation on food contact plastics. The 100 additives have been characterized by mass spectrometry, infra-red spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to provide reference spectra. Gas chromatographic retention times have been recorded to facilitate identification by retention index. This information has been further supplemented by physico-chemical data. Finally, chromatographic methods have been used to indicate the presence of any impurities in the commercial chemicals. Samples of the reference substances are available on request and the collection of spectra and other information will be made available in printed format and on-line through the Internet. This paper gives an overview of the work done to establish the reference collection and the spectral atlas, which together will assist enforcement laboratories in the characterization of plastics and the selection of analytical methods for additives that may migrate.

  5. Additive neuroprotection of a 20-HETE inhibitor with delayed therapeutic hypothermia after hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal piglets

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Junchao; Wang, Bing; Lee, Jeong-Hoo; Armstrong, Jillian S.; Kulikowicz, Ewa; Bhalala, Utpal S.; Martin, Lee J.; Koehler, Raymond C.; Yang, Zeng-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The severity of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia and the delay in initiating therapeutic hypothermia limit the efficacy of hypothermia. After hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal piglets, the arachidonic acid metabolite, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), has been found to contribute to oxidative stress at 3 hours of reoxygenation and to eventual neurodegeneration. We tested whether early administration of a 20-HETE-synthesis inhibitor after reoxygenation augments neuroprotection with 3-hour delayed hypothermia. In two hypothermic groups, whole body cooling from 38.5 to 34°C was initiated 3 hours after hypoxia-ischemia. Rewarming occurred from 20 to 24 hours; then anesthesia was discontinued. One hypothermic group received a 20-HETE inhibitor at 5 minutes after reoxygenation. A sham-operated group and another hypoxia-ischemia group remained normothermic. At 10 days of recovery, resuscitated piglets with delayed hypothermia alone had significantly greater viable neuronal density in putamen, caudate nucleus, sensorimotor cortex, CA3 hippocampus, and thalamus than did piglets with normothermic recovery, but the values remained less than those in the sham-operated group. In piglets administered the 20-HETE inhibitor before hypothermia, the density of viable neurons in putamen, cortex, and thalamus was significantly greater than in the group with hypothermia alone. Cytochrome P450 4A, which can synthesize 20-HETE, was expressed in piglet neurons in these regions. We conclude that early treatment with a 20-HETE inhibitor enhances the therapeutic benefit of delayed hypothermia in protecting neurons in brain regions known to be particularly vulnerable to hypoxia-ischemia in term newborns. PMID:25721266

  6. Effect of non-solvent additives on the morphology, pore structure, and direct contact membrane distillation performance of PVDF-CTFE hydrophobic membranes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Libing; Wu, Zhenjun; Zhang, Yong; Wei, Yuansong; Wang, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Four common types of additives for polymer membrane preparation including organic macromolecule and micromolecule additives, inorganic salts and acids, and the strong non-solvent H2O were used to prepare poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene) (PVDF-CTFE) hydrophobic flat-sheet membranes. Membrane properties including morphology, porosity, hydrophobicity, pore size and pore distribution were investigated, and the permeability was evaluated via direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) of 3.5g/L NaCl solution in a DCMD configuration. Both inorganic and organic micromolecule additives were found to slightly influence membrane hydrophobicity. Polyethylene glycol (PEG), organic acids, LiCl, MgCl2, and LiCl/H2O mixtures were proved to be effective additives to PVDF-CTFE membranes due to their pore-controlling effects and the capacity to improve the properties and performance of the resultant membranes. The occurrence of a pre-gelation process showed that when organic and inorganic micromolecules were added to PVDF-CTFE solution, the resultant membranes presented a high interconnectivity structure. The membrane prepared with dibutyl phthalate (DBP) showed a nonporous surface and symmetrical cross-section. When H2O and LiCl/H2O mixtures were also used as additives, they were beneficial for solid-liquid demixing, especially when LiCl/H2O mixed additives were used. The membrane prepared with 5% LiCl+2% H2O achieved a flux of 24.53kg/(m(2)·hr) with 99.98% salt rejection. This study is expected to offer a reference not only for PVDF-CTFE membrane preparation but also for other polymer membranes.

  7. The central nervous system--an additional consideration in 'rotator cuff tendinopathy' and a potential basis for understanding response to loaded therapeutic exercise.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Chris; Malliaras, Peter; Bateman, Marcus; Stace, Richmond; May, Stephen; Walters, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    Tendinopathy is a term used to describe a painful tendon disorder but despite being a well-recognised clinical presentation, a definitive understanding of the pathoaetiology of rotator cuff tendinopathy remains elusive. Current explanatory models, which relate to peripherally driven nocioceptive mechanisms secondary to structural abnormality, or failed healing, appear inadequate on their own in the context of current literature. In light of these limitations this paper presents an extension to current models that incorporates the integral role of the central nervous system in the pain experience. The role of the central nervous system (CNS) is described and justified along with a potential rationale to explain the favourable response to loaded therapeutic exercises demonstrated by previous studies. This additional consideration has the potential to offer a useful way to explain pain to patients, for clinicians to prescribe appropriate therapeutic management strategies and for researchers to advance knowledge in relation to this clinically challenging problem.

  8. MRI-guided Therapeutic Ultrasound : In vitro Validation of a New MR Compatible, Phased Array, Contact Endorectal Ultrasound Transducer with Active Feedback Control of Temperature Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomir, Rares; Rata, Mihaela; Lafon, Cyril; Melodelima, David; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Mathias, Adrien; Cotton, François; Bonmartin, Alain; Cathignol, Dominique

    2006-05-01

    Contact application of high intensity ultrasound was demonstrated to be suitable for thermal ablation of sectorial tumours of the digestive duct. Experimental validation of a new MR compatible ultrasonic device is described here, dedicated to the minimal invasive therapy of localized colorectal cancer. This is a cylindrical 1D 64-element phased array transducer of 14 mm diameter and 25 mm height (Imasonic, France) allowing electronic rotation of the acoustic beam. Operating frequency ranges from 3.5 to 4.0 MHz and up to 5 effective electrical watts per element are available. A plane wave is reconstructed by simultaneous excitation of eigth adjacent elements with an appropriate phase law. Driving electronics operates outside the Faraday cage of the scanner and provides fast switching capabilities. Excellent passive and active compatibility with the MRI data acquisition has been demonstrated. In addition, feasibility of active temperature control has been demonstrated based on real-time data export out of the MR scanner and a PID feedback algorithm. Further studies will address the in-vivo validation and the integration of a miniature NMR coil for increased SNR in the near field.

  9. Contact dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Dermatitis - contact; Allergic dermatitis; Dermatitis - allergic; Irritant contact dermatitis; Skin rash - contact dermatitis ... There are 2 types of contact dermatitis. Irritant dermatitis: This ... can be by contact with acids, alkaline materials such as soaps ...

  10. Combined dermal exposure to permethrin and cis-urocanic acid suppresses the contact hypersensitivity response in C57BL/6N mice in an additive manner.

    PubMed

    Prater, M R; Blaylock, B L; Holladay, S D

    2005-01-14

    Cutaneous exposure to the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin significantly suppresses contact hypersensitivity (CH) response to oxazolone in C57BL/6N mice. Additionally, cis-urocanic acid (cUCA), an endogenous cutaneous chromophore isomerized to its active form following exposure to ultraviolet radiation, modulates cell-mediated cutaneous immune responses. This study describes cutaneous immune alterations following combined topical permethrin and intradermal cUCA exposure. Female C57BL/6N mice were administered 5, 50 or 100 microg cUCA daily for 5 consecutive days. CH was then evaluated by the mouse ear swelling test (MEST) response to oxazolone. Decreased responses of 52.3%, 76.3% and 76.3%, respectively, as compared to controls were observed. Then, mice were co-exposed to 5 microg cUCA daily for 5 days and 1.5, 5, 15, or 25 microL permethrin, on either day 1, 3 or 5 of the cUCA treatment to evaluate combined immunomodulatory effects of the two chemicals, or cUCA daily for 5 days followed by permethrin on day 3, 5, or 7 after the last cUCA injection to demonstrate prolonged immunosuppressive effects. Two days after final treatment, mice were sensitized with oxazolone and MEST was performed. Mice receiving five cUCA injections and permethrin topically on cUCA injection day 1 showed up to 93.3% suppression of MEST compared to vehicle control. CH was suppressed by 87.5%, 86.6% and 74.2% in mice treated with 25 muL permethrin on days 3, 5 and 7 after cUCA, respectively, compared to vehicle control. Taken together, these data indicate co-exposure to cUCA and permethrin profoundly suppresses cell-mediated cutaneous immunity.

  11. Stable form of galectin-9, a Tim-3 ligand, inhibits contact hypersensitivity and psoriatic reactions: a potent therapeutic tool for Th1- and/or Th17-mediated skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Haruna; Satoh, Takahiro; Matsushima, Yuki; Hosoya, Kazuki; Saeki, Kazumi; Niki, Toshiro; Hirashima, Mitsuomi; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2009-08-01

    Tim-3 is a cell surface molecule preferentially expressed in Th1 and Th17 cells. Galectin-9 is a ligand for Tim-3 and the binding of galectin-9 to Tim-3 induces apoptosis. We recently developed a stable form of galectin-9 (sGal-9) by partial deletion of the linker peptide. In this study, we characterized the therapeutic effects of sGal-9 on inflammatory reactions in contact hypersensitivity and IL-23-induced psoriatic mouse models. In contact hypersensitivity in mice, the ear swelling response was suppressed by sGal-9. In vitro treatment with sGal-9 resulted in cell apoptosis of CD4, CD8, and hepatic NK cells. sGal-9-treated mice had decreased IFN-gamma- and IL-17-producing T cells. Similarly, sGal-9 reduced epidermal thickness and dermal cellular infiltrate levels in IL-23-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation. This was accompanied by decreased skin lesion levels of IL-17 and IL-22. sGal-9 may be a unique and useful therapeutic tool for the treatment of Th1- and/or Th17-mediated skin inflammation.

  12. Combination therapy of angiotensin II receptor blocker and calcium channel blocker exerts pleiotropic therapeutic effects in addition to blood pressure lowering: amlodipine and candesartan trial in Yokohama (ACTY).

    PubMed

    Maeda, Akinobu; Tamura, Kouichi; Kanaoka, Tomohiko; Ohsawa, Masato; Haku, Sona; Azushima, Kengo; Dejima, Toru; Wakui, Hiromichi; Yanagi, Mai; Okano, Yasuko; Fujikawa, Tetsuya; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Mizushima, Shunsaku; Tochikubo, Osamu; Umemura, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Recent guidelines recommend combination antihypertensive therapy to achieve the target blood pressure (BP) and to suppress target organ damage. This study aimed to examine the beneficial effects of combination therapy with candesartan and amlodipine on BP control and markers of target organ function in Japanese essential hypertensive patients (N = 20) who did not achieve the target BP level during the monotherapy period with either candesartan or amlodipine. After the monotherapy period, for patients already being treated with amlodipine, a once-daily 8 mg dose of candesartan was added on during the combination therapy period (angiotensin II receptor blocker [ARB] add-on group, N = 10), and a once-daily 5 mg dose of amlodipine was added on for those already being treated with candesartan (calcium channel blocker [CCB] add-on group, N = 10). Combination therapy with candesartan and amlodipine for 12 weeks significantly decreased clinic and home systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). In addition, the combination therapy was able to significantly reduce urine albumin excretion without decrease in estimated glomerular filtration ratio and resulted in significant improvements in brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, central SBP, and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, the CCB add-on group showed a significantly greater decrease in clinic and home DBP than the ARB add-on group. The calcium channel blocker add-on group also exhibited better improvements in vascular functional parameters than the ARB add-on group. These results suggest that combination therapy with candesartan and amlodipine is an efficient therapeutic strategy for hypertension with pleiotropic benefits.

  13. Composition, diffusion, and antifungal activity of black mustard (Brassica nigra) essential oil when applied by direct addition or vapor phase contact.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Garibay, Beatriz; Palou, Enrique; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we characterized the essential oil (EO) of black mustard (Brassica nigra) and quantified its antimicrobial activity, when applied by direct contact into the liquid medium or by exposure in the vapor phase (in laboratory media or in a bread-type product), against the growth of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, or Penicillium citrinum. Allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) was identified as the major component of B. nigra EO with a concentration of 378.35 mg/ml. When B. nigra EO was applied by direct contact into the liquid medium, it inhibited the growth of A. ochraceus and P. citrinum when the concentration was 2 μl/ml of liquid medium (MIC), while for A. niger, a MIC of B. nigra EO was 4 μl/ml of liquid medium. Exposure of molds to B. nigra EO in vapor phase showed that 41.1 μl of B. nigra EO per liter of air delayed the growth of P. citrinum and A. niger by 10 days, while A. ochraceus growth was delayed for 20 days. Exposure to concentrations ≥ 47 μl of B. nigra EO per liter of air (MIC) inhibited the growth of tested molds by 30 days, and they were not able to recover after further incubation into an environment free of EO (fungicidal effect). Adsorbed AITC was quantified by exposing potato dextrose agar to B. nigra EO in a vapor phase, exhibiting that AITC was retained at least 5 days when testing EO at its MIC or with higher concentrations. Mustard EO MIC was also effective against the evaluated molds inhibiting their growth for 30 days in a bread-type product when exposed to EO by vapor contact, demonstrating its antifungal activity.

  14. [Periorbital contact eczema].

    PubMed

    Worm, M; Sterry, W

    2005-11-01

    Periorbital contact eczema is most commonly the result of an allergic contact dermatitis whereas other eczematous skin diseases like atopic eczema or seborrheic eczema occur less frequently. Also, other diseases like autoimmune disorders or rosacea need to be considered. Allergic contact dermatitis is a T-cell-mediated immunological response towards ubiquitous contact allergens. Activated T-cells migrate through the vessels into the skin and produce several inflammatory mediators. Epicutaneous patch testing is an important tool for the diagnosis of contact allergy whereby the allergens are analysed in terms of their ability to induce eczematous skin reaction. Until now the short-term use of corticosteroids are is employed for the treatment of allergic contact eczema. Modern substances with an optimal therapeutic index should rather be used.

  15. Follicular contact dermatitis revisited: A review emphasizing neomycin-associated follicular contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    Follicular contact dermatitis clinically presents as individual papules that include a central hair follicle. Pathologic features involve the follicle and the surrounding dermis: spongiosis and vesicle formation of the follicular epithelium associated with perifollicular and perivascular lymphocytic inflammation. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on follicular contact dermatitis and neomycin. Relevant papers were reviewed and the clinical and pathologic features, the associated chemicals (including a more detailed description of neomycin), the hypothesized pathogenesis, and the management of follicular contact dermatitis were described. Several agents-either as allergens or irritants-have been reported to elicit follicular contact dermatitis. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the selective involvement of the follicles in follicular contact dermatitis: patient allergenicity, characteristics of the agent, vehicle containing the agent, application of the agent, and external factors. The differential diagnosis of follicular contact dermatitis includes not only recurrent infundibulofolliculitis, but also drug eruption, mite infestation, viral infection, and dermatoses that affect hair follicles. The primary therapeutic intervention for follicular contact dermatitis is withdrawal of the causative agent; treatment with a topical corticosteroid preparation may also promote resolution of the dermatitis. In conclusion, follicular contact dermatitis may be secondary to allergens or irritants; topical antibiotics, including neomycin, may cause this condition. Several factors may account for the selective involvement of the hair follicle in this condition. Treatment of the dermatitis requires withdrawal of the associated topical agent; in addition, topical corticosteroids may be helpful to promote resolution of lesions. PMID:25516854

  16. HSP70 and modified HPV 16 E7 fusion gene without the addition of a signal peptide gene sequence as a candidate therapeutic tumor vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zong, Jinbao; Wang, Changyuan; Wang, Qingyong; Peng, Qinglin; Xu, Yufei; Xie, Xixiu; Xu, Xuemei

    2013-12-01

    Millions of women are currently infected with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV), which is considered to be a major risk factor for cervical cancer. Thus, it is urgent to develop therapeutic vaccines to eliminate the established infections or HPV-related diseases. In the present study, using the mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock protein 70 (MtHSP70) gene linked to the modified HPV 16 E7 (mE7) gene, we generated two potential therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines, mE7/MtHSP70 and SigmE7/MtHSP70, the latter was linked to the signal peptide gene sequence of human CD33 at the upstream of the fusion gene. We found that vaccination with the mE7/MtHSP70 DNA vaccine induced a stronger E7-specific CD8+ T cell response and resulted in a more significant therapeutic effect against E7-expressing tumor cells in mice. Our results demonstrated that HSP70 can play a more important role in mE7 and MtHSP70 fusion DNA vaccine without the help of a signal peptide. This may facilitate the use of HSP70 and serve as a significant reference for future study.

  17. Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2017 American Academy ... prohibited without prior written permission. AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2017 American Academy ...

  18. Military veterans with mental health problems: a protocol for a systematic review to identify whether they have an additional risk of contact with criminal justice systems compared with other veterans groups

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is concern that some veterans of armed forces, in particular those with mental health, drug or alcohol problems, experience difficulty returning to a civilian way of life and may subsequently come into contact with criminal justice services and imprisonment. The aim of this review is to examine whether military veterans with mental health problems, including substance use, have an additional risk of contact with criminal justice systems when compared with veterans who do not have such problems. The review will also seek to identify veterans’ views and experiences on their contact with criminal justice services, what contributed to or influenced their contact and whether there are any differences, including international and temporal, in incidence, contact type, veteran type, their presenting health needs and reported experiences. Methods/design In this review we will adopt a methodological model similar to that previously used by other researchers when reviewing intervention studies. The model, which we will use as a framework for conducting a review of observational and qualitative studies, consists of two parallel synthesis stages within the review process; one for quantitative research and the other for qualitative research. The third stage involves a cross study synthesis, enabling a deeper understanding of the results of the quantitative synthesis. A range of electronic databases, including MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, will be systematically searched, from 1939 to present day, using a broad range of search terms that cover four key concepts: mental health, military veterans, substance misuse, and criminal justice. Studies will be screened against topic specific inclusion/exclusion criteria and then against a smaller subset of design specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data will be extracted for those studies that meet the inclusion criteria, and all eligible studies will be critically appraised. Included studies, both quantitative and

  19. Telocyte's contacts.

    PubMed

    Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria-Simonetta; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela

    2016-07-01

    Telocytes (TC) are an interstitial cell type located in the connective tissue of many organs of humans and laboratory mammals. By means of homocellular contacts, TC build a scaffold whose meshes integrity and continuity are guaranteed by those contacts having a mechanical function; those contacts acting as sites of intercellular communication allow exchanging information and spreading signals. Heterocellular contacts between TC and a great variety of cell types give origin to mixed networks. TC, by means of all these types of contacts, their interaction with the extracellular matrix and their vicinity to nerve endings, are part of an integrated system playing tissue/organ-specific roles.

  20. Cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist treatment induces glucagon release and shows an additive therapeutic effect with GLP-1 agonist in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kartikkumar Navinchandra; Joharapurkar, Amit Arvind; Patel, Vishal; Kshirsagar, Samadhan Govind; Bahekar, Rajesh; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Jain, Mukul R

    2014-12-01

    Cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor antagonists reduce body weight and improve insulin sensitivity. Preclinical data indicates that an acute dose of CB1 antagonist rimonabant causes an increase in blood glucose. A stable analog of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), exendin-4 improves glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreas, and reduces appetite through activation of GLP-1 receptors in the central nervous system and liver. We hypothesized that the insulin secretagogue effect of GLP-1 agonist exendin-4 may synergize with the insulin-sensitizing action of rimonabant. Intraperitoneal as well as intracerebroventricular administration of rimonabant increased serum glucose upon glucose challenge in overnight fasted, diet-induced obese C57 mice, with concomitant rise in serum glucagon levels. Exendin-4 reversed the acute hyperglycemia induced by rimonabant. The combination of exendin-4 and rimonabant showed an additive effect in the food intake, and sustained body weight reduction upon repeated dosing. The acute efficacy of both the compounds was additive for inducing nausea-like symptoms in conditioned aversion test in mice, whereas exendin-4 treatment antagonized the effect of rimonabant on forced swim test upon chronic dosing. Thus, the addition of exendin-4 to rimonabant produces greater reduction in food intake owing to increased aversion, but reduces the other central nervous system side effects of rimonabant. The hyperglucagonemia induced by rimonabant is partially responsible for enhancing the antiobesity effect of exendin-4.

  1. Tribological properties of novel imidazolium ionic liquids bearing benzotriazole group as the antiwear/anticorrosion additive in poly(ethylene glycol) and polyurea grease for steel/steel contacts.

    PubMed

    Cai, Meirong; Liang, Yongmin; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Weimin

    2011-12-01

    The imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) bearing benzotriazole group were synthesized and evaluated as antiwear (AW) and anticorrosion additive in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and polyurea grease for steel/steel contacts at room temperature and 150 °C. The physical properties of the synthetic ILs and PEG with the additive were measured. The anticorrosion property of the synthetic ILs was assessed via the accelerated corrosion test and copper strip corrosion test, which reveals the excellent anticorrosion properties in comparison with pure PEG and the selected conventional ILs having no benzotriazole group. Tribological results indicated that these ILs as the additives could effectively reduce friction and wear of sliding pairs in PEG and also in polyurea grease. The tribological properties were generally better than the normally used zincdialkyldithiophosphate-based additive package (T204) in polyurea grease. The wear mechanisms are tentatively discussed according to the morphology observation of worn surfaces of steel discs by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the surface composition analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  2. Effect of SiO2 addition on photocatalytic activity, water contact angle and mechanical stability of visible light activated TiO2 thin films applied on stainless steel by a sol gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, Mansour; Saghafian, Hasan; Golestani-Fard, Farhad; Barati, Nastaran; Khanahmadi, Amirhossein

    2017-01-01

    Nanostructured N doped TiO2/20%SiO2 thin films were developed on steel surface via sol gel method using a painting airbrush. Thin films then were calcined at various temperatures in a range of 400-600 °C. The effect of SiO2 addition on phase composition and microstructural evolution of N doped TiO2 films were studied using XRD and FESEM. Optical properties, visible light photocatalytic activity, hydrophilic behavior, and mechanical behavior of the films were also investigated by DRS, methylene blue degradation, water contact angle measurements, and nanoscratch testing. Results indicated that the band gap energy of N doped TiO2/SiO2 was increased from 2.93 to 3.09 eV. Crack formation during calcination was also significantly promoted in the composite films. All composite films demonstrated weaker visible light photocatalytic activities and lower mechanical stability in comparison with N doped TiO2 films. Moreover, the N doped TiO2/SiO2 film calcined at 600 °C showed undesirable hydrophilic behavior with a water contact angle of 57° after 31 h of visible light irradiation. Outcomes of the present study reveal some different results to previous reports on TiO2/SiO2 films. In general, we believe the differences in substrate material as well as application in visible light are the main reasons for the above mentioned contradiction.

  3. Contact dermatitis in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Contact dermatitis in pediatric population is a common but (previously) under recognized disease. It is usually divided into the allergic and the irritant forms. The diagnosis is usually obtained with the patch test technique after conducting a thorough medical history and careful physical examination but patch testing in infants may be particularly difficult, and false-positive reactions may occur. This study also provides an overview of the most common allergens in pediatric population and discusses various therapeutic modalities. PMID:20205907

  4. The Additive Inflammatory In Vivo and In Vitro Effects of IL-7 and TSLP in Arthritis Underscore the Therapeutic Rationale for Dual Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Hillen, Maarten R.; Hartgring, Sarita A. Y.; Willis, Cynthia R.; Radstake, Timothy R. D. J.; Hack, Cornelis E.; Lafeber, Floris P. J. G.; van Roon, Joel A. G

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The cytokines interleukin (IL)-7 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) signal through the IL-7R subunit and play proinflammatory roles in experimental arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We evaluated the effect of inhibition of IL-7R- and TSLPR-signalling as well as simultaneous inhibition of IL-7R- and TSLPR-signalling in murine experimental arthritis. In addition, the effects of IL-7 and TSLP in human RA dendritic cell (DC)/T-cell co-cultures were studied. Methods Arthritis was induced with proteoglycan in wildtype mice (WT) and in mice deficient for the TSLP receptor subunit (TSLPR-/-). Both mice genotypes were treated with anti-IL-7R or phosphate buffered saline. Arthritis severity was assessed and local and circulating cytokines were measured. Autologous CD1c-positive DCs and CD4 T-cells were isolated from peripheral blood of RA patients and were co-cultured in the presence of IL-7, TSLP or both and proliferation and cytokine production were assessed. Results Arthritis severity and immunopathology were decreased in WT mice treated with anti-IL-7R, in TSLPR-/- mice, and the most robustly in TSLPR-/- mice treated with anti-IL-7R. This was associated with strongly decreased levels of IL-17, IL-6 and CD40L. In human DC/T-cell co-cultures, TSLP and IL-7 additively increased T-cell proliferation and production of Th17-associated cytokines, chemokines and tissue destruction factors. Conclusion TSLP and IL-7 have an additive effect on the production of Th17-cytokines in a human in vitro model, and enhance arthritis in mice linked with enhanced inflammation and immunopathology. As both cytokines signal via the IL-7R, these data urge for IL-7R-targeting to prevent the activity of both cytokines in RA. PMID:26110994

  5. In dermographic urticaria H2 receptor antagonists have a small but therapeutically irrelevant additional effect compared with H1 antagonists alone.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, G R; Shuster, S

    1993-11-01

    Two studies of the additional effect of an H2 receptor antagonist when given in combination with an H1 antagonist were undertaken in dermographic urticaria. Using a randomized, double-blind, crossover design in 19 patients, a combination of cetirizine (10 mg at night) and ranitidine (150 mg twice daily) was compared with a combination of cetirizine (10 mg at night) and placebo. The addition of ranitidine did not produce any significant difference in linear analogue scores for weal, itch or sleep disturbance. There was a significant depression of the frictional force/wealing response curve with an increase in wealing threshold (P < 0.0001) following the addition of H2 blockade. The wealing threshold was 54.7 +/- 4.4 (mean +/- SEM) g/mm2 for the H1 antagonist alone, and 73.2 +/- 5.7 for the combination of H1 and H2 antagonists. In a second similar study involving nine different patients, comparing terfenadine (120 mg twice daily) with a combination of terfenadine and ranitidine (150 mg twice daily), the weal threshold was 59.8 +/- 6.6 for the H1 antagonist alone, and 73.0 +/- 6.4 for the combination of H1 and H2 antagonists. Thus, in dermographic urticaria, adding an H2 antagonist to treatment with a potent H1 antagonist gives a small, significant reduction in wealing response, but no symptomatic benefit. We conclude that involvement of the H2 receptor in this urticarial disease is minimal, and does not justify the use of H2 receptor antagonists.

  6. Overview of existing European food consumption databases: critical aspects in relation to their use for the assessment of dietary exposure to additives, flavourings and residues of food contact materials.

    PubMed

    Le Donne, Cinzia; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Sette, Stefania; Leclercq, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    A critical analysis of existing food consumption databases was performed with particular regard for their current and potential use for the assessment of dietary exposure to additives, flavourings and residues of food contact materials. Within the European Food Consumption Validation project (EFCOVAL), a questionnaire on critical aspects of such datasets was developed and administered to researchers responsible for the collection/analysis of national food consumption data in European countries. Information collected was complemented through a review of the literature and of grey publications in order to provide an inventory of the main food consumption surveys performed in Europe from 1994 to 2007, for a total of 23 countries and 37 surveys. It appeared that existing European food consumption surveys have as a main objective the assessment of nutrient intake in the population. On the other hand, most of the databases were shown to be used also for the purpose of dietary exposure assessment.

  7. Radiation Therapy in the Management of Head-and-Neck Cancer of Unknown Primary Origin: How Does the Addition of Concurrent Chemotherapy Affect the Therapeutic Ratio?

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Lau, Derick H.; Li Baoqing; Luu, Quang; Donald, Paul J.

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To determine how the addition of cisplatin-based concurrent chemotherapy to radiation therapy influences outcomes among a cohort of patients treated for head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 60 consecutive patients treated by radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck presenting as cervical lymph node metastasis of occult primary origin were reviewed. Thirty-two patients (53%) were treated by concurrent chemoradiation, and 28 patients (47%) were treated by radiation therapy alone. Forty-five patients (75%) received radiation therapy after surgical resection, and 15 patients (25%) received primary radiation therapy. Thirty-five patients (58%) were treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Results: The 2-year estimates of overall survival, local-regional control, and progression-free survival were 89%, 89%, and 79%, respectively, among patients treated by chemoradiation, compared to 90%, 92%, and 83%, respectively, among patients treated by radiation therapy alone (p > 0.05, for all). Exploratory analysis failed to identify any subset of patients who benefited from the addition of concurrent chemotherapy to radiation therapy. The use of concurrent chemotherapy was associated with a significantly increased incidence of Grade 3+ acute and late toxicity (p < 0.001, for both). Conclusions: Concurrent chemoradiation is associated with significant toxicity without a clear advantage to overall survival, local-regional control, and progression-free survival in the treatment of head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin. Although selection bias cannot be ignored, prospective data are needed to further address this question.

  8. [Endoscopic contact lithotripsy--modern alternative in the therapy of patients with large stones of the common bile duct].

    PubMed

    Ohorodnyk, P V; Kolomiĭtsev, V I; Kushniruk, O I; Deĭnychenko, A H; Khrystiuk, D I

    2013-09-01

    The peculiarities of therapeutic ERCP and contact lithotripsy in patients with choledocholithiasis were studied. 6516 patients (age from 11 to 94 years old) with choledocholithiasis were examined Endoscopic sphincterotomy/balloon dilation with stone extraction was effective in 5507 (84.5%), in 539 (8.8%)--we achieved bile ducts clearance by using mechanical or electrohydraulic lithotripsy. Additional usage of contact lithotripsy increased the effectiveness of therapeutic ERCP to 93.2%. Contact lithotripsy decreased number of specific for ERCP complication from 7.83% to 1.57% in patients with large (> 25mm) stones. Electrohydraulic lithotripsy was successful in destruction of hard bile stones, when mechanical lithotripsy failed.

  9. Solar cell with back side contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

    2013-12-24

    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  10. Contact air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Porth, R

    1999-05-01

    The advantages of contact air abrasion techniques are readily apparent. The first, of course, is the greatly increased ease of use. Working with contact also tends to speed the learning curve by giving the process a more natural dental feel. In addition, as one becomes familiar with working with a dust stream, the potential for misdirecting the air flow is decreased. The future use of air abrasion for deep decay removal will make this the treatment of choice for the next millennium.

  11. [Additional administration of dutasteride in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia who did not respond sufficiently to α1-adrenoceptor antagonist : investigation of clinical factors affecting the therapeutic effect of dutasteride].

    PubMed

    Masuda, Mitsunobu; Murai, Tetsuo; Osada, Yutaka; Kawai, Masaki; Kasuga, Jun; Yokomizo, Yumiko; Kuroda, Shinnosuke; Nakamura, Mami; Noguchi, Go

    2014-02-01

    We performed additional administration of dutasteride in patients who did not respond sufficiently to α1-adrenoceptor antagonist treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (LUTS/BPH). Among 76 registered patients, efficacy was analyzed in 58 patients. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), subscores for voiding and storage symptoms and quality of life (QOL) on the IPSS, and Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) were all significantly improved from the third month of administration compared to the time of initiating additional administration of dutasteride. Additional administration of dutasteride also significantly reduced prostate volume, and residual urine with the exception of the sixth month after administration. Age at initiation of administration and voiding symptom subscore on the IPSS were clinical factors affecting the therapeutic effects of dutasteride. The rate of improvement with treatment decreased with increasing age at initiation of dutasteride administration, and increased as voiding symptom subscore on the IPSS increased. Therefore, additional administration of dutasteride appears useful for cases of LUTS/BPH in which a sufficient response is not achieved with α1-adrenoceptor antagonist treatment. Because patients who have severe voiding symptoms or begin dutasteride at an early age may be expected to respond particularly well to dutasteride in terms of clinical efficacy, they were considered to be suitable targets for additional administration.

  12. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  13. Contact hysteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Baggish, M S; Barbot, J

    1983-06-01

    In 1907 innovations in optics and illumination made by Maximilian Nitze were applied to hysteroscopy by Charles David, who wrote a treatise of hysteroscopy. David improved illumination by placing an electric incandescent bulb at the intrauterine end of his endoscope and also sealed the distal end of the tube with a piece of glass. The history of the contact endoscope that the authors personally used is connected to the invention by Vulmiere (1952) of a revolutionary illumination process in endoscopy--the "cold light" process. The components of cold light consist of a powerful external light source that is transmitted via a special optical guide into the endometrial cavity. The 1st application of his principle (1963) was an optical trochar contained in a metallic sheath. This simple endoscope was perfected, and in 1973 Barbot and Parent, in France, began to use it to examine the uterine cavity. Discussion focuses on methods, instrumentation, method for examination (grasping the instrument, setup, light source, anesthesia, dilatation, technique, and normal endometrium); cervical neoplasia; nonneoplastic lesions of the endometrium (endometrial polyp, submucous myoma, endometrial hyperplasia); intrauterine device localization; neoplastic lesions of the endometrium; precursors (adenocarcinoma); hysteroscopy in pregnancy (embryoscopy, hydatidiform mole, postpartum hemorrhage, incomplete abortion, spontaneous abortion, induced abortions, and amnioscopy); and examinations of children and infants. The contact endoscope must make light contact with the structure to be viewed. The principles of contact endoscopy depend on an interpretation of color, contour, vascular pattern, and a sense of touch. These are computed together and a diagnosis is made on the basis of previously learned clinical pathologic correlations. The contact endoscope is composed of 3 parts: an optical guide; a cylindric chamber that collects and traps ambient light; and a magnifying eyepiece. The phase of

  14. Types of Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Devices Consumer Products Contact Lenses Types of Contact Lenses Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Orthokeratology (Ortho-K) Decorative (Plano) Contact Lenses Soft Contact Lenses Soft contact lenses are made of soft, ...

  15. [Contact glass tonometer].

    PubMed

    Kanngiesser, H; Robert, Y; Dekker, P

    1996-10-01

    This paper present a tonometer incorporated in a contact lens, which allows simultaneous measurement of intraocular pressure and performance ophthalmoscopy. The tonometer can record the pulse curve continuously, which can give us an indication of any circulatory problem. The device is therefore expected to yield additional information useful for the diagnosis of early glaucoma. Te device has three force sensors built in, which allow continuous measurement of the force exerted on the eye surface by the contact lens. The force of the contact lens on the eye can be altered and makes the adjustment of different eye pressures possible. These induced changes of the eye pressure and their influence on the fundus can be checked. We have taken some measurements on enucleated human eyes to compare our device with a Statham tansducer in the vitreous. We found a good correlation. We are currently taking measurements in volunteers. The clinical relevance of these observations and measurements will be examined in a future study.

  16. Reducing contact resistance in graphene devices through contact area patterning.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua T; Franklin, Aaron D; Farmer, Damon B; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos D

    2013-04-23

    Performance of graphene electronics is limited by contact resistance associated with the metal-graphene (M-G) interface, where unique transport challenges arise as carriers are injected from a 3D metal into a 2D-graphene sheet. In this work, enhanced carrier injection is experimentally achieved in graphene devices by forming cuts in the graphene within the contact regions. These cuts are oriented normal to the channel and facilitate bonding between the contact metal and carbon atoms at the graphene cut edges, reproducibly maximizing "edge-contacted" injection. Despite the reduction in M-G contact area caused by these cuts, we find that a 32% reduction in contact resistance results in Cu-contacted, two-terminal devices, while a 22% reduction is achieved for top-gated graphene transistors with Pd contacts as compared to conventionally fabricated devices. The crucial role of contact annealing to facilitate this improvement is also elucidated. This simple approach provides a reliable and reproducible means of lowering contact resistance in graphene devices to bolster performance. Importantly, this enhancement requires no additional processing steps.

  17. Contact angle and local wetting at contact line.

    PubMed

    Li, Ri; Shan, Yanguang

    2012-11-06

    This theoretical study was motivated by recent experiments and theoretical work that had suggested the dependence of the static contact angle on the local wetting at the triple-phase contact line. We revisit this topic because the static contact angle as a local wetting parameter is still not widely understood and clearly known. To further clarify the relationship of the static contact angle with wetting, two approaches are applied to derive a general equation for the static contact angle of a droplet on a composite surface composed of heterogeneous components. A global approach based on the free surface energy of a thermodynamic system containing the droplet and solid surface shows the static contact angle as a function of local surface chemistry and local wetting state at the contact line. A local approach, in which only local forces acting on the contact line are considered, results in the same equation. The fact that the local approach agrees with the global approach further demonstrates the static contact angle as a local wetting parameter. Additionally, the study also suggests that the wetting described by the Wenzel and Cassie equations is also the local wetting of the contact line rather than the global wetting of the droplet.

  18. Chain Of Test Contacts For Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, Udo

    1989-01-01

    Test structure forms chain of "cross" contacts fabricated together with large-scale integrated circuits. If necessary, number of such chains incorporated at suitable locations in integrated-circuit wafer for determination of fabrication yield of contacts. In new structure, resistances of individual contacts determined: In addition to making it possible to identify local defects, enables generation of statistical distributions of contact resistances for prediction of "parametric" contact yield of fabrication process.

  19. Disproportionate Minority Contact.

    PubMed

    Fix, Rebecca L; Cyperski, Melissa A; Burkhart, Barry R

    2017-04-01

    The overrepresentation of racial/ethnic minorities within the criminal justice system relative to their population percentage, a phenomenon termed disproportionate minority contact, has been examined within general adult and adolescent offender populations; yet few studies have tested whether this phenomenon extends to juvenile sexual offenders (JSOs). In addition, few studies have examined whether offender race/ethnicity influences registration and notification requirements, which JSOs are subject to in some U.S. states. The present study assessed for disproportionate minority contact among general delinquent offenders and JSOs, meaning it aimed to test whether the criminal justice system treats those accused of sexual and non-sexual offenses differently by racial/ethnic group. Furthermore, racial/ethnic group differences in risk, legal classification, and sexual offending were examined for JSOs. Results indicated disproportionate minority contact was present among juveniles with non-sexual offenses and JSOs in Alabama. In addition, offense category and risk scores differed between African American and European American JSOs. Finally, registration classifications were predicted by offending characteristics, but not race/ethnicity. Implications and future directions regarding disproportionate minority contact among JSOs and social and legal policy affecting JSOs are discussed.

  20. Biomimetic Particles as Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jordan J.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there have been major advances in the development of novel nanoparticle and microparticle-based therapeutics. An emerging paradigm is the incorporation of biomimetic features into these synthetic therapeutic constructs to enable them to better interface with biological systems. Through the control of size, shape, and material consistency, particle cores have been generated that better mimic natural cells and viruses. In addition, there have been significant advances in biomimetic surface functionalization of particles through the integration of bio-inspired artificial cell membranes and naturally derived cell membranes. Biomimetic technologies enable therapeutic particles to have increased potency to benefit human health. PMID:26277289

  1. Biomimetic particles as therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Randall A; Sunshine, Joel C; Green, Jordan J

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, there have been major advances in the development of novel nanoparticle- and microparticle-based therapeutics. An emerging paradigm is the incorporation of biomimetic features into these synthetic therapeutic constructs to enable them to better interface with biological systems. Through the control of size, shape, and material consistency, particle cores have been generated that better mimic natural cells and viruses. In addition, there have been significant advances in biomimetic surface functionalization of particles through the integration of bio-inspired artificial cell membranes and naturally derived cell membranes. Biomimetic technologies enable therapeutic particles to have increased potency to benefit human health.

  2. Therapeutic Recreation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks and Recreation, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Graphic profiles of (1) the professional membership of the National Therapeutic Recreation Society, (2) state-level employment opportunities in the field, and (3) educational opportunities at U.S. colleges and universities. (MB)

  3. EDITORIAL: Close contact Close contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    The development of scanning probe techniques, such as scanning tunnelling microscopy [1], has often been touted as the catalyst for the surge in activity and progress in nanoscale science and technology. Images of nanoscale structural detail have served as an invaluable investigative resource and continue to fascinate with the fantastical reality of an intricate nether world existing all around us, but hidden from view of the naked eye by a disparity in scale. As is so often the case, the invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope heralded far more than just a useful new apparatus, it demonstrated the scope for exploiting the subtleties of electronic contact. The shrinking of electronic devices has been a driving force for research into molecular electronics, in which an understanding of the nature of electronic contact at junctions is crucial. In response, the number of experimental techniques in molecular electronics has increased rapidly in recent years. Scanning tunnelling microscopes have been used to study electron transfer through molecular films on a conducting substrate, and the need to monitor the contact force of scanning tunnelling electrodes led to the use of atomic force microscopy probes coated in a conducting layer as studied by Cui and colleagues in Arizona [2]. In this issue a collaboration of researchers at Delft University and Leiden University in the Netherlands report a new device architecture for the independent mechanical and electrostatic tuning of nanoscale charge transport, which will enable thorough studies of molecular transport in the future [3]. Scanning probes can also be used to pattern surfaces, such as through spatially-localized Suzuki and Heck reactions in chemical scanning probe lithography. Mechanistic aspects of spatially confined Suzuki and Heck chemistry are also reported in this issue by researchers in Oxford [4]. All these developments in molecular electronics fabrication and characterization provide alternative

  4. Conditions that Create Therapeutic Connection: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollarhide, Colette T.; Shavers, Marjorie C.; Baker, Caroline A.; Dagg, David R.; Taylor, Demetra T.

    2012-01-01

    In this phenomenological study, counselor and client participants (N = 14) described the conditions that fostered meaningful therapeutic connections. Among all participants, consistent descriptors appeared that were rigorously synthesized into a detailed depiction of therapeutic contact. (Contains 2 figures.)

