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Sample records for additional thermal treatment

  1. Raman spectroscopic evaluation of meat batter structural changes induced by thermal treatment and salt addition.

    PubMed

    Herrero, A M; Carmona, P; López-López, I; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2008-08-27

    Raman spectroscopy, texture, proximate composition, and water binding analysis were carried out to evaluate the effect of thermal treatment and/or salt addition to meat batter. For this purpose, different meat batters were elaborated: control meat batter (no salt) and meat batters with low (1.0%) and high (2.5%) NaCl content with and without thermal treatment (70 degrees C/30 min). Increase (P < 0.05) in penetration force and hardness upon heating was observed. Results also showed hardness increasing (P < 0.05) as a function of salt addition in heated meat batter. Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in alpha-helix content accompanied by an increase (P < 0.05) in beta-sheets resulting from heating. Significant (P < 0.05) correlations were found between these secondary structural changes in meat proteins and water binding and textural properties of meat batter. In this way, a significant correlation was found between beta-sheets, salt content, hardness, and chewiness in heated samples.

  2. Preparation and characterization of ceramic products by thermal treatment of sewage sludge ashes mixed with different additives.

    PubMed

    Merino, Ignacio; Arévalo, Luis F; Romero, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The study of the ceramic characteristics of sludge ashes, alone or mixed with additives (kaolin, montmorillonite, illitic clay, powdered flat glass) includes characterization of additives, preparation of probes (dry or wet mixed), thermal treatment (up to 1200 degrees C, except melting or deformation) and control (densities, compressive strengths and water absorption). Thermal treatment increases the density and compressive strength of probes (both parameters go through maxima, with later decreases) and decreases the absorption of water. The densification is also revealed by the evolution of the ratio of decrease of volume/loss of mass. The maximum values of compressive strengths were obtained for 25% of illitic clay, montmorillonite and glass powder. Densification concerning probes with sludge ashes alone does not occur with kaolin. Experimental data were adjusted to exponential relationships between compressive strengths and densities for every composition, and also to a general equation for all probes. The apparent density obtained was adjusted to a non-linear dependence with temperature, leading to a maximum in density and permitting calculating the temperature of occurrence of this maximum. The adjustment was not possible for probes containing kaolin, requiring presumably higher temperatures to densify. Water absorption has low values for ashes or kaolin probes, intermediate values for illite and powdered flat glass probes and high values for montmorillonite probes. Excepting with kaolin, ceramic materials with better characteristics than sludge ashes without additives were obtained at lower treatment temperatures. PMID:17150348

  3. Thermal treatment wall

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  4. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  5. Thermal treatment of polluted soil

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, H.; Wells, S.K.

    1995-02-01

    Thermal treatment for the remediation soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons is described. It is recommended tat a thorough analysis be performed of the situation including well monitoring and contamination testing, records review, and sampling.

  6. Surface hardening thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamuta, K.

    1984-09-11

    A steel product, particularly a heavy-duty gear, having a case of martensite and a core of lower bainite with a Vickers hardness of not less than Hv 600 is obtained by subjecting a medium carbon alloy steel comprising, by weight, 0.45 to 0.60% C, up to 0.50 Si, 0.40 to 1.30% Mn, up to 4.00 Ni, 0.35 to 0.55% Cr, up to 0.70 Mo, balance Fe and incidental impurities to a carbonitriding treatment at a temperature of 800/sup 0/ to 900/sup 0/ C., austempering the carboritrided steel by quenching it in a hot bath of 230/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/ C. and retaining the steel in the hot bath of the aforementioned temperature for a suitable duration enough to transform the core of the steel into lower bainite and not enough to cause any transformation of the case of the steel, and subsequently cooling the steel.

  7. Metal-Ion Additives Reduce Thermal Expansion Of Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, Diane M.; St. Clair, Anne K.; Emerson, Burt R., Jr.; Willis, George L.

    1994-01-01

    Polyimides widely used as high-performance polymers because of their excellent thermal stability and toughness. However, their coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE's) greater than those of metals, ceramics, and glasses. Decreasing CTE's of polyimides increase usefulness for aerospace and electronics applications in which dimensional stability required. Additives containing metal ions reduce coefficients of thermal expansion of polyimides. Reductions range from 11 to over 100 percent.

  8. Thermal treatment of magnetite nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wykowska, Urszula; Satula, Dariusz; Nordblad, Per

    2015-01-01

    Summary This paper presents the results of a thermal treatment process for magnetite nanoparticles in the temperature range of 50–500 °C. The tested magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using three different methods that resulted in nanoparticles with different surface characteristics and crystallinity, which in turn, was reflected in their thermal durability. The particles were obtained by coprecipitation from Fe chlorides and decomposition of an Fe(acac)3 complex with and without a core–shell structure. Three types of ferrite nanoparticles were produced and their thermal stability properties were compared. In this study, two sets of unmodified magnetite nanoparticles were used where crystallinity was as determinant of the series. For the third type of particles, a Ag shell was added. By comparing the coated and uncoated particles, the influence of the metallic layer on the thermal stability of the nanoparticles was tested. Before and after heat treatment, the nanoparticles were examined using transmission electron microscopy, IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Based on the obtained results, it was observed that the fabrication methods determine, to some extent, the sensitivity of the nanoparticles to external factors. PMID:26199842

  9. Thermal Treatment of EDTA Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Denne, B.

    2006-07-01

    Chemical cleaning of commercial nuclear power facility secondary systems, using EDTA, results in large volumes of chelated liquids requiring some form of treatment prior to disposal. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates the presence of chelates in disposal cells and this paper will look at several methods used to ensure compliance with disposal site criteria. The emphasis of this paper will be on results achieved through thermal treatment of chemical cleaning wastes at the Pacific EcoSolutions' (PEcoS) low level and mixed radioactive waste processing facility in Richland, Washington. We will discuss challenges in transportation, receipt, storage, processing, and disposal associated with EDTA solutions and how those challenges are overcome. (author)

  10. Recent additions in the treatment of cough

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, cough is regarded as a challenging clinical problem due to its frequency and often limited therapeutic options. Chronic cough that remains refractory to usual medical treatment causes significant quality of life impairment in people with this problem. Methods We have examined current evidence on recent additions in the treatment of cough, specifically treatment of refractory chronic cough with speech pathology and gabapentin. Relevant randomised control trials, reviews and case reports were identified through a PubMed and SCOPUS search of English-language literature referring to these concepts over the last eight years. Summary Of the one hundred and two articles comprising this review the majority investigated the role of the transient receptor potential (TRP) receptors TRP Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRPA1 in cough and the potential of TRP antagonists as effective anti-tussives. However, these have only been tested in the laboratory and therefore their clinical effectiveness is unknown. Behavioural treatments such as speech pathology have gained momentum and this was evident in the increasing number of articles investigating its positive effect on cough. Investigation on the effectiveness of neuromodulating medications in the treatment of cough have been supported primarily through case series reports and prospective reviews however; their use (particularly gabapentin) has been significantly advanced through recently conducted randomised controlled trials. Conclusions Recent additions in the treatment of chronic cough have been significant as they consider cough to have a unifying diagnosis of cough hypersensitivity with or without the presence of a neuropathic basis. Primarily, effective treatments for chronic cough target these areas and include behavioural treatment such as speech pathology and pharmaceutical treatment with neuromodulating medications such as gabapentin. PMID:25383209

  11. Conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Suer, A.

    1996-02-28

    This report presents a conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study (FS) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) focusing exclusively on thermal treatment technologies for contaminated soil, sediment, or sludge remediation projects.

  12. Low coefficient of thermal expansion polyimides containing metal ion additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    Polyimides have become widely used as high performance polymers as a result of their excellent thermal stability and toughness. However, lowering their coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) would increase their usefulness for aerospace and electronic applications where dimensional stability is a requirement. The incorporation of metal ion-containing additives into polyimides, resulting in significantly lowered CTE's, has been studied. Various metal ion additives have been added to both polyamic acid resins and soluble polyimide solutions in the concentration range of 4-23 weight percent. The incorporation of these metal ions has resulted in reductions in the CTE's of the control polyimides of 12 percent to over 100 percent depending on the choice of additive and its concentration.

  13. Additive for iron disulfide cathodes used in thermal batteries

    DOEpatents

    Armijo, James R.; Searcy, Jimmie Q.

    1983-01-01

    The invention comprises thermal batteries employing an FeS.sub.2 depolarizer, i.e. cathode material, and the depolarizer itself. A minor amount of CaSi.sub.2 preferably, 1-3% by weight is provided as an additive in the FeS.sub.2 depolarizer to eliminate the voltage transient (spike) which normally occurs upon activation of batteries of this type. The amount of FeS.sub.2 by weight generally comprises 64-90%.

  14. Additive for iron disulfide cathodes used in thermal batteries

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-03-23

    The invention comprises thermal batteries employing an FeS/sub 2/ depolarizer itself. A minor amount of CaSi/sub 2/ preferably 1-3% by weight is provided as an additive in the FeS/sub 2/ depolarizer to eliminate the voltage transient (spike) which normally occurs upon activation of batteries of this type. The amount of FeS/sub 2/ by weight generally comprises 64 to 90%.

  15. Mechanical and Thermal Characterization of Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Daniel R.

    Additive manufacturing is an emerging production technology used to create net shaped 3-D objects from a digital model. Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) is a relatively new type of additive manufacturing that uses ultrasonic energy to sequentially bond layers of metal foils at temperatures much lower than the melting temperature of the material. Constructing metal structures without melting allows UAM to have distinct advantages over beam based additive manufacturing and other traditional manufacturing processes. This is because solidification defects can be avoided, structures can be composed of dissimilar material and secondary materials (both metallic and non-metallic) can be successfully embedded into the metal matrix. These advantages allow UAM to have tremendous potential to create metal matrix composite structures that cannot be built using any other manufacturing technique. Although UAM has tremendous engineering potential, the effect of interfacial bonding defects on the mechanical and thermal properties have not be characterized. Incomplete interfacial bonding at the laminar surfaces due to insufficient welding energy can result in interfacial voids. Voids create discontinuities in the structure which change the mechanical and thermal properties of the component, resulting in a structure that has different properties than the monolithic material used to create it. In-situ thermal experiments and thermal modeling demonstrates that voids at partially bonded interfaces significantly affected heat generation and thermal conductivity in. UAM parts during consolidation as well as in the final components. Using ultrasonic testing, elastic properties of UAM structures were found to be significantly reduced due to the presence of voids, with the reduction being the most severe in the transverse (foil staking) direction. Elastic constants in all three material directions decreased linearly with a reduction in the interfacial bonded area. The linear trend

  16. Study on thermal effects & sulfurized additives, in lubricating greases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Ami Atul

    Lithium Base grease constitutes about 50% of market. The greases are developed to be able to work in multiple working conditions and have longer working life. Greases with extreme pressure additives and anti-wear additives have been developed as a solution to many of the applications. These developed greases are tested under ASTM D2266 testing conditions to meet the requirements. The actual working conditions, although, differ than the real testing conditions. The loading, speed and temperature conditions can be more harsh, or fluctuating in nature. The cyclic nature of the parameters cannot be directly related to the test performance. For this purpose studies on the performance under spectrum loading, variable speed and fluctuating temperature must be performed. This study includes tests to understand the effect of thermal variation on some of the most commonly used grease additives that perform well under ASTM D2266 testing conditions. The studied additives include most widely used industrial extreme pressure additive MoS2. Performance of ZDDP which is trying to replace MoS2 in its industrial applications has also been studied. The tests cover study of extreme pressure, anti-wear and friction modifier additives to get a general idea on the effects of thermal variation in three areas. Sulphur is the most common extreme pressure additive. Sulphur based MoS 2 is extensively used grease additive. Study to understand the tribological performance of this additive through wear testing and SEM/EDX studies has been done. This performance is also studied for other metallic sulfides like WS2 and sulphur based organic compound. The aim is to study the importance of the type of bond that sulphur shares in its additive's structure on its performance. The MoS2 film formation is found to be on the basis of the FeS formation on the substrate and protection through sacrificial monolayer deposition of the MoS2 sheared structure. The free Mo then tends to oxidise. An attempt to

  17. Effects of additives on thermal stability of Li ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, Daniel H.; Roth, E. Peter; Crafts, Chris C.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Henriksen, Gary; Amine, Khalil

    Li ion cells are being developed for high-power applications in hybrid electric vehicles, because these cells offer superior combination of power and energy density over current cell chemistries. Cells using this chemistry are proposed for battery systems in both internal combustion engine and fuel cell-powered hybrid electric vehicles. However, the safety of these cells needs to be understood and improved for eventual widespread commercial applications. The thermal-abuse response of Li ion cells has been improved by the incorporation of more stable anode carbons and electrolyte additives. Electrolyte solutions containing vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), tris(trifluoroethyl)phosphate (TFP) as well as some proprietary flame-retardant additives were evaluated. Test cells in the 18,650 configuration were built at Sandia National Laboratories using new stable electrode materials and electrolyte additives. A special test fixture was designed to allow determination of self-generated cell heating during a thermal ramp profile. The flammability of vented gas and expelled electrolyte was studied using a novel arrangement of a spark generator placed near the cell to ignite vent gas if a flammable gas mixture was present. Flammability of vent gas was somewhat reduced by the presence of certain additives. Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was also used to characterize 18,650-size test cell heat and gas generation. Gas composition was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and was found to consist of CO 2, H 2, CO, methane, ethane, ethylene and small amounts of C1-C4 organic molecules.

  18. Thermal processing of EVA encapsulants and effects of formulation additives

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F.J.; Glick, S.H.

    1996-05-01

    The authors investigated the in-situ processing temperatures and effects of various formulation additives on the formation of ultraviolet (UV) excitable chromophores, in the thermal lamination and curing of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulants. A programmable, microprocessor-controlled, double-bag vacuum laminator was used to study two commercial as formulated EVA films, A9918P and 15295P, and solution-cast films of Elvaxrm (EVX) impregnated with various curing agents and antioxidants. The results show that the actual measured temperatures of EVA lagged significantly behind the programmed profiles for the heating elements and were affected by the total thermal mass loaded inside the laminator chamber. The antioxidant Naugard P{trademark}, used in the two commercial EVA formulations, greatly enhances the formation of UV-excitable, short chromophores upon curing, whereas other tested antioxidants show little effect. A new curing agent chosen specifically for the EVA formulation modification produces little or no effect on chromophore formation, no bubbling problems in the glass/EVX/glass laminates, and a gel content of {approximately}80% when cured at programmed 155{degrees}C for 4 min. Also demonstrated is the greater discoloring effect with higher concentrations of curing-generated chromophores.

  19. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: THERMAL DESORPTION TREATMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermal desorption is an EX SITU means to physically separate volatile and some semivolatile contaminants from soil, sediments, sludge, and filter cakes by heating them at temperatures high enough to volatilize the organic contaminants. For wastes containing up to 10 percent orga...

  20. Effective control of photomask surface chemical residuals through thermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Han-Byul; Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Yong-Dae; Cho, Hyun-Joon; Choi, Sang-Soo

    2005-05-01

    We investigated the control of residual ions on the mask surface and the phase/transmission change rate by using thermal treatment after a conventional cleaning process. We hypothesized that the remaining sulfuric ions on the mask surface could combine with other ions and produce compounds during the thermal treatment. These compounds are easily removed by a hot D.I water rinse. Our study shows that the amount of remaining sulfuric ions is 250ng/mask when the mask has been thermally treated. The amount of sulfuric ions is substantially reduced compared to the results of other cleaning processes. Additionally we have found that the thermal treatment can be reduced varying the phase/trans value according to the cleaning cycle and the variation was stable even with a higher concentration of SC-1 solution.

  1. Thermal treatment of dissimilar steels' welded joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikulina, A. A.; Denisova, A. S.; Gradusov, I. N.; Ryabinkina, P. A.; Rushkovets, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper combinations of chrome-nickel steel and high-carbon steel, produced by flash butt welding after heat treatment, are investigated. Light and electron microscopic studies show that the welded joints after heat treatment have a complex structure consisting of several phases as initial welded joints. A martensite structure in welded joints after thermal treatment at 300... 800 °C has been found.

  2. 10. Water treatment plant, view to S. 1965 addition is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Water treatment plant, view to S. 1965 addition is in the foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  3. Thermal Stability of Fluorinated Polydienes Synthesized by Addition of Difluorocarbene

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Tianzi; Wang, Xiaojun; Malmgren, Thomas W; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2012-01-01

    Linear PCHD and polyisoprenes with different microstructures and molecular weights are synthesized and chemically modified to improve their thermal and chemical stability by forming a three-membered ring structure containing two C-F bonds. Pyrolysis of these fluorinated polydienes proceeds through a two-stage decomposition involving chain scission, crosslinking, dehydrogenation, and dehalogenation. The pyrolysis leads to graphite-like residues, whereas their polydiene precursors decompose completely under the same conditions. The fluorination of PCHD enhances its thermal stability. The stronger C-F bond along with high strain of the three-membered ring structure and formation of relatively stable free radicals play an important role in the thermal stability of fluorinated polydienes.

  4. Thermal Curved Boundary Treatment for the Thermal Lattice Boltzmann Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haibo; Lee, T. S.; Shu, C.

    In this paper, a recent curved non-slip wall boundary treatment for isothermal Lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) [Z. Guo, C. Zheng and B. Shi, Phys. Fluids 14(6) (2002)] is extended to handle the thermal curved wall boundary for a double-population thermal lattice Boltzmann equation (TLBE). The unknown distribution population at a wall node which is necessary to fulfill streaming step is decomposed into its equilibrium and non-equilibrium parts. The equilibrium part is evaluated according to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary constraints, and the non-equilibrium part is obtained using a first-order extrapolation from fluid lattices. To validate the thermal boundary condition treatment, we carry out numerical simulations of Couette flow between two circular cylinders, the natural convection in a square cavity, and the natural convection in a concentric annulus between an outer square cylinder and an inner circular cylinder. The results agree very well with analytical solution or available data in the literature. Our numerical results also demonstrate that the TLBE together with the present boundary scheme is of second-order accuracy.

  5. Developing a High Thermal Conductivity Fuel with Silicon Carbide Additives

    SciTech Connect

    baney, Ronald; Tulenko, James

    2012-11-20

    The objective of this research is to increase the thermal conductivity of uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) without significantly impacting its neutronic properties. The concept is to incorporate another high thermal conductivity material, silicon carbide (SiC), in the form of whiskers or from nanoparticles of SiC and a SiC polymeric precursor into UO{sub 2}. This is expected to form a percolation pathway lattice for conductive heat transfer out of the fuel pellet. The thermal conductivity of SiC would control the overall fuel pellet thermal conductivity. The challenge is to show the effectiveness of a low temperature sintering process, because of a UO{sub 2}-SiC reaction at 1,377°C, a temperature far below the normal sintering temperature. Researchers will study three strategies to overcome the processing difficulties associated with pore clogging and the chemical reaction of SiC and UO{sub 2} at temperatures above 1,300°C:

  6. 40 CFR 265.370 - Other thermal treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Other thermal treatment. 265.370... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.370 Other thermal treatment. The regulations in this subpart... enclosed devices using controlled flame combustion, except as § 265.1 provides otherwise. Thermal...

  7. 40 CFR 265.370 - Other thermal treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other thermal treatment. 265.370... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.370 Other thermal treatment. The regulations in this subpart... enclosed devices using controlled flame combustion, except as § 265.1 provides otherwise. Thermal...

  8. 40 CFR 265.370 - Other thermal treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Other thermal treatment. 265.370... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.370 Other thermal treatment. The regulations in this subpart... enclosed devices using controlled flame combustion, except as § 265.1 provides otherwise. Thermal...

  9. 40 CFR 265.370 - Other thermal treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Other thermal treatment. 265.370... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.370 Other thermal treatment. The regulations in this subpart... enclosed devices using controlled flame combustion, except as § 265.1 provides otherwise. Thermal...

  10. Thermal Spraying Coatings Assisted by Laser Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Fenineche, N. E.; Cherigui, M.

    2008-09-23

    Coatings produced by air plasma spraying (APS) are widely used to protect components against abrasive wear and corrosion. However, APS coatings contain porosities and the properties of these coatings may thereby be reduced. To improve these properties, various methods could be proposed, including post-laser irradiation [1-4]. Firstly, PROTAL process (thermal spraying assisted by laser) has been developed as a palliative technique to degreasing and grit-blasting prior to thermal spraying. Secondly, thermal spray coatings are densified and remelted using Laser treatment. In this study, a review of microstructure coatings prepared by laser-assisted air plasma spraying will be presented. Mechanical and magnetic properties will be evaluated in relation to changes in the coating microstructure and the properties of such coatings will be compared with those of as-sprayed APS coatings.

  11. 40 CFR 265.370 - Other thermal treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Other thermal treatment. 265.370... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.370 Other thermal treatment. The regulations in this...

  12. Thermal treatment of dyes from military munitions

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed thermal treatment equipment to treat Navy smoke and dye compounds. Navy smokes were burned in the Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) in the early 1980s. These test results were used in the development of a portable system consisting of a Thermal Treatment Unit (TTU), feed preparation and pumping skid, utility skid, and control trailer. This equipment was started up at Navy facilities at China Lake, CA where several destruction removal efficiency tests were completed in 1993 burning smoke compositions. The equipment was set up at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in 1996 where tests were completed burning green Navy spotting dyes. Operating and test results from the NTS efforts resulted in clearer understanding of equipment deficiencies, dye characteristics and composition, and secondary wastes generated. Future tests, scheduled for July, 1996 will demonstrate higher bum rates, better pH measurement and control, and stack emission test results for other colored dyes.

  13. Thermal ablative treatment of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Stephen Derek; Gedroyc, Wladyslaw M

    2015-05-01

    In addition to surgical methods of treating uterine fibroids, numerous non-invasive treatments have been developed. Many of these involve the use of hyperthermia, the heating of tissue by a variety of methods. These include the use of lasers, radiofrequency, microwave energy and high intensity focused ultrasound, guided by both ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. In this review we examine the technology behind these treatment modalities and review the current evidence for their use. PMID:25815582

  14. Beneficiation of Turkish lignites by thermal treatment and magnetic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Onal, G.; Renda, D.; Mustafaev, I.; Dogan, Z.

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, the improvement of Turkish lignites by semi-coking and REMS magnetic separation, in two stages, is discussed. The oxidation and decomposition of pyrite through the thermal treatment result in the formation of iron oxide and pyrrhotite on the surface. In addition to pyrite, part of the organic sulfur is also removed. After thermal treatment of lignites at temperatures ranging from 370 to 650 C, the application of REMS magnetic separator produces a product higher in calorific value and lower in sulfur content. The product can be utilized after briquetting. The volatile gases can also be used after sulfur removal. This process appears to be feasible as a clean coal manufacture from the point of energy efficiency. A short economic analysis is also presented.

  15. Effect of salt addition on the thermal behavior of proteins of bovine meat from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pighin, D G; Sancho, A M; Gonzalez, C B

    2008-07-01

    Research was undertaken to investigate how the addition of sodium chloride (NaCl) and/or sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) to sous vide cooked meat pieces produces an increase in water holding capacity (WHC). Semitendinosus muscles were injected to obtain tissue final concentrations of 0.70% NaCl, 0.25% TPP, 0.70% NaCl+0.25% TPP, and 1.20% NaCl+0.25% TPP. SDS-PAGE analysis showed increased protein solubilization in those treatments which included NaCl. Thermal analysis of whole muscles and isolated myofibrils showed the destabilizing effect of NaCl and a global stabilizing effect of TPP. Both salts together induced a destabilizing global effect, where TPP assisted NaCl in breaking the meat structure. It is suggested that the WHC increments are related to conformational changes in myofibrillar proteins and to the weakening of myofibrillar structure by the removal of myofibrillar proteins. PMID:22062916

  16. Nutrient addition to enhance biological treatment of greywater.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, B; Burgess, J E; Pichon, A; Harkness, J; Judd, S J

    2001-08-01

    This study compares the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and respiration rates of a microbial population treating real and synthetic greywaters dosed with nutrient supplements. The nutrient composition of the real and synthetic greywaters was analysed and the dosing regime for nitrogen, phosphorus and a range of trace metals planned accordingly. The doses consisted of eight single additives (macronutrients and trace metals) to the control greywater and six trace metal additions to C: N : P balanced greywater. The COD removal for the control real and synthetic greywater in lab-scale activated sludge systems (0.038 and 0.286 kg COD kg MLSS(-1) d(-1), respectively) confirmed nutrient limitation and the poor degree of greywater treatment. Nutrient dosing increased the COD removal rate and oxygen uptake rate in many cases. The greatest stimulation of microbial activity was observed with zinc additions to C: N: P balanced real greywater (1.291 kg COD kg MLSS(-1) d(-1) over 30 times the control). Inhibitory effects to various extents were rare and limited mainly to the additions of metals to synthetic greywater. The dominance of chemicals effects was observed on addition of some micronutrients; notably iron and aluminium, metals on which many coagulants for use in biotreatment of other wastewaters are based. The data indicate that the impact of understanding microbial processes and the nutrients required for wastewater treatment can only serve to optimise process efficiency for the proposed treatment of greywater.

  17. Summary of comparative results integrated nonthermal treatment and integrated thermal treatment systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    In July 1994, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), under a contract from U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment Management Office of Science and Technology (OST, EM-50) published a report entitled {open_quotes}Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study - Phase 1 Results{close_quotes} (EGG-MS-11211). This report was the culmination of over a year of analysis involving scientists and engineers within the DOE complex and from private industry. The purpose of that study was {open_quotes}to conduct a systematic engineering evaluation of a variety of mixed low level waste (MLLW) treatment system alternatives.{close_quotes} The study also {open_quotes}identified the research and development, demonstrations, and testing and evaluation needed to assure unit operability in the most promising alternative system.{close_quotes} This study evaluated ten primary thermal treatment technologies, organized into complete {open_quotes}cradle-to-grave{close_quotes} systems (including complete engineering flow sheets), to treat DOE MLLW and calculated mass balances and 20-year total life cycle costs (TLCC) for all systems. The waste input used was a representative heterogenous mixture of typical DOE MLLW. An additional study was conducted, and then, based on response to these studies, additional work was started to investigate and evaluate non-thermal treatment options on a footing comparable to the effort devoted to thermal options. This report attempts to present a summary overview of the thermal and non-thermal treatment technologies which were examined in detail in the process of the above mentioned reviews.

  18. Thermal treatment for chlorine removal from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Muchmore, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    It is the goal of this research to provide the technical basis for development of a process to remove chlorine from coal prior to combustion, based on a thermal treatment process. Through a bench scale study, mechanisms will be investigated, reaction rate constants and activation energies determined, and energy and mass balances performed. The recovery of the chlorine removed from the coal as a markable by-product, calcium chloride suitable for use as a road deicer, will be investigated using a novel absorption/crystallization device. The investigation of recovery of the chlorine as calcium chloride would also be applicable to the waste stream generated by a water leaching process, as well as the thermal process which is being investigated here. Although chlorine removal and utilization are the major thrusts of this research, data will also be obtained on the behavior during heating under controlled conditions of several other trace elements of growing concern (mercury, selenium etc.) since the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments last November.

  19. Identification of additional MAP kinases activated upon PAMP treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nitta, Yukino; Ding, Pingtao; Zhang, Yuelin

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades play important roles in plant immunity. Upon pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) treatment, MPK3, MPK6 and MPK4 are quickly activated by upstream MKKs through phosphorylation. Western blot analysis using α-phospho-p44/42-ERK antibody suggests that additional MPKs with similar size as MPK4 are also activated upon PAMP perception. To identify these MAP kinases, 7 candidate MPKs with similar sizes as MPK4 were selected for further analysis. Transgenic plants expressing these MPKs with a ZZ-3xFLAG double tag of 17 kD were generated and analyzed by western blot. MPK1, MPK11 and MPK13 were found to be phosphorylated upon treatment with flg22. Our study revealed additional MAPKs being activated during PAMP-triggered immunity. PMID:25482788

  20. Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste thermal treatment initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Place, B.G.; Riddelle, J.G.

    1993-03-01

    This paper is a progress report of current Westinghouse Hanford Company engineering activities related to the implementation of a program for the thermal treatment of the Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste. Topics discussed include a site-specific engineering study, the review of private sector capability in thermal treatment, and thermal treatment of some of the Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste at other US Department of Energy sites.

  1. High-temperature thermal treatment of the uterus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Thomas P.; Xiao, Jia Hua; Chung, Juh Yun

    2003-06-01

    More than 200,000 hysterectomies are performed annually in the US due to abnormal uterine bleeding from excessive menstrual flow. A minimally invasive procedure has been developed using thermal treatment combined with pressure to the endometrial lining of the uterus. Results from a 3-D finite element model will be shown, as well as experimental data. Good correlation was seen between simulations and experiments. The study found similar results then temperatures were increased and times for treatment were shortened.More than 200,000 hysterectomies are performed annually in the US due to abnormal uterine bleeding from excessive menstrual flow. A minimally invasive procedure has been developed using a balloon-based thermal treatment combined with pressure to the endometrial lining of the uterus. A 3D finite element model was set up to simulate the balloon ablation device in the human uterus as used in over 150,000 patients to date. Several additional simulations were made at higher temperatures to seek alternative combinations with higher temperature and shorter time intervals for the same depth of penetration, or deeper penetration at longer times and elevated temperatures. A temperature range of 87 to 150°C was explored. The Bioheat Equation was used in the simulations to predict temperature distributions in tissue. The Damage Integral was also used to characterize the location at depth of irreversible damage in the uterus. Treatment safety issues were also analyzed as the simulations showed the depth of penetration into the myometrium, towards the serosa.

  2. Thermal Treatment of Solid Wastes Using the Electric Arc Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1999-09-01

    A thermal waste treatment facility has been developed at the Albany Research Center (ARC) over the past seven years to process a wide range of heterogeneous mixed wastes, on a scale of 227 to 907 kg/h (500 to 2,000 lb/h). The current system includes a continuous feed system, a 3-phase AC, 0.8 MW graphite electrode arc furnace, and a dedicated air pollution control system (APCS) which includes a close-coupled thermal oxidizer, spray cooler, baghouse, and wet scrubber. The versatility of the complete system has been demonstrated during 5 continuous melting campaigns, ranging from 11 to 25 mt (12 to 28 st) of treated wastes per campaign, which were conducted on waste materials such as (a) municipal incinerator ash, (b) simulated low-level radioactive, high combustible-bearing mixed wastes, (c) simulated low-level radioactive liquid tank wastes, (d) heavy metal contaminated soils, and (e) organic-contaminated dredging spoils. In all cases, the glass or slag products readily passed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Program (TCLP) test. Additional studies are currently under way on electric utility wastes, steel and aluminum industry wastes, as well as zinc smelter residues. Thermal treatment of these solid waste streams is intended to produce a metallic product along with nonhazardous glass or slag products.

  3. Improvement of water treatment at thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, B. M.; Bushuev, E. N.; Larin, A. B.; Karpychev, E. A.; Zhadan, A. V.

    2015-04-01

    Prospective and existing technologies for water treatment at thermal power plants, including pretreatment, ion exchange, and membrane method are considered. The results obtained from laboratory investigations and industrial tests of the proposed technologies carried out at different thermal power plants are presented. The possibilities of improving the process and environmental indicators of water treatment plants are shown.

  4. Censored data treatment using additional information in intelligent medical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkova, Z. N.

    2015-11-01

    Statistical procedures are a very important and significant part of modern intelligent medical systems. They are used for proceeding, mining and analysis of different types of the data about patients and their diseases; help to make various decisions, regarding the diagnosis, treatment, medication or surgery, etc. In many cases the data can be censored or incomplete. It is a well-known fact that censorship considerably reduces the efficiency of statistical procedures. In this paper the author makes a brief review of the approaches which allow improvement of the procedures using additional information, and describes a modified estimation of an unknown cumulative distribution function involving additional information about a quantile which is known exactly. The additional information is used by applying a projection of a classical estimator to a set of estimators with certain properties. The Kaplan-Meier estimator is considered as an estimator of the unknown cumulative distribution function, the properties of the modified estimator are investigated for a case of a single right censorship by means of simulations.

  5. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  6. Evidence of thermal additivity during short laser pulses in an in vitro retinal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, Michael L.; Tijerina, Amanda J.; Dyer, Phillip N.; Oian, Chad A.; Noojin, Gary D.; Rickman, John M.; Shingledecker, Aurora D.; Clark, Clifton D.; Castellanos, Cherry C.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2015-03-01

    Laser damage thresholds were determined for exposure to 2.5-ms 532-nm pulses in an established in vitro retinal model. Single and multiple pulses (10, 100, 1000) were delivered to the cultured cells at three different pulse repetition frequency (PRF) values, and overt damage (membrane breach) was scored 1 hr post laser exposure. Trends in the damage data within and across the PRF range identified significant thermal additivity as PRF was increased, as evidenced by drastically reduced threshold values (< 40% of single-pulse value). Microthermography data that were collected in real time during each exposure also provided evidence of thermal additivity between successive laser pulses. Using thermal profiles simulated at high temporal resolution, damage threshold values were predicted by an in-house computational model. Our simulated ED50 value for a single 2.5-ms pulse was in very good agreement with experimental results, but ED50 predictions for multiple-pulse trains will require more refinement.

  7. Releasing-addition method for the flame-photometric determination of calcium in thermal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, J.J.

    1963-01-01

    Study of the interferences of silica and sulfate in the flame-photometric determination of calcium in thermal waters has led to the development of a method requiring no prior chemical separations. The interference effects of silica, sulfate, potassium, sodium, aluminum, and phosphate are overcome by an addition technique coupled with the use of magnesium as a releasing agent. ?? 1963.

  8. Thermal treatment of solid residues from WtE units: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Daniel Molin, Camilla Hupa, Mikko

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • We review the thermal treatment methods for ashes and residues from WtE plants. • We review the results from extensive laboratory work on vitrification, melting and vaporization of ash. • We analyze the results from the extensive patent literature on thermal treatment. • We review industrial concepts for thermal treatment of ash. - Abstract: Thermal treatment methods of bottom ash, fly ash and various types of APC (air pollution control) residues from waste-to-energy plants can be used to obtain environmentally stable material. The thermal treatment processes are meant to reduce the leachability of harmful residue constituents, destroy toxic organic compounds, reduce residue volume, and produce material suitable for utilization. Fly ash and APC residues often have high levels of soluble salts, particularly chlorides, metals such as cadmium, lead, copper and zinc, and trace levels of organic pollutants such as dioxins and furans. Different thermal treatment methods can be used to either decompose or stabilize harmful elements and compounds in the ash, or separate them from the ash to get a material that can be safely stored or used as products or raw materials. In the present paper, thermal treatment methods, such as sintering, vitrification, and melting have been reviewed. In addition to a review of the scientific literature, a survey has been made of the extensive patent literature in the field.

  9. Thermal ablation for the treatment of abdominal tumors.

    PubMed

    Brace, Christopher L; Hinshaw, J Louis; Lubner, Meghan G

    2011-03-07

    associated bleeding risks frequently seen in cirrhotic patients. In addition, sudden release of tumor cellular contents when the frozen tissue thaws can lead to a potentially serious condition known as cryoshock. Thermal tumor ablation can be performed at open surgery, laparoscopy or using a percutaneous approach. When performed percutaneously, the ablation procedure relies on imaging for diagnosis, planning, applicator guidance, treatment monitoring and follow-up. Ultrasound is the most popular modality for guidance and treatment monitoring worldwide, but computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are commonly used as well. Contrast-enhanced CT or MRI are typically employed for diagnosis and follow-up imaging.

  10. Thermal Ablation for the Treatment of Abdominal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    underlying coagulopathy and associated bleeding risks frequently seen in cirrhotic patients. In addition, sudden release of tumor cellular contents when the frozen tissue thaws can lead to a potentially serious condition known as cryoshock 16. Thermal tumor ablation can be performed at open surgery, laparoscopy or using a percutaneous approach. When performed percutaneously, the ablation procedure relies on imaging for diagnosis, planning, applicator guidance, treatment monitoring and follow-up. Ultrasound is the most popular modality for guidance and treatment monitoring worldwide, but computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are commonly used as well. Contrast-enhanced CT or MRI are typically employed for diagnosis and follow-up imaging. PMID:21445029

  11. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL TREATMENT (LT3®) SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Roy F. Weston, Inc. (Weston) low temperature thermal treatment (LT3®) system thermally desorbs organic compounds from contaminated soil without heating the soil to combustion temperatures. The transportable system is comprised of equipment assembled on thre...

  12. Phase stability of thermal barrier oxides based on t'-zirconia with trivalent oxide additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebollo Franco, Noemi Rosa

    Zirconia stabilized with 7+/-1 wt.% addition of yttria (7YSZ) is widely used for thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) on actively cooled gas turbine components, selected partly because of its superior durability under thermal cyclic conditions. As deposited, 7YSZ occurs as a metastable single-phase tetragonal solid solution (t') that is thermodynamically stable against the deleterious transformation to monoclinic upon cooling. However, at high temperatures t' is driven to decompose diffusionally into an equilibrium mixture of high-Y cubic and low-Y tetragonal; the latter becomes transformable to monoclinic compromising the mechanical integrity of the system. This dissertation explores the effects of trivalent stabilizers, including Y, Sc and selected rare-earth oxides (REO's), on the phase stability of the resulting solid solutions in zirconia. The REO additions are of interest because they can potentially enhance the insulation efficiency on the coating allowing higher operating temperatures. However, understanding of their effects on phase stability and potentially on cyclic durability at the projected use temperature in next generation engines (1200-1400°C) is insufficient to guide the design of coatings with the desirable combination of lower thermal conductivity and acceptable durability. Sc was also investigated because of previous reports on the higher phase stability of materials doped with Sc, and Y served as the baseline. The experimental approach is based on powders synthesized by reverse co-precipitation of precursor solutions, usually compacted and then subjected to a variety of heat treatments, following their evolution by means of X-ray diffractometry, dilatometry, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The use of powders facilitated the synthesis of a wider range of compositions that would not have been possible by coating deposition approaches, and because the synthesis occurs at low temperature, it also enabled the starting

  13. Retrieval/ex situ thermal treatment scoring interaction report

    SciTech Connect

    Raivo, B.D.; Richardson, J.G.

    1993-11-01

    A retrieval/ex situ thermal treatment technology process for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory transuranic waste pits and trenches is present. A system performance score is calculated, and assumptions, requirements, and reference baseline technologies for all subelements are included.

  14. Thermal treatment planning for SonoKnife focused-ultrasound thermal treatment of head and neck cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Chen, Duo; Xia, Rongmin; Shafirstein, Gal; Corry, Peter; Moros, Eduardo G.

    2011-03-01

    The purpose is to develop a patient-specific treatment planning method for a cylindrically-focused (i.e., SonoKnife) ultrasound thermal therapy system to optimize the thermal treatment of locally-advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) and/or positive lymph nodes. To achieve a more efficient and effective treatment, a temperature-based treatment planning was devised, which was composed of : (1) a 3D acoustic-thermal model has been developed to simulate the acoustic field, temperature distribution, and thermal dose coverage induced by the SonoKnife applicator. (2) A 3D relevant anatomical structures (e.g. the H&N tumors, bones and cavities) were reconstructed based on multislice CT scans. A step-and-shoot strategy was devised to perform the treatment, in which the initial applied power levels, placement of the transducers, and sonication times per scan were determined by conducting a temperature-based forward simulation. The maximum temperature, thermal dose coverage of target, and thermal exposure to surrounding tissue were analyzed. For performance evaluation, the treatment planning was applied on representative examples obtained from the clinical radiation therapy of HNSCC and positive lymph nodes. This treatment planning platforms can be used to guide applicator placement, set-up configurations, and applied power levels prior to delivery of a treatment or for post-procedure analysis of temperature distributions.

  15. Integrated thermal treatment system sudy: Phase 2, Results

    SciTech Connect

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study, the results of which have been published as an interim report, examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 2 systems. The assumptions and methods were the same as for the Phase 1 study. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in he Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr).

  16. Thermal treatment effectively controls zebra mussels at Illinois power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, R.I. ); Wahlert, S.L. )

    1994-12-01

    This article describes how a Commonwealth Edison Co. (ComEd) task force finds thermal treatment method most cost-effective with the least impact on station operation and the environment. Thermal treatment is accomplished by recirculating condenser discharge to raise circulating water (CW) and service water (SW) temperatures to 95 F. This treatment's effectiveness was demonstrated at the company's State Line Station in 1990 and 1991. In parallel with the State Line demonstration, a ComEd task force assessed treatment options for all of its stations. The task force determined that thermal treatment was the least-cost control approach considering construction costs and long-term operating and maintenance (O and M) expenditures. Compared to other alternatives, thermal treatment minimizes unit deratings and outages and minimizes impact to the environment. Based on the task force's assessment and the successful treatment at State Line Station, thermal treatment was selected as the preferred, least-cost method to control zebra mussels at the company's fossil-fueled stations.

  17. Characteristics of phase-change materials containing oxide nano-additives for thermal storage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors report the production of nanocomposite-enhanced phase-change materials (NEPCMs) using the direct-synthesis method by mixing paraffin with alumina (Al2O3), titania (TiO2), silica (SiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO) as the experimental samples. Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, and ZnO were dispersed into three concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 wt.%. Through heat conduction and differential scanning calorimeter experiments to evaluate the effects of varying concentrations of the nano-additives on the heat conduction performance and thermal storage characteristics of NEPCMs, their feasibility for use in thermal storage was determined. The experimental results demonstrate that TiO2 is more effective than the other additives in enhancing both the heat conduction and thermal storage performance of paraffin for most of the experimental parameters. Furthermore, TiO2 reduces the melting onset temperature and increases the solidification onset temperature of paraffin. This allows the phase-change heat to be applicable to a wider temperature range, and the highest decreased ratio of phase-change heat is only 0.46%, compared to that of paraffin. Therefore, this study demonstrates that TiO2, added to paraffin to form NEPCMs, has significant potential for enhancing the thermal storage characteristics of paraffin. PMID:23127224

  18. Effects of potential additives to promote seal swelling on the thermal stability of synthetic jet fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, D.D.; Gormley, R.G.; Zandhuis, P.H.; Baltrus, J.P.

    2007-10-01

    Synthetic fuels derived from the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process using natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas as feedstocks can be used for powering of ground vehicles, aircraft and ships. Because of their chemical and physical properties, F-T fuels will probably require additives in order to meet specifications with respect to lubricity and seal swell capability for use in ground and air vehicles. These additives can include oxygenates and compounds containing other heteroatoms that may adversely affect thermal stability. In order to understand what additives will be the most beneficial, a comprehensive experimental and computational study of conventional and additized fuels has been undertaken. The experimental approach includes analysis of the trace oxygenate and nitrogen-containing compounds present in conventional petroleum-derived fuels and trying to relate their presence (or absence) to changes in the desired properties of the fuels. This paper describes the results of efforts to test the thermal stability of synthetic fuels and surrogate fuels containing single-component additives that have been identified in earlier research as the best potential additives for promoting seal swelling in synthetic fuels, as well as mixtures of synthetic and petroleum-derived fuels.

  19. Low level mixed waste thermal treatment technical basis report

    SciTech Connect

    Place, B.G.

    1994-12-01

    Detailed characterization of the existing and projected Hanford Site Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) inventory was initiated in 1993 (Place 1993). This report presents an analysis of the existing and projected RMW inventory. The subject characterization effort continues to be in support of the following engineering activities related to thermal treatment of Hanford Site RMW: (1) Contracting for commercial thermal treatment; (2) Installation and operation of an onsite thermal treatment facility (Project W-242); (3) Treatment at another Department of Energy (DOE) site. The collation of this characterization information (data) has emphasized the establishment of a common data base for the entire existing RMW inventory so that the specification of feed streams destined for different treatment facilities can be coordinated.

  20. [Impacts of alkaline thermal treatment on characteristics of sludge from sewage treatment plant].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Dong; Chen, Xia; Liu, Cao; Xiao, Ben-Yi

    2015-02-01

    Alkaline thermal treatment is an important pretreatment method for sewage sludge. In this paper, in order to optimize the alkaline thermal treatment conditions for sludge pretreatment, four pretreatment parameters ( sludge concentration, pH, temperature and treatment time) were investigated through orthogonal experiments to determine their effects on the sludge disintegration, sludge concentration and sludge morphology of sewage sludge. The experimental results showed that the significance of the four factors on sludge characteristics was in the order of pH > temperature > treatment time > sludge concentration. Additionally, the optimal conditions of the four factors for the release of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of unit sludge and decrease of sludge concentration were as follows: 36.55 g x L(-1), pH 12.45, 175 degrees C and 60 min. While the optimal conditions for the decrease of particle size and fractal dimension were 36.55 g x L(-1), pH 12.5, 175 degrees C and 45 min. PMID:26031091

  1. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs.

  2. Potential Additives to Promote Seal Swell in Synthetic Fuels and Their Effect on Thermal Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Dirk D.; Gormley, Robert J.; Baltrus, John P.; Anderson, Richard R.; Zandhuis, Paul H.

    2008-03-01

    Synthetic, fuels derived from the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process using natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas as feedstocks can be used for powering ground vehicles, aircraft, and ships. Because of their chemical and physical properties, F-T fuels will probably require additives in order to meet specifications with respect to lubricity and seal swell capability for use in ground and air vehicles. Using both experimental and computational studies, the propensity of certain species to enhance the seal swell characteristics of synthetic fuels and surrogates has been determined, and promising additives have been identified. Important structural characteristics for potential additives, namely an aromatic ring along with a polar constituent, are described. The thermal stability of synthetic and surrogate fuels containing the single-component additive benzyl alcohol, which is representative of this structural class, has been determined by batch stressing of the mixtures at 350º C for up to 12 h. Synthetic fuels spiked with benzyl alcohol at concentrations (vol%) of 1.0, 0.75, and 0.5 have demonstrated the ability to swell nitrile rubber o-rings to a comparable degree as petroleum jet fuel. Further, batch reactor studies have shown that addition of benzyl alcohol does not degrade the thermal oxidative stability of the fuel based on gravimetric analysis of the solid deposits after stressing. GC-MS was used to characterize the products from thermal stressing of neat and additized surrogate jet fuel, and their compositions were compared with respect to the creation of certain species and their potential effect on deposition.

  3. Potential Additives to Promote Seal Swell in Synthetic Fuels and Their Effect on Thermal Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Link, D.D.; Gormley, R.J.; Baltrus, J.P.; Anderson, R.R.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2008-03-01

    Synthetic fuels derived from the Fischer–Tropsch (F-T) process using natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas as feedstocks can be used for powering ground vehicles, aircraft, and ships. Because of their chemical and physical properties, F-T fuels will probably require additives in order to meet specifications with respect to lubricity and seal swell capability for use in ground and air vehicles. Using both experimental and computational studies, the propensity of certain species to enhance the seal swell characteristics of synthetic fuels and surrogates has been determined, and promising additives have been identified. Important structural characteristics for potential additives, namely an aromatic ring along with a polar constituent, are described. The thermal stability of synthetic and surrogate fuels containing the single-component additive benzyl alcohol, which is representative of this structural class, has been determined by batch stressing of the mixtures at 350 °C for up to 12 h. Synthetic fuels spiked with benzyl alcohol at concentrations (vol %) of 1.0, 0.75, and 0.5 have demonstrated the ability to swell nitrile rubber o-rings to a comparable degree as petroleum jet fuel. Further, batch reactor studies have shown that addition of benzyl alcohol does not degrade the thermal oxidative stability of the fuel based on gravimetric analysis of the solid deposits after stressing. GC-MS was used to characterize the products from thermal stressing of neat and additized surrogate jet fuel, and their compositions were compared with respect to the creation of certain species and their potential effect on deposition.

  4. Radiofrequency thermal treatment with chemoradiotherapy for advanced rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    SHOJI, HISANORI; MOTEGI, MASAHIKO; OSAWA, KIYOTAKA; OKONOGI, NORIYUKI; OKAZAKI, ATSUSHI; ANDOU, YOSHITAKA; ASAO, TAKAYUKI; KUWANO, HIROYUKI; TAKAHASHI, TAKEO; OGOSHI, KYOJI

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that patients with a clinical complete response (CR) following radiofrequency thermal treatment exhibit significantly increased body temperature compared with other groups, whereas patients with a clinical partial response or stable disease depended on the absence or presence of output limiting symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation among treatment response, Hidaka radiofrequency (RF) output classification (HROC: termed by us) and changes in body temperature. From December 2011 to January 2014, 51 consecutive rectal cancer cases were included in this study. All patients underwent 5 RF thermal treatments with concurrent chemoradiation. Patients were classified into three groups based on HROC: with ≤9, 10–16, and ≥17 points, calculated as the sum total points of five treatments. Thirty-three patients received surgery 8 weeks after treatment, and among them, 32 resected specimens were evaluated for histological response. Eighteen patients did not undergo surgery, five because of progressive disease (PD) and 13 refused because of permanent colostomy. We demonstrated that good local control (ypCR + CR + CRPD) was observed in 32.7% of cases in this study. Pathological complete response (ypCR) was observed in 15.7% of the total 51 patients and in 24.2% of the 33 patients who underwent surgery. All ypCR cases had ≥10 points in the HROC, but there were no patients with ypCR among those with ≤9 points in the HROC. Standardization of RF thermal treatment was performed safely, and two types of patients were identified: those without or with increased temperatures, who consequently showed no or some benefit, respectively, for similar RF output thermal treatment. We propose that the HROC is beneficial for evaluating the efficacy of RF thermal treatment with chemoradiation for rectal cancer, and the thermoregulation control mechanism in individual patients may be pivotal in predicting the response to RF thermal treatment

  5. Integrated thermal treatment systems study. Internal review panel report

    SciTech Connect

    Cudahy, J.; Escarda, T.; Gimpel, R.

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) commissioned two studies to evaluate nineteen thermal treatment technologies for treatment of DOE mixed low-level waste. These studies were called the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Phase I and Phase II. With the help of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) Mixed Waste Focus Group, OTD formed an ITTS Internal Review Panel to review and comment on the ITTS studies. This Panel was composed of scientists and engineers from throughout the DOE complex, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the California EPA, and private experts. The Panel met from November 15-18, 1994 to review the ITTS studies and to make recommendations on the most promising thermal treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level wastes and on research and development necessary to prove the performance of the technologies. This report describes the findings and presents the recommendations of the Panel.

  6. Bis(pinacolato)diboron as an additive for the detection of thermal neutrons in plastic scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahl, Adam; Yemam, Henok A.; Stuntz, John; Remedes, Tyler; Sellinger, Alan; Greife, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    A readily available and inexpensive boron compound was tested as an additive for the detection of thermal neutrons in plastic scintillators. Bis(pinacolato)diboron (B2Pin2) was determined to be a compatible boron source (8.51 wt% boron, 1.70 wt% 10B) in poly(vinyltoluene) based matrices. Plastic scintillator blends of 1-20 wt% 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO), 0.1 wt% 1,4-bis(5-phenyloxazol-2-yl) benzene (POPOP) and 1-15 wt% B2Pin2 were prepared that provided optical clarity, good mechanical properties, and the capability of thermal neutron detection. Independent of B2Pin2 concentration, strong 10B neutron capture signals around 90 keVee were observed at essentially constant light output. Increasing PPO concentration allowed for the use of pulse shape discrimination (PSD) in both fast and thermal neutron detection. High PPO concentrations appear to cause additional alpha quenching that affected the 10B neutron capture signal. Aging effects after storage in air for several months were observed, which led to degradation of performance and in some samples of mechanical stability.

  7. [A new treatment: thermal therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome].

    PubMed

    Masuda, Akinori; Munemoto, Takao; Tei, Chuwa

    2007-06-01

    Thermal therapy using far-infrared ray dry sauna was performed for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Symptoms such as fatigue, pain, and low-grade fever were dramatically improved on two patients. And prednisolone administration was discontinued and became socially rehabilitated 6 months after discharge. On other 11 patients with CFS, physical symptoms such as fatigue and pain improved, too. Furthermore, we reported that repeated thermal therapy had relaxation effect and diminishes appetite loss and subjective complaints in mildly depressed patients. These results suggest that repeated thermal therapy may be a promising method for the treatment of CFS.

  8. Polymeric additives for antistatic treatment of sheet molding composites (SMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedan-Smolka, Michaela; Schubert, Katrin; Taeger, Antje; Marks, Hagen

    2016-03-01

    Novel oligomeric/polymeric additives with ionic units were synthesized in a one pot procedure in order to enhance the specific surface resistivity of SMC-materials. In contrast to industrially used inorganic salts or carbon materials, such as carbon black or CNT's, these substances are nearly colorless and matrix compatible and, resulting from that, easy to homogenize with the SMC-matrix. Furthermore, it was found, that additives which can be covalently bonded to the matrix during the molding procedure are preferred compared to physically mixed substances. The effectiveness of chemically bonded substances regarding with the lowering of the specific surface resistivity is higher and selected additives do not change the reactivity and resulting mechanical properties of the molded material.

  9. A theoretical study of wave dispersion and thermal conduction for HMX/additive interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2014-04-01

    The wave dispersion rule for non-uniform material is useful for ultrasonic inspection and engine life prediction, and also is key in achieving an understanding of the energy dissipation and thermal conduction properties of solid material. On the basis of linear response theory and molecular dynamics, we derive a set of formulas for calculating the wave dispersion rate of interface systems, and study four kinds of interfaces inside plastic bonded explosives: HMX/{HMX, TATB, F2312, F2313}. (HMX: octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine; TATB: 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene; F2312, F2313: fluoropolymers). The wave dispersion rate is obtained over a wide frequency range from kHz to PHz. We find that at low frequency, the rate is proportional to the square of the frequency, and at high frequency, the rate couples with the molecular vibration modes at the interface. By using the results, the thermal conductivities of HMX/additive interfaces are derived, and a physical model is built for describing the total thermal conductivity of mixture explosives, including HMX multi-particle systems and {TATB, F2312, F2313}-coated HMX.

  10. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    SciTech Connect

    Durrani, H.A.; Schmidt, L.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Sondreal, E.A.; Erjavec, J.; Steadman, E.N.; Fabrycky, W.J.; Wilson, J.S.; Musich, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes three systems engineering (SE) studies performed on integrated thermal treatment systems (ITTSs) and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTSs) for the remediation of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Waste Policy Institute (WPI), and Virginia Tech (VT). The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions taken in the studies might bias the resulting economic evaluations of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to produce sound SE applications.

  11. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  12. Effect of Boron Addition on the Thermal, Degradation, and Cytocompatibility Properties of Phosphate-Based Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Muhammad S.; Parsons, Andrew J.; Furniss, David; Scotchford, Colin A.; Ahmed, Ifty; Rudd, Chris D.