  5. Contact dermatitis in military personnel.

    PubMed

    Dever, Tara T; Walters, Michelle; Jacob, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Military personnel encounter the same allergens and irritants as their civilian counterparts and are just as likely to develop contact dermatitis from common exposures encountered in everyday life. In addition, they face some unique exposures that can be difficult to avoid owing to their occupational duties. Contact dermatitis can be detrimental to a military member's career if he or she is unable to perform core duties or avoid the inciting substances. An uncontrolled contact dermatitis can result in the member's being placed on limited-duty (ie, nondeployable) status, needing a job or rate change, or separation from military service. We present some common causes of contact dermatitis in military personnel worldwide and some novel sources of contact dermatitis in this population that may not be intuitive.

  6. 21 CFR 886.5925 - Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens. 886.5925 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5925 Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens. (a) Identification. A soft (hydrophilic) contact lens is a device intended to be worn...

  7. 21 CFR 886.5420 - Contact lens inserter/remover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contact lens inserter/remover. 886.5420 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5420 Contact lens inserter/remover. (a) Identification. A contact lens inserter/remover is a handheld device intended to insert or...

  8. 21 CFR 886.5916 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens. 886.5916 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5916 Rigid gas permeable contact lens. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens is a device intended to be worn...

  9. 21 CFR 886.5916 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens. 886.5916 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5916 Rigid gas permeable contact lens. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens is a device intended to be worn...

  10. 21 CFR 886.5420 - Contact lens inserter/remover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Contact lens inserter/remover. 886.5420 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5420 Contact lens inserter/remover. (a) Identification. A contact lens inserter/remover is a handheld device intended to insert or...

  11. 21 CFR 886.5420 - Contact lens inserter/remover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contact lens inserter/remover. 886.5420 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5420 Contact lens inserter/remover. (a) Identification. A contact lens inserter/remover is a handheld device intended to insert or...

  12. 21 CFR 886.5916 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens. 886.5916 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5916 Rigid gas permeable contact lens. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens is a device intended to be worn...

  13. 21 CFR 886.5916 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens. 886.5916 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5916 Rigid gas permeable contact lens. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens is a device intended to be worn...

  14. 21 CFR 886.5420 - Contact lens inserter/remover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contact lens inserter/remover. 886.5420 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5420 Contact lens inserter/remover. (a) Identification. A contact lens inserter/remover is a handheld device intended to insert or...

  15. 21 CFR 886.5420 - Contact lens inserter/remover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contact lens inserter/remover. 886.5420 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5420 Contact lens inserter/remover. (a) Identification. A contact lens inserter/remover is a handheld device intended to insert or...

  16. 21 CFR 886.5925 - Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens. 886.5925 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5925 Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens. (a) Identification. A soft (hydrophilic) contact lens is a device intended to be worn...

  17. 21 CFR 886.5916 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens. 886.5916 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5916 Rigid gas permeable contact lens. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens is a device intended to be worn...

  18. 21 CFR 886.5925 - Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens. 886.5925 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5925 Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens. (a) Identification. A soft (hydrophilic) contact lens is a device intended to be worn...

  19. 21 CFR 886.5925 - Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens. 886.5925 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5925 Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens. (a) Identification. A soft (hydrophilic) contact lens is a device intended to be worn...

  20. 21 CFR 886.5925 - Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens. 886.5925 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5925 Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens. (a) Identification. A soft (hydrophilic) contact lens is a device intended to be worn...

  1. MACROMOLECULAR THERAPEUTICS

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2014-01-01

    This review covers water-soluble polymer-drug conjugates and macromolecules that possess biological activity without attached low molecular weight drugs. The main design principles of traditional and backbone degradable polymer-drug conjugates as well as the development of a new paradigm in nanomedicines – (low molecular weight) drug-free macromolecular therapeutics are discussed. To address the biological features of cancer, macromolecular therapeutics directed to stem/progenitor cells and the tumor microenvironment are deliberated. Finally, the future perspectives of the field are briefly debated. PMID:24747162

  2. Macromolecular therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2014-09-28

    This review covers water-soluble polymer-drug conjugates and macromolecules that possess biological activity without attached low molecular weight drugs. The main design principles of traditional and backbone degradable polymer-drug conjugates as well as the development of a new paradigm in nanomedicines - (low molecular weight) drug-free macromolecular therapeutics are discussed. To address the biological features of cancer, macromolecular therapeutics directed to stem/progenitor cells and the tumor microenvironment are deliberated. Finally, the future perspectives of the field are briefly debated.

  3. Therapeutic Nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Stephen C.; Ruegsegger, Mark; Barnes, Philip D.; Smith, Bryan R.; Ferrari, Mauro

    Therapeutic nanotechnology offers minimally invasive therapies with high densities of function concentrated in small volumes, features that may reduce patient morbidity and mortality. Unlike other areas of nanotechnology, novel physical properties associated with nanoscale dimensionality are not the raison d'etre of therapeutic nanotechnology, whereas the aggregation of multiple biochemical (or comparably precise) functions into controlled nanoarchitectures is. Multifunctionality is a hallmark of emerging nanotherapeutic devices, and multifunctionality can allow nanotherapeutic devices to perform multi-step work processes, with each functional component contributing to one or more nanodevice subroutine such that, in aggregate, subroutines sum to a cogent work process. Cannonical nanotherapeutic subroutines include tethering (targeting) to sites of disease, dispensing measured doses of drug (or bioactive compound), detection of residual disease after therapy and communication with an external clinician/operator. Emerging nanotherapeutics thus blur the boundaries between medical devices and traditional pharmaceuticals. Assembly of therapeutic nanodevices generally exploits either (bio)material self assembly properties or chemoselective bioconjugation techniques, or both. Given the complexity, composition, and the necessity for their tight chemical and structural definition inherent in the nature of nanotherapeutics, their cost of goods (COGs) might exceed that of (already expensive) biologics. Early therapeutic nanodevices will likely be applied to disease states which exhibit significant unmet patient need (cancer and cardiovascular disease), while application to other disease states well-served by conventional therapy may await perfection of nanotherapeutic design and assembly protocols.

  4. Therapeutic Nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Stephen; Ruegsegger, Mark; Barnes, Philip; Smith, Bryan; Ferrari, Mauro

    Therapeutic nanotechnology offers minimally invasive therapies with high densities of function concentrated in small volumes, features that may reduce patient morbidity and mortality. Unlike other areas of nanotechnology, novel physical properties associated with nanoscale dimensionality are not the raison d'être of therapeutic nanotechnology, whereas the aggregation of multiple biochemical (or comparably precise) functions into controlled nanoarchitectures is. Multifunctionality is a hallmark of emerging nanotherapeutic devices, and multifunctionality can allow nanotherapeutic devices to perform multistep work processes, with each functional component contributing to one or more nanodevice subroutine such that, in aggregate, subroutines sum to a cogent work process. Cannonical nanotherapeutic subroutines include tethering (targeting) to sites of disease, dispensing measured doses of drug (or bioactive compound), detection of residual disease after therapy and communication with an external clinician/operator. Emerging nanotherapeutics thus blur the boundaries between medical devices and traditional pharmaceuticals. Assembly of therapeutic nanodevices generally exploits either (bio)material self-assembly properties or chemoselective bioconjugation techniques, or both. Given the complexity, composition, and the necessity for their tight chemical and structural definition inherent in the nature of nanotherapeutics, their cost of goods (COGs) might exceed that of (already expensive) biologics. Early therapeutic nanodevices will likely be applied to disease states which exhibit significant unmet patient need (cancer and cardiovascular disease), while application to other disease states well-served by conventional therapy may await perfection of nanotherapeutic design and assembly protocols.

  5. Contact modeling for robotics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lafarge, R.A.; Lewis, C.

    1998-08-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the authors are developing the ability to accurately predict motions for arbitrary numbers of bodies of arbitrary shapes experiencing multiple applied forces and intermittent contacts. In particular, the authors are concerned with the simulation of systems such as part feeders or mobile robots operating in realistic environments. Preliminary investigation of commercial dynamics software packages led them to the conclusion that they could use commercial software to provide everything they needed except for the contact model. They found that ADAMS best fit their needs for a simulation package. To simulate intermittent contacts, they need collision detection software that can efficiently compute the distances between non-convex objects and return the associated witness features. They also require a computationally efficient contact model for rapid simulation of impact, sustained contact under load, and transition to and from contact conditions. This paper provides a technical review of a custom hierarchical distance computation engine developed at Sandia, called the C-Space Toolkit (CSTk). In addition, they describe an efficient contact model using a non-linear damping term developed by SNL and Ohio State. Both the CSTk and the non-linear damper have been incorporated in a simplified two-body testbed code, which is used to investigate how to correctly model the contact using these two utilities. They have incorporated this model into the ADAMS software using the callable function interface. An example that illustrates the capabilities of the 9.02 release of ADAMS with their extensions is provided.

  6. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication of elliptical contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The determination of the minimum film thickness within contact is considered for both fully flooded and starved conditions. A fully flooded conjunction is one in which the film thickness is not significantly changed when the amount of lubricant is increased. The fully flooded results presented show the influence of contact geometry on minimum film thickness as expressed by the ellipticity parameter and the dimensionless speed, load, and materials parameters. These results are applied to materials of high elastic modulus (hard EHL), such as metal, and to materials of low elastic modulus(soft EHL), such as rubber. In addition to the film thickness equations that are developed, contour plots of pressure and film thickness are given which show the essential features of elastohydrodynamically lubricated conjunctions. The crescent shaped region of minimum film thickness, with its side lobes in which the separation between the solids is a minimum, clearly emerges in the numerical solutions. In addition to the 3 presented for the fully flooded results, 15 more cases are used for hard EHL contacts and 18 cases are used for soft EHL contacts in a theoretical study of the influence of lubricant starvation on film thickness and pressure. From the starved results for both hard and soft EHL contacts, a simple and important dimensionless inlet boundary distance is specified. This inlet boundary distance defines whether a fully flooded or a starved condition exists in the contact. Contour plots of pressure and film thickness in and around the contact are shown for conditions.

  7. Therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Dimiter S

    2012-01-01

    Protein-based therapeutics are highly successful in clinic and currently enjoy unprecedented recognition of their potential. More than 100 genuine and similar number of modified therapeutic proteins are approved for clinical use in the European Union and the USA with 2010 sales of US$108 bln; monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) accounted for almost half (48%) of the sales. Based on their pharmacological activity, they can be divided into five groups: (a) replacing a protein that is deficient or abnormal; (b) augmenting an existing pathway; (c) providing a novel function or activity; (d) interfering with a molecule or organism; and (e) delivering other compounds or proteins, such as a radionuclide, cytotoxic drug, or effector proteins. Therapeutic proteins can also be grouped based on their molecular types that include antibody-based drugs, Fc fusion proteins, anticoagulants, blood factors, bone morphogenetic proteins, engineered protein scaffolds, enzymes, growth factors, hormones, interferons, interleukins, and thrombolytics. They can also be classified based on their molecular mechanism of activity as (a) binding non-covalently to target, e.g., mAbs; (b) affecting covalent bonds, e.g., enzymes; and (c) exerting activity without specific interactions, e.g., serum albumin. Most protein therapeutics currently on the market are recombinant and hundreds of them are in clinical trials for therapy of cancers, immune disorders, infections, and other diseases. New engineered proteins, including bispecific mAbs and multispecific fusion proteins, mAbs conjugated with small molecule drugs, and proteins with optimized pharmacokinetics, are currently under development. However, in the last several decades, there are no conceptually new methodological developments comparable, e.g., to genetic engineering leading to the development of recombinant therapeutic proteins. It appears that a paradigm change in methodologies and understanding of mechanisms is needed to overcome major

  8. Woodland in Practical Skills Therapeutic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Paula; Gibons, Kenneth; Mata, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Modern urban life provides less opportunities to contact with nature, which is a potential cause of developmental deviances in children. We investigated the potential therapeutic effect of woodlands, within the context of Practical Skills Therapeutic Education at the Ruskin Mill College, UK. Data on physical and emotional perceptions were…

  9. Therapeutic itineraries and explanations for tuberculosis: an indigenous perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Laura Maria Vidal; Teixeira, Elizabeth; Basta, Paulo Cesar; da Motta, Maria Catarina Salvador

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze explanations for tuberculosis and therapeutic itineraries of Brazilian indigenous people. METHODS Case study with a qualitative-descriptive approach. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 Munduruku indigenous, including direct observation of treatment for tuberculosis in the municipality of Jacareacanga, south-western region of the state of Para, Brazil. To identify explanations for tuberculosis and therapeutic itineraries, we performed thematic content analysis. RESULTS Traditional medicine was the first therapeutic option chosen by the indigenous. However, biomedicine was also employed, which indicates a circulation between different therapeutic contexts and health concepts among the Munduruku. The explanations provided ranged from recognition of the signs and symptoms specific to tuberculosis to the attribution of the disease to a spirit that leaves the body and wanders in the woods, returning ill into the body. Unlike the biomedical model, which links tuberculosis transmission strictly to interpersonal contact, in closed spaces without natural lighting and ventilation (preferably domestic environments), the Munduruku associate the disease to an indirect contact between people socially distant (enemies or adversaries) in public and open places. CONCLUSIONS The explanations made by the indigenous are unique and deserve the attention of those who are responsible for developing health public policies, as well as of the teams who work on the villages. To guarantee an efficient control of tuberculosis in these regions, it is necessary that the developed actions integrate biomedicine knowledge and the traditional medicine of the indigenous people, in addition to respecting and welcoming local culture manifestations. PMID:26815161

  10. Contact Lens Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Contact Lenses Contact Lens Risks Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... redness blurred vision swelling pain Serious Hazards of Contact Lenses Symptoms of eye irritation can indicate a ...

  11. Contact Lens Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Contact Lens Care Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... 1088, www.fda.gov/medwatch Learn More about Contact Lens Care Other Tips on Contact Lenses Decorative ...

  12. Adhesion in hydrogel contacts.

    PubMed

    Torres, J R; Jay, G D; Kim, K-S; Bothun, G D

    2016-05-01

    A generalized thermomechanical model for adhesion was developed to elucidate the mechanisms of dissipation within the viscoelastic bulk of a hyperelastic hydrogel. Results show that in addition to the expected energy release rate of interface formation, as well as the viscous flow dissipation, the bulk composition exhibits dissipation due to phase inhomogeneity morphological changes. The mixing thermodynamics of the matrix and solvent determines the dynamics of the phase inhomogeneities, which can enhance or disrupt adhesion. The model also accounts for the time-dependent behaviour. A parameter is proposed to discern the dominant dissipation mechanism in hydrogel contact detachment.

  13. Adhesion in hydrogel contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, J. R.; Jay, G. D.; Kim, K.-S.; Bothun, G. D.

    2016-05-01

    A generalized thermomechanical model for adhesion was developed to elucidate the mechanisms of dissipation within the viscoelastic bulk of a hyperelastic hydrogel. Results show that in addition to the expected energy release rate of interface formation, as well as the viscous flow dissipation, the bulk composition exhibits dissipation due to phase inhomogeneity morphological changes. The mixing thermodynamics of the matrix and solvent determines the dynamics of the phase inhomogeneities, which can enhance or disrupt adhesion. The model also accounts for the time-dependent behaviour. A parameter is proposed to discern the dominant dissipation mechanism in hydrogel contact detachment.

  14. Contact dermatitis in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olumide, Y M

    1985-05-01

    Nickel is the most important sensitizer in Lagos, with an incidence of 12.3% of 453 patients tested. There was no sex difference, as the wearing of necklaces and bracelets was equally fashionable among both sexes. Housewife eczema is not common, probably because of hardening. Dermatitis from additives in the processing of leather and rubber footwear was the next most common. Chromate sensitivity comes usually from leather or cement. Cultural and climatic factors are mainly responsible for differences in the incidence of contact dermatitis found in Lagos from other countries.

  15. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  16. Contact Lenses for Vision Correction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Glasses & Contacts Contact Lenses Sections Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Proper ... to Know About Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Written by: Kierstan Boyd ...

  17. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jenny L.

    2010-01-01

    Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite this knowledge, many clinical dermatologists do not offer patch testing in their offices or offer testing with only a limited number of allergens. Introduced in 1995, the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test originally contained 23 allergens and one control. In 2007, five additional allergens were added. This United States Food and Drug Administration-approved patch testing system made patch testing more convenient, and after its introduction, more dermatologists offered patch testing services. However, the number of allergens in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test remains relatively low. Every two years, the North American Contact Dermatitis Group collects and reports the data from patch testing among its members to a standardized series of allergens. In 2005-2006, the Group used a series of 65 allergens. Of the top 30 allergens reported in 2005-2006, 10 were not included in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test. Knowledge of and testing for additional allergens such as these may increase patch testing yield. PMID:20967194

  18. Medical management of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Alexandroff, A B; Johnston, G A

    2009-10-01

    Allergic and irritant contact dermatitis are important dermatological problems. Although the frequencies of positive reactions to a number of allergens have decreased during last 30 years because of better avoidance (and at least in part due to improved legislation), contact allergy to other agents is rising. The medical treatment starts from a correct identification of triggers of contact dermatitis which could allow patients to reduce or avoid exposure to these agents in future. A good clinical history, examination and immunological tests including patch testing are of crucial importance at this stage. Further management includes emollients, topical and oral corticosteroids, topical calcineurin inhibitors, azathioprine and ciclosporin. Methotrexate and alitretinoin are recent additions to the armamentarium of dermatologists who manage contact dermatitis.

  19. [Correction of keratoconus with soft contact lenses].

    PubMed

    Koos, D; Bitea, M J

    1989-01-01

    The authors present their experience in using soft contact lenses in 33 eyes with keratoconus (18 patients). Adaptation was possible only when the doctor-patient collaboration was good. Visual acuity (VA) of 0.4-1 was obtained in 85% cases versus 42.5% when glasses were used. In the period under observation no case of VA decrease was recorded. The subjects tolerated well the contact lenses. The specialty literature contains data indicating not only the optical role of the contact lenses but also their therapeutic, tectorial role.

  20. Feasibility of corneal drug delivery of cysteamine using vitamin E modified silicone hydrogel contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Kuan-Hui; Fentzke, Richard C; Chauhan, Anuj

    2013-11-01

    Cystinosis is an inherited genetic disease characterized by the accumulation of cystine crystals in several tissues including the cornea. The corneal manifestations of cystinosis are treated by hourly instillation of cysteamine eye drops each day while awake. The high frequency of eye drop instillation along with the long duration of treatment leads to poor compliance in many patients. We have combined in vitro experiments with mathematical modeling to investigate the feasibility of daily use of cysteamine loaded contact lenses to replace the hourly instillation of drops. Our approach was based on incorporation of vitamin E diffusion barriers into commercially available contact lenses to increase the duration of drug release. Contact lenses were first soaked in a solution of vitamin E in ethanol. Subsequently, the lenses were soaked in an aqueous solution of cysteamine to load the drug. The drug release profiles from vitamin E treated lenses were measured under sink conditions. In addition, drug oxidation rates were measured after exposing drug loaded contact lenses to humidified room air. To study further the feasibility of using contact lenses for the delivery of cysteamine, a mass transfer model was used to determine the rates at which the drug loaded in the lens is delivered to the cornea. The results show that vitamin E loading increases the release duration from 10 min to about 3 h in solution, thus allowing the possibility of extended drug delivery. In addition to improving the release profiles, vitamin E loading also improved the drug stability by reducing the oxidation rates. The mathematical modeling of drug transport in the eye suggested that the vitamin E loaded contact lens can provide the daily therapeutic dose without causing toxicity, while significantly increasing the bioavailability compared to eye drops. Based on the in vitro experimental results and the mathematical modeling, it is likely that a single contact lens worn for about 2h could

  1. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  2. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  3. Contact Us about Asbestos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    How to contact EPA for more information on asbestos, including state and regional contacts, EPA’s Asbestos Abatement/Management Ombudsman and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Assistance Information Service (TSCA Hotline).

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Sep. 26, 2013 It ... the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By ...

  5. Contact Lenses on Submarines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    NAVAL SUBMARINE MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY SUBMARINE BASE, GROTON, CONN. REPORT NUMBER 1048 CONTACT LENSES ON SUBMARINES... CONTACT LENSES ON SUBMARINES by James F. Socks, CDR, MSC, USN NAVAL SUBMARINE MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY REPORT NUMBER 1048 NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH...DRSCHLAB Approved for public release; distribution unlimited SUMMARY PAGE PROBLEM To determine the feasibility of wearing contact lenses aboard

  6. Glasses and Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Glasses and Contact Lenses KidsHealth > For Kids > Glasses and Contact Lenses Print A A A What's in this ... together the way they should. But eyeglasses or contact lenses, also called corrective lenses, can help most ...

  7. Ferromagnetic tunnel contacts to graphene: Contact resistance and spin signal

    SciTech Connect

    Cubukcu, M.; Laczkowski, P.; Vergnaud, C.; Marty, A.; Attané, J.-P.; Notin, L.; Vila, L. Jamet, M.; Martin, M.-B.; Seneor, P.; Anane, A.; Deranlot, C.; Fert, A.; Auffret, S.; Ducruet, C.

    2015-02-28

    We report spin transport in CVD graphene-based lateral spin valves using different magnetic contacts. We compared the spin signal amplitude measured on devices where the cobalt layer is directly in contact with the graphene to the one obtained using tunnel contacts. Although a sizeable spin signal (up to ∼2 Ω) is obtained with direct contacts, the signal is strongly enhanced (∼400 Ω) by inserting a tunnel barrier. In addition, we studied the resistance-area product (R.A) of a variety of contacts on CVD graphene. In particular, we compared the R.A products of alumina and magnesium oxide tunnel barriers grown by sputtering deposition of aluminum or magnesium and subsequent natural oxidation under pure oxygen atmosphere or by plasma. When using an alumina tunnel barrier on CVD graphene, the R.A product is high and exhibits a large dispersion. This dispersion can be highly reduced by using a magnesium oxide tunnel barrier, as for the R.A value. This study gives insight in the material quest for reproducible and efficient spin injection in CVD graphene.

  8. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector (CBIRD) Contact Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the CBIRD detector is enhanced by using new device contacting methods that have been developed. The detector structure features a narrow gap adsorber sandwiched between a pair of complementary, unipolar barriers that are, in turn, surrounded by contact layers. In this innovation, the contact adjacent to the hole barrier is doped n-type, while the contact adjacent to the electron barrier is doped p-type. The contact layers can have wider bandgaps than the adsorber layer, so long as good electrical contacts are made to them. If good electrical contacts are made to either (or both) of the barriers, then one could contact the barrier(s) directly, obviating the need for additional contact layers. Both the left and right contacts can be doped either n-type or ptype. Having an n-type contact layer next to the electron barrier creates a second p-n junction (the first being the one between the hole barrier and the adsorber) over which applied bias could drop. This reduces the voltage drop over the adsorber, thereby reducing dark current generation in the adsorber region.

  9. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  10. Transdermal delivery of therapeutic agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwiatkowski, Krzysztof C. (Inventor); Hayes, Ryan T. (Inventor); Magnuson, James W. (Inventor); Giletto, Anthony (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A device for the transdermal delivery of a therapeutic agent to a biological subject that includes a first electrode comprising a first array of electrically conductive microprojections for providing electrical communication through a skin portion of the subject to a second electrode comprising a second array of electrically conductive microprojections. Additionally, a reservoir for holding the therapeutic agent surrounding the first electrode and a pulse generator for providing an exponential decay pulse between the first and second electrodes may be provided. A method includes the steps of piercing a stratum corneum layer of skin with two arrays of conductive microprojections, encapsulating the therapeutic agent into biocompatible charged carriers, surrounding the conductive microprojections with the therapeutic agent, generating an exponential decay pulse between the two arrays of conductive microprojections to create a non-uniform electrical field and electrokinetically driving the therapeutic agent through the stratum corneum layer of skin.

  11. Contact lens in keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Varsha M; Mandathara, Preeji S; Dumpati, Srikanth

    2013-01-01

    Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL), hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language with the keywords keratoconus and various contact lenses such as Rose k lens, RGP lens, hybrid lens, scleral lens and PBCL. PMID:23925325

  12. Pre-therapy: the application of contact reflections.

    PubMed

    Prouty, Garry

    2007-01-01

    Contact Reflections are the primary method of Pre-Therapy. There are five formalized techniques: situational, facial, word-for-word, body, and reiterative. Together they form a web of psychological contact enabling the development of therapeutic relationships. A case history of treatment with a client with retardation and psychosis is presented with a discussion of the therapist's innovative technique.

  13. Therapeutic Hypothermia for Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Karnatovskaia, Lioudmila V.; Wartenberg, Katja E.

    2014-01-01

    The earliest recorded application of therapeutic hypothermia in medicine spans about 5000 years; however, its use has become widespread since 2002, following the demonstration of both safety and efficacy of regimens requiring only a mild (32°C-35°C) degree of cooling after cardiac arrest. We review the mechanisms by which hypothermia confers neuroprotection as well as its physiological effects by body system and its associated risks. With regard to clinical applications, we present evidence on the role of hypothermia in traumatic brain injury, intracranial pressure elevation, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, spinal cord injury, hepatic encephalopathy, and neonatal peripartum encephalopathy. Based on the current knowledge and areas undergoing or in need of further exploration, we feel that therapeutic hypothermia holds promise in the treatment of patients with various forms of neurologic injury; however, additional quality studies are needed before its true role is fully known. PMID:24982721

  14. Inhalation delivery of protein therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Kane, Colleen; O'Neil, Karyn; Conk, Michelle; Picha, Kristen

    2013-04-01

    Inhaled therapeutics are used routinely to treat a variety of pulmonary diseases including asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis. In addition, biological therapies represent the fastest growing segment of approved pharmaceuticals. However, despite the increased availability of biological therapies, nearly all inhaled therapeutics are small molecule drugs with only a single inhaled protein therapeutic approved. There remains a significant unmet need for therapeutics in pulmonary diseases, and biological therapies with potential to alter disease progression represent a significant opportunity to treat these challenging diseases. This review provides a background into efforts to develop inhaled biological therapies and highlights some of the associated challenges. In addition, we speculate on the ideal properties of a biologic therapy for inhaled delivery.

  15. [Immunology of contact allergy].

    PubMed

    Martin, S F

    2011-10-01

    Contact allergy is a skin disease that is caused by the reaction of the immune system to low molecular weight chemicals. A hallmark of contact allergens is their chemical reactivity, which is not exhibited by toxic irritants. Covalent binding of contact allergens to or complex formation with proteins is essential for the activation of the immune system. As a consequence antigenic epitopes are formed, which are recognized by contact allergen-specific T cells. The generation of effector and memory T cells causes the high antigen specificity and the repeated antigen-specific skin reaction of contact allergy. New findings reveal that the less specific reaction of the innate immune system to contact allergens closely resembles the reaction to an infection. Therefore, contact allergy can be viewed as an immunologic misunderstanding since the skin contact with chemical allergens is interpreted as an infection. The growing understanding of the molecular and cellular pathologic mechanisms of contact allergy can aid the development of specific therapies and of in vitro alternatives to animal testing for the identification of contact allergens.

  16. Contact Dermatitis for the Practicing Allergist.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David I

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of important practice recommendations from the recently updated Contact Dermatitis Practice Parameter. This updated parameter provides essential recommendations pertaining to clinical history, physical examination, and patch testing evaluation of patients suspected of allergic contact dermatitis. In addition to providing guidance for performing and interpreting closed patch testing, the updated parameter provides concrete recommendations for assessing metal hypersensitivity in patients receiving prosthetic devices, for evaluating workers with occupational contact dermatitis, and also for addressing allergic contact dermatitis in children. Finally, the document provides practical recommendations useful for educating patients regarding avoidance of exposure to known contact sensitizers in the home and at work. The Contact Dermatitis Parameter is designed as a practical, evidence-based clinical tool to be used by allergists and dermatologists who routinely are called upon to evaluate patients with skin disorders.

  17. Non-contact measurement of contact wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yaxing; Ye, Xuemei; Li, Zhongke; Yue, Kaiduan

    2008-12-01

    The overhead contact system is the power supply unit of the electric locomotive. This article is to introduce our newly developed method to measure the height and pull out value of the contact wire. A carema dolly which can move on railway is applied to bear the weight of the measure equipment; two linear CCD cameras are installed on the dolly symmetrically about the midline of two rails. While the dolly move along the railway, two CCD cameras grasp the image synchronously, and a computer real-time process the images, the height and pull out value can be calculate out from the images.

  18. Dynamic contact angle measurements on superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Kavehpour, H. Pirouz; Rothstein, Jonathan P.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the dynamic advancing and receding contact angles of a series of aqueous solutions were measured on a number of hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces using a modified Wilhelmy plate technique. Superhydrophobic surfaces are hydrophobic surfaces with micron or nanometer sized surface roughness. These surfaces have very large static advancing contact angles and little static contact angle hysteresis. In this study, the dynamic advancing and dynamic receding contact angles on superhydrophobic surfaces were measured as a function of plate velocity and capillary number. The dynamic contact angles measured on a smooth hydrophobic Teflon surface were found to obey the scaling with capillary number predicted by the Cox-Voinov-Tanner law, θD3 ∝ Ca. The response of the dynamic contact angle on the superhydrophobic surfaces, however, did not follow the same scaling law. The advancing contact angle was found to remain constant at θA = 160∘, independent of capillary number. The dynamic receding contact angle measurements on superhydrophobic surfaces were found to decrease with increasing capillary number; however, the presence of slip on the superhydrophobic surface was found to result in a shift in the onset of dynamic contact angle variation to larger capillary numbers. In addition, a much weaker dependence of the dynamic contact angle on capillary number was observed for some of the superhydrophobic surfaces tested.

  19. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  20. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  1. Contact angle hysteresis explained.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lichao; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2006-07-04

    A view of contact angle hysteresis from the perspectives of the three-phase contact line and of the kinetics of contact line motion is given. Arguments are made that advancing and receding are discrete events that have different activation energies. That hysteresis can be quantified as an activation energy by the changes in interfacial area is argued. That this is an appropriate way of viewing hysteresis is demonstrated with examples.

  2. Soft contact lenses

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, R. L.; VanLeeuwen, Wm. N.

    1972-01-01

    A series of 55 patients were fitted with a new type of hydrophilic soft contact lens. These were found more comfortable than hard contact lenses and they had a protective and pain-relieving action in cases of chronic corneal disease. Vision was not as good as with hard contact lenses and a greater potential danger of infection was found. They are preferred by many patients despite the noticeable thick edge and the difficulty of obtaining an identical replacement. PMID:5042887

  3. Optical contact micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Steven D.

    2014-08-19

    Certain examples provide optical contact micrometers and methods of use. An example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable lenses to receive an object and immobilize the object in a position. The example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable mirrors positioned with respect to the pair of lenses to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses. The example optical contact micrometer includes a microscope to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses via the mirrors; and an interferometer to obtain one or more measurements of the object.

  4. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.

  5. Proteases as therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Craik, Charles S.; Page, Michael J.; Madison, Edwin L.

    2015-01-01

    Proteases are an expanding class of drugs that hold great promise. The U.S. FDA (Food and Drug Administration) has approved 12 protease therapies, and a number of next generation or completely new proteases are in clinical development. Although they are a well-recognized class of targets for inhibitors, proteases themselves have not typically been considered as a drug class despite their application in the clinic over the last several decades; initially as plasma fractions and later as purified products. Although the predominant use of proteases has been in treating cardiovascular disease, they are also emerging as useful agents in the treatment of sepsis, digestive disorders, inflammation, cystic fibrosis, retinal disorders, psoriasis and other diseases. In the present review, we outline the history of proteases as therapeutics, provide an overview of their current clinical application, and describe several approaches to improve and expand their clinical application. Undoubtedly, our ability to harness proteolysis for disease treatment will increase with our understanding of protease biology and the molecular mechanisms responsible. New technologies for rationally engineering proteases, as well as improved delivery options, will expand greatly the potential applications of these enzymes. The recognition that proteases are, in fact, an established class of safe and efficacious drugs will stimulate investigation of additional therapeutic applications for these enzymes. Proteases therefore have a bright future as a distinct therapeutic class with diverse clinical applications. PMID:21406063

  6. The Therapeutic Roller Coaster

    PubMed Central

    CHU, JAMES A.

    1992-01-01

    Survivors of severe childhood abuse often encounter profound difficulties. In addition to posttraumatic and dissociative symptomatology, abuse survivors frequently have characterologic problems, particularly regarding self-care and maintaining relationships. Backgrounds of abuse, abandonment, and betrayal are often recapitulated and reenacted in therapy, making the therapeutic experience arduous and confusing for therapists and patients. Efforts must be directed at building an adequate psychotherapeutic foundation before undertaking exploration and abreaction of past traumatic experiences. This discussion sets out a model for treatment of childhood abuse survivors, describing stages of treatment and suggesting interventions. Common treatment dilemmas or "traps" are discussed, with recommendations for their resolution. PMID:22700116

  7. Wearable telescopic contact lens.

    PubMed

    Arianpour, Ashkan; Schuster, Glenn M; Tremblay, Eric J; Stamenov, Igor; Groisman, Alex; Legerton, Jerry; Meyers, William; Amigo, Goretty Alonso; Ford, Joseph E

    2015-08-20

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a 1.6 mm thick scleral contact lens providing both 1× and 2.8× magnified vision paths, intended for use as a switchable eye-borne telescopic low-vision aid. The F/9.7 telescopic vision path uses an 8.2 mm diameter annular entrance pupil and 4 internal reflections in a polymethyl methacrylate precision optic. This gas-impermeable insert is contained inside a smooth outer casing of rigid gas-permeable polymer, which also provides achromatic correction for refraction at the curved lens face. The unmagnified F/4.1 vision path is through the central aperture of the lens, with additional transmission between the annular telescope rings to enable peripheral vision. We discuss potential solutions for providing oxygenation for an extended wear version of the lens. The prototype lenses were characterized using a scale-model human eye, and telescope functionality was confirmed in a small-scale clinical (nondispensed) demonstration.

  8. The impact of contact patterns on epidemic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qiuju; Shi, Tianyu; Dong, Chao; Yan, Zhijun

    2017-01-01

    In social networks, individuals have relationships with their neighbor nodes (acquaintance contacts) and also randomly contact other nodes without direct links (stranger contacts). However, these two types of contact patterns are rarely considered together. In this paper, we propose a modified SIS (Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible) model in which a node not only contacts neighbor nodes but also randomly contacts other nodes in the network. We implement the model on a scale-free network and study the influence of different types of contact patterns on epidemic dynamics as well as three possible strategies people adopt when disease outbreaks. The results show that a greater preference for acquaintance contacts makes a disease outbreak less likely. Moreover, the best protective strategy to control the disease is to adjust both the contact number and the contact pattern. In addition, the epidemic is more likely to be controlled when individuals take more information into consideration.

  9. The impact of contact patterns on epidemic dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Qiuju; Shi, Tianyu; Dong, Chao; Yan, Zhijun

    2017-01-01

    In social networks, individuals have relationships with their neighbor nodes (acquaintance contacts) and also randomly contact other nodes without direct links (stranger contacts). However, these two types of contact patterns are rarely considered together. In this paper, we propose a modified SIS (Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible) model in which a node not only contacts neighbor nodes but also randomly contacts other nodes in the network. We implement the model on a scale-free network and study the influence of different types of contact patterns on epidemic dynamics as well as three possible strategies people adopt when disease outbreaks. The results show that a greater preference for acquaintance contacts makes a disease outbreak less likely. Moreover, the best protective strategy to control the disease is to adjust both the contact number and the contact pattern. In addition, the epidemic is more likely to be controlled when individuals take more information into consideration. PMID:28291800

  10. Factor XII Contact Activation.

    PubMed

    Naudin, Clément; Burillo, Elena; Blankenberg, Stefan; Butler, Lynn; Renné, Thomas

    2017-03-27

    Contact activation is the surface-induced conversion of factor XII (FXII) zymogen to the serine protease FXIIa. Blood-circulating FXII binds to negatively charged surfaces and this contact to surfaces triggers a conformational change in the zymogen inducing autoactivation. Several surfaces that have the capacity for initiating FXII contact activation have been identified, including misfolded protein aggregates, collagen, nucleic acids, and platelet and microbial polyphosphate. Activated FXII initiates the proinflammatory kallikrein-kinin system and the intrinsic coagulation pathway, leading to formation of bradykinin and thrombin, respectively. FXII contact activation is well characterized in vitro and provides the mechanistic basis for the diagnostic clotting assay, activated partial thromboplastin time. However, only in the past decade has the critical role of FXII contact activation in pathological thrombosis been appreciated. While defective FXII contact activation provides thromboprotection, excess activation underlies the swelling disorder hereditary angioedema type III. This review provides an overview of the molecular basis of FXII contact activation and FXII contact activation-associated disease states.

  11. Contact symmetries and Hamiltonian thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bravetti, A.; Lopez-Monsalvo, C.S.; Nettel, F.

    2015-10-15

    It has been shown that contact geometry is the proper framework underlying classical thermodynamics and that thermodynamic fluctuations are captured by an additional metric structure related to Fisher’s Information Matrix. In this work we analyse several unaddressed aspects about the application of contact and metric geometry to thermodynamics. We consider here the Thermodynamic Phase Space and start by investigating the role of gauge transformations and Legendre symmetries for metric contact manifolds and their significance in thermodynamics. Then we present a novel mathematical characterization of first order phase transitions as equilibrium processes on the Thermodynamic Phase Space for which the Legendre symmetry is broken. Moreover, we use contact Hamiltonian dynamics to represent thermodynamic processes in a way that resembles the classical Hamiltonian formulation of conservative mechanics and we show that the relevant Hamiltonian coincides with the irreversible entropy production along thermodynamic processes. Therefore, we use such property to give a geometric definition of thermodynamically admissible fluctuations according to the Second Law of thermodynamics. Finally, we show that the length of a curve describing a thermodynamic process measures its entropy production.

  12. Noneczematous Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis usually presents as an eczematous process, clinically characterized by erythematoedematovesicous lesions with intense itching in the acute phase. Such manifestations become erythematous-scaly as the condition progresses to the subacute phase and papular-hyperkeratotic in the chronic phase. Not infrequently, however, contact dermatitis presents with noneczematous features. The reasons underlying this clinical polymorphism lie in the different noxae and contact modalities, as well as in the individual susceptibility and the various targeted cutaneous structures. The most represented forms of non-eczematous contact dermatitis include the erythema multiforme-like, the purpuric, the lichenoid, and the pigmented kinds. These clinical entities must obviously be discerned from the corresponding “pure” dermatitis, which are not associated with contact with exogenous agents. PMID:24109520

  13. BISON Contact Improvements CASL FY14 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B. W.; Hales, J. D.; Gaston, D. R.; Karpeev, D. A.; Williamson, R. L.; Novascone, S. R.; Perez, D. M.; Gardner, R. J.; Gamble, K. A.

    2014-09-01

    The BISON code is the foundation for multiple fuel performance modeling efforts, and is currently under heavy development. For a variety of fuel forms, the effects of heat conduction across a gap and mechanical contact between components of a fuel system are very significant. It is thus critical that BISON have robust capabilities for enforcement of thermal and mechanical contact. BISON’s solver robustness has generally been quite good before mechanical contact between the fuel and cladding occurs, but there have been significant challenges obtaining converged solutions once that contact occurs and the solver begins to enforce mechanical contact constraints. During the current year, significant development effort has been focused on the enforcement of mechanical contact to provide improved solution robustness. In addition to this work to improve mechanical contact robustness, an investigation into questionable results attributable to thermal contact has been performed. This investigation found that the order of integration typically used on the surfaces involved in thermal contact was not sufficiently high. To address this problem, a new option was provided to permit the use of a different integration order for surfaces, and new usage recommendations were provided.

  14. AIRBORNE CONTACT DERMATITIS – CURRENT PERSPECTIVES IN ETIOPATHOGENESIS AND MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Sanjeev; De, Dipankar; Mahajan, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    The increasing recognition of occupational origin of airborne contact dermatitis has brought the focus on the variety of irritants, which can present with this typical morphological picture. At the same time, airborne allergic contact dermatitis secondary to plant antigens, especially to Compositae family, continues to be rampant in many parts of the world, especially in the Indian subcontinent. The recognition of the contactant may be difficult to ascertain and the treatment may be even more difficult. The present review focuses on the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic issues in airborne contact dermatitis. PMID:22345774

  15. A Drug-Eluting Contact Lens

    PubMed Central

    Ciolino, Joseph B.; Hoare, Todd R.; Iwata, Naomi G.; Behlau, Irmgard; Dohlman, Claes H.; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To formulate and characterize a drug-eluting contact lens designed to provide extended, controlled release of a drug. Methods Prototype contact lenses were created by coating PLGA (poly[lactic-co-glycolic acid]) films containing test compounds with pHEMA (poly[hydroxyethyl methacrylate]) by ultraviolet light polymerization. The films, containing encapsulated fluorescein or ciprofloxacin, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Release studies were conducted in phosphate-buffered saline at 37°C with continuous shaking. Ciprofloxacin eluted from the contact lens was studied in an antimicrobial assay to verify antimicrobial effectiveness. Results After a brief and minimal initial burst, the prototype contact lenses demonstrated controlled release of the molecules studied, with zero-order release kinetics under infinite sink conditions for over 4 weeks. The rate of drug release was controlled by changing either the ratio of drug to PLGA or the molecular mass of the PLGA used. Both the PLGA and the pHEMA affected release kinetics. Ciprofloxacin released from the contact lenses inhibited ciprofloxacin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus at all time-points tested. Conclusions A prototype contact lens for sustained drug release consisting of a thin drug-PLGA film coated with pHEMA could be used as a platform for ocular drug delivery with widespread therapeutic applications. PMID:19136709

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Detlef

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. The suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Differential diagnoses should be considered only after careful exclusion of any causal contact sensitization. Hence, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance. Modifications of the standardized test procedure are the strip patch test and the repeated open application test. The interpretation of the SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) patch test as well as testing with the patients' own products and working materials are potential sources of error. Accurate patch test reading is affected in particular by the experience and individual factors of the examiner. Therefore, a high degree of standardization and continuous quality control is necessary and may be supported by use of an online patch test reading course made available by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group. A critical relevance assessment of allergic patch test reactions helps to avoid relapses and the consideration of differential diagnoses. Any allergic test reaction should be documented in an allergy ID card including the INCI name, if appropriate. The diagnostics of allergic contact dermatitis is endangered by a seriously reduced financing of patch testing by the German statutory health insurances. Restrictive regulations by the German Drug Law block the approval of new contact allergens for routine patch testing. Beside the consistent avoidance of allergen contact, temporary use of systemic and topical corticosteroids is the therapy of first choice.

  17. Telescopic vision contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  18. Optical contacting of quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    The strength of the bond between optically contacted quartz surfaces was investigated. The Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) experiment to test the theories of general relativity requires extremely precise measurements. The quartz components of the instruments to make these measurements must be held together in a very stable unit. Optical contacting is suggested as a possible method of joining these components. The fundamental forces involved in optical contacting are reviewed and relates calculations of these forces to the results obtained in experiments.

  19. Contact gating at GHz frequency in graphene

    PubMed Central

    Wilmart, Q.; Inhofer, A.; Boukhicha, M.; Yang, W.; Rosticher, M.; Morfin, P.; Garroum, N.; Fève, G.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.

    2016-01-01

    The paradigm of graphene transistors is based on the gate modulation of the channel carrier density by means of a local channel gate. This standard architecture is subject to the scaling limit of the channel length and further restrictions due to access and contact resistances impeding the device performance. We propose a novel design, overcoming these issues by implementing additional local gates underneath the contact region which allow a full control of the Klein barrier taking place at the contact edge. In particular, our work demonstrates the GHz operation of transistors driven by independent contact gates. We benchmark the standard channel and novel contact gating and report for the later dynamical transconductance levels at the state of the art. Our finding may find applications in electronics and optoelectronics whenever there is need to control independently the Fermi level and the electrostatic potential of electronic sources or to get rid of cumbersome local channel gates. PMID:26879709

  20. Contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Panessa-Warren, B.J.

    1985-10-01

    Soft x-ray contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation offers the biologist and especially the microscopist, a way to morphologically study specimens that could not be imaged by conventional TEM, STEM or SEM methods (i.e. hydrated samples, samples easily damaged by an electron beam, electron dense samples, thick specimens, unstained low contrast specimens) at spatial resolutions approaching those of the TEM, with the additional possibility to obtain compositional (elemental) information about the sample as well. Although flash x-ray sources offer faster exposure times, synchrotron radiation provides a highly collimated, intense radiation that can be tuned to select specific discrete ranges of x-ray wavelengths or specific individual wavelengths which optimize imaging or microanalysis of a specific sample. This paper presents an overview of the applications of x-ray contact microscopy to biological research and some current research results using monochromatic synchrotron radiation to image biological samples. 24 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Tea tree oil attenuates experimental contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wallengren, Joanna

    2011-07-01

    Herbs and minerals have been used in clinical dermatology for hundreds of years and herbal ingredients are becoming increasingly popular with the public in treatment of various dermatological conditions characterised by inflammation and pruritus. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of traditional topical therapeutic agents with a moderate potency topical glucocorticoid on experimental contact dermatitis and contact urticaria. The effects of ichthammol 10% pet, zinc oxide 20% pet, camphor 20% pet, levomenthol 10% pet, tea tree oil 20 or 50% and clobetason butyrate 0.05% ointment were studied in the following experimental models: elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to nickel, irritant contact dermatitis to benzalkonium chloride, and in immediate reactions to histamine and benzoic acid (non-immunological contact utricaria) respectively. Delayed reactions were evaluated using a clinical scoring system and immediate reactions were estimated by planimetry. Histamine-induced pruritus was evaluated using VAS. Tea tree oil reduced allergic contact dermatitis by 40.5% (p = 0.003), zinc oxide by 17.4% (p = 0.04) and clobetason butyrate by 23.5% (p = 0.01). Zinc oxide reduced histamine induced flare by 18.5% (p = 0.01), ichthammol by 19.2% (p = 0.02) and clobetason butyrate by 44.1% (p = 0.02). Irritant contact dermatitis and non-immunological contact urticaria were not influenced by the pre-treatments. Pruritus induced by histamine also remained unchanged. In conclusion, tea tree oil seems to be a more effective anti-eczematic agent than zinc oxide and clobetasone butyrate, while clobetasone butyrate is superior to both ichthammol and zinc oxide in topical treatment of urticarial reactions.

  2. Better Ohmic Contacts For InP Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1995-01-01

    Four design modifications enable fabrication of improved ohmic contacts on InP-based semiconductor devices. First modification consists of insertion of layer of gold phosphide between n-doped InP and metal or other overlayer of contact material. Second, includes first modification plus use of particular metal overlayer to achieve very low contact resistivities. Third, also involves deposition of Au(2)P(3) interlayer; in addition, refractory metal (W or Ta) deposited to form contact overlayer. In fourth, contact layer of Auln alloy deposited directly on InP. Improved contacts exhibit low electrical resistances and fabricated without exposing devices to destructive predeposition or postdeposition treatments.

  3. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  4. Occupational Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis accounts for 90% of all cases of work-related cutaneous disorders. It can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis, which occurs in 80% of cases, and allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, both types will present as eczematous lesions on exposed parts of the body, notably the hands. Accurate diagnosis relies on meticulous history taking, thorough physical examination, careful reading of Material Safety Data Sheets to distinguish between irritants and allergens, and comprehensive patch testing to confirm or rule out allergic sensitization. This article reviews the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of occupational contact dermatitis and provides diagnostic guidelines and a rational approach to management of these often frustrating cases. PMID:20525126

  5. SAM Technical Contacts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These technical contacts are available to help with questions regarding method deviations, modifications, sample problems or interferences, quality control requirements, the use of alternative methods, or the need to address analytes or sample types.

  6. Contact dermatitis complicating pinnaplasty.

    PubMed

    Singh-Ranger, G; Britto, J A; Sommerlad, B C

    2001-04-01

    Proflavine allergy is uncommon, occurring in approximately 6% of patients attending contact dermatitis clinics. Proflavine wool is used by many surgeons in the UK as a dressing that can be moulded to conform to the contours of a corrected prominent ear. It may have bacteriostatic properties. We present a case where contact dermatitis in response to proflavine developed after pinnaplasty. This caused diagnostic confusion, a lengthened hospital stay and an unsightly hypertrophic scar.

  7. The impact of contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, B.

    1986-10-01

    Scenarios of the impact on human society of radio contact with an extraterrestrial civilization are presented. Some believe that contact with advanced extraterrestrials would quickly devastate the human spirit, while others believe that these super-intelligent beings would show the inhabitants of the earth how to live in peace. It is proposed that the possible existence of extraterrestrial civilizations and the development of means of studying and communicating with them need to be considered.

  8. ELECTRIC CONTACT MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Grear, J.W. Jr.

    1959-03-10

    A switch adapted to maintain electrical connections under conditions of vibration or acceleration is described. According to the invention, thc switch includes a rotatable arm carrying a conductive bar arranged to close against two contacts spaced in the same plane. The firm and continuous engagement of the conductive bar with the contacts is acheived by utilizeing a spring located betwenn the vbar and athe a rem frzme and slidable mounting the bar in channel between two arms suspendef from the arm frame.

  9. Lettuce contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy.

  10. Surrogate modeling of deformable joint contact using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Eskinazi, Ilan; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2015-09-01

    Deformable joint contact models can be used to estimate loading conditions for cartilage-cartilage, implant-implant, human-orthotic, and foot-ground interactions. However, contact evaluations are often so expensive computationally that they can be prohibitive for simulations or optimizations requiring thousands or even millions of contact evaluations. To overcome this limitation, we developed a novel surrogate contact modeling method based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). The method uses special sampling techniques to gather input-output data points from an original (slow) contact model in multiple domains of input space, where each domain represents a different physical situation likely to be encountered. For each contact force and torque output by the original contact model, a multi-layer feed-forward ANN is defined, trained, and incorporated into a surrogate contact model. As an evaluation problem, we created an ANN-based surrogate contact model of an artificial tibiofemoral joint using over 75,000 evaluations of a fine-grid elastic foundation (EF) contact model. The surrogate contact model computed contact forces and torques about 1000 times faster than a less accurate coarse grid EF contact model. Furthermore, the surrogate contact model was seven times more accurate than the coarse grid EF contact model within the input domain of a walking motion. For larger input domains, the surrogate contact model showed the expected trend of increasing error with increasing domain size. In addition, the surrogate contact model was able to identify out-of-contact situations with high accuracy. Computational contact models created using our proposed ANN approach may remove an important computational bottleneck from musculoskeletal simulations or optimizations incorporating deformable joint contact models.

  11. Surrogate Modeling of Deformable Joint Contact using Artificial Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Eskinazi, Ilan; Fregly, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Deformable joint contact models can be used to estimate loading conditions for cartilage-cartilage, implant-implant, human-orthotic, and foot-ground interactions. However, contact evaluations are often so expensive computationally that they can be prohibitive for simulations or optimizations requiring thousands or even millions of contact evaluations. To overcome this limitation, we developed a novel surrogate contact modeling method based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). The method uses special sampling techniques to gather input-output data points from an original (slow) contact model in multiple domains of input space, where each domain represents a different physical situation likely to be encountered. For each contact force and torque output by the original contact model, a multi-layer feed-forward ANN is defined, trained, and incorporated into a surrogate contact model. As an evaluation problem, we created an ANN-based surrogate contact model of an artificial tibiofemoral joint using over 75,000 evaluations of a fine-grid elastic foundation (EF) contact model. The surrogate contact model computed contact forces and torques about 1000 times faster than a less accurate coarse grid EF contact model. Furthermore, the surrogate contact model was seven times more accurate than the coarse grid EF contact model within the input domain of a walking motion. For larger input domains, the surrogate contact model showed the expected trend of increasing error with increasing domain size. In addition, the surrogate contact model was able to identify out-of-contact situations with high accuracy. Computational contact models created using our proposed ANN approach may remove an important computational bottleneck from musculoskeletal simulations or optimizations incorporating deformable joint contact models. PMID:26220591

  12. Mechanisms of Plasma Therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, David

    2015-09-01

    In this talk, I address research directed towards biomedical applications of atmospheric pressure plasma such as sterilization, surgery, wound healing and anti-cancer therapy. The field has seen remarkable growth in the last 3-5 years, but the mechanisms responsible for the biomedical effects have remained mysterious. It is known that plasmas readily create reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). ROS and RNS (or RONS), in addition to a suite of other radical and non-radical reactive species, are essential actors in an important sub-field of aerobic biology termed ``redox'' (or oxidation-reduction) biology. It is postulated that cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) can trigger a therapeutic shielding response in tissue in part by creating a time- and space-localized, burst-like form of oxy-nitrosative stress on near-surface exposed cells through the flux of plasma-generated RONS. RONS-exposed surface layers of cells communicate to the deeper levels of tissue via a form of the ``bystander effect,'' similar to responses to other forms of cell stress. In this proposed model of CAP therapeutics, the plasma stimulates a cellular survival mechanism through which aerobic organisms shield themselves from infection and other challenges.

  13. Metal Contacts on Low-Dimensional Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hui

    As the scaling of the microelectronics is reaching nano regime, low-dimensional materials have been of increasing interest for future electronics applications. The low-dimensional materials, such as Si nanowires (SiNWs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), not only provide small body for further-scaled devices but also bring about new intrinsic properties for application in future optoelectronics, spintronics and so on. However, the small dimensions add significant difficulty for reducing contact resistance in the nanoelectronic devices. This dissertation presents a study of the metal contacts on low-dimensional materials. The focus of this work is on SiNWs and monolayer or few-layer MoS2. First, the metal contact on SiNW field effect transistors (FETs) was studied with a gate assisted Kelvin structure. In this work, I fabricated ambipolar SiNW FETs with Al contacts. The ambipolar characteristics and the gate assisted Kelvin structure enabled the measurement of the contact properties of both electron and hole flows at the same contact. In this work I found that the contact performance is affected by the carrier type that flows in the channel as well as the current direction. In addition, an inverter was designed and realized on a single SiNW leveraged by the ambipolar FET characteristics. Then, I have studied metal contacts on MoS2, which is one of typical two-dimensional semiconductors. In the first part of this work, Ag and Ti contacts on exfoliated MoS2 monolayers and few-layers are fabricated, characterized and analyzed. Based on the current-voltage (I-V) measurement, surface morphology and Raman spectroscopic measurement, I found that interface morphology plays an important role on the contact performance in MoS2 FETs. In the second part of this work, gate-assisted contact measurement was carried out on chemical vapor deposited low-dimensional MoS 2 layers. The contact resistance and current crowding have been

  14. When contact counts: Intergroup contact on business and intermarriage resistance in the Caucasus region.

    PubMed

    Gurrentz, Benjamin T; Finke, Roger

    2017-03-01

    Intergroup contact theory has been empirically supported in a variety of social contexts, but few samples have been drawn from rapidly developing nations undergoing severe political and sociocultural conflict. Using 2012 Caucasus Barometer data from the three nations of the South Caucasus - Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia - we test the effect of interreligious contact on various forms of out-group resistance in a region of the world that is both historically and presently marked with severe religious and ethnic conflict. Additionally, we take into account self-selection effects using propensity score matching. Results overwhelmingly support intergroup contact theory in all three countries, but objections toward intermarriage still remain high for treated groups. In addition, there exist significant differences based on the out-group studied, with the contact effects being the strongest for groups posing little religio-cultural or organized threat. Weaker contact effects, though, appear less related to threat and more contextual/out-group specific.

  15. The contact caveat: negative contact predicts increased prejudice more than positive contact predicts reduced prejudice.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Fiona Kate; Paolini, Stefania; Pedersen, Anne; Hornsey, Matthew J; Radke, Helena R M; Harwood, Jake; Rubin, Mark; Sibley, Chris G

    2012-12-01

    Contact researchers have largely overlooked the potential for negative intergroup contact to increase prejudice. In Study 1, we tested the interaction between contact quantity and valence on prejudice toward Black Australians (n = 1,476), Muslim Australians (n = 173), and asylum seekers (n = 293). In all cases, the association between contact quantity and prejudice was moderated by its valence, with negative contact emerging as a stronger and more consistent predictor than positive contact. In Study 2, White Americans (n = 441) indicated how much positive and negative contact they had with Black Americans on separate measures. Although both quantity of positive and negative contact predicted racism and avoidance, negative contact was the stronger predictor. Furthermore, negative (but not positive) contact independently predicted suspicion about Barack Obama's birthplace. These results extend the contact hypothesis by issuing an important caveat: Negative contact may be more strongly associated with increased racism and discrimination than positive contact is with its reduction.

  16. [Cerebral oedema: new therapeutic ways].

    PubMed

    Quintard, H; Ichai, C

    2014-06-01

    Cerebral oedema (CO) after brain injury can occur from different ways. The vasogenic and cytotoxic oedema are usually described but osmotic and hydrostatic CO, respectively secondary to plasmatic hypotonia or increase in blood pressure, can also be encountered. Addition of these several mechanisms can worsen injuries. Consequences are major, leading quickly to death secondary to intracerebral hypertension and later to neuropsychic sequelae. So therapeutic care to control this phenomenon is essential and osmotherapy is actually the only way. A better understanding of physiopathological disorders, particularly energetic ways (lactate), aquaporine function, inflammation lead to new therapeutic hopes. The promising experimental results need now to be confirmed by clinical data.

  17. Focusing on Contact Lens Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Focusing on Contact Lens Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... substantial consumer injury. Back to top Types of Contact Lenses General categories Soft contact lenses. These are ...

  18. Therapeutic angiogenesis by a myoblast layer harvested by tissue transfer printing from cell-adhesive, thermosensitive hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Wan; Jun, Indong; Lee, Tae-Jin; Lee, Ji Hye; Lee, Young Jun; Jang, Hyeon-Ki; Kang, Seokyung; Park, Ki Dong; Cho, Seung-Woo; Kim, Byung-Soo; Shin, Heungsoo

    2013-11-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterized by the altered structure and function of arteries caused by accumulated plaque. There have been many studies on treating this disease by the direct injection of various types of therapeutic cells, however, the low cell engraftment efficiency and diffusion of the transplanted cells have been major problems. In this study, we developed an approach (transfer printing) to deliver monolayer of cells to the hindlimb ischemic tissue using thermosensitive hydrogels, and investigated its efficacy in long term retention upon transplantation and therapeutic angiogenesis. We first investigated the in vitro maintenance of robust cell-cell contacts and stable expression of the ECM proteins in myoblast layer following transfer printing process. In order to confirm the therapeutic effect of the myoblasts in vivo, we cultured a monolayer of C2C12 myoblasts on thermosensitive hydrogels, which was then transferred to the hindlimb ischemia tissue of athymic mice directly from the hydrogel by conformal contact. The transferred myoblast layer was retained for a longer period of time than an intramuscularly injected cell suspension. In addition, the morphology of the mice and laser Doppler perfusion (28 days after treatment) supported that the myoblast layer enhanced the therapeutic effects on the ischemic tissue. In summary, the transplantation of the C2C12 myoblast layer using a tissue transfer printing method could represent a new approach for the treatment of PAD by therapeutic angiogenesis.

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Alikhan, Ali; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the most important dermatologic disorders worldwide - it can cause significant morbidity and decreased quality of life, as well as having major economic implications and loss of vocational productivity. Patch testing is the most important discovery in allergic contact dermatitis and the best diagnostic modality to date; the thin-layer rapid- use epicutaneous (TRUE) test is a more recent patch test development which has improved the convenience and feasibility of the test. The future of allergic contact dermatitis is bright as we continue to learn more about the science of the disorder, as well as ways to improve diagnosis and patient care. Furthermore, it is important to remember, in this global age, that cooperation between health care providers worldwide is essential.

  20. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  1. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates.

  2. Spa contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Yankura, Jessica A; Marks, James G; Anderson, Bryan E; Adams, David R

    2008-01-01

    Potassium monopersulfate (MPS) is widely used in spa and pool "shock" treatments, yet contact dermatitis associated with MPS has been rarely reported. A patient presented with a generalized scattered dermatitis from the neck down that worsened after spa use. Patch testing elicited a ++ reaction to ammonium persulfate. Contact with ammonium persulfate was ruled out; however, MPS, which can cross-react with ammonium persulfate, was found to be the active ingredient in the patient's spa shock treatments. The dermatitis cleared after the patient switched to a hydrogen peroxide-based shock treatment.

  3. Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kostner, Lisa; Anzengruber, Florian; Guillod, Caroline; Recher, Mike; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Navarini, Alexander A

    2017-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease caused by a T cell-mediated immune reaction to usually innocuous allergens. ACD can have grave medical and socioeconomic consequences. ACD and irritant contact dermatitis often occur together. A detailed history and clinical examination are crucial and guide patch testing, which is the gold standard to diagnose ACD. T-cell clones persisting in the skin may explain the tendency of ACD to relapse even after years of allergen avoidance. Traditional treatments for ACD are topical steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, phototherapy, retinoids (including the recent alitretinoin), and immunosuppressants. Targeted therapies are lacking.

  4. Therapeutic recreation treats depression in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C D

    1999-01-01

    Therapeutic recreation can be an effective method to treat depression in elderly home care patients. Home care is the fastest growing component in the Medicare budget. The co-occurrence of physically limiting conditions and depression in the elderly is well documented. Untreated depression carries an enormous risk and cost. Therapeutic recreation is an ideal psychosocial treatment for use in the home care setting because of its effectiveness and versatility. Certified therapeutic recreation specialists use various interventions such as poetry, music, and exercise as part of a treatment team. In addition to effectively managing depression, therapeutic recreation can be beneficial in reducing the effects of many concurrent physical conditions.

  5. Performance appraisal system for therapeutic recreation.

    PubMed

    Conway, M

    1985-01-01

    Therapeutic Recreation professionals continually strive for effective performance standards for their clients. In addition to standards for clients, Therapeutic Recreation Specialists must also develop performance standards for themselves to meet the continual challenge of accountability in the 80's. This paper identifies the need to develop a performance appraisal system as well as the benefits. The elements of the standards include: specificity, observability, measurability, attainment and mutual determination. The paper also reviews the process of assignment of relative weights, categories of review and detailed standards for the Director of Therapeutic Recreation and Therapeutic Recreation Specialist at the Rehabilitation Institute of Detroit.

  6. High Reynolds number oscillating contact lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ziyuan; Schultz, William W.; Perlin, Marc

    1999-11-01

    Stainless steel, instead of Ting and Perlin's (1995) glass, is used in vertically oscillating plate experiments for a large range of Reynolds numbers. We used the non-wetting stainless steel to minimize the static meniscus that we ignore in our analysis. Except for the different static contact angle serving as an initial condition, the dynamic features in both cases are similar. In low Reynolds number oscillation, a pinned-edge condition can appropriately describe the contact line motion. In high Reynolds number oscillation, contact-line behavior becomes nonlinear and very complicated. The periodic, non-sinusoidal motion exhibits three types of motion: stick (associated with contact angle hysteresis), partial stick, and total slip. Increasing the Reynolds number, reduces the hysteresis phenomenon that still cannot be ignored. An edge condition allowing both the static range and dynamic interface behavior uses a slip coefficient mode that varies with time, stroke amplitude and frequency by introducing additional harmonic modes. Using this edge condition, we calculate the dynamic contact angle and the contact-line position for both stick and slip motion and compare them to our experimental data. Results show that the inviscid, linearized boundary-value problem combined with our slip coefficient model provides an improved prediction of the contact-line behavior.

  7. Resistivity of Rotated Graphite-Graphene Contacts.

    PubMed

    Chari, Tarun; Ribeiro-Palau, Rebeca; Dean, Cory R; Shepard, Kenneth

    2016-07-13

    Robust electrical contact of bulk conductors to two-dimensional (2D) material, such as graphene, is critical to the use of these 2D materials in practical electronic devices. Typical metallic contacts to graphene, whether edge or areal, yield a resistivity of no better than 100 Ω μm but are typically >10 kΩ μm. In this Letter, we employ single-crystal graphite for the bulk contact to graphene instead of conventional metals. The graphite contacts exhibit a transfer length up to four-times longer than in conventional metallic contacts. Furthermore, we are able to drive the contact resistivity to as little as 6.6 Ω μm(2) by tuning the relative orientation of the graphite and graphene crystals. We find that the contact resistivity exhibits a 60° periodicity corresponding to crystal symmetry with additional sharp decreases around 22° and 39°, which are among the commensurate angles of twisted bilayer graphene.

  8. Toward patient-specific articular contact mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Ateshian, Gerard A.; Henak, Corinne R.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanics of contacting cartilage layers is fundamentally important to understanding the development, homeostasis and pathology of diarthrodial joints. Because of the highly nonlinear nature of both the materials and the contact problem itself, numerical methods such as the finite element method are typically incorporated to obtain solutions. Over the course of five decades, we have moved from an initial qualitative understanding of articular cartilage material behavior to the ability to perform complex, three-dimensional contact analysis, including multiphasic material representations. This history includes the development of analytical and computational contact analysis methods that now provide the ability to perform highly nonlinear analyses. Numerical implementations of contact analysis based on the finite element method are rapidly advancing and will soon enable patient-specific analysis of joint contact mechanics using models based on medical image data. In addition to contact stress on the articular surfaces, these techniques can predict variations in strain and strain through the cartilage layers, providing the basis to predict damage and failure. This opens up exciting areas for future research and application to patient-specific diagnosis and treatment planning applied to a variety of pathologies that affect joint function and cartilage homeostasis. PMID:25698236

  9. Have Confidence in Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Richard J.; Turner, Rhiannon N.

    2010-01-01

    In an article in the May-June 2009 "American Psychologist," we discussed a new approach to reducing prejudice and encouraging more positive intergroup relations (Crisp & Turner, 2009). We named the approach imagined intergroup contact and defined it as "the mental simulation of a social interaction with a member or members of an outgroup category"…

  10. Compact contacting device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acharya, Arun (Inventor); Gottzmann, Christian F. (Inventor); Lockett, Michael J. (Inventor); Schneider, James S. (Inventor); Victor, Richard A. (Inventor); Zawierucha, Robert (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus comprising a rotatable mass of structured packing for mass or heat transfer between two contacting fluids of different densities wherein the packing mass is made up of corrugated sheets of involute shape relative to the axis of the packing mass and form a logarithmic spiral curved counter to the direction of rotation.

  11. Contact: Releasing the news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  12. Lubrication Of Nonconformal Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, Yeau-Ren

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses advances in knowledge of lubrication of nonconformal contacts in bearings and other machine elements. Reviews previous developments in theory of lubrication, presents advances in theory of lubrication to determine minimum film thickness, and describes experiments designed to investigate one of regimes of lubrication for ball bearings.

  13. Thermal Contact Conductance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The performance of cryogenic instruments is often a function of their operating temperature. Thus, designers of cryogenic instruments often are required to predict the operating temperature of each instrument they design. This requires accurate thermal models of cryogenic components which include the properties of the materials and assembly techniques used. When components are bolted or otherwise pressed together, a knowledge of the thermal performance of such joints are also needed. In some cases, the temperature drop across these joints represents a significant fraction of the total temperature difference between the instrument and its cooler. While extensive databases exist on the thermal properties of bulk materials, similar databases for pressed contacts do not. This has often lead to instrument designs that avoid pressed contacts or to the over-design of such joints at unnecessary expense. Although many people have made measurements of contact conductances at cryogenic temperatures, this data is often very narrow in scope and even more often it has not been published in an easily retrievable fashion, if published at all. This paper presents a summary of the limited pressed contact data available in the literature.

  14. Contact-Allergic Reactions to Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, An

    2011-01-01

    Contact-allergic reactions to cosmetics may be delayed-type reactions such as allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and more exceptionally also immediate-type reactions, that is, contact urticaria. Fragrances and preservative agents are the most important contact allergens, but reactions also occur to category-specific products such as hair dyes and other hair-care products, nail cosmetics, sunscreens, as well as to antioxidants, vehicles, emulsifiers, and, in fact, any possible cosmetic ingredient. Patch and prick testing to detect the respective culprits remains the golden standard for diagnosis, although additional tests might be useful as well. Once the specific allergens are identified, the patients should be informed of which products can be safely used in the future. PMID:21461388

  15. Contact-resistance process cliff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pina, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Several approaches were investigated to obtain a measure of the quality of the contact resistance between metal and a diffused or polysilicon layer. These approaches have included the use of both short and very long contact strings as well as arays of contacts with different sizes to determine the contact resistance process cliff. Results from these approaches are discussed.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Fontana, E; Belloni Fortina, A

    2014-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease (delayed type hypersensitivity reaction) that accounts for up to 20% of all childhood dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis represents a clinical manifestation of contact sensitization and usually occurs at skin sites that have come into contact with the allergen. The clinical features of allergic contact dermatitis are itchy eczematous lesions. Prevalence of contact sensitization varies between 27% and 96% of children with suspected contact dermatitis. The relationship between contact sensitization and atopic dermatitis has been widely discussed but only conflicting data have been reported. Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. The most common allergens detected in children are: metals, topical medicaments, fragrances, and preservatives. The first line management of allergic contact dermatitis in children is to avoid the offending allergens identified with the patch test and a topical corticosteroid therapy.

  17. [Contact dermatitis from Agave americana].

    PubMed

    de la Cueva, Pablo; González-Carrascosa, Mateo; Campos, Minia; Leis, Vicente; Suárez, Ricardo; Lázaro, Pablo

    2005-10-01

    Numerous plant species and their derivatives can cause skin reactions through a variety of mechanisms: irritative contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact urticaria and photodermatitis. We present a case of irritative contact dermatitis after exposure to the sap of Agave americana. The skin symptoms in this case have only been described on rare occasions; although this condition usually presents with a papulovesicular rash, in this patient it appeared as purpuric lesions in the contact area.

  18. Contact Interface Verification for DYNA3D Scenario 1: Basic Contact

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, L D

    2006-05-10

    A suite of test problems has been developed to examine contact behavior within the nonlinear, three-dimensional, explicit finite element analysis (FEA) code DYNA3D (Lin, 2005). The test problems address the basic functionality of the contact algorithms, including the behavior of various kinematic, penalty, and Lagrangian enforcement formulations. The results from the DYNA3D analyses are compared to closed form solutions to verify the contact behavior. This work was performed as part of the Verification and Validation efforts of LLNL W Program within the NNSA's Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program. DYNA3D models the transient dynamic response of solids and structures including the interactions between disjoint bodies (parts). A wide variety of contact surfaces are available to represent the diverse interactions possible during an analysis, including relative motion (sliding), separation and gap closure (voids), and fixed relative position (tied). The problem geometry may be defined using a combination of element formulations, including one-dimensional beam and truss elements, two-dimensional shell elements, and three-dimensional solid elements. Consequently, it is necessary to consider various element interactions for each contact algorithm being verified. Most of the contact algorithms currently available in DYNA3D are examined; the exceptions are the Type 4--Single Surface Contact and Type 11--SAND algorithms. It is likely that these algorithms will be removed since their functionality is embodied in other, more robust, contact algorithms. The automatic contact algorithm is evaluated using the Type 12 interface. Two other variations of automatic contact, Type 13 and Type 14, offer additional means to adapt the interface domain, but share the same search and restoration algorithms as Type 12. The contact algorithms are summarized in Table 1. This report and associated test problems examine the scenario where one contact surface exists between two

  19. Contact Graph Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  20. Contact dynamics math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaese, John R.; Tobbe, Patrick A.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station Mechanism Test Bed consists of a hydraulically driven, computer controlled six degree of freedom (DOF) motion system with which docking, berthing, and other mechanisms can be evaluated. Measured contact forces and moments are provided to the simulation host computer to enable representation of orbital contact dynamics. This report describes the development of a generalized math model which represents the relative motion between two rigid orbiting vehicles. The model allows motion in six DOF for each body, with no vehicle size limitation. The rotational and translational equations of motion are derived. The method used to transform the forces and moments from the sensor location to the vehicles' centers of mass is also explained. Two math models of docking mechanisms, a simple translational spring and the Remote Manipulator System end effector, are presented along with simulation results. The translational spring model is used in an attempt to verify the simulation with compensated hardware in the loop results.

  1. Occupational protein contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Barbaud, Annick; Poreaux, Claire; Penven, Emmanuelle; Waton, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is generally caused by haptens but can also be induced by proteins causing mainly immunological contact urticaria (ICU); chronic hand eczema in the context of protein contact dermatitis (PCD). In a monocentric retrospective study, from our database, only 31 (0.41%) of patients with contact dermatitis had positive skin tests with proteins: 22 had occupational PCD, 3 had non-occupational PCD, 5 occupational ICU and 1 cook had a neutrophilic fixed food eruption (NFFE) due to fish. From these results and analysis of literature, the characteristics of PCD can be summarized as follows. It is a chronic eczematous dermatitis, possibly exacerbated by work, suggestive if associated with inflammatory perionyxix and immediate erythema with pruritis, to be investigated when the patient resumes work after a period of interruption. Prick tests with the suspected protein-containing material are essential, as patch tests have negative results. In case of multisensitisation revealed by prick tests, it is advisable to analyse IgE against recombinant allergens. A history of atopy, found in 56 to 68% of the patients, has to be checked for. Most of the cases are observed among food-handlers but PCD can also be due to non-edible plants, latex, hydrolysed proteins or animal proteins. Occupational exposure to proteins can thus lead to the development of ICU. Reflecting hypersensitivity to very low concentrations of allergens, investigating ICU therefore requires caution and prick tests should be performed with a diluted form of the causative protein-containing product. Causes are food, especially fruit peel, non-edible plants, cosmetic products, latex, animals.

  2. Electron Device Contact Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    from van der Pauw measurements ......................................... 110 5.2 M’odel of a MS contact with an interfacial oxide layer. 116 6.1 I-V...Process ............................ .76 4.3 Diffused Layer Data Determined from van der Pauw 77 Measurements... van der Pauw measurement was performed and a value of diffused layer sheet resistivity was obtained. Junction lapping and staining was then used to

  3. Metal Contacts in Semiconductors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    surfaces, Pnotoelectron spe troscopy, Auger electron spectro- I scopy, Schottky barriers, ohmic contacts, Defects in semiconductors, Cadmium * telluride...Indium phosphide, Gallium arsenide, Gallium Selenide . j 20. ABSTR ACT (roothat ow rees esh " neceay and td..ity by block -. b*w) SThe application of...angstroms. Also, provided one eliminates the systems where cadmium outdiffusion into high work function metals occurs then good agreement between the

  4. Contact stress sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kotovsky, Jack [Oakland, CA

    2012-02-07

    A contact stress sensor includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a thermal compensator and a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  5. Contact stress sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kotovsky, Jack

    2014-02-11

    A method for producing a contact stress sensor that includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  6. Exploration of Tactile Contact in a Haptic Display: Effects of Contact Velocity and Transient Vibrations.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, B T; Provancher, W R

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were conducted using a novel tactile contact rendering device to explore important factors of the tactile contact event. The effects of contact velocity and event-based transient vibrations were explored. Our research was motivated by a need to better understand the perception of the tactile contact event and to develop a means of rendering stiff surfaces with a nonspecialized haptic device. A passive tactile display, suitable for mounting on a Phantom robot, was developed and is capable of rendering the tactile sensation of contact on a fingertip over a range of velocities commonly experienced during everyday manipulation and tactile exploration. Experiments were conducted with this device to explore how tactile contact dynamics affect the perceived stiffness of a virtual surface. It was found that contact velocity does not have a significant effect on perceived stiffness. These results can be explained by prior research that defines perceived hardness (akin to stiffness) in terms of rate-hardness. However, in agreement with prior literature with stylus-based studies, the addition of transient vibrations to the contact event can, in some cases, increase the perceived stiffness.

  7. Dual contact pogo pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, Stephen McGarry

    2016-06-21

    A contact assembly includes a base and a pair of electrical contacts supported by the base. A first end of the first electrical contact corresponds to a first end of the base and is configured to engage a first external conductive circuit element. A first end of the second electrical contact also corresponds to the first end of the base and is configured to engage a second external conductive circuit element. The first contact and the second contact are electrically isolated from one another and configured to compress when engaging an external connector element. The base includes an aperture positioned on a second end of the base outboard of a second end of the first and second electrical contacts. The aperture presents a narrowing shape with a wide mouth distal the electrical contacts and a narrow internal through-hole proximate the electrical contacts.

  8. Dual contact pogo pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, Stephen McGarry

    2015-01-20

    A contact assembly includes a base and a pair of electrical contacts supported by the base. A first end of the first electrical contact corresponds to a first end of the base and is configured to engage a first external conductive circuit element. A first end of the second electrical contact also corresponds to the first end of the base and is configured to engage a second external conductive circuit element. The first contact and the second contact are electrically isolated from one another and configured to compress when engaging an external connector element. The base includes an aperture positioned on a second end of the base outboard of a second end of the first and second electrical contacts. The aperture presents a narrowing shape with a wide mouth distal the electrical contacts and a narrow internal through-hole proximate the electrical contacts.

  9. Consensus contact prediction by linear programming.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Bu, Dongbo; Li, Shuai Cheng; Li, Ming; Xu, Jinbo

    2007-01-01

    Protein inter-residue contacts are of great use for protein structure determination or prediction. Recent CASP events have shown that a few accurately predicted contacts can help improve both computational efficiency and prediction accuracy of the ab inito folding methods. This paper develops an integer linear programming (ILP) method for consensus-based contact prediction. In contrast to the simple "majority voting" method assuming that all the individual servers are equal and independent, our method evaluates their correlations using the maximum likelihood method and constructs some latent independent servers using the principal component analysis technique. Then, we use an integer linear programming model to assign weights to these latent servers in order to maximize the deviation between the correct contacts and incorrect ones; our consensus prediction server is the weighted combination of these latent servers. In addition to the consensus information, our method also uses server-independent correlated mutation (CM) as one of the prediction features. Experimental results demonstrate that our contact prediction server performs better than the "majority voting" method. The accuracy of our method for the top L/5 contacts on CASP7 targets is 73.41%, which is much higher than previously reported studies. On the 16 free modeling (FM) targets, our method achieves an accuracy of 37.21%.

  10. Contact Printing of Arrayed Microstructures

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Luikart, Alicia M.; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    A novel contact printing method utilizing a sacrificial layer of polyacrylic acid (PAA) was developed to selectively modify the upper surfaces of arrayed microstructures. The method was characterized by printing polystyrene onto SU-8 microstructures to create an improved substrate for a cell-based microarray platform. Experiments measuring cell growth SU-8 arrays modified with polystyrene and fibronectin demonstrated improved growth of NIH 3T3 (93% vs. 38%), HeLa (97% vs. 77%), and HT1080 (76% vs. 20%) cells relative to that for the previously used coating method. In addition, use of the PAA sacrificial layer permitted the printing of functionalized polystyrene, carboxylate polystyrene nanospheres, and silica nanospheres onto the arrays in a facile manner. Finally, a high concentration of extracellular matrix materials (ECM), such as collagen (5 mg/mL) and gelatin (0.1%), was contact printed onto the array structures using as little as 5 μL of the ECM reagent and without the formation of a continuous film bridge across the microstructures. Murine embryonic stem cells cultured on arrays printed with this gelatin-hydrogel remained in an undifferentiated state indicating an adequate surface gelatin layer to maintain these cells over time. PMID:20425106

  11. Rolling Contact Fatigue of Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Wang, W.; Wang, Y.; Hadfield, M.; Kanematsu, W.; Kirkland, Timothy Philip; Jadaan, Osama M.

    2006-09-01

    High hardness, low coefficient of thermal expansion and high temperature capability are properties also suited to rolling element materials. Silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) has been found to have a good combination of properties suitable for these applications. However, much is still not known about rolling contact fatigue (RCF) behavior, which is fundamental information to assess the lifetime of the material. Additionally, there are several test techniques that are employed internationally whose measured RCF performances are often irreconcilable. Due to the lack of such information, some concern for the reliability of ceramic bearings still remains. This report surveys a variety of topics pertaining to RCF. Surface defects (cracks) in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and their propagation during RCF are discussed. Five methods to measure RCF are then briefly overviewed. Spalling, delamination, and rolling contact wear are discussed. Lastly, methods to destructively (e.g., C-sphere flexure strength testing) and non-destructively identify potential RCF-limiting flaws in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls are described.

  12. Contact dermatitis in printing tradesmen.

    PubMed

    Nethercott, J R; Nosal, R

    1986-05-01

    During a 2-year period in Toronto, Canada, 21 printing tradesmen with contact dermatitis were evaluated. 67% had allergic contact dermatitis; 29% due to ultraviolet-cured ink components. Irritant contact dermatitis accounted for 37% of the cases. The prognosis in printing tradesmen with contact dermatitis is guarded, except for those with allergic contact dermatitis due to UV-cured components, as the tradesmen who were sensitized to other contactants eventually left the trade. Offset lithography was associated with the problem in 18 of the 21 cases. A brief outline is given of the printing processes in common use.

  13. Superresolution imaging of nanoscale chromosome contacts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yejun; Ratna, Prasuna; Shivashankar, G. V.

    2017-01-01

    Co-expression of a specific group of genes requires physical associations among these genes, which form functional chromosomal contacts. While DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) pinpoints the localization of genes within the 3D nuclear architecture, direct evidence of physical chromosomal contacts is still lacking. Here, we report a method for the direct visualization of transcription-dependent chromosomal contacts formed in two distinct mechanical states of cells. We prepared open chromatin spreads from isolated nuclei, ensuring 2D rendering of chromosome organization. Superresolution imaging of these chromatin spreads resolved the nanoscale organization of genome contacts. We optimized our imaging method using chromatin spreads from serum+/− cells. We then showed direct visualization of functional gene clusters targeted by YAP (Yes-associated protein) and SRF (Serum response factor) transcription factors. In addition, we showed the association of NF-κB bound gene clusters induced by TNF-α addition. Furthermore, EpiTect ChIP qPCR results showed that these nanoscale clusters were enriched with corresponding transcription factors. Taken together, our method provides a robust platform to directly visualize and study specific genome-wide chromosomal contacts. PMID:28186153

  14. Superresolution imaging of nanoscale chromosome contacts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yejun; Ratna, Prasuna; Shivashankar, G V

    2017-02-10

    Co-expression of a specific group of genes requires physical associations among these genes, which form functional chromosomal contacts. While DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) pinpoints the localization of genes within the 3D nuclear architecture, direct evidence of physical chromosomal contacts is still lacking. Here, we report a method for the direct visualization of transcription-dependent chromosomal contacts formed in two distinct mechanical states of cells. We prepared open chromatin spreads from isolated nuclei, ensuring 2D rendering of chromosome organization. Superresolution imaging of these chromatin spreads resolved the nanoscale organization of genome contacts. We optimized our imaging method using chromatin spreads from serum+/- cells. We then showed direct visualization of functional gene clusters targeted by YAP (Yes-associated protein) and SRF (Serum response factor) transcription factors. In addition, we showed the association of NF-κB bound gene clusters induced by TNF-α addition. Furthermore, EpiTect ChIP qPCR results showed that these nanoscale clusters were enriched with corresponding transcription factors. Taken together, our method provides a robust platform to directly visualize and study specific genome-wide chromosomal contacts.

  15. Forensic Analysis of a Contact Lens in a Murder Case.

    PubMed

    Zwerling, Charles S

    2016-03-01

    Contact lenses have had rare relevance in trials and/or investigations. After 5 years of burial, orbital remnants were retrieved from an exhumed body and subsequently identified as a key piece of material evidence in a murder trial. The exhumed case materials were evaluated under laboratory conditions and were determined to be contact lens remnants. Contact lens fracture and burial simulation studies were performed to provide additional corroboration of the physical findings of the exhumed contact lens remnants. This material evidence was instrumental in providing factual proof refuting the defendant's testimony in the murder trial. A brief history of contact lens composition and use is provided for understanding the methods and observational results. This forensic case study represents the first published documentation of a contact lens from an exhumed body being used in a murder investigation and establishes an operational procedure for future forensic contact lens examinations.