    2013-01-01

    In this study eight different phosphate-based glass compositions were prepared by melt-quenching: four in the (P2O5)45-(CaO)16-(Na2O)15-x -(MgO)24-(B2O3)x system and four in the system (P2O5)50-(CaO)16-(Na2O)10-x-(MgO)24-(B2O3)x, where x = 0,1, 5 and 10 mol%. The effect of B2O3 addition on the thermal properties, density, molar volume, dissolution rates, and cytocompatibility were studied for both glass systems. Addition of B2O3 increased the glass transition (Tg), crystallisation (Tc), melting (Tm), Liquidus (TL) and dilatometric softening (Td) temperature and molar volume (Vm). The thermal expansion coefficient (α) and density (ρ) were seen to decrease. An assessment of the thermal stability of the glasses was made in terms of their processing window (crystallisation onset, Tc,ons minus glass transition temperature, Tg), and an increase in the processing window was observed with increasing B2O3 content. Degradation studies of the glasses revealed that the rates decreased with increasing B2O3 content and a decrease in degradation rates was also observed as the P2O5 content reduced from 50 to 45 mol%. MG63 osteoblast-like cells cultured in direct contact with the glass samples for 14 days revealed comparative data to the positive control for the cell metabolic activity, proliferation, ALP activity, and morphology for glasses containing up to 5 mol% of B2O3. PMID:23991425

  13. PMB-Waste: An analysis of fluidized bed thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U.; Kass, M.D.; Lloyd, D.B.

    1995-07-01

    A fluidized bed treatment process was evaluated for solid waste from plastic media blasting of aircraft protective coating. The treatment objective is to decompose and oxidize all organic components, and concentrate all the hazardous metals in the ash. The reduced volume and mass are expected to reduce disposal cost. A pilot test treatment was done in an existing fluidized bed equipped with emissions monitors, and emissions within regulatory requirements were demonstrated. A economic analysis of the process is inconclusive due to lack of reliable cost data of disposal without thermal treatment.

  14. Mercury removal from contaminated soil by thermal treatment with FeCl₃ at reduced temperature.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fujun; Zhang, Qian; Xu, Duanping; Hou, Deyi; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao

    2014-12-01

    Thermal treatment has been used to remediate mercury-contaminated soils; however, existing thermal technologies use high temperatures (e.g., 600-800°C) and require high energy costs. Moreover, the treated soil is unfavorable for agricultural reuse. To address these issues, the present study developed a method for the thermal treatment of mercury-contaminated soils at a reduced temperature (400°C) by adding FeCl3. A FeCl3/Hg molar ratio of 100:1 in the soil was adopted as the optimum dosage of FeCl3 required to achieve maximum reduction of mercury. The mercury concentration in soils was successfully reduced to 0.8 mg kg(-)(1) when treated at 400°C for 60 min and the treated soil retained most of its original soil properties. FeCl3 addition during thermal treatment not only accelerated the volatilization of mercury in the easily removed fraction but also reduced the volatilization temperature of mercury in the hardly removed fraction. The adsorbable organic halogens and PCDD/Fs formed during thermal treatment with FeCl3 would not affect the soil reuse in agriculture. The thermal decontamination method reduces energy costs and leads to agricultural soil reuse, thus providing a greener and more sustainable remediation method for treating mercury-contaminated soil in future engineering applications.

  15. Microbial modeling of thermal resistance of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris CRA7152 spores in concentrated orange juice with nisin addition

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Wilmer Edgard Luera; de Massaguer, Pilar Rodriguez; Teixeira, Luciano Quintão

    2009-01-01

    The nisin effect on thermal death of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris CRA 7152 spores in concentrated orange juice (64°Brix) was studied. Concentrations of 0, 50, 75 and 100 IU of nisin/ml juice, at temperatures of 92, 95, 98 and 102°C were evaluated. The quadratic polynomial model was used to analyze the effects of the factors and their interaction. Verification of surviving spores was carried out through plating in K medium (pH 3.7). The results showed that the D values without nisin addition were 25.5, 12.9, 6.1 and 2.3 min for 92, 95, 98 and 102°C respectively. With addition of nisin into the juice there was a drop of heat resistance as the concentration was increased at a same temperature. With 30, 50, 75, 100 and 150 IU/ml at 95°C, the D values were 12.34, 11.38, 10.49, 9.49 and 9.42 min respectively, showing that a decrease in the D value up to 27% can be obtained. The second order polynomial model established with r2 = 0.995 showed that the microorganism resistance was affected by the action of temperature followed by the nisin concentration. Nisin therefore is an alternative for reducing the rigor of the A. acidoterrestris CRA 7152 thermal treatment. PMID:24031405

  16. Current Status of Thermal Ablation Treatments for Lung Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, Damian E.; Shulman, Maria

    2010-01-01

    About 75% of lung cancer patients are not surgical candidates, either due to advanced disease or medical comorbidities. Furthermore, conventional treatments that can be offered to these patients are beneficial only to a small percentage of them. Thermal ablation is a minimally invasive treatment that is commonly used in this group of patients, and which has shown promising results. Currently, the most widely used ablation techniques in the treatment of lung malignancies are radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation, and cryoablation. Although the most studied technique is RFA, recent studies with microwave ablation and cryoablation have shown some advantages over RFA. This article reviews the application of thermal ablation in the thorax, including patient selection, basic aspects of procedure technique, imaging follow-up, treatment outcomes, and comparison of ablation techniques. PMID:22550366

  17. Thermal treatment technology at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hillary, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    Recent surveys of mixed wastes in interim storage throughout the 30-site Department of Energy complex indicate that only 12 of those sites account for 98% of such wastes by volume. Current inventories at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) account for 38% of total DOE wastes in interim storage, the largest of any single site. For a large percentage of these waste volumes, as well as the substantial amounts of buried and currently generated wastes, thermal treatment processes have been designated as the technologies of choice. Current facilities and a number of proposed strategies exist for thermal treatment of wastes of this nature at the INEL. High-level radioactive waste is solidified in the Waste Calciner Facility at the Idaho Central Processing Plant. Low-level solid wastes until recently have been processed at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF), a compaction, size reduction, and controlled air incineration facility. WERF is currently undergoing process upgrading and RCRA Part B permitting. Recent systems studies have defined effective strategies, in the form of thermal process sequences, for treatment of wastes of the complex and heterogeneous nature in the INEL inventory. This presentation reviews the current status of operating facilities, active studies in this area, and proposed strategies for thermal treatment of INEL wastes.

  18. Sorting of household waste and thermal treatment of waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ferranti, M.P.; Ferrero, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The priorities in waste policy are implicit in the title of this book. The first goal is sorting and recycling of materials whenever possible. The second priority is for thermal treatment of any materials unsuitable for recovery. The different sessions dealt with the research carried out under cost-shared contracts in the various programme areas.

  19. Thermal treatment of landfill leachate and the emission control.

    PubMed

    Atabarut, Tamer; Ekinci, Ekrem

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop an appropriate system for the thermal treatment of landfill leachate. In the initial phase of this study, characterization studies were conducted both for the waste disposed and leachate generated. For the thermal treatment of the landfill leachate two different incineration systems, namely a double-phase liquid waste incineration system and a new pilot-scale incineration system, were tested. During the experimental study, the capability of the new pilot-scale incineration system was proven to treat the landfill leachate. However, high concentrations of NOx were recorded. On the other hand, the experimental data, obtained during the testing period of the double-phase liquid waste incineration system, indicated that the fluidized bed incinerator provided an extra unit sufficient to complete the oxidation of partial products of combustion and organics carried from the initial incinerator. Therefore, lower gaseous emissions were noted. However, an agglomeration problem has occurred, due to the high concentrations of Na, Ca and K. It was concluded that considering the flexibility of the thermal processes, thermal treatment of leachate could successfully be applied to Odayeri landfill, as well as to many landfills, if proper gas treatment systems are applied.

  20. Patient specific optimization-based treatment planning for catheter-based ultrasound hyperthermia and thermal ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Punit; Chen, Xin; Wootton, Jeffery; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I.-Chow; Diederich, Chris J.

    2009-02-01

    to model thermal ablation, including the addition of temperature dependent attenuation, perfusion, and tissue damage. Pilot point control at the target boundaries was implemented to control power delivery to each transducer section, simulating an approach feasible for MR guided procedures. The computer model of thermal ablation was evaluated on representative patient anatomies to demonstrate the feasibility of using catheter-based ultrasound thermal ablation for treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer, and to assist in designing applicators and treatment delivery strategies.

  1. Treatment of Solar and Thermal Radiation in Global Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacis, A. A.; Oinas, V.

    2015-12-01

    It is the interaction of solar and thermal radiation with the climate system constituents that determines the prevailing climate on Earth. The principal radiative constituents of the climate system are clouds, aerosols, greenhouse gases, and the ground surface. Accurate rendering of their interaction with the incident solar radiation and the outgoing thermal radiation is required if a climate model is to be capable of simulating and predicting the complex changes that take place in the terrestrial climate system. In the GISS climate model, these radiative tasks are accomplished with a GCM radiation model that utilizes the correlated k-distribution treatment that closely matches Line-by-Line accuracy (Lacis and Oinas, 1991) for the gaseous absorbers, and an adaptation of the doubling/adding method (Lacis and Hansen, 1974) to compute multiple scattering by clouds and aerosols. The radiative parameters to model the spectral dependence of solar and longwave radiation (UV to microwave) utilizes Mie scattering and T-matrix calculations covering the broad range of particle sizes and compositions encountered in the climate system. Cloud treatment also incorporates an empirical representation of sub-grid inhomogeneity and space-time variability of cloud optical properties (derived from ISCCP data) that utilizes a Monte Carlo-based re-scaling parameterization of the cloud plane-parallel radiative parameters (Cairns et al, 2001). The longwave calculations compute correlated k-distribution radiances at three quadrature points (without scattering), and include the effects of cloud scattering in parameterized form for the outgoing and downwelling LW fluxes. For hygroscopic aerosols (e.g., sulfates, nitrates, sea salt), the effects of changing relative humidity on particle size and refractive index are explicitly taken into account. In this way, the GISS GCM radiation model calculates the SW and LW radiative fluxes, and the corresponding radiative heating and cooling rates in

  2. From hydrophobic to superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic siloxanes by thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Karapanagiotis, Ioannis; Manoudis, Panagiotis N; Zurba, Andreea; Lampakis, Dimitrios

    2014-11-11

    The cross-influence effects of treatment temperature and time on the wettability of a siloxane elastomer is investigated in detail, through static and tilt contact angle measurements. The material is heated at 400, 500, 600, 650, 700, and 800 °C for various periods, ranging from 1 to 300 s. The siloxane surface is subjected to multiple wettability transitions with treatment time: from intrinsic hydrophobicity to superhydrophobicity (and water repellency) and then through intermediate stages (hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity) to superhydrophilicity. For the time scale used herein (1-300 s), this scenario is recorded for treatment at 650, 700, and 800 °C. For treatment at lower temperatures (400, 500, and 600 °C) only the first transition, from intrinsic hydrophobicity to superhydrophobicity, is recorded. Scanning electron microscopy, micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR), and micro-Raman spectroscopies are employed to correlate the aforementioned wettability transitions with structural and chemical changes of the siloxane surface, developed during thermal treatment. It is shown that the first transition from intrinsic hydrophobicity to superhydrophobicity is accompanied by a severe surface-structure evolution that increases surface roughness. Once superhydrophobicity is achieved, the surface structure reaches a saturation point and it is not subjected to any other change with further thermal treatment. FTIR spectroscopy shows that the intensity of the O-H/C-H peaks increases/decreases with treatment time, and Raman measurements show that the C-Si-C vibrations gradually disappear with treatment time. The evaporation of a droplet resting on a superhydrophobic, water-repellent siloxane surface, which was produced after appropriate thermal treatment, is monitored. It is shown that droplet evaporation initially follows the constant contact area mode. At later evaporation stages, a transition to the constant contact angle mode is recorded. Finally, it is

  3. Thermal behavior of water confined in micro porous of clay mineral at additional pressure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Y.; Takemura, T.; Fujimori, H.; Nagoe, A.; Sugimoto, T.

    2014-12-01

    Water is the most familiar substance. However water has specific properties that has a crystal structure of a dozen and density of that is maximum at 277.15 K. Therefore it understands various natural phenomena to study physical properties of water. Oodo et al study physical properties of water confined in silica gel [1]. They indicate that melting point of water confined in silica gel decrease with decreasing pore size of silica gel. Also in case that pore size is less than 2 nm, water confined in silica gel is unfreezing water at low temperature. It is considered that effect of pore size prevent crystal growth of water. Therefore we are interested in water confined in clay minerals. Clay minerals have a number of water conditions. Also it is thought that water confined in clay minerals show different physical behavior to exist the domain where change with various effect. Therefore we studied a thermal properties and phase behavior of absorption water in clay minerals. In addition, we analyzed the changes in the thermal behavior of absorption water due to the effect of earth pressure that was an environmental factor in the ground. [1] Oodo & Fujimori, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 357 (2011) 683.

  4. Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study

    SciTech Connect

    Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios.

  5. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    SciTech Connect

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-10-16

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests.

  6. Effects of thermal treatment and sonication on quality attributes of Chokanan mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice.

    PubMed

    Santhirasegaram, Vicknesha; Razali, Zuliana; Somasundram, Chandran

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasonic treatment is an emerging food processing technology that has growing interest among health-conscious consumers. Freshly squeezed Chokanan mango juice was thermally treated (at 90 °C for 30 and 60s) and sonicated (for 15, 30 and 60 min at 25 °C, 40 kHz frequency, 130 W) to compare the effect on microbial inactivation, physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and other quality parameters. After sonication and thermal treatment, no significant changes occurred in pH, total soluble solids and titratable acidity. Sonication for 15 and 30 min showed significant improvement in selected quality parameters except color and ascorbic acid content, when compared to freshly squeezed juice (control). A significant increase in extractability of carotenoids (4-9%) and polyphenols (30-35%) was observed for juice subjected to ultrasonic treatment for 15 and 30 min, when compared to the control. In addition, enhancement of radical scavenging activity and reducing power was observed in all sonicated juice samples regardless of treatment time. Thermal and ultrasonic treatment exhibited significant reduction in microbial count of the juice. The results obtained support the use of sonication to improve the quality of Chokanan mango juice along with safety standard as an alternative to thermal treatment.

  7. Surface modification of cellulose acetate membrane using thermal annealing to enhance produced water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusworo, T. D.; Aryanti, N.; Firdaus, M. M. H.; Sukmawati, H.

    2015-12-01

    This study is performed primarily to investigate the effect of surface modification of cellulose acetate using thermal annealing on the enhancement of membrane performance for produced water treatment. In this study, Cellulose Acetate membranes were casted using dry/wet phase inversion technique. The effect of additive and post-treatment using thermal annealing on the membrane surface were examined for produced water treatment. Therma annealing was subjected to membrane surface at 60 and 70 °C for 5, 10 and 15 second, respectively. Membrane characterizations were done using membrane flux and rejection with produced water as a feed, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) analysis. Experimental results showed that asymmetric cellulose acetate membrane can be made by dry/wet phase inversion technique. The results from the Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis was also confirmed that polyethylene glycol as additivie in dope solution and thermal annealing was affected the morphology and membrane performance for produced water treatment, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that the selective layer and the substructure of membrane became denser and more compact after the thermal annealing processes. Therefore, membrane rejection was significantly increased while the flux was slighty decreased, respectively. The best membrane performance is obtained on the composition of 18 wt % cellulose acetate, poly ethylene glycol 5 wt% with thermal annealing at 70° C for 15 second.

  8. Surface modification of cellulose acetate membrane using thermal annealing to enhance produced water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kusworo, T. D. Aryanti, N. Firdaus, M. M. H.; Sukmawati, H.

    2015-12-29

    This study is performed primarily to investigate the effect of surface modification of cellulose acetate using thermal annealing on the enhancement of membrane performance for produced water treatment. In this study, Cellulose Acetate membranes were casted using dry/wet phase inversion technique. The effect of additive and post-treatment using thermal annealing on the membrane surface were examined for produced water treatment. Therma annealing was subjected to membrane surface at 60 and 70 °C for 5, 10 and 15 second, respectively. Membrane characterizations were done using membrane flux and rejection with produced water as a feed, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) analysis. Experimental results showed that asymmetric cellulose acetate membrane can be made by dry/wet phase inversion technique. The results from the Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis was also confirmed that polyethylene glycol as additivie in dope solution and thermal annealing was affected the morphology and membrane performance for produced water treatment, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that the selective layer and the substructure of membrane became denser and more compact after the thermal annealing processes. Therefore, membrane rejection was significantly increased while the flux was slighty decreased, respectively. The best membrane performance is obtained on the composition of 18 wt % cellulose acetate, poly ethylene glycol 5 wt% with thermal annealing at 70° C for 15 second.

  9. Solar neutrinos and the influences of opacity, thermal instability, additional neutrino sources, and a central black hole on solar models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.; Ezer, D.

    1972-01-01

    Significant quantities that affect the internal structure of the sun are examined for factors that reduce the temperature near the sun's center. The four factors discussed are: opacity, central black hole, thermal instability, and additional neutrino sources.

  10. The Effect of Homogenization Heat Treatment on Thermal Expansion Coefficient and Dimensional Stability of Low Thermal Expansion Cast Irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li-Hao; Liu, Zong-Pei; Pan, Yung-Ning

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of homogenization heat treatment on α value [coefficient of thermal expansion (10-6 K-1)] of low thermal expansion cast irons was studied. In addition, constrained thermal cyclic tests were conducted to evaluate the dimensional stability of the low thermal expansion cast irons with various heat treatment conditions. The results indicate that when the alloys were homogenized at a relatively low temperature, e.g., 1023 K (750 °C), the elimination of Ni segregation was not very effective, but the C concentration in the matrix was moderately reduced. On the other hand, if the alloys were homogenized at a relatively high temperature, e.g., 1473 K (1200 °C), opposite results were obtained. Consequently, not much improvement (reduction) in α value was achieved in both cases. Therefore, a compound homogenization heat treatment procedure was designed, namely 1473 K (1200 °C)/4 hours/FC/1023 K (750 °C)/2 hours/WQ, in which a relatively high homogenization temperature of 1473 K (1200 °C) can effectively eliminate the Ni segregation, and a subsequent holding stage at 1023.15 K (750 °C) can reduce the C content in the matrix. As a result, very low α values of around (1 to 2) × 10-6 K-1 were obtained. Regarding the constrained thermal cyclic testing in 303 K to 473 K (30 °C to 200 °C), the results indicate that regardless of heat treatment condition, low thermal expansion cast irons exhibit exceedingly higher dimensional stability than either the regular ductile cast iron or the 304 stainless steel. Furthermore, positive correlation exists between the α 303.15 K to 473.15 K value and the amount of shape change after the thermal cyclic testing. Among the alloys investigated, Heat I-T3B (1473 K (1200 °C)/4 hours/FC/1023 K (750 °C)/2 hours/WQ) exhibits the lowest α 303 K to 473 K value (1.72 × 10-6 K-1), and hence has the least shape change (7.41 μm) or the best dimensional stability.

  11. Impacts of microalgae pre-treatments for improved anaerobic digestion: thermal treatment, thermal hydrolysis, ultrasound and enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Ometto, Francesco; Quiroga, Gerardo; Pšenička, Pavel; Whitton, Rachel; Jefferson, Bruce; Villa, Raffaella

    2014-11-15

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of microalgae is primarily inhibited by the chemical composition of their cell walls containing biopolymers able to resist bacterial degradation. Adoption of pre-treatments such as thermal, thermal hydrolysis, ultrasound and enzymatic hydrolysis have the potential to remove these inhibitory compounds and enhance biogas yields by degrading the cell wall, and releasing the intracellular algogenic organic matter (AOM). This work investigated the effect of four pre-treatments on three microalgae species, and their impact on the quantity of soluble biomass released in the media and thus on the digestion process yields. The analysis of the composition of the soluble COD released and of the TEM images of the cells showed two main degradation actions associated with the processes: (1) cell wall damage with the release of intracellular AOM (thermal, thermal hydrolysis and ultrasound) and (2) degradation of the cell wall constituents with the release of intracellular AOM and the solubilisation of the cell wall biopolymers (enzymatic hydrolysis). As a result of this, enzymatic hydrolysis showed the greatest biogas yield increments (>270%) followed by thermal hydrolysis (60-100%) and ultrasounds (30-60%).

  12. Titanate nanotube thin films with enhanced thermal stability and high-transparency prepared from additive-free sols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kőrösi, László; Papp, Szilvia; Hornok, Viktória; Oszkó, Albert; Petrik, Péter; Patko, Daniel; Horvath, Robert; Dékány, Imre

    2012-08-01

    Titanate nanotubes were synthesized from TiO2 in alkaline medium by a conventional hydrothermal method (150 °C, 4.7 bar). To obtain hydrogen titanates, the as-prepared sodium titanates were treated with either HCl or H3PO4 aqueous solutions. A simple synthesis procedure was devised for stable titanate nanotube sols without using any additives. These highly stable ethanolic sols can readily be used to prepare transparent titanate nanotube thin films of high quality. The resulting samples were studied by X-ray diffraction, N2-sorption measurements, Raman spectroscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The comparative results of using two kinds of acids shed light on the superior thermal stability of the H3PO4-treated titanate nanotubes (P-TNTs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that P-TNTs contains P in the near-surface region and the thermal stability was enhanced even at a low (˜0.5 at%) concentration of P. After calcination at 500 °C, the specific surface areas of the HCl- and H3PO4-treated samples were 153 and 244 m2 g-1, respectively. The effects of H3PO4 treatment on the structure, morphology and porosity of titanate nanotubes are discussed.

  13. Effects of thermal additions on the presence of pathogenic and nonpathogenic free-living amoebae at the Savannah River Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the effect of thermal additions on the presence of free-living thermophilic amoeba at the Savannah River site was undertaken. Seasonality effects and the influence of varied degrees of thermal enrichment on the numbers and types of thermophilic pathogenic and nonpathogenic amoeba were determined. In addition, the ability of thermophilic nonpathogenic Naegleria to competitively inhibit the growth of the pathogenic Naegleria was defined and related to water quality differences.

  14. Effect of experimental wood addition on hyporheic exchange and thermal dynamics in a losing meadow stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Audrey H.; Cardenas, M. Bayani

    2012-10-01

    Stream restoration structures such as large wood can enhance shallow river-groundwater exchange, or hyporheic exchange, and alter temperature dynamics in restored reaches. We added and then removed channel-spanning logs in a second-order mountain meadow stream to test short-term impacts on hyporheic exchange, streambed temperatures, and surface water temperatures. Based on vertical seepage measurements and numerical simulations of hyporheic fluid and heat flow, large wood addition increased hyporheic exchange and altered streambed temperatures. In this losing stream, meter-scale hyporheic exchange cells formed beneath large wood. Upwelling pore water downstream of logs stabilized diel temperature cycles across <8% of the streambed, creating localized but potentially valuable thermal refuge. Exchange rates were <0.1% of channel discharge—too small to impact the range of diel temperature signals in surface water. However, the lag between downstream and upstream diel temperature signals was slightly greater with large wood, which may indicate that surface storage zones rather than hyporheic storage zones increased thermal retardation. Losing conditions limited the spatial extent and rates of hyporheic exchange near large wood. Impacts of large wood reintroduction on hyporheic exchange depend on ambient groundwater discharge or recharge, streambed permeability, channel Froude number, large wood blockage ratio, and large wood spacing. In many streams, large wood reintroduction may increase hyporheic habitat volume and complexity but may not increase exchange rates enough to alter surface water temperature or chemistry. Surface storage zones such as eddies and pools can still influence heat and solute retention in the channel.

  15. Treatment of waste thermal waters by ozonation and nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Z L; Szép, A; Kertész, S; Hodúr, C; László, Z

    2013-01-01

    After their use for heating, e.g. in greenhouses, waste thermal waters may cause environmental problems due to their high contents of ions, and in some cases organic matter (associated with an oxygen demand) or toxic compounds. The aims of this work were to decrease the high organic content of waste thermal water by a combination of ozone treatment and membrane separation, and to investigate the accompanying membrane fouling. The results demonstrated that the chemical oxygen demand and the total organic content can be effectively decreased by a combination of ozone pretreatment and membrane filtration. Ozone treatment is more effective for phenol elimination than nanofiltration alone: with a combination of the two processes, 100% elimination efficiency can be achieved. The fouling index b proved to correlate well with the fouling and polarization layer resistances.

  16. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  17. Non-thermal plasma for exhaust gases treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alva R., Elvia; Pacheco P., Marquidia; Gómez B., Fernando; Pacheco P., Joel; Colín C., Arturo; Sánchez-Mendieta, Víctor; Valdivia B., Ricardo; Santana D., Alfredo; Huertas C., José; Frías P., Hilda

    2015-09-01

    This article describes a study on a non-thermal plasma device to treat exhaust gases in an internal combustion engine. Several tests using a plasma device to treat exhaust gases are conducted on a Honda GX200-196 cm3 engine at different rotational speeds. A plasma reactor could be efficient in degrading nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. Monoxide and carbon dioxide treatment is minimal. However, achieving 1%-3% degradation may be interesting to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.

  18. Recycling supercapacitors based on shredding and mild thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guozhan; Pickering, Stephen J

    2016-02-01

    Supercapacitors are widely used in electric and hybrid vehicles, wind farm and low-power equipment due to their high specific power density and huge number of charge-discharge cycles. Waste supercapacitors should be recycled according to EU directive 2002/96/EC on waste electric and electronic equipment. This paper describes a recycling approach for end-of-life supercapacitors based on shredding and mild thermal treatment. At first, supercapacitors are shredded using a Retsch cutting mill. The shredded mixture is then undergone thermal treatment at 200°C to recycle the organic solvent contained in the activated carbon electrodes. After the thermal treatment, the mixture is roughly separated using a fluidized bed method to remove the aluminium foil particles and paper particles from the activated carbon particles, which is subsequently put into water for a wet shredding into fine particles that can be re-used. The recycled activated carbon has a BET surface area of up to 1200m(2)/g and the recycled acetonitrile has a high purity. PMID:26542830

  19. Recycling supercapacitors based on shredding and mild thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guozhan; Pickering, Stephen J

    2016-02-01

    Supercapacitors are widely used in electric and hybrid vehicles, wind farm and low-power equipment due to their high specific power density and huge number of charge-discharge cycles. Waste supercapacitors should be recycled according to EU directive 2002/96/EC on waste electric and electronic equipment. This paper describes a recycling approach for end-of-life supercapacitors based on shredding and mild thermal treatment. At first, supercapacitors are shredded using a Retsch cutting mill. The shredded mixture is then undergone thermal treatment at 200°C to recycle the organic solvent contained in the activated carbon electrodes. After the thermal treatment, the mixture is roughly separated using a fluidized bed method to remove the aluminium foil particles and paper particles from the activated carbon particles, which is subsequently put into water for a wet shredding into fine particles that can be re-used. The recycled activated carbon has a BET surface area of up to 1200m(2)/g and the recycled acetonitrile has a high purity.

  20. Comparative environmental analysis of waste brominated plastic thermal treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Bientinesi, M. Petarca, L.

    2009-03-15

    The aim of this research activity is to investigate the environmental impact of different thermal treatments of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), applying a life cycle assessment methodology. Two scenarios were assessed, which both allow the recovery of bromine: (A) the co-combustion of WEEE and green waste in a municipal solid waste combustion plant, and (B) the staged-gasification of WEEE and combustion of produced syngas in gas turbines. Mass and energy balances on the two scenarios were set and the analysis of the life cycle inventory and the life cycle impact assessment were conducted. Two impact assessment methods (Ecoindicator 99 and Impact 2002+) were slightly modified and then used with both scenarios. The results showed that scenario B (staged-gasification) had a potentially smaller environmental impact than scenario A (co-combustion). In particular, the thermal treatment of staged-gasification was more energy efficient than co-combustion, and therefore scenario B performed better than scenario A, mainly in the impact categories of 'fossil fuels' and 'climate change'. Moreover, the results showed that scenario B allows a higher recovery of bromine than scenario A; however, Br recovery leads to environmental benefits for both the scenarios. Finally the study demonstrates that WEEE thermal treatment for energy and matter recovery is an eco-efficient way to dispose of this kind of waste.

  1. Thermal treatment effects on laser surface remelting duplex stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Nascimento, Alex M.; Ierardi, Maria Clara F.; Aparecida Pinto, M.; Tavares, Sérgio S. M.

    2008-10-01

    In this paper the microstructural changes and effects on corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steels UNS S32304 and UNS S32205, commonly used by the petroleum industry, were studied, following the execution of laser surface remelting (LSM) and post-thermal treatments (TT). In this way, data was obtained, which could then be compared with the starting condition of the alloys. In order to analyze the corrosion behaviour of the alloys in the as-received conditions, treated with laser and after post-thermal treatments, cyclic polarization tests were carried out. A solution of 3.5% NaCl (artificial sea water) was used, as duplex stainless steels are regularly used by the petroleum industry in offshore locations. The results obtained showed that when laser surface treated, due to rapid resolidification, the alloys became almost ferritic, and since the level of nitrogen in the composition of both alloys is superior to their solubility limit in ferrite, a precipitation of Cr2N (chromium nitrides) occurred in the ferritic matrix, causing loss of corrosion resistance, thus resulting in an increase in surface hardness. However, after the post-thermal treatment the alloys corrosion resistance was restored to values close to those of the as-received condition.

  2. Engineering and environmental properties of thermally treated mixtures containing MSWI fly ash and low-cost additives.

    PubMed

    Polettini, A; Pomi, R; Trinci, L; Muntoni, A; Lo Mastro, S

    2004-09-01

    An experimental work was carried out to investigate the feasibility of application of a sintering process to mixtures composed of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) fly ash and low-cost additives (waste from feldspar production and cullet). The proportions of the three constituents were varied to adjust the mixture compositions to within the optimal range for sintering. The material was compacted in cylindrical specimens and treated at 1100 and 1150 degrees C for 30 and 60 min. Engineering and environmental characteristics including weight loss, dimensional changes, density, open porosity, mechanical strength, chemical stability and leaching behavior were determined for the treated material, allowing the relationship between the degree of sintering and both mixture composition and treatment conditions to be singled out. Mineralogical analyses detected the presence of neo-formation minerals from the pyroxene group. Estimation of the extent of metal loss from the samples indicated that the potential for volatilization of species of Pb, Cd and Zn is still a matter of major concern when dealing with thermal treatment of incinerator ash. PMID:15268956

  3. Engineering and environmental properties of thermally treated mixtures containing MSWI fly ash and low-cost additives.

    PubMed

    Polettini, A; Pomi, R; Trinci, L; Muntoni, A; Lo Mastro, S

    2004-09-01

    An experimental work was carried out to investigate the feasibility of application of a sintering process to mixtures composed of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) fly ash and low-cost additives (waste from feldspar production and cullet). The proportions of the three constituents were varied to adjust the mixture compositions to within the optimal range for sintering. The material was compacted in cylindrical specimens and treated at 1100 and 1150 degrees C for 30 and 60 min. Engineering and environmental characteristics including weight loss, dimensional changes, density, open porosity, mechanical strength, chemical stability and leaching behavior were determined for the treated material, allowing the relationship between the degree of sintering and both mixture composition and treatment conditions to be singled out. Mineralogical analyses detected the presence of neo-formation minerals from the pyroxene group. Estimation of the extent of metal loss from the samples indicated that the potential for volatilization of species of Pb, Cd and Zn is still a matter of major concern when dealing with thermal treatment of incinerator ash.

  4. Multiscale 3D manufacturing: combining thermal extrusion printing with additive and subtractive direct laser writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinauskas, Mangirdas; Lukoševičius, Laurynas; MackevičiÅ«tÄ--, DovilÄ--; BalčiÅ«nas, Evaldas; RekštytÄ--, Sima; Paipulas, Domas

    2014-05-01

    A novel approach for efficient manufacturing of three-dimensional (3D) microstructured scaffolds designed for cell studies and tissue engineering applications is presented. A thermal extrusion (fused filament fabrication) 3D printer is employed as a simple and low-cost tabletop device enabling rapid materialization of CAD models out of biocompatible and biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA). Here it was used to produce cm- scale microporous (pore size varying from 100 to 400 µm) scaffolds. The fabricated objects were further laser processed in a direct laser writing (DLW) subtractive (ablation) and additive (lithography) manners. The first approach enables precise surface modification by creating micro-craters, holes and grooves thus increasing the surface roughness. An alternative way is to immerse the 3D PLA scaffold in a monomer solution and use the same DLW setup to refine its inner structure by fabricating dots, lines or a fine mesh on top as well as inside the pores of previously produced scaffolds. The DLW technique is empowered by ultrafast lasers - it allows 3D structuring with high spatial resolution in a great variety of photosensitive materials. Structure geometry on macro- to micro- scales could be finely tuned by combining these two fabrication techniques. Such artificial 3D substrates could be used for cell growth or as biocompatible-biodegradable implants. This combination of distinct material processing techniques enables rapid fabrication of diverse functional micro- featured and integrated devices. Hopefully, the proposed approach will find numerous applications in the field of ms, microfluidics, microoptics and many others.

  5. Effect of fiber treatments on tensile and thermal properties of starch/ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymers/coir biocomposites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of different fiber treatments, namely washing with water, alkali treatment (mercerization) and bleaching, on mechanical and thermal properties of starch/EVA/coir biocomposites were evaluated by tensile tests and thermogravimetry (TG), respectively. Additionally, the fiber/matrix interfac...

  6. From hydrophobic to superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic siloxanes by thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Karapanagiotis, Ioannis; Manoudis, Panagiotis N; Zurba, Andreea; Lampakis, Dimitrios

    2014-11-11

    The cross-influence effects of treatment temperature and time on the wettability of a siloxane elastomer is investigated in detail, through static and tilt contact angle measurements. The material is heated at 400, 500, 600, 650, 700, and 800 °C for various periods, ranging from 1 to 300 s. The siloxane surface is subjected to multiple wettability transitions with treatment time: from intrinsic hydrophobicity to superhydrophobicity (and water repellency) and then through intermediate stages (hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity) to superhydrophilicity. For the time scale used herein (1-300 s), this scenario is recorded for treatment at 650, 700, and 800 °C. For treatment at lower temperatures (400, 500, and 600 °C) only the first transition, from intrinsic hydrophobicity to superhydrophobicity, is recorded. Scanning electron microscopy, micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR), and micro-Raman spectroscopies are employed to correlate the aforementioned wettability transitions with structural and chemical changes of the siloxane surface, developed during thermal treatment. It is shown that the first transition from intrinsic hydrophobicity to superhydrophobicity is accompanied by a severe surface-structure evolution that increases surface roughness. Once superhydrophobicity is achieved, the surface structure reaches a saturation point and it is not subjected to any other change with further thermal treatment. FTIR spectroscopy shows that the intensity of the O-H/C-H peaks increases/decreases with treatment time, and Raman measurements show that the C-Si-C vibrations gradually disappear with treatment time. The evaporation of a droplet resting on a superhydrophobic, water-repellent siloxane surface, which was produced after appropriate thermal treatment, is monitored. It is shown that droplet evaporation initially follows the constant contact area mode. At later evaporation stages, a transition to the constant contact angle mode is recorded. Finally, it is

  7. Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

    1994-07-01

    An integrated systems engineering approach is used for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for management of contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. Ten different systems encompassing several incineration design options are studied. All subsystems, including facilities, equipment, and methods needed for integration of each of the ten systems are identified. Typical subsystems needed for complete treatment of MLLW are incoming waste receiving and preparation (characterization, sorting, sizing, and separation), thermal treatment, air pollution control, primary and secondary stabilization, metal decontamination, metal melting, mercury recovery, lead recovery, and special waste and aqueous waste treatment. The evaluation is performed by developing a preconceptual design package and planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for each system. As part of the preconceptual design process, functional and operational requirements, flow sheets and mass balances, and conceptual equipment layouts are developed for each system. The PLCC components estimated are technology development, production facility construction, pre-operation, operation and maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning. Preconceptual design data and other technology information gathered during the study are examined and areas requiring further development, testing, and evaluation are identified and recommended. Using a qualitative method, each of the ten systems are ranked.

  8. The 1996 meeting of the national technical workgroup on mixed waste thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The National Technical Workgroup on Mixed Waste Thermal Treatment held its annual meeting in Atlanta Georgia on March 12-14, 1996. The National Technical Workgroup (NTW) and this meeting were sponsored under an interagency agreement between EPA and DOE. The 1996 Annual Meeting was hosted by US DOE Oak Ridge Operations in conjunction with Lockheed Martin Energy Systems - Center for Waste Management. A new feature of the annual meeting was the Permit Writer Panel Session which provided an opportunity for the state and federal permit writers to discuss issues and potential solutions to permitting mixed waste treatment systems. In addition, there was substantial discussion on the impacts of the Waste Combustion Performance Standards on mixed waste thermal treatment which are expected to proposed very soon. The 1996 meeting also focussed on two draft technical resource documents produced by NTW on Waste Analysis Plans and Compliance Test Procedures. Issues discussed included public involvement, waste characterization, and emission issues.

  9. Reduction of carbon content in waste-tire combustion ashes by bio-thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.C.; Lee, W.J.; Shih, S.I.; Mou, J.L.

    2009-07-01

    Application of bio-catalyst (NOE-7F) in thermal treatment can adequately dispose dark-black fly ashes from co-combustion of both waste tires and coal. After thermal treatment of fly ashes by adding 10% NOE-7F, the carbon contents reduced by 37.6% and the weight losses increased by 405%, compared with the fly ashes without mixing with NOE-7F. The combustion behaviors of wasted tires combustion fly ashes with NOE-7F were also investigated by both thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results verify that NOE-7F has positive effects on the combustion of residual carbon and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enhance the energy release and reduce the toxicity during the process of thermal treatment. Furthermore, using NOE-7F to dispose high-carbon content fly ashes did improve the compressive strength of fly ashes and concrete mixtures. Therefore, NOE-7F is a promising additive which could decrease treatment cost of high-carbon content fly ashes and reduce the amount of survival toxic PAHs.

  10. Thermal treatment of solid residues from WtE units: a review.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Daniel; Molin, Camilla; Hupa, Mikko

    2015-03-01

    Thermal treatment methods of bottom ash, fly ash and various types of APC (air pollution control) residues from waste-to-energy plants can be used to obtain environmentally stable material. The thermal treatment processes are meant to reduce the leachability of harmful residue constituents, destroy toxic organic compounds, reduce residue volume, and produce material suitable for utilization. Fly ash and APC residues often have high levels of soluble salts, particularly chlorides, metals such as cadmium, lead, copper and zinc, and trace levels of organic pollutants such as dioxins and furans. Different thermal treatment methods can be used to either decompose or stabilize harmful elements and compounds in the ash, or separate them from the ash to get a material that can be safely stored or used as products or raw materials. In the present paper, thermal treatment methods, such as sintering, vitrification, and melting have been reviewed. In addition to a review of the scientific literature, a survey has been made of the extensive patent literature in the field.

  11. Effect of cryogenic treatment on thermal conductivity properties of copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadig, D. S.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Sampathkumaran, P.; Prashanth, C. S.

    2012-06-01

    Copper exhibits high thermal conductivity properties and hence it is extensively used in cryogenic applications like cold fingers, heat exchangers, etc. During the realization of such components, copper undergoes various machining operations from the raw material stage to the final component. During these machining processes, stresses are induced within the metal resulting in internal stresses, strains and dislocations. These effects build up resistance paths for the heat carriers which transfer heat from one location to the other. This in turn, results in reduction of thermal conductivity of the conducting metal and as a result the developed component will not perform as per expectations. In the process of cryogenic treatment, the metal samples are exposed to cryogenic temperature for extended duration of time for 24 hours and later tempered. During this process, the internal stresses and strains are reduced with refinement of the atomic structure. These effects are expected to favourably improve thermal conductivity properties of the metal. In this experimental work, OFHC copper samples were cryotreated for 24 hours at 98 K and part of them were tempered at 423K for one hour. Significant enhancement of thermal conductivity values were observed after cryotreating and tempering the copper samples.

  12. Chromium behavior during thermal treatment of MSW fly ash.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Donald W; Chan, Chris C Y; Marsh, Hilary

    2002-02-14

    Energy-from-waste incineration has been promoted as an environmentally responsible method for handling non-recyclable waste from households. Despite the benefits of energy production, elimination of organic residues and reduction of volume of waste to be landfilled, there is concern about fly ash disposal. Fly ash from an incinerator contains toxic species such as Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr which may leach into soil and ground water if landfilled. Thermal treatment of the fly ash from municipal solid waste has been tested and proposed as a treatment option for removal of metal species such as Pb, Cd and Zn, via thermal re-volatilization. However, Cr is an element that remains in the residue of the heat treated fly ash and appears to become more soluble. This Cr solubilization is of concern if it exceeds the regulatory limit for hazardous waste. Hence, this unexpected behavior of Cr was investigated. The initial work involved microscopic characterization of Cr in untreated and thermally-treated MSW fly ash. This was followed by determining leaching characteristics using standard protocol leaching tests and characterization leaching methods (sequential extraction). Finally, a mechanism explaining the increased solubilization was proposed and tested by reactions of synthetic chemicals.

  13. Treatment of bone tumours by radiofrequency thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Fernando Ruiz; Del Mar Castellano García, María; Montes, Jose Luis Martínez; García, Manuel Ruiz; Fernández, Juan Miguel Tristán

    2009-03-01

    Radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA) is considered the treatment of choice for osteoid osteomas, in which it has long been safely used. Other benign conditions (chondroblastoma, osteoblastoma, giant cell tumour, etc.) can also be treated by this technique, which is less invasive than traditional surgical procedures. RFTA ablation is also an option for the palliation of localized, painful osteolytic metastatic and myeloma lesions. The reduction in pain improves the quality of life of patients with cancer, who often have multiple morbidities and a limited life expectancy. In some cases, these patients are treated with RFTA because conventional therapies (surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, etc.) have been exhausted. In other cases, it is combined with conventional therapies or other percutaneous treatments, e.g., cementoplasty, offering faster pain relief and bone strengthening. A multidisciplinary approach to the management of these patients is recommended to select the optimal treatment, including orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, medical and radiation oncologists and interventional radiologists. PMID:19468917

  14. Treatment of Bone Waste Using Thermal Plasma Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ki, Ho Beom; Kim, Woo Hyung; Kim, Bong Soo; Koo, Hyung Joon; Li, Mingwei; Chae, Jae Ou

    2007-10-01

    Daily meat consumption produces a lot of bone waste, and dumped bone waste without treatment would result in environmental hazards. Conventional treatment methods of waste bones have some disadvantages. Herein, an investigation of bone waste treated using thermal plasma technology is presented. A high-temperature plasma torch operated at 25.2 kW was used to treat bone waste for seven minutes. The bone waste was finally changed into vitric matter and lost 2/3 of its weight after the treatment. The process was highly efficient, economical, convenient, and fuel-free. This method could be used as an alternative for disposal of bone waste, small infectious animals, hazardous hospital waste, etc.

  15. Unvented thermal process for treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.A.; Swift, W.M.

    1993-09-01

    An Unvented Thermal Process is being developed that does not release gases during the thermal treatment operation. The main unit in the process is a fluidized-bed processor containing a bed of calcined limestone (CaO), which reacts with gases given off during oxidation of organic materials. Gases that will react with CaO include CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, HCI, HBr, and other acid gases. Water vapor formed during the oxidation process is carried off with the fluidizing gas and is removed in a condenser. Oxygen is added to the remaining gas (mainly nitrogen), which is recirculated to the oxidizer. The most flexible arrangement of equipment involves separating the processor into two units: An oxidizer, which may be any of a variety of types including standard incinerators, and a carbon dioxide sorber.

  16. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) treatment of supernatant of cow manure by thermal pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, Y; Nishii, A; Nishimoto, M; Yamada, N; Suzuki, T

    2006-01-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) methane fermentation treatment of cow manure that was subjected to screw pressing, thermal treatment and subsequent solid-liquid separation was studied. Conducting batch scale tests at temperatures between 140 and 180 degrees C, the optimal temperature for sludge settling and the color suppression was found to be between 160-170 degrees C. UASB treatment was carried out with a supernatant obtained from the thermal treatment at the optimal conditions (170 degrees C for 30 minutes) and polymer-dosed solid-liquid separation. In the UASB treatment with a COD(Cr) loading of 11.7 kg/m3/d and water temperature of 32.2 degrees C, the COD(Cr) level dropped from 16,360 mg/L in raw water to 3,940 mg/L in treated water (COD(Cr), removal rate of 75.9%), and the methane production rate per COD(Cr) was 0.187 Nm3/kg. Using wastewater thermal-treated at the optimal conditions, also a methane fermentation treatment with a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was conducted (COD(Cr) in raw water: 38,000 mg/L, hydraulic retention time (HRT): 20 days, 35 degrees C). At the COD(Cr) loading of 1.9 kg/m3/d, the methane production rate per COD(Cr), was 0.153 Nm3/kg. This result shows that UASB treatment using thermal pre-treatment provides a COD(Cr), loading of four times or more and a methane production rate of 1.3 times higher than the CSTR treatment.

  17. Non-thermal Plasma for VOC Treatment in Flue Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikaunieks, Janis; Mezmale, Liga; Zandeckis, Aivars; Pubule, Jelena; Blumberga, Andra; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses non-thermal plasmas, their generation and characteristics, formation mechanisms of ozone and the treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the experimental part, undecane (C11H24 as model VOCs) was treated with assistance of low temperature plasma at an atmospheric pressure which was generated in the so-called stack reactor. The gas composition was 13% of oxygen in nitrogen with impurities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and undecane. The formation of by-products, as well as the removal efficiency, were investigated.

  18. Thermal Treatment Improvement of CuSbS2 Absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    de Souza Lucas, Francisco Willian; Welch, Adam W.; Baranowski, Lauryn L.; Dippo, Patricia C.; Mascaro, Lucia H.; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2015-06-14

    Thermal treatment in Sb2S3 vapor was used to improve the quality of CuSbS2 thin films, a promising non-toxic and earth-abundant absorber. A change in the CuSbS2 crystallographic texture and a decrease in the lattice stress were observed, as well as increases in the grain size, photoluminescence intensity and photoconductivity. To eliminate the influence of the possible Sb2S3 rich surface layer on photovoltaic performance, a selective chemical etching with KOH was developed.

  19. Regulatory framework for the thermal treatment of various waste streams.

    PubMed

    Lee, C C; Huffman, G L; Mao, Y L

    2000-08-28

    Since 1990, regulations and standards have changed considerably. This article is an update of the regulatory requirements for the thermal treatment of various waste streams. The waste categories covered, along with the laws they are governed under, include: Hazardous waste under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and under the Clean Air Act; municipal solid waste under Subtitle D of the RCRA; medical waste under Subtitle J of the RCRA; Superfund waste under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA); toxic waste under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA); and sludge waste under the Clean Water Act (CWA).

  20. The thermal treatment of galvanic sludges for environmental compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardes, Andre M.; Bohlinger, Isrun; Wuth, Wolfgang

    1996-03-01

    Eleven galvanic sludges were investigated on a laboratory scale at the Institute of Metallurgy, Technical University of Berlin. Rotary, flash, and arc-furnace techniques were used to pyrometallurgically treat and melt the sludges. The waste material was leached before and after thermal treatment. Concentrations of metals in the eluates were compared with drinking water as well as land filling (dumping) standards. The results show that the slag, obtained after melting the galvanic sludge, is the only environmentally agreeable product. Drying, glowing, or roasting the sludge deteriorated the environmental compatibility. Alloys were produced by flash smelting (Cu-Ni) and arcfurnace processing (Fe-Si-Cr), but they do not satisfy quality standards.

  1. Regulatory framework for the thermal treatment of various waste streams.

    PubMed

    Lee, C C; Huffman, G L; Mao, Y L

    2000-08-28

    Since 1990, regulations and standards have changed considerably. This article is an update of the regulatory requirements for the thermal treatment of various waste streams. The waste categories covered, along with the laws they are governed under, include: Hazardous waste under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and under the Clean Air Act; municipal solid waste under Subtitle D of the RCRA; medical waste under Subtitle J of the RCRA; Superfund waste under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA); toxic waste under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA); and sludge waste under the Clean Water Act (CWA). PMID:10863011

  2. An additional simple denitrification bioreactor using packed gel envelopes applicable to industrial wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Morita, Masahiko; Uemoto, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Atsushi

    2007-08-15

    A simple denitrification bioreactor for nitrate-containing wastewater without organic compounds was developed. This bioreactor consisted of packed gel envelopes in a single tank. Each envelope comprised two plates of gels containing Paracoccus denitrificans cells with an internal space between the plates. As an electron donor for denitrification, ethanol was injected into the internal space and not directly into the wastewater. P. denitrificans cells in the gel reduced nitrate to nitrogen gas by using the injected ethanol. Nitrate-containing desulfurization wastewater derived from a coal-fired thermal power plant was continuously treated with 20 packed gel envelopes (size, 1,000 x 900 x 12 mm; surface area, 1.44 m(2)) in a reactor tank (volume 1.5 m(3)). When the total nitrogen concentration in the inflow was around 150 mg-N x L(-1), the envelopes removed approximately 60-80% of the total nitrogen, and the maximum nitrogen removal rate was 5.0 g-N x day(-1) per square meter of the gel surface. This value corresponded to the volumetric nitrogen removal performance of 0.109 kg-N x m(-3) x day(-1). In each envelope, a high utilization efficiency of the electron donor was attained, although more than the double amount of the electron donor was empirically injected in the present activated sludge system to achieve denitrification when compared with the theoretical value. The bioreactor using the envelopes would be extremely effective as an additional denitrification system because these envelopes can be easily installed in the vacant spaces of preinstalled water treatment systems, without requiring additional facilities for removing surplus ethanol and sludge. PMID:17252606

  3. Fluorescence sensor array for identification of commercial milk samples according to their thermal treatments.

    PubMed

    Mungkarndee, Radeemada; Techakriengkrai, Ittipon; Tumcharern, Gamolwan; Sukwattanasinitt, Mongkol

    2016-04-15

    Identification of processed milk is of importance for commercial and legal concerns. The fluorescence response patterns induced by fluorophore/protein interactions allow a possible discrimination of processed milk samples corresponding to their thermal treatment. The fluorescence responses of 4 fluorophores upon addition of commercial milk samples in 96-well plate are measured in the range of 400-600 nm using the excitation wavelength at 375 nm. The pattern recognition of the 53,126 fluorescence responses (4 fluorophores×41 wavelengths×4 thermally processed milks×3 brands×3 lots×3 bottles×3 repeats) are analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) successfully recognizes the milk samples according to their thermal processing, i.e. pasteurized milk, sterilized milk, UHT fresh milk and recombined milk (UHT milk having milk powder), with 100% classification accuracy in a cross validation using a leave-one-out technique. PMID:26616941

  4. Additional thermal fatigue data on nickel- and cobalt-base superalloys, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, M. A. H.

    1973-01-01

    The fluidized bed technique was used to measure the relative thermal fatigue resistance of twenty-one superalloys. Among the thirty-six variations of composition, solidification method, and surface protection the cycles to cracking differed by two to three orders of magnitude. Some alloys suffered serious weight losses and oxidation. Thermal fatigue data, oxidation, and dimensional changes are reported. The types of superalloys are identified.

  5. Method and apparatus for a combination moving bed thermal treatment reactor and moving bed filter

    DOEpatents

    Badger, Phillip C.; Dunn, Jr., Kenneth J.

    2015-09-01

    A moving bed gasification/thermal treatment reactor includes a geometry in which moving bed reactor particles serve as both a moving bed filter and a heat carrier to provide thermal energy for thermal treatment reactions, such that the moving bed filter and the heat carrier are one and the same to remove solid particulates or droplets generated by thermal treatment processes or injected into the moving bed filter from other sources.

  6. Change from inverse to normal magnetic fabrics through thermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Cho, H.; Jeong, J. O.; Son, M.; Sohn, Y. K.

    2014-12-01

    The Gusandong Tuff is an extensive rhyolitic ignimbrite that has been used as an excellent key bed in the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin, SE Korea. Magnetic fabric analysis in the tuff, using AMS (Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility) technique, shows an anomalous fabric which has horizontal k3 and vertical k1 axes in several sites. The fabric is interpreted to be an inverse one attributed to single-domain magnetites. We attempted a stepwise thermal treatment to investigate the changes of AMS axes and parameters (T, PJ) in four sites (KT11B, KT11M, KT18B, KT18M). All these sites dominantly include the specimens showing the anomalous fabric. Rock magnetism shows that magnetites are the main carrier of the AMS fabric. The changing patterns of magnetic fabric during heating are classified into 4 types: (1) Type-0 is characterized by unchanged three principal axes (k1, k2, k3) over all heating steps. (2) Type-I shows the exchange of k1 and k2 axes each other. (3) Type-II is characterized by the exchange of k2 and k3 axes each other. (4) Type-III shows that three principal axes switch their positions with one another. Except for Type-0, most of the magnetic fabrics are transformed gradually. The directional changes of the axes begin between 450-580°C and then terminate near 670°C. After the thermal treatment, all the fabrics become geologically normal as vertical k3 and horizontal k1 axes. It is also notable that the beginning temperatures are nearly equal to those of inflection points in the T-PJ plots. In the sites KT18B and KT18M which showed girdle-distributed and vertical k1 axes, respectively, before the treatment, all the k1 axes become horizontally and co-directionally clustered after the treatment. This result indicates that the thermal treatment can be a strongly useful tool for eliminating the inverse AMS magnetic fabric of natural rocks. The changes of axis orientation and magnitude observed in this study can be reasonably explained with the theoretical

  7. Thermal treatment of toxic metals of industrial hazardous wastes with fly ash and clay.

    PubMed

    Singh, I B; Chaturvedi, K; Morchhale, R K; Yegneswaran, A H

    2007-03-01

    Waste generated from galvanizing and metal finishing processes is considered to be a hazardous due to the presence of toxic metals like Pb, Cu, Cr, Zn, etc. Thermal treatment of such types of wastes in the presence of clay and fly ash can immobilizes their toxic metals to a maximum level. After treatment solidified mass can be utilized in construction or disposed off through land fillings without susceptibility of re-mobilization of toxic metals. In the present investigation locally available clay and fly ash of particular thermal power plant were used as additives for thermal treatment of both of the wastes in their different proportions at 850, 900 and 950 degrees C. Observed results indicated that heating temperature to be a key factor in the immobilization of toxic metals of the waste. It was noticed that the leachability of metals of the waste reduces to a negligible level after heating at 950 degrees C. Thermally treated solidified specimen of 10% waste and remaining clay have shown comparatively a higher compressive strength than clay fired bricks used in building construction. Though, thermally heated specimens made of galvanizing waste have shown much better strength than specimen made of metal finishing waste. The lechability of toxic metals like Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn became far below from their regulatory threshold after heating at 950 degrees C. Addition of fly ash did not show any improvement either in engineering property or in leachability of metals from the solidified mass. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the solidified product confirmed the presence of mixed phases of oxides of metals.

  8. Zebra mussel control using thermal treatment for electric utility stations

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, R.I.; Wahlert, S.L.

    1995-10-01

    When electric utilities and other water users on the Great Lakes were confronted with operating problems due to zebra mussels, Commonwealth Edison Company (ComEd) established a task force to develop a plan to counteract the threat at the ComEd electric generating stations. A monitoring program was initiated at the stations, and an evaluation of control options was started. At State Line Station, located on the southern tip of Lake Michigan, ComEd experimented with thermal treatment of the circulating water and service water systems. The station design allows recirculation of the cooling water with minimal modifications. The trial at State Line Station proved successful in controlling the zebra mussels with minimal impact on operations. Based on the successful trial and the task force`s assessment of other control options, ComEd determined that, for their fossil-fueled generating stations, thermal treatment was the most cost-effective approach, with the least impact on station operation and the environment. Of the 10 fossil-fueled generating stations operated by ComEd, 8 have been selected for modifications. The other 2 stations have not yet been affected by zebra mussels. Before performing detailed design, a study was performed for each station to evaluate the operation of the equipment at elevated temperature and to determine the operating limits needed at the target treatment temperature of 95 F. Conceptual designs for the modifications were developed, and the most cost-effective arrangement was selected for detailed design. Case studies of the modifications being constructed at several stations are presented. The modifications to the circulating water systems are described. Initial results of the treatment are reviewed.

  9. Installation for the thermal treatment of pulverant mineral products

    SciTech Connect

    Lebesque, J.

    1985-06-11

    An installation for the thermal treatment of a pulverant mineral product by gases has a support frame at a first level, a furnace for the thermal treatment of the pulverant mineral product in suspension in hot gases generated by the combustion of air and a fuel, two groups of series-connected cyclones connected to the furnace, one of the groups of cyclones being arranged upstream of the furnace and the other group of cyclones being arranged downstream of the furnace, and conduits connecting the cyclones to each other and to the furnace so that exhaust gases from the furnace pass successively through all the cyclones of the one group while a current of air passes through all the cyclones of the other group before entering the furnace to serve as the combustion air, the exhaust gases heating the product before it enters the furnace and the air current cooling the treated product. The furnace and two of the cyclones located, respectively, immediately upstream and immediately downstream of the furnace are mounted on the support frame at the first level. A superstructure is affixed to the support frame and supports the remaining cyclones at a second level higher than the first level.

  10. Nitrogen oxides and methane treatment by non-thermal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alva, E.; Pacheco, M.; Colín, A.; Sánchez, V.; Pacheco, J.; Valdivia, R.; Soria, G.

    2015-03-01

    Non thermal plasma was used to treat nitrogen oxides (NOx) and methane (CH4), since they are important constituents of hydrocarbon combustion emissions processes and, both gases, play a key role in the formation of tropospheric ozone. These gases are involved in environmental problems like acid rain and some diseases such as bronchitis and pneumonia. In the case of methane is widely known its importance in the global climate change, and currently accounts for 30% of global warming. There is a growing concern for methane leaks, associated with a rapid expansion of unconventional oil and gas extraction techniques as well as a large-scale methane release from Arctic because of ice melting and the subsequent methane production of decaying organic matter. Therefore, methane mitigation is a key to avoid dangerous levels of global warming. The research, here reported, deals about the generation of non-thermal plasma with a double dielectric barrier (2DBD) at atmospheric pressure with alternating current (AC) for NOx and CH4 treatment. The degradation efficiencies and their respective power consumption for different reactor configurations (cylindrical and planar) are also reported. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of gases degradation are reported before and after treatment with cold plasma. Experimental and theoretical results are compared obtaining good removal efficiencies, superior to 90% and to 20% respectively for NOx and CH4.

  11. Titanate nanotube thin films with enhanced thermal stability and high-transparency prepared from additive-free sols

    SciTech Connect

    Koroesi, Laszlo; Papp, Szilvia; Hornok, Viktoria; Oszko, Albert; Petrik, Peter; Patko, Daniel; Horvath, Robert; Dekany, Imre

    2012-08-15

    Titanate nanotubes were synthesized from TiO{sub 2} in alkaline medium by a conventional hydrothermal method (150 Degree-Sign C, 4.7 bar). To obtain hydrogen titanates, the as-prepared sodium titanates were treated with either HCl or H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} aqueous solutions. A simple synthesis procedure was devised for stable titanate nanotube sols without using any additives. These highly stable ethanolic sols can readily be used to prepare transparent titanate nanotube thin films of high quality. The resulting samples were studied by X-ray diffraction, N{sub 2}-sorption measurements, Raman spectroscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The comparative results of using two kinds of acids shed light on the superior thermal stability of the H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-treated titanate nanotubes (P-TNTs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that P-TNTs contains P in the near-surface region and the thermal stability was enhanced even at a low ({approx}0.5 at%) concentration of P. After calcination at 500 Degree-Sign C, the specific surface areas of the HCl- and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-treated samples were 153 and 244 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, respectively. The effects of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} treatment on the structure, morphology and porosity of titanate nanotubes are discussed. - Graphical Abstract: TEM picture (left) shows P-TNTs with diameters about 5-6 nm. Inset shows a stable titanate nanotube sol illuminated by a 532 nm laser beam. Due to the presence of the nanoparticles the way of the light is visible in the sol. Cross sectional SEM picture (right) as well as ellipsometry revealed the formation of optical quality P-TNT films with thicknesses below 50 nm. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} treatment led to TNTs with high surface area even after calcination at 500 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-treated TNTs preserved their nanotube morphology up to 500

  12. Additive Manufacturing Thermal Performance Testing of Single Channel GRCop-84 SLM Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Chance P.; Cross, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The surface finish found on components manufactured by sinter laser manufacturing (SLM) is rougher (0.013 - 0.0006 inches) than parts made using traditional fabrication methods. Internal features and passages built into SLM components do not readily allow for roughness reduction processes. Alternatively, engineering literature suggests that the roughness of a surface can enhance thermal performance within a pressure drop regime. To further investigate the thermal performance of SLM fabricated pieces, several GRCop-84 SLM single channel components were tested using a thermal conduction rig at MSFC. A 20 kW power source running at 25% duty cycle and 25% power level applied heat to each component while varying water flow rates between 2.1 - 6.2 gallons/min (GPM) at a supply pressure of 550 to 700 psi. Each test was allowed to reach quasi-steady state conditions where pressure, temperature, and thermal imaging data were recorded. Presented in this work are the heat transfer responses compared to a traditional machined OHFC Copper test section. An analytical thermal model was constructed to anchor theoretical models with the empirical data.

  13. Fabrication and thermal shock resistance of HfB2-SiC composite with B4C additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, L.; Han, W.; Hong, Ch.

    2011-12-01

    A HfB2 based ceramic matrix composite containing 20 vol.% SiC particles with 2 vol.% B4C as sintering additives was fabricated by hot-pressed sintering. The microstructure and properties, especially the thermal shock resistance of the composite were investigated. Results showed that the addition of B4C improved the powder sinterability and led to obtaining nearly full dense composite. The flexural strength and fracture toughness of the composite were 771 MPa and 7.06 MPam1/2, respectively. The thermal shock resistance tests indicated that the residual strength decreased significantly when the thermal shock temperature difference was higher than 600 °C. The large number of microcracks on the sample surface was the main reason for the catastrophic failure.

  14. Flame retardancy and thermal stability of polyurethane foam composites containing carbon additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pyoung-Chan; Kim, Bo-Ram; Jeoung, Sun Kyoung; Lee, Geesoo; Han, San Wook; Kim, Hyunchul; Lee, Ki-Dong; Han, Joo-Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Polyurethane (PU) is an important class of polymers that have wide application in a number of different industrial sectors. The goal of this work was the synthesis of flame-retarded PU foam with expandable graphite (EG) or commercial graphene. The flame retardancy and thermal stability of the foams has been studied through cone calorimeter analysis, the limited oxygen index and thermal conductivity. The presence of expandable graphite brings an improvement in fire behavior. In particular, the limited oxygen index increases in a linear way and the highest limited oxygen index values are obtained for EG-PU foams. The results from the cone calorimeter are in agreement with those of oxygen index; EG filled foams show a considerable decrease of maximum-heat release rate (M-HRR) with respect to unfilled foams. The results of thermal conductivity show that an increase in expandable graphite amount in PU foams lead to an increased conductivity.

  15. Speciation Dynamics of Phosphorus during (Hydro)Thermal Treatments of Sewage Sludge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rixiang; Tang, Yuanzhi

    2015-12-15

    (Hydro)thermal treatments of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment process can significantly reduce waste volume and transform sludge into valuable products such as pyrochar and hydrochar. Given the global concern with phosphorus (P) resource depletion, P recycling/reclamation from or direct soil application of the derived chars can be potential P recycling practices. In order to evaluate P recyclability as well as the selection and optimization of treatment techniques, it is critical to understand the effects of different treatment techniques and conditions on P speciation and distribution. In the present study, we systematically characterized P speciation in chars derived from thermal (i.e., pyrolysis) and hydrothermal treatments of municipal sewage sludge using complementary chemical extraction and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy methods. P species in the raw activated sludge was dominated by orthophosphate and long-chain polyphosphates, whereas increased amounts of pyrophosphate and short-chain polyphosphates formed after pyrolysis at 250-600 °C. In contrast, hydrothermal treatments resulted in the production of only inorganic orthophosphate in the hydrochar. In addition to the change of molecular speciation, thermal treatments also altered the physical state and extractability of different P species in the pyrochars from pyrolysis, with both total P and polyphosphate being less extractable with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Results from this study suggest that P speciation and availability in sludge-derived chars are tunable by varying treatment techniques and conditions, and provide fundamental knowledge basis for the design and selection of waste management strategies for better nutrient (re)cycling and reclamation.

  16. Magnetic nanoparticles for thermal lysis and application in cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sumana; Javvaji, Brahmanandam; Veerla, Sarath Chandra; Roy Mahapatra, D.

    2016-03-01

    Chemotherapy and radiation-therapy are conventional treatment procedure of cancer. Though radiation therapy is very common practice for cancer treatment, it has limitations including incomplete and non specific destruction. Heating characteristics of magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) is modelled using molecular dynamics simulation setup. This model would give an understanding for the treatment of cancer cell through MNP associated radiation-therapy. In this paper, alternating magnetic field driven heat generation of MNP is studied using classical molecular dynamics. Temperature is measured as an ensemble average of velocity of the atoms. Temperature stabilization is achieved. Under this simulation setting with certain parameters, 45°C temperature was obtained in our simulations. Simulation data would be helpful for experimental analysis to treat cancerous cell in presence of MNP under exposure to radiofrequency. The in vitro thermal characteristics of magnetite nanoparticles using magnetic coil of various frequencies (5, 7.5, 10 and 15 kHz), the saturation temperature was found at 0.5 mg/mL concentration. At frequency 50 kHz the live/dead and MTT assay was performed on magnetite nanoparticles using MC3T3 cells for 10 min duration. Low radio frequency (RF) radiation induced localized heat into the metallic nanoparticles which is clearly understood using the molecular dynamics simulation setup. Heating of nanoparticle trigger the killing of the tumor cells, acts as a local therapy, as it generates less side effects in comparison to other treatments like chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

  17. Treatment of 14 sludge types from wastewater treatment plants using bench and pilot thermal hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wei; Sun, Yifei; Wang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    A total of 14 types of sludge from household sewage, mixture of domestic and industrial wastewater, and industrial and oil wastewater treatment plants were selected to evaluate the effectiveness and adaptability of thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment. Organic solubilization, dewatering improvement, volume reduction, high-strength filtrate biodegradation, and dewatered sludge incineration were investigated using bench and pilot thermal hydrolysis experiments (170 °C/60 min). Results showed that sludge types significantly affected the treatment effects. Organic content has a primary influence on thermal effects. The relationship between suspended solid (SS) solubilization and raw sludge organic content was linear with an R(2) of 0.73. The relationship between raw sludge organic content and treated sludge dewatering was linear with an R(2) of 0.86 and 0.65 for pilot and bench pre-treatments, respectively. Household and oil sludge possessed incineration possibilities with high heat value. Industrial and oil sludge filtrate was unsuitable for digestion to recover bioenergy.

  18. Effect of germination and thermal treatments on folates in rye.

    PubMed

    Kariluoto, Susanna; Liukkonen, Kirsi-Helena; Myllymäki, Olavi; Vahteristo, Liisa; Kaukovirta-Norja, Anu; Piironen, Vieno

    2006-12-13

    Effects of germination conditions and thermal processes on folate contents of rye were investigated. Total folate contents were determined microbiologically with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 7469) as the growth indicator organism, and individual folates were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography after affinity chromatographic purification. Germination increased the folate content by 1.7-3.8-fold, depending on germination temperature, with a maximum content of 250 micro g/100 g dry matter. Hypocotylar roots with their notably high folate concentrations (600-1180 micro g/100 g dry matter) contributed 30-50% of the folate contents of germinated grains. Germination altered the proportions of folates, increasing the proportion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and decreasing the proportion of formylated folate compounds. Thermal treatments (extrusion, autoclaving and puffing, and IR and toasting) resulted in significant folate losses. However, folate levels in grains that were germinated and then were heat processed were higher than for native (nongerminated) grains. Opportunities to optimize rye processing to enhance folate levels in rye-based foods are discussed. PMID:17147441

  19. Thermal treatment of medical waste in a rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Bujak, J

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of an experimental system with thermal treatment (incineration) of medical waste conducted at a large complex of hospital facilities. The studies were conducted for a period of one month. The processing system was analysed in terms of the energy, environmental and economic aspects. A rotary combustion chamber was designed and built with the strictly assumed length to inner diameter ratio of 4:1. In terms of energy, the temperature distribution was tested in the rotary kiln, secondary combustion (afterburner) chamber and heat recovery system. Calorific value of medical waste was 25.0 MJ/kg and the thermal efficiency of the entire system equalled 66.8%. Next, measurements of the pollutant emissions into the atmosphere were performed. Due to the nature of the disposed waste, particular attention was paid to the one-minute average values of carbon oxide and volatile organic compounds as well as hydrochloride, hydrogen fluoride, sulphur dioxide and total dust. Maximum content of non-oxidized organic compounds in slag and bottom ash were also verified during the analyses. The best rotary speed for the combustion chamber was selected to obtain proper afterburning of the bottom slag. Total organic carbon content was 2.9%. The test results were used to determine the basic economic indicators of the test system for evaluating the profitability of its construction. Simple payback time (SPB) for capital expenditures on the implementation of the project was 4 years.

  20. Thermal treatment of medical waste in a rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Bujak, J

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of an experimental system with thermal treatment (incineration) of medical waste conducted at a large complex of hospital facilities. The studies were conducted for a period of one month. The processing system was analysed in terms of the energy, environmental and economic aspects. A rotary combustion chamber was designed and built with the strictly assumed length to inner diameter ratio of 4:1. In terms of energy, the temperature distribution was tested in the rotary kiln, secondary combustion (afterburner) chamber and heat recovery system. Calorific value of medical waste was 25.0 MJ/kg and the thermal efficiency of the entire system equalled 66.8%. Next, measurements of the pollutant emissions into the atmosphere were performed. Due to the nature of the disposed waste, particular attention was paid to the one-minute average values of carbon oxide and volatile organic compounds as well as hydrochloride, hydrogen fluoride, sulphur dioxide and total dust. Maximum content of non-oxidized organic compounds in slag and bottom ash were also verified during the analyses. The best rotary speed for the combustion chamber was selected to obtain proper afterburning of the bottom slag. Total organic carbon content was 2.9%. The test results were used to determine the basic economic indicators of the test system for evaluating the profitability of its construction. Simple payback time (SPB) for capital expenditures on the implementation of the project was 4 years. PMID:26241929

  1. Effect of alkali addition on DC conductivity and thermal properties of vanadium-bismo-borate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Khasa, S. Dahiya, M. S.; Agarwal, A.

    2014-04-24

    The DC Conductivity and Differential Thermal Analysis of glasses with composition (30−x)Li{sub 2}O⋅xV{sub 2}O{sub 5}⋅20Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}⋅50B{sub 2}O{sub 3}(x=15, 10, 5) has been carried out in order to study the effect of replacing the Transition Metal Oxide (TMO) with alkali oxide. A significant increase in the DC conductivity has been observed with increase in alkali content. Again the thermal measurements have shown the decrease in both glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and crystallization temperature (T{sub x}). The Glass Stability (GS) and Glass Forming Ability (GFA) have also been calculated and these also were found to decrease with increase in alkali oxide content at the cost of TMO.

  2. Influence of collagen addition on the thermal and morphological properties of chitosan/xanthan hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Horn, Marilia M; Martins, Virginia C A; Plepis, Ana Maria de Guzzi

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the collagen influence on thermal and morphological characteristics of chitosan/xanthan hydrogels for potential tissue engineering applications. Anionic collagen was prepared by selective hydrolysis of type I collagen found in bovine tendons. Chitosan was obtained from the partial deacetylation of squid pen β-chitin and xanthan was acquired from Fluka. The hydrogels were obtained in different ratios and were characterized by thermal and morphological analysis. FT-IR suggested only electrostatic interactions between NH3(+) groups of chitosan and COO(-) groups of xanthan and collagen. Thermogravimetric curves showed that hydrogels contain a great amount of water (above 98%) and the presence of collagen does not change this characteristic. Freezing-bound water transition in DSC curves was shifted to higher values due to the increase of water/polymer interaction, mainly when different ratios of chitosan and xanthan were used. SEM images showed sheet-form structures with the presence of collagen promoting an increase in pore size.

  3. Degradation kinetics of anthocyanin in blueberry juice during thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Kechinski, Carolina Pereira; Guimarães, Pâmela Virgínia Ramos; Noreña, Caciano Pelayo Zapata; Tessaro, Isabel Cristina; Marczak, Lígia Damasceno Ferreira

    2010-03-01

    The kinetics of anthocyanin degradation in blueberry juice during thermal treatment at 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 degrees C were investigated in the present study. Anthocyanin degradation was analyzed up to the level of 50% retention using a pH differential method. The degradation of anthocyanin at each temperature level followed a first-order kinetic model, and the values of half-life time (t(1/2)) at temperatures of 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 degrees C were found to be 180.5, 42.3, 25.3, 8.6, and 5.1 h, respectively. The activation energy value of the degradation of the 8.9 degrees Brix blueberry juice during heating was 80.4 kJ.mol(-1). The thermodynamic functions of activation (DeltaG, DeltaH, and DeltaS) have been determined as central to understanding blueberry degradation. PMID:20492222

  4. Fluoride glass starting materials - Characterization and effects of thermal treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, William; Dunn, Bruce; Shlichta, Paul; Neilson, George F.; Weinberg, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    The production of heavy metal fluoride (HMF) glasses, and the effects of thermal treatments on the HMF glasses are investigated. ZrF4, BaF2, AlF3, LaF3, and NaF were utilized in the synthesis of zirconium-barium-lanthanum-aluminum-sodium fluoride glass. The purity of these starting materials, in particular ZrF4, is evaluated using XRD analysis. The data reveal that low temperature heating of ZrF4-H2O is effective in removing the water of hydration, but causes the production of ZrF4 and oxyfluorides; however, dehydration followed by sublimation results in the production of monoclinic ZrFe without water or oxyfluoride contaminants.

  5. Mechanisms of boron fiber strengthening by thermal treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicarlo, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The fracture strain for boron on tungsten fibers was studied for improvement by heat treatment under vacuum or argon environments. The mechanical basis for this improvement is thermally-induced axial contraction of the entire fiber, whereby strength-controlling core flaws are compressed and fiber fracture strain increased by the value of the contraction strain. By highly sensitive measurements of fiber density and volume, the physical mechanism responsible for contraction under both environments was identified as boron atom diffusion out of the fiber sheath. The fiber contracts because the average volume of the resulting microvoid was determined to be only 0.26 plus or minus 0.09 the average atomic volume of the removed atom. The basic and practical implications of these results are discussed with particular emphasis on the theory, use, and limitations of heat-induced contraction as a simple cost-effective secondary processing method.

  6. Thermal stability of kudzu root (Pueraria Radix) isoflavones as additives to beef patties.

    PubMed

    Kumari, S; Raines, J M; Martin, J M; Rodriguez, J M

    2015-03-01

    Kudzu root, Pueraria radix, extracts are a rich source of isoflavones. This study investigates the thermal stability of Pueraria radix extracts as a natural nutraceutical supplement in beef patties. The extract contained puerarin, diadzin, genistin, ononin, daidzein, glycitein, calycosin, genistein, formononetin and biochanin A; however, puerarin, daidzein and glycitein were the main components. The isoflavones concentrations in the spiked beef patties with kudzu root extracts were unaffected by cooking. PMID:25745227

  7. Additional thermal fatigue data on nickel and cobalt-base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, M. A. H.

    1973-01-01

    The fluidized bed technique was used to measure the relative thermal fatigue resistance of 21 superalloys: B1900, B1900 DID, IN-100, MAR-M 200, Udimet 700 wrought and cast, NX-188, WAZ-20, TAZ-8A, M22, IN 713C, IN 738, IN 162, MAR-M 509, Rene 80, RBH, NASA VI A, TD-NiCr, MAR-M 302, WI-52, and X-40. IN-100, MAR-M 200, NX-188, WAZ-20 and TAZ-8A were also tested in the directionally solidified form. B1900, B1900 DID, IN-100, MAR-M200, Udimet 700, NX-188, WAZ-20 and TAZ-8A were tested with surface protection. Among the 36 variations of composition, solidification method, and surface protection the cycles to cracking differed by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude. Some alloys suffered serious weight losses and oxidation. Previous fluidized bed thermal fatigue data on some of these alloys were reported in N71-10027. Thermal fatigue data, oxidation, and dimensional changes are reported in N73-30507. Metallographic and hardness data are given in this report.

  8. Behavior of Fe-ODS Alloys After Thermal Aging Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano Garcia, Marta; Hernández-Mayoral, Mercedes; Esparraguera, Elvira Oñorbe

    2016-06-01

    Oxide dispersion alloys are one of the candidates as cladding materials for Gen IV fast reactors, due to their high strength at high temperature, good creep properties, and swelling resistance. This good performance is mainly due to a fine dispersion of nano-oxide particles on the microstructure and to non-grained structure. The microstructural stability and the mechanical properties of a Fe-ODS alloy are studied after different thermal aging experiments at 973 K (700 °C), 5000 hours; 973 K (700 °C), 10,000 hours; and 1123 K (850 °C), 10,000 hours. SEM/EBSD and TEM together with tensile and impact tests on the as-received and thermally aged material have been carried out. In general, for all the tested conditions, a slight softening effect is observed attributed to the changes in the grain structure as well as to the changes in the amount and size of nano-oxide particles. In addition, the aged material shows a lower impact USE value while the DBTT is maintained.

  9. Effect of Nisin and Thermal Treatments on the Heat Resistance of Clostridium sporogenes Spores.

    PubMed

    Ros-Chumillas, Maria; Esteban, Maria-Dolores; Huertas, Juan-Pablo; Palop, Alfredo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of thermal treatments (isothermal or nonisothermal) combined with nisin, a natural antimicrobial, on the survival and recovery of Clostridium sporogenes spores. The addition of nisin to the heating medium at concentrations up to 0.1 mg liter(-1) did not reduce the heat resistance of C. sporogenes. Without a thermal treatment, nisin added at concentrations up to 0.1 mg liter(-1) did not reduce the viable counts of C. sporogenes when added to the recovery medium, but inactivation of more than 4 log cycles was achieved after only 3 s at 100°C. At 100°C, the time needed to reduce viable counts by more than 3 log cycles was nine times shorter when 0.01 mg liter(-1) nisin was added to the recovery medium than without it. The heat resistance values calculated under isothermal conditions were used to predict the survival in the nonisothermal experiments, and the predicted values accurately fit the experimental data. The combination of nisin with a thermal treatment can help control C. sporogenes.

  10. Effects of Thermal Treatment on the Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Coal Measures Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Mao, Xianbiao; Cao, Lili; Pu, Hai; Mao, Rongrong; Lu, Aihong

    2016-09-01

    Many projects such as the underground gasification of coal seams and coal-bed methane mining (exploitation) widely involve the dynamic problems of coal measures sandstone achieved via thermal treatment. This study examines the dynamic mechanical properties of coal measures sandstone after thermal treatment by means of an MTS653 high-temperature furnace and Split Hopkinson pressure bar test system. Experimental results indicate that 500 °C is a transition point for the dynamic mechanical parameters of coal measures sandstone. The dynamic elastic modulus and peak strength increase linearly from 25 to 500 °C while the dynamic peak strain decreases linearly over the same temperature range. The dynamic elastic modulus and peak strength drop quickly from 500 to 800 °C, with a significant increase in the dynamic peak strain over the same temperature range. The rock mechanics are closely linked to material composition and mesoscopic structure. Analysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy indicate that the molecules inside the sandstone increase in density due to the thermal expansion of the material particles, which effectively improves the deformation resistance and carrying capacity of the sandstone and reduces the likelihood of axial deformation. With heat treatment that exceeds 500 °C, the dynamic mechanical properties rapidly weaken due to the decomposition of kaolinite; additionally, hot cracking of the mineral particles within the materials arises from coal sandstone internal porosity, and other defects gradually appear.

  11. Novel high refractive index, thermally conductive additives for high brightness white LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Richard Stephen

    In prior works the inclusion of nanoparticle fillers has typically been shown to increase the thermal conductivity or refractive index of polymer nanocomposites separately. High refractive index zirconia nanoparticles have already proved their merit in increasing the optical efficiency of encapsulated light emitting diodes. However, the thermal properties of zirconia-silicone nanocomposites have yet to be investigated. While phosphor-converted light emitting diodes are at the forefront of solid-state lighting technologies for producing white light, they are plagued by efficiency losses due to excessive heating at the semiconductor die and in and around the phosphor particles, as well as photon scattering losses in the phosphor layer. It would then be of great interest if the high refractive index nanoparticles were found to both be capable of increasing the refractive index, thus reducing the optical scattering, and also the thermal conductivity, channeling more heat away from the LED die and phosphors, mitigating efficiency losses from heat. Thermal conductance measurements on unfilled and nanoparticle loaded silicone samples were conducted to quantify the effect of the zirconia nanoparticle loading on silicone nanocomposite thermal conductivity. An increase in thermal conductivity from 0.27 W/mK to 0.49 W/mK from base silicone to silicone with 33.5 wt% zirconia nanoparticles was observed. This trend closely mirrored a basic rule of mixtures prediction, implying a further enhancement in thermal conductivity could be achieved at higher nanoparticle loadings. The optical properties of transparency and light extraction efficiency of these composites were also investigated. While overall the zirconia nanocomposite showed good transparency, there was a slight decrease at the shorter wavelengths with increasing zirconia content. For longer wavelength LEDs, such as green or red, this might not matter, but phosphor-converted white LEDs use a blue LED as the photon source

  12. Treatment and recycling of incinerated ash using thermal plasma technology.

    PubMed

    Cheng, T W; Chu, J P; Tzeng, C C; Chen, Y S

    2002-01-01

    To treat incinerated ash is an important issue in Taiwan. Incinerated ashes contain a considerable amount of hazardous materials such as dioxins and heavy metals. If these hazardous materials are improperly treated or disposed of, they shall cause detrimental secondary contamination. Thermal plasma vitrification is a robust technology to treat and recycle the ash residues. Under the high temperature plasma environment, incinerated ashes are vitrified into benign slag with large volume reduction and extreme detoxification. Several one-step heat treatment processes are carried out at four temperatures (i.e. 850, 950, 1,050 and 1,150 degrees C) to obtain various "microstructure materials". The major phase to form these materials is a solid solution of gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) and åkermanite (Ca2MgSi2O7) belonging to the melilite group. The physical and mechanical properties of the microstructure materials are improved by using one-step post-heat treatment process after plasma vitrification. These microstructure materials with good quality have great potential to serve as a viable alternative for construction applications.

  13. Effects of Silica Nanoparticle Supported Ionic Liquid as Additive on Thermal Reversibility of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

    PubMed Central

    Fallahbagheri, Azadeh; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Ma'mani, Leila; Taghizadeh, Mohammad; Khodarahmi, Reza; Ranjbar, Samira; Bohlooli, Mousa; Shafiee, Abbas; Foroumadi, Alireza; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Silica nanoparticle supported imidazolium ionic liquid [SNImIL] was synthesized and utilized as a biocompatible additive for studying the thermal reversibility of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). For this purpose, we prepared additive by modification of nanoparticles through the grafting of ionic liquids on the surface of nanoparticles (SNImIL). The SNImIL were fully characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. The characterization of HCA II was investigated by various techniques including UV–Vis and ANS fluorescence spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and docking study. SNImIL induced disaggregation, enhanced protein stability and increased thermal reversibility of HCA II by up to 42% at pH 7.75. PMID:22829053

  14. Quantification of Treatment Effect Modification on Both an Additive and Multiplicative Scale

    PubMed Central

    Girerd, Nicolas; Rabilloud, Muriel; Pibarot, Philippe; Mathieu, Patrick; Roy, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background In both observational and randomized studies, associations with overall survival are by and large assessed on a multiplicative scale using the Cox model. However, clinicians and clinical researchers have an ardent interest in assessing absolute benefit associated with treatments. In older patients, some studies have reported lower relative treatment effect, which might translate into similar or even greater absolute treatment effect given their high baseline hazard for clinical events. Methods The effect of treatment and the effect modification of treatment were respectively assessed using a multiplicative and an additive hazard model in an analysis adjusted for propensity score in the context of coronary surgery. Results The multiplicative model yielded a lower relative hazard reduction with bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting in older patients (Hazard ratio for interaction/year = 1.03, 95%CI: 1.00 to 1.06, p = 0.05) whereas the additive model reported a similar absolute hazard reduction with increasing age (Delta for interaction/year = 0.10, 95%CI: -0.27 to 0.46, p = 0.61). The number needed to treat derived from the propensity score-adjusted multiplicative model was remarkably similar at the end of the follow-up in patients aged < = 60 and in patients >70. Conclusions The present example demonstrates that a lower treatment effect in older patients on a relative scale can conversely translate into a similar treatment effect on an additive scale due to large baseline hazard differences. Importantly, absolute risk reduction, either crude or adjusted, can be calculated from multiplicative survival models. We advocate for a wider use of the absolute scale, especially using additive hazard models, to assess treatment effect and treatment effect modification. PMID:27045168

  15. Thermal water applications in the treatment of upper respiratory tract diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Keller, Sarah; König, Volker; Mösges, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Background. Thermal water inhalations and irrigations have a long tradition in the treatment of airway diseases. Currently there exists no systematic review or meta-analysis on the effectiveness of thermal water treatment in upper respiratory tract diseases. Methods. A systematic search in the databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, ISI Web of Science, and MedPilot was accomplished. Results. Eight evaluable outcome parameters from 13 prospective clinical studies were identified for 840 patients. Mucociliary clearance time improves significantly (P < 0.01) for the pooled thermal water subgroup and the sulphurous subgroup after 2 weeks (-6.69/minutes) and after 90 days (-8.33/minutes), not for isotonic sodium chloride solution (ISCS). Nasal resistance improved significantly after 2 weeks (Radon, ISCS, and placebo), after 30 days (sulphur and ISCS), and after 90 days (sulphur). Nasal flow improved significantly with the pooled thermal water, radon alone, and ISCS subgroups. For the IgE parameter only sulphurous thermal water (P < 0.01) and ISCS (P > 0.01) were analyzable. Adverse events of minor character were only reported for sulphurous treatment (19/370). Conclusion. Thermal water applications with radon or sulphur can be recommended as additional nonpharmacological treatment in upper airway diseases. Also in comparison to isotonic saline solution it shows significant improvements and should be investigated further.

  16. Hollow Silica as an Optically Transparent and Thermally Insulating Polymer Additive.

    PubMed

    Ernawati, Lusi; Ogi, Takashi; Balgis, Ratna; Okuyama, Kikuo; Stucki, Mario; Hess, Samuel C; Stark, Wendelin J

    2016-01-12

    We present an improved synthesis route to hollow silica particles starting from tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) instead of the traditionally used ethyl ester. The silica was first deposited onto polystyrene (PS) particles that were later removed. The here introduced, apparently minor modification in synthesis, however, allowed for a very high purity material. The improved, low density hollow silica particles were successfully implemented into polymer films and permitted maintaining optical transparency while significantly improving the heat barrier properties of the composite. Mechanistic investigations revealed the dominant role of here used methanol as a cosolvent and its role in controlling the hydrolysis rate of the silicic ester, and subsequent formation of hollow silica particles. Systematic experiments using various reaction parameters revealed a transition between regions of inhomogeneous material production at fast hydrolysis rate and reliable silica deposition on the surface of PS as a core-shell structured particle. The shell-thickness was controlled from 6.2 to 17.4 nm by increasing TMOS concentration and the diameter from 95 to 430 nm through use of the different sizes of PS particles. Hollow silica particle with the shell-thickness about 6.2 nm displayed a high light transmittance intensity up to 95% at 680 nm (length of light path ∼ 1 cm). Polyethersulfone (PES)/hollow silica composite films (35 ± 5 μm thick) exhibited a much lower thermal conductivity (0.03 ± 0.005 W m·K(-1)) than pure polymer films. This indicates that the prepared hollow silica is able to be used for cost and energy effective optical devices requiring thermal insulation.

  17. The need for bioaugmentation after thermal treatment of a TCE-contaminated aquifer: Laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Friis, A K; Albrechtsen, H-J; Cox, E; Bjerg, P L

    2006-12-15

    A microcosm study was conducted to evaluate the need for bioaugmentation after a thermal treatment to anaerobically dechlorinate trichloroethene (TCE) to ethene. The microcosms were either: heated to 100 degrees C and slowly cooled to simulate thermal remediation while bioaugmenting when the declining temperature reached 10 degrees C; or kept at ambient groundwater temperatures (10 degrees C) and bioaugmented for comparison. Aquifer samples from three sediment locations within a TCE-polluted source zone were investigated in duplicate microcosms. In biostimulated (5 mM lactate) and heated microcosms, no conversion of TCE was observed in 4 out of 6 microcosms, and in the remaining microcosms the dechlorination of TCE was incomplete to cDCE (cis-dichloroethene). By comparison, complete TCE dechlorination to ethene was observed in 4 out of 6 heated microcosms that were bioaugmented with a highly enriched dechlorinating mixed culture, KB-1, but no electron donor, and also in 4 of 6 microcosms that were augmented with KB-1 and an electron donor (5 mM lactate). These data suggest that electron donor released during heating, was capable of promoting complete dechlorination coincident with bioaugmentation. Heated microcosms demonstrated less methanogenesis than unheated microcosms, even with elevated H2 concentrations and addition of KB-1, which contains methanogens. This suggests that the heating process suppressed the native microbial community, which can decrease competition with the bioaugmented culture and increase the effectiveness of dechlorination following a thermal treatment. Specifically, cDCE removal rates were four to six times higher in heated than unheated bioaugmented microcosms. This study confirms the need for bioaugmentation following a laboratory thermal treatment to obtain complete dechlorination of TCE.

  18. Thermal treatment of soils contaminated with gas oil: influence of soil composition and treatment temperature.

    PubMed

    Piña, Juliana; Merino, Jerónimo; Errazu, Alberto F; Bucalá, Verónica

    2002-10-14

    Samples of two soils containing different organic matter contents, neat or contaminated with gas oil (diesel fuel oil) at 2.5 wt.% were heated from room temperature to different final temperatures (200-900 degrees C). The experiments, performed in an anaerobic media, simulate conditions pertinent to ex situ thermal desorptive and thermal destructive treatments. The products generated during the heating were collected and light gases were analyzed by gas chromatography. The results indicate that the chemical composition of the soil is a key factor since it strongly influences the quantity and composition of the off-gases. According to the liquid and light gas yields, the gas oil does not affect appreciably the generation of pyrolysis products of the own soil constituents and the gas oil does not suffer significant chemical transformations even at high operating temperatures (e.g. 900 degrees C). With surface areas of 16000 cm(2)/g (Soil A) and 85000 cm(2)/g (Soil B) based on the monolayer adsorbed model, 4 and 20%, respectively, of the original gas oil can be adsorbed. These values are in good agreement with experimental data. Even for high temperatures, the employed thermal treatment is capable to practically remove the gas oil from the soil bed without changing appreciably the original chemical composition of the contaminant.

  19. Thermal acclimation and thyroxine treatment modify the electric organ discharge frequency in an electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, K D; Ragazzi, M A

    2015-11-01

    In ectotherms, the rate of many neural processes is determined externally, by the influence of the thermal environment on body temperature, and internally, by hormones secreted from the thyroid gland. Through thermal acclimation, animals can buffer the influence of the thermal environment by adjusting their physiology to stabilize certain processes in the face of environmental temperature change. The electric organ discharge (EOD) used by weak electric fish for electrocommunication and electrolocation is highly temperature sensitive. In some temperate species that naturally experience large seasonal fluctuations in environmental temperature, the thermal sensitivity (Q10) of the EOD shifts after long-term temperature change. We examined thermal acclimation of EOD frequency in a tropical electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus that naturally experiences much less temperature change. We transferred fish between thermal environments (25.3 and 27.8 °C) and measured EOD frequency and its thermal sensitivity (Q10) over 11 d. After 6d, fish exhibited thermal acclimation to both warming and cooling, adjusting the thermal dependence of EOD frequency to partially compensate for the small change (2.5 °C) in water temperature. In addition, we evaluated the thyroid influence on EOD frequency by treating fish with thyroxine or the anti-thyroid compound propylthiouricil (PTU) to stimulate or inhibit thyroid activity, respectively. Thyroxine treatment significantly increased EOD frequency, but PTU had no effect. Neither thyroxine nor PTU treatment influenced the thermal sensitivity (Q10) of EOD frequency during acute temperature change. Thus, the EOD of Apteronotus shows significant thermal acclimation and responds to elevated thyroxine.

  20. Treatment of dentoskeletal bimaxillary protrusion: additional extraction of maxillary second molars.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Shigeki; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Terada, Kazuto

    2009-07-01

    This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of an 18-year-old female patient with Class II malocclusion with dentoskeletal bimaxillary protrusion. An acceptable treatment result was obtained with a four first premolar extraction and an additional maxillary two second molar extraction plan. Standard edgewise appliances were placed after the premolars were extracted. A positive soft tissue response to treatment was achieved, and the patient's profile was improved, with a reduction of lip protrusion and mentalis strain. Dentally, the interincisal angle improved significantly as both the maxillary and mandibular incisors were uprighted after space closure. The occlusion remained stable during 2 years of follow-up.

  1. [Thermal expansion of Au-Pd-Ag system alloys. Casting stress and deformation of addition of Sn and In].

    PubMed

    Ohkuma, K

    1989-03-01

    To study the dimensional changes due to the release of casting stress in metal-ceramic alloys, a wheel-like pattern in which casting stress is liable to occur and rod- and barrel-like wax patterns in which the likelihood of such stress is low, were investigated with a phosphate-bonded investment compound. Furthermore, simultaneous casting was done using Au-Pd-Ag system alloys, 21 types of mother alloys and alloys with tin or indium or both, and accurate determinations of the thermal expansion rate with increased or decreased temperature were carried out. The results obtained were as follows. The mean thermal expansion rates of the mother alloys and the alloys with tin and indium upon increase and decrease of temperature were lowest for the large wheel-like pattern, followed by the small wheel-like pattern, rod-like pattern and barrel-like pattern, in that order. The mean thermal expansion rates of the mother alloys and the alloys with tin or indium or both were decreased when the palladium content was increased, but tended to increase when the silver content was higher. Gold had no influence on the thermal expansion rate. When the temperature decreased, the complex addition of tin and indium provided alloys showing only a slight deformation. PMID:2690394

  2. Thermal expansion of Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} with Ge, B, C, N, or O additions

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J. J.; Kramer, M. J.; Akinc, M.

    2000-08-01

    The crystallographic thermal expansion coefficients of Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} from 20 to 1000 degree sign C as a function of B, C, N, O, or Ge content were measured by high-temperature x-ray diffraction using synchrotron sources at Cornell University (Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source; CHESS) and Argonne National Laboratory (Advanced Photon Source; APS). Whereas the ratio of the thermal expansion coefficients along the c and a axes was approximately 3 for pure Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, this ratio decreased to about 2 when B, C, or N atoms were added. Additions of O and Ge were less efficient at reducing this thermal expansion anisotropy. The extent by which the thermal expansion was changed when B, C, N, or O atoms were added to Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} correlated with their expected effect on bonding in Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3}. (c) 2000 Materials Research Society.

  3. Requirement for additional treatment for dogs with atopic dermatitis undergoing allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Colombo, S; Hill, P B; Shaw, D J; Thoday, K L

    2007-06-23

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) is one of the main treatments for atopic dermatitis in dogs, but it often requires additional treatments such as antibacterial and antifungal therapy for secondary bacterial and yeast infections, or antipruritic drugs to control the clinical signs or treat the adverse effects of the immunotherapy. Twenty-seven dogs enrolled in a study of ASIT were clinically assessed four times over a period of nine months; their requirement for treatment for secondary bacterial and yeast infections, for the administration of glucocorticoids as additional antipruritic therapy, and for the treatment of any adverse effects of the ASIT were evaluated. Twenty (74 per cent) of the dogs were treated for superficial bacterial pyoderma, 18 (66.6 per cent) required treatment for Malassezia species dermatitis on one or more occasions, eight (29.6 per cent) required treatment for otitis externa due to Malassezia species or bacteria, and eight required glucocorticoids to control their clinical signs. Five (18.5 per cent) of the dogs experienced adverse effects due to the ASIT and two required treatment with antihistamines (H1 receptor antagonists) in order to continue with the ASIT. PMID:17586789

  4. Addition of alkali to the hydrothermal-mechanochemical treatment of Eucalyptus enhances its enzymatic saccharification.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Maki; Endo, Takashi

    2014-02-01

    The effects of alkali on hydrothermal-mechanochemical treatment (hydrothermal treatment combined with wet-milling) were examined with the aim of improving pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass before enzymatic saccharification. After enzymatic saccharification, the highest glucose yield was obtained by autoclaving at 170°C in the presence of 20% NaOH per substrate weight. The wood fiber was unraveled into finer nanofibers by hydrothermal-mechanochemical treatment, thus increasing the specific surface area of the substrate from 11 to 132m(2)/g. Adding 20% NaOH to the treatment further increased the specific surface area of the already fibrillated substrate by 76% (232m(2)/g) due to lignin removal and ester bond cleavage between lignin and hemicellulose. This increase in specific surface area was closely related to the increase in enzymatic digestibility; therefore, NaOH addition may have enhanced the effect of hydrothermal-mechanochemical treatment.

  5. Additive Effects of Combination Treatment with Anti-inflammatory and Neuroprotective Agents in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Du, Sienmi; Sandoval, Francisco; Trinh, Pauline; Voskuhl, Rhonda R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effects of combination treatment with an anti-inflammatory agent, interferon(IFN)-β, and a putative neuroprotective agent, an estrogen receptor(ER)-β ligand, during EAE. Combination treatment significantly attenuated EAE disease severity, preserved axonal densities in spinal cord, and reduced CNS inflammation. Combining ERβ treatment with IFNβ reduced IL-17, while it abrogated IFNβ-mediated increases in Th1 and Th2 cytokines from splenocytes. Additionally, combination treatment reduced VLA-4 expression on CD4+ T cells, while it abrogated IFNβ-mediated decreases in MMP-9. Our data demonstrate that combination treatments can result in complex effects that could not have been predicted based on monotherapy data alone. PMID:20006910

  6. Final treatment of spent batteries by thermal plasma.

    PubMed

    Cubas, Anelise Leal Vieira; Machado, Marina de Medeiros; Machado, Marília de Medeiros; Dutra, Ana Regina de Aguiar; Moecke, Elisa Helena Siegel; Fiedler, Haidi D; Bueno, Priscila

    2015-08-15

    The growth in the use of wireless devices, notebooks and other electronic products has led to an ever increasing demand for batteries, leading to these products being commonly found in inappropriate locations, with adverse effects on the environment and human health. Due to political pressure and according to the environmental legislation which regulates the destination of spent batteries, in several countries the application of reverse logistics to hazardous waste is required. Thus, some processes have been developed with the aim of providing an appropriate destination for these products. In this context, a method for the treatment of spent batteries using thermal plasma technology is proposed herein. The efficiency of the method was tested through the determination of parameters, such as total organic carbon, moisture content and density, as well as analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence using samples before and after inertization. The value obtained for the density was 19.15%. The TOC results indicated 8.05% of C in the batteries prior to pyrolisis and according to the XRF analysis Fe, S, Mn and Zn were the most stable elements in the samples (highest peaks). The efficiency of the paste inertization was 97% for zinc and 99.74% for manganese. The results also showed that the most efficient reactor was that with the DC transferred arc plasma torch and quartzite sand positively influenced by the vitrification during the pyrolysis of the electrolyte paste obtain from batteries. PMID:26093342

  7. Final treatment of spent batteries by thermal plasma.

    PubMed

    Cubas, Anelise Leal Vieira; Machado, Marina de Medeiros; Machado, Marília de Medeiros; Dutra, Ana Regina de Aguiar; Moecke, Elisa Helena Siegel; Fiedler, Haidi D; Bueno, Priscila

    2015-08-15

    The growth in the use of wireless devices, notebooks and other electronic products has led to an ever increasing demand for batteries, leading to these products being commonly found in inappropriate locations, with adverse effects on the environment and human health. Due to political pressure and according to the environmental legislation which regulates the destination of spent batteries, in several countries the application of reverse logistics to hazardous waste is required. Thus, some processes have been developed with the aim of providing an appropriate destination for these products. In this context, a method for the treatment of spent batteries using thermal plasma technology is proposed herein. The efficiency of the method was tested through the determination of parameters, such as total organic carbon, moisture content and density, as well as analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence using samples before and after inertization. The value obtained for the density was 19.15%. The TOC results indicated 8.05% of C in the batteries prior to pyrolisis and according to the XRF analysis Fe, S, Mn and Zn were the most stable elements in the samples (highest peaks). The efficiency of the paste inertization was 97% for zinc and 99.74% for manganese. The results also showed that the most efficient reactor was that with the DC transferred arc plasma torch and quartzite sand positively influenced by the vitrification during the pyrolysis of the electrolyte paste obtain from batteries.

  8. Thermal treatment of harzardous waste for heavy metal recovery.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Gaston; Schirmer, Matthias; Bilitewski, Bernd; Kaszás Savos, Melania

    2007-07-16

    In this study, a new method for recovering heavy metals from hazardous waste is introduced. The process is characterized by a separation of heavy metals and residues during the thermal treatment under a sub-stoichiometric atmosphere in a rotary kiln. After leaving the rotary kiln the separated heavy metals are precipitated in a hot gas ceramic filter. Using this technology, hazardous materials, both liquids and pasty hazardous waste containing heavy metals, can be treated and a product with a quasi-raw material condition can be formed. In contrast to current methods,the harmful substances should not be immobilized and disposed. In fact, a saleable product highly concentrated with heavy metals should be formed. During preliminary investigations with a solution containing sodium chromate tetrahydrate, the process was tested in a pilot plant. Here,the separation of chromium could be demonstrated with leaching tests and characterization of the filter dust. Analysis concerning the disposability of the residues had not been carried out because only the process and the characteristic of the filter dust were in the centre of attention.

  9. The effect of TiO2/aluminosilicate nanocomposite additives on the mechanical and thermal properties of polyacrylic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosrati, Rahimeh; Olad, Ali

    2015-12-01

    The commercial grade polyacrylic latex was modified in order to prepare a mechanical and thermal improved coating. TiO2/Ag-exchanged-aluminosilicate nanocomposites with montmorillonite, zeolite-A and clinoptilolite aluminosilicates were prepared and used as additive in the matrix of polyacrylic latex to achieve a coating with proper mechanical and thermal properties. X-ray diffraction patterns and FESEM were used to characterize the composition, structure, and morphology of the nanocomposite additives. Polyacrylic coatings modified by TiO2/Ag-exchanged-aluminosilicate nanocomposite additives showed higher adhesion strength and hardness compared to unmodified commercial grade polyacrylic coatings. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed lower glass transition temperature for modified polyacrylic coatings than that of unmodified polyacrylic coatings. The tensile tests were also carried out for unmodified and modified polyacrylic coatings. According to the results, the modified polyacrylic based coating with TiO2/Ag-exchanged-clinoptilolite nanocomposite additive was the best coating considering most of useful properties.

  10. By-products of the Thermal Treatment of Hazardous Waste: Formation and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Maud; Cormier, Stephania; Varner, Kurt; Dellinger, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Destruction of toxic chemicals by thermal treatment can be a highly effective method for remediation of sites contaminated with hazardous substances. Of the 977 Superfund source control treatment projects in the United States from 1982 to 2005, 16% used incineration or other thermal treatments (the proportion is similar for 126 projects in the period 2002–2005).1 However, as with other technologies, if thermal treatments are not matched correctly with the site or are improperly operated, harmful by-products can form, requiring further treatment. PMID:22684359

  11. Thermal imaging for assessment of electron-beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) additive manufacturing deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Burke, Eric R.; Hafley, Robert A.; Taminger, Karen M.; Domack, Christopher S.; Brewer, Amy; Martin, Richard E.

    2013-05-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapidly growing field where 3-dimensional parts can be produced layer by layer. NASA's electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) technology is being evaluated to manufacture metallic parts in a space environment. The benefits of EBF3 technology are weight savings to support space missions, rapid prototyping in a zero gravity environment, and improved vehicle readiness. The EBF3 system is composed of 3 main components: electron beam gun, multi-axis position system, and metallic wire feeder. The electron beam is used to melt the wire and the multi-axis positioning system is used to build the part layer by layer. To insure a quality deposit, a near infrared (NIR) camera is used to image the melt pool and solidification areas. This paper describes the calibration and application of a NIR camera for temperature measurement. In addition, image processing techniques are presented for deposit assessment metrics.

  12. Effect of additive particles on mechanical, thermal, and cell functioning properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) cement

    PubMed Central

    Khandaker, Morshed; Vaughan, Melville B; Morris, Tracy L; White, Jeremiah J; Meng, Zhaotong

    2014-01-01

    The most common bone cement material used clinically today for orthopedic surgery is poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Conventional PMMA bone cement has several mechanical, thermal, and biological disadvantages. To overcome these problems, researchers have investigated combinations of PMMA bone cement and several bioactive particles (micrometers to nanometers in size), such as magnesium oxide, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, barium sulfate, and silica. A study comparing the effect of these individual additives on the mechanical, thermal, and cell functional properties of PMMA would be important to enable selection of suitable additives and design improved PMMA cement for orthopedic applications. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the effect of inclusion of magnesium oxide, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, barium sulfate, and silica additives in PMMA on the mechanical, thermal, and cell functional performance of PMMA. American Society for Testing and Materials standard three-point bend flexural and fracture tests were conducted to determine the flexural strength, flexural modulus, and fracture toughness of the different PMMA samples. A custom-made temperature measurement system was used to determine maximum curing temperature and the time needed for each PMMA sample to reach its maximum curing temperature. Osteoblast adhesion and proliferation experiments were performed to determine cell viability using the different PMMA cements. We found that flexural strength and fracture toughness were significantly greater for PMMA specimens that incorporated silica than for the other specimens. All additives prolonged the time taken to reach maximum curing temperature and significantly improved cell adhesion of the PMMA samples. The results of this study could be useful for improving the union of implant-PMMA or bone-PMMA interfaces by incorporating nanoparticles into PMMA cement for orthopedic and orthodontic applications. PMID:24920906

  13. Energy recovery from thermal treatment of dewatered sludge in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingfeng; Dussan, Karla; Monaghan, Rory F D; Zhan, Xinmin

    2016-01-01

    Sewage sludge is a by-product generated from municipal wastewater treatment (WWT) processes. This study examines the conversion of sludge via energy recovery from gasification/combustion for thermal treatment of dewatered sludge. The present analysis is based on a chemical equilibrium model of thermal conversion of previously dewatered sludge with moisture content of 60-80%. Prior to combustion/gasification, sludge is dried to a moisture content of 25-55% by two processes: (1) heat recovered from syngas/flue gas cooling and (2) heat recovered from syngas combustion. The electricity recovered from the combined heat and power process can be reused in syngas cleaning and in the WWT plant. Gas temperature, total heat and electricity recoverable are evaluated using the model. Results show that generation of electricity from dewatered sludge with low moisture content (≤ 70%) is feasible within a self-sufficient sludge treatment process. Optimal conditions for gasification correspond to an equivalence ratio of 2.3 and dried sludge moisture content of 25%. Net electricity generated from syngas combustion can account for 0.071 kWh/m(3) of wastewater treated, which is up to 25.4-28.4% of the WWT plant's total energy consumption. PMID:27508372

  14. Primary explosives: electrostatic discharge initiation, additive effect and its relation to thermal and explosive characteristics.

    PubMed

    Talawar, M B; Agrawal, A P; Anniyappan, M; Wani, D S; Bansode, M K; Gore, G M

    2006-09-21

    All explosives, under all conditions must be considered vulnerable to generation, accumulation and discharge of static charge. The low energy static hazards of the order as low as 2-3 mJ need to be guarded against in case of highly sensitive compounds namely primary explosives. The hazard is normally associated with manufacturing and filling operations due to discharge of static charge accumulated on a person supplying energy up to 20 mJ. To reduce the risk associated with static initiation hazard in the processing and handling of the explosives, the electrostatic sensitivity tests can provide an important input regarding electrostatic hazards. This paper presents electrostatic sensitivity data in terms of zero ignition probability data (E(SE0)) of some of the initiatory explosives such as nickel/cobalt hydrazinium nitrate, silver azide, lead azide and mercury salt of 5-nitro tetrazole. Similar data has also been presented for samples coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone to study its effect on electrostatic sensitivity. The electrostatic spark sensitivity of some conventional and novel made to explain the increased spark sensitivity behavior on the basis of the possible primary explosives has been studied. The electrostatic spark sensitivity of primary explosives decreased in the order of AgN3 = NHN > PbN6 > MNT > CoHN > BNCP. A possible correlation of spark energy with approximation and assumption has been drawn with thermal, detonation and mechanical properties. The polyvinyl pyrrolidone coated samples followed the same order but interestingly with increased spark sensitivity. An attempt has been reasoning of dielectric nature of the materials or exothermic effects of decomposition products of PVP. The present work also reports the electrostatic spark sensitivity of cap compositions.

  15. Effect of Copper/Graphite Addition on Electrical Conductivity and Thermal Insulation of Unsaturated Polyester/Jute Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Bhabatosh; Chabri, Sumit; Mitra, Bhairab Chandra; Das, Kunal; Bandyopadhyay, Nil Ratan; Sinha, Arijit

    2016-02-01

    Jute fibre along with Cu particle reinforced unsaturated polyester composites having different filler loading viz. 2, 5, 10 and 15 wt% were fabricated by compression molding technique. In present investigation, it was observed that with fillers (Jute and Cu) incorporation, the electrical conductivity was monotonically increased up to 10 wt% of filler content followed by saturation at 15 wt% of filler content. It was further observed that along with fillers (Jute and Cu) incorporation, the thermal insulation was decreased monotonically up to 10 wt% of filler content and achieved a saturation at 15 wt% of filler content. A similar trend was observed with the variation of electrical conductivity and thermal insulation after incorporation of graphite within copper reinforced UP/Jute composites. Structural investigation through SEM, XRD and FTIR confirm the dispersion of fillers. An improvement of crystallinity of the matrix with fillers addition was observed from XRD analyses. The interfacial bonding between fillers and matrix was studied from FTIR pattern.