  16. Study of dynamic contacts for graphene nano-electromechanical switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenzhen; Muruganathan, Manoharan; Kulothungan, Jothiramalingam; Mizuta, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    We study graphene–metal static contacts by fabricating the transmission line model (TLM) pattern on a graphene nanoribbon (GNR) and dynamic contacts by GNR nano-electromechanical (GNEM) switches with and without periodic concave patterns on the suspended top electrode. A negative contact resistance extracted from the results of TLM analysis is attributable to the inhomogeneity of GNRs owing to the doping from the metal and the substrate. All the dynamic contacts in GNEM switches show clear pull-in operations, which are not reversible. GNEM switches with periodic arrays of concave contacts show global pull-in onto the bottom surface of the concave and then exhibit local pull-in onto the slanted sidewall surfaces of the concave, which is confirmed by finite element method simulation. In addition, plastic deformation at the contact is observed as a result of the local pull-in failure mode, which completely hinders the GNRs from pulling out from the contact surface.

  17. Trends in Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph W.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the implications of the rapid, dramatic changes taking place in therapeutic recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The article notes the impact of changes in managed care, examines programming trends in therapeutic recreation (adventure/outdoor education, competitive sports, handcycling, health enhancement activities, and…

  18. Therapeutic Recreation Practicum Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneegas, Kay

    This manual provides information on the practicum program offered by Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) for students in its therapeutic recreation program. Sections I and II outline the rationale and goals for providing practical, on-the-job work experiences for therapeutic recreation students. Section III specifies MVCC's responsibilities…

  19. Chicanoizing the Therapeutic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, William S.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Focusing on the drug addiction problem and its antecedent conditions in a Chicano population, the article examines several therapeutic interventions suggested by these conditions and indicates how they might be incorporated into a drug addiction Therapeutic Community treatment program designed to meet the needs of Chicano drug addicts. (Author/NQ)

  20. Impact of Therapeutic Camping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shniderman, Craig M.

    1974-01-01

    There has been little interest in, and only slight illumination of, the impact of therapeutic camping for emotionally disturbed children. This study seeks to validate the belief that camping is therapeutic. Subjects were 52 boys, 5 to 11 1/2 years of age. Results support the hypothesis. (Author/HMV)

  1. Adhesive Contact Sweeper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Jonathan D.

    1993-01-01

    Adhesive contact sweeper removes hair and particles vacuum cleaner leaves behind, without stirring up dust. Also cleans loose rugs. Sweeper holds commercially available spools of inverted adhesive tape. Suitable for use in environments in which air kept free of dust; optics laboratories, computer rooms, and areas inhabited by people allergic to dust. For carpets, best used in tandem with vacuum cleaner; first pass with vacuum cleaner removes coarse particles, and second pass with sweeper extracts fine particles. This practice extends useful life of adhesive spools.

  2. Contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone*

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios; Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Andrade, Ana Regina Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Methylisothiazolinone (MI) is a preservative found in cosmetic and industrial products. Contact dermatitis caused by either methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI or Kathon CG) or MI has shown increasing frequency. The latter is preferably detected through epicutaneous testing with aqueous MI 2000 ppm, which is not included in the Brazilian standard tray. We describe a series of 23 patients tested using it and our standard tray. A case with negative reaction to MCI/MI and positive to MI is emphasized. PMID:26734880

  3. Contact Control, Version 1

    SciTech Connect

    von Sternberg, Alex

    2016-07-21

    The contact control code is a generalized force control scheme meant to interface with a robotic arm being controlled using the Robot Operating System (ROS). The code allows the user to specify a control scheme for each control dimension in a way that many different control task controllers could be built from the same generalized controller. The input to the code includes maximum velocity, maximum force, maximum displacement, and a control law assigned to each direction and the output is a 6 degree of freedom velocity command that is sent to the robot controller.

  4. Contact Lenses in the Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, David W.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes results of a three-item questionnaire returned by 43 Michigan institutions expressing views on wearing contact lenses in chemical laboratories. Questions focused on eye protection, type of protection, and use of contact lenses. (SK)

  5. Polyurethane toilet seat contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Turan, Hakan; Saricaoğlu, Hayriye; Turan, Ayşegül; Tunali, Sükran

    2011-01-01

    Polyurethane chemicals are produced by the reaction of isocyanates and they may cause allergic contact dermatitis or precipitate asthma attacks. Contact dermatitis to polyurethane toilet seat has not been reported before. Herein we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to polyurethane toilet seat.

  6. Contact position sensor using constant contact force control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturdevant, Jay (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A force control system (50) and method are provided for controlling a position contact sensor (10) so as to produce a constant controlled contact force therewith. The system (50) includes a contact position sensor (10) which has a contact probe (12) for contacting the surface of a target to be measured and an output signal (V.sub.o) for providing a position indication thereof. An actuator (30) is provided for controllably driving the contact position sensor (10) in response to an actuation control signal (I). A controller (52) receives the position indication signal (V.sub.o) and generates in response thereto the actuation control signal (I) so as to provide a substantially constant selective force (F) exerted by the contact probe (12). The actuation drive signal (I) is generated further in response to substantially linear approximation curves based on predetermined force and position data attained from the sensor (10) and the actuator (30).

  7. Dynamic contact angle analysis of silicone hydrogel contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Read, Michael Leonard; Morgan, Philip Bruce; Kelly, Jeremiah Michael; Maldonado-Codina, Carole

    2011-07-01

    Contact angle measurements are used to infer the clinical wetting characteristics of contact lenses. Such characterization has become more commonplace since the introduction of silicone hydrogel contact lens materials, which have been associated with reduced in vivo wetting due to the inclusion of siloxane-containing components. Using consistent methodology and a single investigator, advancing and receding contact angles were measured for 11 commercially available silicone hydrogel contact lens types with a dynamic captive bubble technique employing customized, fully automated image analysis. Advancing contact angles were found to range between 20° and 72° with the lenses falling into six statistically discrete groupings. Receding contact angles fell within a narrower range, between 17° and 22°, with the lenses segregated into three groups. The relationship between these laboratory measurements and the clinical performance of the lenses requires further investigation.

  8. Social contacts, vaccination decisions and influenza in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ibuka, Yoko; Ohkusa, Yasushi; Sugawara, Tamie; Chapman, Gretchen B; Yamin, Dan; Atkins, Katherine E; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Galvani, Alison P

    2016-01-01

    Background Contact patterns and vaccination decisions are fundamental to transmission dynamics of infectious diseases. We report on age-specific contact patterns in Japan and their effect on influenza vaccination behaviour. Methods Japanese adults (N=3146) were surveyed in Spring 2011 to assess the number of their social contacts within a 24 h period, defined as face-to-face conversations within 2 m, and gain insight into their influenza-related behaviour. We analysed the duration and location of contacts according to age. Additionally, we analysed the probability of vaccination and influenza infection in relation to the number of contacts controlling for individual's characteristics. Results The mean and median reported numbers of daily contacts were 15.3 and 12.0, respectively. School-aged children and young adults reported the greatest number of daily contacts, and individuals had the most contacts with those in the same age group. The age-specific contact patterns were different between men and women, and differed between weekdays and weekends. Children had fewer contacts between the same age groups during weekends than during weekdays, due to reduced contacts at school. The probability of vaccination increased with the number of contacts, controlling for age and household size. Influenza infection among unvaccinated individuals was higher than for those vaccinated, and increased with the number of contacts. Conclusions Contact patterns in Japan are age and gender specific. These contact patterns, as well as their interplay with vaccination decisions and infection risks, can help inform the parameterisation of mathematical models of disease transmission and the design of public health policies, to control disease transmission. PMID:26424846

  9. Clinical findings correlated with contact angles on rigid gas permeable contact lens surfaces in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, S; Benjamin, W J

    1989-08-01

    Functional wettability of daily wear rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses worn by 16 human subjects was monitored over a 4-month period during which wettability was also assessed with an equilibrium sessile-drop contact angle method in vivo. In all, 2,128 lens surface break-up time (LBUT) and in vivo contact angle data points were accumulated. Six hundred thirty-one associated graded evaluations of lens surface deposition and patient discomfort were also recorded. The four factors (LBUT, contact angle, deposition, and discomfort) were found to be correlated to each other, their paired values having statistically significant correlation coefficients. Contact angles were of predictive value for extremes of functional wettability, based on criterion of 20 degrees equivalent to an LBUT of 5 seconds. We confirm that surface deposition and subject discomfort are related to RGP lens wettability on the eye. In addition, the in vivo contact angle is perhaps the first contact angle measurement to be correlated with functional RGP wettability.

  10. Adhesion effects in contact interaction of solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryacheva, Irina; Makhovskaya, Yulya

    2008-01-01

    An approach to solving problems of the interaction of axisymmetric elastic bodies in the presence of adhesion is developed. The different natures of adhesion, i.e. capillary adhesion, or molecular adhesion described by the Lennard-Jones potential are examined. The effect of additional loading of the interacting bodies outside the contact zone is also investigated. The approach is based on the representation of the pressure outside the contact zone arising from adhesion by a step function. The analytical solution is obtained and is used to analyze the influence of the form of the adhesion interaction potential, of the surface energy of interacting bodies or the films covering the bodies, their shapes (parabolic, higher power exponential function), volume of liquid in the meniscus, density of contact spots, of elastic modulus and the Poisson ratio on the characteristics of the interaction of the bodies in the presence of adhesion. To cite this article: I. Goryacheva, Y. Makhovskaya, C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  11. Contact sensing from force measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bicchi, Antonio; Salisbury, J. K.; Brock, David L.

    1993-01-01

    This article addresses contact sensing (i.e., the problem of resolving the location of a contact, the force at the interface, and the moment about the contact normals). Called 'intrinsic' contact sensing for the use of internal force and torque measurements, this method allows for practical devices that provide simple, relevant contact information in practical robotic applications. Such sensors have been used in conjunction with robot hands to identify objects, determine surface friction, detect slip, augment grasp stability, measure object mass, probe surfaces, and control collision and for a variety of other useful tasks. This article describes the theoretical basis for their operation and provides a framework for future device design.

  12. The Micromechanics of the Moving Contact Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Minsub; Lichter, Seth; Lin, Chih-Yu; Perng, Yeong-Yan

    1996-01-01

    The proposed research is divided into three components concerned with molecular structure, molecular orientation, and continuum averages of discrete systems. In the experimental program, we propose exploring how changes in interfacial molecular structure generate contact line motion. Rather than rely on the electrostatic and electrokinetic fields arising from the molecules themselves, we augment their interactions by an imposed field at the solid/liquid interface. By controling the field, we can manipulate the molecular structure at the solid/liquid interface. In response to controlled changes in molecular structure, we observe the resultant contact line motion. In the analytical portion of the proposed research we seek to formulate a system of equations governing fluid motion which accounts for the orientation of fluid molecules. In preliminary work, we have focused on describing how molecular orientation affects the forces generated at the moving contact line. Ideally, as assumed above, the discrete behavior of molecules can be averaged into a continuum theory. In the numerical portion of the proposed research, we inquire whether the contact line region is, in fact, large enough to possess a well-defined average. Additionally, we ask what types of behavior distinguish discrete systems from continuum systems. Might the smallness of the contact line region, in itself, lead to behavior different from that in the bulk? Taken together, our proposed research seeks to identify and accurately account for some of the molecular dynamics of the moving contact line, and attempts to formulate a description from which one can compute the forces at the moving contact line.

  13. Contact Heterogeneity and Phylodynamics: How Contact Networks Shape Parasite Evolutionary Trees

    PubMed Central

    O'Dea, Eamon B.; Wilke, Claus O.

    2011-01-01

    The inference of population dynamics from molecular sequence data is becoming an important new method for the surveillance of infectious diseases. Here, we examine how heterogeneity in contact shapes the genealogies of parasitic agents. Using extensive simulations, we find that contact heterogeneity can have a strong effect on how the structure of genealogies reflects epidemiologically relevant quantities such as the proportion of a population that is infected. Comparing the simulations to BEAST reconstructions, we also find that contact heterogeneity can increase the number of sequence isolates required to estimate these quantities over the course of an epidemic. Our results suggest that data about contact-network structure will be required in addition to sequence data for accurate estimation of a parasitic agent's genealogy. We conclude that network models will be important for progress in this area. PMID:21151699

  14. Thermal contact conductance of packed beds in contact with a flat surface

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, G.P.; Fletcher, L.S. )

    1988-02-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the thermal contact conductance of packed beds of spherical particles in contact with flat surfaces. Beds comprised of four materials, Aluminum 2017-T4, Yellow Brass, Stainless Steel 304, and Chromium Alloy AISI 52100, all in contact with flat Stainless Steel 304, surfaces were evaluated in a vacuum environment, at a mean interface temperature of 66C. In addition to the experimental program, an analytical expression was developed by combining previous work performed by other investigators. The results of the experimental investigation are compared with the analytical expression and indicate that an accurate method of predicting the thermal contact conductance at the interface between beds of spherical particles and nominally flat surfaces has been identified.

  15. Contact Between Adoptive and Birth Families: Perspectives from the Minnesota Texas Adoption Research Project

    PubMed Central

    Grotevant, Harold D.; McRoy, Ruth G.; Wrobel, Gretchen M.; Ayers-Lopez, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of adoptive families have contact with their children’s birth relatives. The Minnesota Texas Adoption Research Project is examining longitudinally the consequences of variations in contact arrangements for birth mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children in domestic infant adoptions, and is studying the dynamics of relationships within these family systems. Individuals who had contact were more satisfied with their arrangements than those who did not have contact. Satisfaction with contact predicted more optimal adjustment among adopted adolescents and emerging adults. Adoption-related communication predicted identity development among adopted adolescents and emerging adults. Birth mothers who were more satisfied with their contact arrangements, regardless of level of contact, had less unresolved grief 12 to 20 years after placement. Adoptive and birth relatives who engage in contact need flexibility, strong interpersonal skills, and commitment to the relationship. These skills can be learned, and they can be supported by others, through informal, psychoeducational, and therapeutic means. PMID:23956791

  16. Impact of environmental conditions on the contact physics of gold contact RF microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Christopher John

    a function of time is related to the creep of gold asperities at the contact interface. The change in contact resistance over time can be described by a power law relation derived from the single asperity creep model that takes into account the surface topography, material characteristics, and contributions from additional sources such as adsorbed film layers. Additionally, it was shown that the creep mechanism was temperature dependent and that creep was significantly decreased at cryogenic temperatures. A drop in pressure as a result from cryogenic temperatures was observed to create switch bounce at closure. This was explored in a set of room temperature experiments which established the onset of bounce at 60 Torr. The results were and correlated to the damping coefficient and the ratio of the damping force to the electrostatic force of actuation. This work contributes to the field of contact physics and MEMS switch technology by firmly establishing the role of creep in contact mechanics and quantifying its time and temperature dependent impact on contact resistance.

  17. 47 CFR 95.117 - Where to contact the FCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Where to contact the FCC. 95.117 Section 95.117 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.117 Where to contact the FCC. Additional GMRS...

  18. 47 CFR 95.117 - Where to contact the FCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where to contact the FCC. 95.117 Section 95.117 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.117 Where to contact the FCC. Additional GMRS...

  19. 47 CFR 95.117 - Where to contact the FCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Where to contact the FCC. 95.117 Section 95.117 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.117 Where to contact the FCC. Additional GMRS...

  20. 47 CFR 95.117 - Where to contact the FCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where to contact the FCC. 95.117 Section 95.117 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.117 Where to contact the FCC. Additional GMRS...

  1. 47 CFR 95.117 - Where to contact the FCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Where to contact the FCC. 95.117 Section 95.117 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.117 Where to contact the FCC. Additional GMRS...

  2. Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?

    PubMed

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

    2014-04-01

    It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation.

  3. Point contacts in encapsulated graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Handschin, Clevin; Fülöp, Bálint; Csonka, Szabolcs; Makk, Péter; Blanter, Sofya; Weiss, Markus; Schönenberger, Christian; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2015-11-02

    We present a method to establish inner point contacts with dimensions as small as 100 nm on hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) encapsulated graphene heterostructures by pre-patterning the top-hBN in a separate step prior to dry-stacking. 2- and 4-terminal field effect measurements between different lead combinations are in qualitative agreement with an electrostatic model assuming point-like contacts. The measured contact resistances are 0.5–1.5 kΩ per contact, which is quite low for such small contacts. By applying a perpendicular magnetic field, an insulating behaviour in the quantum Hall regime was observed, as expected for inner contacts. The fabricated contacts are compatible with high mobility graphene structures and open up the field for the realization of several electron optical proposals.

  4. Contact sensitivity to preservatives in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Boyvat, Ayse; Akyol, Aynur; Gürgey, Erbak

    2005-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the frequency of contact sensitivity to 14 common preservatives among patients with contact dermatitis in Turkey. From 2000 to 2004, 308 patients with the diagnosis of contact dermatitis were patch tested in the Department of Dermatology, Ankara University School of Medicine. All patients were patch tested with European standard series. In addition to the four preservatives included in the standard series, patients were also tested with DMDM hydantoin, imidazolidinyl urea, bromonitropropane diol, diazolidinyl urea, thimerosal, propylene glycol, chlorocresol, chloroxylenol, methyldibromoglutaronitrile/phenoxyethanol (MDBGN/PE) and benzalkonium chloride. Out of the 308 patients suspected of having contact dermatitis, 23 patients were found to have positive reactions to one or more preservatives. Preservatives that were the most frequent cause of positive reactions were thimerosal (1.6%), benzalkonium chloride (1.6%), formaldehyde (1.3%) and MDBGN/PE (0.9%). In our study, 65% of the positive reactions were caused by allergens not present in the standard series, such as thimerosal, benzalkonium chloride and MDBGN/PE. Although thimerosal caused a high rate of contact sensitivity, it may not be considered as an important allergen, because clinical relevance could not be found in any of the patients.

  5. Electron Device Contact Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    resistance of the contact Barrier height (I-V or C-V method) I-V characteristic Auger spectroscopy analysis will be made in an attempt to relate the atomic ...in the n-type layer can be given as [20]. C(x) = Cs erfc (25) where D = diffusion coefficient of the dopant atom in GaAs t = time of diffusion Cs...tunneling, assuming a uniform doping of C givess 2cs (IT)I ! 2(12) (8.85) (10 -14) W u (.6)(oI)(loT B (0.9 - 0) W 3.5 x 10-6 cm. The actual Sn atom doping

  6. Contact allergy to dimethacrylate.

    PubMed

    Vaswani, Ravi; Kim, Soon Ja; Sanchez, Adrian; Vaswani, Surender

    2012-01-01

    Contact allergy to methacrylates is uncommon. We present a 55-year-old woman with a 10-year history of persistent pruritus and burning sensation of the gums every time she wore her dentures. Initially she developed swelling and erythema of the face soon after the dentures were placed on the gums. These symptoms abated after a barrier liner was applied between her gums and the dentures. However, the burning sensation and pruritus of the gums progressively worsened and she started to develop blisters on the gums. The skin allergen patch test was 3+ positive with erythema, edema, papules, ulceration, and pruritus for the denture component dimethacrylate. The diagnosis was supported by the patient's medical history, notably positive patch test, and complete amelioration of the symptoms upon cessation of dimethacrylate denture usage.

  7. Contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Santucci, B; Picardo, M; Iavarone, C; Trogolo, C

    1985-04-01

    A study was carried out on 50 workers in a floriculture centre to evaluate the incidence of contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria. 3 subjects gave positive reactions to aqueous and ethanolic extracts of cut flowers, stems and leaves. By column chromatography, the allergen was isolated and its chemical structure identified as 6-tuliposide A by proton magnetic resonance and carbon-13 magnetic resonance. Only 6-tuliposide A was isolated from cut flowers, and this gave positive reactions when patch tested at 0.01%; a-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone at 10(-5) (v/v) was positive in the same 3 subjects. Other lactones (gamma-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone, alantolactone, isoalantolactone) were negative at all concentrations used.

  8. Development of Low Cost Contacts to Silicon Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iles, P. A.; Tanner, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    Commercial electroless Cu solutions were used. Satisfactory adhesion (and fairly good cell performance) resulted from the use of thin layers of barrier metals such as Au, Cr or Pd. In these tests, photoresist masks were used to contact silicon P-type slices with diffused N+ and alloyed P+ surfaces; and electrolytic Cu solution was used to build up the contact thickness to provide good cell behavior. In addition some cells with evaporated Cr-Cu contacts were also made (along with evaporated Ti-Pd-Ag contacts as controls), with the intention of subjecting cells to gradually increasing heat-treatments, to determine whether Cu causes the cells to be inherently unstable.

  9. Occupational Airborne Contact Dermatitis From Proton Pump Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    DeKoven, Joel G; Yu, Ashley M

    2015-01-01

    Few published reports have described occupational contact dermatitis from proton pump inhibitor (PPI) exposure in the literature. We present an additional case of a 58-year-old male pharmaceutical worker with an occupational airborne allergic contact dermatitis to PPIs confirmed by patch testing. This is a novel report of workplace exposure to dexlansoprazole and esomeprazole PPIs with resultant clinical contact allergy and relevant positive patch test results to these 2 agents. A literature review of all previously reported cases of occupational contact dermatitis to PPI is summarized. The case also emphasizes the importance of even minute exposures when considering workplace accommodation.

  10. Wireless Measurement of Contact and Motion Between Contact Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2007-01-01

    This method uses a magnetic-field- response contact sensor that is designed to identify surface contact and motion between contact locations. The sensor has three components: (1) a capacitor-inductor circuit with two sets of electrical contact pads, (2) a capacitor with a set of electrical contact pads, and (3) an inductor with a set of electrical contact pads. A unique feature of this sensor is that it is inherently multifunctional. Information can be derived from analyzing such sensor response attributes as amplitude, frequency, and bandwidth. A change in one attribute can be due to a change in a physical property of a system. A change in another attribute can be due to another physical property, which has no relationship to the first one.

  11. Hysteresis during contact angles measurement.

    PubMed

    Diaz, M Elena; Fuentes, Javier; Cerro, Ramon L; Savage, Michael D

    2010-03-15

    A theory, based on the presence of an adsorbed film in the vicinity of the triple contact line, provides a molecular interpretation of intrinsic hysteresis during the measurement of static contact angles. Static contact angles are measured by placing a sessile drop on top of a flat solid surface. If the solid surface has not been previously in contact with a vapor phase saturated with the molecules of the liquid phase, the solid surface is free of adsorbed liquid molecules. In the absence of an adsorbed film, molecular forces configure an advancing contact angle larger than the static contact angle. After some time, due to an evaporation/adsorption process, the interface of the drop coexists with an adsorbed film of liquid molecules as part of the equilibrium configuration, denoted as the static contact angle. This equilibrium configuration is metastable because the droplet has a larger vapor pressure than the surrounding flat film. As the drop evaporates, the vapor/liquid interface contracts and the apparent contact line moves towards the center of the drop. During this process, the film left behind is thicker than the adsorbed film and molecular attraction results in a receding contact angle, smaller than the equilibrium contact angle.

  12. The impact of psychotherapist training and experience on posttermination contact.

    PubMed

    Jofen-Miller, Sarah; Fiori, Katherine L

    2017-03-01

    This study sought to enhance our understanding of posttermination contact, with a particular focus on the role of training and experience in shaping attitudes and behaviors with respect to the posttermination period. We collected anonymous online survey data related to attitudes, policies, and experience of posttermination contact from 144 licensed clinicians. Our sample was composed of an experienced group of clinicians, with 20.7 years in practice on average. Clinicians had a range of clinical orientations and ∼25% of respondents were from outside of the United States. Over 90% of the participants (130) endorsed having had some form of posttermination contact, and 25% (36) reported initiating posttermination contact with a past patient. Only 62 participants (43.4%) reported receiving graduate training related to posttermination contact, and those with graduate training were more likely to have an established posttermination policy that they reviewed with patients. In addition, recent graduates were more likely to report having had training on this topic than older graduates. In terms of attitudes, therapists were more likely to anticipate positive rather than negative consequences of posttermination contact for both patients and themselves, and the longer a therapist had been in practice the less likely they were to anticipate negative consequences of posttermination contact. Additionally, a clinician's contact with their own therapist made them more likely to anticipate positive consequences for both themselves and their patients. Given the ubiquity of posttermination contact, the posttermination period should be given more attention in training programs and research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Bioengineering Lantibiotics for Therapeutic Success

    PubMed Central

    Field, Des; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Ross, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    Several examples of highly modified antimicrobial peptides have been described. While many such peptides are non-ribosomally synthesized, ribosomally synthesized equivalents are being discovered with increased frequency. Of the latter group, the lantibiotics continue to attract most attention. In the present review, we discuss the implementation of in vivo and in vitro engineering systems to alter, and even enhance, the antimicrobial activity, antibacterial spectrum and physico-chemical properties, including heat stability, solubility, diffusion and protease resistance, of these compounds. Additionally, we discuss the potential applications of these lantibiotics for use as therapeutics. PMID:26640466

  14. Contact dermatitis: allergic and irritant.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cher-Han; Rasool, Sarah; Johnston, Graham A

    2014-01-01

    Facial contact dermatitis is frequently encountered in medical practice in both male and female patients. Identifying the underlying cause can be challenging, and the causative agent may be overlooked if it is not considered during the assessment of a patient. The two main types of contact dermatitis are irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The mechanisms and common causative agents vary for both ICD and ACD, but the clinical picture is often similar, particularly for chronic disease. Facial contact dermatitis can be successfully treated by avoiding the causative agent. In this review, we focus on the clinical assessment of a patient with facial contact dermatitis and the mechanisms of both ICD and ACD. Common causative agents, including emerging allergens, are discussed in detail, and suggestions are made regarding the management of patients with proven ICD or ACD of the face.

  15. Noise of sliding rough contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bot, Alain

    2017-01-01

    This article is a discussion about the origin of friction noise produced when rubbing solids having rough surfaces. We show that noise emerges from numerous impacts into the contact between antagonist asperities of surfaces. Prediction of sound sources reduces to a statistical problem of contact mechanics. On the other hand, contact is also responsible of dissipation of vibration. This leads to the paradoxical result that the noise may not be proportional to the number of sources.

  16. Point contact silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    A new type of silicon solar cell has been developed. It is called the point-contact cell because the metal semiconductor contacts are restricted to an array of small points on the back of the cell. The point contact cell has recently demonstrated 22 percent conversion efficiency at one sun and 27.5 percent at 100 suns under an AM1.5 spectrum.

  17. [Occlusal contact principles in prosthodontics].

    PubMed

    Wang, Meiqing

    2012-12-01

    The occlusion contact, which is engaged in many dental clinical scopes, is the primary subject in the field of dental occlusion. Prosthodontics is one of the fields that are involved in with this subject, including the static relation (the occlusal contacts in intercuspal occlusion) and the dynamic relation (such as that in chewing movement). Not only the restorations, but also the abutments, that have to be properly managed to obtain a harmony occlusal contact relationship.

  18. Method for forming metal contacts

    DOEpatents

    Reddington, Erik; Sutter, Thomas C; Bu, Lujia; Cannon, Alexandra; Habas, Susan E; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Ginley, David S; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2013-09-17

    Methods of forming metal contacts with metal inks in the manufacture of photovoltaic devices are disclosed. The metal inks are selectively deposited on semiconductor coatings by inkjet and aerosol apparatus. The composite is heated to selective temperatures where the metal inks burn through the coating to form an electrical contact with the semiconductor. Metal layers are then deposited on the electrical contacts by light induced or light assisted plating.

  19. Ohmic Contacts to Semiconducting Diamond

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    after approxi- mately 30 minutes. Analysis using Auger electron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction established the...adherent wire bonds. To test the contacts for bondability, 10-mil gold wires were bonded to the contacts by using an ultrasonic ball bonder. Pull-to...resistance of the ohmic contacts (reference 4). We have chosen to use the circular transmission line geometry and analysis first proposed by Reeves

  20. Numerical Simulation of Dynamic Contact Angles and Contact Lines in Multiphase Flows using Level Set Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendota, Premchand

    Many physical phenomena and industrial applications involve multiphase fluid flows and hence it is of high importance to be able to simulate various aspects of these flows accurately. The Dynamic Contact Angles (DCA) and the contact lines at the wall boundaries are a couple of such important aspects. In the past few decades, many mathematical models were developed for predicting the contact angles of the inter-face with the wall boundary under various flow conditions. These models are used to incorporate the physics of DCA and contact line motion in numerical simulations using various interface capturing/tracking techniques. In the current thesis, a simple approach to incorporate the static and dynamic contact angle boundary conditions using the level set method is developed and implemented in multiphase CFD codes, LIT (Level set Interface Tracking) (Herrmann (2008)) and NGA (flow solver) (Desjardins et al (2008)). Various DCA models and associated boundary conditions are reviewed. In addition, numerical aspects such as the occurrence of a stress singularity at the contact lines and grid convergence of macroscopic interface shape are dealt with in the context of the level set approach.

  1. Contact angle hysteresis on superhydrophobic stripes.

    PubMed

    Dubov, Alexander L; Mourran, Ahmed; Möller, Martin; Vinogradova, Olga I

    2014-08-21

    We study experimentally and discuss quantitatively the contact angle hysteresis on striped superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of a solid fraction, ϕS. It is shown that the receding regime is determined by a longitudinal sliding motion of the deformed contact line. Despite an anisotropy of the texture the receding contact angle remains isotropic, i.e., is practically the same in the longitudinal and transverse directions. The cosine of the receding angle grows nonlinearly with ϕS. To interpret this we develop a theoretical model, which shows that the value of the receding angle depends both on weak defects at smooth solid areas and on the strong defects due to the elastic energy of the deformed contact line, which scales as ϕS(2)lnϕS. The advancing contact angle was found to be anisotropic, except in a dilute regime, and its value is shown to be determined by the rolling motion of the drop. The cosine of the longitudinal advancing angle depends linearly on ϕS, but a satisfactory fit to the data can only be provided if we generalize the Cassie equation to account for weak defects. The cosine of the transverse advancing angle is much smaller and is maximized at ϕS ≃ 0.5. An explanation of its value can be obtained if we invoke an additional energy due to strong defects in this direction, which is shown to be caused by the adhesion of the drop on solid sectors and is proportional to ϕS(2). Finally, the contact angle hysteresis is found to be quite large and generally anisotropic, but it becomes isotropic when ϕS ≤ 0.2.

  2. Use of contact hypersensitivity in immunotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Descotes, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    The histopathological examination of lymphoid organs together with a T-dependent antibody (TDAR) assay are the primary components of preclinical immunotoxicity assessment. Additional testing including measurement of cellular immunity may be considered. Besides ex vivo lymphocyte proliferation assays, either delayed or contact hypersensitivity models can be used. Contact hypersensitivity testing is typically performed either in mice or in guinea pigs and is directly derived from classical models used for the detection of contact sensitizing chemicals. Whatever the selected model, it is comprised of a sensitizing phase where the animals are applied a strong contact sensitizer topically, then a rest phase, and finally an eliciting phase where sensitized animals are challenged topically with the same contact sensitizer.In mice, the ear-swelling test is the reference procedure in which mice are sensitized to the ear or shaved abdominal skin and then challenged on the ear. Ear swelling usually measured from ear thickness reflects a cell-mediated immune response. In guinea pigs, a strong sensitizer is applied on the shaved skin of the abdomen or the interscapular area. The sensitized animals are challenged on another area of the shaved abdomen, and the cell-mediated response is assessed semiquantitatively from the magnitude of induced erythema inconsistently associated with edema. Treatment or exposure with immunosuppressive chemicals can result in a significantly decreased ear swelling or skin reaction. Contact hypersensitivity models are seldom used nowadays in preclinical immunotoxicity testing, most likely because of the lack of standardization and extensive validation as well as their use being restricted to mice or guinea pigs.

  3. An electric contact method to measure contact state between stator and rotor in a traveling wave ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jianjun; Zhou, Tieying

    2003-09-01

    Performances of ultrasonic motor (USM) depend considerably on contact state between stator and rotor. To measure the contact state in a traveling wave ultrasonic motor (TWUSM), a special test method is necessary. This paper develops a new method named electric contact method to measure contact state of stator and rotor in traveling wave type USM. The effects of pre-load and exciting voltage (amplitude) of stator on contact state between stator and rotor are studied with this method. By a simulating tester of friction properties of TWUSM, the variations of stalling torque and no-load speed against the pre-load and the exciting voltage have been measured. The relative contact length that describes the contact characteristic of stator and rotor is proposed. The relation between the properties of TWUSM and the contact state of stator and rotor are presented. Additionally, according to a theoretical contact model of stator and rotor in TWUSM, the contact lengths at given conditions are calculated and compared with the experimental results.

  4. Electrical contact resistance in filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiang-Fa; Zhou, Zhengping; Zhou, Wang-Min

    2012-05-01

    Electrical contact resistance (ECR) influences the electrochemical performance of porous electrodes made of stacked discrete materials (e.g., carbon nanotubes, nanofibers, etc.) for use in supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries. This study establishes a simple elasticity-conductivity model for the ECR of filaments in adhesive contact. The elastic deformation and size of electrical contact zone of the filaments are determined by using an adhesive contact model of filaments, and the ECR of adhesive filaments is obtained in explicit form. Dependencies of the ECR upon the filament geometries, surface energy, and elasticity are examined.

  5. Ion Implanted Passivated Contacts for Interdigitated Back Contacted Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Young, David L.; Nemeth, William; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Reedy, Robert; Bateman, Nicholas; Stradins, Pauls

    2015-06-14

    We describe work towards an interdigitated back contacted (IBC) solar cell utilizing ion implanted, passivated contacts. Formation of electron and hole passivated contacts to n-type CZ wafers using tunneling SiO2 and ion implanted amorphous silicon (a-Si) are described. P and B were ion implanted into intrinsic amorphous Si films at several doses and energies. A series of post-implant anneals showed that the passivation quality improved with increasing annealing temperatures up to 900 degrees C. The recombination parameter, Jo, as measured by a Sinton lifetime tester, was Jo ~ 14 fA/cm2 for Si:P, and Jo ~ 56 fA/cm2 for Si:B contacts. The contact resistivity for the passivated contacts, as measured by TLM patterns, was 14 milliohm-cm2 for the n-type contact and 0.6 milliohm-cm2 for the p-type contact. These Jo and pcontact values are encouraging for forming IBC cells using ion implantation to spatially define dopants.

  6. Contact line and contact angle dynamics in superhydrophobic channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng; Kwok, Daniel Y

    2006-05-23

    The dynamics of the wetting and movement of a three-phase contact line confined between two superhydrophobic surfaces were studied using a mean-field free-energy lattice Boltzmann model. Principle features of superhydrophobic surfaces, such as trapped vapor/air between rough microstructures, high contact angles, reduced contact angle hysteresis, and low resistance to fluid flow, were all observed. Movement of the three-phase contact line over a well-patterned superhydrophobic surface displays a periodic stick-jump-slip behavior, while the dynamic contact angle changes accordingly from maximum to minimum. Two regimes were found for the flow velocity as a function of surface roughness and can be related directly to the balance between driving force and flow resistance. This work provides a better understanding of dynamic wetting and fluid flow behaviors over superhydrophobic surfaces and hence could be useful in related applications.

  7. Exubera. Inhale therapeutic systems.

    PubMed

    Bindra, Sanjit; Cefalu, William T

    2002-05-01

    Inhale, in colaboration with Pfizer and Aventis Pharma (formerly Hoechst Marion Roussel; HMR), is developing an insulin formulation utilizing its pulmonary delivery technology for macromolecules for the potential treatment of type I and II diabetes. By July 2001, the phase III program had been completed and the companies had begun to assemble data for MAA and NDA filings; however, it was already clear at this time that additional data might be required for filing. By December 2001, it had been decided that the NDA should include an increased level of controlled, long-term pulmonary safety data in diabetic patients and a major study was planned to be completed in 2002, with the NDA filed thereafter (during 2002). US-05997848 was issued to Inhale Therapeutic Systems in December 1999, and corresponds to WO-09524183, filed in February 1995. Equivalent applications have appeared to date in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Europe, Finland, Hungary, Japan, Norway, New Zealand, Poland and South Africa. This family of applications is specific to pulmonary delivery of insulin. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers gave this inhaled insulin a 60% probability of reaching market, with a possible launch date of 2001. The analysts estimated peak sales at $3 billion in 2011. In May 2000, Aventis predicted that estimated peak sales would be in excess of $1 billion. In February 2000, Merrill Lynch expected product launch in 2002 and predicted that it would be a multibillion-dollar product. Analysts Merril Lynch predicted, in September and November 2000, that the product would be launched by 2002, with sales in that year of e75 million, rising to euro 500 million in 2004. In April 2001, Merrill Lynch predicted that filing for this drug would occur in 2001. Following the report of the potential delay in regulatory filing, issued in July 2001, Deutsche Banc Alex Brown predicted a filing would take place in the fourth quarter of 2002 and launch would take place in the first

  8. Pluristem Therapeutics, Inc.

    PubMed

    Prather, William

    2008-01-01

    Pluristem Therapeutics, Inc., based in Haifa, Israel, is a regenerative, biotherapeutics Company dedicated to the commercialization of nonpersonalized (allogeneic) cell therapy products. The Company is expanding noncontroversial placental-derived mesenchymal stem cells via a proprietary 3D process, named PluriX, into therapeutics for a variety of degenerative, malignant and autoimmune disorders. Pluristem will be conducting Phase I trials in the USA with its first product, PLX-I, which addresses the global shortfall of matched tissue for bone marrow transplantation by improving the engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells contained in umbilical cord blood.

  9. Therapeutics for cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Shineman, Diana W; Salthouse, Timothy A; Launer, Lenore J; Hof, Patrick R; Bartzokis, George; Kleiman, Robin; Luine, Victoria; Buccafusco, Jerry J; Small, Gary W; Aisen, Paul S; Lowe, David A; Fillit, Howard M

    2010-04-01

    This review summarizes the scientific talks presented at the conference "Therapeutics for Cognitive Aging," hosted by the New York Academy of Sciences and the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation on May 15, 2009. Attended by scientists from industry and academia, as well as by a number of lay people-approximately 200 in all-the conference specifically tackled the many aspects of developing therapeutic interventions for cognitive impairment. Discussion also focused on how to define cognitive aging and whether it should be considered a treatable, tractable disease.

  10. DELIVERY OF THERAPEUTIC PROTEINS

    PubMed Central

    Pisal, Dipak S.; Kosloski, Matthew P.; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V.

    2009-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of protein therapeutics are limited by three interrelated pharmaceutical issues, in vitro and in vivo instability, immunogenicity and shorter half-lives. Novel drug modifications for overcoming these issues are under investigation and include covalent attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), polysialic acid, or glycolic acid, as well as developing new formulations containing nanoparticulate or colloidal systems (e.g. liposomes, polymeric microspheres, polymeric nanoparticles). Such strategies have the potential to develop as next generation protein therapeutics. This review includes a general discussion on these delivery approaches. PMID:20049941

  11. Therapeutic Antioxidant Medical Gas

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Atsunori; Sugimoto, Ryujiro; Billiar, Timothy R; McCurry, Kenneth R

    2009-01-01

    Medical gases are pharmaceutical gaseous molecules which offer solutions to medical needs and include traditional gases, such as oxygen and nitrous oxide, as well as gases with recently discovered roles as biological messenger molecules, such as carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and hydrogen sulphide. Medical gas therapy is a relatively unexplored field of medicine; however, a recent increasing in the number of publications on medical gas therapies clearly indicate that there are significant opportunities for use of gases as therapeutic tools for a variety of disease conditions. In this article, we review the recent advances in research on medical gases with antioxidant properties and discuss their clinical applications and therapeutic properties. PMID:19177183

  12. Molecular dynamics study of contact mechanics: contact area and interfacial separation from small to full contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chunyan; Persson, Bo

    2008-03-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study of the contact between a rigid solid with a randomly rough surface and an elastic block with a flat surface. We study the contact area and the interfacial separation from small contact (low load) to full contact (high load). For small load the contact area varies linearly with the load and the interfacial separation depends logarithmically on the load [1-4]. For high load the contact area approaches to the nominal contact area (i.e., complete contact), and the interfacial separation approaches to zero. The present results may be very important for soft solids, e.g., rubber, or for very smooth surfaces, where complete contact can be reached at moderate high loads without plastic deformation of the solids. References: [1] C. Yang and B.N.J. Persson, arXiv:0710.0276, (to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett.) [2] B.N.J. Persson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 125502 (2007) [3] L. Pei, S. Hyun, J.F. Molinari and M.O. Robbins, J. Mech. Phys. Sol. 53, 2385 (2005) [4] M. Benz, K.J. Rosenberg, E.J. Kramer and J.N. Israelachvili, J. Phy. Chem. B.110, 11884 (2006)

  13. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M.; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-10-01

    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young’s modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies.

  14. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M.; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-01-01

    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young’s modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies. PMID:27748361

  15. Forcing contact inhibition of locomotion.

    PubMed

    Roycroft, Alice; Mayor, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Contact inhibition of locomotion drives a variety of biological phenomenon, from cell dispersion to collective cell migration and cancer invasion. New imaging techniques have allowed contact inhibition of locomotion to be visualised in vivo for the first time, helping to elucidate some of the molecules and forces involved in this phenomenon.

  16. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens.

    PubMed

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F

    2016-10-17

    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young's modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies.

  17. Parameter and environmental influences on rigid contact lens wettability.

    PubMed

    Huff, J W; Egan, D J; Katich, M J

    1988-09-01

    The present investigation was designed to determine the effect of lens parameters and lens environment on measurements of contact angle. The sessile drop contact angle of saline on four rigid [polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and silicone/acrylate] contact lens materials was examined with a Ramé-Hart goniometer to determine how front surface radius, drop size, time after drop placement, humidity, and desiccation affect measurements of lens wettability in vitro. Contact angles of Silafocon A and PMMA were relatively uninfluenced by front surface radii between 7.7 and 8.85 and 7.3 to 8.8 mm, respectively. Contact angles of Pasifocon C and modified PMMA were slightly but significantly influenced by front surface radii between 6.4 and 7.5 mm. For drop volumes from 2 to 20 microliter, all materials yielded contact angles, which were unaffected by drop size. The contact angle of lenses stored in the hydrated or dehydrated state was not affected by chamber humidity between 31 and 76%. In the ranges tested, drop size, humidity, and hydration had no significant effect on the contact angle within 1 to 6 min after drop placement. In addition, surface scratches had no effect on lens wettability. The results suggest that goniometry on contact lens surfaces, for the most part, is uninfluenced by lens parameters and environmental conditions.