  16. Characterization of the solid low level mixed waste inventory for the solid waste thermal treatment activity - III

    SciTech Connect

    Place, B.G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-24

    The existing thermally treatable, radioactive mixed waste inventory is characterized to support implementation of the commercial, 1214 thermal treatment contract. The existing thermally treatable waste inventory has been identified using a decision matrix developed by Josephson et al. (1996). Similar to earlier waste characterization reports (Place 1993 and 1994), hazardous materials, radionuclides, physical properties, and waste container data are statistically analyzed. In addition, the waste inventory data is analyzed to correlate waste constituent data that are important to the implementation of the commercial thermal treatment contract for obtaining permits and for process design. The specific waste parameters, which were analyzed, include the following: ``dose equivalent`` curie content, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content, identification of containers with PA-related mobile radionuclides (14C, 12 79Se, 99Tc, and U isotopes), tritium content, debris and non-debris content, container free liquid content, fissile isotope content, identification of dangerous waste codes, asbestos containers, high mercury containers, beryllium dust containers, lead containers, overall waste quantities, analysis of container types, and an estimate of the waste compositional split based on the thermal treatment contractor`s proposed process. A qualitative description of the thermally treatable mixed waste inventory is also provided.

  17. Sintering and properties of Si3N4 with and without additives by HIP treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuratani, S.; Shimada, M.; Koizumi, M.

    1986-01-01

    Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) of Si3N4 powders with and without additives was performed using a glass container, and various kinds of pressureless-sintered Si3N4 were HIP'ed without a container. The effects of HIP treatment on density, microstructure, flexural strength, microhardness, and fracture toughness on Si3N4 ceramics were studied. Using a glass container it was difficult to reach theoretical density. The microhardness of HIP'ed Si3N4 without additives was low, and the fracture toughness of HIP'ed Si3N4 with and without additives was 22 to 25 W/m-K, and it decreased with increasing the amount of additives. The density and flexural strength, and hardness of pressureless-sintered Si3N4 which contained Al2O and Y2O3 as oxide additives were remarkably improved by HIP treatment using nitrogen as a pressure transmitting gas. It is very important to select the sintering conditions for fabricating the presintered body of Si3N4 in order to improve the mechanical properties of Si3N4 by HIP treatment.

  18. The food additive-free diet in the treatment of behavior disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Wender, E H

    1986-02-01

    A food additive-free diet has been recommended as a component of the treatment of developmental/behavioral disorders in children. This diet was initially developed by Dr. Benjamin Feingold for the treatment of aspirin sensitivity in adults, and then extended by him to the management, particularly, of hyperactivity and learning disability in children. The rationale for this diet and the methods employed in investigating its use are described. The claimed therapeutic effects of this diet have been investigated in a number of well-designed studies reviewed here. These studies generally refute a causal association between food additives and behavioral disturbance in children. Suggestions are made regarding the approach towards food additive-free diet therapy in the management of developmental/behavioral disorders.

  19. Sodium thermal reduction of tantalum powders from melts with tantalum pentaoxide additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolosov, V. N.; Miroshnichenko, M. N.; Orlov, V. M.; Prokhorova, T. Yu.

    2009-12-01

    The effect of the oxygen concentration in a melt on the characteristics of sodium-reduced tantalum powders, which were produced from potassium heptafluotantalate-based melts with tantalum pentaoxide additions, is studied. An increase in the oxygen content in the initial melt from 0.35 to 2.0 wt % leads to an increase in the specific surface of the formed powder from 1.2 to 3.5 m2/g. The specific charge of anodes made from these powders is 37800-70700 CV/g.

  20. Effluent treatment for nuclear thermal propulsion ground testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipers, Larry R.

    The objectives are to define treatment functions, review concept options, discuss PIPET effluent treatment system (ETS), and outline future activities. The topics covered include the following: reactor exhaust; effluent treatment functions; effluent treatment categories; effluent treatment options; concept evaluation; PIPETS ETS envelope; PIPET effluent treatment concept; and future activities.

  1. Effluent treatment for nuclear thermal propulsion ground testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipers, Larry R.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives are to define treatment functions, review concept options, discuss PIPET effluent treatment system (ETS), and outline future activities. The topics covered include the following: reactor exhaust; effluent treatment functions; effluent treatment categories; effluent treatment options; concept evaluation; PIPETS ETS envelope; PIPET effluent treatment concept; and future activities.

  2. Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lydia; Euston, Stephen R; Ahmed, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the sensory acceptability and textural properties of leavened wheat bread and sponge cake fortified with cow protein isolates that had been denatured and glycated by thermal treatment. Defatted cowpea flour was prepared from cow pea beans and the protein isolate was prepared (CPI) and thermally denatured (DCPI). To prepare glycated cowpea protein isolate (GCPI) the cowpea flour slurry was heat treated before isolation of the protein. CPI was more susceptible to thermal denaturation than GCPI as determined by turbidity and sulphydryl groups resulting in greater loss of solubility. This is attributed to the higher glycation degree and higher carbohydrate content of GCPI as demonstrated by glycoprotein staining of SDS PAGE gels. Water absorption of bread dough was significantly enhanced by DCPI and to a larger extent GCPI compared to the control, resulting in softer texture. CPI resulted in significantly increased crumb hardness in baked bread than the control whereas DCPI or GCPI resulted in significantly softer crumb. Bread fortified with 4% DCPI or GCPI was similar to control as regards sensory and textural properties whereas 4% CPI was significantly different, limiting its inclusion level to 2%. There was a trend for higher sensory acceptability scores for GCPI containing bread compared DCPI. Whole egg was replaced by 20% by GCPI (3.5%) in sponge cake without affecting the sensory acceptability, whereas CPI and DCPI supplemented cakes were significantly different than the control. PMID:26471676

  3. Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lydia; Euston, Stephen R; Ahmed, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the sensory acceptability and textural properties of leavened wheat bread and sponge cake fortified with cow protein isolates that had been denatured and glycated by thermal treatment. Defatted cowpea flour was prepared from cow pea beans and the protein isolate was prepared (CPI) and thermally denatured (DCPI). To prepare glycated cowpea protein isolate (GCPI) the cowpea flour slurry was heat treated before isolation of the protein. CPI was more susceptible to thermal denaturation than GCPI as determined by turbidity and sulphydryl groups resulting in greater loss of solubility. This is attributed to the higher glycation degree and higher carbohydrate content of GCPI as demonstrated by glycoprotein staining of SDS PAGE gels. Water absorption of bread dough was significantly enhanced by DCPI and to a larger extent GCPI compared to the control, resulting in softer texture. CPI resulted in significantly increased crumb hardness in baked bread than the control whereas DCPI or GCPI resulted in significantly softer crumb. Bread fortified with 4% DCPI or GCPI was similar to control as regards sensory and textural properties whereas 4% CPI was significantly different, limiting its inclusion level to 2%. There was a trend for higher sensory acceptability scores for GCPI containing bread compared DCPI. Whole egg was replaced by 20% by GCPI (3.5%) in sponge cake without affecting the sensory acceptability, whereas CPI and DCPI supplemented cakes were significantly different than the control.

  4. Comparison of Thermal and Non-Thermal Processing of Swine Feed and the Use of Selected Feed Additives on Inactivation of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV).

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Michaela P; Verma, Harsha; Sampedro, Fernando; Urriola, Pedro E; Shurson, Gerald C; McKelvey, Jessica; Pillai, Suresh D; Goyal, Sagar M

    2016-01-01

    Infection with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes diarrhea, vomiting, and high mortality in suckling pigs. Contaminated feed has been suggested as a vehicle of transmission for PEDV. The objective of this study was to compare thermal and electron beam processing, and the inclusion of feed additives on the inactivation of PEDV in feed. Feed samples were spiked with PEDV and then heated to 120-145°C for up to 30 min or irradiated at 0-50 kGy. Another set of feed samples spiked with PEDV and mixed with Ultracid P (Nutriad), Activate DA (Novus International), KEM-GEST (Kemin Agrifood), Acid Booster (Agri-Nutrition), sugar or salt was incubated at room temperature (~25°C) for up to 21 days. At the end of incubation, the virus titers were determined by inoculation of Vero-81 cells and the virus inactivation kinetics were modeled using the Weibull distribution model. The Weibull kinetic parameter delta represented the time or eBeam dose required to reduce virus concentration by 1 log. For thermal processing, delta values ranged from 16.52 min at 120°C to 1.30 min at 145°C. For eBeam processing, a target dose of 50 kGy reduced PEDV concentration by 3 log. All additives tested were effective in reducing the survival of PEDV when compared with the control sample (delta = 17.23 days). Activate DA (0.81) and KEM-GEST (3.28) produced the fastest inactivation. In conclusion, heating swine feed at temperatures over 130°C or eBeam processing of feed with a dose over 50 kGy are effective processing steps to reduce PEDV survival. Additionally, the inclusion of selected additives can decrease PEDV survivability.

  5. Comparison of Thermal and Non-Thermal Processing of Swine Feed and the Use of Selected Feed Additives on Inactivation of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV)

    PubMed Central

    Trudeau, Michaela P.; Verma, Harsha; Sampedro, Fernando; Urriola, Pedro E.; Shurson, Gerald C.; McKelvey, Jessica; Pillai, Suresh D.; Goyal, Sagar M.

    2016-01-01

    Infection with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes diarrhea, vomiting, and high mortality in suckling pigs. Contaminated feed has been suggested as a vehicle of transmission for PEDV. The objective of this study was to compare thermal and electron beam processing, and the inclusion of feed additives on the inactivation of PEDV in feed. Feed samples were spiked with PEDV and then heated to 120–145°C for up to 30 min or irradiated at 0–50 kGy. Another set of feed samples spiked with PEDV and mixed with Ultracid P (Nutriad), Activate DA (Novus International), KEM-GEST (Kemin Agrifood), Acid Booster (Agri-Nutrition), sugar or salt was incubated at room temperature (~25°C) for up to 21 days. At the end of incubation, the virus titers were determined by inoculation of Vero-81 cells and the virus inactivation kinetics were modeled using the Weibull distribution model. The Weibull kinetic parameter delta represented the time or eBeam dose required to reduce virus concentration by 1 log. For thermal processing, delta values ranged from 16.52 min at 120°C to 1.30 min at 145°C. For eBeam processing, a target dose of 50 kGy reduced PEDV concentration by 3 log. All additives tested were effective in reducing the survival of PEDV when compared with the control sample (delta = 17.23 days). Activate DA (0.81) and KEM-GEST (3.28) produced the fastest inactivation. In conclusion, heating swine feed at temperatures over 130°C or eBeam processing of feed with a dose over 50 kGy are effective processing steps to reduce PEDV survival. Additionally, the inclusion of selected additives can decrease PEDV survivability. PMID:27341670

  6. Comparison of Thermal and Non-Thermal Processing of Swine Feed and the Use of Selected Feed Additives on Inactivation of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV).

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Michaela P; Verma, Harsha; Sampedro, Fernando; Urriola, Pedro E; Shurson, Gerald C; McKelvey, Jessica; Pillai, Suresh D; Goyal, Sagar M

    2016-01-01

    Infection with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes diarrhea, vomiting, and high mortality in suckling pigs. Contaminated feed has been suggested as a vehicle of transmission for PEDV. The objective of this study was to compare thermal and electron beam processing, and the inclusion of feed additives on the inactivation of PEDV in feed. Feed samples were spiked with PEDV and then heated to 120-145°C for up to 30 min or irradiated at 0-50 kGy. Another set of feed samples spiked with PEDV and mixed with Ultracid P (Nutriad), Activate DA (Novus International), KEM-GEST (Kemin Agrifood), Acid Booster (Agri-Nutrition), sugar or salt was incubated at room temperature (~25°C) for up to 21 days. At the end of incubation, the virus titers were determined by inoculation of Vero-81 cells and the virus inactivation kinetics were modeled using the Weibull distribution model. The Weibull kinetic parameter delta represented the time or eBeam dose required to reduce virus concentration by 1 log. For thermal processing, delta values ranged from 16.52 min at 120°C to 1.30 min at 145°C. For eBeam processing, a target dose of 50 kGy reduced PEDV concentration by 3 log. All additives tested were effective in reducing the survival of PEDV when compared with the control sample (delta = 17.23 days). Activate DA (0.81) and KEM-GEST (3.28) produced the fastest inactivation. In conclusion, heating swine feed at temperatures over 130°C or eBeam processing of feed with a dose over 50 kGy are effective processing steps to reduce PEDV survival. Additionally, the inclusion of selected additives can decrease PEDV survivability. PMID:27341670

  7. Pt and Hf Additions to NiAl Bond Coats and Their Effect on the Lifetime of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, J. A.; Gleeson, B.; Sordelet, D.; Barrett, C. A.

    2003-01-01

    The lifetimes of thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) with various NiAlPt(HfZr) bond coats were determined by cyclic oxidation testing at 1163 C (2125 F). The bond coats were sprayed from powders by low pressure plasma spraying onto Rene N5 superalloy substrates. Yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) top coats were applied by air plasma spraying. Surprisingly, there was not a strong correlation between TBC lifetime and Pt or Hf content although Zr additions decreased lifetimes. TBC failure morphologies and bond coat microstructures were examined and are discussed with respect to the bond coat compositions.

  8. Enhancement of the Thermal Stability and Mechanical Hardness of Zr-Al-Co Amorphous Alloys by Ag Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongyong; Dong, Xiao; Song, Xiaohui; Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Gong; Liu, Riping

    2016-05-01

    The thermal and mechanical properties of Zr57Al15Co28- X Ag X ( X = 0 and 8) amorphous alloys were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, in situ high-pressure angle dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements with synchrotron radiation, and nanoindentation. Results show that Ag doping improves effective activation energy, nanohardness, elastic modulus, and bulk modulus. Ag addition enhances topological and chemical short-range orderings, which can improve local packing efficiency and restrain long-range atom diffusion. This approach has implications for the design of the microstructure- and property-controllable functional materials for various applications.

  9. Persistence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in a Drinking Water System after Addition of Filtration Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hilborn, Elizabeth D.; Covert, Terry C.; Yakrus, Mitchell A.; Harris, Stephanie I.; Donnelly, Sandra F.; Rice, Eugene W.; Toney, Sean; Bailey, Stephanie A.; Stelma, Gerard N.

    2006-01-01

    There is evidence that drinking water may be a source of infections with pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in humans. One method by which NTM are believed to enter drinking water distribution systems is by their intracellular colonization of protozoa. Our goal was to determine whether we could detect a reduction in the prevalence of NTM recovered from an unfiltered surface drinking water system after the addition of ozonation and filtration treatment and to characterize NTM isolates by using molecular methods. We sampled water from two initially unfiltered surface drinking water treatment plants over a 29-month period. One plant received the addition of filtration and ozonation after 6 months of sampling. Sample sites included those at treatment plant effluents, distributed water, and cold water taps (point-of-use [POU] sites) in public or commercial buildings located within each distribution system. NTM were recovered from 27% of the sites. POU sites yielded the majority of NTM, with >50% recovery despite the addition of ozonation and filtration. Closely related electrophoretic groups of Mycobacterium avium were found to persist at POU sites for up to 26 months. Water collected from POU cold water outlets was persistently colonized with NTM despite the addition of ozonation and filtration to a drinking water system. This suggests that cold water POU outlets need to be considered as a potential source of chronic human exposure to NTM. PMID:16957205

  10. Modeling Penicillium expansum resistance to thermal and chlorine treatments.

    PubMed

    Salomão, Beatriz C M; Churey, John J; Aragão, Gláucia M F; Worobo, Randy W

    2009-12-01

    Apples and apple products are excellent substrates for Penicillium expansum to produce patulin. In an attempt to avoid excessive levels of patulin, limiting or reducing P. expansum contamination levels on apples designated for storage in packinghouses and/or during apple juice processing is critical. The aim of this work was (i) to determine the thermal resistance of P. expansum spores in apple juice, comparing the abilities of the Bigelow and Weibull models to describe the survival curves and (ii) to determine the inactivation of P. expansum spores in aqueous chlorine solutions at varying concentrations of chlorine solutions, comparing the abilities of the biphasic and Weibull models to fit the survival curves. The results showed that the Bigelow and Weibull models were similar for describing the heat inactivation data, because the survival curves were almost linear. In this case, the concept of D- and z-values could be used, and the D-values obtained were 10.68, 6.64, 3.32, 1.14, and 0.61 min at 50, 52, 54, 56, and 60 degrees C, respectively, while the z-value was determined to be 7.57 degrees C. For the chlorine treatments, although the biphasic model gave a slightly superior performance, the Weibull model was selected, considering the parsimony principle, because it has fewer parameters than the biphasic model has. In conclusion, the typical pasteurization regimen used for refrigerated apple juice (71 degrees C for 6 s) is capable of achieving a 6-log reduction of P. expansum spores.

  11. Annual Thermal Amplitudes and Thermal Detection of Southwestern U.S. Caves: Additional Insights for Remote Sensing of Caves on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, J. J.; Titus, T. N.; Drost, C. A.; Toomey, R. S.; Peterson, K.

    2008-03-01

    We analyzed temperature data of nine SW U.S. caves using Fourier analysis to characterize thermal behavior, and line graphs to identify optimal times of detection in the thermal infrared. This work furthered our understanding of cave thermal behavior.

  12. In-situ Thermal Treatment of Trichloroethene at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Jason; McElroy, William J.; Glasgow, Jason; Heron, Gorm; Galligan, Jim; Parker, Ken; Davis, E. F.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the in-situ thermal treatment of trichloroethene at Marshall space Flight Center. The contents include: 1) Background 1 and 2; 2) Source Area-13; 3) In-situ Thermal Treatment; 4) SA-13 Lithology; 5) SA-13 In-Situ Thermal TS; 6) SA-13 ISTD System Components; 7) ISTD Overview; 8) Heaters; 9) SA-13 ISTD Wellfield Layout; 10) SA-13 Well Field; 11) ISTD Process and Instrumentation; 12) Treatment Zone Temperature; 13) SA-13 System Removals; 14) SA-13 DNAPL (typical photos); 15) Treatment Results 1-5; and 16) SA-13 TCE Removal Summary.

  13. Building ceramics with an addition of pulverized combustion fly ash from the thermal power plant Nováky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Húlan, Tomáš; Trník, Anton; Medved, Igor; Štubňa, Igor; Kaljuvee, Tiit

    2016-07-01

    Pulverized combustion fly ash (PFA) from the Power plant Nováky (Slovakia) is analyzed for its potential use in the production of building ceramics. Three materials are used to prepare the mixtures: illite-rich clay (IRC), PFA and IRC fired at 1000 °C (called grog). The mixtures contain 60 % of IRC and 40 % of a non-plastic compound (grog or PFA). A various amount of the grog is replaced by PFA and the effect of this substitution is studied. Thermal analyses (TGA, DTA, thermodilatometry, and dynamical thermomechanical analysis) are used to analyze the processes occurring during firing. The flexural strength and thermal conductivity are determined at room temperature after firing in the temperature interval from 800 to 1100 °C. The results show that an addition of PFA slightly decreases the flexural strength. The thermal conductivity and porosity are practically unaffected by the presence of PFA. Thus, PFA from the Power plant Nováky is a convenient non-plastic component for manufacturing building ceramics.

  14. Effects of terbium sulfide addition on magnetic properties, microstructure and thermal stability of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang-Bin, Li; Shuo, Liu; Xue-Jing, Cao; Bei-Bei, Zhou; Ling, Chen; A-Ru, Yan; Gao-Lin, Yan

    2016-07-01

    To increase coercivity and thermal stability of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets for high-temperature applications, a novel terbium sulfide powder is added into (Pr0.25Nd0.75)30.6Cu0.15FebalB1 (wt.%) basic magnets. The effects of the addition of terbium sulfide on magnetic properties, microstructure, and thermal stability of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets are investigated. The experimental results show that by adding 3 wt.% Tb2S3, the coercivity of the magnet is remarkably increased by about 54% without a considerable reduction in remanence and maximum energy product. By means of the electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) technology, it is observed that Tb is mainly present in the outer region of 2:14:1 matrix grains and forms a well-developed Tb-shell phase, resulting in enhancement of H A, which accounts for the coercivity enhancement. Moreover, compared with Tb2S3-free magnets, the reversible temperature coefficients of remanence (α) and coercivity (β) and the irreversible flux loss of magnetic flow (h irr) values of Tb2S3-added magnets are improved, indicating that the thermal stability of the magnets is also effectively improved. Project supported by the Science Funds from the Ministry of Science and Technology, China (Grant Nos. 2014DFB50130 and 2011CB612304) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51172168 and 51072139).

  15. Effect of Si additions on thermal stability and the phase transition sequence of sputtered amorphous alumina thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Bolvardi, H.; Baben, M. to; Nahif, F.; Music, D. Schnabel, V.; Shaha, K. P.; Mráz, S.; Schneider, J. M.; Bednarcik, J.; Michalikova, J.

    2015-01-14

    Si-alloyed amorphous alumina coatings having a silicon concentration of 0 to 2.7 at. % were deposited by combinatorial reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of Al and Al-Si (90-10 at. %) split segments in Ar/O{sub 2} atmosphere. The effect of Si alloying on thermal stability of the as-deposited amorphous alumina thin films and the phase formation sequence was evaluated by using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability window of the amorphous phase containing 2.7 at. % of Si was increased by more than 100 °C compared to that of the unalloyed phase. A similar retarding effect of Si alloying was also observed for the α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation temperature, which increased by more than 120 °C. While for the latter retardation, the evidence for the presence of SiO{sub 2} at the grain boundaries was presented previously, this obviously cannot explain the stability enhancement reported here for the amorphous phase. Based on density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments for amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with and without Si incorporation, we suggest that the experimentally identified enhanced thermal stability of amorphous alumina with addition of Si is due to the formation of shorter and stronger Si–O bonds as compared to Al–O bonds.

  16. Removing and recovering mercury from off-gases of thermal treatment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.L.; Broderick, T.E.; Stewart, R.M.

    1998-12-31

    ADA Technologies is developing a sorbent-based process that recovers mercury from off-gases produced during the thermal treatment of wastes found in the DOE complex. This process regenerates the sorbent on-line and recovers liquid, elemental mercury either for ultimate disposal if radioactivity is present or for commercial distillation and re-use if no radioactivity is present. Because of these attributes of the process, ADA Technologies has adopted the name Mercu-RE to describe its process. The authors have completed proof-of-principle field tests of this technology and are currently gathering engineering design data for scaling up the process. In both the field tests and laboratory tests, the process removes over 99% of the mercury from flue gases at temperatures up to 350 F and with up to 10% water vapor and 200 ppm HCl. The sorbent has always been regenerable, and the authors have tested up to 124 cycles of sorption and desorption with no loss of sorption capacity. Several physical configurations of the sorbent are possible including a packed bed of sorbent beads, sorbent incorporated on the fibers of a filter bag, and sorbent coating the inside walls of a monolith. For the off gas of thermal treatment units in the DOE environment, the best sorbent configuration is the packed bed. The authors have examined the durability of the sorbent by constantly exposing it to the regeneration temperature of 700 F and found that some sorbent formulations are unstable at these conditions while others are stable. In addition, a 50 ACFM skid is undergoing testing at MSE Technology Applications (Butte, MT) to determine the scale-up rules that will allow the process to be implemented on an operating thermal treatment unit.

  17. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from thermal pre-treatment of waste hydrodesulfurization catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yi-Chieh; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Huang, Hong-Hsin

    2007-09-01

    Despite increasing environmental concerns and stringent limitations on the sulfur content in fuels, many waste hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts containing Co, Mo, Ni and V are generated in the petroleum refining process. To recover valuable metals in the waste HDS catalysts via hydrometallurgy, thermal treatment is usually performed first to remove contaminants (residual oil, carbon and sulfur) present on the surface of catalysts. In this study, the mass partitions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different media (aqueous, particulate and gaseous) were quantified in order to determine the efficiency of three different air pollution control devices, cooling unit, filter and glass cartridge, on PAH removal. An afterburner and two furnace temperatures were used to observe the effect on the PAH contents of the treated residues. Results show that total-PAH content in treated residues decreased with the pyrolysis temperature of the primary furnace, while those generated in flue gases were destroyed by the afterburner at an efficiency of approximately 95%. In addition, the thermal process converts high molecular weight PAHs to low molecular weight PAHs, and the afterburner temperature involved (1200 degrees C) was high enough to prohibit the generation of high molecular weight PAHs (HM-PAHs), leading to the domination of low molecular weight PAHs (LM-PAHs) in flue gases, while treated residues were dominated by HM-PAHs. Finally, information on metal contents and their concentrations in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure in waste HDS catalyst and thermal treated residues are examined as an index of the potential for metal recovery.

  18. Rhodium self-powered neutron detector as a suitable on-line thermal neutron flux monitor in BNCT treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Marcelo E.; Sztejnberg, Manuel L.; Gonzalez, Sara J.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Longhino, Juan M.; Estryk, Guillermo

    2011-12-15

    thermal and mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities derived from measurements performed at the RA-6 were compared and no significant differences were found. Global RA-6-based thermal neutron sensitivity showed agreement with pure thermal neutron sensitivity measurements performed in the RA-3 spectrum. Additionally, the detector response proved nearly unchanged by differences in neutron spectra from real (RA-6 BNCT beam) and ideal (considered for calibration calculations at RA-3) neutron source descriptions. The results confirm that the special design of the Rh SPND can be considered as having a pure thermal response for neutron spectra with epithermal-to-thermal flux ratios up to 12%. In addition, the linear response of the detector to thermal flux allows the use of a mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivity of 1.95 {+-} 0.05 x 10{sup -21} A n{sup -1}{center_dot}cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s. This sensitivity can be used in spectra with up to 21% epithermal-to-thermal flux ratio without significant error due to epithermal neutron and gamma induced effects. The values of the measured fluxes in clinical applications had discrepancies with calculated results that were in the range of -25% to +30%, which shows the importance of a local on-line independent measurement as part of a treatment planning quality control system. Conclusions: The usefulness of the CNEA Rh SPND for the on-line local measurement of thermal neutron flux on BNCT patients has been demonstrated based on an appropriate neutron spectra calibration and clinical applications.

  19. Effect of thermal treatment of bisphenol-A polycarbonate on its photodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Rufus, I.B.; Shah, H.; Hoyle, C.E.

    1993-12-31

    Commercial polycarbonates are often subjected to high temperatures. Hence the effect of thermal treatment of polycarbonate on its photodegradation has been investigated by fluorescence and UV-absorption spectral techniques. Thermal treatment of polycarbonate leads to a structured fluorescence emission around 350 nm. The structural emission arises from a mixture of thermal degradation products formed in the back-bone of polycarbonate. The photolysis of thermal degradation products leads to the formation of photoproducts, but has a relatively marginal effect on the ultimate photostability of polycarbonate.

  20. Macitentan: An important addition to the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Khadka, Anjan; Singh Brashier, Dick B; Tejus, Anantharamu; Sharma, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Macitentan is an orphan drug for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Endothelin-1 (ET-1) plays a critical role of pathophysiology of PAH. Macitentan, a new dual endothelin receptor antagonist, has reportedly improved prognosis of PAH patients by delaying the progression of disease. It prevents the binding of ET-1 to both endothelin A (ETA) and endothelin B (ETB) receptors. Macitentan displays higher efficacy, lesser adverse effects and drug interactions. It has completed phase III trials in 2012 for treatment of PAH and has been tried for ischemic digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis, recurrent glioblastoma and combination with chemotherapeutic agents against various cancers. Safety data for macitentan were obtained primarily from a placebo-controlled clinical study in 742 patients with PAH. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the drug on 13 October 2013. It is an important addition to long-term treatment of PAH.

  1. Macitentan: An important addition to the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Khadka, Anjan; Singh Brashier, Dick B; Tejus, Anantharamu; Sharma, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Macitentan is an orphan drug for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Endothelin-1 (ET-1) plays a critical role of pathophysiology of PAH. Macitentan, a new dual endothelin receptor antagonist, has reportedly improved prognosis of PAH patients by delaying the progression of disease. It prevents the binding of ET-1 to both endothelin A (ETA) and endothelin B (ETB) receptors. Macitentan displays higher efficacy, lesser adverse effects and drug interactions. It has completed phase III trials in 2012 for treatment of PAH and has been tried for ischemic digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis, recurrent glioblastoma and combination with chemotherapeutic agents against various cancers. Safety data for macitentan were obtained primarily from a placebo-controlled clinical study in 742 patients with PAH. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the drug on 13 October 2013. It is an important addition to long-term treatment of PAH. PMID:25709357

  2. Sanitising black water by auto-thermal aerobic digestion (ATAD) combined with ammonia treatment.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Annika C; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a two-step process on the concentration of pathogens and indicator microorganisms in black water (0.9-1% total solids) was studied. The treatment combined auto-thermal aerobic digestion (ATAD) and ammonia sanitisation. First, the temperature of the black water was increased through ATAD and when a targeted temperature was reached (33, 41 and 45.5 °C studied), urea was added to a 0.5% concentration (total ammonia nitrogen >2.9 g L⁻¹). Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. were reduced to non-detectable levels within 3 days following urea addition at temperatures above 40 °C, whereas when urea was added at 33 °C E. coli was still present after 8 days. By adding urea at temperatures of 40 °C and above, a 5 log10 reduction in Enterococcus spp. and a 3 log10 reduction in Ascaris suum eggs was achieved 1 week after the addition. With combined ATAD and ammonia treatment using 0.5% ww urea added at an aerobic digestion temperature >40 °C, black water was sanitised regarding the pathogens studied in 2 weeks of total treatment time. PMID:26675998

  3. Local treatment of coal-water slurries from thermal power plants with the use of coagulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarapulova, G. I.; Logunova, N. I.

    2015-04-01

    The coagulation of coal particles in a coal-water slurry from the Novo-Irkutsk thermal power plant was studied. The advisability of the application of highly basic aluminum hydroxochloride of grade B for the treatment of contaminated water with a concentration of suspended particles of 30 g/dm3 was shown. The granulometric analysis of coal particles was performed. The application of the reagent was revealed to be efficient for the coagulation of both coarse particles and a finely dispersed fraction. Carbonate hardness values of up to 1.5 mmol-equiv/dm3 and pH ≤ 7.8 were shown to be typical for the contaminated water from the fuel supply shop. They were the most optimal parameters for hydrolysis and efficient flocculation and did not require the addition of sodium bicarbonate and flocculants. The process flowsheet of the separate purification of a coal-water slurry was developed for the fuel supply shop. Among the advantages of this purification method are the return of rather highly purified water for thermal power plant needs, and also the production of additional fuel in the form of recovered coal particles. The product was characterized by improved engineering parameters in comparison with the initial fuel, i.e., had a higher calorific value and a lower sulfur content. The purified water corresponded to the normative requirements to the content of residual aluminum. This technology of purification was resource-saving, environmental-friendly, and economically profitable.

  4. Thermal plasma technology for the treatment of wastes: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Gomez, E; Rani, D Amutha; Cheeseman, C R; Deegan, D; Wise, M; Boccaccini, A R

    2009-01-30

    This review describes the current status of waste treatment using thermal plasma technology. A comprehensive analysis of the available scientific and technical literature on waste plasma treatment is presented, including the treatment of a variety of hazardous wastes, such as residues from municipal solid waste incineration, slag and dust from steel production, asbestos-containing wastes, health care wastes and organic liquid wastes. The principles of thermal plasma generation and the technologies available are outlined, together with potential applications for plasma vitrified products. There have been continued advances in the application of plasma technology for waste treatment, and this is now a viable alternative to other potential treatment/disposal options. Regulatory, economic and socio-political drivers are promoting adoption of advanced thermal conversion techniques such as thermal plasma technology and these are expected to become increasingly commercially viable in the future.

  5. Dispersion of Co/CNTs via strong electrostatic adsorption method: Thermal treatment effect

    SciTech Connect

    Akbarzadeh, Omid Abdullah, Bawadi Subbarao, Duvvuri; Zabidi, Noor Asmawati Mohd

    2015-07-22

    The effect of different thermal treatment temperature on the structure of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Co particle dispersion on CNTs support is studied using Strong electrostatic adsorption (SEA) method. The samples tested by N{sub 2}-adsorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). N{sub 2}-adsorption results showed BET surface area increased using thermal treatment and TEM images showed that increasing the thermal treatment temperature lead to flaky CNTs and defects introduced on the outer surface and Co particle dispersion increased.

  6. Dispersion of Co/CNTs via strong electrostatic adsorption method: Thermal treatment effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarzadeh, Omid; Zabidi, Noor Asmawati Mohd; Abdullah, Bawadi; Subbarao, Duvvuri

    2015-07-01

    The effect of different thermal treatment temperature on the structure of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Co particle dispersion on CNTs support is studied using Strong electrostatic adsorption (SEA) method. The samples tested by N2-adsorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). N2-adsorption results showed BET surface area increased using thermal treatment and TEM images showed that increasing the thermal treatment temperature lead to flaky CNTs and defects introduced on the outer surface and Co particle dispersion increased.

  7. The impact of bismuth addition to sequential treatment on Helicobacter pylori eradication: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Basyigit, Sebahat; Kefeli, Ayse; Sapmaz, Ferdane; Yeniova, Abdullah Ozgür; Asilturk, Zeliha; Hokkaomeroglu, Murat; Uzman, Metin; Nazligul, Yasar

    2015-10-25

    The success of the current anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment protocols is reported to decrease by years, and research is needed to strengthen the H. pylori eradication treatment. Sequential treatment (ST), one of the treatment modalities for H. pylori eradication, includes amoxicillin 1 gr b.i.d and proton pump inhibitor b.i.d for first 5 days and then includes clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d, metronidazole 500 mg b.i.d and a proton pump inhibitor b.i.d for remaining 5 days. In this study, we investigated efficacy and tolerability of bismuth addition in to ST. We included patients that underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in which H. pylori infection was diagnosed by histological examination of antral and corporal gastric mucosa biopsy. Participants were randomly administered ST or bismuth containing ST (BST) protocols for the first-line H. pylori eradication therapy. Participants have been tested by urea breath test for eradication success 6 weeks after the completion of treatment. One hundred and fifty patients (93 female, 57 male) were enrolled. There were no significant differences in eradication rates for both intention to treat population (70.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 66.3-74.1% vs. 71.8%, 95% CI: 61.8-81.7%, for ST and BST, respectively, p>0.05) and per protocol population (74.6%, 95% CI: 63.2-85.8% vs. 73.7%, 95% CI: 63.9-83.5% for ST and BST, respectively, p>0.05). Despite the undeniable effect of bismuth, there may be several possible reasons of unsatisfactory eradication success. Drug administration time, coadministration of other drugs, possible H. pylori resistance to bismuth may affect the eradication success. The addition of bismuth subcitrate to ST regimen does not provide significant increase in eradication rates.

  8. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy as additional treatment in deep sternal wound infections – a single center's experience

    PubMed Central

    Bryndza, Magdalena; Chrapusta, Anna; Kobielska, Ewa; Kapelak, Bogusław; Grudzień, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) is one of the most serious complications after cardiac surgery procedures, observed in 5% of patients. Current standard medical therapy for DSWI includes antibiotics, surgical debridement, resuturing or negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Unfortunately, in some cases these methods are insufficient, and additional therapeutic options are needed. Aim To assess the effects and usefulness of additional hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2) in patients with DSWI after cardiac surgery procedures. Material and methods A retrospective analysis of 10 patients after cardiac surgery who developed DSWI in the period 2010–2012 was performed. After 3 months of ineffective conventional therapy including targeted antibiotic, surgical sternal debridement and NPWT, patients were qualified for additional HBO2 therapy. A total of 20 sessions of HBO2 therapy were performed, each 92 minutes long. Results After 4 weeks of HBO2 treatment, 7 patients presented complete wound healing with fibrous scar formation. One patient was qualified for the another cycle of HBO2 therapy with 20 additional sessions, and complete wound healing was observed. In 2 cases, after 5 and 19 sessions, HBO2 was interrupted because of improper qualifications. Conclusions The HBO2 as an additional therapy in DSWI was successful in 80% of cases, and no complications were observed. However, due to the small number of published studies with a small number of patients, randomized, clinical trials are needed to assess the clinical results of HBO2 in DSWI after cardiac surgery procedures. PMID:27785131

  9. Three-dimensional finite element simulations of vertebral body thermal treatment (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Thomas P.; Patel, Samit J.; Morris, Ronit; Hoopes, P. J.; Bergeron, Jeffrey A.; Mahajan, Roop

    2005-04-01

    Lower back pain affects a large group of people worldwide and when in its early stages, has no viable interventional treatment. In order to avoid the eventuality of an invasive surgical procedure, which is further down the Care Pathway, an interventional treatment that is minimally invasive and arrests the patient's pain would be of tremendous clinical benefit. There is a hypothesis that if the basivertebral nerve in the vertebral body is defunctionalized, lower back pain may be lessened. To further investigate creating a means to provide localized thermal therapy, bench and animal studies were planned, but to help select the applicator configuration and placement, numerical modeling studies were undertaken. A 3D finite element model was utilized to predict the electric field pattern and power deposition pattern of radiofrequency (RF) based electrodes. Three types of tissues were modeled: 1) porcine (ex-vivo), ovine (in-vivo preclinical), and 3) human (ex-vivo, in-vivo). Two types of RF devices were simulated: 1) a pair of converging, hollow electrodes, and 2) an in-line pair of spaced-apart electrodes. Temperature distributions over time were plotted using the electric field results and the bioheat equation. Since the thermal and electrical properties of the vertebral bodies of porcine, ovine, and human tissue were not available, measurements were undertaken to capture these data to input into the model. The measurements of electrical and thermal properties of cancellous and cortical vertebral body were made over a range of temperatures. The simulation temperature results agreed with live animal and human cadaver studies. In addition, the lesion shapes predicted in the simulations matched CT and MRI studies done during the chronic ovine study, as well as histology results. In conclusion, the simulations aided in shaping and sizing the RF electrodes, as well as positioning them in the vertebral body structures to assure that the basivertebral nerve was ablated, but

  10. Thermal irritation of teeth during dental treatment procedures

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Su-Jung; Park, Yoon-Jung; Jun, Sang-Ho; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Lee, In-Bog; Cho, Byeong-Hoon; Son, Ho-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    While it is reasonably well known that certain dental procedures increase the temperature of the tooth's surface, of greater interest is their potential damaging effect on the pulp and tooth-supporting tissues. Previous studies have investigated the responses of the pulp, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone to thermal irritation and the temperature at which thermal damage is initiated. There are also many in vitro studies that have measured the temperature increase of the pulp and tooth-supporting tissues during restorative and endodontic procedures. This review article provides an overview of studies measuring temperature increases in tooth structures during several restorative and endodontic procedures, and proposes clinical guidelines for reducing potential thermal hazards to the pulp and supporting tissues. PMID:24010075

  11. Additive Manufacturing of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel: Post-processing Heat Treatment to Achieve Uniform Reproducible Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheruvathur, Sudha; Lass, Eric A.; Campbell, Carelyn E.

    2016-03-01

    17-4 precipitation hardenable (PH) stainless steel is a useful material when a combination of high strength and good corrosion resistance up to about 315°C is required. In the wrought form, this steel has a fully martensitic structure that can be strengthened by precipitation of fine Cu-rich face-centered cubic phase upon aging. When fabricated via additive manufacturing (AM), specifically laser powder-bed fusion, 17-4 PH steel exhibits a dendritic structure containing a substantial fraction of nearly 50% of retained austenite along with body centered cubic/martensite and fine niobium carbides preferentially aligned along interdendritic boundaries. The effect of post-build thermal processing on the material microstructure is studied in comparison to that of conventionally produced wrought 17-4 PH with the intention of creating a more uniform, fully martensitic microstructure. The recommended stress relief heat treatment currently employed in industry for post-processing of AM 17-4 PH steel is found to have little effect on the as-built dendritic microstructure. It is found that, by implementing the recommended homogenization heat treatment regimen of Aerospace Materials Specification 5355 for CB7Cu-1, a casting alloy analog to 17-4 PH, the dendritic solidification structure is eliminated, resulting in a microstructure containing about 90% martensite with 10% retained austenite.

  12. Addition of subunit γ, K⁺ ions, and lipid restores the thermal stability of solubilized Na,K-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Juliana Sakamoto; Rigos, Carolina Fortes; Ciancaglini, Pietro

    2013-02-15

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was applied to ascertain the effect caused by K⁺, Na⁺, ATP, detergent, DPPC, DPPE, and subunit γ on the thermostability of Na,K-ATPase. The enthalpy variation (ΔH) for the thermal denaturation of the membrane-bound is twice the ΔH value obtained for solubilized Na,K-ATPase. Denaturation occurs in five steps for membrane-bound against three steps for the solubilized enzyme, therefore a multi-step unfolding process. In the presence of Na⁺, the melting temperature is 61.6°C, and the ΔH is lower as compared with the ΔH obtained in the presence or in the absence of K⁺. Addition of ATP does not alter the transition temperatures significantly, but the shape of the curve is modified. Subunit γ probably stabilizes Na,K-ATPase in the beginning of thermal unfolding, and different amounts of detergents in the solubilized sample change the protein stability. Reconstitution of Na,K-ATPase into a liposome shows that lipids exert a protector effect. These results reveal differences on the thermostability depending on the conformation of Na,K-ATPase. They are relevant because it allows a comparison with future studies, e.g. how the composition of the membrane interferes on the stability of Na, K-ATPase, elucidating the importance of the lipid type contained in cell membrane.

  13. Investigation into the effect of some additives on the mechanical strength, quality and thermal conductivity of clay bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaid, Adnan I. O.; Qandil, A.; Qattous, M. A. A.

    2016-08-01

    It was repeatedly reported that the clay bricks industry in Jordan is facing both weak mechanical strength and poor quality which caused marketing problems where it is expected to serve the increasing demand of housing in the country especially after the political crises in the neighboring countries Iraq and Syria. It is therefore anticipated that improvement of the mechanical strength and quality of the produced clay evaluation of the brick industry in Jordan is worth investigating. In this paper, theoretical and experimental investigation obtained from field visits to the factories producing clay bricks were carried out. Furthermore, the effect of using some additives from locally available materials namely: Battn El-Ghoul Clay, Suweileh sand and Olive extracts on the mechanical strength, thermal conductivity and surface quality of the produced bricks is investigated and discussed. The experimental results indicated that thermal conductivity, color and durability were all enhanced and the ultimate compressive strength was reduced but remained higher than the acceptable value for brickwork.

  14. The Facial Aesthetic index: An additional tool for assessing treatment need

    PubMed Central

    Sundareswaran, Shobha; Ramakrishnan, Ranjith

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Facial Aesthetics, a major consideration in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, may not be judged correctly and completely by simply analyzing dental occlusion or osseous structures. Despite this importance, there is no index to guarantee availability of treatment or prioritize patients based on their soft tissue treatment needs. Individuals having well-aligned teeth but unaesthetic convex profiles do not get included for treatment as per current malocclusion indices. The aim of this investigation is to develop an aesthetic index based on facial profiles which could be used as an additional tool with malocclusion indices. Materials and Methods: A chart showing typical facial profile changes due to underlying malocclusions was generated by soft tissue manipulations of standardized profile photographs of a well-balanced male and female face. A panel of 62 orthodontists judged the profile photographs of 100 patients with different soft tissue patterns for assessing profile variations and treatment need. The index was later tested in a cross-section of school population. Statistical analysis was done using “irr” package of R environment version 2.15.1. Results: The index exhibited very good reliability in determining profile variations (Fleiss kappa 0.866, P < 0.001), excellent reproducibility (kappa 0.9078), high sensitivity, and specificity (95.7%). Testing in population yielded excellent agreement among orthodontists (kappa 0.9286). Conclusions: A new Facial Aesthetic index, based on patient's soft tissue profile requirements is proposed, which can complement existing indices to ensure treatment to those in need. PMID:27127752

  15. Additive effect of ketoconazole and octreotide in the treatment of severe adrenocorticotropin-dependent hypercortisolism.

    PubMed

    Vignati, F; Loli, P

    1996-08-01

    Over the last few years ketoconazole and octreotide have been employed in the treatment of pituitary-dependent or ectopic Cushing's syndrome. In four patients (two men and two women, aged 25-64 yr) with severe ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism in whom medical treatment with ketoconazole showed limited effectiveness and/or tolerability, we tried the association with octreotide. In all patients ketoconazole (200-1000 mg) induced a marked decrease in urinary free cortisol (UFC) excretion, but normalization could not be achieved. After ketoconazole discontinuation, three patients received octreotide alone (300-1500 micrograms/day, sc). This drug caused a dramatic decrease in UFC excretion, although not normalization; in all patients, escape from treatment occurred. Combined treatment was carried out for 10-180 days. Urinary cortisol excretion normalized and remained steadily within normal limits in three of four patients in whom normal UFC excretion had never been attained with both single drug regimens; in the fourth patient, UFC excretion decreased to levels lower than those achieved with ketoconazole or octreotide alone. The association with octreotide allowed a reduction in the daily dose of ketoconazole in three patients. Consistent with the steady reduction of cortisol production, a striking clinical improvement occurred in all patients after starting combined treatment. The normalization of UFC in three of four patients treated with both agents suggests that this approach may be useful in the long term treatment of severe forms of hypercortisolism of both pituitary and ectopic origin. In contrast to the limited effectiveness of each drug taken singularly at the same or higher doses, the association of the two drugs had an additive effect in the attainment of normal urinary cortisol excretion.

  16. Additive Effect of Neutralizing Antibody and Antiviral Drug Treatment in Preventing Virus Escape and Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Peter; Senn, Beatrice M.; Klenerman, Paul; Kalinke, Ulrich; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    2000-01-01

    Poorly cytopathic or noncytopathic viruses can escape immune surveillance and establish a chronic infection. Here we exploited the strategy of combining antiviral drug treatment with the induction of a neutralizing antibody response to avoid the appearance of neutralization-resistant virus variants. Despite the fact that H25 immunoglobulin transgenic mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus mounted an early neutralizing antibody response, the virus escaped from neutralization and persisted. After ribavirin treatment of H25 transgenic mice, the appearance of neutralization-resistant virus was prevented and virus was cleared. Thus, the combination of virus-neutralizing antibodies and chemotherapy efficiently controlled the infection, whereas each defense line alone did not. Similar additive effects may be unexpectedly efficient and beneficial in humans after infections with persistent viruses such as hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus and possibly human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:10846070

  17. The Role of Home Practice in the Thermal Biofeedback Treatment of Migraine Headache.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Janel; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined role of home practice of hand warming in thermal biofeedback treatment of migraine headache. Seventeen female migraine sufferers were assigned to thermal biofeedback with or without regular home practice. Subjects on home practice group experienced decreases in headache activity and medication intake that were both statistically and…

  18. EFFECTS OF THERMAL TREATMENTS ON THE CHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of experiments was completed to investigate abiotic degradation and reaction product formation of trichloroethylene (TCE) when heated. A quartz-tube apparatus was used to study short residence time and high temperature conditions that are thought to occur during thermal ...

  19. Treatment of a dilute waste oil emulsion by chemical addition (CA)-dissolved air flotation (DAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, B.E.; Carriere, P.; Zhu, X.; Lorkowski, T.

    1995-12-31

    Treatment of wastewater from aluminum rolling mill operations is an inherent problem in the aluminum fabrication industry. In this study, wastewater from the manufacturer`s processes was transferred to two holding ponds having a total capacity of about 5 million gallons and a detention time of about 10 days. In the holding ponds, free oil was allowed to rise to the surface where it was periodically removed. Wastewater from the holding ponds was withdrawn from about a depth of 9 ft. and used as influent to a variety of technologies. In this paper, results from the chemical addition (CA)-dissolved air flotation (DAF) portion of the treatability study are presented.

  20. 5-HMF and carbohydrates content in stingless bee honey by CE before and after thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Biluca, Fabíola C; Della Betta, Fabiana; de Oliveira, Gabriela Pirassol; Pereira, Lais Morilla; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Fett, Roseane

    2014-09-15

    This study aimed to assess 5-hydroximethylfurfural and carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, and sucrose) in 13 stingless bee honey samples before and after thermal treatment using a capillary electrophoresis method. The methods were validated for the parameters of linearity, matrix effects, precision, and accuracy. A factorial design was implemented to determine optimal thermal treatment conditions and then verify the postprocedural 5-HMF formation, but once 5-HMF were thermal treatment, Apis mellifera honey presented higher 5-HMF content than stingless bee honey. Results suggest that a high temperature related to briefer thermal treatment could be an efficient way to extend shelf life without affecting 5-HMF content in stingless bee honey.

  1. Performance of basaltic dust issued from an asphaltic plant as a flocculant additive for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ramírez Zamora, R M; Chávez Mejia, A; Domínguez Mora, R; Durán Moreno, A

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of using basaltic dust as a flocculant additive or coagulant aid for wastewater treatment was assessed in this research. The experimental study was divided into two stages: 1) physicochemical characterisation of the basaltic dust by applying standardised techniques, and 2) evaluation of this material as flocculant additive for the coagulation-flocculation of wastewater treated for reuse. Coagulation-flocculation experiments were carried out in the laboratory with a mixture of industrial and municipal wastewater samples collected from two points of the final discharge of the Mexico City sewerage system. Aluminium sulphate and lime were used as coagulants and the basaltic dust as flocculant additive, by applying the jar-test technique. The results of the corrosivity, reactivity, explosiveness, toxicity, inflammability and biological risk tests indicated that this material is classified as a non-hazardous waste (according to the Mexican legislation, NOM-052-ECOL-1993). The density, oxide content and particle size values of basaltic dust were similar to those reported for the flocculant additive denominated activated silica. The jar test results showed a positive effect of basaltic dust over the effluent and sludge qualities, to the extent that coagulant doses can be reduced 30% (from 150 mg/L to 110 mg/L of Al2(SO4)3).

  2. 40 CFR 141.711 - Filtered system additional Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment. Bin 2 1-log treatment 1.5-log treatment 1-log treatment (1) Bin 3 2-log treatment 2.5-log treatment 2-log treatment (2) Bin 4 2.5-log treatment 3-log treatment 2.5-log treatment (3) 1 As determined by the State such that the total Cryptosporidium removal and inactivation is at least 4.0-log. 2...

  3. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

  4. Effect of thermal treatment on apatite-forming ability of NaOH-treated tantalum metal.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, T; Kim, H M; Kokubo, T; Miyaji, F; Kato, H; Nakamura, T

    2001-08-01

    The prerequisite for an artificial material to bond to living bone is the formation of bonelike apatite on its surface in the body. This apatite can be reproduced on its surface even in an acellular simulated body fluid with ion concentrations nearly equal to those of the human blood plasma. The present authors previously showed that the tantalum metal subjected to a NaOH treatment to form a sodium tantalate hydrogel layer on its surface forms the bonelike apatite on its surface in SBF in a short period. The gel layer as-formed on the metal is, however, not resistant against abrasion, and hence thus-treated metal is not useful for clinical applications. In the present study, effects of thermal treatment on the mechanical properties and apatite-forming ability of the NaOH-treated tantalum metal were investigated. The sodium tantalate gel on the NaOH-treated tantalum was dehydrated to convert into amorphous sodium tantalate by a thermal treatment at 300 degrees C in air environment and into crystalline sodium tantalates by the thermal treatment at 500 degrees C. Resistivity of the gel layer against both peeling-off and scratching was significantly improved by the thermal treatment at 300 degrees C. The high apatite-forming ability of the sodium tantalate hydrogel was a little decreased by the thermal treatment at 300 degrees C, but appreciably decreased by the thermal treatment at 500 degrees C. It is believed that the tantalum metal subjected to the 0.5 M-NaOH treatment and the subsequent thermal treatment at 300 degrees C is useful as implants in dental and orthopaedic fields, since it shows high bioactivity as well as high fracture toughness.

  5. Nitrification in lake sediment with addition of drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Liu, Juanfeng; Wang, Zhixin; Pei, Yuansheng

    2014-06-01

    Drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs), non-hazardous by-products generated during potable water production, can effectively reduce the lake internal phosphorus (P) loading and improve water quality in lakes. It stands to reason that special attention regarding the beneficial reuse of WTRs should be given not only to the effectiveness of P pollution control, but also to the effects on the migration and transformation of other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen (N)). In this work, based on laboratory enrichment tests, the effects of WTRs addition on nitrification in lake sediment were investigated using batch tests, fluorescence in situ hybridization, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and phylogenetic analysis techniques. The results indicated that WTRs addition had minor effects on the morphologies of AOB and NOB; however, the addition slightly enhanced the sediment nitrification potential from 12.8 to 13.2 μg-N g(-1)-dry sample h(-1) and also increased the ammonia oxidation bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) abundances, particularly the AOB abundances (P < 0.05), which increased from 1.11 × 10(8) to 1.31 × 10(8) copies g(-1)-dry sample. Moreover, WTRs addition was beneficial to the enrichment of Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira multiformis and promoted the emergence of a new Nitrospira cluster, causing the increase in AOB and NOB diversities. Further analysis showed that the variations of nitrification in lake sediment after WTRs addition were primarily due to the decrease of bioavailable P, the introduction of new nitrifiers and the increase of favorable carriers for microorganism attachment in sediments. Overall, these results suggested that WTRs reuse for the control of lake internal P loading would also lead to conditions that are beneficial to nitrification.

  6. Amorphization and thermal stability of aluminum-based nanoparticles prepared from the rapid cooling of nanodroplets: effect of iron addition.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shifang; Li, Xiaofan; Deng, Huiqiu; Deng, Lei; Hu, Wangyu

    2015-03-01

    Despite an intensive investigation on bimetallic nanoparticles, little attention has been paid to their amorphization in the past few decades. The study of amorphization on a nanoscale is of considerable significance for the preparation of amorphous nanoparticles and bulk metallic glass. Herein, we pursue the amorphization process of Al-based nanoparticles with classic molecular dynamics simulations and local structural analysis techniques. By a comparative study of the amorphization of pure Al and Fe-doped Al-based nanodroplets in the course of rapid cooling, we find that Fe addition plays a very important role in the vitrification of Al-based nanodroplets. Owing to the subsurface segregated Fe atoms with their nearest neighbors tending to form relatively stable icosahedral (ICO) clusters, the Fe-centred cluster network near the surface effectively suppresses the crystallization of droplets from surface nucleation and growth as the concentration of Fe attains a certain value. The glass formation ability of nanodroplets is suggested to be enhanced by the high intrinsic inner pressure as a result of small size and surface tension, combined with the dopant-inhibited surface nucleation. In addition, the effect of the size and the added concentration of nanoparticles on amorphization and the thermal stability of the amorphous nanoparticles are discussed. Our findings reveal the amorphization mechanism in Fe-doped Al-based nanoparticles and provide a theoretical guidance for the design of amorphous materials.

  7. Low Conductive Thermal Barrier Coatings Produced by Ion Beam Assisted EB-PVD with Controlled Porosity, Microstructure Refinement and Alloying Additions for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Douglas E.; Singh, Jogender

    2005-01-01

    Various advanced Hafnia-based thermal barrier coatings (TBC) were applied on nickel-based superalloy coupons by electron beam physical vapor deposition. In addition, microstructural modifications to the coating material were made in an effort to reduce the thermal conductivity of the coating materials. Various processing parameters and coating system modifications were made in order to deposit the alloyed TBC with the desired microstructure and thus coating performance, some of which include applying coatings at substrate temperatures of 1150 C on both PtAl and CoNiCrAlY bond coated samples, as well as using 8YSZ as a bond layer. In addition, various characterization techniques including thermal cyclic tests, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity measurements were performed. Although the coating microstructure was never fully optimized due to funding being cut short, significant reductions in thermal conductivity were accomplished through both chemistry changes (composition) and microstructural modifications.

  8. Controlled release properties of Chitosan encapsulated volatile Citronella Oil microcapsules by thermal treatments.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Wen-Chuan; Chang, Chih-Pong; Gao, Ying-Lin

    2006-12-01

    This research uses modified orifice method to prepare the O/W type Chitosan encapsulated volatile Citronella Oil microcapsules. In this article, we investigated the forming condition of microcapsules and the influence to sustained release effect of volatile Citronella Oil by applying thermal pretreatment to microcapsules. The results suggest that the forming of microcapsules should be processed under the fundamental conditions of: (1) the concentration of Chitosan is at least 0.2wt%, (2) NaOH is greater than 0.1wt%, and (3) with the additive of coconut oil as natural surfactant, so that we could obtain final product of microcapsules with better formation and dispersion. The changes in concentration of Chitosan will affect the encapsulation efficiency of the volatile Citronella Oil. When the concentrations of Chitosan are 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%, the encapsulation efficiencies are 98.2%, 95.8% and 94.7%, respectively. The particle size of Chitosan microcapsules would decrease as the emulsification stirring speed increases. When the stirring speeds are 400 rpm, 800 rpm, and 1500 rpm, the average particle sizes of microcapsules produced are 225+/-24 microm, 131+/-20 microm, and 11+/-3 microm, respectively. If the microcapsules were thermal pretreated at 80 degrees C, the structure of Chitosan wall membrane would shrink and thus achieve the effect of sustained release. The sustaining effect would increase along with treatment time increases.

  9. Laboratory study of non-aqueous phase liquid and water co-boiling during thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, C; Mumford, K G; Kueper, B H

    2014-08-01

    In situ thermal treatment technologies, such as electrical resistance heating and thermal conductive heating, use subsurface temperature measurements in addition to the analysis of soil and groundwater samples to monitor remediation performance. One potential indication of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) removal is an increase in temperature following observations of a co-boiling plateau, during which subsurface temperatures remain constant as NAPL and water co-boil. However, observed co-boiling temperatures can be affected by the composition of the NAPL and the proximity of the NAPL to the temperature measurement location. Results of laboratory heating experiments using single-component and multi-component NAPLs showed that local-scale temperature measurements can be mistakenly interpreted as an indication of the end of NAPL-water co-boiling, and that significant NAPL saturations (1% to 9%) remain despite observed increases in temperature. Furthermore, co-boiling of multi-component NAPL results in gradually increasing temperature, rather than a co-boiling plateau. Measurements of gas production can serve as a complementary metric for assessing NAPL removal by providing a larger-scale measurement integrated over multiple smaller-scale NAPL locations. Measurements of the composition of the NAPL condensate can provide ISTT operators with information regarding the progress of NAPL removal for multi-component sources.

  10. Thermal treatment for chlorine removal from coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Muchmore, C.B.; Hesketh, H.E.; Chen, Han Lin

    1992-12-31

    It was the goal of this research to provide the technical basis for development of a process to remove chlorine from coal prior to combustion, based on a thermal treatment process. Reaction rate constants and activation energy have been determined, and energy and mass balances performed. Substitution of a synthetic flue gas (7% 0{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 81% N{sub 2}) for nitrogen in the tube furnace resulted in at least equivalent chlorine removal (85.5%) compared to nitrogen. The fluidized bed dechlorination system modifications have resulted in a steady increase in performance, the most recent run providing 64% reduction in chlorine concentration. Addition of supplemental heat to the column should permit attainment of the slightly higher temperatures required to attain over 80% removal of the chlorine. Calcium chloride by-product of 67% purity has been produced. A bench scale catenary grid concentrator with supplemental heating coils and limited insulation is capable of concentrating CaCl{sub 2} solution up to essentially 40%, with no sign of scale or plugging. Further development of the process should include a thorough evaluation of the use of combustion gases to serve as the fluidizing medium and to provide the energy for the thermal dechlorination process.

  11. Addition of meloxicam to the treatment of clinical mastitis improves subsequent reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    McDougall, S; Abbeloos, E; Piepers, S; Rao, A S; Astiz, S; van Werven, T; Statham, J; Pérez-Villalobos, N

    2016-03-01

    A blinded, negative controlled, randomized intervention study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that addition of meloxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to antimicrobial treatment of mild to moderate clinical mastitis would improve fertility and reduce the risk of removal from the herd. Cows (n=509) from 61 herds in 8 regions (sites) in 6 European countries were enrolled. Following herd-owner diagnosis of mild to moderate clinical mastitis within the first 120 d of lactation in a single gland, the rectal temperature, milk appearance, and California Mastitis Test score were assessed. Cows were randomly assigned within each site to be treated either with meloxicam or a placebo (control). All cows were additionally treated with 1 to 4 intramammary infusions of cephalexin and kanamycin at 24-h intervals. Prior to treatment and at 14 and 21 d posttreatment, milk samples were collected for bacteriology and somatic cell count. Cows were bred by artificial insemination and pregnancy status was subsequently defined. General estimating equations were used to determine the effect of treatment (meloxicam versus control) on bacteriological cure, somatic cell count, the probability of being inseminated by 21 d after the voluntary waiting period, the probability of conception to first artificial insemination, the number of artificial insemination/conception, the probability of pregnancy by 120 or 200 d postcalving, and the risk of removal by 300 d after treatment. Cox's proportional hazards models were used to test the effect of treatment on the calving to first insemination and calving to conception intervals. Groups did not differ in terms of age, clot score, California Mastitis Test score, rectal temperature, number of antimicrobial treatments given or bacteria present at the time of enrollment, but cows treated with meloxicam had greater days in milk at enrollment. Cows treated with meloxicam had a higher bacteriological cure proportion than those treated with

  12. Addition of meloxicam to the treatment of clinical mastitis improves subsequent reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    McDougall, S; Abbeloos, E; Piepers, S; Rao, A S; Astiz, S; van Werven, T; Statham, J; Pérez-Villalobos, N

    2016-03-01

    A blinded, negative controlled, randomized intervention study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that addition of meloxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to antimicrobial treatment of mild to moderate clinical mastitis would improve fertility and reduce the risk of removal from the herd. Cows (n=509) from 61 herds in 8 regions (sites) in 6 European countries were enrolled. Following herd-owner diagnosis of mild to moderate clinical mastitis within the first 120 d of lactation in a single gland, the rectal temperature, milk appearance, and California Mastitis Test score were assessed. Cows were randomly assigned within each site to be treated either with meloxicam or a placebo (control). All cows were additionally treated with 1 to 4 intramammary infusions of cephalexin and kanamycin at 24-h intervals. Prior to treatment and at 14 and 21 d posttreatment, milk samples were collected for bacteriology and somatic cell count. Cows were bred by artificial insemination and pregnancy status was subsequently defined. General estimating equations were used to determine the effect of treatment (meloxicam versus control) on bacteriological cure, somatic cell count, the probability of being inseminated by 21 d after the voluntary waiting period, the probability of conception to first artificial insemination, the number of artificial insemination/conception, the probability of pregnancy by 120 or 200 d postcalving, and the risk of removal by 300 d after treatment. Cox's proportional hazards models were used to test the effect of treatment on the calving to first insemination and calving to conception intervals. Groups did not differ in terms of age, clot score, California Mastitis Test score, rectal temperature, number of antimicrobial treatments given or bacteria present at the time of enrollment, but cows treated with meloxicam had greater days in milk at enrollment. Cows treated with meloxicam had a higher bacteriological cure proportion than those treated with

  13. Physical and sensory characteristics of marinated broiler drumsticks treated with lactoperoxidase system and thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Tan, F J; Ockerman, H W

    2006-06-01

    1. The lactoperoxidase system (LPS) and thermal treatments have been shown to inactivate some micro-organisms in foods. However, further studies are needed to evaluate whether these treatments influenced the physical and sensory characteristics of treated samples. 2. A solution that contained 1% acetic acid and 3% salt with pH adjusted to 4 was developed as a standard marinade. The LPS consisting of 1 microg/ml lactoperoxidase (LP), 5.9 mM potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) and 2.5 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was added to the marinade for the LPS treatments. 3. In the thermal treatment, samples were heated with the marinade solution at 58 degrees C for 2 min and then marinated at 4 degrees C for 18 h, while the non-thermal treatments were marinated at 4 degrees C for 18 h. 4. For sensory evaluation, flavouring agents including 0.3% black pepper and 0.15% garlic powder were added to the marinade. For physical evaluation, no flavouring agents were added. 5. The results showed that combined LPS and thermal treatment did not impair the physical or sensory qualities of the samples. 6. In conclusion, marinated broiler drumsticks treated with LPS and thermal treatment had acceptable physical and sensory qualities.

  14. Physical and sensory characteristics of marinated broiler drumsticks treated with lactoperoxidase system and thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Tan, F J; Ockerman, H W

    2006-06-01

    1. The lactoperoxidase system (LPS) and thermal treatments have been shown to inactivate some micro-organisms in foods. However, further studies are needed to evaluate whether these treatments influenced the physical and sensory characteristics of treated samples. 2. A solution that contained 1% acetic acid and 3% salt with pH adjusted to 4 was developed as a standard marinade. The LPS consisting of 1 microg/ml lactoperoxidase (LP), 5.9 mM potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) and 2.5 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was added to the marinade for the LPS treatments. 3. In the thermal treatment, samples were heated with the marinade solution at 58 degrees C for 2 min and then marinated at 4 degrees C for 18 h, while the non-thermal treatments were marinated at 4 degrees C for 18 h. 4. For sensory evaluation, flavouring agents including 0.3% black pepper and 0.15% garlic powder were added to the marinade. For physical evaluation, no flavouring agents were added. 5. The results showed that combined LPS and thermal treatment did not impair the physical or sensory qualities of the samples. 6. In conclusion, marinated broiler drumsticks treated with LPS and thermal treatment had acceptable physical and sensory qualities. PMID:16787851

  15. Inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores using various combinations of ultraviolet treatment with addition of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiqing; Zhou, Lingling; Zhang, Yongji; Tan, Chaoqun

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at comparing the inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores by various combinations of UV treatment and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) addition. The combinations included sequential (UV-H2O2, H2O2-UV) and simultaneous (UV/H2O2) processes. Results showed that B. subtilis spores achieved a certain inactivation effect through UV treatment. However, hardly any inactivation effect by H2O2 alone was observed. H2O2 had a significant synergetic effect when combined with UV treatment, while high irradiance and H2O2 concentration both favored the reaction. When treated with 0.60 mm H2O2 and 113.0 μW/cm(2) UV irradiance for 6 min, the simultaneous UV/H2O2 treatment showed significantly improved disinfection effect (4.13 log) compared to that of UV-H2O2 (3.03 log) and H2O2-UV (2.88 log). The relationship between the inactivation effect and the exposure time followed a typical pseudo-first-order kinetics model. The pseudo-first-order rate constants were 0.478, 0.447 and 0.634 min(-1), for the UV-H2O2, H2O2-UV and UV/H2O2 processes, respectively, further confirming the optimal disinfection effect of the UV/H2O2 process. The disinfection could be ascribed to the OH radicals, as verified by the level of para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA).

  16. Study of Thermal Fatigue of H13 Die Steel with Various Surface Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Ferguson, W. G.; Paine, I. R.

    Surfaces of die-casting dies are subjected to very severe conditions of cyclical thermal and mechanical load, and chemical and mechanical wear. Dies mostly fail due to a combination of heat checking, erosion, corrosion and soldering. It is conceivable that appropriate surface treatments and coatings have a favourable influence on the temperature dependant performance of the surface of the die. The objective of this study was to examine various surface treatments and coatings. including shot peening, nitriding, nitro-carburizing, laser hardening and remelting, electro-spark alloying (deposition) and plasma spraying, under thermal fatigue conditions. Thermal cycling tests were conducted by alternate dipping of treated samples in an LM24 melt and in water. Results and interpretation are presented in this paper. The best thermal fatigue resistance was shown for a double surface treatment of laser hardening plus electro-spark deposition.

  17. Radon variations during treatment in thermal spas of Lesvos Island (Greece).

    PubMed

    Vogiannis, Efstratios; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios; Louizi, Anna; Halvadakis, C P

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the variations of radon and daughter nuclei during treatment in the thermal spas of Lesvos Island (Greece). For this purpose, in the thermal spas of Lesvos we have measured the radon concentrations of thermal waters, as well as indoor radon, daughter and coarse particle (>500 nm) concentration. Various instruments and procedures were employed for measurements. Radon concentrations of thermal waters were found to lie in the range 10 and 304 Bq l(-1). Concentration peaks both for radon, radon daughter and coarse particle, were found to appear during filling of baths in the treatment process. The doses delivered to the bathers during treatment were in the range of 0.00670 mSv per year to 0.1279 mSv per year, while the doses delivered to personnel were below 20 mSv per year.

  18. The behaviour of Al in MSW incinerator fly ash during thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Chan, C C; Kirk, D W; Marsh, H

    2000-08-28

    Fly ash from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators contains leachable metals, including potentially hazardous heavy metals. The metal content of the fly ash can be reduced by thermal treatment, which vaporizes the volatile metal compounds. After heat treatment of fly ash at 1000 degrees C for 3 h, less metal was able to be leached from the thermally treated ash than from the ash without thermal treatment. Al and Cr were the exceptions. These metals were more soluble in the ash that had been thermally treated. This paper focuses on the leaching behaviour of Al only. Both simple and sequential extraction leaching tests showed that the leachable Al for the heat-treated fly ash is about twice that of the untreated fly ash. The sequential test further revealed that (i) the majority of the leachable Al is associated with Fe-Mn oxides in the fly ash, and (ii) most of the unleachable Al resides in the silicate matrices of the heat-treated and untreated fly ash. Pure chemicals, Al(2)O(3), CaO and CaCl(2), simulating the relevant ingredients in the fly ash, were used for studying their reactions at 1000 degrees C. The aluminum compounds were identified by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Two new chemical phases produced by the thermal treatment were identified; Ca(AlO(2))(2) and 12CaO.7Al(2)O(3). Their formation suggests a mechanism whereby thermal treatment of fly ash would produce more soluble Al.

  19. Microcosm evaluation of bioaugmentation after field-scale thermal treatment of a TCE-contaminated aquifer.

    PubMed

    Friis, Anne Kirketerp; Kofoed, Julie L L; Heron, Gorm; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Bjerg, Poul L

    2007-12-01

    This paper investigates effects of combining thermal and biological remediation, based on laboratory studies of trichloroethene (TCE) degradation. Aquifer material was collected 6 months after terminating a full-scale Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH), when the site had cooled from approximately 100 degrees C to 40 degrees C. The aquifer material was used to construct bioaugmented microcosms amended with the mixed anaerobic dechlorinating culture, KB-1(TM), and an electron donor (5 mM lactate). Microcosms were bioaugmented during cooling at 40, 30, 20, and 10 degrees C, as temperatures continually decreased during laboratory incubation. Redox conditions were generally methanogenic, and electron donors were present to support dechlorination. For microcosms bioaugmented at 10 degrees C and 20 degrees C, dechlorination stalled at cis-dichloroethene (cDCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) 150 days after bioaugmentation. However, within 300 days of incubation ethene was produced in the majority of these microcosms. In contrast, dechlorination was rapid and complete in microcosms bioaugmented at 30 degrees C. Microcosms bioaugmented at 40 degrees C also showed rapid dechlorination, but stalled at cDCE with partial VC and ethene production, even after 150 days of incubation when the temperature had decreased to 10 degrees C. These results suggest that sequential bioremediation of TCE is possible in field-scale thermal treatments after donor addition and bioaugmentation and that the optimal bioaugmentation temperature is approximately 30 degrees C. When biological and thermal remediations are to be applied at the same location, three bioremediation approaches could be considered: (a) treating TCE in perimeter areas outside the source zone at temperatures of approximately 30 degrees C; (b) polishing TCE concentrations in the original source zone during cooling from approximately 30 degrees C to ambient groundwater temperatures; and (c) using bioremediation in downgradient areas

  20. Hot-Pack and 1-MHz Ultrasound Treatments Have an Additive Effect on Muscle Temperature Increase

    PubMed Central

    Draper, David O.; Harris, Shane T.; Schulthies, Shane; Durrant, Earlene; Knight, Kenneth L.; Ricard, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Objective: Therapeutic ultrasound is an effective deep heating modality commonly applied alone or after cooling or heating of the treatment area. The purpose of this study was to examine the tissue temperature rise in the human triceps surae muscle group after ultrasound with prior heating via a silicate gel hot pack. Design and Setting: This study was designed as a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial with repeated measures on two factors (depth and time). Independent variables were temperature of pack (hot and room temperature), depth of measurement (1 cm and 3 cm), and time (beginning, after pack application, and after ultrasound). The dependent variable was tissue temperature. Subjects were assigned to one of two treatment groups: ultrasound preceded by a 15-minute hot pack treatment or ultrasound preceded by a 15-minute application with a silicate gel pack at room temperature. Measurements were taken while subjects were treated in a university training room. Subjects: Twenty-one uninjured male and female college student volunteers were randomly assigned to one of the two pack groups. Measurements: The hot packs were stored in 75°C water. A 1-MHz ultrasound treatment was administered for 10 minutes at an intensity of 1.5 W/cm². Tissue temperature was measured every 30 seconds using 23-gauge hypodermic microprobes interfaced with a telethermometer and inserted 1 and 3 cm below the surface of anesthetized triceps surae muscle. Results: At both tissue depths, there was a 0.8°C greater increase in tissue temperature with hot packs and ultrasound. At 1 cm, ultrasound increased temperature 3.5°C after a 0.5°C rise during the room temperature-pack application, but only 0.6°C after a 3.8°C increase during hot-pack application. At 3 cm, ultrasound increased temperature 3.85°C following a slight (-0.26°C) decrease during the room temperature-pack application and 3.68°C after a 0.74°C increase during hot-pack application. Conclusions: Vigorous increases in deep muscle

  1. Electroluminescence dependence of the simplified green light organic light emitting diodes on in situ thermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Haichuan; Rao, Lu; Li, Weiling; Wei, Bin; Wang, Keke; Xie, Haifen

    2015-12-01

    Simplified multilayer green light phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLED) with the structure of ITO/MoO3(1 nm)/CBP(20 nm)/CBP:Ir(ppy)3 (1 wt%) (15 nm)/TPBi(60 nm)/LiF(0.5 nm)/Al were fabricated via thermal evaporation and in situ thermal treatment (heating the OLED substrates to certain temperatures during the thermal evaporation of the organic materials) was performed. The effect of the in situ thermal treatment on the electroluminescence (EL) performance of the PHOLED was investigated. It was found that the OLED exhibited strong EL dependence on the thermal treatment temperatures, and their current efficiency was improved with the increasing temperature from room temperature (RT) to 69 °C and deteriorated with the further increasing temperature to 105 °C. At the brightness of 1000 cd/m2, over 80% improvement of the current efficiency at the optimal thermal treatment temperature of 69 °C (64 cd/A) was demonstrated compared to that at RT (35 cd/A). Meanwhile, the tremendous influences of the in situ thermal treatment on the morphology of the multilayer CBP/CBP:Ir(ppy)3/TPBi were also observed. At the optimal thermal treatment temperature of 69 °C, the improvement of the EL performance could be ascribed to the enhancement of the electron and hole transporting in the CBP:Ir(ppy)3 emitting layer, which suppressed the triplets self-quenching interactions and promoted the charge balance and excitons formation. The working mechanism responsible for such EL dependence was discussed in detail.

  2. Treatment of enterococcus faecalis bacteria by a helium atmospheric cold plasma brush with oxygen addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Huang, Jun; Du, Ning; Liu, Xiao-Di; Wang, Xing-Quan; Lv, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Guo-Ping; Guo, Li-Hong; Yang, Si-Ze

    2012-07-01

    An atmospheric cold plasma brush suitable for large area and low-temperature plasma-based sterilization is designed. Results demonstrate that the He/O2 plasma more effectively kills Enterococcus faecalis than the pure He plasma. In addition, the sterilization efficiency values of the He/O2 plasma depend on the oxygen fraction in Helium gas. The atmospheric cold plasma brush using a proper ratio of He/O2 (2.5%) reaches the optimum sterilization efficiency. After plasma treatment, the cell structure and morphology changes can be observed by the scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission measurements indicate that reactive species such as O and OH play a significant role in the sterilization process.

  3. Treatment of enterococcus faecalis bacteria by a helium atmospheric cold plasma brush with oxygen addition

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Wei; Huang Jun; Wang Xingquan; Lv Guohua; Zhang Guoping; Du Ning; Liu Xiaodi; Guo Lihong; Yang Size

    2012-07-01

    An atmospheric cold plasma brush suitable for large area and low-temperature plasma-based sterilization is designed. Results demonstrate that the He/O{sub 2} plasma more effectively kills Enterococcus faecalis than the pure He plasma. In addition, the sterilization efficiency values of the He/O{sub 2} plasma depend on the oxygen fraction in Helium gas. The atmospheric cold plasma brush using a proper ratio of He/O{sub 2} (2.5%) reaches the optimum sterilization efficiency. After plasma treatment, the cell structure and morphology changes can be observed by the scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission measurements indicate that reactive species such as O and OH play a significant role in the sterilization process.

  4. Exhaust after-treatment system with in-cylinder addition of unburnt hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Gerald N.; Kesse, Mary L.

    2007-10-30

    Certain exhaust after-treatment devices, at least periodically, require the addition of unburnt hydrocarbons in order to create reductant-rich exhaust conditions. The present disclosure adds unburnt hydrocarbons to exhaust from at least one combustion chamber by positioning, at least partially within a combustion chamber, a mixed-mode fuel injector operable to inject fuel into the combustion chamber in a first spray pattern with a small average angle relative to a centerline of the combustion chamber and a second spray pattern with a large average angle relative to the centerline of the combustion chamber. An amount of fuel is injected in the first spray pattern into a non-combustible environment within the at least one combustion chamber during at least one of an expansion stroke and exhaust stroke. The exhaust with the unburnt amount of fuel is moved into an exhaust passage via an exhaust valve.

  5. Combined ultrasonication and thermal pre-treatment of sewage sludge for increasing methane production.

    PubMed

    Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Tian, Xinbo; Wang, Chong; Lin, Li Leonard; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the combination of ultrasonic and thermal treatment of sewage sludge (SS). The combination involved ultrasonicating a fraction of the sludge and thermal treatment at various temperatures and this resulted in solubilization of proteins and carbohydrates, and so contributing to increased COD solubilization. During the treatment, SCOD, soluble proteins and carbohydrates increased from 760 mg L(-1) to 10,200 mg L(-1), 110 mg L(-1) to 2,900 mg L(-1) and 60 mg L(-1) to 630 mg L(-1), respectively. It was found ultrasonication of only a fraction of the sludge (>20%) followed by thermal treatment led to significant improvement compared to thermal and ULS treatments applied on their own. At 65°C, the kinetic of solubilization was improved and the hyper-thermophilic treatment time could be reduced to a few hours when ultrasonication was used first. A linear correlation (R(2) = 95%) was found between the SCOD obtained after ultrasonication pre-treatment and anaerobic biodegradability. The combined treatment resulted in 20% increase in biogas production during the anaerobic digestion of the pre-treated sludge.

  6. LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL TREATMENT (LT3®) TECHNOLOGY - ROY F. WESTON, INC. - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report evaluates the Low Temperature Thermal Treatment (LT3®) system's ability to remove VOC and SVOC compounds from solid wastes. This evaluation is based on treatment performance and cost data from the Superfund Innovative Technology (SITE) demonstration and fi...

  7. Thermal stress-relief treatments for 2219 aluminum alloy are evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Evaluation of three thermal stress relief treatments for 2219 aluminum alloy in terms of their effect on residual stress, mechanical properties, and stress corrosion resistance. The treatments are post aging and stress relieving fullscale and subscale parts formed in the aged T81 condition, and aging subscale parts formed in the unaged T31 condition.

  8. The relaxation of intrinsic compressive stress in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors by additional N ion implantation treatment with atomic force microscope-Raman stress extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, M.-H.; Chen, C.-H.; Chang, L.-C.; Yang, C.; Kao, S.-C.

    2012-05-01

    Based on the stress extraction and measurement by atomic force microscope-Raman technique with the nanometer level space resolution, the high compressive stress about 550 MPa on the Si active region (OD) is observed for the current complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistor. During the thermal budget for the standard manufacture process of the current CMOS transistor, the difference of thermal expansion coefficients between Si and Shallow Trench Isolation (STI) oxide results in this high compressive stress in Si OD and further degrades the electron carrier mobility seriously. In order to relax this intrinsic processed compressive stress in Si OD and try to recover this performance loss, the novel process is proposed in this work in addition to the usage of one-side pad SiN layer. With this novel process of additional N-ion implantation (IMP) treatment in STI oxide, it can be found that the less compressive stress about 438 MPa in Si OD can be achieved by the smaller difference of thermal expansion coefficients between Si and N-doped SiO2 STI oxide. The formation of Si-N bonding in N-doped SiO2 STI region can be monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra and thermal expansion coefficients for Si, SiO2, and SiN are 2.6 ppm/K, 0.4 ppm/K, and 2.87 ppm/K, respectively. The effective relaxation of intrinsic processed compressive stress in Si OD about 112 MPa (from 550 MPa to 438 MPa) by this proposed additional N IMP treatment contributes ˜14% electron carrier mobility enhancement/recovery. The experimental electrical data agree well with the theoretical piezoelectricity calculation for the strained-Si theory.

  9. Effect of the addition of calcium hydroxide on the hydrothermal-mechanochemical treatment of Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Maki; Endo, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    The effect of Ca(OH)2 addition on optimization of hydrothermal-mechanochemical pretreatment, which combines hydrothermal and milling treatments, was examined. The highest glucose yield of 90% was achieved in the ball-milled specimen previously treated at 170°C in the presence of 20% Ca(OH)2 per substrate weight. The specific surface area of the substrate was closely correlated with glucose yield, and a larger specific surface area was obtained when treating the specimen at 170°C in the presence of Ca(OH)2 compared to treatment at 170°C without Ca(OH)2. Although the Ca(OH)2-treated specimen was relatively unaffected by delignification, the cleavage of the ester bonds between lignin and hemicellulose was confirmed by FT-IR. This suggests that Ca(OH)2 weakens the substrate structure by loosening the bonds between lignin and hemicellulose as the mechanism to increase the specific surface area regardless of the high lignin content, facilitating the fibrillation of fibers with mechanical milling.

  10. Effect of PAC addition on immersed ultrafiltration for the treatment of algal-rich water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Tian, Jiayu; Nan, Jun; Gao, ShanShan; Liang, Heng; Wang, Meilian; Li, Guibai

    2011-02-28

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on the treatment of algal-rich water by immersed ultrafiltration (UF), in terms of permeate quality and membrane fouling. Experiments were performed with a hollow-fiber polyvinyl chloride ultrafiltration membrane at a laboratory scale, 20-25°C and 10 L/(m(2) h) constant permeate flux. UF could achieve an absolute removal of Microcystis aeruginosa cells, but a poor removal of algogenic organic matter (AOM) released into water, contaminants responsible for severe membrane fouling. The addition of 4 g/L PAC to the immersed UF reactor significantly alleviated the development of trans-membrane pressure and enhanced the removal of dissovled organic carbon (by 10.9±1.7%), UV(254) (by 27.1±1.7%), and microcystins (expressed as MC-LR(eq), by 40.8±4.2%). However, PAC had little effect on the rejection of hydrophilic high molecular weight AOM such as carbohydrates and proteins. It was also identified that PAC reduced the concentrations of carbohydrates and proteins in the reactor due to decreased light intensity, as well as the MC-LR(eq) concentration by PAC adsorption. PMID:21216530

  11. A review of wet air oxidation and Thermal Hydrolysis technologies in sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Hii, Kevin; Baroutian, Saeid; Parthasarathy, Raj; Gapes, Daniel J; Eshtiaghi, Nicky

    2014-03-01

    With rapid world population growth and strict environmental regulations, increasingly large volumes of sludge are being produced in today's wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) with limited disposal routes. Sludge treatment has become an essential process in WWTP, representing 50% of operational costs. Sludge destruction and resource recovery technologies are therefore of great ongoing interest. Hydrothermal processing uses unique characteristics of water at elevated temperatures and pressures to deconstruct organic and inorganic components of sludge. It can be broadly categorized into wet oxidation (oxidative) and thermal hydrolysis (non-oxidative). While wet air oxidation (WAO) can be used for the final sludge destruction and also potentially producing industrially useful by-products such as acetic acid, thermal hydrolysis (TH) is mainly used as a pre-treatment method to improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion. This paper reviews current hydrothermal technologies, roles of wet air oxidation and thermal hydrolysis in sludge treatment, and challenges faced by these technologies.

  12. Biochar Addition to Stormwater Treatment Media for Enhanced Removal of Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, P. T.; Jin, J.; Tian, J.; Chiu, P.; Guo, M.

    2015-12-01

    Urban stormwater management systems, such as bioretention facilities, require substantial land area and are often ineffective in removing nitrogen. This project seeks to improve nitrogen removal in bioretention media by modifying the hydraulic and treatment characteristics of the infiltration medium with biochar addition. A commercial wood biochar pyrolyzed from Southern Yellow Pine at 500°C was used. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that biochar addition to a typical bioretention medium (soil-mix: 4% saw dust, 88% sand, 8% clay) increased ammonium sorption at typical stormwater concentrations (2 mg/L) by a factor of 6, total porosity by 16.6%, and water retention at most matric potentials. The effect of the biochar-amended medium on nitrate removal was evaluated in pilot-scale experiments. Side-by-side experimental cells (91 cm dia., 1.2 m deep) were constructed to treat stormwater runoff from a parking lot. The control cell contained 100% soil mix while the biochar cell contained 4% biochar and 96% soil-mix by mass. Treatment media were 76.2 cm in depth and overlain by 5.1 cm of wood mulch in both cells, with a water table maintained at the bottom of the treatment zones. Cells were instrumented with TDR moisture sensors, pressure transducers, and redox and temperature sensors. Two pilot-scale experiments were conducted that included a bromide tracer and nitrate with a hydraulic loading of 5.5cm/h for 24 h in early spring and 36 h in summer. Effluent was continuously sampled for nitrogen compounds during these tests. Tracer tests and TDR measurements showed that biochar increased the average volumetric water content of the vadose zone by 14.7% and the mean residence time by 12.6%. For the spring field test at 14°C, nitrate in the control cell effluent increased by 6.1% but decreased by 43.5% for the biochar cell. For the summer field test at 22°C, 30.6% and 84.7% of influent nitrate was removed in the control and biochar cells, respectively. In the summer

  13. Investigation of thermal, mechanical and magnetic behaviors of the Cu-11%Al alloy with Ag and Mn additions

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, R.A.G.; Paganotti, A.; Gama, S.; Adorno, A.T.; Carvalho, T.M.; Santos, C.M.A.

    2013-01-15

    The investigation of thermal, mechanical and magnetic behaviors of the Cu-11%Al, Cu-11%Al-3%Ag, Cu-11%Al-10%Mn and Cu-11%Al-10%Mn-3%Ag alloys was made using microhardness measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy and magnetic moment change with applied field measurement. The results indicated that the Mn addition changes the phase stability range, the microhardness values and makes undetectable the eutectoid reaction in annealed Cu-11%Al and Cu-11%Al-3%Ag alloys while the presence of Ag does not modify the phase transformation sequence neither microhardness values of the annealed Cu-11%Al and Cu-11%Al-10%Mn alloys, but it increases the magnetic moment of this latter at about 2.7 times and decreases the rates of eutectoid and peritectoid reactions of the former. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microstructure of Cu-Al alloy is modified in the Ag presence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ({alpha} + {gamma}) phase is stabilized down to room temperature when Ag is added to Cu-Al alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-rich phase modifies the magnetic characteristics of Cu-Al-Mn alloy.

  14. Structure and properties of PVDF membrane with PES-C addition via thermally induced phase separation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lishun; Sun, Junfen

    2014-12-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane and PVDF membrane with phenolphthalein polyethersulfone (PES-C) addition were prepared via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) method by using diphenyl carbonate (DPC) and dimethyl acetamide (DMAc) as mixed diluents. The effects of coagulation temperature and pre-evaporation time on structure and properties of membranes were studied. The changes of sewage flux in MBR and the attenuation coefficient of sewage flux were investigated. The resistance distributions of PVDF and PVDF/PES-C membranes were compared by resistance analysis. Membrane composition and structure were characterized by ATR-FTIR, TGA, SEM and AFM. The foulant on membranes was analyzed by FTIR. The contact angle of PVDF/PES-C membrane was lower than that of PVDF membrane. A thinner skin layer and a porous cellular support layer formed in PVDF/PES-C membrane and resulted in a higher porosity and pure water flux. The pure water flux and porosity of PVDF/PES-C membrane increased with rising coagulation temperature and decreased with extending pre-evaporation time. The flux attenuation coefficient, the cake layer resistance and internal fouling resistance of PVDF/PES-C membrane in MBR were smaller than those of PVDF membrane in MBR. The FTIR spectrum of foulant on membrane indicated that the foulant on PVDF/PES-C membrane was mostly composed of protein and polysaccharide, while the foulant on pure PVDF membrane included biopolymer clusters besides protein and polysaccharide.

  15. Performance of thermally activated dolomite for the treatment of Ni and Zn in contaminated neutral drainage.

    PubMed

    Calugaru, Iuliana Laura; Neculita, Carmen Mihaela; Genty, Thomas; Bussière, Bruno; Potvin, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Intensive research is ongoing for developing low-cost and highly efficient materials in metal removal from contaminated effluents. The present study evaluated dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2], both raw and modified by thermal activation (charring), for Ni and Zn treatment in contaminated neutral drainage (CND). Batch adsorption testing (equilibrium and kinetics) were conducted at pH 6, to evaluate the performance of initial vs. modified dolomite, and to assess potential mechanisms of metal removal. Charring of dolomite led to a rigid and porous material, mainly consisting of CaCO3 and MgO, which showed a sorption capacity increased sevenfold for Zn and doubled for Ni, relative to the raw material. In addition, Freundlich model best described the sorption of the both metals by dolomite, whereas the Langmuir model best described their sorption on charred dolomite. Plausible mechanisms of metal removal include cation exchange, surface precipitation and sorption processes, with carbonate ions and magnesium oxides acting as active centers. Based on these results, charred dolomite seems a promising option for the efficient treatment of Ni and Zn in CND. PMID:26897574

  16. Thermal treatment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Jhy; Shih, Shun-I; Chang, Chih-Yuan; Lai, Yi-Chieh; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2008-12-15

    Thermal treatment technology was used to remove polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from heavily contaminated soil. For a soil with an original PCDD/F content of 35,970ng International Toxic Equivalents (I-TEQ)/kg, >99.99% PCDD/F removal efficiency was obtained with a primary furnace at two different treatment temperatures (750 degrees C and 850 degrees C), while a secondary furnace at 1200 degrees C gave >98% decomposition efficiency. The total PCDD/F I-TEQ contents in treated soils at 750 degrees C and 850 degrees C were 1.56ngI-TEQ/kg and 2.15ngI-TEQ/kg, respectively, which were far below the soil pollution standard of Taiwan (1000ngI-TEQ/kg soil). Although air pollution control devices had significant effects on the removal of PCDD/Fs, the total I-TEQ concentrations in the upstream flue gas of PUF cartridge at 750 degrees C and 850 degrees C (2.61ngI-TEQ/Nm(3) and 2.38ngI-TEQ/Nm(3), respectively) were still higher than the stationary emission limit of the Taiwan EPA (0.5ngI-TEQ/Nm(3)). The above results also suggested that additional APCDs, such as activated carbon injection in front of the filter are needed to enhance PCDD/F removal efficiency.

  17. Influence of Sulfur Fertilization on the Antioxidant Activities of Onion Juices Prepared by Thermal Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Eunmi; Surh, Jeonghee

    2016-01-01

    Two onions (Sulfur-1 and Sulfur-4) cultivated with different sulfur applications were thermally processed to elucidate the effects of heat treatment on browning index and antioxidant activity. Sulfur-4 onion had higher sulfur content compared with the Sulfur-1 onion. After thermal processing, browning intensity was different between the two onions juices, with lower values observed for Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that sulfur inhibits the Maillard browning reaction. The total reducing capacity of the juices increased at higher thermal processing temperatures; however, it was also lower in the Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that the heat treatment of onions enhanced their antioxidant activity, but the effect was offset in the Sulfur-4 onion juice presumably due to higher sulfur content. This study indicates that sulfur, a core element for the functionality of onions, can decrease the antioxidant activity of thermally processed onions because of its potential as a Maillard reaction inhibitor. PMID:27390734

  18. Influence of Sulfur Fertilization on the Antioxidant Activities of Onion Juices Prepared by Thermal Treatment.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eunmi; Surh, Jeonghee

    2016-06-01

    Two onions (Sulfur-1 and Sulfur-4) cultivated with different sulfur applications were thermally processed to elucidate the effects of heat treatment on browning index and antioxidant activity. Sulfur-4 onion had higher sulfur content compared with the Sulfur-1 onion. After thermal processing, browning intensity was different between the two onions juices, with lower values observed for Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that sulfur inhibits the Maillard browning reaction. The total reducing capacity of the juices increased at higher thermal processing temperatures; however, it was also lower in the Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that the heat treatment of onions enhanced their antioxidant activity, but the effect was offset in the Sulfur-4 onion juice presumably due to higher sulfur content. This study indicates that sulfur, a core element for the functionality of onions, can decrease the antioxidant activity of thermally processed onions because of its potential as a Maillard reaction inhibitor.

  19. Influence of Sulfur Fertilization on the Antioxidant Activities of Onion Juices Prepared by Thermal Treatment.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eunmi; Surh, Jeonghee

    2016-06-01

    Two onions (Sulfur-1 and Sulfur-4) cultivated with different sulfur applications were thermally processed to elucidate the effects of heat treatment on browning index and antioxidant activity. Sulfur-4 onion had higher sulfur content compared with the Sulfur-1 onion. After thermal processing, browning intensity was different between the two onions juices, with lower values observed for Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that sulfur inhibits the Maillard browning reaction. The total reducing capacity of the juices increased at higher thermal processing temperatures; however, it was also lower in the Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that the heat treatment of onions enhanced their antioxidant activity, but the effect was offset in the Sulfur-4 onion juice presumably due to higher sulfur content. This study indicates that sulfur, a core element for the functionality of onions, can decrease the antioxidant activity of thermally processed onions because of its potential as a Maillard reaction inhibitor. PMID:27390734

  20. Influence of nanoparticle addition on the formation and growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Cu/Sn-Ag-Cu/Cu solder joint during different thermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ai Ting; Tan, Ai Wen; Yusof, Farazila

    2015-06-01

    Nanocomposite lead-free solders are gaining prominence as replacements for conventional lead-free solders such as Sn-Ag-Cu solder in the electronic packaging industry. They are fabricated by adding nanoparticles such as metallic and ceramic particles into conventional lead-free solder. It is reported that the addition of such nanoparticles could strengthen the solder matrix, refine the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed and suppress the growth of IMCs when the joint is subjected to different thermal conditions such as thermal aging and thermal cycling. In this paper, we first review the fundamental studies on the formation and growth of IMCs in lead-free solder joints. Subsequently, we discuss the effect of the addition of nanoparticles on IMC formation and their growth under several thermal conditions. Finally, an outlook on the future growth of research in the fabrication of nanocomposite solder is provided.

  1. Luminescence properties of Yb:Er:KY3F10 nanophosphor and thermal treatment effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Laércio; Linhares, Horácio Marconi da Silva M. D.; Ichikawa, Rodrigo Uchida; Martinez, Luis Gallego; Baldochi, Sonia Licia

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we present the spectroscopic properties of KY3F10 nanocrystals activated with erbium and codoped with ytterbium ions. The most important processes that lead to the erbium upconversion of green and red emissions of Er3+ were identified. A time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy technique was employed to measure the luminescence decays of 4S3/2 and 4F9/2 excited levels of Er3+ and to determine the upconversion processes and the luminescence efficiencies of erbium in the visible. Analysis of the luminescence kinetics in Yb:Er:KY3F10 shows a rapid upconversion (Up1) for the green emission with a time constant of 0.31 μs after pulsed laser excitation at 972 nm for as synthesized nanocrystals, which is faster than the time constant measured for the bulk crystal (23 μs). In addition, it is observed a second upconversion process (non-resonant) (Up2) responsible for the red emission (Er3+), which competes with Up1 process. However, the luminescence efficiency of the green emission (4S3/2) is observed to be very low (1.6%) for the as synthesized nanocrystal (25 °C). Nevertheless, it increases with the nanopowder heat treatment reaching an efficiency of 99% (T = 550 °C) relative to the bulk crystal. Similar luminescence behavior was observed for the 4F9/2 level (Er3+) that emits red emission. X-ray diffraction analysis of nanopowder by Rietveld method reveled that the mean crystallite size remains unchanged (8.3-12.3 nm) after thermal treatments with T ∼ 400 °C, while the 4S3/2 luminescence efficiency strongly increases to 20%. The luminescence dynamics indicates that Er3+ ions distribution plays a determinant role in the luminescence efficiency of green and red emissions of Er3+ besides also the strong influence on the upconversions processes. The observed luminescence effect is caused by the non-uniform Er3+ (and Yb3+) ions distribution due to the nanocrystal grown, which introduces a concentration gradient that increases towards the nanoparticle

  2. Thermal and high magnetic field treatment of materials and associated apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kisner, Roger A.; Wilgen, John B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.; Jaramillo, Roger A.; Mackiewicz-Ludtka, Gail

    2007-01-09

    An apparatus and method for altering characteristics, such as can include structural, magnetic, electrical, optical or acoustical characteristics, of an electrically-conductive workpiece utilizes a magnetic field within which the workpiece is positionable and schemes for thermally treating the workpiece by heating or cooling techniques in conjunction with the generated magnetic field so that the characteristics of the workpiece are effected by both the generated magnetic field and the thermal treatment of the workpiece.

  3. Thermal and high magnetic field treatment of materials and associated apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kisner, Roger A.; Wilgen, John B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.; Jaramillo, Roger A.; Mackiewicz-Ludtka, Gail

    2010-06-29

    An apparatus and method for altering characteristics, such as can include structural, magnetic, electrical, optical or acoustical characteristics, of an electrically-conductive workpiece utilizes a magnetic field within which the workpiece is positionable and schemes for thermally treating the workpiece by heating or cooling techniques in conjunction with the generated magnetic field so that the characteristics of the workpiece are effected by both the generated magnetic field and the thermal treatment of the workpiece.

  4. Overview of water treatment practices in thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlgren, R.M. )

    1989-01-01

    Thermal storage is the technology of storing cooling capability generated as chilled water or ice during times of low electrical energy rates for use at times when electric rates are significantly higher. It is in widespread use for large scale comfort cooling as well as many process applications. The use of the technology is promoted by many electric utilities and is acknowledged to be an important part of load management. Several thousand cooling storage systems are not in operation and hundreds are being added each year. Originally the water sides of these systems wee treated as conventional closed chillers or ignored completely. Many cases have shown this to be a serious mistake. A review of waterside technology and water chemistry needs particular to these systems is summarized and discussed. The differences between these systems and other more widely known cooling technology are discussed. Fundamental technology as well as operating experiences from both successful and troubled systems are presented. Observations and suggested guidelines for the special chemical needs and methods of approaching operations are presented in this paper.

  5. Nanoparticles in treatment of thermal injured rats: Is it safe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, P. S.; Marcato, P. D.; Huber, S. C.; Ferreira, I. R.; de Paula, L. B.; Almeida, A. B. A.; Durán, N.; Torsoni, S.; Seabra, A. B.; Alves, O. L.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether thermal trauma induced oxidative stress altered the balance between oxidant and antioxidant systems in the blood of burn wound rats in the absence and presence of silver nanoparticles and S-nitrosoglutathione, GSNO. Free silver nanoparticles, free GSNO and silver nanoparticles + GSNO had no cytotoxic effects. Under anesthesia, the shaved dorsum of the rats was exposed to 90°C (burn group) water bath. Studied compounds were administered topically immediately and at 28 days after the burn injury, four times a day. Silver nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles + GSNO were no toxic in vitro and in vivo. There were no significant differences in the levels of urea, creatinine, aminotransferases and hematological parameters, in control-burn groups (free silver nanoparticles) and treated-burn groups (free GSNO or silver nanoparticles + GSNO). There were no differences in lipid peroxidation and in the levels of protein carbonyls and glutathione, used as oxidative stress markers. A little inflammatory cell response, papillary dermis vascularization, fibroblasts differentiated into contractile myofibroblasts and the presence of a large amount of extracellular matrix were evidenced in treated groups following skin injury. These results indicate that silver nanoparticles and GSNO may provide an effective action on wound healing.

  6. Cheap and Cheerful Stream Restoration - An Example of System Wide Woody Addition Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheaton, J. M.; Bennett, S. N.; Bouwes, N.; Camp, R.

    2012-12-01

    Stream restoration has been plagued with high price tags, limited spatial extents, and questionable effectiveness in light of largely absent monitoring efforts. One prominent example is the placement of large woody debris (LWD) structures and engineered log jams that are frequently employed to promote heterogeneity of instream habitat. Ironically, many of these treatments attempt to lock in place and over-engineer the woody structures as opposed to allowing them to adjust and rearrange themselves as natural LWD would have. We are in the midst of a large scale restoration experiment using LWD to recover ESA-listed steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations in the Asotin Creek Watershed of Southeast Washington. The project is an Intensively Monitored Watershed (IMW) where the restoration treatment and monitoring use a hierarchal staircase design maximizing the power to detect a population level response in steelhead. We are treating over 12 km of stream with enough LWD input (> 200 pieces per km) to mimic the historic background wood loading and encourage the stream to reshape and regularly rework itself leaving. We are using hundreds of structures we call DWS (dynamic woody structures), which generally consist of a series of wooden fence posts driven into the stream bed and complex LWD anchored between them to invoke a specific hydrogeomorphic response. The real advantage of these DWS are their cost. They can be installed quickly (15-30 minutes each) and cheaply (< $100/DWS); even in remote settings with a 2-3 person crew, hydraulic post pounder, very cheap materials, and avoiding impacts associated with operating heavy equipment. This allows us to install lots of the structures at high density (every 5-15 channel widths) over an entire stream system. We call this overall approach System Wide Woody Addition Treatment (SWWAT). In the long term, we hypothesize that the SWWAT will provide an intial input LWD that will become a part of study creeks which are more

  7. Selective release of phosphorus and nitrogen from waste activated sludge with combined thermal and alkali treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minwook; Han, Dong-Woo; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2015-08-01

    Selective release characteristics of phosphorus and nitrogen from waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated during combined thermal and alkali treatment. Alkali (0.001-1.0N NaOH) treatment and combined thermal-alkali treatment were applied to WAS for releasing total P(T-P) and total nitrogen(T-N). Combined thermal-alkali treatment released 94%, 76%, and 49% of T-P, T-N, and COD, respectively. Release rate was positively associated with NaOH concentration, while temperature gave insignificant effect. The ratio of T-N and COD to T-P that released with alkali treatment ranged 0.74-0.80 and 0.39-0.50, respectively, while combined thermal-alkali treatment gave 0.60-0.90 and 0.20-0.60, respectively. Selective release of T-P and T-N was negatively associated with NaOH. High NaOH concentration created cavities on the surface of WAS, and these cavities accelerated the release rate, but reduced selectivity. Selective release of P and N from sludge has a beneficial effect on nutrient recovery with crystallization processes and it can also enhance methane production. PMID:25690681

  8. Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems study: US Department of Energy Internal Review Panel report

    SciTech Connect

    Cudahy, J.; Escarda, T.; Gimpel, R.

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) commissioned two studies to uniformly evaluate nineteen thermal treatment technologies. These studies were called the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Phase I and Phase II. With the advice and guidance of the DOE Office of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) Mixed Waste Focus Group, OTD formed an ITTS Internal Review Panel, composed of scientists and engineers from throughout the DOE complex, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the California EPA, and private experts. The Panel met from November 15-18, 1994, to review and comment on the ITTS studies, to make recommendations on the most promising thermal treatment systems for DOE mixed low level wastes (MLLW), and to make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of the technologies on MLLW.

  9. Two-stage thermal/nonthermal waste treatment process

    SciTech Connect

    Rosocha, L.A.; Anderson, G.K.; Coogan, J.J.; Kang, M.; Tennant, R.A.; Wantuck, P.J.

    1993-05-01

    An innovative waste treatment technology is being developed in Los Alamos to address the destruction of hazardous organic wastes. The technology described in this report uses two stages: a packed bed reactor (PBR) in the first stage to volatilize and/or combust liquid organics and a silent discharge plasma (SDP) reactor to remove entrained hazardous compounds in the off-gas to even lower levels. We have constructed pre-pilot-scale PBR-SDP apparatus and tested the two stages separately and in combined modes. These tests are described in the report.

  10. Influence of attrition scrubbing, ultrasonic treatment, and oxidant additions on uranium removal from contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Timpson, M.E.; Elless, M.P.; Francis, C.W.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration Project being conducted by the US Department of Energy, bench-scale investigations of selective leaching of uranium from soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site in Ohio were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Two soils (storage pad soil and incinerator soil), representing the major contaminant sources at the site, were extracted using carbonate- and citric acid-based lixiviants. Physical and chemical processes were used in combination with the two extractants to increase the rate of uranium release from these soils. Attrition scrubbing and ultrasonic dispersion were the two physical processes utilized. Potassium permanganate was used as an oxidizing agent to transform tetravalent uranium to the hexavalent state. Hexavalent uranium is easily complexed in solution by the carbonate radical. Attrition scrubbing increased the rate of uranium release from both soils when compared with rotary shaking. At equivalent extraction times and solids loadings, however, attrition scrubbing proved effective only on the incinerator soil. Ultrasonic treatments on the incinerator soil removed 71% of the uranium contamination in a single extraction. Multiple extractions of the same sample removed up to 90% of the uranium. Additions of potassium permanganate to the carbonate extractant resulted in significant changes in the extractability of uranium from the incinerator soil but had no effect on the storage pad soil.

  11. High-dose nedocromil sodium as an addition to inhaled corticosteroids in the treatment of asthma.

    PubMed

    O'Hickey, S P; Rees, P J

    1994-08-01

    In a double-blind placebo-controlled trial nedocromil sodium in a dose of 8 mg four times daily or matching placebo was added to the treatment of 29 asthmatic patients. All patients were taking inhaled corticosteroids in a dose of up to 1000 micrograms daily. The trial agents were given for 6 weeks after a 2-week run-in period. Twenty-four patients completed the study, three withdrew because of adverse effects, two on placebo. Daytime asthma symptoms were significantly reduced on nedocromil compared to placebo (-0.46 vs. +0.09, P = 0.03). Night-time asthma and morning tightness were not changed significantly. Bronchodilator use in the night and day were lower on nedocromil but the differences were not significant. Morning peak flow rates were higher on nedocromil (+22.2 vs. +0.08, P = 0.06) and physicians opinions of overall effectiveness favoured nedocromil (U = 35.0, P = 0.04). These results confirm that nedocromil sodium may be a useful addition in asthma to low to medium doses of inhaled corticosteroids. The effects of 32 mg nedocromil daily were comparable to previous reports with lower doses.

  12. Ultrasound interstitial thermal therapy (USITT) for the treatment of uterine myomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nau, William H., Jr.; Diederich, Chris J.; Simko, Jeff; Juang, Titania; Jacoby, Alison; Burdette, E. C.

    2007-02-01

    Uterine myomas (fibroids) are the most common pelvic tumors occurring in women, and are the leading cause of hysterectomy. Symptoms can be severe, and traditional treatments involve either surgical removal of the uterus (hysterectomy), or the fibroids (myomectomy). Interstitial ultrasound technologies have demonstrated potential for hyperthermia and high temperature thermal therapy in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors. These ultrasound devices offer favorable energy penetration allowing large volumes of tissue to be treated in short periods of time, as well as axial and angular control of heating to conform thermal treatment to a targeted tissue, while protecting surrounding tissues from thermal damage. The goal of this project is to evaluate interstitial ultrasound for controlled thermal coagulation of fibroids. Multi-element applicators were fabricated using tubular transducers, some of which were sectored to produce 180° directional heating patterns, and integrated with water cooling. Human uterine fibroids were obtained after routine myomectomies, and instrumented with thermocouples spaced at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 cm from the applicator. Power levels ranging from 8-15 W per element were applied for up to 15 minute heating periods. Results demonstrated that therapeutic temperatures >50° C and cytotoxic thermal doses (t 43) extended beyond 2 cm radially from the applicator (>4 cm diameter). It is anticipated that this system will make a significant contribution toward the treatment of uterine fibroids.

  13. Release of terpenes from fir wood during its long-term use and in thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Kačík, František; Veľková, Veronika; Šmíra, Pavel; Nasswettrová, Andrea; Kačíková, Danica; Reinprecht, Ladislav

    2012-08-21

    Building structures made from fir wood are often attacked by wood-destroying insects for which the terpenes it contains serve as attractants. One of the possibilities for extending the lifetime of structures is to use older wood with a lower content of terpenes and/or thermally modified wood. The study evaluated the levels of terpenes in naturally aged fir wood (108, 146, 279, 287 and 390 years) and their decrease by thermal treatment (the temperature of 60 °C and 120 °C, treatment duration of 10 h). Terpenes were extracted from wood samples by hexane and analyzed by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). The results indicate that recent fir wood contained approximately 60 times more terpenes than the oldest wood (186:3.1 mg/kg). The thermal wood treatment speeded up the release of terpenes. The temperature of 60 °C caused a loss in terpenes in the recent fir wood by 62%, the temperature of 120 °C even by >99%. After the treatment at the temperature of 60 °C the recent fir wood had approximately the same quantity of terpenes as non-thermally treated 108 year old wood, i.e., approximately 60-70 mg/kg. After the thermal treatment at the temperature of 120 °C the quantity of terpenes dropped in the recent as well as the old fir wood to minimum quantities (0.7-1.1 mg/kg). The thermal treatment can thus be used as a suitable method for the protection of fir wood from wood-destroying insects.

  14. Preliminary Study of Thermal Treatment of Coke Wastewater Sludge Using Plasma Torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingshu; Li, Shengli; Sun, Demao; Liu, Xin; Feng, Qiubao

    2016-10-01

    Thermal plasma was applied for the treatment of coke wastewater sludge derived from the steel industry in order to investigate the feasibility of the safe treatment and energy recovery of the sludge. A 30 kW plasma torch system was applied to study the vitrification and gas production of coke wastewater sludge. Toxicity leaching results indicated that the sludge treated via the thermal plasma process converted into a vitrified slag which resisted the leaching of heavy metals. CO2 was utilized as working gas to study the production and heat energy of the syngas. The heating value of the gas products by thermal plasma achieved 8.43 kJ/L, indicating the further utilization of the gas products. Considering the utilization of the syngas and recovery heat from the gas products, the estimated treatment cost of coke wastewater sludge via plasma torch was about 0.98 CNY/kg sludge in the experiment. By preliminary economic analysis, the dehydration cost takes an important part of the total sludge treatment cost. The treatment cost of the coke wastewater sludge with 50 wt.% moisture was calculated to be about 1.45 CNY/kg sludge dry basis. The treatment cost of the coke wastewater sludge could be effectively controlled by decreasing the water content of the sludge. These findings suggest that an economic dewatering pretreatment method could be combined to cut the total treatment cost in an actual treatment process.