  18. [Persistent Perpetrator Contact in a Patient with Dissociative Identity Disorder].

    PubMed

    Tschöke, Stefan; Eisele, Frank; Steinert, Tilman

    2016-05-01

    The case of a young woman with still ongoing incest and forced prostitution is presented. The criteria for a dissociative identity disorder (DID) were met. Due to persistent contact to the perpetrator she was repeatedly revictimized. Based on the model of trauma-related dissociation we discuss to what extent she was capable of self-determined decision making as well as therapeutic consequences resulting therefrom.

  19. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  20. Developing Therapeutic Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy; Prior, Seamus

    2013-01-01

    We present an experience-near account of the development of therapeutic listening in first year counselling students. A phenomenological approach was employed to articulate the trainees' lived experiences of their learning. Six students who had just completed a one-year postgraduate certificate in counselling skills were interviewed and the…

  1. Measuring Therapeutic Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callister, Sheldon L.

    In the recent past, there has been a great deal of effort directed toward developing techniques for documenting therapeutic outcome. Funding sources and the general public seem to be demanding more meaningful data which indicate, in a clear manner, whether or not the services they are paying for are of value. Mental health centers, like other…

  2. Antibody Therapeutics in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Wold, Erik D; Smider, Vaughn V; Felding, Brunhilde H

    2016-01-01

    One of the newer classes of targeted cancer therapeutics is monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibody therapeutics are a successful and rapidly expanding drug class due to their high specificity, activity, favourable pharmacokinetics, and standardized manufacturing processes. Antibodies are capable of recruiting the immune system to attack cancer cells through complement-dependent cytotoxicity or antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In an ideal scenario the initial tumor cell destruction induced by administration of a therapeutic antibody can result in uptake of tumor associated antigens by antigen-presenting cells, establishing a prolonged memory effect. Mechanisms of direct tumor cell killing by antibodies include antibody recognition of cell surface bound enzymes to neutralize enzyme activity and signaling, or induction of receptor agonist or antagonist activity. Both approaches result in cellular apoptosis. In another and very direct approach, antibodies are used to deliver drugs to target cells and cause cell death. Such antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) direct cytotoxic compounds to tumor cells, after selective binding to cell surface antigens, internalization, and intracellular drug release. Efficacy and safety of ADCs for cancer therapy has recently been greatly advanced based on innovative approaches for site-specific drug conjugation to the antibody structure. This technology enabled rational optimization of function and pharmacokinetics of the resulting conjugates, and is now beginning to yield therapeutics with defined, uniform molecular characteristics, and unprecedented promise to advance cancer treatment. PMID:27081677

  3. Characterizing the microscopic physics near moving contact lines using dynamic contact angle data.

    PubMed

    Ramé, E; Garoff, S; Willson, K R

    2004-09-01

    Directly probing the fluid flow and liquid-vapor interface shape in the microscopic immediate vicinity of the moving contact line can only be accomplished in very specific and isolated cases. Yet this physics is critical to macroscopic dynamic wetting. Here we examine the microscopic (or inner) physics of spreading silicone fluids using data of macroscopic dynamic contact angle versus Capillary number Ca=U mu/sigma. This dynamic contact angle is precisely defined so that it can be related back to the microscopic behavior through detailed theory. Our results indicate that the parameters describing the inner region have a detectable dependence on spreading velocity when this velocity exceeds a critical value. This dependence is not scaled (i.e., the data are not collapsed) by Ca, which suggests that an additional time scale must be present in the model of the inner region.

  4. 48 CFR 1603.7002 - Additional guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 1603.7002 Section 1603.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising 1603.7002 Additional guidelines. Any... employee and need forms, contact the Office of Personnel Management at P.O. Box 809, Washington, DC 20044....

  5. 48 CFR 1603.7002 - Additional guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... 1603.7002 Section 1603.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising 1603.7002 Additional guidelines. Any... Federal employee and need forms, contact the Office of Personnel Management at P.O. Box 809,...

  6. 75 FR 51444 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ..., CT. Contracting Activity: Department of Defense, Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA), Boston... 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, Virginia 22202-3259. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 6/4/2010 (75 FR 31768-31769); 6/11/2010 (75 FR 33270-33271); 6/...

  7. Wraparound-contact solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, C. R.; Klucher, T. M.; Thornhill, J. W.; Scott-Monck, J.

    1979-01-01

    Positive and negative electrical contacts are on back surface of wraparound-contact solar cell. With both terminals on nonilluminated side, cells can be connected back-to-back, and interconnection of many cells can be automated by using printed-circuit techniques. Cells are made by screen-printing layer of dielectric around edge of cell and extending top contact over dielectric to back surface. Wraparound also facilitates application of transparent covers and encapsulants. Efficiencies of cells are in excess of seventeen percent.

  8. Wheel/rail contact geometry assessment to limit rolling contact fatigue initiation at high axle loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhling, Robert; Spangenberg, Ulrich; Hettasch, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Rolling contact fatigue on any railway system has a significant impact on the safety and efficiency of the operation. This is especially true for heavy haul railways where higher axle loads and demands for higher throughput have, over the years, challenged the limits within the wheel/rail interface. The objective of this paper is to present a methodology to manage this stress state using a detailed wheel/rail contact stress analysis. Based on the results of recent wheel profile and rail profile surveys, a kinematic wheel/rail contact analysis is performed to identify and eliminate profiles that cause high stresses. The results show that the current hollow wear criterion is effective, but that an alternative or additional criterion based on the gauge side false flange gradient or the calculated peak contact stress values can further reduce the stress state. Within the wheel and rail profile combinations investigated, the contact stresses were largely independent of the transverse profile of the high rail.

  9. Contact Pressure and Shear Stress Analysis on Conforming Contact Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Haruo; Imou, Akitoshi

    Two methods to solve a conforming contact problem are proposed. First method is general and can be applicable to the contact case between elastic arbitrary shape bodies. For verification FEA is performed on the convex-concave sphere contact, and the result of this method is well corresponding to the FEA result. However, the accuracy deteriorates when the mesh aspect ratio is extremely large. This phenomenon is caused by the usage of numerical integration for the calculation of influence coefficient. The second method is devised to avoid this problem, while this improved method is applicable only to the case when the contact area can be considered to be on a cylinder surface. By using this method, the contact pressure can be obtained without the deterioration even in the case of edge load occurring between ball bearing race shoulder and ball. The results of the contact pressure and the shear stress that is necessary for bearing life estimation are compared with the FEA result, which showed well correspondence.

  10. Gallate Contact Dermatitis: Systematic Review and Product Update.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, Zachary E; Van Noord, Megan G; Atwater, Amber Reck

    2017-02-06

    Allergic contact dermatitis related to cosmetic use can result from allergens not routinely evaluated by standard patch test protocols. Propyl, octyl, and dodecyl gallates are commonly used as antioxidant preservatives with reports of associated allergic contact dermatitis in the literature. The objectives of this review were to investigate the role of gallates in allergic contact dermatitis and to explore products containing these preservatives. A systematic review of the literature through April 2016 was performed to explore cases of reported gallate allergy. Food and cosmetic product databases were searched for products containing gallates. Seventy-four cases of gallate contact allergy have been reported. In addition, a variety of commercially available cosmetic products and foods contain gallate chemicals. Propyl gallate is the most commonly reported gallate contact allergen and often causes facial and/or hand dermatitis.

  11. Molecular memory with atomically smooth graphene contacts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report the use of bilayer graphene as an atomically smooth contact for nanoscale devices. A two-terminal bucky-ball (C60) based molecular memory is fabricated with bilayer graphene as a contact on the polycrystalline nickel electrode. Graphene provides an atomically smooth covering over an otherwise rough metal surface. The use of graphene additionally prohibits the electromigration of nickel into the C60 layer. The devices exhibit a low-resistance state in the first sweep cycle and irreversibly switch to a high-resistance state at 0.8 to 1.2 V bias. In the subsequent cycles, the devices retain the high-resistance state, thus making it write-once read-many memory. PMID:24225345

  12. Direct-Write Contacts for Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kaydanova, T.; van Hest, M.F.A.M.; Miedaner, A.; Curtis, C. J.; Alleman, J. L.; Dabney, M. S.; Garnett, E.; Shaheen, S.; Ginley, D. S.; Smith, L.; Collins, R.; Hanoka, J. I.; Gabor, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    We report on our project to develop inkjet printable contacts for solar cells. Ag, Cu, and Ni metallizations were inkjet printed with near vacuum deposition quality. Thick, highly conducting lines of Ag and Cu demonstrating good adhesion to glass, Si, and PCB have been printed at 100-200 C in air and N2, respectively. Ag grids were inkjet-printed on Si solar cells and fired through silicon nitride AR layer at 850 C resulting in 8% cells. Next-generation multicomponent inks (including etching agents) have also been developed with improved fire-through contacts leading to higher cell efficiencies. The approach developed can be easily extended to other conductors such as Pt, Pd, and Au, etc. In addition, PEDOT-PSS polymer-based conductors were inkjet-printed with the conductivity as good or better than those of polymer-based conductors.

  13. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler

    DOEpatents

    Rapier, Pascal M.

    1982-01-01

    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carry-over through the turbine causes corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  14. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler

    DOEpatents

    Rapier, P.M.

    1979-12-27

    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carryover through the turbine causing corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  15. Multistage vector (MSV) therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Joy; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro

    2015-12-10

    One of the greatest challenges in the field of medicine is obtaining controlled distribution of systemically administered therapeutic agents within the body. Indeed, biological barriers such as physical compartmentalization, pressure gradients, and excretion pathways adversely affect localized delivery of drugs to pathological tissue. The diverse nature of these barriers requires the use of multifunctional drug delivery vehicles that can overcome a wide range of sequential obstacles. In this review, we explore the role of multifunctionality in nanomedicine by primarily focusing on multistage vectors (MSVs). The MSV is an example of a promising therapeutic platform that incorporates several components, including a microparticle, nanoparticles, and small molecules. In particular, these components are activated in a sequential manner in order to successively address transport barriers.

  16. Multistage vector (MSV) therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Wolfram, Joy; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in the field of medicine is obtaining controlled distribution of systemically administered therapeutic agents within the body. Indeed, biological barriers such as physical compartmentalization, pressure gradients, and excretion pathways adversely affect localized delivery of drugs to pathological tissue. The diverse nature of these barriers requires the use of multifunctional drug delivery vehicles that can overcome a wide range of sequential obstacles. In this review, we explore the role of multifunctionality in nanomedicine by primarily focusing on multistage vectors (MSVs). The MSV is an example of a promising therapeutic platform that incorporates several components, including a microparticle, nanoparticles, and small molecules. In particular, these components are activated in a sequential manner in order to successively address transport barriers. PMID:26264836

  17. Platelet-delivered therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lyde, R; Sabatino, D; Sullivan, S K; Poncz, M

    2015-06-01

    We have proposed that modified platelets could potentially be used to correct intrinsic platelet defects as well as for targeted delivery of therapeutic molecules to sights of vascular injury. Ectopic expression of proteins within α-granules prior to platelet activation has been achieved for several proteins, including urokinase, factor (F) VIII, and partially for FIX. Potential uses of platelet-directed therapeutics will be discussed, focusing on targeted delivery of urokinase as a thromboprophylactic agent and FVIII for the treatment of hemophilia A patients with intractable inhibitors. This presentation will discuss new strategies that may be useful in the care of patients with vascular injury as well as remaining challenges and limitations of these approaches.

  18. Therapeutic cancer vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Melief, Cornelis J.M.; van Hall, Thorbald; Arens, Ramon; Ossendorp, Ferry; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.

    2015-01-01

    The clinical benefit of therapeutic cancer vaccines has been established. Whereas regression of lesions was shown for premalignant lesions caused by HPV, clinical benefit in cancer patients was mostly noted as prolonged survival. Suboptimal vaccine design and an immunosuppressive cancer microenvironment are the root causes of the lack of cancer eradication. Effective cancer vaccines deliver concentrated antigen to both HLA class I and II molecules of DCs, promoting both CD4 and CD8 T cell responses. Optimal vaccine platforms include DNA and RNA vaccines and synthetic long peptides. Antigens of choice include mutant sequences, selected cancer testis antigens, and viral antigens. Drugs or physical treatments can mitigate the immunosuppressive cancer microenvironment and include chemotherapeutics, radiation, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitors, inhibitors of T cell checkpoints, agonists of selected TNF receptor family members, and inhibitors of undesirable cytokines. The specificity of therapeutic vaccination combined with such immunomodulation offers an attractive avenue for the development of future cancer therapies. PMID:26214521

  19. Class Racial Composition, the Friendliness of Interracial Contact and Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patchen, Martin; And Others

    This paper presents further evidence bearing on the hypothesis that the academic performance of students is associated more closely with the friendliness or unfriendliness of interracial contact than with the sheer opportunity for interracial contact. In addition, evidence is presented concerning the relationship of interracial contact and of…

  20. 77 FR 47361 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    .... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test...@doc.gov ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information or copies of the..., mail and in person interview. The Census Bureau seeks to explore alternative modes of contact...

  1. 77 FR 41370 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    .... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test...@doc.gov ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information or copies of the..., mail and in person interview. The Census Bureau seeks to explore alternative modes of contact...

  2. 78 FR 58608 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for the EFTPS Primary Contact Information Change Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for the EFTPS Primary Contact Information... the EFTPS Primary Contact Information Change Form. DATES: Written comments should be received on or.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information or copies of the form...

  3. 75 FR 61245 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for the EFTPS Primary Contact Information Change Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for the EFTPS Primary Contact Information... the EFTPS Primary Contact Information Change Form. DATES: Written comments should be received on or.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information or copies of the form...

  4. Harnessing telomerase in cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Fakhoury, Johans; Nimmo, Graeme A M; Autexier, Chantal

    2007-07-01

    Telomerase is an attractive target for anti-cancer therapeutics due to its requirement for cellular immortalization and expression in greater than 85% of human neoplasms. Though initially promising, strategies that inhibit telomerase with either small molecules or antisense oligonucleotides have a major limitation, namely the lag time required for telomere shortening before cellular effects are attained. As alternative approaches, immunotherapy and gene therapy have been tailored to exploit, rather than antagonize telomerase expression and/or activity. Immunotherapy requires the presence of the catalytic subunit of telomerase, hTERT, to elicit an immune response directed towards hTERT peptide-presenting cells. hTERT promoter-driven gene therapy and mutant telomerase RNA (hTR) gene therapy depend on the innate telomerase activity of cancer cells to drive the expression of pro-apoptotic genes and to synthesize mutated DNA sequences onto telomeres, respectively. In addition, we will discuss telomestatin, a G-quadruplex binding ligand that may exert anti-proliferative effects independently of telomere shortening. In this review, the progress, advantages, and limitations of these strategies in the ongoing effort to develop clinically relevant telomerase-based cancer therapeutics will be examined.

  5. Therapeutic Robotics: A Technology Push

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Hermano Igo; Hogan, Neville

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a retrospective and chronological review of our efforts to revolutionize the way physical medicine is practiced by developing and deploying therapeutic robots. We present a sample of our clinical results with well over 300 stroke patients, both inpatients and outpatients, proving that movement therapy has a measurable and significant impact on recovery following brain injury. Bolstered by this result, we embarked on a two-pronged approach: 1) to determine what constitutes best therapy practice and 2) to develop additional therapeutic robots. We review our robots developed over the past 15 years and their unique characteristics. All are configured both to deliver reproducible therapy but also to measure outcomes with minimal encumbrance, thus providing critical measurement tools to help unravel the key question posed under the first prong: what constitutes “best practice”? We believe that a “gym” of robots like these will become a central feature of physical medicine and the rehabilitation clinic within the next ten years. PMID:19779587

  6. Antioxidant therapeutics for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Ravinder; Reddy, Rajiv

    2011-10-01

    Pharmaceutical treatment for millions worldwide who have schizophrenia is limited to a handful of antipsychotics. Despite the proven efficacy of these drugs, the overall outcome for schizophrenia remains suboptimal. Thus, alternative treatment options are urgently needed. One possible approach may be antioxidant therapy. The extant evidence for the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia offers a hypothesis-derived therapeutic approach in the form of antioxidants. Vitamins C and E, for example, are suitable for human clinical trials because they are readily available, inexpensive, and relatively safe. Research into the therapeutic use of antioxidants in schizophrenia can be grouped into two main clusters: for psychopathology and for side effects. Of these studies, some have been carefully conducted, but majority are open label. Use of antioxidants for treatment-related side effects has been more extensively investigated. The totality of the evidence to date suggests that specific antioxidants, such as N-acetyl cysteine, may offer tangible benefits for the clinical syndrome of schizophrenia, and vitamin E may offer salutary effects on glycemic effects of antipsychotics. However, a great deal of fundamental clinical research remains to be done before antioxidants can be routinely used therapeutically for schizophrenia and treatment-related complications.

  7. Polycyclic peptide therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Baeriswyl, Vanessa; Heinis, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Owing to their excellent binding properties, high stability, and low off-target toxicity, polycyclic peptides are an attractive molecule format for the development of therapeutics. Currently, only a handful of polycyclic peptides are used in the clinic; examples include the antibiotic vancomycin, the anticancer drugs actinomycin D and romidepsin, and the analgesic agent ziconotide. All clinically used polycyclic peptide drugs are derived from natural sources, such as soil bacteria in the case of vancomycin, actinomycin D and romidepsin, or the venom of a fish-hunting coil snail in the case of ziconotide. Unfortunately, nature provides peptide macrocyclic ligands for only a small fraction of therapeutic targets. For the generation of ligands of targets of choice, researchers have inserted artificial binding sites into natural polycyclic peptide scaffolds, such as cystine knot proteins, using rational design or directed evolution approaches. More recently, large combinatorial libraries of genetically encoded bicyclic peptides have been generated de novo and screened by phage display. In this Minireview, the properties of existing polycyclic peptide drugs are discussed and related to their interesting molecular architectures. Furthermore, technologies that allow the development of unnatural polycyclic peptide ligands are discussed. Recent application of these technologies has generated promising results, suggesting that polycyclic peptide therapeutics could potentially be developed for a broad range of diseases.

  8. Therapeutic antibody engineering

    PubMed Central

    Parren, Paul W.H.I.; Lugovskoy, Alexey A.

    2013-01-01

    It is an important event in any knowledge area when an authority in the field decides that it is time to share all accumulated knowledge and learnings by writing a text book. This does not occur often in the biopharmaceutical industry, likely due to both the highly dynamic environment with tight timelines and policies and procedures at many pharmaceutical companies that hamper knowledge sharing. To take on a task like this successfully, a strong drive combined with a desire and talent to teach, but also an accommodating and stimulating environment is required. Luckily for those interested in therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, Dr. William R. Strohl decided about two years ago that the time was right to write a book about the past, present and future of these fascinating molecules. Dr. Strohl’s great expertise and passion for biotechnology is evident from his life story and his strong academic and industry track record. Dr. Strohl pioneered natural product biotechnology, first in academia as a full professor of microbiology and biochemistry at Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio and later in industry while at Merck. Despite his notable advances in recombinant natural products, industry interest in this area waned and in 2001 Dr. Strohl sought new opportunities by entering the field of antibody therapeutics. He initiated antibody discovery through phage display at Merck, and then moved to Centocor Research and Development Inc. (now Janssen Biotech, Inc.) in 2008 to head Biologics Research, where he now directs the discovery of innovative therapeutic antibody candidates.

  9. EPA Alternative Dispute Resolution Contacts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The success of EPA's ADR efforts depends on a network of talented and experienced professionals in Headquarters offices and EPA Regions. For Agency-wide ADR information, please contact the Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center.

  10. Transition metal contacts to graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Politou, Maria De Gendt, Stefan; Heyns, Marc; Asselberghs, Inge; Radu, Iuliana; Conard, Thierry; Richard, Olivier; Martens, Koen; Huyghebaert, Cedric; Tokei, Zsolt; Lee, Chang Seung; Sayan, Safak

    2015-10-12

    Achieving low resistance contacts to graphene is a common concern for graphene device performance and hybrid graphene/metal interconnects. In this work, we have used the circular Transfer Length Method (cTLM) to electrically characterize Ag, Au, Ni, Ti, and Pd as contact metals to graphene. The consistency of the obtained results was verified with the characterization of up to 72 cTLM structures per metal. Within our study, the noble metals Au, Ag and Pd, which form a weaker bond with graphene, are shown to result in lower contact resistance (Rc) values compared to the more reactive Ni and Ti. X-ray Photo Electron Spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization for the latter have shown the formation of Ti and Ni carbides. Graphene/Pd contacts show a distinct intermediate behavior. The weak carbide formation signature and the low Rc values measured agree with theoretical predictions of an intermediate state of weak chemisorption of Pd on graphene.

  11. Racial Disparity in Police Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Crutchfield, Robert D.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn, Anne; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Criminologists agree the race disparity in arrests cannot be fully explained by differences in criminal behavior. We examine social environment factors that may lead to racial differences in police contact in early adolescence, including family, peers, school, and community. Data are from 331 8th-grade students. Blacks were almost twice as likely as Whites to report a police contact. Blacks reported more property crime but not more violent crime than Whites. Police contacts were increased by having a parent who had been arrested, a sibling involved in criminal activity, higher observed reward for negative behavior, having school disciplinary actions, and knowing adults who engaged in substance abuse or criminal behavior. Race differences in police contacts were partially attributable to more school discipline. PMID:24363956

  12. From hygrophilic to superhygrophobic: theoretical conditions for making high-contact-angle surfaces from low-contact-angle materials.

    PubMed

    Marmur, Abraham

    2008-07-15

    The possibility of making high-contact-angle, rough surfaces from low-contact-angle materials has recently been suggested and demonstrated. A thermodynamic analysis of this possibility in terms of feasibility and stability is presented. It turns out that only roughness topographies that conform to a feasibility condition which is developed in the present paper can support this phenomenon. Even under conditions that support the phenomenon, the high-contact-angle state may not be stable, and transition from the heterogeneous (Cassie-Baxter) wetting regime to the homogeneous (Wenzel) regime with a lower contact angle may occur. In addition, it is suggested to use the general terms hygrophilic and hygrophobic (based on the Greek prefix hygro- that means liquid) to describe low- and high-contact-angle surfaces, respectively.

  13. Pose and motion from contact

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Y.B.; Erdmann, M.

    1999-05-01

    In the absence of vision, grasping an object often relies on tactile feedback from the fingertips. As the finger pushes the object, the fingertip can feel the contact point move. If the object is known in advance, from this motion the finger may infer the location of the contact point on the object, and thereby, the object pose. This paper primarily investigates the problem of determining the pose (orientation and position) and motion (velocity and angular velocity) of a planar object with known geometry from such contact motion generated by pushing. A dynamic analysis of pushing yields a nonlinear system that relates through contact the object pose and motion to the finger motion. The contact motion on the fingertip thus encodes certain information about the object pose. Nonlinear observability theory is employed to show that such information is sufficient for the finger to observe not only the pose, but also the motion of the object. Therefore, a sensing strategy can be realized as an observer of the nonlinear dynamic system. Two observers are subsequently introduced. The first observer, based on the work of Gautheir, Hammouri, and Othman (1992), has its gain determined by the solution of a Lyapunov-like equation; it can be activated at any time instant during a push. The second observer, based on Newton`s method, solves for the initial (motionless) object pose from three intermediate contact points during a push. Under the Coulomb-friction model, the paper deals with support friction in the plane and/or contact friction between the finger and the object. Extensive simulations have been done to demonstrate the feasibility of the two observers. Preliminary experiments (with an Adept robot) have also been conducted. A contact sensor has been implemented using strain gauges.

  14. Method for lubricating contacting surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Dugger, Michael T [Tijeras, NM; Ohlhausen, James A [Albuquerque, NM; Asay, David B [Boalsburg, PA; Kim, Seong H [State College, PA

    2011-12-06

    A method is provided for tribological lubrication of sliding contact surfaces, where two surfaces are in contact and in motion relative to each other, operating in a vapor-phase environment containing at least one alcohol compound at a concentration sufficiently high to provide one monolayer of coverage on at least one of the surfaces, where the alcohol compound continuously reacts at the surface to provide lubrication.

  15. Control of mechanical systems with rolling contacts: Applications to robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Nilanjan

    1993-01-01

    The problems of modeling and control of mechanical dynamic systems subject to rolling contacts are investigated. There are two important theoretical contributions in this dissertation. First, contact kinematic relationships up to second order are developed for two rigid bodies in point contact. These equations relate gross rigid body motion to the changes in the positions of the points of contact. Second, a unified approach to the control of mechanical systems subject to both holonomic and nonholonomic constraints is proposed. The basic approach is to extend the state-space to include, in the addition to the generalized coordinates and velocities, contact coordinates which describe the displacements of the contact points and their derivatives. This redundant state-space formulation provides a convenient way to specify output equations to control contact motion. The control problem is formulated as an affine nonlinear problem and a differential-geometric, control-theoretic approach is used to decouple and linearize such systems. It is shown that such a system, even though not input-state linearizable, is input-output linearizable. Further, the zero dynamics of such a system is shown to be Lagrange stable. The proposed methodology is applied to three different robotic systems: (1) wheeled mobile robots; (2) two arms manipulating an object with rolling contact between each arm and the object; and (3) a single robot arm maintaining controlled contact against a moving environment. In each case, a nonlinear controller is designed to achieve the desired performances. For mobile robots, a new control algorithm called dynamic path following is proposed and shown to be quite effective and robust. In the context of two arm manipulation, grasp adaptation through the control of contact motion is demonstrated. Maintaining rolling contact with a moving surface is formulated as an acatastatic system. The proposed scheme involves simultaneously controlling interaction forces as

  16. Contact interaction in an unitary ultracold Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Pessoa, Renato; Gandolfi, Stefano; Vitiello, S. A.; Schmidt, Kevin E.

    2015-12-16

    An ultracold Fermi atomic gas at unitarity presents universal properties that in the dilute limit can be well described by a contact interaction. By employing a guiding function with correct boundary conditions and making simple modifications to the sampling procedure we are able to calculate the properties of a true contact interaction with the diffusion Monte Carlo method. The results are obtained with small variances. Our calculations for the Bertsch and contact parameters are in excellent agreement with published experiments. The possibility of using a more faithful description of ultracold atomic gases can help uncover additional features of ultracold atomic gases. In addition, this work paves the way to perform quantum Monte Carlo calculations for other systems interacting with contact interactions, where the description using potentials with finite effective range might not be accurate.

  17. Contact interaction in an unitary ultracold Fermi gas

    DOE PAGES

    Pessoa, Renato; Gandolfi, Stefano; Vitiello, S. A.; ...

    2015-12-16

    An ultracold Fermi atomic gas at unitarity presents universal properties that in the dilute limit can be well described by a contact interaction. By employing a guiding function with correct boundary conditions and making simple modifications to the sampling procedure we are able to calculate the properties of a true contact interaction with the diffusion Monte Carlo method. The results are obtained with small variances. Our calculations for the Bertsch and contact parameters are in excellent agreement with published experiments. The possibility of using a more faithful description of ultracold atomic gases can help uncover additional features of ultracold atomicmore » gases. In addition, this work paves the way to perform quantum Monte Carlo calculations for other systems interacting with contact interactions, where the description using potentials with finite effective range might not be accurate.« less

  18. [Contact lens care and maintenance].

    PubMed

    Bloise, L

    2017-03-29

    All contact lenses with replacement schedules longer than daily must be maintained. At each step of their use, the lenses may be contaminated. Contact lens solutions perform the essential functions of cleaning, decontaminating and preserving the lenses to prevent infectious problems and improve wearing comfort. Contact lens contamination essentially comes from hands, cleaning solutions, cases, water and the environment. The pathogenic microorganisms are mainly Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and amoebae. Contact lens deposits may or may not have an organic origin. Their presence increases the risk of infection because they serve as a nutrient matrix for microbes, and they are responsible for wearing discomfort. Contact lens solutions differ in their composition, their mechanism of action and the concentration of the various agents. To prescribe the best lens care system to each wearer and for each material, it is necessary to be very familiar with them. Maintenance is the main cause of discomfort with contact lenses, either through improper use, solution-material incompatibility, or a reaction of the wearer to the components.

  19. Current therapeutic paradigms in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Quick, Allison; Patel, Disha; Hadziahmetovic, Mersiha; Chakravarti, Arnab; Mehta, Minesh

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), a WHO grade IV malignant glioma, is the most common and lethal adult primary brain tumor. Median survival rates range from 12-15 months. The current standard of care for GBM has evolved from resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy to resection, concurrent adjuvant chemotherapy (temozolomide) and radiation, and additional adjuvant chemotherapy. The expression of specific molecular biomarkers, especially O-6-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) status, may determine the response of the tumor to treatment, and helps in identifying the magnitude of benefit from this regimen. By identifying further biological subtypes of GBM at the molecular level, specific targeted therapies could be developed and used in the future for more individualized therapeutic regimens. This article will review the current therapies for GBM and the investigation of new molecular and targeted therapies, such as EGFR inhibitors, mTOR/PI3Kinase inhibitors, and anti-angiogenesis agents.

  20. Therapeutic options for lip augmentation.

    PubMed

    Segall, Lorne; Ellis, David A F

    2007-11-01

    Aesthetic ideals vary with emerging fashion trends and within different cultures. However, over the past few decades, fuller lips have been considered a desirable trait. Many younger patients are presenting for lip augmentation to achieve the sought-after look commonly seen in many fashion magazines. In addition, as individuals age, they lose lip volume, with a thinning of the red lip, some effacement of the vermillion border, and elongation and flattening of the white portion of the lip. Rejuvenation of the lips plays a key role in restoring a more youthful appearance. As a result, lip augmentation appeals to a wide spectrum of patients who present with various different aesthetic goals and expectations. Numerous therapeutic options exist for aesthetic lip augmentation, ranging from temporary and permanent injectable fillers to implants and other surgical techniques.

  1. Multipoint contact modeling of nanoparticle manipulation on rough surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakeri, M.; Faraji, J.; Kharazmi, M.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based 2-D pushing of nano/microparticles investigated on rough substrate by assuming a multipoint contact model. First, a new contact model was extracted and presented based on the geometrical profiles of Rumpf, Rabinovich and George models and the contact mechanics theories of JKR and Schwartz, to model the adhesion forces and the deformations in the multipoint contact of rough surfaces. The geometry of a rough surface was defined by two main parameters of asperity height (size of roughness) and asperity wavelength (compactness of asperities distribution). Then, the dynamic behaviors of nano/microparticles with radiuses in range of 50-500 nm studied during their pushing on rough substrate with a hexagonal or square arrangement of asperities. Dynamic behavior of particles were simulated and compared by assuming multipoint and single-point contact schemes. The simulation results show that the assumption of multipoint contact has a considerable influence on determining the critical manipulation force. Additionally, the assumption of smooth surfaces or single-point contact leads to large error in the obtained results. According to the results of previous research, it anticipated that a particles with the radius less than about 550 nm start to slide on smooth substrate; but by using multipoint contact model, the predicted behavior changed, and particles with radii of smaller than 400 nm begin to slide on rough substrate for different height of asperities, at first.

  2. RF contact development for the ITER ICRH antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argouarch, A.; Bamber, R.; Beaumont, B.; Bernard, J.-M.; Delaplanche, J. M.; Durodié, F.; Hatchressian, J. C.; Lamalle, P.; Lombard, G.; Nicholls, K.; Patterlini, J. C.; Shannon, M.; Thouvenin, D.; Tigwell, P.; Volpe, R.; Vulliez, K.

    2014-02-01

    In the framework of the Ion Cyclotron (IC) antenna design, ITER Organization requested qualification tests on sliding Radio-Frequency (RF) contacts, to verify that these contacts (quality class 1) are designed appropriately to guarantee a sufficient operational life time. These RF contacts will be integrated into the antenna structure at different locations to facilitate the assembly and decouple the different mechanical parts. This design will in addition lower the thermo-mechanical constraints and allow radial shimming of the antenna front face. As commercial contacts were not suitable for the ITER ICRH antenna operation, substantial efforts have been made on mechanical design of the new RF contact. Two prototypes have been manufactured and delivered to CEA for testing. In parallel a test stand facility (TITAN) has been refurbished to provide a way to test these RF contacts in relevant conditions (2.25kA @ 62.5MHz, vacuum pressure <10-3Pa, 1000s). This paper reports on main results we get during the commissioning of the test stand facility. Roadmap of the tests is also detailed with RF power tests for long shot duration (1000s) under vacuum and extensive sliding tests in order to assess the reliability of the RF contact for a relevant life time duration (specified to 10 years). A description of the RF contact is also given with the latest results on the manufacturing process (copper and gold plating and brazing, general assembly).

  3. Measuring the Contact Angle of Individual Colloidal Particles.

    PubMed

    Preuss; Butt

    1998-12-15

    The aim of this study was to measure the contact angles of individual colloidal spheres ( solidus in circle 4.4 µm) and compare it to contact angles obtained on similarly prepared planar surfaces. For this purpose the particles were attached to atomic force microscope cantilevers. Then the force between the particle in aqueous medium and an air bubble was measured versus the distance. From the resulting force curves we obtained contact angles and detachment forces of single particles. Contact angles of gold coated silica particles were adjusted between 20 degrees and 100 degrees by self-assembling monolayers from different mixtures of undecanethiols and omega-hydroxy undecanethiols from solution. In parallel, contact angles on flat gold surfaces prepared in the same way were determined by the sessile drop method. A systematic difference between contact angles measured with particles and on planar surfaces was observed. Results are discussed in terms of line tension of the three-phase contact line. In addition, detachment forces were measured. Detachment forces were slightly higher than predicted from flotation theory. This might be caused by a pinning of the three phase contact line. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  4. Contacts for organic switches with carbon-nanotube leads.

    PubMed

    Wierzbowska, Małgorzata; Rode, Michał F; Sadek, Mikołaj; Sobolewski, Andrzej L

    2015-06-19

    We focus on two classes of organic switches operating due to the photo- or field-induced proton transfer (PT) process. By means of first-principles simulations, we search for the atomic contacts that strengthen diversity of the two swapped current-voltage (I-V) characteristics between two tautomers. We emphasize that the low-resistive contacts do not necessarily possess good switching properties. Very often, the higher-current flow makes it more difficult to distinguish between the logic states. Instead, the more resistive contacts multiply a current gear to a larger extent. The low- and high-bias work regimes set additional conditions, which are fulfilled by different contacts: (i) in the very low-voltage regime, the direct connections to the nanotubes perform better than the popular sulfur contacts, and (ii) in the higher-voltage regime, the best are the peroxide (-O-O-) contacts. Additionally, we find that the switching-bias value is not an inherent property of the conducting molecule, but it strongly depends on the chosen contacts.

  5. RF Sputtering of Gold Contacts On Niobium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    Reliable gold contacts are deposited on niobium by combination of RF sputtering and photolithography. Process results in structures having gold only where desired for electrical contact. Contacts are stable under repeated cycling from room temperature to 4.2 K and show room-temperature contact resistance as much as 40 percent below indium contacts made by thermalcompression bonding.

  6. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Sections Contact Lens-Related ... About Contact Lenses Proper Care of Contact Lenses Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Written by: Kierstan Boyd ...

  7. Measuring The Contact Resistances Of Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Simple method devised to measure contact resistances of photovoltaic solar cells. Method uses readily available equipment and applicable at any time during life of cell. Enables evaluation of cell contact resistance, contact-end resistance, contact resistivity, sheet resistivity, and sheet resistivity under contact.

  8. Crane-Load Contact Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Cox, Robert

    2005-01-01

    An electronic instrument has been developed as a prototype of a portable crane-load contact sensor. Such a sensor could be helpful in an application in which the load rests on a base in a horizontal position determined by vertical alignment pins (see Figure 1). If the crane is not positioned to lift the load precisely vertically, then the load can be expected to swing once it has been lifted clear of the pins. If the load is especially heavy, large, and/or fragile, it could hurt workers and/or damage itself and nearby objects. By indicating whether the load remains in contact with the pins when it has been lifted a fraction of the length of the pins, the crane-load contact sensor helps the crane operator determine whether it is safe to lift the load clear of the pins: If there is contact, then the load is resting against the sides of the pins and, hence, it may not be safe to lift; if contact is occasionally broken, then the load is probably not resting against the pins, so it should be safe to lift. It is assumed that the load and base, or at least the pins and the surfaces of the alignment holes in the load, are electrically conductive, so the instrument can use electrical contact to indicate mechanical contact. However, DC resistance cannot be used as an indicator of contact for the following reasons: The load and the base are both electrically grounded through cables (the load is grounded through the lifting cable of the crane) to prevent discharge of static electricity. In other words, the DC resistance between the load and the pins is always low, as though they were always in direct contact. Therefore, instead of DC resistance, the instrument utilizes the AC electrical impedance between the pins and the load. The signal frequency used in the measurement is high enough (.1 MHz) that the impedance contributed by the cables and the electrical ground network of the building in which the crane and the base are situated is significantly greater than the contact

  9. Mechanical contact by constraints and split-based preconditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitry Karpeyev; Derek Gaston; Jason Hales; Steven Novascone

    2014-03-01

    An accurate implementation of glued mechanical contact was developed in MOOSE based on its Constraint system. This approach results in a superior convergence of elastic structure problems, in particular in BISON. Adaptation of this technique to frictionless and frictional contact models is under way. Additionally, the improved convergence of elastic problems results from the application of the split-based preconditioners to constraint-based systems. This yields a substantial increase in the robustness of elastic solvers when the number of nodes in contact is increased and/or the mesh is refined.

  10. Efficiency of nonstandard and high contact ratio involute spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, N. E.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A power loss prediction was extended to include involute spur gears of nonstandard proportions. The method is used to analyze the effects of modified addendum, tooth thickness, and gear center distance in addition to the parameters previously considered which included gear diameter, pitch, pressure angle, face width, oil viscosity, speed, and torque. Particular emphasis was placed on high contact ratio gearing (contact ratios greater than two). Despite their higher sliding velocities, high contact ratio gears are designed to levels of efficiency comparable to those of conventional gears while retaining their advantages through proper selection of gear geometry.

  11. Efficiency of nonstandard and high contact ratio involute spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, N. E.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    A power loss prediction was extended to include involute spur gears of nonstandard proportions. The method is used to analyze the effects of modified addendum, tooth thickness, and gear center distance in addition to the parameters previously considered which included gear diameter, pitch, pressure angle, face width, oil viscosity, speed, and torque. Particular emphasis was placed on high contact ratio gearing (contact ratios greater than two). Despite their higher sliding velocities, high contact ratio gears are designed to levels of efficiency comparable to those of conventional gears while retaining their advantages through proper selection of gear geometry.

  12. Emerging therapeutic options for asthma.

    PubMed

    Colice, Gene L

    2011-04-01

    Asthma is characterized by eosinophilic airway inflammation and elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. Due to these pathologic features, the foundation of asthma treatment has historically been anti-inflammatory therapy with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). Numerous factors in addition to IgE and eosinophils, however, likely play important roles in mediating the airway inflammatory response characteristic of asthma. ICSs are effective therapy for some patients with persistent asthma, but clinical trials have shown that even increasing doses of ICSs under carefully controlled situations does not always result in acceptable asthma control. Consequently, other classes of medications, in addition to ICSs, are recommended in those patients with more severe asthma. The class of medication most commonly used in more severe asthma, along with ICSs, is long-acting inhaled beta2-agonists, but leukotriene modifying agents and anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies may also be used. Agents such as tiotropium, a long-acting inhaled anti-muscarinic agent, and those aimed at inhibiting cytokines, such as mepoluzimab, daclizumab, and etanercept, hold promise in the treatment of asthma. Other agents under investigation include phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitors and oligonucleotides. Bronchial thermoplasty, a nonpharmacologic option, may also be beneficial in patients with poorly controlled asthma. As our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of asthma increases, it will enable the development of novel therapeutic approaches for patients who are not responding well to traditional treatments. Although more studies are necessary to ensure the efficacy and safety of both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches, there is future promise for therapeutic advances in severe, persistent asthma.

  13. On the structure of contact binaries. I - The contact discontinuity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, F. H.; Lubow, S. H.; Anderson, L.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of the interior structure of contact binaries is reviewed, and a simple resolution of the difficulties which plague the theory is suggested. It is proposed that contact binaries contain a contact discontinuity between the lower surface of the common envelope and the Roche lobe of the cooler star. This discontinuity is maintained against thermal diffusion by fluid flow, and the transition layer is thin to the extent that the dynamical time scale is short in comparison with the thermal time scale. The idealization that the transition layer has infinitesimal thickness allows a simple formulation of the structure equations which are closed by appropriate jump conditions across the discontinuity. The further imposition of the standard boundary conditions suffices to define a unique model for the system once the chemical composition, the masses of the two stars, and the orbital separation are specified.

  14. [Therapeutic abortion, unjustified absence in health policy].

    PubMed

    Chávez-Alvarado, Susana

    2013-07-01

    Although abortion for health reasons is not considered a crime in Peru, the State does not allow its inclusion in public policy, thus violating women's right to terminate a pregnancy when it affects their health. When examining the article in the Criminal Code which decriminalizes this type of abortion, provisions are identified which protect women and set the conditions to offer this type of service. This document sets the debate about the arguments used by the Peruvian State for not approving a therapeutic abortion protocol which would regulate the provision and financing of therapeutic abortion in public services, and explains why this obligation should be complied with, based on the conceptual framework of "health exception" In addition, it presents two cases brought before the judicial court in which the Peruvian State was found guilty of violating the human rights of two adolescents to whom a therapeutic abortion was denied.

  15. [Allergic contact dermatitis of the scalp].

    PubMed

    Koch, L; Aberer, W

    2017-04-10

    Contact allergy represents an important differential diagnosis to other skin diseases of the scalp. The typical efflorescences, spreading in the periphery, pruritus, and the clinical history support the differential diagnosis. Since the scalp is particularly resistant to contact dermatitis, allergens applied to this area often produce dermatitis of the eyelids, ears and neck. Nevertheless, potent allergens such as para-phenylendiamine can also cause severe reactions of the scalp. The most important allergens eliciting contact allergy of the scalp are found in bleaches and dyes, shampoos and conditioners, products for perm waves and straighteners as well as topical drugs. Besides active ingredients or drugs, vehicles and preservative agents represent additional allergens. The use of topical steroids and oral antihistamines usually results in rapid resolution of the dermatitis, systemic steroids are only necessary in severe cases. Epicutaneous patch testing on the basis of available series combined with the ingredients of the suspected elicitors confirms the diagnosis and facilitates allergen avoidance as well as the selection of alternative products.

  16. SARS Patients and Their Close Contacts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fact Sheet for SARS Patients and Their Close Contacts Format: Select one PDF [256 KB] Recommend on ... that are not now known. What does "close contact" mean? In the context of SARS, close contact ...

  17. Precision non-contact polishing tool

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, John S.

    1997-01-01

    A non-contact polishing tool that combines two orthogonal slurry flow geometries to provide flexibility in altering the shape of the removal footprint. By varying the relative contributions of the two flow geometries, the footprint shape can be varied between the characteristic shapes corresponding to the two independent flow regimes. In addition, the tool can include a pressure activated means by which the shape of the brim of the tool can be varied. The tool can be utilized in various applications, such as x-ray optical surfaces, x-ray lithography, lenses, etc., where stringent shape and finish tolerances are required.

  18. Precision non-contact polishing tool

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, J.S.

    1997-01-07

    A non-contact polishing tool is disclosed that combines two orthogonal slurry flow geometries to provide flexibility in altering the shape of the removal footprint. By varying the relative contributions of the two flow geometries, the footprint shape can be varied between the characteristic shapes corresponding to the two independent flow regimes. In addition, the tool can include a pressure activated means by which the shape of the brim of the tool can be varied. The tool can be utilized in various applications, such as x-ray optical surfaces, x-ray lithography, lenses, etc., where stringent shape and finish tolerances are required. 5 figs.

  19. Contact behavior evolution induced by damage growth in radio-frequency microelectromechanical system switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Peroulis, D.

    2015-02-01

    This study provides a two-contact-event model to explain the evolution of the contact behavior of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switches through their lifetime. The succession of two dynamic contact events is carefully considered during actuation inspired by experimental observations. The contact between the MEMS switch tip and the drain can be treated as an effective contact between an elastic hemisphere and a rigid plane. If the first contact event results in elastic deformation, the effective hemisphere will fully recover. Consequently, the subsequent contact event also produces elastic deformation. If, on the other hand, the first contact event induces elastoplastic or plastic deformation, a residual depth will be produced between the hemisphere and the rigid plane. The contact force of the subsequent contact event can be significantly reduced due to this additional residual depth. With the growth of residual depth during the switch cycling process, the modeling results show three possible situations of contact radius evolution: (1) The contact radius increases to a maximum value and then decreases to zero; (2) the contact radius increases to one local maximum value; then decreases to a local minimum value; subsequently increases again to another maximum value, and finally decreases to zero; and (3) the contact radius increases to one maximum value and then decreases to zero; after an intermittent response, the contact radius increases again to another maximum value and finally decreases to zero. Furthermore, the Maxwell spreading formula is applied to determine the contact resistance which is inversely proportional to the contact radius. Three situations of contact resistance evolution corresponding to the evolution of contact radius are obtained. All three situations are also observed and validated by the experimental results.

  20. 78 FR 30303 - National Contact Center; Submission for OMB Review; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Contact Center; Submission for OMB Review; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation Survey AGENCY: Contact Center Services, Federal Citizen Information Center, Office of Citizen Services... requirement regarding the National Contact Center customer evaluation surveys. In this request, the...

  1. 78 FR 14549 - National Contact Center; Information Collection; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Contact Center; Information Collection; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation Survey AGENCY: Contact Center Services, Federal Citizen Information Center, Office of Citizen Services... requirement regarding the National Contact Center customer evaluation surveys. In this request, the...

  2. Marine Bioinspired Underwater Contact Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Sean K; Sodano, Antonio; Cunningham, Dylan J; Huang, Sharon S; Zalicki, Piotr J; Shin, Seunghan; Ahn, B Kollbe

    2016-05-09

    Marine mussels and barnacles are sessile biofouling organisms that adhere to a number of surfaces in wet environments and maintain remarkably strong bonds. Previous synthetic approaches to mimic biological wet adhesive properties have focused mainly on the catechol moiety, present in mussel foot proteins (mfps), and especially rich in the interfacial mfps, for example, mfp-3 and -5, found at the interface between the mussel plaque and substrate. Barnacles, however, do not use Dopa for their wet adhesion, but are instead rich in noncatecholic aromatic residues. Due to this anomaly, we were intrigued to study the initial contact adhesion properties of copolymerized acrylate films containing the key functionalities of barnacle cement proteins and interfacial mfps, for example, aromatic (catecholic or noncatecholic), cationic, anionic, and nonpolar residues. The initial wet contact adhesion of the copolymers was measured using a probe tack testing apparatus with a flat-punch contact geometry. The wet contact adhesion of an optimized, bioinspired copolymer film was ∼15.0 N/cm(2) in deionized water and ∼9.0 N/cm(2) in artificial seawater, up to 150 times greater than commercial pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) tapes (∼0.1 N/cm(2)). Furthermore, maximum wet contact adhesion was obtained at ∼pH 7, suggesting viability for biomedical applications.

  3. Contact tracing and disease control.

    PubMed Central

    Eames, Ken T D; Keeling, Matt J

    2003-01-01

    Contact tracing, followed by treatment or isolation, is a key control measure in the battle against infectious diseases. It is an extreme form of locally targeted control, and as such has the potential to be highly efficient when dealing with low numbers of cases. For this reason it is frequently used to combat sexually transmitted diseases and new invading pathogens. Accurate modelling of contact tracing requires explicit information about the disease-transmission pathways from each individual, and hence the network of contacts. Here, pairwise-approximation methods and full stochastic simulations are used to investigate the utility of contact tracing. A simple relationship is found between the efficiency of contact tracing necessary for eradication and the basic reproductive ratio of the disease. This holds for a wide variety of realistic situations including heterogeneous networks containing core-groups or super-spreaders, and asymptomatic individuals. Clustering (transitivity) within the transmission network is found to destroy the relationship, requiring lower efficiency than predicted. PMID:14728778

  4. Contact electrification of insulating materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacks, Daniel J.; Mohan Sankaran, R.

    2011-11-01

    The electrostatic charge that is generated when two materials are contacted or rubbed and then separated is a well-known physical process that has been studied for more than 2500 years. Contact electrification occurs in many contexts, both natural and technological. For example, in dust storms the collisions between particles lead to electrostatic charging and in extreme cases, extraordinary lightning displays. In electrophotography, toner particles are intentionally charged to guide their deposition in well-defined patterns. Despite such a long history and so many important consequences, a fundamental understanding of the mechanism behind contact electrification remains elusive. An open question is what type of species are transferred between the surfaces to generate charge—experiments suggest various species ranging from electrons to ions to nanoscopic bits of material, and theoretical work suggests that non-equilibrium states may play an important role. Another open question is the contact electrification that occurs when two insulating materials with identical physical properties touch—since there is no apparent driving force, it is not clear why charge transfer occurs. A third open question involves granular systems—models and experiments have shown that a particle-size dependence for the charging often exists. In this review, we discuss the fundamental aspects of contact electrification and highlight recent research efforts aimed at understanding these open questions.

  5. Antibacterial surface design - Contact kill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rajbir; Liu, Song

    2016-08-01

    Designing antibacterial surfaces has become extremely important to minimize Healthcare Associated Infections which are a major cause of mortality worldwide. A previous biocide-releasing approach is based on leaching of encapsulated biocides such as silver and triclosan which exerts negative impacts on the environment and potentially contributes to the development of bacterial resistance. This drawback of leachable compounds led to the shift of interest towards a more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach: contact-killing surfaces. Biocides that can be bound onto surfaces to give the substrates contact-active antibacterial activity include quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), quaternary phosphoniums (QPs), carbon nanotubes, antibacterial peptides, and N-chloramines. Among the above, QACs and N-chloramines are the most researched contact-active biocides. We review the engineering of contact-active surfaces using QACs or N-chloramines, the modes of actions as well as the test methods. The charge-density threshold of cationic surfaces for desired antibacterial efficacy and attempts to combine various biocides for the generation of new contact-active surfaces are discussed in detail. Surface positive charge density is identified as a key parameter to define antibacterial efficacy. We expect that this research field will continue to attract more research interest in view of the potential impact of self-disinfective surfaces on healthcare-associated infections, food safety and corrosion/fouling resistance required on industrial surfaces such as oil pipes and ship hulls.

  6. Therapeutic endoscopy in gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Celiński, K; Cichoz-Lach, H

    2007-08-01

    The role of therapeutic endoscopy in current gastroenterology is very important. Therapuetic endoscopy is useful in treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic control of gastrointestinal bleeding includes the following procedures of haemostasis techniques: photocoagulation, electrocoagulation, thermocoagulation and injection method. Owing to these procedures mortality has significantly decreased. Endoscopic hemostasis eliminates the risk of surgery, is less expensive and better tolerated by patients. Colonoscopic polypectomy is a widely used technique. By removal of polyps the incidence of colon cancer can be decreased. The "hot biopsy" forceps can be used to excise polyps of up to 6 mm. Larger polyps can be removed safely by snare electrocautery and retrieved for histologic study. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography has a therapeutic application designed to cut the sphincter of Oddi fibers of the distal common bile duct, what is indicated currently in choledocholithiasis and papillary stenosis with ascending cholangitis, acute gallstone pancreatitis. Endoscopic sphincterotomy in now an established procedure that is indicated in patients with common bile duct calculi. Endoscopic decompression of the biliary tree - dilatation benign structures of the biliary tree with baloon catheters and placement an internal endoprothesis allows the nonoperative decompression and significant palliation for patients with obstructing tumors.

  7. Person-centered Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Cloninger, C. Robert; Cloninger, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    A clinician’s effectiveness in treatment depends substantially on his or her attitude toward -- and understanding of -- the patient as a person endowed with self-awareness and the will to direct his or her own future. The assessment of personality in the therapeutic encounter is a crucial foundation for forming an effective working alliance with shared goals. Helping a person to reflect on their personality provides a mirror image of their strengths and weaknesses in adapting to life’s many challenges. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) provides an effective way to describe personality thoroughly and to predict both the positive and negative aspects of health. Strengths and weaknesses in TCI personality traits allow strong predictions of individual differences of all aspects of well-being. Diverse therapeutic techniques, such as diet, exercise, mood self-regulation, meditation, or acts of kindness, influence health and personality development in ways that are largely indistinguishable from one another or from effective allopathic treatments. Hence the development of well-being appears to be the result of activating a synergistic set of mechanisms of well-being, which are expressed as fuller functioning, plasticity, and virtue in adapting to life’s challenges PMID:26052429

  8. Engineering therapeutic protein disaggregases

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, James

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic agents are urgently required to cure several common and fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by protein misfolding and aggregation, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Protein disaggregases that reverse protein misfolding and restore proteins to native structure, function, and localization could mitigate neurodegeneration by simultaneously reversing 1) any toxic gain of function of the misfolded form and 2) any loss of function due to misfolding. Potentiated variants of Hsp104, a hexameric AAA+ ATPase and protein disaggregase from yeast, have been engineered to robustly disaggregate misfolded proteins connected with ALS (e.g., TDP-43 and FUS) and PD (e.g., α-synuclein). However, Hsp104 has no metazoan homologue. Metazoa possess protein disaggregase systems distinct from Hsp104, including Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40, as well as HtrA1, which might be harnessed to reverse deleterious protein misfolding. Nevertheless, vicissitudes of aging, environment, or genetics conspire to negate these disaggregase systems in neurodegenerative disease. Thus, engineering potentiated human protein disaggregases or isolating small-molecule enhancers of their activity could yield transformative therapeutics for ALS, PD, and AD. PMID:27255695

  9. Nitrones as Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Robert A.; Kopke, Richard D.; Choi, Chul-Hee; Foster, Steven B.; Doblas, Sabrina; Towner, Rheal A.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrones have the general chemical formula X-CH=NO-Y. They were first used to trap free radicals in chemical systems and then subsequently in biochemical systems. More recently several nitrones including PBN (α-phenyl-tert-butylnitrone) have been shown to have potent biological activity in many experimental animal models. Many diseases of aging including stroke, cancer development, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease are known to have enhanced levels of free radicals and oxidative stress. Some derivatives of PBN are significantly more potent than PBN and have undergone extensive commercial development in stroke. Recent research has shown that PBN-related nitrones also have anti-cancer activity in several experimental cancer models and have potential as therapeutics in some cancers. Also in recent observations nitrones have been shown to act synergistically in combination with antioxidants in the prevention of acute acoustic noise induced hearing loss. The mechanistic basis of the potent biological activity of PBN-related nitrones is not known. Even though PBN-related nitrones do decrease oxidative stress and oxidative damage, their potent biological anti-inflammatory activity and their ability to alter cellular signaling processes can not readily be explained by conventional notions of free radical trapping biochemistry. This review is focused on our observations and others where the use of selected nitrones as novel therapeutics have been evaluated in experimental models in the context of free radical biochemical and cellular processes considered important in pathologic conditions and age-related diseases. PMID:18793715

  10. Dermatitis, contact on the cheek (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin inflammation (dermatitis) on the cheek caused by contact with a substance that produced an allergic reaction (allergen). Contact dermatitis causes redness, itching, and small blisters (vesicles).

  11. Additional aspects of elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    An up-to-date review of the varying aspects of elastohydrodynamic lubrication is presented.. Some recent work on elastohydrodynamic lubrication of materials of low elastic modulus as well as on hydrodynamic lubrication is included. Both these topics are applicable for contacts with any ellipticity parameter (ranging from a circular contact to a line contact).

  12. Wetting and scanning force microscopy on rough polymer surfaces: Wenzel's roughness factor and the thermodynamic contact angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamusewitz, H.; Possart, W.

    The influence of the surface roughness of polypropylene on the contact angle hysteresis is investigated by means of ethylene glycol drops in order to estimate the true Young's equilibrium contact angle. A new relationship between the contact angle hysteresis and Wenzel's contact angle is derived. In addition, the determination of Wenzel's roughness factor by means of scanning force microscopy opens an alternative way to obtaining Young's equilibrium contact angle without any surface manipulation. The experimental results presented verify this new approach.

  13. Combination therapeutics in complex diseases.

    PubMed

    He, Bing; Lu, Cheng; Zheng, Guang; He, Xiaojuan; Wang, Maolin; Chen, Gao; Zhang, Ge; Lu, Aiping

    2016-12-01

    The biological redundancies in molecular networks of complex diseases limit the efficacy of many single drug therapies. Combination therapeutics, as a common therapeutic method, involve pharmacological intervention using several drugs that interact with multiple targets in the molecular networks of diseases and may achieve better efficacy and/or less toxicity than monotherapy in practice. The development of combination therapeutics is complicated by several critical issues, including identifying multiple targets, targeting strategies and the drug combination. This review summarizes the current achievements in combination therapeutics, with a particular emphasis on the efforts to develop combination therapeutics for complex diseases.

  14. Contacts de langues et representations (Language Contacts and Representations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthey, Marinette, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Essays on language contact and the image of language, entirely in French, include: "Representations 'du' contexte et representations 'en' contexte? Eleves et enseignants face a l'apprentissage de la langue" ("Representations 'of' Context or Representations 'in' Context? Students and Teachers Facing Language Learning" (Laurent…

  15. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  16. Rolling Contact Force Energy Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BRACCIALI, A.; CASCINI, G.

    2000-09-01

    Knowledge of the forces at the wheel-rail contact is fundamental to estimate the consequences in terms of noise and vibration. The traditional use of strain gauges mounted on the wheel web and axle is not capable of determining the high-frequency content of the contact force. Measurements made on the rail are characterized by the spatial variability of input-output transfer functions which makes it difficult to estimate the contact force by simple inversion of the point frequency response function. In this study the problem of rolling contact force reconstruction has been approached through the following steps: (i) the track has been characterized precisely for a finite length by the analysis of the time series of several impacts supplied with an instrumented hammer by using an ARMAX model that proved to be capable of modelling the vertical dynamics of the rail up to 5 kHz; (ii) the response of the rail has been simulated with a random force acting on the system, and the variability of the transfer function has been taken into account by distributing the force on adjacent elements; (iii) the simulated response has been compared with the rail acceleration measured for the passage of several trains; (iv) the wheel-rail contact force has been estimated with a closed-loop algorithm. It has thus been possible to reconstruct the13octave power spectrum of contact forces with a simple and stable iterative procedure. Forces reconstructed from different sensors were found to be practically the same for a given wheel; forces from nominally similar wheels are statistically examined and partial results of comparisons made on different rolling stock are shown.

  17. Methylisothiazolinone contact allergy: a review.

    PubMed

    Lundov, M D; Krongaard, T; Menné, T L; Johansen, J D

    2011-12-01

    In the early 2000s the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) was released as an individual preservative for industrial products and, in 2005, it was permitted for use in cosmetic products. Up until then MI had been used only in combination with methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI). MCI/MI is one of the most frequent causes of preservative contact allergy and early studies showed that both MI and MCI are sensitizers. The prevalence of MI contact allergy is already around 1·5% and sources of exposure are associated with occupation, cosmetic products or household products. Use of MI in industrial products is not restricted and cases of occupational contact allergy to MI, e.g. in painters, are reported. The frequency of use of MI in cosmetics is low, around 1%, while up to 16·5% of household products were preserved with MI. We found 19 (1·5%) out of 1272 cosmetic products labelled with MI, primarily rinse-off products, and analysed the concentration of MI by high-performance-liquid-chromatography the ultraviolet and mass spectrometry detection. The use concentration ranged between 2 and 100 ppm. Repeated exposure to MI showed that many patients allergic to MI reacted to 50 ppm which is half the maximum permitted concentration of MI in cosmetics. The recent cases and prevalence studies on MI contact allergy could be the first sign of an epidemic of MI contact allergy. The development in prevalence of MI contact allergy should be closely monitored by including MI in the European Baseline Series at 2000 ppm.

  18. Microbial synthetic biology for human therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Jain, Aastha; Bhatia, Pooja; Chugh, Archana

    2012-06-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology holds tremendous potential for developing novel drugs to treat various human conditions. The current study discusses the scope of synthetic biology for human therapeutics via microbial approach. In this context, synthetic biology aims at designing, engineering and building new microbial synthetic cells that do not pre-exist in nature as well as re-engineer existing microbes for synthesis of therapeutic products. It is expected that the construction of novel microbial genetic circuitry for human therapeutics will greatly benefit from the data generated by 'omics' approaches and multidisciplinary nature of synthetic biology. Development of novel antimicrobial drugs and vaccines by engineering microbial systems are a promising area of research in the field of synthetic biology for human theragnostics. Expression of plant based medicinal compounds in the microbial system using synthetic biology tools is another avenue dealt in the present study. Additionally, the study suggest that the traditional medicinal knowledge can do value addition for developing novel drugs in the microbial systems using synthetic biology tools. The presented work envisions the success of synthetic biology for human therapeutics via microbial approach in a holistic manner. Keeping this in view, various legal and socio-ethical concerns emerging from the use of synthetic biology via microbial approach such as patenting, biosafety and biosecurity issues have been touched upon in the later sections.

  19. Preparation and Performance of Cu-Cr Contact Materials for Vacuum Switches with Low Contact Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yanli; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Zhiming; Zhai, Yuxiang; Wang, Yaping

    2016-11-01

    Insufficient anti-welding properties limit the application of Cu-Cr contact material in vacuum switches with low contact pressure. The CuCr-W-C alloys that are prepared are for decreasing welding tendencies and keeping the voltage withstand by addition of W and C elements. It is found that the average welding force of CuCr-W-C alloys is reduced more than 50% compared with that of the Cu50 Cr50 alloy. Especially for CuCrW3.0C0.3 and CuCrW1.0C0.5, the welding forces reduce to only 10% of Cu50Cr50. Arc erosion areas of CuCr-W-C alloys are enlarged by five times more than that of the Cu50Cr50 alloy in the same arcing conditions. The results of type tests were qualified. The results suggested that the CuCrW2.0C1.0 alloy could be used in vacuum switches with low contact pressure to replace the W-Cu type contacts.

  20. Point contact silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    The construction of a 22.2% efficient single-crystal silicon solar cell fabricated at Stanford University is described. The cell dimensions were 3 x 5 mm and 100 microns thick with a base lifetime of 500 microseconds. The cell featured light trapping between a texturized top surface and a reflective bottom surface, small point contact diffusions, alternating between n-type and p-type in a polka-dot pattern on the bottom surface, and a surface passivation on all surfaces between contact regions.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Shannon; Zippin, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common dermatologic condition that can result from exposure to allergens at home or at work. Cosmetics represent a large diverse group of products that Americans apply to their skin to treat disease or enhance beauty. With increased use of cosmetics, the rate of sensitization to many allergenic components has increased. We review the more common allergens present in cosmetics as well as the types of cosmetics that are known to contain them. With proper education and patch testing, dermatologists will be able to identify contact allergies to cosmetic ingredients and help patients avoid the offending products.

  2. Thermal and electrical contact conductance studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vansciver, S. W.; Nilles, M.

    1985-01-01

    Prediction of electrical and thermal contact resistance for pressed, nominally flat contacts is complicated by the large number of variables which influence contact formation. This is reflected in experimental results as a wide variation in contact resistances, spanning up to six orders of magnitude. A series of experiments were performed to observe the effects of oxidation and surface roughness on contact resistance. Electrical contact resistance and thermal contact conductance from 4 to 290 K on OFHC Cu contacts are reported. Electrical contact resistance was measured with a 4-wire DC technique. Thermal contact conductance was determined by steady-state longitudinal heat flow. Corrections for the bulk contribution ot the overall measured resistance were made, with the remaining resistance due solely to the presence of the contact.

  3. Level 1 Therapeutic Model site.

    PubMed

    Hall, Philip S; DeJong, Judith A

    2006-01-01

    This site is an intertribal residential grant school annually enrolling over 250 students in grades 1-8 from tribes located in three states on the Northern Great Plains. From its inception in 1890, the boarding school's mission has been to provide services for young children in need of a safe and supportive living and learning environment. For over a decade, this site has used strategies centered on respecting children, structuring students' time, and providing the therapeutic benefits of a well-maintained campus. This site also has a long history of believing in each child's inherent value and potential. When Therapeutic Residential Model funding commenced at the midpoint of the 2002-2003 school year, L1 focused these new resources on strengthening and refining its program. The number of personnel positions increased from 98 to 135, with new positions principally going to dormitory staff and four Masters-level counselor positions. This increase in staff allowed L1 to proactively address the children's developmental needs. The site also adopted and implemented the Applied Humanism caregiving model. In accordance with Applied Humanism, an interview was utilized that allowed the site to identify and hire applicants possessing the attitudes and skills necessary to be good caregivers, existing staff were trained so that they understood the kind of caregiving that would be expected of them, supervision procedures and practices were implemented that supported and encouraged good caregivers and provided time-limited assistance to those who were not, and relevant agency policies and procedures were revised as needed to align with the Applied Humanism philosophy. In addition, the Morningside program was brought in to systematically address the students' academic lags in reading. The results of implementing the Therapeutic Residential Model were a reduction in behavioral incidents, a decrease in the amount of money spent on external mental health services, an increase in the

  4. Contact urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, and photoallergic contact dermatitis from oxybenzone.

    PubMed

    Landers, Maeran; Law, Sandra; Storrs, Frances J

    2003-03-01

    There is little literature regarding conventional patch tests and photopatch tests to oxybenzone resulting in both immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. A patient was patch-tested and photopatch-tested to various sunscreen chemicals. Both immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions were observed with oxybenzone. The positive patch tests were also photoaccentuated. Oxybenzone, a common sunscreen allergen, can result in both contact urticaria and delayed-type hypersensitivity on both conventional patch testing and photopatch testing. Allergic contact dermatitis to sunscreen chemicals has traditionally included contact urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, and photoallergic contact dermatitis. Due to the recognition of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and its esters as sensitizers, the presence of benzophenones in "PABA-free" sunscreens has become more prevalent, especially in sunscreens with a sun protection factor (SPF) greater than 8. In our patient, immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions were seen to oxybenzone (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-benzoyl-5-methoxyphenol, benzophenone-3, Eusolex 4360, Escalol 567, EUSORB 228, Spectra-Sorb UV-9, Uvinul M-40) upon conventional patch testing and photopatch testing.

  5. ANTIOXIDANT THERAPEUTIC ADVANCES IN COPD

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Irfan

    2009-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with high incidence of morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress is intimately associated with the progression and exacerbation of COPD and therefore targeting oxidative stress with antioxidants or boosting the endogenous levels of antioxidants is likely to have beneficial outcome in the treatment of COPD. Among the various antioxidants tried so far, thiol antioxidants and mucolytic agents, such as glutathione, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, N-acystelyn, erdosteine, fudosteine, and carbocysteine; Nrf2 activators, and dietary polyphenols (curcumin, resveratrol, green tea, and catechins/quercetin) have been reported to increase intracellular thiol status alongwith induction of GSH biosynthesis. Such an elevation in the thiol status in turn leads to detoxification of free radicals and oxidants as well as inhibition of ongoing inflammatory responses. In addition, specific spin traps, such as a-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone, a catalytic antioxidant (ECSOD mimetic), porphyrins (AEOL 10150 and AEOL 10113), and a SOD mimetic M40419 have also been reported to inhibit cigarette smoke-induced inflammatory responses in vivo in the lung. Since a variety of oxidants, free radicals and aldehydes are implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD; it is possible that therapeutic administration of multiple antioxidants and mucolytics will be effective in management of COPD. However, a successful outcome will critically depend upon the choice of antioxidant therapy for a particular clinical phenotype of COPD, whose pathophysiology should be first properly understood. This article will review the various approaches adopted to enhance lung antioxidant levels, antioxidant therapeutic advances and recent past clinical trials of antioxidant compounds in COPD. PMID:19124382

  6. Imaging surface contacts: Power law contact distributions and contact stresses in quartz, calcite, glass and acrylic plastic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieterich, J.H.; Kilgore, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    A procedure has been developed to obtain microscope images of regions of contact between roughened surfaces of transparent materials, while the surfaces are subjected to static loads or undergoing frictional slip. Static loading experiments with quartz, calcite, soda-lime glass and acrylic plastic at normal stresses to 30 MPa yield power law distributions of contact areas from the smallest contacts that can be resolved (3.5 ??m2) up to a limiting size that correlates with the grain size of the abrasive grit used to roughen the surfaces. In each material, increasing normal stress results in a roughly linear increase of the real area of contact. Mechanisms of contact area increase are by growth of existing contacts, coalescence of contacts and appearance of new contacts. Mean contacts stresses are consistent with the indentation strength of each material. Contact size distributions are insensitive to normal stress indicating that the increase of contact area is approximately self-similar. The contact images and contact distributions are modeled using simulations of surfaces with random fractal topographies. The contact process for model fractal surfaces is represented by the simple expedient of removing material at regions where surface irregularities overlap. Synthetic contact images created by this approach reproduce observed characteristics of the contacts and demonstrate that the exponent in the power law distributions depends on the scaling exponent used to generate the surface topography.

  7. Modeling liquid bridge between surfaces with contact angle hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Amirfazli, A; Tang, T

    2013-03-12

    This paper presents the behaviors of a liquid bridge when being compressed and stretched in a quasi-static fashion between two solid surfaces that have contact angle hysteresis (CAH). A theoretical model is developed to obtain the profiles of the liquid bridge given a specific separation between the surfaces. Different from previous models, both contact lines in the upper and lower surfaces were allowed to move when the contact angles reach their advancing or receding values. When the contact angles are between their advancing and receding values, the contact lines are pinned while the contact angles adjust to accommodate the changes in separation. Effects of CAH on both asymmetric and symmetric liquid bridges were analyzed. The model was shown to be able to correctly predict the behavior of the liquid bridge during a quasi-static compression/stretching loading cycle in experiments. Because of CAH, the liquid bridge can have two different profiles at the same separation during one loading and unloading cycle, and more profiles can be obtained during multiple cycles. The maximum adhesion force generated by the liquid bridge is found to be influenced by the CAH of surfaces. CAH also leads to energy cost during a loading cycle of the liquid bridge. In addition, the minimum separation between the two solid surfaces is shown to affect how the contact radii and angles change on the two surfaces as the liquid bridge is stretched.

  8. Extended drug delivery by contact lenses for glaucoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cheng-Chun; Burke, Michael T; Carbia, Blanca E; Plummer, Caryn; Chauhan, Anuj

    2012-08-20

    We combine laboratory-based timolol release studies and in vivo pharmacodynamics studies in beagle dogs to evaluate the efficacy of glaucoma therapy through extended wear contact lenses. Commercial contact lenses cannot provide extended delivery of ophthalmic drugs and so the studies here focused on increasing the release duration of timolol from ACUVUE TruEye contact lenses by incorporating vitamin E diffusion barriers. The efficacy of timolol delivered via extended wear contact lenses was then compared to eye drops in beagle dogs that suffer from spontaneous glaucoma. The lenses were either replaced every 24h or continuously worn for 4 days, and the pharmacodynamics effect of changes in the intraocular pressure (IOP) of timolol from the ACUVUE TruEye contact lenses can be significantly increased by incorporation of vitamin E. The in vivo studies showed that IOP reduction from baseline by pure contact lens on daily basis was comparable with that by eye drops but with only 20% of drug dose, which suggested higher drug bioavailability for contact lenses. In addition, by inclusion of vitamin E into the lenses, the IOP was reduced significantly during the 4-day treatment with continuous wear of lens.

  9. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  10. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  11. Microdroplet evaporation with a forced pinned contact line.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Kevin; Putnam, Shawn A

    2014-09-02

    Experimental and numerical investigations of water microdroplet evaporation on heated, laser patterned polymer substrates are reported. The study is focused on both (i) controlling a droplet's contact line dynamics during evaporation to identifying how the contact line influences evaporative heat transfer and (ii) validating numerical simulations with experimental data. Droplets are formed on the polymer surface using a bottom-up methodology, where a computer-controlled syringe pump feeds water through a 200 μm diameter fluid channel within the heated polymer substrate. This methodology facilitates precise control of the droplet's growth rate, size, and inlet temperature. In addition to this microchannel supply line, the substrate surfaces are laser patterned with a moatlike trench around the fluid-channel outlet, adding additional control of the droplet's contact line motion, area, and contact angle. In comparison to evaporation on a nonpatterned polymer surface, the laser patterned trench increases contact line pinning time by ∼60% of the droplet's lifetime. Numerical simulations of diffusion controlled evaporation are compared the experimental data with a pinned contact line. These diffusion based simulations consistently over predict the droplet's evaporation rate. In efforts to improve this model, a temperature distribution along the droplet's liquid-vapor interface is imposed to account for the concentration distribution of saturated vapor along the interface, which yields improved predictions within 2-4% of the experimental data throughout the droplet's lifetime on heated substrates.

  12. Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Almagro, Juan Carlos; Gilliland, Gary L; Breden, Felix; Scott, Jamie K; Sok, Devin; Pauthner, Matthias; Reichert, Janice M; Helguera, Gustavo; Andrabi, Raiees; Mabry, Robert; Bléry, Mathieu; Voss, James E; Laurén, Juha; Abuqayyas, Lubna; Barghorn, Stefan; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Crowe, James E; Huston, James S; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Krauland, Eric; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Marasco, Wayne A; Parren, Paul WHI; Xu, Kai Y

    2014-01-01

    The 24th Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics meeting brought together a broad range of participants who were updated on the latest advances in antibody research and development. Organized by IBC Life Sciences, the gathering is the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, which serves as the scientific sponsor. Preconference workshops on 3D modeling and delineation of clonal lineages were featured, and the conference included sessions on a wide variety of topics relevant to researchers, including systems biology; antibody deep sequencing and repertoires; the effects of antibody gene variation and usage on antibody response; directed evolution; knowledge-based design; antibodies in a complex environment; polyreactive antibodies and polyspecificity; the interface between antibody therapy and cellular immunity in cancer; antibodies in cardiometabolic medicine; antibody pharmacokinetics, distribution and off-target toxicity; optimizing antibody formats for immunotherapy; polyclonals, oligoclonals and bispecifics; antibody discovery platforms; and antibody-drug conjugates. PMID:24589717

  13. Outpatient therapeutic nuclear oncology.

    PubMed

    Turner, J Harvey

    2012-05-01

    In the beginning, nuclear medicine was radionuclide therapy, which has evolved into molecular tumour-targeted control of metastatic cancer. Safe, efficacious, clinical practice of therapeutic nuclear oncology may now be based upon accurate personalised dosimetry by quantitative gamma SPECT/CT imaging to prescribe tumoricidal activities without critical organ toxicity. Preferred therapy radionuclides possess gamma emission of modest energy and abundance to enable quantitative SPECT/CT imaging for calculation of the beta therapy dosimetry, without radiation exposure risk to hospital personnel, carers, family or members of the public. The safety of outpatient radiopharmaceutical therapy of cancer with Iodine-131, Samarium-153, Holmium-166, Rhenium-186, Rhenium-188, Lutetium-177 and Indium-111 is reviewed. Measured activity release rates and radiation exposure to carers and the public are all within recommendations and guidelines of international regulatory agencies and, when permitted by local regulatory authorities allow cost-effective, safe, outpatient radionuclide therapy of cancer without isolation in hospital.

  14. Mitochondrial Energetics and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Douglas C.; Fan, Weiwei; Procaccio, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to a wide range of degenerative and metabolic diseases, cancer, and aging. All these clinical manifestations arise from the central role of bioenergetics in cell biology. Although genetic therapies are maturing as the rules of bioenergetic genetics are clarified, metabolic therapies have been ineffectual. This failure results from our limited appreciation of the role of bioenergetics as the interface between the environment and the cell. A systems approach, which, ironically, was first successfully applied over 80 years ago with the introduction of the ketogenic diet, is required. Analysis of the many ways that a shift from carbohydrate glycolytic metabolism to fatty acid and ketone oxidative metabolism may modulate metabolism, signal transduction pathways, and the epigenome gives us an appreciation of the ketogenic diet and the potential for bioenergetic therapeutics. PMID:20078222

  15. Antimicrobial peptides: therapeutic potentials.

    PubMed

    Kang, Su-Jin; Park, Sung Jean; Mishig-Ochir, Tsogbadrakh; Lee, Bong-Jin

    2014-12-01

    The increasing appearance of multidrug-resistant pathogens has created an urgent need for suitable alternatives to current antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which act as defensive weapons against microbes, have received great attention because of broad-spectrum activities, unique action mechanisms and rare antibiotic-resistant variants. Despite desirable characteristics, they have shown limitations in pharmaceutical development due to toxicity, stability and manufacturing costs. Because of these drawbacks, only a few AMPs have been tested in Phase III clinical trials and no AMPs have been approved by the US FDA yet. However, these obstacles could be overcome by well-known methods such as changing physicochemical characteristics and introducing nonnatural amino acids, acetylation or amidation, as well as modern techniques like molecular targeted AMPs, liposomal formulations and drug delivery systems. Thus, the current challenge in this field is to develop therapeutic AMPs at a reasonable cost as well as to overcome the limitations.

  16. Aptamers in Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers are single strand DNA or RNA molecules, selected by an iterative process known as Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX). Due to various advantages of aptamers such as high temperature stability, animal free, cost effective production and its high affinity and selectivity for its target make them attractive alternatives to monoclonal antibody for use in diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Aptamer has been generated against vesicular endothelial growth factor 165 involved in age related macular degeneracy. Macugen was the first FDA approved aptamer based drug that was commercialized. Later other aptamers were also developed against blood clotting proteins, cancer proteins, antibody E, agents involved in diabetes nephropathy, autoantibodies involved in autoimmune disorders, etc. Aptamers have also been developed against viruses and could work with other antiviral agents in treating infections. PMID:27504277

  17. Microfabricated therapeutic actuators

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Benett, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Microfabricated therapeutic actuators are fabricated using a shape memory polymer (SMP), a polyurethane-based material that undergoes a phase transformation at a specified temperature (Tg). At a temperature above temperature Tg material is soft and can be easily reshaped into another configuration. As the temperature is lowered below temperature Tg the new shape is fixed and locked in as long as the material stays below temperature Tg. Upon reheating the material to a temperature above Tg, the material will return to its original shape. By the use of such SMP material, SMP microtubing can be used as a release actuator for the delivery of embolic coils through catheters into aneurysms, for example. The microtubing can be manufactured in various sizes and the phase change temperature Tg is determinate for an intended temperature target and intended use.

  18. Microfabricated therapeutic actuators

    DOEpatents

    Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Ciarlo, D.R.; Krulevitch, P.A.; Benett, W.J.

    1999-06-15

    Microfabricated therapeutic actuators are fabricated using a shape memory polymer (SMP), a polyurethane-based material that undergoes a phase transformation at a specified temperature (Tg). At a temperature above temperature Tg material is soft and can be easily reshaped into another configuration. As the temperature is lowered below temperature Tg the new shape is fixed and locked in as long as the material stays below temperature Tg. Upon reheating the material to a temperature above Tg, the material will return to its original shape. By the use of such SMP material, SMP microtubing can be used as a release actuator for the delivery of embolic coils through catheters into aneurysms, for example. The microtubing can be manufactured in various sizes and the phase change temperature Tg is determinate for an intended temperature target and intended use. 8 figs.

  19. Race-based therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Yancy, Clyde W

    2008-08-01

    The issue of race in medicine is problematic. Race is not a physiologic grouping, and all persons of a given race do not necessarily share the same clinical phenotype or genetic substrate. Despite clear signals that certain risk factors and diseases vary as a function of race, translating those differences into race-based therapeutics has been awkward and has done little to change the natural history of cardiovascular disease as it affects special populations. Among the varied special populations, the African American population appears to have the most significant and adverse variances for cardiovascular disease as well as worrisome signals that drug responsiveness varies. Recent guideline statements have now acknowledged certain treatment options that are most appropriate for African Americans with cardiovascular disease, especially hypertension and heart failure. As more physiologic markers of disease and drug responsiveness become available, the need for racial designations in medicine may lessen, and therapies can be optimized for all patients without regard to race or ethnicity.

  20. A panic attack in therapeutic recreation over being considered therapeutic.

    PubMed

    Lee, L L

    1987-01-01

    Ancillary professions have been called upon to account for therapeutic benefits from their services or be eliminated from the health care system. A singular focus on therapy, however, would negate the unique contribution of therapeutic recreation within, while simultaneously restricting services to health care settings. It is proposed that panic over therapeutic recreation services meeting health care goals has hindered evaluation and solidification of the leisure-based philosophy presented in the NTRS Philosophical Position Statement (NTRS, 1982). It is argued that emphasizing the leisure orientation of the philosophical position statement can secure therapeutic recreation's position within, yet, not deny services to those outside of the health care system. An overview is presented on the adequacy of the position statement philosophy for therapeutic recreation. A potential danger of attempting to explain therapeutic recreation in terms of non-leisure based philosophies is also discussed.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Park, Michelle E; Zippin, Jonathan H

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products is an increasing concern given the continual creation and introduction of new cosmetics to the public. This article presents an overview of how to evaluate a patient for patch testing, including common areas for cosmetic-induced dermatitis, common cosmetic allergens, and proper management.

  2. Non-contact ECG monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Alexey S.; Erlikh, Vadim V.; Kodkin, Vladimir L.; Keller, Andrei V.; Epishev, Vitaly V.

    2016-03-01

    The research is dedicated to non-contact methods of electrocardiography. The authors describe the routine of experimental procedure and suggest the approach to solving the problems which arise at indirect signal recording. The paper presents the results of experiments conducted by the authors, covers the flow charts of ECG recorders and reviews the drawbacks of filtering methods used in foreign equivalents.

  3. Barrier/Cu contact resistivity

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, J.S.; Nicolet, M.A.; Angyal, M.S.; Lilienfeld, D.; Shacham-Diamand, Y.; Smith, P.M.

    1995-10-17

    The specific contact resistivity of Cu with ({alpha} + {beta})-Ta, TiN, {alpha}-W, and amorphous-Ta{sub 36}Si{sub 14}N{sub 50} barrier films is measured using a novel four-point-probe approach. Geometrically, the test structures consist of colinear sets of W-plugs to act as current and voltage probes that contact the bottom of a planar Cu/barrier/Cu stack. Underlying Al interconnects link the plugs to the current source and voltmeter. The center-to-center distance of the probes ranges from 3 to 200 {micro}m. Using a relation developed by Vu et al., a contact resistivity of roughly 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} {Omega} cm{sup 2} is obtained for all tested barrier/Cu combinations. By reflective-mode small-angle X-ray scattering, the similarity in contact resistivity among the barrier films may be related to interfacial impurities absorbed from the deposition process.

  4. Ohmic contacts to semiconducting diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidler, James R.; Taylor, M. J.; Zeisse, Carl R.; Hewett, C. A.; Delahoussaye, Paul R.

    1990-10-01

    Work was carried out to improve the electron beam evaporation system in order to achieve better deposited films. The basic system is an ion pumped vacuum chamber, with a three-hearth, single-gun e-beam evaporator. Four improvements were made to the system. The system was thoroughly cleaned and new ion pump elements, an e-gun beam adjust unit, and a more accurate crystal monitor were installed. The system now has a base pressure of 3 X 10(exp -9) Torr, and can easily deposit high-melting-temperature metals such as Ta with an accurately controlled thickness. Improved shadow masks were also fabricated for better alignment and control of corner contacts for electrical transport measurements. Appendices include: A Thermally Activated Solid State Reaction Process for Fabricating Ohmic Contacts to Semiconducting Diamond; Tantalum Ohmic Contacts to Diamond by a Solid State Reaction Process; Metallization of Semiconducting Diamond: Mo, Mo/Au, and Mo/Ni/Au; Specific Contact Resistance Measurements of Ohmic Contracts to Diamond; and Electrical Activation of Boron Implanted into Diamond.

  5. Electrical contact tool set station

    DOEpatents

    Byers, M.E.