  15. Effect of thermal additions on the density and distribution of thermophilic amoebae and pathogenic Naegleria fowleri in a newly created cooling lake

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Ironside, K.S.; Metler, P.L.; Tan, E.L. ); Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B. )

    1989-03-01

    Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of fatal human amoebic meningoencephalitis. The protozoan is ubiquitous in nature, and its presence is enhanced by thermal additions. In this investigation, water and sediments from a newly created cooling lake were quantitatively analyzed for the presence of thermophilic amoebae, thermophilic Naegleria spp., and the pathogen Naegleria fowleri. During periods of thermal additions, the concentrations of thermophilic amoebae and thermophilic Naegleria spp. increased as much as 5 orders of magnitude, and the concentration of the pathogen N. fowleri increased as much as 2 orders of magnitude. Concentrations of amoebae returned to prior thermal perturbation levels within 30 to 60 days after cessation of thermal additions. Increases in the thermophilic amoeba concentrations were noted in Savannah River oxbows downriver from the Savannah River plant discharge streams as compared with oxbows upriver from the discharges. Concentrations of thermophilic amoebae and thermophilic Naegleria spp. correlated significantly with temperature and conductivity. Air samples taken proximal to the lade during periods of thermal addition showed no evidence of thermophilic Naegleria spp. Isoenzyme patterns of the N. fowleri isolated from the cooling lake were identical to patterns of N. fowleri isolated from other sites in the United States and Belgium.

  16. Mixed N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Bis(oxazolinyl)borato Rhodium and Iridium Complexes in Photochemical and Thermal Oxidative Addition Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Songchen; Manna, Kuntal; Ellern, Arkady; Sadow, Aaron D

    2014-12-08

    In order to facilitate oxidative addition chemistry of fac-coordinated rhodium(I) and iridium(I) compounds, carbene–bis(oxazolinyl)phenylborate proligands have been synthesized and reacted with organometallic precursors. Two proligands, PhB(OxMe2)2(ImtBuH) (H[1]; OxMe2 = 4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline; ImtBuH = 1-tert-butylimidazole) and PhB(OxMe2)2(ImMesH) (H[2]; ImMesH = 1-mesitylimidazole), are deprotonated with potassium benzyl to generate K[1] and K[2], and these potassium compounds serve as reagents for the synthesis of a series of rhodium and iridium complexes. Cyclooctadiene and dicarbonyl compounds {PhB(OxMe2)2ImtBu}Rh(η4-C8H12) (3), {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Rh(η4-C8H12) (4), {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Rh(CO)2 (5), {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Ir(η4-C8H12) (6), and {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Ir(CO)2 (7) are synthesized along with ToMM(η4-C8H12) (M = Rh (8); M = Ir (9); ToM = tris(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate). The spectroscopic and structural properties and reactivity of this series of compounds show electronic and steric effects of substituents on the imidazole (tert-butyl vs mesityl), effects of replacing an oxazoline in ToM with a carbene donor, and the influence of the donor ligand (CO vs C8H12). The reactions of K[2] and [M(μ-Cl)(η2-C8H14)2]2 (M = Rh, Ir) provide {κ4-PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes'CH2}Rh(μ-H)(μ-Cl)Rh(η2-C8H14)2 (10) and {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}IrH(η3-C8H13) (11). In the former compound, a spontaneous oxidative addition of a mesityl ortho-methyl to give a mixed-valent dirhodium species is observed, while the iridium compound forms a monometallic allyl hydride. Photochemical reactions of dicarbonyl compounds 5 and 7 result in C–H bond oxidative addition providing the compounds {κ4-PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes'CH2}RhH(CO) (12) and {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}IrH(Ph)CO (13). In 12, oxidative addition results in cyclometalation of the mesityl ortho-methyl similar to 10, whereas the iridium compound reacts with the benzene solvent to give a rare crystallographically characterized cis

  17. Effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and properties of dense AlN sintered with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} additions

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S.; Dutta, G.; Dutta, I.

    1995-09-01

    The secondary phase constitution in two sintered AlN ceramics (1.8% and 4.2% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} additions) was studied as a function of heat treatment temperatures between 1,750 and 1,900 C under pure nitrogen atmosphere. The effect of the phase constitution on the physical properties, such ad density, thermal conductivity (K), and lattice constants, and on the mechanical properties in three-point bending, was also investigated. Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} was found to getter dissolved oxygen from the AlN lattice below 1,850 C, but evaporated at 1,850 C and above. Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} appeared to sublimate below 1,850 C in the atmosphere used in this study. Depending on the secondary phase constitution, heat treatment affected thermal conductivity favorably or adversely. Occasionally, samples with similar lattice oxygen contents were found to have different thermal conductivities, suggesting that factors besides dissolved oxygen can also influence K. Lattice parameter measurements indicated that, within the small range of lattice oxygen concentrations in the AlN samples studied, the c-axis was more sensitive than the a-axis to oxygen content.

  18. Dual mode microwave tool for dielectric analysis and thermal ablation treatment of organic tissue.

    PubMed

    Puentes, Margarita; Bashir, Fahed; Schüssler, Martin; Jakoby, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    A dual mode tool design to analyze organic tissue and locally perform thermal ablation treatment is presented. The tool is made of an array of split-ring resonators. It can operate on a sensing mode to track the relative dielectric changes from the organic tissue and on a treatment mode to perform thermal ablation at different input powers. The measurements were done with phantoms of human tissue. The tool is able to focus a hot spot of approximately 0.2mm with a temperature of 109 °C at an input power of 10W.

  19. Dual mode microwave tool for dielectric analysis and thermal ablation treatment of organic tissue.

    PubMed

    Puentes, Margarita; Bashir, Fahed; Schüssler, Martin; Jakoby, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    A dual mode tool design to analyze organic tissue and locally perform thermal ablation treatment is presented. The tool is made of an array of split-ring resonators. It can operate on a sensing mode to track the relative dielectric changes from the organic tissue and on a treatment mode to perform thermal ablation at different input powers. The measurements were done with phantoms of human tissue. The tool is able to focus a hot spot of approximately 0.2mm with a temperature of 109 °C at an input power of 10W. PMID:23366811

  20. Fabrication of a microlens array in BK7 through laser ablation and thermal treatment techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, M.; Nieto, D.; Flores-Arias, M. T.

    2015-04-01

    We propose a laser-based method for fabricating microlens on borosilicate glass substrates. The technique is composed by a laser direct-write technique using a Nd : YVO4 for fabricating the microlens arrays and a post thermal treatment with a CO2 laser for improving its morphological and optical properties. The proposed technique will allow us to obtain microlenses with a broad range of diameters (50μm-500μm) and focal lengths (1mm-5mm). By combining laser direct-write and the thermal treatment assisted by a CO2 laser, we are able to obtain good quality elements.

  1. Investigation of Carbide Precipitation Process and Chromium Depletion during Thermal Treatment of Alloy 690

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, S. Y.; Zhang, M. C.; Zheng, L.; Dong, J. X.

    2010-01-01

    For the purpose of studying the effect of heat treatment on carbide morphology and chromium concentration distribution, which are critical to the resistance of alloy 690 to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), a series of thermal treatments was performed. A model taking into account the intercorrelated dynamic process between the carbide precipitation and chemical diffusion of the chromium atom from matrix to grain boundary (GB) was constructed on the basis of classical nucleation theory, Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami law, and diffusion theory. The validity of this model was evaluated by comparing the simulated results of the carbide average size and chromium concentration near the GB with the corresponding measured results. A discontinuous factor was introduced based on the relation linking the interdistance between the carbides and the carbide average size; thus, the carbide morphology and chromium concentration could be predicted by this model. According to the results of the experiments and simulations, a carbide discontinuous factor smaller than 2.2 together with the chromium concentration at the GB higher than a critical value (21 wt pct) were essential for the corrosion resistance ability of the alloy, and then some proper heat-treatment conditions were obtained through predicting the value of the two variables. In addition, the effects of the grain size and composition variation on the carbide discontinuous factor and chromium concentration profile were simulated. The results indicated that an intermediate grain size of approximately 31.8 to ~63.5 μm was beneficial for effectively improving the resistance of the alloy to SCC. Simultaneously, the carbon content should be adjusted near 0.02 pct, and the chromium content should be the highest possible in its chemical composition scale.

  2. Physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the sludge produced after thermochemical treatment of petrochemical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shilpi; Prasad, Basheshwar; Mishra, I M

    2012-01-01

    The present work describes the physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the sludge generated after thermochemical treatment of wastewater from a petrochemical plant manufacturing purified terephthalic acid (PTA). Although FeCl3 was found to be more effective than CuSO4 in removing COD from wastewater, the settling and filtration characteristics of FeCl3 sludge were poorer. Addition of cationic polyacrylamide (CPAA; 0.050kg/m3) to the FeCl3 wastewater system greatly improved the values of the filter characteristics of specific cake resistance (1.2 x 10(8) m/kg) and resistance of filter medium (9.9 x 10(8) m(-1)) from the earlier values of 1.9 x 10(9) m/kg and 1.7 x 10(8) m(-1), respectively. SEM-EDAX and FTIR studies were undertaken, to understand the sludge structure and composition, respectively. The moisture distribution in the CuSO4 sludge, FeCl3 sludge and FeCl3 + CPAA sludge showed that the amount of bound water content in the CuSO4 and FeCl3 + CPAA sludges is less than that of the FeCl3 sludge and there was a significant reduction in the solid-water bond strength of FeCl3 + CPAA sludge, which was responsible for better settling and filtration characteristics. Due to the hazardous nature of the sludge, land application is not a possible route of disposal. The thermal degradation behaviour of the sludge was studied for its possible use as a co-fuel. The studies showed that degradation behaviour of the sludge was exothermic in nature. Because of the exothermic nature of the sludge, it can be used in making fuel briquettes or it can be disposed of via wet air oxidation.

  3. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1 -- issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2 -- issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study -- drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  4. Technical Project Plan for The Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Oxide Fuels Through the Addition of High Thermal Conductivity Fibers and Microstructural Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbach, Daniel F; Ott, Larry J; Besmann, Theodore M; Armstrong, Beth L; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Lin, Hua-Tay; Ellis, Ronald James; Becher, Paul F; Jubin, Robert Thomas; Voit, Stewart L

    2010-09-01

    The commercial nuclear power industry is investing heavily in advanced fuels that can produce higher power levels with a higher safety margin and be produced at low cost. Although chemically stable and inexpensive to manufacture, the in-core performance of UO{sub 2} fuel is limited by its low thermal conductivity. There will be enormous financial benefits to any utility that can exploit a new type of fuel that is chemically stable, has a high thermal conductivity, and is inexpensive to manufacture. At reactor operating temperatures, UO{sub 2} has a very low thermal conductivity (<5 W/m {center_dot}K), which decreases with temperature and fuel burnup. This low thermal conductivity limits the rate at which energy can be removed from the fuel, thus limiting the total integrated reactor power. If the fuel thermal conductivity could be increased, nuclear reactors would be able to operate at higher powers and larger safety margins thus decreasing the overall cost of electricity by increasing the power output from existing reactors and decreasing the number of new electrical generating plants needed to meet base load demand. The objective of the work defined herein is to produce an advanced nuclear fuel based on the current UO{sub 2} fuel with superior thermal conductivity and structural integrity that is suitable for current and future nuclear reactors, using the existing fuel fabrication infrastructure with minimal modifications. There are two separate components to the research: (1) Enhanced Thermal Conductivity (ETC) - adding high conductivity fibers to the UO{sub 2} prior to sintering, which act as conduits for moving the heat energy generated within the pellet to the outer surface, (2) Microstructural Engineering (ME) - adding second phase particulates to UO{sub 2} bodies to retard grain growth and to increase thermal conductivity, as well as improve fracture and creep resistance. Different groups will perform the laboratory work for each of these research

  5. Minimizing dioxin emissions from integrated MSW thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Wai Hung; Lee, Vinci K C; McKay, Gordon

    2007-03-15

    The combustion of wastes has very significant benefits in reducing the volume of waste materials and producing energy. However, combustion processes produce emissions, which must be below the Best Practical Means (BPM) specified legislative limits. Several wastes, such as tires and meat meal, have been successfully combusted in cement kilns, up to 20% w/w, while retaining emission standards well below legislative limits. In the case of municipal solid waste (MSW) the introduction of large amounts of MSW into cement kilns is not practical because the additional kiln volume required is too great, the large amounts of ash generated will affect the cement clinker quality, and it would be difficult to sustain the required very high clinkering temperature of 1500 degrees C with large quantities of low calorific value MSW. A completely novel process, termed the Co-Co process, has been developed, integrating MSW combustion in a synergistic fashion with the cement production. This process is based on combining the cement "front-end" calcination reaction and incorporating it with a high temperature, at 1200 degrees C, combustion process, providing a giant acid gas scrubber. A pilot plant was designed, constructed, and operated to demonstrate the benefits of the Co-Co process. The pilot plant achieved emissions minimization: dioxins were typically 0.5-1% of the European BPM limits, HCl, SOx, NOx, and particulates were 15, 10, 20, and 25% of BPM limits, respectively. Heavy metals were typically below 25% of BPM limit values.

  6. Pressurized heat treatment of glass-ceramic to control thermal expansion

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, Daniel P.

    1985-01-01

    A method of producing a glass-ceramic having a specified thermal expansion value is disclosed. The method includes the step of pressurizing the parent glass material to a predetermined pressure during heat treatment so that the glass-ceramic produced has a specified thermal expansion value. Preferably, the glass-ceramic material is isostatically pressed. A method for forming a strong glass-ceramic to metal seal is also disclosed in which the glass-ceramic is fabricated to have a thermal expansion value equal to that of the metal. The determination of the thermal expansion value of a parent glass material placed in a high-temperature environment is also used to determine the pressure in the environment.

  7. Non-Thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    DOE proposes to transport contact-handled LLMW from the Hanford Site to the Allied Technology Group (ATG) Mixed Waste Facility (MWF) in Richland, Washington, for non-thermal treatment and to return the treated waste to the Hanford Site for eventual land disposal. Over a 3-year period the waste would be staged to the ATG MWF, and treated waste would be returned to the Hanford Site. The ATG MWF would be located on an 18 hectare (ha) (45 acre [at]) ATG Site adjacent to ATG's licensed low-level waste processing facility at 2025 Battelle Boulevard. The ATG MWF is located approximately 0.8 kilometers (km) (0.5 miles [mi]) south of Horn Rapids Road and 1.6 km (1 mi) west of Stevens Drive. The property is located within the Horn Rapids triangle in northern Richland (Figure 2.1). The ATG MWF is to be located on the existing ATG Site, near the DOE Hanford Site, in an industrial area in the City of Richland. The effects of siting, construction, and overall operation of the MWF have been evaluated in a separate State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) EIS (City of Richland 1998). The proposed action includes transporting the LLMW from the Hanford Site to the ATG Facility, non-thermal treatment of the LLMW at the ATG MWF, and transporting the waste from ATG back to the Hanford Site. Impacts fi-om waste treatment operations would be bounded by the ATG SEPA EIS, which included an evaluation of the impacts associated with operating the non-thermal portion of the MWF at maximum design capacity (8,500 metric tons per year) (City of Richland 1998). Up to 50 employees would be required for non-thermal treatment portion of the MWF. This includes 40 employees that would perform waste treatment operations and 10 support staff. Similar numbers were projected for the thermal treatment portion of the MWF (City of Richland 1998).

  8. Texture evolution of nickel and cobalt activated-charcoal-supported catalysts during thermal treatments at increasing temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, A.; Gandia, L. M.; Montes, M.

    1997-07-01

    The effect of thermal treatment in an inert atmosphere up to 723 K on the textural properties of Ni and Co activated-charcoal-supported catalysts has been studied by means of nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. Various approaches have been followed in order to analyse the adsorption data (Langmuir, t-method, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Horvath-Kawazoe and density functional theory). The combination of these methods has allowed us to perform a full characterization of the samples in the micropore and mesopore ranges. The density functional approach has been especially useful, since it provides information for both the micropore and mesopore ranges simultaneously. Impregnation of the activated-charcoal-support with Ni or Co nitrates produces the expected loss of specific surface area and specific pore volume. Thermal treatment in nitrogen at 573 K gives a relatively surprising high recovery of textural properties, particularly in the micropore range, which has been related to the poor dispersion of the supported NiO and CoO particles. Treatment of the samples at 723 K gives an additional low increase in external surface area and micropore volume with respect to the 573 K treated samples. This behaviour has been discussed in terms of both a volume reduction of the supported particles and the creation of new microporosity, which may be produced during the carbon-promoted reduction of NiO and CoO to the metallic state that takes place under treatment in nitrogen at 723 K.

  9. Thermal hydrolysis of waste activated sludge at Hengelo Wastewater Treatment Plant, the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, Mathijs; Ringoot, Davy; Hendriks, Alexander; Roeleveld, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The thermal hydrolysis process (THP) is a sludge treatment technique which affects anaerobic biodegradability, viscosity and dewaterability of waste activated sludge (WAS). In 2011 a THP-pilot plant was operated, connected to laboratory-scale digesters, at the water board Regge en Dinkel and in cooperation with Cambi A.S. and MWH Global. Thermal hydrolysis of WAS resulted in a 62% greater volatile solids (VS) reduction compared to non-hydrolysed sludge. Furthermore, the pilot digesters could be operated at a 2.3 times higher solids loading rate compared to conventional sludge digesters. By application of thermal sludge hydrolysis, the overall efficiency of the sludge treatment process can be improved. PMID:25026572

  10. Effects of particle size and hydro-thermal treatment of feed on performance and stomach health in fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Liermann, Wendy; Berk, Andreas; Böschen, Verena; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Effects of grinding and hydro-thermal treatment of feed on growth performance, slaughter traits, nutrient digestibility, stomach content and stomach health were examined by using 96 crossbred fattening pigs. Pigs were fed a grain-soybean meal-based diet processed by various technical treatments. Feeding groups differed in particle size after grinding (finely vs. coarsely ground feed) and hydro-thermal treatment (without hydro-thermal treatment, pelleting, expanding, expanding and pelleting). Fine grinding and hydro-thermal treatment showed significant improvements on the digestibility of crude nutrients and content of metabolisable energy. Hydro-thermal treatment influenced average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (DFI) significantly. Finely ground pelleted feed without expanding enhanced performances by increasing ADG and decreasing feed-to-gain ratio (FGR) of fattening pigs. Coarsely ground feed without hydro-thermal treatment resulted in the highest ADG and DFI, however also in the highest FGR. Expanded feed decreased DFI and ADG. Slaughter traits were not affected by treatments. Coarsely ground feed without hydro-thermal treatment had protective effects on the health of gastric pars nonglandularis, however, pelleting increased gastric lesions. Hydro-thermal treatment, especially expanding, resulted in clumping of stomach content which possibly induced satiety by slower ingesta passage rate and thus decreased feed intake. Pigs fed pelleted feed showed less pronounced development of clumps in stomach content compared with expanded feed. PMID:26426163

  11. Effects of particle size and hydro-thermal treatment of feed on performance and stomach health in fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Liermann, Wendy; Berk, Andreas; Böschen, Verena; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Effects of grinding and hydro-thermal treatment of feed on growth performance, slaughter traits, nutrient digestibility, stomach content and stomach health were examined by using 96 crossbred fattening pigs. Pigs were fed a grain-soybean meal-based diet processed by various technical treatments. Feeding groups differed in particle size after grinding (finely vs. coarsely ground feed) and hydro-thermal treatment (without hydro-thermal treatment, pelleting, expanding, expanding and pelleting). Fine grinding and hydro-thermal treatment showed significant improvements on the digestibility of crude nutrients and content of metabolisable energy. Hydro-thermal treatment influenced average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (DFI) significantly. Finely ground pelleted feed without expanding enhanced performances by increasing ADG and decreasing feed-to-gain ratio (FGR) of fattening pigs. Coarsely ground feed without hydro-thermal treatment resulted in the highest ADG and DFI, however also in the highest FGR. Expanded feed decreased DFI and ADG. Slaughter traits were not affected by treatments. Coarsely ground feed without hydro-thermal treatment had protective effects on the health of gastric pars nonglandularis, however, pelleting increased gastric lesions. Hydro-thermal treatment, especially expanding, resulted in clumping of stomach content which possibly induced satiety by slower ingesta passage rate and thus decreased feed intake. Pigs fed pelleted feed showed less pronounced development of clumps in stomach content compared with expanded feed.

  12. [Low-temperature thermal treatment of dioxin in medical waste fly ash under unert atmosphere].

    PubMed

    Ji, Sha-Sha; Li, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Xu; Chen, Tong

    2012-11-01

    Two kinds of fly ash (AG and BG) from hazardous waste rotary kiln were investigated as the targets of thermal treatment. AG was sampled after fabric filter with activated carbon spray and BG was sampled in pipe before fabric filter. The effects of temperature and time on PCDD/Fs degradation rate in fly ash were investigated in quartz tubular. Under nitrogen atmosphere, low-temperature thermal treatment for dioxin degradation had obvious effect. For sample BG, the degradation rate of dioxin in solid phase was 82.8%-99.9%, and the degradation rate of I-TEQ was 77.3%-99.8%. For sample AG, the degradation rate was 66.8% - 99.8%, and the degradation rate of I-TEQ was 43.5% - 99.6%. Although dioxin in solid phase was reduced, it was generated in gas phase, and among all the different temperatures tested, dioxin was generated at highest amounts at 300 degrees C - 350 degrees C, and among all the toxic congeners, OCDD was detected as the most abundant in this experiment. The best conditions of thermal treatment were: heating time 60 min, temperature 400 degrees C, under nitrogen atmosphere. The results indicate that low-temperature thermal treatment under inert atmosphere has good effect on treating dioxin present in medical fly ash, it can be applied in practical projects in large scales.

  13. Influence of different demineralization treatments on physicochemical structure and thermal degradation of biomass.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Long; Hu, Song; Sun, Lun-shi; Su, Sheng; Xu, Kai; He, Li-mo; Xiang, Jun

    2013-10-01

    To study the catalytic role of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species and eliminate their negative impact during biomass thermal utilization, different leaching methods have been applied in numerous experiments. Thus it is necessary to investigate the potential influence on biomass physicochemical structure using different agents. Rice straw was selected to study the demineralization impact on physicochemical structure and pyrolysis characteristics. It is shown that strong acid leaching exhibited higher removal efficiency of minerals, but it introduced more notable impact on physicochemical structure of biomass comparing to water and weak acid leaching. Different leaching methods give chance to study catalysis characteristics of intrinsic metals on biomass thermal reaction. Contrast to alkaline earth metals especially Ca hindering thermal decomposition, alkali metals promoted this reaction obviously. In addition, comparing to physicochemical structure changes created by leaching process, the influence of removal of minerals played the dominant role in biomass thermal behavior. PMID:23941708

  14. Possible Applications of Hardening Slurries with Fly Ash from Thermal Treatment of Municipal Sewage Sludge in Environmental Protection Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falacinski, Paweł; Szarek, Łukasz

    2016-06-01

    In Poland, in recent years, there has been a rapid accumulation of sewage sludge - a by-product in the treatment of urban wastewater. This has come about as a result of infrastructure renewal, specifically, the construction of modern sewage treatment plants. The more stringent regulations and strategic goals adopted for modern sewage management have necessitated the application of modern engineering methodology for the disposal of sewage sludge. One approach is incineration. As a consequence, the amount of fly ash resulting from the thermal treatment of municipal sewage sludge has grown significantly. Hence, intensive work is in progress for environmentally safe management of this type of waste. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of using the fly ash that results from municipal sewage sludge thermal treatment (SSTT) as an additive to hardening slurries. This type of hardening slurry with various types of additives, e.g. coal combustion products, is used in the construction of cut-off walls in hydraulic structures. The article presents the technological and functional parameters of hardening slurries with an addition of fly ash obtained by SSTT. Moreover, the usefulness of these slurries is analysed on the basis of their basic properties, i.e. density, contractual viscosity, water separation, structural strength, volumetric density, hydraulic conductivity, compressive and tensile strength. The mandated requirements for slurries employed in the construction of cut-off walls in flood embankments are listed as a usefulness criteria. The article presents the potential uses of fly ash from SSTT in hardening slurry technology. It also suggests directions for further research to fully identify other potential uses of this by-product in this field.

  15. Additional treatment of wastewater reduces endocrine disruption in wild fish--a comparative study of tertiary and advanced treatments.

    PubMed

    Baynes, Alice; Green, Christopher; Nicol, Elizabeth; Beresford, Nicola; Kanda, Rakesh; Henshaw, Alan; Churchley, John; Jobling, Susan

    2012-05-15

    Steroid estrogens are thought to be the major cause of feminization (intersex) in wild fish. Widely used wastewater treatment technologies are not effective at removing these contaminants to concentrations thought to be required to protect aquatic wildlife. A number of advanced treatment processes have been proposed to reduce the concentrations of estrogens entering the environment. Before investment is made in such processes, it is imperative that we compare their efficacy in terms of removal of steroid estrogens and their feminizing effects with other treatment options. This study assessed both steroid removal and intersex induction in adult and early life stage fish (roach, Rutilus rutilus). Roach were exposed directly to either secondary (activated sludge process (ASP)), tertiary (sand filtrated (SF)), or advanced (chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)), granular activated charcoal (GAC)) treated effluents for six months. Surprisingly, both the advanced GAC and tertiary SF treatments (but not the ClO(2) treatment) significantly removed the intersex induction associated with the ASP effluent; this was not predicted by the steroid estrogen measurements, which were higher in the tertiary SF than either the GAC or the ClO(2). Therefore our study highlights the importance of using both biological and chemical analysis when assessing new treatment technologies.

  16. Enhancing the photoelectrochemical properties of titanium dioxide by thermal treatment in oxygen deficient environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Aadesh P.; Kodan, Nisha; Mehta, Bodh R.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of thermal treatment on TiO2 thin films under oxygen deficient environment (5% H2 in Ar) at partial pressure of 2 × 10-2 Torr have been studied for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting application. Thermal treatment in anatase TiO2 thin films exhibits a shift in optical absorption from UV to visible region and activates TiO2 for water splitting application under visible light. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that the thermal treated thin films contain oxygen vacancies, which suggests improved charge transport. Optical absorption, X-ray spectroscopy (XPS) and Kelvin probe force microscope (KPFM) studies show reduction in band gap by 0.36 eV, shift in valence band maximum by 0.49 eV towards the Fermi level and work function values by 0.3 eV towards the vacuum level. The pristine TiO2 thin films exhibit very less photoactivity in terms of photocurrent density, whereas thermally treated thin films displayed a markedly enhanced photocurrent density of ∼2.41 mA/cm2 at 0.23 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Higher values of photocurrent density in thermal treated TiO2 films have been explained in terms of change in the optical and electrical properties along with energy band diagram.

  17. Potential of thermal treatment for decontamination of mercury containing wastes from chlor-alkali industry.

    PubMed

    Busto, Y; Cabrera, X; Tack, F M G; Verloo, M G

    2011-02-15

    Old dumps of mercury waste sludges from chlor-alkaline industry are an environmental threat if not properly secured. Thermal retortion can be used to remove mercury from such wastes. This treatment reduces the total mercury content, and also may reduce the leachability of the residual mercury. The effects of treatment temperature and treatment time on both residual mercury levels and mercury leachability according to the US EPA TCLP leaching procedure, were investigated. Treatment for 1h at 800°C allowed to quantitatively remove the mercury. Treatment at 400°C and above allowed to decrease the leachable Hg contents to below the US EPA regulations. The ultimate choice of treatment conditions will depend on requirements of further handling options and cost considerations.

  18. Effect of thermal treatments on technological properties of wood from two Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Cademartori, Pedro Henrique G; Missio, André L; Mattos, Bruno D; Gatto, Darci A

    2015-03-01

    The effect of thermal treatments on physical and mechanical properties of rose gum and Sydney blue gum wood was evaluated. Wood samples were thermally modified in a combination: pre-treatment in an autoclave (127°C - 1h) and treatment in an oven (180-240°C - 4h); and only treatment in an oven at 180-240°C for 4h. Chemical changes in the structure of woods were evaluated through infrared spectroscopy. Evaluation of physical properties was performed through mass loss, specific gravity, equilibrium moisture content and dimensional stability tests. Surface changes were analyzed through apparent contact angle technique and static bending tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical behavior. Use of pre-treatment in autoclave affected the properties analyzed, however oven, resulted in the highest changes on wood from both species. Chemical changes were related to the degradation of hemicelluloses. Moreover, a significant decrease of hygroscopicity and mechanical strength of thermally modified woods was observed, while specific gravity did not significantly change for either of the species studied. The best results of decrease of wettability were found in low temperatures, while dimensional stability increased as a function of temperature of exposure in oven. The highest loss of mechanical strength was observed at 240°C for both species.

  19. Thermal treatment of bentonite reduces aflatoxin b1 adsorption and affects stem cell death.

    PubMed

    Nones, Janaína; Nones, Jader; Riella, Humberto Gracher; Poli, Anicleto; Trentin, Andrea Gonçalves; Kuhnen, Nivaldo Cabral

    2015-10-01

    Bentonites are clays that highly adsorb aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and, therefore, protect human and animal cells from damage. We have recently demonstrated that bentonite protects the neural crest (NC) stem cells from the toxicity of AFB1. Its protective effects are due to the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition altered by heat treatment. The aim of this study is to prepare and characterize the natural and thermal treatments (125 to 1000 °C) of bentonite from Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brazil and to investigate their effects in the AFB1 adsorption and in NC cell viability after challenging with AFB1. The displacement of water and mineralogical phases transformations were observed after the thermal treatments. Kaolinite disappeared at 500 °C and muscovite and montmorillonite at 1000 °C. Slight changes in morphology, chemical composition, and density of bentonite were observed. The adsorptive capacity of the bentonite particles progressively reduced with the increase in temperature. The observed alterations in the structure of bentonite suggest that the heat treatments influence its interlayer distance and also its adsorptive capacity. Therefore, bentonite, even after the thermal treatment (125 to 1000 °C), is able to increase the viability of NC stem cells previously treated with AFB1. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of bentonite in preventing the toxic effects of AFB1.

  20. Comprehensive stabilization mechanism of electron-beam irradiated polyacrylonitrile fibers to shorten the conventional thermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sejoon; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Kang, Ha Ri; Jo, Seong Mu; Joh, Han-Ik; Lee, Sungho

    2016-06-01

    An electron beam was irradiated on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers prior to thermal stabilization. The electron-beam irradiation effectively shortened the thermal stabilization process by one fourth compared with the conventional thermal stabilization process. A comprehensive mechanistic study was conducted regarding this shortening of the thermal stabilization by electron-beam irradiation. Various species of chain radicals were produced in PAN fibers by electron-beam irradiation and existed for a relatively long duration, as observed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Subsequently, these radicals were gradually oxidized to peroxy radicals in the presence of oxygen under storage or heating. We found that these peroxy radicals (CO) enabled such an effective shortcut of thermal stabilization by acting as intermolecular cross-linking and partial aromatization points in the low temperature range (100–130 °C) and as earlier initiation seeds of successive cyclization reactions in the next temperature range (>130–140 °C) of thermal stabilization. Finally, even at a low irradiation dose (200 kGy), followed by a short heat treatment (230 °C for 30 min), the PAN fibers were sufficiently stabilized to produce carbon fibers with tensile strength and modulus of 2.3 and 216 GPa, respectively, after carbonization.

  1. Comprehensive stabilization mechanism of electron-beam irradiated polyacrylonitrile fibers to shorten the conventional thermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sejoon; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Kang, Ha Ri; Jo, Seong Mu; Joh, Han-Ik; Lee, Sungho

    2016-06-01

    An electron beam was irradiated on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers prior to thermal stabilization. The electron-beam irradiation effectively shortened the thermal stabilization process by one fourth compared with the conventional thermal stabilization process. A comprehensive mechanistic study was conducted regarding this shortening of the thermal stabilization by electron-beam irradiation. Various species of chain radicals were produced in PAN fibers by electron-beam irradiation and existed for a relatively long duration, as observed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Subsequently, these radicals were gradually oxidized to peroxy radicals in the presence of oxygen under storage or heating. We found that these peroxy radicals (CO) enabled such an effective shortcut of thermal stabilization by acting as intermolecular cross-linking and partial aromatization points in the low temperature range (100-130 °C) and as earlier initiation seeds of successive cyclization reactions in the next temperature range (>130-140 °C) of thermal stabilization. Finally, even at a low irradiation dose (200 kGy), followed by a short heat treatment (230 °C for 30 min), the PAN fibers were sufficiently stabilized to produce carbon fibers with tensile strength and modulus of 2.3 and 216 GPa, respectively, after carbonization.

  2. Comprehensive stabilization mechanism of electron-beam irradiated polyacrylonitrile fibers to shorten the conventional thermal treatment

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sejoon; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Kang, Ha Ri; Jo, Seong Mu; Joh, Han-Ik; Lee, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    An electron beam was irradiated on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers prior to thermal stabilization. The electron-beam irradiation effectively shortened the thermal stabilization process by one fourth compared with the conventional thermal stabilization process. A comprehensive mechanistic study was conducted regarding this shortening of the thermal stabilization by electron-beam irradiation. Various species of chain radicals were produced in PAN fibers by electron-beam irradiation and existed for a relatively long duration, as observed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Subsequently, these radicals were gradually oxidized to peroxy radicals in the presence of oxygen under storage or heating. We found that these peroxy radicals (CO) enabled such an effective shortcut of thermal stabilization by acting as intermolecular cross-linking and partial aromatization points in the low temperature range (100–130 °C) and as earlier initiation seeds of successive cyclization reactions in the next temperature range (>130–140 °C) of thermal stabilization. Finally, even at a low irradiation dose (200 kGy), followed by a short heat treatment (230 °C for 30 min), the PAN fibers were sufficiently stabilized to produce carbon fibers with tensile strength and modulus of 2.3 and 216 GPa, respectively, after carbonization. PMID:27349719

  3. Comprehensive stabilization mechanism of electron-beam irradiated polyacrylonitrile fibers to shorten the conventional thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Park, Sejoon; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Kang, Ha Ri; Jo, Seong Mu; Joh, Han-Ik; Lee, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    An electron beam was irradiated on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers prior to thermal stabilization. The electron-beam irradiation effectively shortened the thermal stabilization process by one fourth compared with the conventional thermal stabilization process. A comprehensive mechanistic study was conducted regarding this shortening of the thermal stabilization by electron-beam irradiation. Various species of chain radicals were produced in PAN fibers by electron-beam irradiation and existed for a relatively long duration, as observed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Subsequently, these radicals were gradually oxidized to peroxy radicals in the presence of oxygen under storage or heating. We found that these peroxy radicals (CO) enabled such an effective shortcut of thermal stabilization by acting as intermolecular cross-linking and partial aromatization points in the low temperature range (100-130 °C) and as earlier initiation seeds of successive cyclization reactions in the next temperature range (>130-140 °C) of thermal stabilization. Finally, even at a low irradiation dose (200 kGy), followed by a short heat treatment (230 °C for 30 min), the PAN fibers were sufficiently stabilized to produce carbon fibers with tensile strength and modulus of 2.3 and 216 GPa, respectively, after carbonization. PMID:27349719

  4. Treatment of kidney diseases in the thermal springs of Pithecusa during the XVIII Century.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Elisabetta; Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto; Ricciardi, Biagio

    2016-02-01

    The island of Pithecusa (Ischia) is a volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea in the north end of the Gulf of Naples at about 30 kilometers from the same city. Pithecusa is very popular for its hot springs which even the ancients used. This report aims to analyze the renal therapeutic benefits of the Pithacusa thermal mineral spring through a review of two different manuscripts: i) "Di Napoli il seno cratero"(The gulf of Naples) of Domenico Antonio Parrino (1642-1708) and ii) "De' rimedi naturali che sono nell'isola di Pithecusa oggi detta Ischia"(On the natural cures of the island of Pithecusa known today as Ischia)of Giulio Iasolino (1583-1622). These two manuscripts published during the 18th century and both manuscripts highlight the thermal virtues of the thermal springs of Pithecusa. In the past natural remedies were important in the treatment of different diseases including that of thermal springs dating back to ancient Rome. Thermal springs were used to treat spasms, skin diseases, hair loss and various renal ailments. Both manuscripts describe the thermal springs in Ischia and their therapeutic benefits in medical diseases. PMID:26913894

  5. Demonstration of thermal plasma gasification/vitrification for municipal solid waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Byun, Youngchul; Namkung, Won; Cho, Moohyun; Chung, Jae Woo; Kim, Young-Suk; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lee, Carg-Ro; Hwang, Soon-Mo

    2010-09-01

    Thermal plasma treatment has been regarded as a viable alternative for the treatment of highly toxic wastes, such as incinerator residues, radioactive wastes, and medical wastes. Therefore, a gasification/vitrification unit for the direct treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW), with a capacity of 10 tons/day, was developed using an integrated furnace equipped with two nontransferred thermal plasma torches. The overall process, as well as the analysis of byproducts and energy balance, has been presented in this paper to assess the performance of this technology. It was successfully demonstrated that the thermal plasma process converted MSW into innocuous slag, with much lower levels of environmental air pollutant emissions and the syngas having a utility value as energy sources (287 Nm3/MSW-ton for H2 and 395 Nm3/MSW-ton for CO), using 1.14 MWh/MSW-ton of electricity (thermal plasma torch (0.817 MWh/MSW-ton)+utilities (0.322 MWh/MSW-ton)) and 7.37 Nm3/MSW-ton of liquefied petroleum gas.

  6. Analysis of thermal damage in vocal cords for the prevention of collateral laser treatment effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjul Vélez, Félix; Luis Arce-Diego, José; del Barrio Fernández, Ángela; Borragán Torre, Alfonso

    2007-05-01

    The importance of vocal cords for the interaction with the world around is obviously known. Vocal cords disorders can be divided mainly into three categories: difficulty of movement of one or both vocal folds, lesion formation on them, and difficulty or lack of mucosal wave movement. In this last case, a laser heating treatment can be useful in order to improve tissue vibration. However, thermal damage should be considered to adjust laser parameters and so to prevent irreversible harmful effects to the patient. in this work, an analysis of thermal damage in vocal folds is proposed. Firstly thermo-optical laser-tissue interaction is studied, by means of a RTT (Radiation Transfer Theory) model solved with a Monte Carlo approach for the optical propagation of radiation, and a bio-heat equation, with a finite difference numerical method based solution, taking into account blood perfusion and boundary effects, for the thermal distribution. The spatial-temporal temperature distributions are obtained for two widely used lasers, Nd:YAG (1064 nm) and KTP (532 nm). From these data, an Arrhenius thermal damage analysis allows a prediction of possible laser treatment harmful effects on vocal cords that could cause scar formation or tissue burn. Different source powers and exposition times are considered, in such a way that an approximation of adequate wavelength, power and duration is achieved, in order to implement an efficient and safe laser treatment.

  7. Assessment technique for acne treatments based on statistical parameters of skin thermal images.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Medina, J Alfredo; León-Ordoñez, Francisco; Prado-Olivarez, Juan; Vela-Aguirre, Noe; Ramírez-Agundis, Agustin; Díaz-Carmona, Javier

    2014-04-01

    Acne vulgaris as an inflammatory disease, with an excessive production of subdermal fat, modifies the dynamics of the bloodstream, and consequently temperature, on the affected skin zone. A high percentage of this heat interchange is manifested as electromagnetic radiation with far-infrared wavelengths, which can be captured through a thermal imaging camera. A technique based on thermal image analysis for efficiency assessment in acne vulgaris is described. The procedure is based on computing statistical parameters of thermal images captured from the affected skin zone being attended by an acne treatment. The proposed technique was used to determine the skin thermal behavior according to acne severity levels in different acne treatment stages. Infrared images of acne skin zones on eight patients, diagnosed with acne vulgaris and attended by one specific acne treatment, were weekly registered during 11 weeks. The infrared images were captured until no more improvement in affected zones was detected. The obtained results suggest a direct relationship between the used statistical parameters, particularly first- and second-order statistics, and the acne vulgaris severity level on the affected zones.

  8. Self-immobilization and/or thermal treatment for preparing silica-poly(methyloctylsiloxane) stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Bottoli, Carla B G; Vigna, Camila R M; Fischer, Gerd; Albert, Klaus; Collins, Kenneth E; Collins, Carol H

    2004-03-19

    Batches of poly(methyloctylsiloxane) (PMOS)-loaded silica were prepared by the deposition of PMOS, into the pores of HPLC silica. Portions of PMOS-loaded silica were allowed to remain at ambient temperature, without further treatment for 2, 9, 20, 31, 51, 105 and 184 days after preparation to undergo self-immobilization (irreversible adsorption of a layer of polymer on silica at ambient temperature in the absence of initiators). Other portions were subjected to a thermal treatment (100 degrees C for 4h) after 1, 2, 5, 7, 9, 15, 20, 25, 70, 111 and 184 days. Self-immobilized and thermally treated samples were characterized by % C, 29Si cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR spectroscopy and reversed-phase column performance. The results show that thermal immobilization accelerates the distribution and rearrangement of the polymer on the silica surface. However, from the time that a monolayer has been formed by self-immobilization (approximately 100 days for PMOS on Kromasil silica), the thermal treatment does not alter this configuration and, thus, does not change the resulting chromatographic parameters.

  9. Dual-wavelength photoacoustic technique for monitoring tissue status during thermal treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Wang, Xueding; Deng, Cheri X.

    2013-06-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) techniques have been exploited for monitoring thermal treatments. However, PA signals depend not only on tissue temperature but also on tissue optical properties which indicate tissue status (e.g., native or coagulated). The changes in temperature and tissue status often occur simultaneously during thermal treatments, so both effects cause changes to PA signals. A new dual-wavelength PA technique to monitor tissue status independent of temperature is performed. By dividing the PA signal intensities obtained at two wavelengths at the same temperature, a ratio, which only depends on tissue optical properties, is obtained. Experiments were performed with two experimental groups, one with untreated tissue samples and the other with high-intensity focused ultrasound treated tissue samples including thermal coagulated lesion, using ex vivo porcine myocardium specimens to test the technique. The ratio of PA signal intensities obtained at 700 and 800 nm was constant for both groups from 25 to 43°C, but with distinct values for the two groups. Tissue alteration during thermal treatment was then studied using water bath heating of tissue samples from 35 to 60°C. We found that the ratio stayed constant before it exhibited a marked increase at around 55°C, indicating tissue changes at this temperature.

  10. Optical fiber biocompatible sensors for monitoring selective treatment of tumors via thermal ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, Daniele; Poeggel, Sven; Dinesh, Duraibabu B.; Macchi, Edoardo G.; Gallati, Mario; Braschi, Giovanni; Leen, Gabriel; Lewis, Elfed

    2015-09-01

    Thermal ablation (TA) is an interventional procedure for selective treatment of tumors, that results in low-invasive outpatient care. The lack of real-time control of TA is one of its main weaknesses. Miniature and biocompatible optical fiber sensors are applied to achieve a dense, multi-parameter monitoring, that can substantially improve the control of TA. Ex vivo measurements are reported performed on porcine liver tissue, to reproduce radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma. Our measurement campaign has a two-fold focus: (1) dual pressure-temperature measurement with a single probe; (2) distributed thermal measurement to estimate point-by-point cells mortality.

  11. [Impact of Thermal Treatment on Biogas Production by Anaerobic Digestion of High-solid-content Swine Manure].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu-ying; Wu, Jing; Wang, Shi-feng; Cao, Zhi-ping; Wang, Kai-jun; Zuo, Jian-e

    2015-08-01

    Livestock manure is a kind of waste with high organic content and sanitation risk. In order to investigate the impact of thermal treatment on the anaerobic digestion of high-solid-content swine manure, 70 degrees C thermal treatment was conducted to treat raw manure (solid content 27.6%) without any dilution. The results indicated that thermal treatment could reduce the organic matters and improve the performance of anaerobic digestion. When the thermal treatment time was 1d, 2d, 3d, 4d, the VS removal rates were 15.1%, 15.5%, 17.8% and 20.0%, respectively. The methane production rates (CH4/VSadd) were 284.4, 296.3, 309.2 and 264.4 mL x g(-1), which was enhanced by 49.7%, 55.9%, 62.7% and 39.2%, respectively. The highest methane production rate occurred when the thermal treatment time was 3d. The thermal treatment had an efficient impact on promoting the performance of methane production rate with a suitable energy consumption. On the other hand, thermal treatment could act as pasteurization. This showed that thermal treatment would be of great practical importance. PMID:26592046

  12. Treatment of hepatic tumors by thermal versus mechanical effects of pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Song; Zhou, Ping; He, Wei; Liao, Manqiong; Chen, Lili; Ma, C.-M.

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to comparatively assess the thermal versus mechanical effects of pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment on hepatic tumors in vivo. Forty-five rabbits with hepatic VX2 tumors were randomly separated into three groups (15 animals per group) before HIFU ablation. The total HIFU energy (in situ) of 1250 J was used for each tumor for three groups. In groups I and II, animals were treated with 1 MHz pulsed ultrasound at 1 Hz pulsed repetition frequency (PRF), 0.5 duty cycle (0.5 s on and 0.5 s off) and10 s duration for one spot sonication. For group II, in addition to HIFU treatment, microbubbles (SonoVue, Bracco, Milan, Italy) were injected via vein before sonication acting as a synergist. In group III, animals were treated with 1 MHz pulsed ultrasound at 10 Hz PRF, 0.1 duty cycle (0.1 s on and 0.9 s off) and 10 s duration for one sonication. The total treatment spots were calculated according to the tumor volume. Tumors were examined with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) immediately prior to and post HIFU treatment. Histopathologic assessment was performed 3 h after treatment. Our study showed that all animals tolerated the HIFU treatment well. Our data showed that mechanical HIFU could lead to controlled injury in rabbit hepatic tumors with different histological changes in comparison to thermal HIFU with or without microbubbles.

  13. Study on the behavior of heavy metals during thermal treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) components.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Sun, Lushi; Wang, Ben; Qiao, Yu; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Yao, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the volatilization behavior of heavy metals during pyrolysis and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) components at different heating rates and temperatures. The waste fractions comprised waste paper (Paper), disposable chopstick (DC), garbage bag (GB), PVC plastic (PVC), and waste tire (Tire). Generally, the release trend of heavy metals from all MSW fractions in rapid-heating combustion was superior to that in low-heating combustion. Due to the different characteristics of MSW fractions, the behavior of heavy metals varied. Cd exhibited higher volatility than the rest of heavy metals. For Paper, DC, and PVC, the vaporization of Cd can reach as high as 75% at 500 °C in the rapid-heating combustion due to violent combustion, whereas a gradual increase was observed for Tire and GB. Zn and Pb showed a moderate volatilization in rapid-heating combustion, but their volatilities were depressed in slow-heating combustion. During thermal treatment, the additives such as kaolin and calcium can react or adsorb Pb and Zn forming stable metal compounds, thus decreasing their volatilities. The formation of stable compounds can be strengthened in slow-heating combustion. The volatility of Cu was comparatively low in both high and slow-heating combustion partially due to the existence of Al, Si, or Fe in residuals. Generally, in the reducing atmosphere, the volatility of Cd, Pb, and Zn was accelerated for Paper, DC, GB, and Tire due to the formation of elemental metal vapor. TG analysis also showed the reduction of metal oxides by chars forming elemental metal vapor. Cu2S was the dominant Cu species in reducing atmosphere below 900 °C, which was responsible for the low volatility of Cu. The addition of PVC in wastes may enhance the release of heavy metals, while GB and Tire may play an opposite effect. In controlling heavy metal emission, aluminosilicate- and calcium-based sorbents can be co-treated with fuels. Moreover

  14. Study on the behavior of heavy metals during thermal treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) components.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Sun, Lushi; Wang, Ben; Qiao, Yu; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Yao, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the volatilization behavior of heavy metals during pyrolysis and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) components at different heating rates and temperatures. The waste fractions comprised waste paper (Paper), disposable chopstick (DC), garbage bag (GB), PVC plastic (PVC), and waste tire (Tire). Generally, the release trend of heavy metals from all MSW fractions in rapid-heating combustion was superior to that in low-heating combustion. Due to the different characteristics of MSW fractions, the behavior of heavy metals varied. Cd exhibited higher volatility than the rest of heavy metals. For Paper, DC, and PVC, the vaporization of Cd can reach as high as 75% at 500 °C in the rapid-heating combustion due to violent combustion, whereas a gradual increase was observed for Tire and GB. Zn and Pb showed a moderate volatilization in rapid-heating combustion, but their volatilities were depressed in slow-heating combustion. During thermal treatment, the additives such as kaolin and calcium can react or adsorb Pb and Zn forming stable metal compounds, thus decreasing their volatilities. The formation of stable compounds can be strengthened in slow-heating combustion. The volatility of Cu was comparatively low in both high and slow-heating combustion partially due to the existence of Al, Si, or Fe in residuals. Generally, in the reducing atmosphere, the volatility of Cd, Pb, and Zn was accelerated for Paper, DC, GB, and Tire due to the formation of elemental metal vapor. TG analysis also showed the reduction of metal oxides by chars forming elemental metal vapor. Cu2S was the dominant Cu species in reducing atmosphere below 900 °C, which was responsible for the low volatility of Cu. The addition of PVC in wastes may enhance the release of heavy metals, while GB and Tire may play an opposite effect. In controlling heavy metal emission, aluminosilicate- and calcium-based sorbents can be co-treated with fuels. Moreover

  15. Citric acid facilitated thermal treatment: An innovative method for the remediation of mercury contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fujun; Peng, Changsheng; Hou, Deyi; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qian; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao

    2015-12-30

    Thermal treatment is a promising technology for the remediation of mercury contaminated soils, but it often requires high energy input at heating temperatures above 600°C, and the treated soil is not suitable for agricultural reuse. The present study developed a novel method for the thermal treatment of mercury contaminated soils with the facilitation of citric acid (CA). A CA/Hg molar ratio of 15 was adopted as the optimum dosage. The mercury concentration in soils was successfully reduced from 134 mg/kg to 1.1mg/kg when treated at 400°C for 60 min and the treated soil retained most of its original soil physiochemical properties. During the treatment process, CA was found to provide an acidic environment which enhanced the volatilization of mercury. This method is expected to reduce energy input by 35% comparing to the traditional thermal treatment method, and lead to agricultural soil reuse, thus providing a greener and more sustainable remediation method for treating mercury contaminated soil in future engineering applications. PMID:26253234

  16. Treatment Control and Device Optimization of Transurethral Curvilinear Applicators for Prostate Thermal Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, Mallika; Wootton, Jeffery H.; Juang, Titania; Diederich, Chris J.

    2009-04-01

    Transurethral ultrasound catheter devices in curvilinear configurations are being optimized for improved treatment control and accuracy, reduced treatment times and minimizing surrounding heating of thermally sensitive structures beyond the prostate. A transient acoustic and biothermal model was used to estimate prostate temperature distributions, treatment times and rectal heating for various device configurations and control strategies while accommodating sweeping of curvilinear applicators, power modulation, outer target boundary pilot-point temperature control (sequential rotation) and changes in attenuation with lethal thermal dose. Large prostates can be treated in clinically reasonable times (20-40 min) with low rectal heating if the curvilinear device radius of curvature are increased to 25 mm, device frequency is kept low between 5-6.5 MHz and large device dimensions are chosen (5 X 20 mm) with high maximum allowable temperatures along device length. Pilot-point temperature feedback treatment control can be enhanced with decreased rectal thermal dose by using variable boundary temperatures at the posterior prostate near rectum.

  17. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 1: Radiological surrogates

    SciTech Connect

    Stockdale, J.A.D.; Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Lee, H.T.

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation and comparison of proposed thermal treatment systems for mixed wastes can be expedited by tests in which the radioactive components of the wastes are replaced by surrogate materials chosen to mimic, as far as is possible, the chemical and physical properties of the radioactive materials of concern. In this work, sponsored by the Mixed Waste Integrated Project of the US Department of Energy, the authors have examined reported experience with such surrogates and suggest a simplified standard list of materials for use in tests of thermal treatment systems. The chief radioactive nuclides of concern in the treatment of mixed wastes are {sup 239}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 90}Sr. These nuclides are largely by-products of uranium enrichment, reactor fuel reprocessing, and weapons program activities. Cs, Ru, and Sr all have stable isotopes that can be used as perfect surrogates for the radioactive forms. Technetium exists only in radioactive form, as do plutonium and uranium. If one wishes to preclude radioactive contamination of the thermal treatment system under trial burn, surrogate elements must be chosen for these three. For technetium, the authors suggest the use of natural ruthenium, and for both plutonium and uranium, they recommend cerium. The seven radionuclides listed can therefore be simulated by a surrogate package containing stable isotopes of ruthenium, strontium, cesium, and cerium.

  18. Additive, Multi-Component Treatment of Emerging Refusal Topographies in a Pediatric Feeding Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, William G.; Jaquess, David L.; Bogard, Jennifer D.; Morton, Jane F.

    2010-01-01

    This case study describes inter-disciplinary treatment of chronic food refusal and tube dependency in a 2-year-old female with a pediatric feeding disorder. Evidence-based behavioral components--including escape extinction (EE), differential reinforcement of alterative mealtime behavior (DRA), and stimulus fading--were introduced sequentially as…

  19. Effects of thermal treatment on the coagulation of soy proteins induced by subtilisin Carlsberg.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Kuniyo; Nakano, Mikio; Nakano, Kimio; Asaoka, Kohei; Yasukawa, Kiyoshi

    2009-01-28

    The effects of thermal treatment on the subtilisin Carlsberg-induced coagulations of soy protein isolate (SPI) and soy proteins in 7S and 11S fractions, most of which are beta-conglycinin and glycinin, respectively, were examined by measuring the turbidity (OD(660)) of the reaction solutions. With the treatment at 37-60 degrees C, the turbidity did not increase at all by the proteolysis, while with the treatment at 70-96 degrees C, it drastically increased. The degree of the coagulation is the highest for the treatment at 80 degrees C and the most remarkable for 11S soy protein. Changes in the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis pattern of the digests during the proteolysis were in good agreement with those in the turbidities for SPI and 7S and 11S soy proteins. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that the amounts of nonstructured protein in SPI and 7S and 11S soy proteins were initially 40-50%, increased to 55-60% by the treatment at 80 degrees C, and further increased to 65-75% by the proteolysis. The maximum fluorescence intensity of SPI and 7S and 11S soy proteins increased with an increase in the incubation temperature up to 80 degrees C. These findings suggest that the thermal treatment at 80 degrees C most effectively changes the secondary structure of soy proteins and renders them coagulate when hydrolyzed by subtilisin Carlsberg.