    1988-02-22

    An apparatus is provided for the precise setting to zero of electrically conductive cutting tools used in the machining of work pieces. An electrically conductive cylindrical pin, tapered at one end to a small flat, rests in a vee-shaped channel in a base so that its longitudinal axis is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the machine's spindle. Electronic apparatus is connected between the cylindrical pin and the electrically conductive cutting tool to produce a detectable signal when contact between tool and pin is made. The axes of the machine are set to zero by contact between the cutting tool and the sides, end or top of the cylindrical pin. Upon contact, an electrical circuit is completed, and the detectable signal is produced. The tool can then be set to zero for that axis. Should the tool contact the cylindrical pin with too much force, the cylindrical pin would be harmlessly dislodged from the vee-shaped channel, preventing damage either to the cutting tool or the cylindrical pin. 5 figs.

  6. Interfacial closure of contacting surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieutord, F.; Rauer, C.; Moriceau, H.

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the contact between solid surfaces is a long-standing problem which has a strong impact on the physics of many processes such as adhesion, friction, lubrication and wear. Experimentally, the investigation of solid/solid interfaces remains challenging today, due to the lack of experimental techniques able to provide sub-nanometer scale information on interfaces buried between millimeters of materials. Yet, a strong interest exists improving the modeling of contact mechanics of materials in order to adjust their interface properties (e.g., thermal transport, friction). We show here that the essential features of the residual gap between contacting surfaces can be measured using high energy X-ray synchrotron reflectivity. The presence of this nano-gap is general to the contact of solids. In some special case however, it can be removed when attractive forces take over repulsive contributions, depending on both height and wavelength of asperity distributions (roughness). A criterion for this instability is established in the standard case of van der Waals attractive forces and elastic asperity compression repulsive forces (Hertz model). This collapse instability is confirmed experimentally in the case of silicon direct bonding, using high-energy X-ray synchrotron reflectivity and adhesion energy measurements. The possibility to achieve fully closed interfaces at room temperature opens interesting perspectives to build stronger assemblies with smaller thermal budgets.

  7. [Allergic contact eczema to ninhydrin].

    PubMed

    Schlacke, K H; Fuchs, T

    1989-01-01

    Use of a surgical marking pen to indicate test areas on the skin during epicutaneous evaluation caused eczema in three female patients undergoing patch testing. Close scrutiny of the individual components of this surgical marking pen revealed contact dermatitis to ninhydrine, a substance whose allergenic potential has hardly been noted in the relevant literature.

  8. Analysis of lumped models with contact and friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migórski, Stanisław; Ochal, Anna; Sofonea, Mircea

    2011-02-01

    We consider two mathematical models that describe the vibrations of spring-mass-damper systems with contact and friction. In the first model, both the contact and frictional boundary conditions are described with subdifferentials of nonconvex functions. In the second model, the contact is modeled with a Lipschitz continuous function, and the restitution force is described by a differential equation involving a Volterra integral term. The two models lead to second-order differential inclusions with and without an integral term, in which the unknowns are the positions of the masses. For each model, we prove the existence of a solution by using an abstract result for first-order differential inclusions in finite dimensional spaces. For the second model, in addition, we prove the uniqueness of the solution by using a fixed point argument. Finally, we provide examples of systems with contact and friction conditions for which our results are valid.

  9. Computing Contact Stresses In Gear Teeth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Somprakit, Paisan; Huston, Ronald L.

    1995-01-01

    Improved method of computing contact stresses in gear teeth accounts for complicating effects like those of static and sliding friction. Provides iterative procedure for determination of contact region and nodal contact forces along with contact stresses. Method based on equations and computational procedure incorporating these effects routinely.

  10. Epicardial Fat: Physiological, Pathological, and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Juan; Luzardo, Eliana; Mejías, José Carlos; Ferreira, Antonio; Rivas-Ríos, José Ramón; Bermúdez, Valmore

    2016-01-01

    Epicardial fat is closely related to blood supply vessels, both anatomically and functionally, which is why any change in this adipose tissue's behavior is considered a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease development. When proinflammatory adipokines are released from the epicardial fat, this can lead to a decrease in insulin sensitivity, low adiponectin production, and an increased proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. These adipokines move from one compartment to another by either transcellular passing or diffusion, thus having the ability to regulate cardiac muscle activity, a phenomenon called vasocrine regulation. The participation of these adipokines generates a state of persistent vasoconstriction, increased stiffness, and weakening of the coronary wall, consequently contributing to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Therefore, epicardial adipose tissue thickening should be considered a risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, a potential therapeutic target for cardiovascular pathology and a molecular point of contact for “endocrine-cardiology.” PMID:27213076

  11. Eph Receptors and Ephrins: Therapeutic Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Barquilla, Antonio; Pasquale, Elena B.

    2015-01-01

    The Eph receptor tyrosine kinase family plays important roles in developmental processes, adult tissue homeostasis and various diseases. Interaction with ephrin ligands on the surface of neighboring cells triggers Eph receptor kinase-dependent signaling. The ephrins can also transmit signals, leading to bidirectional cell contact-dependent communication. Moreover, Eph receptors and ephrins can function independently of each other, through interplay with other signaling systems. Given their involvement in many pathological conditions ranging from neurological disorders to cancer and viral infections, Eph receptors and ephrins are increasingly recognized as attractive therapeutic targets and a variety of strategies are being explored to modulate their expression and function. Eph receptor/ephrin upregulation in cancer cells, the angiogenic vasculature, and injured or diseased tissues also offers opportunities for Eph/ephrin-based targeted drug delivery and imaging. Thus, despite the challenges presented by the complex biology of the Eph receptor/ephrin system, exciting possibilities exist for therapies exploiting these molecules. PMID:25292427

  12. A method for improved accuracy in three dimensions for determining wheel/rail contact points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xinwen; Gu, Shaojie; Zhou, Shunhua; Zhou, Yu; Lian, Songliang

    2015-11-01

    Searching for the contact points between wheels and rails is important because these points represent the points of exerted contact forces. In order to obtain an accurate contact point and an in-depth description of the wheel/rail contact behaviours on a curved track or in a turnout, a method with improved accuracy in three dimensions is proposed to determine the contact points and the contact patches between the wheel and the rail when considering the effect of the yaw angle and the roll angle on the motion of the wheel set. The proposed method, with no need of the curve fitting of the wheel and rail profiles, can accurately, directly, and comprehensively determine the contact interface distances between the wheel and the rail. The range iteration algorithm is used to improve the computation efficiency and reduce the calculation required. The present computation method is applied for the analysis of the contact of rails of CHINA (CHN) 75 kg/m and wheel sets of wearing type tread of China's freight cars. In addition, it can be proved that the results of the proposed method are consistent with that of Kalker's program CONTACT, and the maximum deviation from the wheel/rail contact patch area of this two methods is approximately 5%. The proposed method, can also be used to investigate static wheel/rail contact. Some wheel/rail contact points and contact patch distributions are discussed and assessed, wheel and rail non-worn and worn profiles included.

  13. Beyond contact: intergroup contact in the context of power relations.

    PubMed

    Saguy, Tamar; Dovidio, John F; Pratto, Felicia

    2008-03-01

    This work investigated how group-based power affects the motivations and preferences that members of advantaged and disadvantaged groups bring to situations of contact. To measure the preferred content of interactions, desires to address particular topics in intergroup contact were assessed for both experimental groups (Study 1) and real groups (Study 2). As predicted, across both studies, the desire to talk about power was greater among members of disadvantaged than of advantaged groups. This difference was mediated by motivation for change in group-based power. Study 2 further demonstrated that more highly identified members of disadvantaged groups wanted to talk about power more. Members of advantaged groups generally preferred to talk about commonalities between the groups more than about group-based power, and this desire was greater with higher levels of identification. However, perceiving that their group's advantage was illegitimate increased the desire of advantaged group members to address power in intergroup interactions.

  14. Improved Electrical Contact For Dowhhole Drilling Networks

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron

    2005-08-16

    An electrical contact system for transmitting information across tool joints while minimizing signal reflections that occur at the tool joints includes a first electrical contact comprising an annular resilient material. An annular conductor is embedded within the annular resilient material and has a surface exposed from the annular resilient material. A second electrical contact is provided that is substantially equal to the first electrical contact. Likewise, the second electrical contact has an annular resilient material and an annular conductor. The two electrical contacts configured to contact one another such that the annular conductors of each come into physical contact. The annular resilient materials of each electrical contact each have dielectric characteristics and dimensions that are adjusted to provide desired impedance to the electrical contacts.

  15. Fc gamma receptors: glycobiology and therapeutic prospects

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Jerrard M; Wormald, Mark R; Rudd, Pauline M; Davey, Gavin P

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic antibodies hold great promise for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases, and developments in antibody–drug conjugates and bispecific antibodies continue to enhance treatment options for patients. Immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies are proteins with complex modifications, which have a significant impact on their function. The most important of these modifications is glycosylation, the addition of conserved glycans to the antibody Fc region, which is critical for its interaction with the immune system and induction of effector activities such as antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity, complement activation and phagocytosis. Communication of IgG antibodies with the immune system is controlled and mediated by Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs), membrane-bound proteins, which relay the information sensed and gathered by antibodies to the immune system. These receptors are also glycoproteins and provide a link between the innate and adaptive immune systems. Recent information suggests that this receptor glycan modification is also important for the interaction with antibodies and downstream immune response. In this study, the current knowledge on FcγR glycosylation is discussed, and some insight into its role and influence on the interaction properties with IgG, particularly in the context of biotherapeutics, is provided. For the purpose of this study, other Fc receptors such as FcαR, FcεR or FcRn are not discussed extensively, as IgG-based antibodies are currently the only therapeutic antibody-based products on the market. In addition, FcγRs as therapeutics and therapeutic targets are discussed, and insight into and comment on the therapeutic aspects of receptor glycosylation are provided. PMID:27895507

  16. [Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Lei, An-Min; Hua, Jin-Lian; Dou, Zhong-Ying

    2005-03-01

    Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning have widespread and attractive prospects in animal agriculture and biomedical applications. We reviewed that the quality of oocytes and nuclear reprogramming of somatic donor cells were the main reasons of the common abnormalities in cloned animals and the low efficiency of cloning and showed the problems and outlets in therapeutic cloning, such as some basic problems in nuclear transfer affected clinical applications of therapeutic cloning. Study on isolation and culture of nuclear transfer embryonic stem (ntES) cells and specific differentiation of ntES cells into important functional cells should be emphasized and could enhance the efficiency. Adult stem cells could help to cure some great diseases, but could not replace therapeutic cloning. Ethics also impeded the development of therapeutic cloning. It is necessary to improve many techniques and reinforce the research of some basic theories, then somatic nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning may apply to agriculture reproduction and benefit to human life better.

  17. Assessment of surface contamination with contact mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    EMERSON,JOHN A.; MILLER,GREGORY V.; SORENSEN,CHRISTOPHER R.; PEARSON,RAYMOND A.

    2000-02-21

    The authors are particularly interested in the work of adhesion measurements as a means to facilitate the understanding of the adhesive failure mechanisms for systems containing encapsulated and bonded components. Of the several issues under investigation, one is the effect of organic contamination on the adhesive strength for several types of polymer/metal interface combinations. The specific question that the authors are trying to address is at what level of contamination does adhesive strength decrease. The use of contact mechanics, the JKR method, is a good approach for studying this question. Another approach being studied is the use of interracial fracture mechanics. The model contaminant is hexadecane--non-polar, medium molecular weight hydrocarbon fluid. They choose hexadecane because it replicates typical machining fluids, is nonreactive with Al surfaces, and should not dissolve readily into the adhesive systems of interest. The application of a uniform, controllable and reproducible hexadecane layer on Al surfaces has proven to be difficult. A primary concern is whether studies of model systems can be extended to systems of technological interest. The JKR theory is a continuum mechanics model of contact between two solid spheres that was developed by Johnson, Kendall and Roberts. The JKR theory is an extension of Hertzian contact theory and attributes the additional increase in the contact area between a soft elastomeric hemisphere to adhesive forces between the two surfaces. The JKR theory allows a direct estimate of the surface free energy of interface as well as the work of adhesion (Wa) between solids. Early studies performed in this laboratory involved the determination of Wa between silicone (PDMS) and Al surfaces in order to establish the potential adhesive failure mechanisms. However, the JKR studies using commercial based PDMS [poly(dimethylsiloxane)] was fraught with difficulty that were attributed to the additives used in commercial PDMS

  18. Patients with Schizophrenia and Social Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Arsova, Slavica; Barsova, Gabriela Kopacheva

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have severe problems with personal and social relations which affect their quality of life. AIM: The aim of the paper was to monitor personal and social relations in patients with schizophrenia and to find out the differences regarding socio-demographic characteristics and ambulatory and day hospital treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The investigation included 120 subjects each with diagnosis F20 according to ICD 10 criteria; divided into two groups of 60 patients regarding their actual treatment (the first group received ambulatory care whereas those from the second group had a day hospital treatment). Patients were of different age and gender, receiving regular antipsychotic therapy. They were included in individual and group psychosocial therapeutic procedures during the day hospital treatment. The investigation utilised the following diagnostic instruments: standardised clinical interview and Personal and social performance scale (PSP scale), a non-standardized questionnaire of socio-demographic data, family support and existence of mental disorder in other family members. RESULTS: The results have shown better personal and social functioning in patients who had family support, in those who are employed, in those with no mental disorder in other family members and in patients on day hospital treatment against patients receiving ambulatory care. CONCLUSION: Day hospital treatment, family support and social support improve the ability for personal and social contacts of patients with schizophrenia. PMID:27703560

  19. Therapeutic use of nicergoline.

    PubMed

    Winblad, Bengt; Fioravanti, Mario; Dolezal, Tomas; Logina, Inara; Milanov, Ivan Gospodinov; Popescu, Dinu Cristian; Solomon, Alina

    2008-01-01

    The ergot alkaloid derivative nicergoline became clinically available about 35 years ago in the 1970s. Nicergoline has a broad spectrum of action: (i) as an alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, it induces vasodilation and increases arterial blood flow; (ii) it enhances cholinergic and catecholaminergic neurotransmitter function; (iii) it inhibits platelet aggregation; (iv) it promotes metabolic activity, resulting in increased utilization of oxygen and glucose; and (v) it has neurotrophic and antioxidant properties. Acting on several basic pathophysiological mechanisms, nicergoline has therapeutic potential in a number of disorders. This article provides an overview of the published clinical evidence relating to the efficacy and safety of nicergoline (30 mg twice daily) in the treatment of dementia (including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia) and vascular and balance disorders. For dementia of different aetiologies, the therapeutic benefit of nicergoline has been established, with up to 89% of patients showing improvements in cognition and behaviour. After as little as 2 months of treatment, symptom improvement is apparent compared with placebo, and most patients are still improved or stable after 12 months. Concomitant neurophysiological changes in the brain indicate (after only 4-8 weeks' treatment) improved vigilance and information processing. In patients with balance disorders, mean improvements of 44-78% in symptom severity and quality of life have been observed with nicergoline. Although clinical experience with nicergoline in vascular disorders is limited to relatively short-term, small-scale studies, it has been successfully used in rehabilitation therapy of patients with chronic ischaemic stroke. Open-label evaluations suggest that nicergoline may also be valuable in glaucoma, depression and peripheral arterio-pathy. Adverse events of nicergoline, if any, are related to the central nervous system, the metabolic system and the overall body. Most are

  20. The intercultural and interracial therapeutic relationship: challenges and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Adil; Collazos, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Although research has demonstrated that mental health services function with patients from different cultural backgrounds, a variety of culture- and race-related factors can result in services being of lower quality than that which occurs when the clinician and patient are from the same culture. The provision of culturally competent care requires many institutional and organizational adaptations that lie beyond the control of most mental health professionals. The therapeutic relationship, however, remains a key factor of mental healthcare that can be attended to by individual therapists. The therapeutic relationship plays an important role in almost every therapeutic approach, and has been increasingly recognized as representing a means to the provision of quality intercultural and interracial treatment. At the same time, a host of cultural and racial factors relating to both the patient and clinician can compromise the development of the therapeutic relationship. This paper will explore some of the key issues that complicate therapeutic contact and communication, and will outline means by which to strengthen key components of the therapeutic relationship.

  1. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  2. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  3. Factor XI and Contact Activation as Targets for Antithrombotic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gailani, David; Bane, Charles E.; Gruber, Andras

    2015-01-01

    Summary The most commonly used anticoagulants produce therapeutic antithrombotic effects either by inhibiting thrombin or factor Xa, or by lowering the plasma levels of the precursors of these key enzymes, prothrombin and factor X. These drugs do not distinguish between thrombin generation contributing to thrombosis from thrombin generation required for hemostasis. Thus, anticoagulants increase bleeding risk, and many patients who would benefit from therapy go untreated because of comorbidities that place them at unacceptable risk for hemorrhage. Studies in animals demonstrate that components of the plasma contact activation system contribute to experimentally-induced thrombosis, despite playing little or no role in hemostasis. Attention has focused on factor XII, the zymogen of a protease (factor XIIa) that initiates contact activation when blood is exposed to foreign surfaces; and factor XI, the zymogen of the protease factor XIa, which links contact activation to the thrombin generation mechanism. In the case of factor XI, epidemiologic data indicate this protein contributes to stroke and venous thromboembolism, and perhaps myocardial infarction, in humans. A phase 2 trial showing that reduction of factor XI may be more effective than low-molecular-weight heparin at preventing venous thrombosis during knee replacement surgery provides proof of concept for the premise that an antithrombotic effect can be uncoupled from an anticoagulant effect in humans by targeting components of contact activation. Here we review data on the role of factor XI and factor XII in thrombosis, and results of pre-clinical and human trials for therapies targeting these proteins. PMID:25976012

  4. Factor XI and contact activation as targets for antithrombotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Gailani, D; Bane, C E; Gruber, A

    2015-08-01

    The most commonly used anticoagulants produce therapeutic antithrombotic effects either by inhibiting thrombin or factor Xa (FXa) or by lowering the plasma levels of the precursors of these key enzymes, prothrombin and FX. These drugs do not distinguish between thrombin generation contributing to thrombosis from thrombin generation required for hemostasis. Thus, anticoagulants increase bleeding risk, and many patients who would benefit from therapy go untreated because of comorbidities that place them at unacceptable risk for hemorrhage. Studies in animals demonstrate that components of the plasma contact activation system contribute to experimentally induced thrombosis, despite playing little or no role in hemostasis. Attention has focused on FXII, the zymogen of a protease (FXIIa) that initiates contact activation when blood is exposed to foreign surfaces, and FXI, the zymogen of the protease FXIa, which links contact activation to the thrombin generation mechanism. In the case of FXI, epidemiologic data indicate this protein contributes to stroke and venous thromboembolism, and perhaps myocardial infarction, in humans. A phase 2 trial showing that reduction of FXI may be more effective than low molecular weight heparin at preventing venous thrombosis during knee replacement surgery provides proof of concept for the premise that an antithrombotic effect can be uncoupled from an anticoagulant effect in humans by targeting components of contact activation. Here, we review data on the role of FXI and FXII in thrombosis and results of preclinical and human trials for therapies targeting these proteins.

  5. Therapeutic cloning: The ethical limits

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, Peter A. . E-mail: p.whittaker@lancaster.ac.uk

    2005-09-01

    A brief outline of stem cells, stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning is given. The position of therapeutic cloning with regard to other embryonic manipulations - IVF-based reproduction, embryonic stem formation from IVF embryos and reproductive cloning - is indicated. The main ethically challenging stages in therapeutic cloning are considered to be the nuclear transfer process including the source of eggs for this and the destruction of an embryo to provide stem cells for therapeutic use. The extremely polarised nature of the debate regarding the status of an early human embryo is noted, and some potential alternative strategies for preparing immunocompatible pluripotent stem cells are indicated.

  6. Clinical applications of therapeutic phlebotomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Hee; Oh, Ki Young

    2016-01-01

    Phlebotomy is the removal of blood from the body, and therapeutic phlebotomy is the preferred treatment for blood disorders in which the removal of red blood cells or serum iron is the most efficient method for managing the symptoms and complications. Therapeutic phlebotomy is currently indicated for the treatment of hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, porphyria cutanea tarda, sickle cell disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with hyperferritinemia. This review discusses therapeutic phlebotomy and the related disorders and also offers guidelines for establishing a therapeutic phlebotomy program. PMID:27486346

  7. PREFACE: Non-contact AFM Non-contact AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giessibl, Franz J.; Morita, Seizo

    2012-02-01

    This special issue is focussed on high resolution non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM). Non-contact atomic force microscopy was established approximately 15 years ago as a tool to image conducting and insulating surfaces with atomic resolution. Since 1998, an annual international conference has taken place, and although the proceedings of these conferences are a useful source of information, several key developments warrant devoting a special issue to this subject. In the theoretic field, the possibility of supplementing established techniques such as scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and Kelvin probe microscopy with atomically resolved force micrsoscopy poses many challenges in the calculation of contrast and contrast reversal. The surface science of insulators, self-assembled monolayers and adsorbates on insulators is a fruitful field for the application of non-contact AFM: several articles in this issue are devoted to these subjects. Atomic imaging and manipulation have been pioneered using STM, but because AFM allows the measurement of forces, AFM has had a profound impact in this field as well. Three-dimensional force spectroscopy has allowed many important insights into surface science. In this issue a combined 3D tunneling and force microscopy is introduced. Non-contact AFM typically uses frequency modulation to measure force gradients and was initially used mainly in a vacuum. As can be seen in this issue, frequency modulation is now also used in ambient conditions, allowing better spatial and force resolution. We thank all of the contributors for their time and efforts in making this special issue possible. We are also very grateful to the staff of IOP Publishing for handling the administrative aspects and for steering the refereeing process. Non-contact AFM contents Relation between the chemical force and the tunnelling current in atomic point contacts: a simple model Pavel Jelínek, Martin Ondrácek and Fernando Flores Theoretical simulation of

  8. Designing phage therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Goodridge, Lawrence D

    2010-01-01

    Phage therapy is the application of phages to bodies, substances, or environments to effect the biocontrol of pathogenic or nuisance bacteria. To be effective, phages, minimally, must be capable of attaching to bacteria (adsorption), killing those bacteria (usually associated with phage infection), and otherwise surviving (resisting decay) until they achieve attachment and subsequent killing. While a strength of phage therapy is that phages that possess appropriate properties can be chosen from a large diversity of naturally occurring phages, a more rational approach to phage therapy also can include post-isolation manipulation of phages genetically, phenotypically, or in terms of combining different products into a single formulation. Genetic manipulation, especially in these modern times, can involve genetic engineering, though a more traditional approach involves the selection of spontaneously occurring phage mutants during serial transfer protocols. While genetic modification typically is done to give rise to phenotypic changes in phages, phage phenotype alone can also be modified in vitro, prior to phage application for therapeutic purposes, as for the sake of improving phage lethality (such as by linking phage virions to antibacterial chemicals such as chloramphenicol) or survival capabilities (e.g., via virion PEGylation). Finally, phages, both naturally occurring isolates or otherwise modified constructs, can be combined into cocktails which provide collectively enhanced capabilities such as expanded overall host range. Generally these strategies represent different routes towards improving phage therapy formulations and thereby efficacy through informed design.

  9. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  10. Therapeutic antibody technology 97.

    PubMed

    Larrick, J W; Gavilondo, J

    1998-01-01

    Almost 200 antibody aficionados attended the Therapeutic Antibody Technology 97 meeting, held September 21-24, 1997 at the Holiday Inn, Union Square in the heart of San Francisco, CA. The meeting was sponsored by the Palo Alto Institute of Molecular Medicine and organized by James W. Larrick (PAIMM) and Dennis R. Burton (Scripps Research Institute). The meeting featured excellent discussions on many interesting talks and a number of poster presentations. It is likely that another meeting will be organized in 2 years, however in the meantime, an effort is underway to organize a 'Virtual Antibody Society' to be set up on the web server at Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, CA (Questions and comments on this project can be sent to: Jwlarrick@aol.com or Burton@scripps.edu). Richard Lerner (Scripps) gave the keynote address on 'Catalytic Antibodies', describing recent work with Carlos Barbas on so-called reactive immunization to generate a high activity aldolase catalytic antibody. This antibody, soon to be described in an article in Science, is the first commercially available catalytic antibody.

  11. Leech Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Abdualkader, A. M.; Ghawi, A. M.; Alaama, M.; Awang, M.; Merzouk, A.

    2013-01-01

    Hematophagous animals including leeches have been known to possess biologically active compounds in their secretions, especially in their saliva. The blood-sucking annelids, leeches have been used for therapeutic purposes since the beginning of civilization. Ancient Egyptian, Indian, Greek and Arab physicians used leeches for a wide range of diseases starting from the conventional use for bleeding to systemic ailments, such as skin diseases, nervous system abnormalities, urinary and reproductive system problems, inflammation, and dental problems. Recently, extensive researches on leech saliva unveiled the presence of a variety of bioactive peptides and proteins involving antithrombin (hirudin, bufrudin), antiplatelet (calin, saratin), factor Xa inhibitors (lefaxin), antibacterial (theromacin, theromyzin) and others. Consequently, leech has made a comeback as a new remedy for many chronic and life-threatening abnormalities, such as cardiovascular problems, cancer, metastasis, and infectious diseases. In the 20th century, leech therapy has established itself in plastic and microsurgery as a protective tool against venous congestion and served to salvage the replanted digits and flaps. Many clinics for plastic surgery all over the world started to use leeches for cosmetic purposes. Despite the efficacious properties of leech therapy, the safety, and complications of leeching are still controversial. PMID:24019559

  12. Phytonutrients as therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Charu; Prakash, Dhan

    2014-09-01

    Nutrients present in various foods plays an important role in maintaining the normal functions of the human body. The major nutrients present in foods include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. Besides these, there are some bioactive food components known as "phytonutrients" that play an important role in human health. They have tremendous impact on the health care system and may provide medical health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of disease and various physiological disorders. Phytonutrients play a positive role by maintaining and modulating immune function to prevent specific diseases. Being natural products, they hold a great promise in clinical therapy as they possess no side effects that are usually associated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. They are also comparatively cheap and thus significantly reduce health care cost. Phytonutrients are the plant nutrients with specific biological activities that support human health. Some of the important bioactive phytonutrients include polyphenols, terpenoids, resveratrol, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, carotenoids, limonoids, glucosinolates, phytoestrogens, phytosterols, anthocyanins, ω-3 fatty acids, and probiotics. They play specific pharmacological effects in human health such as anti-microbial, anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anti-spasmodic, anti-cancer, anti-aging, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, neuroprotective, hypotensive, diabetes, osteoporosis, CNS stimulant, analgesic, protection from UVB-induced carcinogenesis, immuno-modulator, and carminative. This mini-review attempts to summarize the major important types of phytonutrients and their role in promoting human health and as therapeutic agents along with the current market trend and commercialization.

  13. Overseas nurses--effective therapeutic agents?

    PubMed

    Shanley, E

    1980-09-01

    Factors affecting the effectiveness of overseas people employed as psychiatric nurses are discussed. Basic cultural influences, especially different value systems between the immigrant and the host population, are seen as unlikely to be greatly altered by the environment in which the immigrant nurses find themselves. In fact a greater divergence would seem more likely to occur. The different experiences of immigrant nurses compared with nurses recruited in Britain are considered under the following headings: expectations of the immigrants on entering nursing, their contact with the host culture, the reaction of the indigenous population to the immigrant, language difficulties, and the insecurity of employment. The conclusion drawn is that the cultural differences, recruitment methods, the immigrants' experiences in employment and lack of contact with the culture of the indigenous population (apart from their deviant members) are likely to adversely affect his/her ability to function as a therapeutic agent. This is particularly important where the form of treatment is based on the social model.

  14. Sensing with Superconducting Point Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Nurbawono, Argo; Zhang, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Superconducting point contacts have been used for measuring magnetic polarizations, identifying magnetic impurities, electronic structures, and even the vibrational modes of small molecules. Due to intrinsically small energy scale in the subgap structures of the supercurrent determined by the size of the superconducting energy gap, superconductors provide ultrahigh sensitivities for high resolution spectroscopies. The so-called Andreev reflection process between normal metal and superconductor carries complex and rich information which can be utilized as powerful sensor when fully exploited. In this review, we would discuss recent experimental and theoretical developments in the supercurrent transport through superconducting point contacts and their relevance to sensing applications, and we would highlight their current issues and potentials. A true utilization of the method based on Andreev reflection analysis opens up possibilities for a new class of ultrasensitive sensors. PMID:22778630

  15. Remedial Action Contacts Directory - 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This document, which was prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), is a directory of 2628 individuals interested or involved in environmental restoration and/or remedial actions at radioactively contaminated sites. This directory contains a list of mailing addresses and phone numbers of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor offices; an index of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor office sorted by state; a list of individuals, presented by last name, facsimile number, and e-mail address; an index of affiliations presented alphabetically, with individual contacts appearing below each affiliation name; and an index of foreign contacta sorted by country and affiliation. This document was generated from the Remedial Action Contacts Database, which is maintained by the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC).

  16. Sensing with superconducting point contacts.

    PubMed

    Nurbawono, Argo; Zhang, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Superconducting point contacts have been used for measuring magnetic polarizations, identifying magnetic impurities, electronic structures, and even the vibrational modes of small molecules. Due to intrinsically small energy scale in the subgap structures of the supercurrent determined by the size of the superconducting energy gap, superconductors provide ultrahigh sensitivities for high resolution spectroscopies. The so-called Andreev reflection process between normal metal and superconductor carries complex and rich information which can be utilized as powerful sensor when fully exploited. In this review, we would discuss recent experimental and theoretical developments in the supercurrent transport through superconducting point contacts and their relevance to sensing applications, and we would highlight their current issues and potentials. A true utilization of the method based on Andreev reflection analysis opens up possibilities for a new class of ultrasensitive sensors.

  17. Contact charge-transfer lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dharamsi, A.N.; Tulip, J.

    1981-07-01

    A mechanism for sustaining population inversions in contact charge-transfer complexes in which the ground electronic state is not bound is described. The mechanism relies on picosecond radiationless depletion of the lower laser state. This generates an inversion even when the ground-state potential curve, as plotted against the donor-acceptor distance, is not repulsive vertically below the excited state minimum. Contact charge-transfer lasers would offer high gain, high-energy density, and tunable sources of coherent radiation in the uv and visible. A method for pumping such a laser is examined and applied to the pyrrole-oxygen complex. A rate equation analysis is done and estimates for gain and energy density are presented.

  18. Contact lenses for infant aphakia.

    PubMed Central

    Amaya, L G; Speedwell, L; Taylor, D

    1990-01-01

    We prospectively studied for three years the optical correction by contact lenses of 83 aphakic infants (141 eyes) who generally also had systemic and other ocular anomalies: 85% of the patients tolerated the lens wear for the whole study period. Complications occurred in 46 eyes and led to cessation of lens wear in two cases. Ten patients abandoned the lenses for other reasons. Thirty-four eyes needed subsequent intraocular surgery, mostly minor, and nine patients had strabismus surgery. Contact lenses are a versatile, safe, successful, and cost effective treatment for aphakia in infancy against which, before their widespread introduction for primary optical correction of infant aphakia, other methods of aphakic treatment need to be compared. PMID:2322512

  19. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    PubMed

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  20. Heat transport through atomic contacts.

    PubMed

    Mosso, Nico; Drechsler, Ute; Menges, Fabian; Nirmalraj, Peter; Karg, Siegfried; Riel, Heike; Gotsmann, Bernd

    2017-02-06

    Heat transport and dissipation at the nanoscale severely limit the scaling of high-performance electronic devices and circuits. Metallic atomic junctions serve as model systems to probe electrical and thermal transport down to the atomic level as well as quantum effects that occur in one-dimensional (1D) systems. Whereas charge transport in atomic junctions has been studied intensively in the past two decades, heat transport remains poorly characterized because it requires the combination of a high sensitivity to small heat fluxes and the formation of stable atomic contacts. Here we report heat-transfer measurements through atomic junctions and analyse the thermal conductance of single-atom gold contacts at room temperature. Simultaneous measurements of charge and heat transport reveal the proportionality of electrical and thermal conductance, quantized with the respective conductance quanta. This constitutes a verification of the Wiedemann-Franz law at the atomic scale.

  1. Protein contact dermatitis - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Barata, Ana Rita Rodrigues; Conde-Salazar, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Protein contact dermatitis is a skin condition not well known and underdiagnosed by dermatologists, resulting from an IgE-mediated allergic reaction. Clinically it presents as a chronic hand and/or forearms eczema of occupational origin, especially in professionals who work as food handlers. Epicutaneous tests are negative, and to diagnose this condition it is necessary to perform immediate-type allergy tests. The most sensitive and practical is the prick-by-prick test with food that the patient refers to cause intense itching after immediate skin contact. Treatment is symptomatic, and it is mandatory to avoid the responsible allergen, wearing plastic gloves and even sometimes leaving the workplace for symptom resolution. PMID:24068135

  2. Design considerations for PAMAM dendrimer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Goonewardena, Sascha N; Kratz, Jeremy D; Zong, Hong; Desai, Ankur M; Tang, Shengzhuang; Emery, Sarah; Baker, James R; Huang, Baohua

    2013-05-15

    We have previously shown that methotrexate (MTX) conjugated to a cancer-specific poly amido amine (PAMAM) dendrimer has a higher therapeutic index than MTX alone. Unfortunately, these therapeutics have been difficult to advance because of the complicated syntheses and an incomplete understanding of the dendrimer properties. We wished to address these obstacles by using copper-free click chemistry to functionalize the dendrimer scaffolds and to exploring the effects of two dendrimer properties (the targeting ligand and drug linkage) on cytotoxicity. We conjugated either ester or amide-linker modified MTX to dendrimer scaffolds with or without folic acid (FA). Because of multivalency, the FA and MTX functionalized dendrimers had similar capacities to target the folate receptor on cancer cells. Additionally, we found that the ester- and amide-linker modified MTX compounds had similar cytotoxicity but the dendrimer-ester MTX conjugates were much more cytotoxic than the dendrimer-amide MTX conjugates. These results clarify the impact of these properties on therapeutic efficacy and will allow us to design more effective polymer therapeutics.

  3. Determinants of immunogenic response to protein therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satish K; Cousens, Leslie P; Alvarez, David; Mahajan, Pramod B

    2012-09-01

    Protein therapeutics occupy a very significant position in the biopharmaceutical market. In addition to the preclinical, clinical and post marketing challenges common to other drugs, unwanted immunogenicity is known to affect efficacy and/or safety of most biotherapeutics. A standard set of immunogenicity risk factors are routinely used to inform monitoring strategies in clinical studies. A number of in-silico, in vivo and in vitro approaches have also been employed to predict immunogenicity of biotherapeutics, but with limited success. Emerging data also indicates the role of immune tolerance mechanisms and impact of several product-related factors on modulating host immune responses. Thus, a comprehensive discussion of the impact of innate and adaptive mechanisms and molecules involved in induction of host immune responses on immunogenicity of protein therapeutics is needed. A detailed understanding of these issues is essential in order to fully exploit the therapeutic potential of this class of drugs. This Roundtable Session was designed to provide a common platform for discussing basic immunobiological and pharmacological issues related to the role of biotherapeutic-associated risk factors, as well as host immune system in immunogenicity against protein therapeutics. The session included overview presentations from three speakers, followed by a panel discussion with audience participation.

  4. Targeting cellular metabolism to improve cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Butler, E B; Tan, M

    2013-03-07

    The metabolic properties of cancer cells diverge significantly from those of normal cells. Energy production in cancer cells is abnormally dependent on aerobic glycolysis. In addition to the dependency on glycolysis, cancer cells have other atypical metabolic characteristics such as increased fatty acid synthesis and increased rates of glutamine metabolism. Emerging evidence shows that many features characteristic to cancer cells, such as dysregulated Warburg-like glucose metabolism, fatty acid synthesis and glutaminolysis are linked to therapeutic resistance in cancer treatment. Therefore, targeting cellular metabolism may improve the response to cancer therapeutics and the combination of chemotherapeutic drugs with cellular metabolism inhibitors may represent a promising strategy to overcome drug resistance in cancer therapy. Recently, several review articles have summarized the anticancer targets in the metabolic pathways and metabolic inhibitor-induced cell death pathways, however, the dysregulated metabolism in therapeutic resistance, which is a highly clinical relevant area in cancer metabolism research, has not been specifically addressed. From this unique angle, this review article will discuss the relationship between dysregulated cellular metabolism and cancer drug resistance and how targeting of metabolic enzymes, such as glucose transporters, hexokinase, pyruvate kinase M2, lactate dehydrogenase A, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, fatty acid synthase and glutaminase can enhance the efficacy of common therapeutic agents or overcome resistance to chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

  5. Therapeutic gold, silver, and platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Miko; Foote, Matthew; Prow, Tarl W

    2015-01-01

    There are an abundance of nanoparticle technologies being developed for use as part of therapeutic strategies. This review focuses on a narrow class of metal nanoparticles that have therapeutic potential that is a consequence of elemental composition and size. The most widely known of these are gold nanoshells that have been developed over the last two decades for photothermal ablation in superficial cancers. The therapeutic effect is the outcome of the thickness and diameter of the gold shell that enables fine tuning of the plasmon resonance. When these metal nanoparticles are exposed to the relevant wavelength of light, their temperature rapidly increases. This in turn induces a localized photothermal ablation that kills the surrounding tumor tissue. Similarly, gold nanoparticles have been developed to enhance radiotherapy. The high-Z nature of gold dramatically increases the photoelectric cross-section. Thus, the photoelectric effects are significantly increased. The outcome of these interactions is enhanced tumor killing with lower doses of radiation, all while sparing tissue without gold nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles have been used for their wound healing properties in addition to enhancing the tumor-killing effects of anticancer drugs. Finally, platinum nanoparticles are thought to serve as a reservoir for platinum ions that can induce DNA damage in cancer cells. The future is bright with the path to clinical trials is largely cleared for some of the less complex therapeutic metal nanoparticle systems.

  6. The social dimensions of therapeutic horticulture.

    PubMed

    Harris, Holly

    2017-02-22

    Harnessing nature to promote mental health is increasingly seen as a sustainable solution to healthcare across the industrialised world. The benefits of these approaches to well-being include reduced symptoms of anxiety, depression and improved social functioning. Many studies assume that contact with nature is the main therapeutic component of these interventions yet 'green care' programmes typically include activities not based on 'nature' that may contribute to positive outcomes. This study explored the views of service users participating in a Therapeutic Horticultural programme on what factors promoted their engagement in the project, to identify variables other than 'nature' that may be responsible for successful engagement in these programmes. A secondary aim was to assess the significance 'nature' plays including, for example whether a prior interest in horticultural-related activities, such as gardening, is significant. Two focus groups were held with mental health service users (n = 15) attending a gardening project in south-east England. Findings revealed that the social element of the project was the key facilitator to engagement; the flexible structure of the gardening project was also significant and allowed service users to feel empowered. 'Nature' evoked a sense of calm and provided participants with a non-threatening space that was engaging.

  7. Elbow Dislocations in Contact Sports.

    PubMed

    Morris, Mark S; Ozer, Kagan

    2017-02-01

    Elbow dislocations are more common in athletes than in the general population. Simple elbow dislocations should be managed with early range of motion and early return to sport, even with high-level contact athletes. Patients with instability on examination or with complex elbow dislocations may require surgical intervention. Overall, the outcomes after simple elbow dislocations are excellent and athletes should be able to return to play without significant limitations.

  8. Forces between membranes approaching contact.

    PubMed

    Parsegian, V A

    1981-01-01

    Cell stickiness to surfaces is recognized as an important concern in tests of red cell filterability. Many forces need to be considered in order to think about the sources of cell sticking. As cell membranes are brought together they experience successively the domination of several classes of forces van der Waals attraction, electrostatic repulsion, hydration repulsion, and specific charge-charge interactions at contact. The behaviour of each of these forces is described in the context of red cell adhesion.

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Marks, J G

    1988-06-01

    Two female florists developed dermatitis of the fingertips. Patch testing revealed allergic contact dermatitis to the flower, Alstroemeria, used in floral arrangements. They had positive patch tests to portions of Alstroemeria, and to tuliposide A, the allergen in this plant. Vinyl gloves were not helpful since tuliposide A readily penetrates through these gloves. Nitrile gloves may be protective since they prevented positive patch test to tuliposide A.

  10. Contact | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    For more information about the Office of Cancer Genomics, please contact: Office of Cancer Genomics National Cancer Institute 31 Center Drive, 10A07 Bethesda, Maryland 20892-2580 Phone: (301) 451-8027 Fax: (301) 480-4368 Email: ocg@mail.nih.gov *Please note that this site will not function properly in Internet Explorer unless you completely turn off the Compatibility View*

  11. Contact allergy to cocamidopropyl betaine.

    PubMed

    de Groot, A C; van der Walle, H B; Weyland, J W

    1995-12-01

    Cocamidopropyl betaine is an amphoteric surfactant used increasingly in cosmetic products. We describe 20 cases of cosmetic allergy to cocamidopropyl betaine; all were caused by shampoo or shower gel. 8 patients were hairdressers, who had occupational allergic contact dermatitis from shampoos. We recommend patch testing cocamidopropyl betaine 1% aq. routinely in hairdressers with dermatitis of the hands, and in all patients suspected of suffering from cosmetic allergy.

  12. Statins: perspectives in cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Corcos, Laurent; Le Jossic-Corcos, Catherine

    2013-10-01

    Virtually any cell type in a mammalian organism uses Acetyl CoA to yield mevalonate, through the activity of the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase enzyme and, ultimately, cholesterol. Statins have long and quite successfully been used as cholesterol lowering drugs. They reversibly inhibit the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase activity, which is rate limiting in the early steps of the cholesterol synthesis pathway. In addition to these effects, it has also been amply shown that statins may efficiently trigger cancer cell apoptosis, making them a plausible therapeutic option for the treatment of cancer. Whether statins may prevent cancer occurrence is a matter of debate and an unanswered question; undoubtedly experimental models have clearly demonstrated the potential of statins as direct cytotoxic agents, which can reduce tumour development or metastasis spread, even more so when combined with cytotoxic drugs. Until now, however, only few data in humans support the idea that statins could rightfully belong to the group of anticancer drugs. Nevertheless, as cancer cell metabolism is being thoroughly revisited, the mevalonate pathway has recently been reported as truly oncogenic, presenting the attractive possibility that mevalonate pathway inhibitors, such as statins, may join the ranks of anticancer drugs.