  20. Effects of atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma treatments on aflatoxigenic fungi and its host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo-Chen

    2015-09-01

    This experiment tests the ability of atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma treatments in the prevention of fungi infection. There are charged particles, electric field, radicals and UV light inside plasmas and these elements might trigger different physical or chemical effects during non-thermal plasma treatments. In this experiment, the experimental samples received indirect plasma treatments with different time duration and gas compositions which mean only the remote effects caused by plasma treatments could be seen. In this work, plasmas were produced by dielectric barrier discharge method. The operation gases were air and a mixed gas of 97% He and 3%O2. After plasma treatments, fungi growth rate was observed by taking pictures and the existence of aflatoxin was qualitatively detected by black light method. The final results show that the radicals in both He/O2 and air plasma might facilitate fungi growth rate which means peanuts received indirect plasma treatments grew fungi faster than control group. The outcomes of aflatoxin detection also shows that the fungi grown on all the sample are aflatoxigenic fungi.

  1. Clinical Psychopharmacology Update: Additional Safety Concerns for Using Varenicline (Chantix) for Smoking Cessation Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Thomas J; Tobin, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Smoking cessation remains a positive therapeutic goal and should be encouraged for the millions of individuals who continue to smoke and struggle to quit. While psychiatric nurses should encourage patients to start or continue smoking cessation therapies, they must be aware of the additional safety concerns relating to the use of varenicline (Chantix). Research published subsequent to the last clinical update in this journal (Tobin, 2007 ) has prompted additional warnings from the Food and Drug Administration concerning varenicline for smoking cessation therapy. In particular, clinicians need to be aware of increased concerns about varenicline's association with neuropsychiatric side effects, seizures, and alcohol interactions. PMID:26514264

  2. Thermal Stability Testing of Fischer-Tropsch Fuel and Various Blends with Jet A, as Well as Aromatic Blend Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klettlinger, J.; Rich, R.; Yen, C.; Surgenor, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) jet fuel composition differs from petroleum-based, conventional commercial jet fuel because of differences in feedstock and production methodology. Fischer-Tropsch fuel typically has a lower aromatic and sulfur content and consists primarily of iso and normal parafins. The ASTM D3241 specification for Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Test (JFTOT) break point testing method was used to test the breakpoint of a baseline conventional Jet A, a commercial grade F-T jet fuel, and various blends of this F-T fuel in Jet A. The testing completed in this report was supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project.

  3. Effects of heat treatments on the thermal diffusivity of Uranium-Molybdenum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarano, D. M.; Mansur, F. A.; Santos, A. M. M.; Ferraz, W. B.; Pedrosa, T. A.

    2016-07-01

    U-Mo alloys are the most investigated nuclear fuel material to be used in research reactors. The addition of molybdenum stabilizes the gamma phase of uranium and increases its melting point. A research program under development at Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) aims the obtaining of uranium-molybdenum alloys to enable the high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) conversions. U-Mo ingots with 10% by weight were induction melted and heat treated at 300 °C for 72 h, 120 h and 240 h. Thermal diffusivity was determined by the laser flash method and thermal quadrupole method, from room temperature to 300 oC and 400oC. It was observed that the thermal diffusivity tends to increase with increasing temperature.

  4. 40 CFR 141.711 - Filtered system additional Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... survey or an equivalent source water assessment that after a system completed the monitoring conducted... lead to increased contamination of the source water by Cryptosporidium, the system must take actions specified by the State to address the contamination. These actions may include additional source...

  5. 40 CFR 141.711 - Filtered system additional Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... survey or an equivalent source water assessment that after a system completed the monitoring conducted... lead to increased contamination of the source water by Cryptosporidium, the system must take actions specified by the State to address the contamination. These actions may include additional source...

  6. 40 CFR 141.711 - Filtered system additional Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... survey or an equivalent source water assessment that after a system completed the monitoring conducted... lead to increased contamination of the source water by Cryptosporidium, the system must take actions specified by the State to address the contamination. These actions may include additional source...

  7. 40 CFR 141.711 - Filtered system additional Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... survey or an equivalent source water assessment that after a system completed the monitoring conducted... lead to increased contamination of the source water by Cryptosporidium, the system must take actions specified by the State to address the contamination. These actions may include additional source...

  8. UASB Treatment of Methanolic Pulp Wastewater with Addition of Waste Starch and Incinerated Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Shintaro; Kobaysashi, Takuro; Li, Yu-You; Harada, Hideki

    The pulp wastewater consists mainly of methanol. It is expected to treat using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process. Paper manufactories also produce waste starch and incinerated ash. The integrated treating for these wastes is desirable. In this study, two UASB reactors were operated to treat pulp wastewater with addition of waste starch and with addition of incinerated ash, receptively. Continuous operations of a UASB reactor treating pulp wastewater with addition of waste starch (PS reactor) and a UASB reactor treating pulp wastewater with addition of incinerated ash (PA reactor) , were investigated at mesophilic conditions. The PS reactor performed well with an average 93.7% total CODCr and 97.3% soluble CODCr removal efficiency in average at a maximum volumetric loading rate (VLR) of 16.0 kgCOD/m3/d. The PA reactor was also successfully operated with an average 95.3% total CODCr and 97.5% soluble CODCr removal efficiency in average at a maximum VLR of 14.6 kgCOD/m3/d. Successfully developed granules were obtained after over 140 days of operation in both reactors, and the granules were 1 to 2 mm in mean diameter. Microbial analysis revealed the genus Methanomethylovorans was predominant in the granules of both reactors.

  9. Economic aspects of thermal treatment of solid waste in a sustainable WM system.

    PubMed

    Massarutto, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    This paper offers a systematic review of the literature of the last 15 years, which applies economic analysis and theories to the issue of combustion of solid waste. Waste incineration has attracted the interest of economists in the first place concerning the comparative assessment of waste management options, with particular reference to external costs and benefits. A second important field of applied economic research concerns the market failures associated with the provision of thermal treatment of waste, that justify some deviation from the standard competitive market model. Our analysis discusses the most robust achievements and the more controversial areas. All in all, the economic perspective seems to confirm the desirability of assigning a prominent role to thermal treatments in an integrated waste management strategy. Probably the most interesting original contribution it has to offer concerns the refusal of categorical assumptions and too rigid priority ladders, emphasizing instead the need to consider site-specific circumstances that may favor one or another solution.

  10. Laser heat treatment of aerosol-jet additive manufactured graphene patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabari, Elahe; Toyserkani, Ehsan

    2015-09-01

    In this article, a laser processing protocol for heat treatment of micro-scale printed graphene patterns is developed, and the results are compared with the counterpart results obtained by the conventional heat treatment process carried out in a furnace. A continuous-wave Erbium fiber laser is used to enhance electrical properties of the aerosol-jet printed graphene patterns through removing solvents and a stabilizer polymer. The laser power and the process speed are optimized to effectively treat the printed patterns without compromising the quality of the graphene flakes. Furthermore, a heat transfer model is developed and its results are utilized to optimize the laser treatment process. It is found that the laser heat treatment process with a laser speed of 0.03 mm s-1, a laser beam diameter ~50 μm, and a laser power of 10 W results in pure graphene patterns with no excessive components. The ratio of D to G bands ({{I}\\text{D}}/{{I}\\text{G}}) in Raman graph of the laser treated pure graphene, which is an indicator of the level of the active defects in graphene structures, is 0.52. The laser treated pure graphene structures also have a C/O ratio and an electrical resistivity of ~4.5 and 0.022 Ω cm, respectively. These values are fairly comparable with the results of samples treated in a furnace. The results suggest that the laser processing has the capability of removing stabilizer polymers and solvents through a localized moving heat source, which is preferable for flexible electronics with low working temperature substrates.

  11. Continuous Emission Monitor for Toxic Metals in the Off-Gases of Thermal Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Loge

    1998-12-01

    Self-calibration procedures for continuous monitoring of toxic metals in the off-gases of thermal treatment facilities using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) were tested. The tests were performed using a heated aerosol/gas flow system that generated simulated off-gas conditions with calibrated amounts of metal in an optical cell. Calibration curves of LIBS signal for metal concentration in the cell were obtained for various gas and optical conditions. Gas conditions that were varied include water in either vapor and condensed aerosol droplet form, the presence of easily ionizable elements (i. e., potassium), speciation of the metal analyte, and the gas temperature. In addition, laser pulse energy, focal length, and detector alignment were independently varied. Two different sets of calibration curves were obtained, one set with Mn(II) and N(II) emission obtained simultaneously and a second set with Cd(I) and Cd(II) emission obtained simultaneously with N(I) emission obtained in a sequential manner. For both sets of data, calibration curves were obtained using 1) single line intensities, 2) the ratio of metal single line intensity to nitrogen single line intensity, and 3) the ratio of total metal emission to total nitrogen emission obtained using the temperature and electron density. Results show that correction using the ratio of metal single line intensity to nitrogen single line intensity does help in maintaining a constant slope of calibration curves for various conditions. However, the total emission self-calibration procedure shows better performance in most cases.

  12. Laser treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: optical, thermal, and tissue damage simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Chang, Chun-Hung; Myers, Erinn M.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2016-02-01

    Treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) by laser thermal remodeling of subsurface tissues is studied. Light transport, heat transfer, and thermal damage simulations were performed for transvaginal and transurethral methods. Monte Carlo (MC) provided absorbed photon distributions in tissue layers (vaginal wall, endopelvic fascia, urethral wall). Optical properties (n,μa,μs,g) were assigned to each tissue at λ=1064 nm. A 5-mm-diameter laser beam and power of 5 W for 15 s was used, based on previous experiments. MC output was converted into absorbed energy, serving as input for ANSYS finite element heat transfer simulations of tissue temperatures over time. Convective heat transfer was simulated with contact cooling probe set at 0 °C. Thermal properties (κ,c,ρ) were assigned to each tissue layer. MATLAB code was used for Arrhenius integral thermal damage calculations. A temperature matrix was constructed from ANSYS output, and finite sum was incorporated to approximate Arrhenius integral calculations. Tissue damage properties (Ea,A) were used to compute Arrhenius sums. For the transvaginal approach, 37% of energy was absorbed in endopelvic fascia layer with 0.8% deposited beyond it. Peak temperature was 71°C, treatment zone was 0.8-mm-diameter, and almost all of 2.7-mm-thick vaginal wall was preserved. For transurethral approach, 18% energy was absorbed in endopelvic fascia with 0.3% deposited beyond it. Peak temperature was 80°C, treatment zone was 2.0-mm-diameter, and only 0.6 mm of 2.4-mm-thick urethral wall was preserved. A transvaginal approach is more feasible than transurethral approach for laser treatment of SUI.

  13. 42 CFR 412.107 - Special treatment: Hospitals that receive an additional update for FYs 1998 and 1999.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.107 Special treatment: Hospitals that receive an additional update for FYs... section if it meets all of the following criteria: (1) Definition. The hospital is not a Medicare...) of this section for their cost reporting periods beginning in FY 1995 is less than the...

  14. Post-deposition control of ferroelastic stripe domains and internal electric field by thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Feigl, L.; Iwanowska, M.; Sandu, C. S.; Setter, N.; Janolin, P.-E.; Yamada, T.

    2015-01-19

    The dependence of the formation of ferroelastic stripe domain patterns on the thermal history is investigated by detailed piezoresponse force microscopy and X-ray diffraction experiments after and during annealing of tensile strained tetragonal Pb(Ti,Zr)O{sub 3} epitaxial thin films on DyScO{sub 3} substrates. In particular, the ferroelastic pattern is reversibly interchanged between a cross-hatched and a stripe domain pattern if the films are cooled at different rates after annealing above the formation temperature of a-domains. Different types of 180° and non-180° patterns can be created, depending on the thermal treatment. The changes in the 180° domain structure and lattice parameters are attributed to a change of oxygen vacancy concentration, which results in a modification of the internal electric field and unit cell size, causing also a shift of T{sub C}. Thermal treatment is done on rhombohedral La:BiFeO{sub 3} thin films as well. It is observed that also in these films, appropriate heat treatment modifies the domain pattern and films with a stripe domain pattern can be created, confirming the general validity of the developed model.

  15. Polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons in rape seeds with relation to their growing site and thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Bojanowska, M; Czerwiński, J

    2010-01-01

    A significant source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in human diet is vegetable oils, especially those produced from plants grown in regions where the soil and the atmosphere are contaminated with these chemicals. Contamination with PAH of vegetable oils may also occur in the process of plant material drying with smoke or exhaust fumes, or in the course of extraction of that material with solvents containing trace amounts of PAH. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the levels of PAH present in rape seeds and the occurrence of these compounds in cultivation region and the relationship of the levels of PAH in rape seeds to thermal treatment after harvest. Rape seeds and pods from experimental fields and rape seeds subjected to thermal treatment in dryers obtained from suppliers of the raw material were examined and compared. Cleanup of extracts was performed with high-resolution size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and final determinations were by Trace Ultra/PolarisQ gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The results obtained indicated that during thermal treatment of rape seeds the concentration of PAH increased, but the levels of benzo[a]pyrene did not exceed threshold permissible levels. Data demonstrate that rapeseed cultivation in the presence of PAH results in higher levels of contaminants; however, the PAH levels still did not exceed the maximal allowable levels in Poland.

  16. Thermal sludge dryer demonstration: Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant, Buffalo, NY. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The Buffalo Sewer Authority (BSA), in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority), commissioned a demonstration of a full scale indirect disk-type sludge dryer at the Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant (BIWWTP). The purpose of the project was to determine the effects of the sludge dryer on the sludge incineration process at the facility. Sludge incineration is traditionally the most expensive, energy-intensive unit process involving solids handling at wastewater treatment plants; costs for incineration at the BIWWTP have averaged $2.4 million per year. In the conventional method of processing solids, a series of volume reduction measures, which usually includes thickening, digestion, and mechanical dewatering, is employed prior to incineration. Usually, a high level of moisture is still present within sewage sludge following mechanical dewatering. The sludge dryer system thermally dewaters wastewater sludge to approximately 26%, (and as high as 38%) dry solids content prior to incineration. The thermal dewatering system at the BIWWTP has demonstrated that it meets its design requirements. It has the potential to provide significant energy and other cost savings by allowing the BSA to change from an operation employing two incinerators to a single incinerator mode. While the long-term reliability of the thermal dewatering system has yet to be established, this project has demonstrated that installation of such a system in an existing treatment plant can provide the owner with significant operating cost savings.

  17. STEP wastewater treatment: a solar thermal electrochemical process for pollutant oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baohui; Wu, Hongjun; Zhang, Guoxue; Licht, Stuart

    2012-10-01

    A solar thermal electrochemical production (STEP) pathway was established to utilize solar energy to drive useful chemical processes. In this paper, we use experimental chemistry for efficient STEP wastewater treatment, and suggest a theory based on the decreasing stability of organic pollutants (hydrocarbon oxidation potentials) with increasing temperature. Exemplified by the solar thermal electrochemical oxidation of phenol, the fundamental model and experimental system components of this process outline a general method for the oxidation of environmentally stable organic pollutants into carbon dioxide, which is easily removed. Using thermodynamic calculations we show a sharply decreasing phenol oxidation potential with increasing temperature. The experimental results demonstrate that this increased temperature can be supplied by solar thermal heating. In combination this drives electrochemical phenol removal with enhanced oxidation efficiency through (i) a thermodynamically driven decrease in the energy needed to fuel the process and (ii) improved kinetics to sustain high rates of phenol oxidation at low electrochemical overpotential. The STEP wastewater treatment process is synergistic in that it is performed with higher efficiency than either electrochemical or photovoltaic conversion process acting alone. STEP is a green, efficient, safe, and sustainable process for organic wastewater treatment driven solely by solar energy.

  18. Effects of alkali treatment on the mechanical and thermal properties of Sansevieria trifasciata fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardiyati, Steven, Rizkiansyah, Raden Reza; Senoaji, A.; Suratman, R.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, Sansevieria trifasciata fibers were treated by NaOH with concentration 1%,3%, and 5wt% at 100°C for 2 hours. Chesson-Datta methods was used to determine the lignocellulose content of raw sansevieria fibers and to investigate effect of alkali treatment on lignin content of the fiber. Mechanical properties and thermal properties of treated and untreated fibers were measured by means of tensile testing machine and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).The cellulose and lignin contents of raw sansevieria fiber obtained from Chesson-Datta method were 56% and 6% respectively. Mechanical testing of fibers showed the increase of tensile strength from 647 MPa for raw fibers to 902 MPa for 5wt% NaOH treated fibers. TGA result showed the alkali treatment increase the thermal resistance of fibers from 288°C for raw fibers to 307°C for 5% NaOH treated fiber. It was found that alkali treatment affect the mechanical properties and thermal properties of sansevieria fibers.

  19. Releasing characteristics of phosphorus and other substances during thermal treatment of excess sludge.

    PubMed

    Xue, Tao; Huang, Xia

    2007-01-01

    The releasing characteristics of phosphorus, nitrogen compounds, organics, and some metal cations during thermal treatment of excess sludge were investigated. It was found that during heating not only phosphorus, but also nitrogen compounds, organics, and some metal cations could be released in abundance. The maximum orthophosphate (ortho-P) release of about 90 mg/L in concentration was observed at 50 degrees C in 1 h. Except for volatile fatty acids (VFAs), comparatively little total nitrogen (TN), total organic carbon (TOC), and metal cations were released at the same time. Such results might favor further process of phosphorus recovery. VFAs were considerably released only at 50 degrees C. Acetic, butyric, and propionic acid were the most abundant components in turn and their releasing profiles exhibited good linear relationship with time (R2 = 0.9977, 0.9624, and 0.8908, respectively). The concentrations of Mg2+ and K+ increased with time and temperature during thermal treatment, but Ca2+ decreased. The release of Mg2+ and K+ agreed well with TP release (R2 = 0.9892 and 0.9476, respectively). Temperature in the experimental range had very little impact on the linear relationships, especially of Mg2+. Moreover, the parameter of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) was found to be an important factor for thermal sludge treatment as the released ortho-P and total phosphorus (TP) at 50 degrees C increased more than one-fold when MLSS was increased from 4000 to 8000 mg/L.

  20. Polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons in rape seeds with relation to their growing site and thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Bojanowska, M; Czerwiński, J

    2010-01-01

    A significant source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in human diet is vegetable oils, especially those produced from plants grown in regions where the soil and the atmosphere are contaminated with these chemicals. Contamination with PAH of vegetable oils may also occur in the process of plant material drying with smoke or exhaust fumes, or in the course of extraction of that material with solvents containing trace amounts of PAH. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the levels of PAH present in rape seeds and the occurrence of these compounds in cultivation region and the relationship of the levels of PAH in rape seeds to thermal treatment after harvest. Rape seeds and pods from experimental fields and rape seeds subjected to thermal treatment in dryers obtained from suppliers of the raw material were examined and compared. Cleanup of extracts was performed with high-resolution size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and final determinations were by Trace Ultra/PolarisQ gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The results obtained indicated that during thermal treatment of rape seeds the concentration of PAH increased, but the levels of benzo[a]pyrene did not exceed threshold permissible levels. Data demonstrate that rapeseed cultivation in the presence of PAH results in higher levels of contaminants; however, the PAH levels still did not exceed the maximal allowable levels in Poland. PMID:20706951

  1. Treatment of Scumming Effects of Pottery Clay by Sodium Carbonate Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasanapiarnpong, T.; Thueploy, A.; Nilpairach, S.; Arayaphong, D.

    2011-10-01

    Earthenware pottery products made by using red plastic clay in Ratchaburi province of Thailand and fired at 850-1000 °C, always shows some blemishes, caused by scumming on the surface. This scumming contains calcium sulfate, contaminated in the raw clay as gypsum form. The addition of barium carbonate is a suggested solution to prevent this white stain. However, it is difficult for barium carbonate to spread throughout the clay so that it takes a long time to complete the reaction. This research aims to find the solution by using sodium carbonate as an alternative chemical. Sodium carbonate was mixed in the clay at 1wt% dissolved in distilled water controlled the moisture at 22 % by wet weight. The mixture was kneaded and aged for 24 h, then formed, dried and fired at 850-950 °C. The types and quantities of ion in mixed clay and deposited on the surface product were determined after drying. It was found that the white stain areas were diminished, as same as the result from the addition of barium carbonate. Moreover, the sample after firing at 950 °C had lower water absorption as 12.22 %, higher three point bending strength as 32.53 MPa when compared to the addition of barium carbonate, which had higher water absorption as 15.58 % and lower three point bending strength as 25.25 MPa.

  2. Nutrient removal in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds with carbon dioxide addition.

    PubMed

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J

    2011-01-01

    The influence of CO2 addition to high rate algal ponds (HRAPS) on nitrogen removal was investigated using two pilot-scale HRAPs operated with different hydraulic retention times (HRT: 4 and 8 days), and was compared to the nitrogen removal by the 8-day HRT pond before CO2 addition was installed. Nitrogen balances were calculated by partitioning total nitrogen into organic and inorganic nitrogen (NH4+-N and NO3--N), and by separation of the organic nitrogen into particulate (PON) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). PON was further divided into algal organic nitrogen (AON) and bacteria organic nitrogen (BON) to investigate nitrogen mass flow in the HRAPS. This research shows that the proportion of algae in the algal/bacterial biomass in the longer 8-day HRT HRAP8d (55.6%) was appreciably lower than that in the shorter 4-day HRT HRAP4d (80.5%) when CO2 was added to control the maximum pH to <8.0 during the summer. Higher bacterial biomass in the longer 8-day HRT HRAP corresponded with higher nitrification rates, indicating that the longer 8-day HRT in the summer was detrimental for two reasons: lower algal productivity and increased nitrogen loss through nitrification/denitrification. Overall nitrogen removal of approximately 60% in the HRAPS with CO2 addition was mainly achieved by algal assimilation followed by sedimentation in the settling unit.

  3. First Achievements and Opportunities for Cancer Treatment Using Non-thermal Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Eric; Vandamme, Marc; Sobilo, Julien; Sarron, Vanessa; Ries, Delphine; Dozias, Sébastien; Brulle, Laura; Lerondel, Stéphanie; Le Pape, Alain; Pouvesle, Jean Michel

    This paper summarizes the experimental results and plasma delivery strategy developed in Orléans for the evaluation of antitumor action of dielectric barrier discharge and plasma gun for cancer treatment. Detailed analysis of biological effects following non thermal plasma application for both in vitro and in vivo experiments reveals the role of ROS, DNA damage induction, cell cycle modification and apoptosis induction. Recent characterization of plasma splitting and ­mixing in different capillary geometries, using the plasma gun, together with preliminary tolerance study dealing with lung and colon treatment indicate that endoscopic plasma delivery may be a new and valuable therapy in cancerology.

  4. Antireflection treatment of thickness sensitive spectrally selective (TSSS) paints for thermal solar absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Lundh, M.; Waeckelgaard, E.; Blom, T.

    2010-01-15

    There are several methods to produce solar absorbers, and one cheap alternative is painted absorbers, preferably painted with a spectrally selective paint. The optical properties of Thickness Sensitive Spectrally Selective (TSSS) paints are, however, limited by the thickness of the paint layer. In this study it is shown that the solar absorptance of two commercial TSSS paints can be increased between 0.01 and 0.02 units with an antireflection treatment using a silicon dioxide layer deposited from silica-gel. It was found that the thermal emittance (100 C) did not change significantly after the treatment. (author)

  5. Graphite electrode thermal behavior and solid electrolyte interphase investigations: Role of state-of-the-art binders, carbonate additives and lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestier, Coralie; Grugeon, Sylvie; Davoisne, Carine; Lecocq, Amandine; Marlair, Guy; Armand, Michel; Sannier, Lucas; Laruelle, Stephane

    2016-10-01

    The risk of thermal runaway is, for Li-ion batteries, a critical issue for large-scale applications. This results in manufacturers and researchers placing great emphasis on minimizing the heat generation and thereby mitigating safety-related risks through the search for suitable materials or additives. To this end, an in-depth stepwise investigation has been undertaken to provide a better understanding of the exothermic processes that take place at the negative electrode/electrolyte interface as well as an increased visibility of the role of the state-of-the-art electrode binders, additives and lithium salt by means of the classical DSC technique. A reliable experimental set up helped quantify the beneficial or harmful contribution of binder polymers to the exothermic behavior of the CMC/SBR containing graphite electrode film in contact with 1 M LiPF6 in EC:DMC:EMC (1:1:1 v/v/v) electrolyte. Further, the role of the VC, FEC and VEC electrolyte additives (2 wt%) in reinforcing the protective SEI layer towards thermally induced electrolyte reduction is discussed in the light of infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyzes results. Moreover, after a preliminary corrosion study of LiPF6/LiFSI mixtures, we showed that the 0.66/0.33 M composition can be used in commercial NMC-based LiBs with a positive effect on the thermal runaway.

  6. Comparison of discrete and continuous thermal neutron scattering treatments in MCNP5

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlou, A. T.; Brown, F. B.; Martin, W. R.; Kiedrowski, B. C.

    2012-07-01

    The standard discrete thermal neutron S({alpha},{beta}) scattering treatment in MCNP5 is compared with a continuous S({alpha},{beta}) scattering treatment using a criticality suite of 119 benchmark cases and ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data. In the analysis, six bound isotopes are considered: beryllium metal, graphite, hydrogen in water, hydrogen in polyethylene, beryllium in beryllium oxide and oxygen in beryllium oxide. Overall, there are only small changes in the eigenvalue (k{sub eff}) between discrete and continuous treatments. In the comparison of 64 cases that utilize S({alpha},{beta}) scattering, 62 agreed at the 95% confidence level, and the 2 cases with differences larger than 3 {sigma} agreed within 1 {sigma} when more neutrons were run in the calculations. The results indicate that the changes in eigenvalue between continuous and discrete treatments are random, small, and well within the uncertainty of measured data for reactor criticality experiments. (authors)

  7. The Effect of CdS/organic Nanostructure as Additive on the Thermal Stability of ABS Polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, Davood; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2012-04-01

    Flower like cadmium sulfide/organic (CdS-or) nanostructures were synthesized via a simple reaction between CdCl2 · 2H2O and thioglycolic acid using water solvent at room temperature, then CdS-or nanostructures were added to Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) copolymer. The influence of inorganic phase on the thermal properties of ABS matrix was studied using thermogravimetry analysis and limiting oxygen index (LOI). Nanostructures and nanocomposite materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. Cone calorimeter measurements showed that the heat release rate (HRR) significantly decreased in the presence of CdS-or nanostructures.

  8. Addition of a magnetite layer onto a polysulfone water treatment membrane to enhance virus removal.

    PubMed

    Raciny, I; Zodrow, K R; Li, D; Li, Q; Alvarez, P J J

    2011-01-01

    The applicability of low-pressure membranes systems in distributed (point of use) water treatment is hindered by, among other things, their inability to remove potentially harmful viruses and ions via size exclusion. According to the USEPA and the Safe Drinking Water Act, drinking water treatment processes must be designed for 4-log virus removal. Batch experiments using magnetite nanoparticle (nano-Fe3O4) suspensions and water filtration experiments with polysulfone membranes coated with nano-Fe3O4 were conducted to assess the removal of a model virus (bacteriophage MS2). The membranes were coated via a simple filtration protocol. Unmodified membranes were a poor adsorbent for MS2 bacteriophage with less than 0.5-log removal, whereas membranes coated with magnetite nanoparticles exhibited a removal efficiency exceeding 99.99% (4-log). Thus, a cartridge of PSf membranes coated with nano-Fe3O4 particles could be used to remove viruses from water. Such membranes showed negligible iron leaching into the filtrate, thus obviating concern about coloured water. Further research is needed to reduce the loss of water flux caused by coating.

  9. Addition of a Magnetite Layer onto a Polysulfone Water Treatment Membrane to Enhance Virus Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raciny, Isabel

    The applicability of low-pressure membranes systems in distributed (point of use) water treatment is hindered by, among other things, their inability to remove potentially harmful viruses and ions via size exclusion. According to the USEPA and the Safe Drinking Water Act, drinking water treatment processes must be designed for 4-log virus removal. Batch experiments using magnetite nanoparticle (nano-Fe3O4) suspensions and water filtration experiments with Polysulfone (PSf) membranes coated with nano-Fe3O 4 were conducted to assess the removal of a model virus (bacteriophage MS2). The membranes were coated via a simple filtration protocol. Unmodified membranes were a poor adsorbent for MS2 bacteriophage with less than 0.5-log removal, whereas membranes coated with magnetite nanoparticles exhibited a removal efficiency exceeding 99.99% (4-log). Thus, a cartridge of PSf membranes coated with nano-Fe3O4 particles could be used to remove viruses from water. Such membranes showed negligible iron leaching into the filtrate, thus obviating concern about colored water. Further research is needed to reduce the loss of water flux caused by coating.

  10. Addition of a magnetite layer onto a polysulfone water treatment membrane to enhance virus removal.

    PubMed

    Raciny, I; Zodrow, K R; Li, D; Li, Q; Alvarez, P J J

    2011-01-01

    The applicability of low-pressure membranes systems in distributed (point of use) water treatment is hindered by, among other things, their inability to remove potentially harmful viruses and ions via size exclusion. According to the USEPA and the Safe Drinking Water Act, drinking water treatment processes must be designed for 4-log virus removal. Batch experiments using magnetite nanoparticle (nano-Fe3O4) suspensions and water filtration experiments with polysulfone membranes coated with nano-Fe3O4 were conducted to assess the removal of a model virus (bacteriophage MS2). The membranes were coated via a simple filtration protocol. Unmodified membranes were a poor adsorbent for MS2 bacteriophage with less than 0.5-log removal, whereas membranes coated with magnetite nanoparticles exhibited a removal efficiency exceeding 99.99% (4-log). Thus, a cartridge of PSf membranes coated with nano-Fe3O4 particles could be used to remove viruses from water. Such membranes showed negligible iron leaching into the filtrate, thus obviating concern about coloured water. Further research is needed to reduce the loss of water flux caused by coating. PMID:21977659

  11. Utilizing the micron sized non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma inside the animal body for the tumor treatment application.

    PubMed

    Mirpour, Shahriar; Piroozmand, Somayeh; Soleimani, Neda; Jalali Faharani, Neda; Ghomi, Hamidreza; Fotovat Eskandari, Hoda; Sharifi, Ali Mohammad; Mirpour, Sahar; Eftekhari, Mohammad; Nikkhah, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of micron sized non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma inside the animal body on breast cancer tumor. The μ-plasma jet consists of micron sized hollow tube in which pure helium gas is ionized by high voltage (4 kV) and high frequency (6 kHz). The efficiency of the plasma treatment in killing cancer cells was first investigated by cell viability measurements of treated 4T1 cells using flow cytometry and cell cycle analysis. For exploration of the in vivo effects of the plasma treatment, the BALB/c mice inoculated by 4T1 cell lines were exposed subcutaneously to plasma for 3 minutes. In addition, H&E staining, TUNEL and Western blotting assays were performed in order to observed the effects of the non-thermal plasma on the tumor cells. The results showed that the efficiency of the plasma in suppression of the tumor growth is comparable to that of a typical chemotherapy drug. Moreover, the results indicated that the plasma induces apoptosis in the tumor tissue and increases the ratio of the apoptotic to anti-apoptotic protein expression. We believe that these findings presented herein may extend our knowledge of the mechanisms by which the plasma exerts its promising anti-cancer effects. PMID:27383714

  12. Utilizing the micron sized non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma inside the animal body for the tumor treatment application

    PubMed Central

    Mirpour, Shahriar; Piroozmand, Somayeh; Soleimani, Neda; Jalali Faharani, Neda; Ghomi, Hamidreza; Fotovat Eskandari, Hoda; Sharifi, Ali Mohammad; Mirpour, Sahar; Eftekhari, Mohammad; Nikkhah, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of micron sized non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma inside the animal body on breast cancer tumor. The μ-plasma jet consists of micron sized hollow tube in which pure helium gas is ionized by high voltage (4 kV) and high frequency (6 kHz). The efficiency of the plasma treatment in killing cancer cells was first investigated by cell viability measurements of treated 4T1 cells using flow cytometry and cell cycle analysis. For exploration of the in vivo effects of the plasma treatment, the BALB/c mice inoculated by 4T1 cell lines were exposed subcutaneously to plasma for 3 minutes. In addition, H&E staining, TUNEL and Western blotting assays were performed in order to observed the effects of the non-thermal plasma on the tumor cells. The results showed that the efficiency of the plasma in suppression of the tumor growth is comparable to that of a typical chemotherapy drug. Moreover, the results indicated that the plasma induces apoptosis in the tumor tissue and increases the ratio of the apoptotic to anti-apoptotic protein expression. We believe that these findings presented herein may extend our knowledge of the mechanisms by which the plasma exerts its promising anti-cancer effects. PMID:27383714

  13. Distribution of copper, silver and gold during thermal treatment with brominated flame retardants

    SciTech Connect

    Oleszek, Sylwia; Grabda, Mariusz; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Copper, silver and gold during thermal treatment with brominated flame retardants. • Distribution of copper, silver and gold during thermal processing. • Thermodynamic considerations of the bromination reactions. - Abstract: The growing consumption of electric and electronic equipment results in creating an increasing amount of electronic waste. The most economically and environmentally advantageous methods for the treatment and recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) are the thermal techniques such as direct combustion, co-combustion with plastic wastes, pyrolysis and gasification. Nowadays, this kind of waste is mainly thermally treated in incinerators (e.g. rotary kilns) to decompose the plastics present, and to concentrate metals in bottom ash. The concentrated metals (e.g. copper, precious metals) can be supplied as a secondary raw material to metal smelters, while the pyrolysis of plastics allows the recovery of fuel gases, volatilising agents and, eventually, energy. Indeed, WEEE, such as a printed circuit boards (PCBs) usually contains brominated flame retardants (BFRs). From these materials, hydrobromic acid (HBr) is formed as a product of their thermal decomposition. In the present work, the bromination was studied of copper, silver and gold by HBr, originating from BFRs, such as Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and Tetrabromobisphenol A-Tetrabromobisophenol A diglycidyl ether (TTDE) polymer; possible volatilization of the bromides formed was monitored using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a laboratory-scale furnace for treating samples of metals and BFRs under an inert atmosphere and at a wide range of temperatures. The results obtained indicate that up to about 50% of copper and silver can evolve from sample residues in the form of volatile CuBr and AgBr above 600 and 1000 °C, respectively. The reactions occur in the molten resin phase simultaneously with the decomposition of the brominated resin. Gold is

  14. Effects of Thermal Treatment on Tensile Strength of Laurentian Granite Using Brazilian Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Tubing; Li, Xibing; Cao, Wenzhuo; Xia, Kaiwen

    2015-11-01

    The effect of thermal treatment on several physical properties and the tensile strength of Laurentian granite (LG) are measured in this study. Brazilian disc LG specimens are treated at temperatures of up to 850 °C. The physical properties such as grain density, relative volume change per degree, and P-wave velocity are investigated under the effect of heat treatment. The results indicate that both the density and the P-wave velocity decrease with the increase in heating temperature. However, the relative volume change per degree is not sensitive below 450 °C, while a remarkable increase appears from 450 to 850 °C. All cases are explained by the increase in both number and width of the thermally induced microcracks with the heating temperature. Brazilian tests are carried out statically with an MTS hydraulic servo-control testing system and dynamically with a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system to measure both static and dynamic tensile strength of LG. The relationship between the tensile strength and treatment temperatures shows that static tensile strength decreases with temperature while the dynamic tensile strength first increases and then decreases with a linear increase in the loading rate. However, the increase in dynamic tensile strength with treatment temperatures from 25 to 100 °C is due to slight dilation of the grain boundaries as the initial thermal action, which leads to compaction of rock. When the treatment temperature rises above 450 °C, the quartz phase transition results in increased size of microcracks due to the differential expansion between the quartz grains and other minerals, which is the main cause of the sharp reduction in tensile strength.

  15. Effect of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cell blended with organic salt

    SciTech Connect

    Sabri, Nasehah Syamin; Yap, Chi Chin; Yahaya, Muhammad; Salleh, Muhamad Mat

    2013-11-27

    This work presents the influence of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of organic solar cell blended with organic salt. The organic solar cells were composed of indium tin oxide as anode, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene]: (6,6)-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester: tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate blend as organic active layer and aluminium as cathode. The devices underwent a simultaneous fixed-voltage electrical and thermal treatment at different temperatures of 25, 50 and 75 °C. It was found that photovoltaic performance improved with the thermal treatment temperature. Accumulation of more organic salt ions in the active layer leads to broadening of p-n doped regions and hence higher built-in electric field across thin intrinsic layer. The simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment has been shown to be able to reduce the electrical treatment voltage.

  16. A review of technologies and performances of thermal treatment systems for energy recovery from waste.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Lidia; Carnevale, Ennio; Corti, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this work is to identify the current level of energy recovery through waste thermal treatment. The state of the art in energy recovery from waste was investigated, highlighting the differences for different types of thermal treatment, considering combustion/incineration, gasification and pyrolysis. Also different types of wastes - Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) or Solid Refuse Fuels (SRF) and some typologies of Industrial Waste (IW) (sludge, plastic scraps, etc.) - were included in the analysis. The investigation was carried out mainly reviewing papers, published in scientific journals and conferences, but also considering technical reports, to gather more information. In particular the goal of this review work was to synthesize studies in order to compare the values of energy conversion efficiencies measured or calculated for different types of thermal processes and different types of waste. It emerged that the dominant type of thermal treatment is incineration associated to energy recovery in a steam cycle. When waste gasification is applied, the produced syngas is generally combusted in a boiler to generate steam for energy recovery in a steam cycle. For both the possibilities--incineration or gasification--co-generation is the mean to improve energy recovery, especially for small scale plants. In the case of only electricity production, the achievable values are strongly dependent on the plant size: for large plant size, where advanced technical solutions can be applied and sustained from an economic point of view, net electric efficiency may reach values up to 30-31%. In small-medium plants, net electric efficiency is constrained by scale effect and remains at values around 20-24%. Other types of technical solutions--gasification with syngas use in internally fired devices, pyrolysis and plasma gasification--are less common or studied at pilot or demonstrative scale and, in any case, offer at present similar or lower levels

  17. A review of technologies and performances of thermal treatment systems for energy recovery from waste.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Lidia; Carnevale, Ennio; Corti, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this work is to identify the current level of energy recovery through waste thermal treatment. The state of the art in energy recovery from waste was investigated, highlighting the differences for different types of thermal treatment, considering combustion/incineration, gasification and pyrolysis. Also different types of wastes - Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) or Solid Refuse Fuels (SRF) and some typologies of Industrial Waste (IW) (sludge, plastic scraps, etc.) - were included in the analysis. The investigation was carried out mainly reviewing papers, published in scientific journals and conferences, but also considering technical reports, to gather more information. In particular the goal of this review work was to synthesize studies in order to compare the values of energy conversion efficiencies measured or calculated for different types of thermal processes and different types of waste. It emerged that the dominant type of thermal treatment is incineration associated to energy recovery in a steam cycle. When waste gasification is applied, the produced syngas is generally combusted in a boiler to generate steam for energy recovery in a steam cycle. For both the possibilities--incineration or gasification--co-generation is the mean to improve energy recovery, especially for small scale plants. In the case of only electricity production, the achievable values are strongly dependent on the plant size: for large plant size, where advanced technical solutions can be applied and sustained from an economic point of view, net electric efficiency may reach values up to 30-31%. In small-medium plants, net electric efficiency is constrained by scale effect and remains at values around 20-24%. Other types of technical solutions--gasification with syngas use in internally fired devices, pyrolysis and plasma gasification--are less common or studied at pilot or demonstrative scale and, in any case, offer at present similar or lower levels

  18. Outcome following addition of peroneus brevis tendon transfer to treatment of acquired posterior tibial tendon insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Song, S J; Deland, J T

    2001-04-01

    The flexor digitorum longus, the tendon most often used for transfer in posterior tibial tendon insufficiency, is one-half to one-third the size of the posterior tibial tendon. Occasionally it may be particularly small or may have been previously used for transfer. In these cases, the senior author has felt that the addition of a transfer of the Peroneus Brevis (PBr) tendon may be helpful in maintaining sufficient tendon and muscle mass to rebalance the foot. Thirteen patients who underwent this procedure were retrospectively identified and matched by age and length of follow-up to patients who underwent a more standard tendon transfer operation minus the addition of the PBr transfer. Pain and functional status were then assessed by the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society's ankle/hindfoot rating scale. Each patient was tested by an independent physical therapist to evaluate inversion and eversion strength. The mean duration of follow-up was 20.6 months (12 to 34 months). The average AOFAS score of the PBr group was 75.8 compared to 71.5 for the standard control group. There was no significant difference between the groups when inversion or eversion strengths were compared. Inversion strength and eversion strength was rated good or excellent (4 or 5) in 12 out of 13 of the PBr transfer group patients. No major complications were encountered in either group. Although it does not increase inversion strength, a PBr transfer can be used to augment a small FDL without causing significant eversion weakness. This can be useful when the FDL is particularly small or in revision surgery. PMID:11354442

  19. Effect of titanium addition on the thermal properties of diamond/cu-ti composites fabricated by pressureless liquid-phase sintering technique.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chih-Yu; Chu, Chao-Hung; Lee, Mu-Tse; Lin, Chun-Ming; Lin, Su-Jien

    2014-01-01

    In this study, minor-addition elements such as Si, Co, Cr, W, Mo, and Ti were added to matrix to improve the wettability between the diamonds and Cu matrix. The pressureless liquid-phase sintering technique adopted in this study provides a low-cost method for producing diamond/Cu composites with high potential for industrial mass production. Thermal properties of the diamond/Cu-Ti composites fabricated by pressureless liquid-phase sintering at 1373 K with variation in Ti contents were thoroughly investigated. XRD and TEM analysis show that TiC layer formed in the interface between Cu and diamond. The composites exhibited thermal conductivity as high as 620 W/m · K for 50 vol% diamond/Cu-0.6 at % Ti composite with diamond particle size of 300 µm. This value comes up to 85% of the thermal conductivity calculated by the Hasselman and Johnson (H-J) theoretical analysis. Under these conditions, a suitable coefficient of thermal expansion of 6.9 ppm/K was obtained.

  20. Investigation of structural modification and thermal characteristics of lignin after heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Young; Hwang, Hyewon; Oh, Shinyoung; Kim, Yong-Sik; Kim, Ung-Jin; Choi, Joon Weon

    2014-05-01

    Milled wood lignin was subjected to heat treatment between 150 and 300°C to understand the pattern of its structural modification and thermal properties. When the temperature was elevated with interval of 50°C, the color of the lignin became dark brown and the lignin released various forms of phenols from terminal phenolic groups in the lignin, leading to two physical phenomena: (1) gradual weight loss of the lignin, up to 19% based on dry weight and (2) increase in the carbon content and decrease in the oxygen content. Nitrobenzene oxidation and (13)C NMR analyses confirmed a cleavage of β-O-4 linkage (depolymerization) and reduction of methoxyl as well as phenolic hydroxyl group were also characteristic in the lignin structure during heat treatment. Simultaneously with lignin depolymerization, GPC analysis provided a possibility that condensation between lignin fragments could also occur during heat treatment. TGA/DTG/DSC data revealed that thermal stability of lignin obviously increased after heat treatment, implicating the structural rearrangement of lignin to reduction of β-O-4 linkage as well as accumulation of CC bonds.

  1. Investigation of structural modification and thermal characteristics of lignin after heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Young; Hwang, Hyewon; Oh, Shinyoung; Kim, Yong-Sik; Kim, Ung-Jin; Choi, Joon Weon

    2014-05-01

    Milled wood lignin was subjected to heat treatment between 150 and 300°C to understand the pattern of its structural modification and thermal properties. When the temperature was elevated with interval of 50°C, the color of the lignin became dark brown and the lignin released various forms of phenols from terminal phenolic groups in the lignin, leading to two physical phenomena: (1) gradual weight loss of the lignin, up to 19% based on dry weight and (2) increase in the carbon content and decrease in the oxygen content. Nitrobenzene oxidation and (13)C NMR analyses confirmed a cleavage of β-O-4 linkage (depolymerization) and reduction of methoxyl as well as phenolic hydroxyl group were also characteristic in the lignin structure during heat treatment. Simultaneously with lignin depolymerization, GPC analysis provided a possibility that condensation between lignin fragments could also occur during heat treatment. TGA/DTG/DSC data revealed that thermal stability of lignin obviously increased after heat treatment, implicating the structural rearrangement of lignin to reduction of β-O-4 linkage as well as accumulation of CC bonds. PMID:24530642

  2. Effect of sucrose and pectin addition on physical, chemical, thermal and rheological properties of frozen/thawed pineapple pulps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conceição, Márcia Cavalcante; Fernandes, Tatiana Nunes; Prado, Mônica Elisabeth Torres; de Resende, Jaime Vilela

    2012-09-01

    Pectin (0-1.0 g/100 mL) and sucrose (0-20 g/100 mL) were added to pineapple pulp to improve their rheological properties, thermal properties and stability after freezing and thawing processes. The properties of the mixes were characterized before and after freezing and thawing. Samples were frozen at -20°C, and the freeze concentration was evaluated every 60 min. The thawing rate was evaluated at 19°C and quantified by photographic editing and image analysis software. The thawing rates and values for the freeze concentration were leveled out at pectin concentrations above 0.5 g/100 mL pectin, which indicated that pectin functions to maintain structural homogeneity during freezing. In the thawed samples, the plastic viscosity values were leveled out from pectin concentrations (0.25-0.75 g/100 mL) as the sucrose concentration increased when compared to unfrozen samples. The differences between the rheological parameters of the unfrozen and frozen/thawed pulps, the higher yield stress values after thawing were attributed to the size of suspended particles in the pulp. Applications can specify formulations of frozen products containing pectin, where these properties can be handled after thawing the product.

  3. The inactivation kinetics of polyphenol oxidase in mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) during thermal and thermosonic treatments.

    PubMed

    Cheng, X-f; Zhang, M; Adhikari, B

    2013-03-01

    The effect of thermal and thermosonic treatments on the inactivation kinetics of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) was studied in 55-75°C temperature range. In both the processes, the inactivation kinetics of PPO followed a first-order kinetics (R(2)=0.941-0.989). The D values during thermal inactivation varied from 112±8.4min to 1.2±0.07min while they varied from 57.8±6.1min to 0.88±0.05min during thermosonic inactivation at the same temperature range. The activation energy during thermal inactivation was found to be 214±17kJ/mol, while it was 183±32kJ/mol during thermosonic inactivation. The inactivating effect of combined ultrasound and heat was found to synergistically enhance the inactivation kinetics of PPO. The D values of PPO decreased by 1.3-3 times during thermosonic inactivation compared to the D values of PPO during thermal inactivation at the temperature range. Therefore, thermosonication can be further developed as an alternative to "hot break" process of mushroom.

  4. The advent of non-thermal, non-tumescent techniques for treatment of varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Bootun, Roshan; Lane, Tristan R A; Davies, Alun H

    2016-02-01

    Varicose veins are common and their management has undergone a number of changes over the years. Surgery has been the traditional treatment option, but towards the 21st century, new endovenous thermal ablation techniques, namely, radiofrequency ablation and endovenous laser ablation, were introduced which have revolutionised the way varicose veins are treated. These minimally invasive techniques are associated with earlier return to normal activity and less pain, as well as enabling procedures to be carried out as day cases. They are, however, also known to cause a number of side-effects and involve infiltration of tumescent fluid which can cause discomfort. Non-thermal, non-tumescent methods are believed to be the answer to these unwelcome effects. Ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy is one such non-thermal, non-tumescent method and, despite a possible lower occlusion, has been shown to improve the quality of life of patients. The early results of two recently launched non-thermal, non-tumescent methods, mechanochemical ablation and cyanoacrylate glue, are promising and are discussed.

  5. Additional Electrochemical Treatment Effects on the Switching Characteristics of Anodic Porous Alumina Resistive Switching Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Shintaro; Takeda, Ryouta; Furuya, Saeko; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Shingubara, Shouso; Iwata, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Tadataka; Takano, Yoshiki; Takase, Kouichi

    2012-06-01

    We have investigated the current-voltage characteristics of a resistive switching memory (ReRAM), especially the reproducibility of the switching voltage between an insulating state and a metallic state. The poor reproducibility hinders the practical use of this memory. According to a filament model, the variation of the switching voltage may be understood in terms of the random choice of filaments with different conductivities and lengths at each switching. A limitation of the number of conductive paths is expected to lead to the suppression of the variation of switching voltage. In this study, two strategies for the limitation have been proposed using an anodic porous alumina (APA). The first is the reduction of the number of conductive paths by restriction of the contact area between the top electrodes and the insulator. The second is the lowering of the resistivity of the insulator, which makes it possible to grow filaments with the same characteristics by electrochemical treatments using a pulse-electroplating technique.

  6. Is Correction of Iron Deficiency a New Addition to the Treatment of the Heart Failure?

    PubMed Central

    Silverberg, Donald S.; Wexler, Dov; Schwartz, Doron

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is present in about 40% of heart failure (HF) patients. Iron deficiency (ID) is present in about 60% of the patients with anemia (about 24% of all HF patients) and in about 40% of patients without anemia (about 24% of all HF patients). Thus ID is present in about half the patients with HF. The ID in HF is associated with reduced iron stores in the bone marrow and the heart. ID is an independent risk factor for severity and worsening of the HF. Correction of ID with intravenous (IV) iron usually corrects both the anemia and the ID. Currently used IV iron preparations are very safe and effective in treating the ID in HF whereas little information is available on the effectiveness of oral iron. In HF IV iron correction of ID is associated with improvement in functional status, exercise capacity, quality of life and, in some studies, improvement in rate of hospitalization for HF, cardiac structure and function, and renal function. Large long-term adequately-controlled intervention studies are needed to clarify the effect of IV iron in HF. Several heart associations suggest that ID should be routinely sought for in all HF patients and corrected if present. In this paper we present our approach to diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency in heart failure. PMID:26096008

  7. Thermal Imaging for Assessment of Electron-Beam Free Form Fabrication (EBF(sup 3)) Additive Manufacturing Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Burke, Eric R.; Hafley, Robert A.; Taminger, Karen M.; Domack, Christopher S.; Brewer, Amy R.; Martin, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapidly growing field where 3-dimensional parts can be produced layer by layer. NASA s electron beam free-form fabrication (EBF(sup 3)) technology is being evaluated to manufacture metallic parts in a space environment. The benefits of EBF(sup 3) technology are weight savings to support space missions, rapid prototyping in a zero gravity environment, and improved vehicle readiness. The EBF(sup 3) system is composed of 3 main components: electron beam gun, multi-axis position system, and metallic wire feeder. The electron beam is used to melt the wire and the multi-axis positioning system is used to build the part layer by layer. To insure a quality weld, a near infrared (NIR) camera is used to image the melt pool and solidification areas. This paper describes the calibration and application of a NIR camera for temperature measurement. In addition, image processing techniques are presented for weld assessment metrics.

  8. Fiber Optic Sensors for Temperature Monitoring during Thermal Treatments: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Schena, Emiliano; Tosi, Daniele; Saccomandi, Paola; Lewis, Elfed; Kim, Taesung

    2016-07-22

    During recent decades, minimally invasive thermal treatments (i.e., Radiofrequency ablation, Laser ablation, Microwave ablation, High Intensity Focused Ultrasound ablation, and Cryo-ablation) have gained widespread recognition in the field of tumor removal. These techniques induce a localized temperature increase or decrease to remove the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue remains intact. An accurate measurement of tissue temperature may be particularly beneficial to improve treatment outcomes, because it can be used as a clear end-point to achieve complete tumor ablation and minimize recurrence. Among the several thermometric techniques used in this field, fiber optic sensors (FOSs) have several attractive features: high flexibility and small size of both sensor and cabling, allowing insertion of FOSs within deep-seated tissue; metrological characteristics, such as accuracy (better than 1 °C), sensitivity (e.g., 10 pm·°C(-1) for Fiber Bragg Gratings), and frequency response (hundreds of kHz), are adequate for this application; immunity to electromagnetic interference allows the use of FOSs during Magnetic Resonance- or Computed Tomography-guided thermal procedures. In this review the current status of the most used FOSs for temperature monitoring during thermal procedure (e.g., fiber Bragg Grating sensors; fluoroptic sensors) is presented, with emphasis placed on their working principles and metrological characteristics. The essential physics of the common ablation techniques are included to explain the advantages of using FOSs during these procedures.

  9. Effect of thermal treatment on potato starch evidenced by EPR, XRD and molecular weight distribution.

    PubMed

    Bidzińska, Ewa; Michalec, Marek; Pawcenis, Dominika

    2015-12-01

    Effect of heating of the potato starch on damages of its structure was investigated by quantitative electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and determination of the molecular weight distribution. The measurements were performed in the temperature range commonly used for starch modifications optimizing properties important for industrial applications. Upon thermal treatment, because of breaking of the polymer chains, diminishing of the average molecular weights occurred, which significantly influences generation of radicals, evidenced by EPR. For the relatively mild conditions, with heating parameters not exceeding temperature 230 °C and time of heating equal to 30 min a moderate changes of both the number of thermally generated radicals and the mean molecular weight of the starch were observed. After more drastic thermal treatment (e.g. 2 h at 230 °C), a rapid increase in the radical amount occurred, which was accompanied by significant reduction of the starch molecular size and crystallinity. Experimentally established threshold values of heating parameters should not be exceeded in order to avoid excessive damages of the starch structure accompanied by the formation of the redundant amount of radicals. This requirement is important for industrial applications, because significant destruction of the starch matrix might annihilate the positive influence of the previously performed intentional starch modification.

  10. Fiber Optic Sensors for Temperature Monitoring during Thermal Treatments: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Schena, Emiliano; Tosi, Daniele; Saccomandi, Paola; Lewis, Elfed; Kim, Taesung

    2016-01-01

    During recent decades, minimally invasive thermal treatments (i.e., Radiofrequency ablation, Laser ablation, Microwave ablation, High Intensity Focused Ultrasound ablation, and Cryo-ablation) have gained widespread recognition in the field of tumor removal. These techniques induce a localized temperature increase or decrease to remove the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue remains intact. An accurate measurement of tissue temperature may be particularly beneficial to improve treatment outcomes, because it can be used as a clear end-point to achieve complete tumor ablation and minimize recurrence. Among the several thermometric techniques used in this field, fiber optic sensors (FOSs) have several attractive features: high flexibility and small size of both sensor and cabling, allowing insertion of FOSs within deep-seated tissue; metrological characteristics, such as accuracy (better than 1 °C), sensitivity (e.g., 10 pm·°C−1 for Fiber Bragg Gratings), and frequency response (hundreds of kHz), are adequate for this application; immunity to electromagnetic interference allows the use of FOSs during Magnetic Resonance- or Computed Tomography-guided thermal procedures. In this review the current status of the most used FOSs for temperature monitoring during thermal procedure (e.g., fiber Bragg Grating sensors; fluoroptic sensors) is presented, with emphasis placed on their working principles and metrological characteristics. The essential physics of the common ablation techniques are included to explain the advantages of using FOSs during these procedures. PMID:27455273

  11. Fiber Optic Sensors for Temperature Monitoring during Thermal Treatments: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Schena, Emiliano; Tosi, Daniele; Saccomandi, Paola; Lewis, Elfed; Kim, Taesung

    2016-01-01

    During recent decades, minimally invasive thermal treatments (i.e., Radiofrequency ablation, Laser ablation, Microwave ablation, High Intensity Focused Ultrasound ablation, and Cryo-ablation) have gained widespread recognition in the field of tumor removal. These techniques induce a localized temperature increase or decrease to remove the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue remains intact. An accurate measurement of tissue temperature may be particularly beneficial to improve treatment outcomes, because it can be used as a clear end-point to achieve complete tumor ablation and minimize recurrence. Among the several thermometric techniques used in this field, fiber optic sensors (FOSs) have several attractive features: high flexibility and small size of both sensor and cabling, allowing insertion of FOSs within deep-seated tissue; metrological characteristics, such as accuracy (better than 1 °C), sensitivity (e.g., 10 pm·°C(-1) for Fiber Bragg Gratings), and frequency response (hundreds of kHz), are adequate for this application; immunity to electromagnetic interference allows the use of FOSs during Magnetic Resonance- or Computed Tomography-guided thermal procedures. In this review the current status of the most used FOSs for temperature monitoring during thermal procedure (e.g., fiber Bragg Grating sensors; fluoroptic sensors) is presented, with emphasis placed on their working principles and metrological characteristics. The essential physics of the common ablation techniques are included to explain the advantages of using FOSs during these procedures. PMID:27455273

  12. Inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores by combined pulsed light and thermal treatments.

    PubMed

    Luz Artíguez, Mari; Martínez de Marañón, Iñigo

    2015-12-01

    The combined effect of pulsed light (PL) and heat processing was evaluated on the inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores. Those processes were applied separately and the time between both treatments was modified to evaluate whether the effect of the first treatment is maintained for a long time. B. subtilis spores subjected to sublethal pre-treatments were more sensitive to subsequent treatments (PL or thermal treatments) than untreated spores. Heating followed by PL was the most effective combination in reducing B. subtilis counts. Bacterial spores remained sensitized to subsequent treatment for at least 24 h of storage in water, whatever the temperature was (4 or 30°C). Sensitivity of B. subtilis cells to PL or heat processing increased after germination in a nutrient broth, being equally sensitive from 3 to 24 h. Vegetative cells maintained their enhanced sensitivity to subsequent processing after spore germination. The results of this work demonstrate that the combination of heating and PL treatment is a promising preservation method for microbial inactivation.