  13. Therapeutic targets in systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Denton, Christopher P

    2007-01-01

    The precise aetiology of systemic sclerosis (SSc) remains elusive, but significant advances over the past few years have improved our understanding of the underlying pathogenic processes and identified key pathways and mediators that are potential therapeutic targets. The situation is complicated by the clinical heterogeneity of SSc and the differential pathogenesis that underlies the two commonest subsets, namely diffuse and limited cutaneous disease. However, there are common mediators that could be targeted to provide clinical benefit in both types of disease. To date, clinical success with therapies directed against logical profibrotic mediators, such as connective tissue growth factor and transforming growth factor-β, is yet to be reported, although studies are ongoing. More promising clinical results have been obtained with the dual endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan, which has been shown to manage two vascular complications of SSc effectively: pulmonary arterial hypertension and digital ulceration. It remains to be determined whether the identification of additional mediators merely furthers our knowledge of the natural history of SSc or presents targets that can be manipulated to manage SSc patients effectively. PMID:17767744

  14. Targeting microenvironment in cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Matthew; Wei, Han; Lu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    During development of a novel treatment for cancer patients, the tumor microenvironment and its interaction with the tumor cells must be considered. Aspects such as the extracellular matrix (ECM), the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), secreted factors, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), the host immune response, and tumor-associated microphages (TAM) are critical for cancer progression and metastasis. Additionally, signaling pathways such as the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) can promote further cytokine release in the tumor environment, and impact tumor progression greatly. Importantly, cytokine overexpression has been linked to drug resistance in cancers and is therefore an attractive target for combinational therapies. Specific inhibitors of cytokines involved in signaling between tumor cells and the microenvironment have not been studied in depth and have great potential for use in personalized medicines. Together, the interactions between the microenvironment and tumors are critical for tumor growth and promotion and should be taken into serious consideration for future novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:27270649

  15. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  16. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  17. Nickel contact hypersensitivity in children.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Nanette B; Licht, Jonah; Friedler, Suzanne; Sethi, Shika; Laude, Teresita A

    2002-01-01

    Nickel allergic contact dermatitis is the most prevalent allergy in North America, with an incidence of 14.3%. It is on the rise from 10 years ago, when the incidence was 10%. This has been presumed to represent an increased exposure to nickel in the environment-especially in costume jewelry and belt buckles. We examined a group of 30 pediatric patients who had either a personal history of umbilical or wrist dermatitis, or a family history of nickel allergic contact dermatitis. All of these patients had a positive patch test to nickel sulfate 5%. Moreover, 50% of patients had an id reaction; all of these patients had positive patch tests that were papular in nature, similar to their papular id reaction. We posit that the presence of a positive family history may be a positive predictor of nickel allergic contact dermatitis, requiring nickel avoidance, especially in atopic children. Based on the high level of positive reactions in patients with umbilical dermatitis and an id reaction, patch testing to nickel in these patients is most likely to yield a useful result. Knowledge of reactivity to nickel would then allow parents and patients to initiate nickel avoidance earlier in life.

  18. Cryptosporidiosis associated with animal contacts.

    PubMed

    Stantic-Pavlinic, Mirjana; Xiao, Lihua; Glaberman, Scott; Lal, Altaf A; Orazen, Toni; Rataj-Verglez, Aleksandra; Logar, Jernej; Berce, Ingrid

    2003-02-28

    Transmission of Cryptosporidium sp. within the general public was studied. We were looking for a possible risk of infection associated with animal contacts. Investigation of the animal contacts of affected individuals led to the formulation of the hypothesis that animals are a source of cryptosporidiosis. The research was done in the Region of Ljubljana, an area with 587,000 inhabitants during a period of three years. Stool specimens of 338 persons with acute enteric diseases were positive for Cryptosporidium sp. Diagnosis was done with an immunofluorescence test and modified Ziel-Neelsen staining. Processing of statistical data was done with the medical software application EPI INFO 6. According to our questionnaire, direct contact with animals occurred in 49 of the 338 cases of cryptosporidiosis, and was more frequently registered in males (Odds ratio = 1.96). Subgenotyping analysis revealed the presence of two subgenotypes of Cryptosporidium parvum bovine (GPB and GPC) in humans. These data indicate that genetic heterogeneity in C. parvum bovine genotype exists in a localized area and that farm animals can be a source of infection.

  19. Non-contact versus contact-based sensing methodologies for in-home upper arm robotic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Howard, Ayanna; Brooks, Douglas; Brown, Edward; Gebregiorgis, Adey; Chen, Yu-Ping

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, robot-assisted rehabilitation has gained momentum as a viable means for improving outcomes for therapeutic interventions. Such therapy experiences allow controlled and repeatable trials and quantitative evaluation of mobility metrics. Typically though these robotic devices have been focused on rehabilitation within a clinical setting. In these traditional robot-assisted rehabilitation studies, participants are required to perform goal-directed movements with the robot during a therapy session. This requires physical contact between the participant and the robot to enable precise control of the task, as well as a means to collect relevant performance data. On the other hand, non-contact means of robot interaction can provide a safe methodology for extracting the control data needed for in-home rehabilitation. As such, in this paper we discuss a contact and non-contact based method for upper-arm rehabilitation exercises that enables quantification of upper-arm movements. We evaluate our methodology on upper-arm abduction/adduction movements and discuss the advantages and limitations of each approach as applied to an in-home rehabilitation scenario.

  20. Yoga: a therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Nirmala N; Shankar, Kamala

    2004-11-01

    Yoga, practiced widely in the East, is now popular in the West as part of a healthy lifestyle. This article brings a medical perspective to the practice of yoga. Selected yoga postures that are believed to benefit certain medical conditions are highlighted. In addition, the philosophy, general guidelines, and medical benefits of yoga practice are described.

  1. Modeling contact angle hysteresis of a liquid droplet sitting on a cosine wave-like pattern surface.

    PubMed

    Promraksa, Arwut; Chen, Li-Jen

    2012-10-15

    A liquid droplet sitting on a hydrophobic surface with a cosine wave-like square-array pattern in the Wenzel state is simulated by using the Surface Evolver to determine the contact angle. For a fixed drop volume, multiple metastable states are obtained at two different surface roughnesses. Unusual and non-circular shape of the three-phase contact line of a liquid droplet sitting on the model surface is observed due to corrugation and distortion of the contact line by structure of the roughness. The contact angle varies along the contact line for each metastable state. The maximum and minimum contact angles among the multiple metastable states at a fixed viewing angle correspond to the advancing and the receding contact angles, respectively. It is interesting to observe that the advancing/receding contact angles (and contact angle hysteresis) are a function of viewing angle. In addition, the receding (or advancing) contact angles at different viewing angles are determined at different metastable states. The contact angle of minimum energy among the multiple metastable states is defined as the most stable (equilibrium) contact angle. The Wenzel model is not able to describe the contact angle along the three-phase contact line. The contact angle hysteresis at different drop volumes is determined. The number of the metastable states increases with increasing drop volume. Drop volume effect on the contact angles is also discussed.

  2. Light and Movement: Making Contact with a Traumatised and Embattled Latency Girl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allnutt, Louise

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows a child psychotherapist learning and developing her technique as she attempts to make contact with a child who is extremely hard to reach. It is based on the first two years of three-times-weekly intensive psychotherapy of a latency girl who had little faith in a helpful therapeutic relationship. Her defences against such a…

  3. Cheilitis caused by contact allergy to anethole in spearmint flavoured toothpaste.

    PubMed

    Poon, Terence S C; Freeman, Susanne

    2006-11-01

    A 63-year-old woman presented with a 6-year history of persistent cheilitis. Minimal improvement was achieved with therapeutic measures. Patch testing was positive to anethole, a flavouring used in her toothpaste. Her cheilitis resolved after cessation of the flavoured toothpaste. This case demonstrates the importance of considering contact allergy to toothpaste flavours in patients with cheilitis.

  4. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  5. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  6. Therapeutic Devices for Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic devices provide new options for treating drug-resistant epilepsy. These devices act by a variety of mechanisms to modulate neuronal activity. Only vagus nerve stimulation, which continues to develop new technology, is approved for use in the United States. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of anterior thalamus for partial epilepsy recently was approved in Europe and several other countries. Responsive neurostimulation, which delivers stimuli to one or two seizure foci in response to a detected seizure, recently completed a successful multicenter trial. Several other trials of brain stimulation are in planning or underway. Transcutaneous magnetic stimulation (TMS) may provide a noninvasive method to stimulate cortex. Controlled studies of TMS split on efficacy, and may depend on whether a seizure focus is near a possible region for stimulation. Seizure detection devices in the form of “shake” detectors via portable accelerometers can provide notification of an ongoing tonic-clonic seizure, or peace of mind in the absence of notification. Prediction of seizures from various aspects of EEG is in early stages. Prediction appears to be possible in a subpopulation of people with refractory seizures and a clinical trial of an implantable prediction device is underway. Cooling of neocortex or hippocampus reversibly can attenuate epileptiform EEG activity and seizures, but engineering problems remain in its implementation. Optogenetics is a new technique that can control excitability of specific populations of neurons with light. Inhibition of epileptiform activity has been demonstrated in hippocampal slices, but use in humans will require more work. In general, devices provide useful palliation for otherwise uncontrollable seizures, but with a different risk profile than with most drugs. Optimizing the place of devices in therapy for epilepsy will require further development and clinical experience. PMID:22367987

  7. Mitochondrial diseases: therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    DiMauro, Salvatore; Mancuso, Michelangelo

    2007-06-01

    Therapy of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies (defined restrictively as defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain) is woefully inadequate, despite great progress in our understanding of the molecular bases of these disorders. In this review, we consider sequentially several different therapeutic approaches. Palliative therapy is dictated by good medical practice and includes anticonvulsant medication, control of endocrine dysfunction, and surgical procedures. Removal of noxious metabolites is centered on combating lactic acidosis, but extends to other metabolites. Attempts to bypass blocks in the respiratory chain by administration of electron acceptors have not been successful, but this may be amenable to genetic engineering. Administration of metabolites and cofactors is the mainstay of real-life therapy and is especially important in disorders due to primary deficiencies of specific compounds, such as carnitine or coenzyme Q10. There is increasing interest in the administration of reactive oxygen species scavengers both in primary mitochondrial diseases and in neurodegenerative diseases directly or indirectly related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Aerobic exercise and physical therapy prevent or correct deconditioning and improve exercise tolerance in patients with mitochondrial myopathies due to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Gene therapy is a challenge because of polyplasmy and heteroplasmy, but interesting experimental approaches are being pursued and include, for example, decreasing the ratio of mutant to wild-type mitochondrial genomes (gene shifting), converting mutated mtDNA genes into normal nuclear DNA genes (allotopic expression), importing cognate genes from other species, or correcting mtDNA mutations with specific restriction endonucleases. Germline therapy raises ethical problems but is being considered for prevention of maternal transmission of mtDNA mutations. Preventive therapy through genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis is

  8. Graphene based composite grease for elastohydrodynamic lubricated point contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jayant; Anand, Gautam; Kumar, Deepak; Tandon, Naresh

    2016-09-01

    This paper present tribological and dynamic evaluation of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets as an additive in lithium grease. Highly dispersion mixing method is used to mix rGO in commercial lithium grease to prepare composite grease. Tribological contact under investigation is established by ball-on-disc configuration. Friction, noise and vibration responses are recorded for the point contact lubricated with composite grease and base lithium grease in rolling and sliding- induced-rolling conditions. Relative speed of disc with the speed of ball is varied in order to get sliding-induced-rolling contact. Observations are performed at different nornal loads and fixed speed in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) regime. Results show existence of an optimum concentration (0.4% w/w) of rGO in commercial lithium grease. Friction, noise and vibration are recorded minimum for concentration of 0.4% w/w of rGO in commercial lithium grease. Reduction in friction coefficient is recorded up to 30% and 20% for rolling contact and sliding-induced-rolling contact respectively at optimum concentration of rGO in lithium grease. The lamellar structure of rGO in base grease controls the lubricity of concentrated point contact.

  9. Measuring static and dynamic contact angles using a liquid needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanedrin, Raymond; Jin, Ming; Frese, Daniel; Scheithauer, Carsten; Willers, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    The optical determination of static and advancing contact angle is made on drops applied or extended, respectively, onto a substrate through the use of thin solid needles. Although this method has been used extensively, this method of dosing can be time consuming, cumbersome and if not meticulously performed can lead to erroneous contact angle results. Herein, we present an alternative way of applying drops onto substrates using a small liquid jet, which is produced by a liquid pressure dosing system acting as a "liquid needle." A comparative static contact angle study on 14 different surfaces with two different liquids were performed utilizing two different ways of dosing: the conventional solid and a novel liquid needle based technique. We found, for all but one sample, that the obtained results were highly comparable. Observed differences can be explained by the characteristics of either way of dosing. In addition, we used the liquid pressure based dosing system for optical advancing contact angle measurement on two different samples. The liquid needle based method facilitates the expansion of a drop from 0.1 to 22 μL within less than 1.2 seconds, which provided constant contact angle versus drop base diameter curves. The obtained results were highly comparable with dynamic Wilhelmy contact angle measurements.

  10. The impact of contact tracing in clustered populations.

    PubMed

    House, Thomas; Keeling, Matt J

    2010-03-26

    The tracing of potentially infectious contacts has become an important part of the control strategy for many infectious diseases, from early cases of novel infections to endemic sexually transmitted infections. Here, we make use of mathematical models to consider the case of partner notification for sexually transmitted infection, however these models are sufficiently simple to allow more general conclusions to be drawn. We show that, when contact network structure is considered in addition to contact tracing, standard "mass action" models are generally inadequate. To consider the impact of mutual contacts (specifically clustering) we develop an improvement to existing pairwise network models, which we use to demonstrate that ceteris paribus, clustering improves the efficacy of contact tracing for a large region of parameter space. This result is sometimes reversed, however, for the case of highly effective contact tracing. We also develop stochastic simulations for comparison, using simple re-wiring methods that allow the generation of appropriate comparator networks. In this way we contribute to the general theory of network-based interventions against infectious disease.

  11. Effect of Contact Lens on Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Rodent Retina

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaojing; Wang, Chia-Hao; Dai, Cuixia; Camesa, Adam; Zhang, Hao F.; Jiao, Shuliang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of powerless contact lens on improving the quality of optical coherence tomography imaging of rodent retina. Methods A spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system was built for in vivo imaging of rodent retina. The calibrated depth resolution of the system was 3 μm in tissue. A commercial powerless contact lens for rat eye was tested in the experiments. For each rat eye, the retina was imaged in vivo sequentially first without wearing contact lens and then with wearing contact lens. The lateral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio of the OCT images with and without contact lens were compared to evaluate the improvement of image quality. Results The fundus images generated from the measured 3D OCT datasets with contact lens showed sharper retinal blood vessels than those without contact lens. The contrast of the retinal blood vessels was also significantly enhanced in the OCT fundus images with contact lens. As high as 10 dB improvements in SNR was observed for OCT images with contact lens compared to the images of the same retinal area without contact lens. Conclusions We have demonstrated that the use of powerless contact lens on rat eye can significantly improve OCT image quality of rodent retina, which is a benefit in addition to preventing cataract formation. We believe the improvement in image quality is the result of partial compensation of the optical aberrations of the rodent eye by the contact lens. PMID:24000814

  12. The Evolution of Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Bob; Skalko, Thomas K.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews elements that impact the delivery of therapeutic recreation services, emphasizing elements that are external to the discipline and influence practice and elements that are internal to the discipline and must be addressed if therapeutic recreation is to continue its evolution as a competitive health and human service discipline.…

  13. Toward Constructing the Therapeutic System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andolfi, Maurizio; Angelo, Claudio

    1988-01-01

    Describes the therapist as an active participant in the construction of the therapeutic system, explaining how the therapist constructs complex relationships within the evolving therapeutic process. Reevaluates the importance of the individual in the family as an agent of change and as a mediator of triangular relational messages. (Author/NB)

  14. 21 CFR 178.3570 - Lubricants with incidental food contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lubricants with incidental food contact. 178.3570 Section 178.3570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants...

  15. Residue contact-count potentials are as effective as residue-residue contact-type potentials for ranking protein decoys

    PubMed Central

    Bolser, Dan M; Filippis, Ioannis; Stehr, Henning; Duarte, Jose; Lappe, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background For over 30 years potentials of mean force have been used to evaluate the relative energy of protein structures. The most commonly used potentials define the energy of residue-residue interactions and are derived from the empirical analysis of the known protein structures. However, single-body residue 'environment' potentials, although widely used in protein structure analysis, have not been rigorously compared to these classical two-body residue-residue interaction potentials. Here we do not try to combine the two different types of residue interaction potential, but rather to assess their independent contribution to scoring protein structures. Results A data set of nearly three thousand monomers was used to compare pairwise residue-residue 'contact-type' propensities to single-body residue 'contact-count' propensities. Using a large and standard set of protein decoys we performed an in-depth comparison of these two types of residue interaction propensities. The scores derived from the contact-type and contact-count propensities were assessed using two different performance metrics and were compared using 90 different definitions of residue-residue contact. Our findings show that both types of score perform equally well on the task of discriminating between near-native protein decoys. However, in a statistical sense, the contact-count based scores were found to carry more information than the contact-type based scores. Conclusion Our analysis has shown that the performance of either type of score is very similar on a range of different decoys. This similarity suggests a common underlying biophysical principle for both types of residue interaction propensity. However, several features of the contact-count based propensity suggests that it should be used in preference to the contact-type based propensity. Specifically, it has been shown that contact-counts can be predicted from sequence information alone. In addition, the use of a single-body term allows

  16. Direct-Write Contacts: Metallization and Contact Formation; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    van Hest, M. F. A. M.; Curtis, C. J.; Miedaner, A.; Pasquarelli, R. M.; Kaydonova, T.; Hersh, P.; Ginley, D. S.

    2008-05-01

    Using direct-write approaches in photovoltaics for metallization and contact formation can significantly reduce the cost per watt of producing photovoltaic devices. Inks have been developed for various materials, such as Ag, Cu, Ni and Al, which can be used to inkjet print metallizations for various kinds of photovoltaic devices. Use of these inks results in metallization with resistivities close to those of bulk materials. By means of inkjet printing a metallization grid can be printed with better resolution, i.e. smaller lines, than screen-printing. Also inks have been developed to deposit transparent conductive oxide films by means of ultrasonic spraying.

  17. Specific Contact Resistance Measurements of Ohmic Contacts to Diamond

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    AD-A262 818 a.vi tm te (11o ckiaa AGENCY USE CNLY re.j. b"IAI 2 REPORT DATS 3 i4 ý’ * : ..... .. February 1993 l , qf-r 4 T71 a AND SUBT’LE. SPECIFIC...rectify rnq and :1 i diamondi tl- ’o *been reported in the- literature 1-I paper measurements, of the specitic conatact inccc o.f ohmic ln tacts to...conducting layer. The contact resistance in these struc- tures is analyzed using the transmission line model [15. The primary drawback to

  18. Colonization, pathogenicity, host susceptibility, and therapeutics for Staphylococcus aureus: what is the clinical relevance?

    PubMed

    Tong, Steven Y C; Chen, Luke F; Fowler, Vance G

    2012-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal that can also cause a broad spectrum of clinical disease. Factors associated with clinical disease are myriad and dynamic and include pathogen virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and host susceptibility. Additionally, infection control measures aimed at the environmental niches of S. aureus and therapeutic advances continue to impact upon the incidence and outcomes of staphylococcal infections. This review article focuses on the clinical relevance of advances in our understanding of staphylococcal colonization, virulence, host susceptibility, and therapeutics. Over the past decade key developments have arisen. First, rates of nosocomial methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections have significantly declined in many countries. Second, we have made great strides in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of S. aureus in general and community-associated MRSA in particular. Third, host risk factors for invasive staphylococcal infections, such as advancing age, increasing numbers of invasive medical interventions, and a growing proportion of patients with healthcare contact, remain dynamic. Finally, several new antimicrobial agents active against MRSA have become available for clinical use. Humans and S. aureus co-exist, and the dynamic interface between host, pathogen, and our attempts to influence these interactions will continue to rapidly change. Although progress has been made in the past decade, we are likely to face further surprises such as the recent waves of community-associated MRSA.

  19. Metrics for antibody therapeutics development.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Janice M

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of full-size monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats can be produced through genetic and biological engineering techniques. These molecules are now filling the preclinical and clinical pipelines of every major pharmaceutical company and many biotechnology firms. Metrics for the development of antibody therapeutics, including averages for the number of candidates entering clinical study and development phase lengths for mAbs approved in the United States, were derived from analysis of a dataset of over 600 therapeutic mAbs that entered clinical study sponsored, at least in part, by commercial firms. The results presented provide an overview of the field and context for the evaluation of on-going and prospective mAb development programs. The expansion of therapeutic antibody use through supplemental marketing approvals and the increase in the study of therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats are discussed.

  20. Bacteriophage Procurement for Therapeutic Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Żaczek, Maciej; Łobocka, Małgorzata; Łusiak-Szelachowska, Marzanna; Górski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages (phages), discovered 100 years ago, are able to infect and destroy only bacterial cells. In the current crisis of antibiotic efficacy, phage therapy is considered as a supplementary or even alternative therapeutic approach. Evolution of multidrug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacterial strains poses a real threat, so it is extremely important to have the possibility to isolate new phages for therapeutic purposes. Our phage laboratory and therapy center has extensive experience with phage isolation, characterization, and therapeutic application. In this article we present current progress in bacteriophages isolation and use for therapeutic purposes, our experience in this field and its practical implications for phage therapy. We attempt to summarize the state of the art: properties of phages, the methods for their isolation, criteria of phage selection for therapeutic purposes and limitations of their use. Perspectives for the use of genetically engineered phages to specifically target bacterial virulence-associated genes are also briefly presented. PMID:27570518

  1. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOEpatents

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter John

    2015-07-21

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline material layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  2. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOEpatents

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter John

    2014-07-22

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline materiat layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  3. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOEpatents

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David; Cousins, Peter

    2012-12-04

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline material layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  4. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations for the next generation protein therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Dhaval K.

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly sophisticated protein engineering efforts have been undertaken lately to generate protein therapeutics with desired properties. This has resulted in the discovery of the next generation of protein therapeutics, which include: engineered antibodies, immunoconjugates, bi/multi-specific proteins, antibody mimetic novel scaffolds, and engineered ligands/receptors. These novel protein therapeutics possess unique physicochemical properties and act via a unique mechanism-of-action, which collectively makes their pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) different than other established biological molecules. Consequently, in order to support the discovery and development of these next generation molecules, it becomes important to understand the determinants controlling their PK/PD. This review discusses the determinants that a PK/PD scientist should consider during the design and development of next generation protein therapeutics. In addition, the role of systems PK/PD models in enabling rational development of the next generation protein therapeutics is emphasized. PMID:26373957

  5. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations for the next generation protein therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dhaval K

    2015-10-01

    Increasingly sophisticated protein engineering efforts have been undertaken lately to generate protein therapeutics with desired properties. This has resulted in the discovery of the next generation of protein therapeutics, which include: engineered antibodies, immunoconjugates, bi/multi-specific proteins, antibody mimetic novel scaffolds, and engineered ligands/receptors. These novel protein therapeutics possess unique physicochemical properties and act via a unique mechanism-of-action, which collectively makes their pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) different than other established biological molecules. Consequently, in order to support the discovery and development of these next generation molecules, it becomes important to understand the determinants controlling their PK/PD. This review discusses the determinants that a PK/PD scientist should consider during the design and development of next generation protein therapeutics. In addition, the role of systems PK/PD models in enabling rational development of the next generation protein therapeutics is emphasized.

  6. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  7. An exact derivation of contact resistance to planar devices. [metal surface on semiconductor sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuldt, S. B.

    1978-01-01

    A mixed boundary-value problem is formulated for an imperfect rectangular contact to a semiconducting sheet (layer). An exact model for derivation of contact resistance is developed and its solution by conformal mapping and eigenfunction expansion is presented. The expression for contact resistance is similar to that for a perfect (lossless) contact but includes an additional term containing the lowest-order coefficient in the infinite series expansion of the complex potential function. The calculated contact resistances are compared with those obtained from three approximate models: lossless contact, transmission line, and extended transmission line models. The extended transmission line model appears to be a very satisfactory approximation provided the ratio of contact length to sheet thickness is no less than 0.5.

  8. Towards an optimal contact metal for CNTFETs.

    PubMed

    Fediai, Artem; Ryndyk, Dmitry A; Seifert, Gotthard; Mothes, Sven; Claus, Martin; Schröter, Michael; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2016-05-21

    Downscaling of the contact length Lc of a side-contacted carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) is challenging because of the rapidly increasing contact resistance as Lc falls below 20-50 nm. If in agreement with existing experimental results, theoretical work might answer the question, which metals yield the lowest CNT-metal contact resistance and what physical mechanisms govern the geometry dependence of the contact resistance. However, at the scale of 10 nm, parameter-free models of electron transport become computationally prohibitively expensive. In our work we used a dedicated combination of the Green function formalism and density functional theory to perform an overall ab initio simulation of extended CNT-metal contacts of an arbitrary length (including infinite), a previously not achievable level of simulations. We provide a systematic and comprehensive discussion of metal-CNT contact properties as a function of the metal type and the contact length. We have found and been able to explain very uncommon relations between chemical, physical and electrical properties observed in CNT-metal contacts. The calculated electrical characteristics are in reasonable quantitative agreement and exhibit similar trends as the latest experimental data in terms of: (i) contact resistance for Lc = ∞, (ii) scaling of contact resistance Rc(Lc); (iii) metal-defined polarity of a CNTFET. Our results can guide technology development and contact material selection for downscaling the length of side-contacts below 10 nm.

  9. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  10. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1985-08-20

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  11. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1984-03-27

    A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  12. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  13. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  14. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  15. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  16. Therapeutics for alcoholism: what's the future?

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    As with other addictions, human alcoholism is characterised as a chronically relapsing condition. Consequently, the therapeutic goal is the development of clinically effective, safe drugs that promote high adherence rates and prevent relapse. These products can then be used in conjunction with psychosocial approaches. In this review, preclinical studies are highlighted that indicate the mechanism of action of currently used anti-craving medications or demonstrate the potential of novel pharmacological agents for the treatment of alcohol use disorders. While current pharmacological strategies are far from ideal, there are a number of candidate molecules that may ultimately be developed into therapeutic agents. In addition, prescribing clinicians should also consider strategies such as combinations of various drugs to aid in the regulation of aberrant alcohol consumption.

  17. [Ebola contacts' surveillance: social impact and ethical issues in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Desclaux, A; Ndione, A G; Badji, D; Sow, K

    2016-10-01

    Quarantine has been widely used during the Ebola outbreak in West Africa mainly to control transmission chains. This measure raises ethical issues that require documentation of the modalities of quarantine at the field level and its social effects for contact persons. In Senegal, 74 people were in contact with the Ebola case coming from Guinea in September 2014. Of these, 34 members of the case's household were contained together at home and monitored by officers. The remaining 40 health care workers from two facilities were dispersed in their family households and monitored by telephone or during doctors' visits. The study is based on in-depth interviews with 43 adult contacts about their experiences and perceptions, with additional observation for interpretation and contextualization.Containment at home was applied differently to contacts who lived with patient zero than to professional health care contacts. No coercion was used at first since all contacts adhered to surveillance, but some of them did not fully comply with movement restrictions. Contacts found biosafety precautions stigmatizing, especially during the first days when health workers and contacts were feeling an acute fear of contagion. The material support that was provided-food and money-was necessary since contacts could not work nor get resources, but it was too limited and delayed. The relational support they received was appreciated, as well as the protection from stigmatization by the police and follow-up workers. But the information delivered to contacts was insufficient, and some of them, including health workers, had little knowledge about EVD and Ebola transmission, which caused anxiety and emotional suffering. Some contacts experienced the loss of their jobs and loss of income; several could not easily or fully return to their previous living routines.Beyond its recommendations to enhance support measures, the study identifies the ethical stakes of quarantine in Senegal regarding

  18. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  19. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  20. Contact inhibition of phagocytosis in epithelial sheets: alterations of cell surface properties induced by cell-cell contacts.

    PubMed

    Vasiliev, J M; Gelfand, I M; Domnina, L V; Zacharova, O S; Ljubimov, A V

    1975-02-01

    Contact inhibition of phagocytosis was found to be characteristic for epithelial sheets formed in cultures by several cell types: normal and transformed mouse kidney cells, and differentiated mouse hepatoma cells. In these sheets most central cells surrounded by other cells had very low phagocytic activity. In contrast, marginal cells having a free edge were able to perform an active phagocytosis. Contact inhibition of phagocytosis was absent in dense cultures of mouse embryo fibroblasts and in cultures of anaplastic mouse hepatoma 22a. The upper surface of epithelial sheets was nonadhesive for prelabeled epithelial cells and fibroblasts. In contrast, the upper surface of dense cultures of mouse fibroblasts was adhesive for these cells. These and other data strengthen the suggestion that contact inhibition of phagocytosis is a result of different adhesiveness of the upper cell surface and of the surfaces near the free edge. Agents inhibiting cell surface movements at the free edges of marginal epithelial cells (cytochalasin, azide, sorbitol, low temperature) prevented adhesion of particles to these edges. Possibly, the surface of actively moving cytoplasmic processes is the only cell part that has adhesive properties necessary for the formation of attachments with other cellular and noncellular surfaces. In epithelial sheets, in contrast to fibroblast cultures, Colcemid did not activate movements of immobile contacting cell edges. These results indicate that mechanisms of contact immobilization of cell surface may be different in epithelium and fibroblasts. Firm contacts formed between epithelial cells are sufficient for stable immobilization of the surface; additional stabilization of the surface by microtubules is not essential. Fibroblasts do not form firm contacts and the Colcemid-sensitive stabilization process is essential for maintenance of the immobile state of their surfaces. Differences in the stability of cell surface immobilization produced by cell

  1. Some Bubble and Contact Problems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-21

    the two points s, and I - st, with s1 to be found in the range 0< s1 < 2. Then (3.1 )holds only in the intervalsO - s <s, and I -sI < s < 1, while...0, 0(si) = r-/2, 0() = 0, J cos (s) ds= 0, 0and 0, continuous at s,. (3.4) These six conditions suffice to determine sl, R and the two integration...of the studies reported in the two preceding sections, I believed that it should be possible to obtain steeper waves by enforcing contact of adjacent

  2. Bibliometrics, dermatology and contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek R

    2008-09-01

    Although the fields of bibliometrics and citation analysis have existed for many years, relatively few studies have specifically focused on the dermatological literature. This article reviews citation-based research in the dermatology journals, with a particular interest in manuscripts that have included Contact Dermatitis as part of their analysis. Overall, it can be seen that the rise of bibliometrics during the mid-20th century and its subsequent application to dermatology has provided an interesting insight into the progression of research within our discipline. Further investigation of citation trends and top-cited papers in skin research periodicals would certainly help complement the current body of knowledge.

  3. Seeking Contact: Issues to Consider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud, M.

    Seeking contact with extraterrestrial intelligence is a species enterprise that should be conducted with our shared interests in mind. We must reflect on the full range of possible outcomes; we cannot opt out of the potential consequences of actions taken by small numbers of our fellow humans. Until we have empirical evidence about alien technological civilizations, we can reason about them only by analogy with our own history and behaviour. Given that record, some degree of prudence is in order. To conduct this debate more rationally, we must free our thinking of excessively binary stereotypes.

  4. Contact dermatitis: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Orion, Edith; Ruocco, Eleonora; Baroni, Adone; Ruocco, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The history of contact dermatitis (CD) is inseparable from the history of the patch test, and the patch test is inseparable from the pioneer in the field, Josef Jadassohn (1860-1936). Despite the fact that we have been diagnosing, treating, and investigating the condition for more than 100 years, there are still many unsolved questions and controversies, which show no signs of coming to an end in the foreseeable future. This contribution reviews and highlights some of the disagreements and discrepancies associated with CD. For example: • What is the real sensitizer in balsam of Peru, one of the most common allergens, and what, if any, is the value of a low-balsam diet? • Is benzalkonium chloride, which has well-known and undisputed irritant properties, a contact allergen as well? • Is cocamidopropyl betaine (CABP) a common contact allergen and what is the actual sensitizer in CABP allergy the molecule itself, or impurities, or intermediaries in its synthesis? • How can the significant differences in the prevalence of sensitization of formaldehyde (FA, a common cause of contact allergy) between the United States (8%-9%) and Europe (2%-3%) be explained? • What is the relationship between formaldehyde releasers (FRs) allergy and an FA allergy? Should we recommend that FA-allergic patients also avoid FRs, and, if so, to what extent? • What is the true frequency of lanolin allergy? This issue remains enigmatic despite the expenditure of thousands of dollars and the innumerable hours spent investigating this subject. • What is the basis behind the so-called "lanolin paradox"? This label was coined in 1996 and is still a matter of controversy. • Is there such a thing as systemic CD from nickel, and, if so, to what extent? Is there a cross-reactivity or concomitant sensitization between nickel and cobalt?These are some of the controversial problems discussed. We have selected the ones that we consider to be of special interest and importance to the

  5. Frictionless contact of aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Kyun O.; Tanner, John A.; Noor, Ahmed K.

    1989-01-01

    A computational procedure for the solution of frictionless contact problems of spacecraft tires was developed using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory incorporating the effects of variations in material and geometric parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities to model the nose-gear tire of a space shuttle. Numerical results are presented for the case when the nose-gear tire is subjected to inflation pressure and pressed against a rigid pavement. The results are compared with experimental results obtained at NASA Langley, demonstrating a high accuracy of the model and the effectiveness of the computational procedure.

  6. Residual contact restraints in cryogenics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretegny, J. F.; Demonicault, J. M.

    The use of residual stress measurements to evaluate the state of cryogenic turbomachines, whose surfaces are worn by the working conductions in dry contact, is addressed. Their contribution to the understanding of the reasons of possible ruptures is considered. It is stated that residual stress measurements should be used as a complementary tool rather than as input data for models. It is shown, thanks to two examples concerning the ball bearings and splines of the liquid hydrogen turbopump of the Vulcain engine, what can be expected from such techniques. Total exploitation of the results has still to be done, but preliminary results are quite encouraging.

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis to chloroxylenol.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Cindy; Zirwas, Matthew J

    2006-09-01

    Chloroxylenol, also known as p-chloro-m-xylenol (PCMX), is a compound that has been used as a preservative in cosmetics and as an active agent in antimicrobial soaps. We present two patients with allergic contact dermatitis from PCMX, confirmed by positive (+++) patch-test reactions at 48 and 72 hours, identification of PCMX in a soap and in a hand cream used by the patients, and improvement following withdrawal of the incriminating products. The mechanism of action, structure, antimicrobial activity, and dangers of PCMX are reviewed.

  8. Thermal Conductances Of Metal Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, L. J.; Kittel, P.; Scherkenbach, F. E.; Spivak, A. L.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents results of measurements of thermal conductances of aluminum and stainless-steel contacts at temperatures from 1.6 to 6.0 K. Measurement apparatus includes gearmotor assembly connected to rocker arm by music wire to load sample pair with forces up to 670 N. Heater placed above upper sample. Germanium resistance thermometers in upper and lower samples measured temperature difference across interface over range of heater powers from 0.1 to 10.0 mW. The thermal conductance calculated from temperature difference. Measurements provide data for prediction of thermal conductances of bolted joints in cryogenic infrared instruments.

  9. Contact stresses calculated for miniature slip rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, F. G.; Domerest, K. E.; Horton, J. C.

    1965-01-01

    Using mathematical formulations to plot the graphs of the contact preload versus the Hertzian load, calculations of unit loading of the preloaded brushes on slip rings can be made. This optimizes the design of contact brushes and miniature slip rings.

  10. Clean Cities Program Contacts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides contact information for program staff of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program, as well as contact information for the nearly 100 local Clean Cities coalitions across the country.

  11. Ensuring Safe Use of Contact Lens Solution

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Ensuring Safe Use of Contact Lens Solution Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... back to top Dos and Don'ts for Contact Lens Wearers DO: Always wash your hands before ...

  12. Inferring Epidemic Contact Structure from Phylogenetic Trees

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Gabriel E.; Kouyos, Roger; Stadler, Tanja; von Wyl, Viktor; Yerly, Sabine; Böni, Jürg; Cellerai, Cristina; Klimkait, Thomas; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Contact structure is believed to have a large impact on epidemic spreading and consequently using networks to model such contact structure continues to gain interest in epidemiology. However, detailed knowledge of the exact contact structure underlying real epidemics is limited. Here we address the question whether the structure of the contact network leaves a detectable genetic fingerprint in the pathogen population. To this end we compare phylogenies generated by disease outbreaks in simulated populations with different types of contact networks. We find that the shape of these phylogenies strongly depends on contact structure. In particular, measures of tree imbalance allow us to quantify to what extent the contact structure underlying an epidemic deviates from a null model contact network and illustrate this in the case of random mixing. Using a phylogeny from the Swiss HIV epidemic, we show that this epidemic has a significantly more unbalanced tree than would be expected from random mixing. PMID:22412361

  13. Piecing Together the Patchwork of Contact Sites.

    PubMed

    Gatta, Alberto T; Levine, Tim P

    2017-03-01

    Contact sites are places where two organelles join together to carry out a shared activity requiring nonvesicular communication. A large number of contact sites have been discovered, and almost any two organelles can contact each other. General rules about contacts include constraints on bridging proteins, with only a minority of bridges physically creating contacts by acting as 'tethers'. The downstream effects of contacts include changing the physical behaviour of organelles, and also forming biochemically heterogeneous subdomains. However, some functions typically localized to contact sites, such as lipid transfer, have no absolute requirement to be situated there. Therefore, the key aspect of contacts is the directness of communication, which allows metabolic channelling and collective regulation.

  14. Inferring epidemic contact structure from phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Gabriel E; Kouyos, Roger; Stadler, Tanja; Wyl, Viktor von; Yerly, Sabine; Böni, Jürg; Cellerai, Cristina; Klimkait, Thomas; Günthard, Huldrych F; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Contact structure is believed to have a large impact on epidemic spreading and consequently using networks to model such contact structure continues to gain interest in epidemiology. However, detailed knowledge of the exact contact structure underlying real epidemics is limited. Here we address the question whether the structure of the contact network leaves a detectable genetic fingerprint in the pathogen population. To this end we compare phylogenies generated by disease outbreaks in simulated populations with different types of contact networks. We find that the shape of these phylogenies strongly depends on contact structure. In particular, measures of tree imbalance allow us to quantify to what extent the contact structure underlying an epidemic deviates from a null model contact network and illustrate this in the case of random mixing. Using a phylogeny from the Swiss HIV epidemic, we show that this epidemic has a significantly more unbalanced tree than would be expected from random mixing.

  15. Historical review: Cytokines as therapeutics and targets of therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Vilcek, Jan; Feldmann, Marc

    2004-04-01

    Cytokine research has spawned the introduction of new therapies that have revolutionized the treatment of many important diseases. These therapeutic advances have resulted from two very different strategies. The first therapeutic strategy embodies the administration of purified, recombinant cytokines. The second relies on the administration of therapeutics that inhibit the harmful effects of upregulated, endogenous cytokines. Examples of successful cytokine therapeutics include hematopoietic growth factors (colony stimulating factors) and interferons. Prime examples of cytokine antagonists that have profoundly altered the treatment of some inflammatory disorders are agents that inhibit the effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). In this article, we highlight some of the studies that have been responsible for the introduction of cytokine and anti-cytokine therapies, with emphasis on the development of interferons and anti-TNF agents.

  16. Additive Bilingualism, Schooling, and Special Education: A Minority Group Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of schooling on the acquisition of an additive type of bilingualism is examined, focusing on additive bilingualism's relation to the ethnolinguistic vitality of linguistic groups and contributions of individual networks of linguistic contacts. A special and regular education merger without domination by a single cultural perspective is…

  17. Anomaly Detection In Additively Manufactured Parts Using Laser Doppler Vibrometery

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Carlos A.

    2015-09-29

    Additively manufactured parts are susceptible to non-uniform structure caused by the unique manufacturing process. This can lead to structural weakness or catastrophic failure. Using laser Doppler vibrometry and frequency response analysis, non-contact detection of anomalies in additively manufactured parts may be possible. Preliminary tests show promise for small scale detection, but more future work is necessary.

  18. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  19. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  20. Nucleic acids as therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Salas, Luis M

    2008-01-01

    Therapeutic nucleic acids (TNAs) and its precursors are applied to treat several pathologies and infections. TNA-based therapy has different rationales and mechanisms and can be classified into three main groups: 1) Therapeutic nucleotides and nucleosides; 2) Therapeutic oligonucleotides; and 3) Therapeutic polynucleotides. This review will focus in those TNAs that have reached clinical trials with anticancer and antiviral protocols, the two most common applications of TNAs. Although therapeutic nucleotides and nucleosides that interfere with nucleic acid metabolism and DNA polymerization have been successfully used as anticancer and antiviral drugs, they often produce toxic secondary effects related to dosage and continuous use. The use of oligonucleotides such as ribozyme and antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODNs) showed promise as therapeutic moieties but faced several issues such as nuclease sensitivity, off-target effects and efficient delivery. Nevertheless, immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides and AS-ODNs represent the most successful group of therapeutic oligonucleotides in the clinic. A newer group of therapeutic oligonucleotides, the aptamers, is rapidly advancing towards early detection and treatment alternatives the have reached the commercial interest. Despite the very high in vitro efficiency of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) they present issues with intracellular target accessibility, specificity and delivery. DNA vaccines showed great promise, but they resulted in very poor responses in the clinic and further development is uncertain. Despite their many issues, the exquisite specificity and versatility of therapeutic oligonucleotides attracts a great deal of research and resources that will certainly convert them in the TNA of choice for treating cancer and viral diseases in the near future.