  13. A review of technologies and performances of thermal treatment systems for energy recovery from waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, Lidia; Carnevale, Ennio; Corti, Andrea

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The topic of energy recovery from waste by thermal treatment is reviewed. • Combustion, gasification and pyrolysis were considered. • Data about energy recovery performances were collected and compared. • Main limitations to high values of energy performances were illustrated. • Diffusion of energy recovery from waste in EU, USA and other countries was discussed. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to identify the current level of energy recovery through waste thermal treatment. The state of the art in energy recovery from waste was investigated, highlighting the differences for different types of thermal treatment, considering combustion/incineration, gasification and pyrolysis. Also different types of wastes – Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) or Solid Refuse Fuels (SRF) and some typologies of Industrial Waste (IW) (sludge, plastic scraps, etc.) – were included in the analysis. The investigation was carried out mainly reviewing papers, published in scientific journals and conferences, but also considering technical reports, to gather more information. In particular the goal of this review work was to synthesize studies in order to compare the values of energy conversion efficiencies measured or calculated for different types of thermal processes and different types of waste. It emerged that the dominant type of thermal treatment is incineration associated to energy recovery in a steam cycle. When waste gasification is applied, the produced syngas is generally combusted in a boiler to generate steam for energy recovery in a steam cycle. For both the possibilities – incineration or gasification – cogeneration is the mean to improve energy recovery, especially for small scale plants. In the case of only electricity production, the achievable values are strongly dependent on the plant size: for large plant size, where advanced technical solutions can be applied and sustained from an economic point of view, net

  14. The Effects of Chemical Additives on the Induction Phase in Solid-State Thermal Decomposition of Ammonia Borane

    SciTech Connect

    Heldebrant, David J.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Hess, Nancy J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Rassat, Scot D.; Zheng, Feng; Rappe, Kenneth G.; Autrey, Thomas

    2008-08-26

    The solid-state decomposition of ammonia borane (AB) alone and in the presence of chemical additives was investigated by a series of experimental methods to develop an approach for reducing the induction period for hydrogen release. Gas chromatography techniques were used to measure the yield of hydrogen as a function of time under isothermal conditions between 70 and 90 °C, and the polyaminoborane (PAB) products produced from hydrogen loss from AB show significant cross linking by 11B NMR spectroscopy. Raman microscopy was used to follow the transformation of crystalline AB to amorphous AB with the subsequent formation of the diammoniate of diborane (DADB). A gas burette was used to monitor the time-dependent release of hydrogen from AB in the presence of chemical additives. The combination of these approaches provides insight into the mechanism of hydrogen release from solid AB. The release of molecular hydrogen is described by a process involving sequential induction (disruption of dihydrogen bonds), nucleation (formation of DADB), and growth (hydrogen release through dehydrocoupling). Addition of DADB or ammonium chloride to neat AB significantly reduces the induction time for hydrogen release. The authors wish to acknowledge support from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This work was performed as part of the Center of Excellence in Chemical Hydrogen Storage and in collaboration with the International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Battelle.

  15. New pyrometallurgical process of EAF dust treatment with CaO addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chairaksa-Fujimoto, Romchat; Inoue, Yosuke; Umeda, Naoyoshi; Itoh, Satoshi; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2015-08-01

    The non-carbothermic zinc pyrometallurgical processing of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust was investigated on a laboratory scale. The main objective of this process was to convert highly stable zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4), which accounts for more than half of total zinc in the EAF dust, into ZnO and Ca2Fe2O5 by CaO addition. The EAF dust was mixed with CaO powder in various ratios, pressed into pellets, and heated in a muffle furnace in air at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1100°C for a predetermined holding time. All ZnFe2O4 was transformed into ZnO and Ca2Fe2O5 at a minimum temperature of 900°C within 1 h when sufficient CaO to achieve a Ca/Fe molar ratio of 1.1 was added. However, at higher temperatures, excess CaO beyond the stoichiometric ratio was required because it was consumed by reactions leading to the formation of compounds other than ZnFe2O4. The evaporation of halides and heavy metals in the EAF dust was also studied. These components could be preferentially volatilized into the gas phase at 1100°C when CaO was added.

  16. Redox processes and release of organic matter after thermal treatment of a TCE-contaminated aquifer.

    PubMed

    Friis, A K; Albrechtsen, H J; Heron, G; Bjerg, P L

    2005-08-01

    Redox conditions in heated and unheated microcosm experiments were studied to evaluate the effect of thermal remediation treatment on biogeochemical processes in subsurface environments. The results were compared to field-scale observations from thermal treatments of contaminated sites. Trichloroethene-contaminated aquifer material and groundwater from Ft. Lewis, WA were incubated for 200 days at ambient temperature (i.e., 10 degrees C) or heated to 100 degrees C for 10 days and cooled slowly over a period of 150 days to mimic a thermal treatment. Increases of up to 14 mM dissolved organic carbon were observed in the aqueous phase after heating. Redox conditions did generally not change during heating in the laboratory experiment, and only minor changes occurred as an effect of heat treatment in the field. The conditions were slightly manganese/iron-reducing in two sediments and possibly sulfate-reducing in the third sediment based on production of up to 0.20 mM dissolved iron and 0.15 mM dissolved manganese and consumption of 0.08 mM sulfate. The calculated energy gain of less than -20 kJ/mol H2 for iron and sulfate reduction as well as methane production indicated that these processes were thermodynamically favorable. Sulfate reduction and methane production occurred in the unheated microcosms upon lactate amendment. Little or no reduction of the redox level was identified in heated lactate-amended microcosms, possibly because of limited microbial activity. Because the redox conditions, pH, and alkalinity remained within normal aquifer levels upon heating, bioaugmentation may be feasible for stimulating anaerobic dechlorination in heated samples or in future field applications.

  17. Coercivity and thermal stability improvement in sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets by intergranular addition of Dy-Mn alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangbin; Liu, Shuo; Cao, Xuejing; Zhou, Beibei; Chen, Ling; Yan, Aru; Yan, Gaolin

    2016-06-01

    To increase coercivity and thermal stability of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets for high temperature applications, Dy88Mn12 (wt%) alloy powders were intergranular added into (Pr0.25Nd0.75)30.6Cu0.15FebalB1 (wt%) starting magnet. The magnetic properties, microstructure and thermal stability of the sintered magnets with different amounts of Dy88Mn12 were investigated. By adding a small amount of Dy88Mn12, the coercivity was significantly increased from 12.56 kOe to 17.49 kOe. Microstructure analysis showed that a optimized microstructure, i.e. continuous, uniform grain boundary phase was achieved with Dy88Mn12 alloy addition, and Dy was enriched in the outer region of the Nd2Fe14B matrix grains during the sintering process, which favored to substitute for Nd in matrix grains to form the (Nd,Dy)2Fe14B core-shell phase. The greatly increased magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the core-shell phase and the improved decoupling by the continuous grain boundary phase accounted for the coercivity enhancement. Furthermore, by adding 0-4 wt% Dy88Mn12, the reversible temperature coefficients of remanence (α) and coercivity (β) of the magnet were improved from -0.115%/ºC to -0.107%/ºC and -0.744%/ºC to -0.696%/ºC in the range of 20-100 °C, respectively. In addition, the irreversible flux loss of magnetic flow (hirr) decreased sharply as Dy88Mn12 addition. The temperature-dependent magnetic properties results indicated that with intergranular addition of Dy88Mn12 alloy, the thermal stability of the magnets was effectively improved.

  18. [Up-to-date drug treatment of disseminated lung cancer--which other drugs are available in addition to conventional cytotoxic agents?].

    PubMed

    Koivunen, Jussi; Knuuttila, Aija; Mali, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    In addition to conventional cytotoxic agents, novel drug treatments have in the last few years been introduced for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Whereas some of the novel treatments have brought significant improvement in treatment outcome, the benefit brought about by the treatment has in some cases been quite small in comparison with the costs and adverse effects. In the present review we explore the goals of drug treatments of disseminated lung cancer, assessment of therapeutic benefits as well as most significant research results of novel drug treatments of the lastfew years In addition, we evaluate the effect of the novel drug treatments on Finnish treatment practices.

  19. Quality and microbial safety evaluation of new isotonic beverages upon thermal treatments.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Huertas, Juan-Pablo; Moreno, Diego A; Periago, Paula M; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, it was evaluated how two different thermal treatments (Mild and Severe) may affect the anthocyanin content, antioxidant capacity (ABTS(+), DPPH, and FRAP), quality (CIELAB colour parameters), and microbiological safety of a new isotonic drink made of lemon and maqui berry over a commercial storage simulation using a shelf life of 56days at two preservation temperature (7°C and 37°C). Both heat treatments did not affect drastically the anthocyanins content and their percentage of retention. The antioxidant capacity, probably because of the short time, was also not affected. The CIELAB colour parameters were affected by the heat, although the isotonic drinks remained with attractive red colour during shelf life. From a microbiological point of view, the Mild heat treatment with storage at 7°C is the ideal for the preservation of microbial growth, being useful for keeping the quality and safety of beverages in commercial life.

  20. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A.; Mayberry, J.; Frazier, G.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well.

  1. Indication of advanced orthokeratology as an additional treatment after refractive surgeries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsui, Iwane; Yamada, Yoshida

    2005-04-01

    Ortho-K was indicated for twenty-three eyes of thirteen patients after refractive surgeries such as RK(1) ,PRK(2), and LASIK(3). The average of their Uncorrective Visual Acuity (UCVA) after surgeries was 20/30 or worse, and mean spherical equivalent (SE) was -2.42D. They were followed at least two years wearing of Advanced Ortho-K lenses during night. The following studies were examined on their auto-refraction, auto-keratometry, uncorrected and corrected visual acuity, intra-ocular pressure, corneal endothelium, corneal thickness, corneal curvature, and corneal shape for more than two years. 95% of the patients improved in UCVA up to 20/20 or better, 86% of them improved up to 20/15 or better, and 76% of them improved up to 20/10. The mean SEs improved to -1.20+/-1.02D during six months, - 1.03+/-0.83D during one year, and -0.73+/-0.64D during two years. Astigmatism also slightly decreased. Ophthalmologic examinations showed no abnormalities including flap formation, intra-ocular pressure, and endothelium. Among the refractive surgeries as well as RK and PRK, LASIK has been most popularly spread all over the world. However, patient's quality of vision is not always satisfied during and/or after refractive surgeries, because of several complications such as instability of flap formation, unexpected keratoectasia, diffuse lamellar keratitis, epithelial ingrowth, irregularity of corneal surface which caused myopia regression. In such cases, additional surgical procedures should not be indicated easily. However, Ortho-K is safe and effective enough to correct refractive errors still remained or re-appeared after refractive surgeries. It enables to restore the corneal irregularity to the ideal shape.

  2. Effects of Ce and Si additions to CoNiCrAlY bond coat materials on oxidation behavior and crack propagation of thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, K.; Ito, K.; Shoji, T.; Seo, D. W.; Tezuka, H.; Kato, H.

    2006-12-01

    In thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems, thermally grown oxide (TGO) forms at the interface between the top coat and the bond coat (BC) during service. Delamination or spallation at the interface occurs by the TGO formation and growth. Therefore, modifications of the BC materials are one means to inhibit the TGO formation and to improve the crack resistance of TBCs. In this study, morphologies of TGO were controlled by using Ce and Si additions to conventional CoNiCrAlY BC material. The evaluation of the crack resistance was carried out using acoustic emission methods under pure bending conditions. As a result, when the BCs of TBCs with Ce added were aged at 1373 K over 10 h, the morphologies of the TGO were changed drastically. The BC materials of TBCs coated with Ce added indicated an improved crack resistance with high-temperature exposure. It is expected that the morphologies can improve the crack resistance of TBCs.

  3. Effect of thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion of municipal biowaste: a pilot scale study in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yingjun; Takaoka, Masaki; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xiao; Oshita, Kazuyuki

    2013-07-01

    Co-digestion of wasted sewage sludge, restaurant kitchen waste, and fruit-vegetable waste was carried out in a pilot plant with thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment. Steam was used as heat source for thermal hydrolysis. It was found 38.3% of volatile suspended solids were dissolved after thermal hydrolysis, with digestibility increased by 115%. These results were more significant than those from lab studies using electricity as heat source due to more uniform heating. Anaerobic digesters were then operated under organic loading rates of about 1.5 and 3 kg VS/(m³ d). Little difference was found for digesters with and without thermal pre-treatment in biogas production and volatile solids removal. However, when looking into the digestion process, it was found digestion rate was almost doubled after thermal hydrolysis. Digester was also more stable with thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment. Less volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were accumulated and the VFAs/alkalinity ratio was also lower. Batch experiments showed the lag phase can be eliminated by thermal pre-treatment, implying the advantage could be more significant under a shorter hydraulic retention time. Moreover, it was estimated energy cost for thermal hydrolysis can be partly balanced by decreasing viscosity and improving dewaterability of the digestate.

  4. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: LOW TEMPERATURE TREATMENT OF CERCLA SOILS AND DEBRIS USING THE IT LABORATORY SCALE THERMAL DESORPTION FURNACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study report on laboratory experiments on low temperature treatment of soils using thermal desorption. The purpose of the study was to determine if thermal desorption could remove volatile and semi-volatile contaminants from a synthetically prepared soil spiked with pre...

  5. Effect of phase difference in multi-antenna microwave thermal ablation for breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Phasukkit, Pattarapong; Sanpanich, Arthorn; Tungjitkusolmun, Supan; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    It was realized that cancer in breast is one of the most health hazards threatening women around the world for many years. Thermal ablation by using microwave energy is another alternative surgical maneuver due to its minimally invasive therapeutic technique. In this research, we investigate an effect of phase difference between three adjacent opened-slot coaxial probes in a multiple antenna alignment of microwave thermal ablation system for breast cancer treatment. FEM by using COMSOL is an implementation tools to simulate for 0, 45, 90, 135 and 180 degree of phase difference. 3D Simulation results show that temperature distribution pattern, destructive volume and SAR in breast tissue are affected from those phase-shift utilization in multi-antenna system significantly. PMID:24110538

  6. Preparation and Study on Nickel Oxide Reduction of Polyacrylonitrile-Based Carbon Nanofibers by Thermal Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Ju; Kim, Hyun Bin; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Lee, Dae Soo; Koo, Dong Hyun; Kang, Phil Hyun

    2015-08-01

    Carbon materials containing magnetic nanopowder have been attractive in technological applications such as electrochemical capacitors and electromagnetic wave shielding. In this study, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers containing nickel nanoparticles were prepared using an electrospinning method and thermal stabilization. The reduction of nickel oxide was investigated under a nitrogen atmosphere within a temperature range of 600 to 1,000 °C. Carbon nanofibers containing nickel nanoparticles were characterized by FE-SEM, EDS, XRD, TGA, and VSM. It was found that nickel nanoparticles were formed by a NiO reduction in PAN as a function of the thermal treatment. These results led to an increase in the coercivity of nanofibers and a decrease in the remanence magnetization.

  7. Thermal treatment effects on charge storage performance of graphene-based materials for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongxin; Bhat, Vinay V; Gallego, Nidia C; Contescu, Cristian I

    2012-01-01

    Graphene materials were synthesized by reduction of exfoliated graphene oxide sheets by hydrazine hydrate and then thermally treated in nitrogen to improve the surface area and their electrochemical performance as electrical double-layer capacitor electrodes. The structural and surface properties of the prepared reduced graphite oxide (RGO) were investigated using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption / desorption. RGO forms a continuous network of crumpled sheets, which consist of numerous few-layer and single-layer graphenes. Electrochemical studies were conducted by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The modified RGO materials showed enhanced electrochemical performance, with maximum specific capacitance of 96 F/g, energy density of 12.8 Wh/kg, and power density of 160 kW/kg. The results demonstrate that thermal treatment of RGO at selected conditions is a convenient and efficient method for improving specific capacitance, energy, and power density.

  8. Influence of Thermal Treatment on the Antimicrobial Activity of Silver-Doped Biological Apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Cristina Liana; Ciobanu, Carmen Steluta; Voicu, Georgeta; Vasile, Eugenia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Predoi, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we report the structural and morphological properties of silver-doped hydroxyapatite (AgHAp) with a silver concentration x Ag = 0.5 before and after being thermal treated at 600 and 1000 °C. The results obtained by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy suggest that the structure of the samples changes gradually, from hydroxyapatite (AgHAp_40) to a predominant β-TCP structure (AgHAp_1000), achieved when the thermal treatment temperature is 1000 °C. In the AgHAp_600 sample, the presence of two phases, HAp and β-TCP, was highlighted. Also, scanning electron microscopy studies suggest that the shape and dimension of the nanoparticles begin to change when the temperature increases. The antimicrobial activity of the obtained compounds was evaluated against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans strains.

  9. Preparation and Study on Nickel Oxide Reduction of Polyacrylonitrile-Based Carbon Nanofibers by Thermal Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Ju; Kim, Hyun Bin; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Lee, Dae Soo; Koo, Dong Hyun; Kang, Phil Hyun

    2015-08-01

    Carbon materials containing magnetic nanopowder have been attractive in technological applications such as electrochemical capacitors and electromagnetic wave shielding. In this study, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers containing nickel nanoparticles were prepared using an electrospinning method and thermal stabilization. The reduction of nickel oxide was investigated under a nitrogen atmosphere within a temperature range of 600 to 1,000 °C. Carbon nanofibers containing nickel nanoparticles were characterized by FE-SEM, EDS, XRD, TGA, and VSM. It was found that nickel nanoparticles were formed by a NiO reduction in PAN as a function of the thermal treatment. These results led to an increase in the coercivity of nanofibers and a decrease in the remanence magnetization. PMID:26369192

  10. Effect of conditions of thermal treatment on the porous structure of an aluminum oxide-containing nanofibrous aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markova, E. B.; Krasil'nikova, O. K.; Grankina, T. Yu.; Serov, Yu. M.

    2016-08-01

    The effect the conditions of thermal treatment have on a specific surface and the number of primary adsorption centers is studied. The relationship between changing adsorption characteristics and changes in the structure of nanofibrous aluminum oxide is considered.

  11. The Effectiveness of Additional Treatment Modalities after the Failure of Recanalization by Thrombectomy Alone in Acute Vertebrobasilar Arterial Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Mook; Sohn, Sung-Il; Hong, Jeong-Ho; Chang, Hyuk-Won; Lee, Chang-Young

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acute vertebrobasilar artery occlusion (AVBAO) is a devastating disease with a high mortality rate. One of the most important factors affecting favorable clinical outcome is early recanalization. Mechanical thrombectomy is an emerging treatment strategy for achieving a high recanalization rates. However, thrombectomy alone can be insufficient to complete recanalization, especially for acute stroke involving large artery atheromatous disease. The purpose of this study is to investigate the safety and efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy in AVBAO. Methods Fourteen consecutive patients with AVBAO were treated with mechanical thrombectomy. Additional multimodal treatments were intra-arterial (IA) thrombolysis, balloon angioplasty, or permanent stent placement. Recanalization by thrombectomy alone and multimodal treatments were assessed by the Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) score. Clinical outcome was determined using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at 7 days and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months. Results Thrombectomy alone and multimodal treatments were performed in 10 patients (71.4%) and 4 patients (28.6%), respectively. Successful recanalization (TICI 2b-3) was achieved in 11 (78.6%). Among these 11 patients, 3 (27.3%) underwent multimodal treatment due to underlying atherosclerotic stenosis. Ten (71.4%) of the 14 showed NIHSS score improvement of >10. Overall mortality was 3 (21.4%) of 14. Conclusion We suggest that mechanical thrombectomy is safe and effective for improving recanalization rates in AVBAO, with low complication rates. Also, in carefully selected patients after the failure of recanalization by thrombectomy alone, additional multimodal treatment such as IA thrombolysis, balloons, or stents can be needed to achieve successful recanalization. PMID:26713141

  12. Fates of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in aerobic biological treatment processes: the effects of aeration and sludge addition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Yang, Wen-Ben; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Yang, Jun-Chen; Zhao, Qing-Liang

    2014-05-01

    The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is becoming an environmental issue of increasing concern. As biological treatment has been considered as one important approach for VOC removal, lab-scale batch experiments were conducted in this study to investigate the fates of four chlorinated hydrocarbons, including chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene (TCE), and tetrachloroethylene (PERC), in the biological treatment processes with respect to the effects of aeration and sludge addition. The VOC concentrations in the phases of air, water, and sludge under four simulated treatment stages (the first sedimentation, the forepart and rear part of aerobic biological treatment, and the second sedimentation) were analyzed. The results were used to understand the three-phase partitioning of these compounds and to estimate their potentials for volatilization and biological sorption and degradation in these technologies with the concept of fugacity. It was observed that the VOCs were mainly present in the water phase through the experiments. The effects of aeration or sludge addition on the fates of these VOCs occurred but appeared to be relatively limited. The concentration distributions of the VOCs were well below the reported partitioning coefficients. It was suggested that these compounds were unsaturated in the air and sludge phases, enhancing their potentials for volatilization and biological sorption/degradation through the processes. However, the properties of these chlorinated VOCs such as the volatility, polarity, or even biodegradability caused by their structural characteristics (e.g., the number of chlorine, saturated or unsaturated) may represent more significant factors for their fates in the aerobic biological treatment processes. These findings prove the complication behind the current knowledge of VOC pollutions in WWTPs and are of help to manage the adverse impacts on the environment and public

  13. Water treatment technologies for thermal storage systems: Final report. [Cool storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlgren, R.M.

    1987-12-01

    Water has many properties which make it an almost ideal medium for storage and transfer of cooling energy. However, even pure water cannot be used in cooling thermal storage systems without careful attention to water chemistry management. There are three water conditions which may cause problems in cooling systems: corrosion, biofouling, and sludge deposits. Corrosion and biological fouling are usually the most common problems, but both can be readily controlled by suitable internal chemical treatment. Starting a system with good pre-operational cleaning procedures is essential and is probably the best route to long-term waterside efficiency and trouble-free performance. A wide variety of reference materials, professional and educational assistance, and water treatment chemical supplier support is readily available. The direct costs of good chemical management are not high and are a good investment when compared to the expenses that might be incurred if no attention is paid to system water chemistry. This discussion is not intended to be a detailed technical treatise on water chemistry or engineering technology. Rather, it is intended to serve as an introduction and interpretation of how good water treatment practice can be applied to, and benefit, thermal storage system operations. 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. H[sub 2]OTREAT: An acid for evaluating water treatment requirements for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Vail, L.W.; Jenne, E.A.; Eary, L.E.

    1992-08-01

    A public-domain software package is available to aid engineers in the design of water treatment systems for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES). Geochemical phenomena that cause problems in ATES systems include formation of scale in heat exchangers, clogging of wells, corrosion in piping and heat exchangers, and degradation of aquifer materials. Preventing such problems frequently requires employing water treatment systems. Individual water treatment methods vary in cost. effectiveness, environmental impact, corrosion potential, and acceptability to regulatory bodies. Evaluating these water treatment options is generally required to determine the feasibility of ATFS systems. The H20TREAT software was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for use by engineers with limited or no experience in geochemistry. At the feasibility analysis and design stages, the software utilizes a recently revised geochemical model,MINTEQ, to calculate the saturation indices of selected carbonate, oxide, and hydroxide minerals based on water chemistry and temperature data provided by the user. The saturation indices of key calcium, iron. silica, and manganese carbonates, oxides, and hydroxides (calcite, rhodochrosite, siderite, Fe(OH)[sub 3][a], birnessite, chalcedony, and SiO[sub 2]) are calculated. Currently, H20TREAT does not perform cost calculations; however, treatment capacity requirements are provided. Treatments considered include (1) Na and H ion exchangers and pellet reactors to avoid calcite precipitation, and (2) in situ nitrate addition and cascade precipitation. The H20TREAT software also provides the user with guidance on other geochemical problems that must be considered, such as SiO[sub 2] precipitation, corrosion, and environmental considerations. The sodium adsorption ratio and sodium hazard are calculated to evaluate the likelihood of clay swelling and dispersion caused by high Na concentrations. H20TREAT is available for DOS and UNIX computers.

  15. H{sub 2}OTREAT: An acid for evaluating water treatment requirements for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Vail, L.W.; Jenne, E.A.; Eary, L.E.

    1992-08-01

    A public-domain software package is available to aid engineers in the design of water treatment systems for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES). Geochemical phenomena that cause problems in ATES systems include formation of scale in heat exchangers, clogging of wells, corrosion in piping and heat exchangers, and degradation of aquifer materials. Preventing such problems frequently requires employing water treatment systems. Individual water treatment methods vary in cost. effectiveness, environmental impact, corrosion potential, and acceptability to regulatory bodies. Evaluating these water treatment options is generally required to determine the feasibility of ATFS systems. The H20TREAT software was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for use by engineers with limited or no experience in geochemistry. At the feasibility analysis and design stages, the software utilizes a recently revised geochemical model,MINTEQ, to calculate the saturation indices of selected carbonate, oxide, and hydroxide minerals based on water chemistry and temperature data provided by the user. The saturation indices of key calcium, iron. silica, and manganese carbonates, oxides, and hydroxides (calcite, rhodochrosite, siderite, Fe(OH){sub 3}[a], birnessite, chalcedony, and SiO{sub 2}) are calculated. Currently, H20TREAT does not perform cost calculations; however, treatment capacity requirements are provided. Treatments considered include (1) Na and H ion exchangers and pellet reactors to avoid calcite precipitation, and (2) in situ nitrate addition and cascade precipitation. The H20TREAT software also provides the user with guidance on other geochemical problems that must be considered, such as SiO{sub 2} precipitation, corrosion, and environmental considerations. The sodium adsorption ratio and sodium hazard are calculated to evaluate the likelihood of clay swelling and dispersion caused by high Na concentrations. H20TREAT is available for DOS and UNIX computers.

  16. Enhanced performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor with powdered activated carbon addition for municipal secondary effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongjun; Wang, Fangyuan; Ding, Linxian; Hong, Huachang; Chen, Jianrong; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of PAC-MBR process treating municipal secondary effluent. Two laboratory-scale submerged MBRs (SMBR) with and without PAC addition were continuously operated in parallel for secondary effluent treatment. Approximately 63%TOC, 95% NH(4)(+)-N and 98% turbidity in secondary effluent were removed by the PAC-MBR process. Most organics in the secondary effluent were found to be low molecular weight (MW) substances, which could be retained in the reactor and then removed to some extent by using PAC-MBR process. Parallel experiments showed that the addition of PAC significantly increased organic removal and responsible for the largest fraction of organic removal. Membrane fouling analysis showed the enhanced membrane performance in terms of sustainable operational time and filtration resistances by PAC addition. Based on these results, the PAC-MBR process was considered as an attractive option for the reduction of pollutants in secondary effluent. PMID:21794980

  17. Thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate gradient measurements by PADC detectors in LINAC radiotherapy treatments-field

    SciTech Connect

    Barrera, M. T. Barros, H.; Pino, F.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Dávila, J.

    2015-07-23

    LINAC VARIAN 2100 is where energetic electrons produce Bremsstrahlung radiation, with energies above the nucleon binding energy (E≈5.5MeV). This radiation induce (γ,n) and (e,e’n) reactions mainly in the natural tungsten target material (its total photoneutron cross section is about 4000 mb in a energy range from 9-17 MeV). These reactions may occur also in other components of the system (e.g. multi leaf collimator). During radiation treatment the human body may receive an additional dose inside and outside the treated volume produced by the mentioned nuclear reactions. We measured the neutron density at the treatment table using nuclear track detectors (PADC-NTD). These covered by a boron-converter are employed, including a cadmium filter, to determine the ratio between two groups of neutron energy, i.e. thermal and epithermal. The PADC-NTD detectors were exposed to the radiation field at the iso-center during regular operation of the accelerator. Neutron are determined indirectly by the converting reaction {sup 10}B(n,α){sup 7}Li the emerging charged particle leave their kinetic energy in the PADC forming a latent nuclear track, enlarged by chemical etching (6N, NaOH, 70°C). Track density provides information on the neutron density through calibration coefficient (∼1.6 10{sup 4} neutrons /track) obtained by a californium source. We report the estimation of the thermal and epithermal neutron field and its gradient for photoneutrons produced in radiotherapy treatments with 18 MV linear accelerators. It was obsered that photoneutron production have higher rate at the iso-center.

  18. Thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate gradient measurements by PADC detectors in LINAC radiotherapy treatments-field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, M. T.; Barros, H.; Pino, F.; Dávila, J.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2015-07-01

    LINAC VARIAN 2100 is where energetic electrons produce Bremsstrahlung radiation, with energies above the nucleon binding energy (E≈5.5MeV). This radiation induce (γ,n) and (e,e'n) reactions mainly in the natural tungsten target material (its total photoneutron cross section is about 4000 mb in a energy range from 9-17 MeV). These reactions may occur also in other components of the system (e.g. multi leaf collimator). During radiation treatment the human body may receive an additional dose inside and outside the treated volume produced by the mentioned nuclear reactions. We measured the neutron density at the treatment table using nuclear track detectors (PADC-NTD). These covered by a boron-converter are employed, including a cadmium filter, to determine the ratio between two groups of neutron energy, i.e. thermal and epithermal. The PADC-NTD detectors were exposed to the radiation field at the iso-center during regular operation of the accelerator. Neutron are determined indirectly by the converting reaction 10B(n,α)7Li the emerging charged particle leave their kinetic energy in the PADC forming a latent nuclear track, enlarged by chemical etching (6N, NaOH, 70°C). Track density provides information on the neutron density through calibration coefficient (˜1.6 104 neutrons /track) obtained by a californium source. We report the estimation of the thermal and epithermal neutron field and its gradient for photoneutrons produced in radiotherapy treatments with 18 MV linear accelerators. It was obsered that photoneutron production have higher rate at the iso-center.

  19. Thermal treatment synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles and investigation of its light harvesting application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadkhah, Mahnaz; Ansari, Fatemeh; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2016-07-01

    In this research, nanostructured SnO2 materials have been prepared via thermal treatment method with the aid of new Schiff base complex. N, N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-propylenediamine (H2salpn) has been used as Schiff base to prepare a new Schiff base complex. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and TEM. Then, as-prepared SnO2 nanoparticles have been applied as working electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells sensitizing with two different natural dyes: madder and mignonette.

  20. Analysis of the Production Cost for Various Grades of Biomass Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S Cherry; Rick A. Wood; Tyler L Westover

    2013-12-01

    Process flow sheets were developed for the thermal treatment of southern pine wood chips at four temperatures (150, 180, 230, and 270 degrees C) and two different scales (20 and 100 ton/hour). The larger capacity processes had as their primary heat source hot gas assumed to be available in quantity from an adjacent biorefinery. Mass and energy balances for these flow sheets were developed using Aspen Plus process simulation software. The hot gas demands in the larger processes, up to 1.9 million lb/hour, were of questionable feasibility because of the volume to be moved. This heat was of low utility because the torrefaction process, especially at higher temperatures, is a net heat producer if the organic byproduct gases are burned. A thermal treatment flow sheet using wood chips dried in the biorefinery to 10% moisture content (rather than 30% for green chips) with transfer of high temperature steam from the thermal treatment depot to the biorefinery was also examined. The equipment size information from all of these cases was used in several different equipment cost estimating methods to estimate the major equipment costs for each process. From these, factored estimates of other plant costs were determined, leading to estimates (+ / - 30% accuracy) of total plant capital cost. The 20 ton/hour processes were close to 25 million dollars except for the 230 degrees C case using dried wood chips which was only 15 million dollars because of its small furnace. The larger processes ranged from 64-120 million dollars. From these capital costs and projections of several categories of operating costs, the processing cost of thermally treated pine chips was found to be $28-33 per ton depending on the degree of treatment and without any credits for steam generation. If the excess energy output of the two 20 ton/hr depot cases at 270 degrees C can be sold for $10 per million BTU, the net processing cost dropped to $13/ton product starting with green wood chips or only $3 per

  1. Operating cost guidelines for benchmarking DOE thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, R.; Loghry, S.L.; Hermes, W.H.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents guidelines for estimating operating costs for use in benchmarking US Department of Energy (DOE) low-level mixed waste thermal treatment systems. The guidelines are based on operating cost experience at the DOE Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) mixed waste incinerator at the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge. In presenting these guidelines, it should be made clear at the outset that it is not the intention of this report to present operating cost estimates for new technologies, but only guidelines for estimating such costs.

  2. Improving the efficiency of polymer solar cells based on furan-flanked diketopyrrolopyrrole copolymer via solvent additive and methanol treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weilong; Chen, Huajie; Lv, Junjie; Chen, Youchun; Zhang, Weifeng; Yu, Gui; Li, Fenghong

    2015-09-01

    We present a furan-flanked DPP copolymer, poly{3,6-difuran-2-yl-2,5-di(2-octyldodecyl)-pyrrolo [3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione-altthienylenevinylene} (PDVF-8), and highlight the improvement in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of polymer solar cells (PSCs) based on the PDVF-8 as an electron donor via solvent additive and methanol treatment. When 3 vol% 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) or 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) were used as a solvent additive to the PDVF-8:PC71BM solution in chloroform (CF), the PCE can increase from 0.79% to 3.73% or 4.26%. Methanol treatment (MT) can further enhance the PCE to 4.03% (DIO) and 4.69% (CN). The effect of the solvent additives (DIO and CN) and MT on the phase separation of the PDVF-8:PC71BM thin film has been investigated in detail using atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), TEM-energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy depth profiling.We present a furan-flanked DPP copolymer, poly{3,6-difuran-2-yl-2,5-di(2-octyldodecyl)-pyrrolo [3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione-altthienylenevinylene} (PDVF-8), and highlight the improvement in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of polymer solar cells (PSCs) based on the PDVF-8 as an electron donor via solvent additive and methanol treatment. When 3 vol% 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) or 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) were used as a solvent additive to the PDVF-8:PC71BM solution in chloroform (CF), the PCE can increase from 0.79% to 3.73% or 4.26%. Methanol treatment (MT) can further enhance the PCE to 4.03% (DIO) and 4.69% (CN). The effect of the solvent additives (DIO and CN) and MT on the phase separation of the PDVF-8:PC71BM thin film has been investigated in detail using atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), TEM-energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy depth profiling. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04393j

  3. Influence of Ar addition on ozone generation in a non-thermal plasma—a numerical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsin Liang; Lee, How Ming; Chen, Shiaw Huei; Wei, Ta Chin; Been Chang, Moo

    2010-10-01

    A numerical model based on a dielectric barrier discharge is developed in this study to investigate the influence of Ar addition on ozone generation. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental data, confirming the validity of the numerical model. The mechanisms regarding how the Ar addition affects ozone generation are investigated with the assistance of a numerical simulation by probing into the following two questions, (1) why the ozone concentration just slightly decreases in the low specific input energy (SIE, the ratio of discharge power to gas flow rate) region even if the inlet O2 concentration is substantially decreased and (2) why the variation of the increased rate of ozone concentration with SIE (i.e. the variation in the slope of ozone concentration versus SIE) is more significant for an O2/Ar mixture plasma. As SIE is relatively low, ozone decomposition through electron-impact and radical attack reactions is less significant because of low ozone concentration and gas temperature. Therefore, the ozone concentration depends mainly on the amount of oxygen atoms generated. The simulation results indicate that the amount of oxygen atoms generated per electronvolt for Ar concentrations of 0%, 10%, 30%, 50% and 80% are 0.178, 0.174, 0.169, 0.165 and 0.166, respectively, explaining why the ozone concentration does not decrease linearly with the inlet O2 concentration in the low SIE region. On the other hand, the simulation results show that increasing Ar concentration would lead to a lower reduced field and a higher gas temperature. The former would lead to an increase in the rate constant of e + O3 → e + O + O2 while the latter would result in a decrease in the rate constant of O + O2 + M → O3 + M and an increase in that of O3 + O → 2O2. The changes in the rate constants of these reactions would have a negative effect on ozone generation, which is the rationale for the second question.

  4. Effects of plasmochemical treatments and cerium additions on the structural characteristics and activity of copper catalyst particles in isopropanol dehydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonov, E. A.; Lobanov, N. N.; Galimova, N. A.; Protasova, I. A.; Yagodovskii, V. D.

    2012-08-01

    The effect of the treatment of the 5 wt % Cu/SiO2 (I) and (5 wt % Cu + 0.5 wt % Ce)/SiO2 (II) catalysts with glow discharge plasma in O2, H2, and Ar on their structural characteristics was studied by X-ray phase analysis; the influence of cerium additions and plasmochemical treatments on the catalyst activity in isopropanol dehydrogenation was also investigated. Under the plasmochemical treatment, the diameters of Cu particles in catalyst I nearly doubled and microstresses in the metal particles also changed. Catalyst II was X-ray amorphous both before and after plasmochemical treatments. The activity of I after plasmochemical treatment increased because of the increase in the number of centers and changes in their composition. Growth of the activity of I compared with the activity of II was explained by the formation of new catalytic centers due to positive charging of the Ce+α adatom on the surface of the copper particle.

  5. Effect of water treatment additives on lime softening residual trace chemical composition--implications for disposal and reuse.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weizhi; Roessler, Justin; Blaisi, Nawaf I; Townsend, Timothy G

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water treatment residues (WTR) offer potential benefits when recycled through land application. The current guidance in Florida, US allows for unrestricted land application of lime softening WTR; alum and ferric WTR require additional evaluation of total and leachable concentrations of select trace metals prior to land application. In some cases a mixed WTR is produced when lime softening is accompanied by the addition of a coagulant or other treatment chemical; applicability of the current guidance is unclear. The objective of this research was to characterize the total and leachable chemical content of WTR from Florida facilities that utilize multiple treatment chemicals. Lime and mixed lime WTR samples were collected from 18 water treatment facilities in Florida. Total and leachable concentrations of the WTR were measured. To assess the potential for disposal of mixed WTR as clean fill below the water table, leaching tests were conducted at multiple liquid to solid ratios and under reducing conditions. The results were compared to risk-based soil and groundwater contamination thresholds. Total metal concentrations of WTR were found to be below Florida soil contaminant thresholds with Fe found in the highest abundance at a concentration of 3600 mg/kg-dry. Aluminum was the only element that exceeded the Florida groundwater contaminant thresholds using SPLP (95% UCL = 0.23 mg/L; risk threshold = 0.2 mg/L). Tests under reducing conditions showed elevated concentrations of Fe and Mn, ranging from 1 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than SPLP leachates. Mixed lime WTR concentrations (total and leachable) were lower than the ferric and alum WTR concentrations, supporting that mixed WTR are appropriately represented as lime WTR. Testing of WTR under reducing conditions demonstrated the potential for release of certain trace metals (Fe, Al, Mn) above applicable regulatory thresholds; additional evaluation is needed to assess management options where

  6. Thermally stable derivatives or propylenepolyamines as protective additives for lubricating oils used in compressors handling hydrogen sulfide-containing gas

    SciTech Connect

    Trofimov, V.A.; Panidi, I.S.; Spirkin, V.G.

    1995-09-01

    In the transmission of natural, associated, and petroleum gases containing hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, water, and other corrosive impurities, problems are created by the saturation of the compressor lubricating oil with these impurities and failure of components of the lubricating and sealing system. Hydrogen sulfide is distinguished by the greatest affinity for oil and the highest corrosivity. Its solubility in oils may be as high as 10 g/liter under standard conditions. In the work reported here, we investigated the protective properties of salts and amides based on higher aliphatic, alkylaromatic, and unsaturated carboxylic acids with certain substituted propylenepolyamines. In synthesizing the additives, we used the following: a commercial C{sub 17} - C{sub 20} fraction of synthetic fatty acids (SFA): C{sub 25+} still bottoms; technical alkyl (C{sub 16} - C {sub 18}) salicylic acids; and oleic acid. From these materials, we obtained salts and amides of N,N-dimethylpropanediamine, N-benzylpropanediamine, N-cyanoethylpropanediamine, N,N,N`,N`-tetramethyldipropylenetriamine, and N,N-dimethyldipropylenetriamine.

  7. The effect of temperature and length of heat shock treatment on the thermal tolerance and cell leakage of Cronobacter sakazakii BCRC 13988.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Hsiang; Chiang, Ming-Lun; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2009-09-15

    Enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging opportunistic pathogen associated with life-threatening illnesses in infants, with infant formula serving as the principal mode of transmission. In the present study, C. sakazakii (formely E. sakazakii) BCRC 13988 was subjected to various heat shock treatments (42-48 degrees C for 5-15 min). Its subsequent survival at 51 degrees C and the leakage of intracellular materials was investigated. It was found that 47 degrees C was the maximum growth temperature of the test organism. In addition, heat shock enhanced the thermal tolerance of C. sakazakii BCRC 13988. Within heat shock temperatures between 42 and 47 degrees C, the thermal tolerance enhancing effect increased as the length or temperature of the heat shock treatment was increased. However, increasing the heat shock temperature to 48 degrees C reduced the thermal tolerance enhancing effect. Among the various heat shocked cells examined, the 47 degrees C-15 min-heat shocked C. sakazakii exhibited the highest thermal tolerance. Moreover, electron micrograph analysis showed that heat shock treatment caused damage and disruption in C. sakazakii cells. There was a significant increase (P<0.05) in the leakage of nucleic acid and protein in the supernatant of the heat shocked cell suspension that increased as the temperature and duration of heat shock increased.

  8. Tuning of the spin pumping in yttrium iron garnet/Au bilayer system by fast thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Lichuan E-mail: hwzhang@uestc.edu.cn; Zhang, Huaiwu E-mail: hwzhang@uestc.edu.cn; Yang, Qinghui; Tang, Xiaoli; Zhong, Zhiyong; Zhang, Dainan; Xiao, John Q.

    2014-05-07

    In this Letter, we investigated the influence of the fast thermal treatment on the spin pumping in ferromagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG)/normal metal Au bilayer system. The YIG/Au bilayer thin films were treated by fast annealing process with different temperatures from 0 to 800 °C. The spin pumping was studied using ferromagnetic resonance. The surface evolution was investigated using a high resolution scanning microscopy and an atomic force microscopy. A strong thermal related spin pumping in YIG/Au bilayer system has been revealed. It was found that the spin pumping process can be enhanced by using fast thermal treatment due to the thermal modifications of the Au surface. The effective spin-mixing conductance of the fast thermal treated YIG/Au bilayer has been obtained.

  9. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT KOP DISPOSITION - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSIS FOR THE COLD VACUUM DRYING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    SWENSON JA; CROWE RD; APTHORPE R; PLYS MG

    2010-03-09

    The purpose of this document is to present conceptual design phase thermal process calculations that support the process design and process safety basis for the cold vacuum drying of K Basin KOP material. This document is intended to demonstrate that the conceptual approach: (1) Represents a workable process design that is suitable for development in preliminary design; and (2) Will support formal safety documentation to be prepared during the definitive design phase to establish an acceptable safety basis. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of Knock Out Pot (KOP) sludge within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. KOP sludge consists of size segregated material (primarily canister particulate) from the fuel and scrap cleaning process used in the Spent Nuclear Fuel process at K Basin. The KOP sludge will be pre-treated to remove fines and some of the constituents containing chemically bound water, after which it is referred to as KOP material. The KOP material will then be loaded into a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), dried at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and stored in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This process is patterned after the successful drying of 2100 metric tons of spent fuel, and uses the same facilities and much of the same equipment that was used for drying fuel and scrap. Table ES-l present similarities and differences between KOP material and fuel and between MCOs loaded with these materials. The potential content of bound water bearing constituents limits the mass ofKOP material in an MCO load to a fraction of that in an MCO containing fuel and scrap; however, the small particle size of the KOP material causes the surface area to be significantly higher. This relatively large reactive surface area represents an input to the KOP thermal calculations that is significantly different from the calculations for fuel MCOs. The conceptual design provides for a copper insert block that limits the volume available to

  10. Direction of temperature control in the thermal biofeedback treatment of vascular headache.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, E B; Peters, M L; Hermann, C; Turner, S M; Buckley, T C; Barton, K; Dentinger, M P

    1997-12-01

    In order to test for the specific therapeutic effects of thermal biofeedback (TBF) for hand warming on vascular headache (HA), 70 patients with chronic vascular HA were randomly assigned to TBF for hand warming, TBF for hand cooling, TBF for stabilization of hand temperature, or biofeedback to suppress alpha in the EEG. Patients in each condition initially had high levels of expectation of therapeutic benefit and found the treatment rationales highly credible. Participants in each condition received 12 treatment sessions on a twice-per-week basis. Based on daily HA diary data gathered for 4 weeks prior to treatment and 4 weeks after treatment, HA Index was significantly (p = .003) reduced as was HA medication consumption. There were no differential reductions in HA Index or Medication Index among the four conditions. Global self-reports of improvement gathered at the end of the post-treatment monitoring period also did not differ among the four conditions. We were unable to demonstrate a specific effect of TBF for hand warming on vascular HA activity.

  11. Existence of Cl in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and dechlorination effect of thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuo; Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Kawano, Takashi

    2014-02-28

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is widely used in Japan, through which large amount of incineration residues are produced. The recycle/reuse of the incineration residues is troubled by many factors. This paper studied the MSWI bottom ash with the principal focus on Cl. Both bulk analysis and microanalysis methods have been carried out. The bulk analysis disclosed a particle-size dependent pattern of the Cl content in the bottom ash and the insoluble Cl is essentially in the form of Friedel's salt (3CaO·Al(2)O(3)·CaCl(2)·10H(2)O). The microanalysis revealed that Cl preferentially exists in the quench phase of the individual bottom ash particle. Since Friedel's salt and the other quench products are thermally unstable, a series of thermal treatments were carried out to decompose such Cl-bearing phases. The experimental results showed the total Cl content in the MSWI bottom ash was reduced by 55.46% after a 4-h heating process at 1000°C. The removal of the soluble Cl (originally as alkali salts) by the thermal process was found to be more effective. However, the insoluble Cl content in the heated sample was barely lowered owing to the formation of calcium chlorocalumite (11CaO·7Al(2)O(3)·CaCl(2)) in the course of heating.

  12. Influence of Thermal Treatment Conditions on the Properties of Dental Silicate Cements.

    PubMed

    Voicu, Georgeta; Popa, Alexandru Mihai; Badanoiu, Alina Ioana; Iordache, Florin

    2016-01-01

    In this study the sol-gel process was used to synthesize a precursor mixture for the preparation of silicate cement, also called mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cement. This mixture was thermally treated under two different conditions (1400 °C/2 h and 1450 °C/3 h) followed by rapid cooling in air. The resulted material (clinker) was ground for one hour in a laboratory planetary mill (v = 150 rot/min), in order to obtain the MTA cements. The setting time and mechanical properties, in vitro induction of apatite formation by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) and cytocompatibility of the MTA cements were assessed in this study. The hardening processes, nature of the reaction products and the microstructural characteristics were also investigated. The anhydrous and hydrated cements were characterized by different techniques e.g., X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermal analysis (DTA-DTG-TG). The setting time of the MTA cement obtained by thermal treatment at 1400 °C/2 h (MTA1) was 55 min and 15 min for the MTA cement obtained at 1450 °C/3 h (MTA2). The compressive strength values were 18.5 MPa (MTA1) and 22.9 MPa (MTA2). Both MTA cements showed good bioactivity (assessed by an in vitro test), good cytocompatibility and stimulatory effect on the proliferation of cells. PMID:26901185

  13. Thermal treatment for chlorine removal from coal. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Muchmore, C.B.; Hesketh, H.E.; Chen, Han Lin

    1992-10-01

    It is the goal of this research to provide the technical basis for development of a process to remove chlorine from coal prior to combustion, based on a thermal treatment process. Under the reaction conditions employed, the behavior of other trace elements of concern will also be evaluated. The recovery of the chlorine removed from the coal as a marketable byproduct, calcium chloride suitable for use as a road deicer, is also being investigated using a novel absorption/crystallization device. A value of 6.29 hr{sup {minus}1} was determined for the dechlorination rate constant of IBC-109 coal at 385{degrees}C, and an activation energy of 34.7 kcal/mol was obtained from an Arrhenius plot over the temperature range of 300--385{degrees}C. A significant removal of chlorine (84.3%) was attained while retaining 92% of the energy of the coal in the solid product by preheating the coal at lower temperatures prior to a six-minute reaction at 385{degrees}C. Volatiles lost during the thermal dechlorination may be recovered for their heating value, and/or as a source of chemical feedstocks; this aspect will require further study, but it appears that the overall energy balance on the system should prove to be favorable. The design of the bench scale fluidized bed thermal dechlorination unit has been completed, and components ordered. Operation of this system should provide the information required for further scale-up of the process.

  14. Fabrication of spectrally selective solar surfaces by the thermal treatment of austenitic stainless steel aisi 321

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, V.C.

    1981-05-19

    The spectrally selective solar surfaces have been produced after heating the austenitic stainless steel aisi 321 at a firing temperature of 843* K. And for firing times ranging from 10 to 20 minutes. The heating was carried out in a constant temperature oven under normal atmospheric conditions. The optimum values of solar absorptance alpha S and near-normal emittance epsilon S were found to be alpha S 0.92+0.02, epsilon S 0.22 + or - 0.02 respectively. The corresponding values for the unheated steel were 0.50 + or - 0.02 and 0.22 + or - 0.22. Severe temperature treatments like quenching in liquid nitrogen at 77* K. Produced no adverse visible affect on the quality of the selective surfaces. It shows that the thermal coatings so produced are very tough and durable. The value of solar absorptance and near-normal thermal emittance remained unchanged after quenching in liquod nitrogen. The thermal coatings so produced not only offer a technical advantage but also economic advantage over any of the existing techniques for the manufacture of stainless steel solar panels.

  15. Non-Thermal Plasma Treatment Diminishes Fungal Viability and Up-Regulates Resistance Genes in a Plant Host

    PubMed Central

    Panngom, Kamonporn; Lee, Sang Hark; Park, Dae Hoon; Sim, Geon Bo; Kim, Yong Hee; Uhm, Han Sup; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun Ha

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can have either harmful or beneficial effects on biological systems depending on the dose administered and the species of organism exposed, suggesting that application of reactive species can possibly produce contradictory effects in disease control, pathogen inactivation and activation of host resistance. A novel technology known as atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma represents a means of generating various reactive species that adversely affect pathogens (inactivation) while simultaneously up-regulating host defense genes. The anti-microbial efficacy of this technology was tested on the plant fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and its susceptible host plant species Solanum lycopercicum. Germination of fungal spores suspended in saline was decreased over time after exposed to argon (Ar) plasma for 10 min. Although the majority of treated spores exhibited necrotic death, apoptosis was also observed along with the up-regulation of apoptosis related genes. Increases in the levels of peroxynitrite and nitrite in saline following plasma treatment may have been responsible for the observed spore death. In addition, increased transcription of pathogenesis related (PR) genes was observed in the roots of the susceptible tomato cultivar (S. lycopercicum) after exposure to the same Ar plasma dose used in fungal inactivation. These data suggest that atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma can be efficiently used to control plant fungal diseases by inactivating fungal pathogens and up-regulating mechanisms of host resistance. PMID:24911947

  16. Early treatment revisions by addition or switch for type 2 diabetes: impact on glycemic control, diabetic complications, and healthcare costs

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Phil; Saundankar, Vishal; Bouchard, Jonathan; Wintfeld, Neil; Suehs, Brandon; Moretz, Chad; Allen, Elsie; DeLuzio, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background The study examined the prevalence of early treatment revisions after glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥9.0% (75 mmol/mol) and estimated the impact of early treatment revisions on glycemic control, diabetic complications, and costs. Research design and methods A retrospective cohort study of administrative claims data of plan members with type 2 diabetes and HbA1c ≥9.0% (75 mmol/mol) was completed. Treatment revision was identified as treatment addition or switch. Glycemic control was measured as HbA1c during 6–12 months following the first qualifying HbA1c ≥9.0% (75 mmol/mol) laboratory result. Complications severity (via Diabetes Complication Severity Index (DCSI)) and costs were measured after 12, 24, and 36 months. Unadjusted comparisons and multivariable models were used to examine the relationship between early treatment revision (within 90 days of HbA1c) and outcomes after controlling for potentially confounding factors measured during a 12-month baseline period. Results 8463 participants were included with a mean baseline HbA1c of 10.2% (75 mmol/mol). Early treatment revision was associated with greater reduction in HbA1c at 6–12 months (−2.10% vs −1.87%; p<0.001). No significant relationship was observed between early treatment revision and DCSI at 12, 24, or 36 months (p=0.931, p=0.332, and p=0.418). Total costs, medical costs, and pharmacy costs at 12, 24, or 36 months were greater for the early treatment revision group compared with the delayed treatment revision group (all p<0.05). Conclusions The findings suggest that in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, treatment revision within 90 days of finding an HbA1c ≥9.0% is associated with a greater level of near-term glycemic control and higher cost. The impact on end points such as diabetic complications may not be realized over relatively short time frames. PMID:26925237

  17. Apparatus and method for the thermal regeneration of matter in water treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Marquardt, K.

    1980-12-02

    Apparatus and methods are disclosed that provide a quasicontinuous thermal regeneration system for ion exchange resins and adsorption media (matter) as used, for example, in desalinization processes, comprising an operating (desalinization) vessel, means for transferring measured amounts of matter therefrom to successive regeneration and cooling means and recycle back to the operating vessel. Heat exchange means are provided to transfer residual heat from the cooling step to the regeneration step, transport water is recycled in the process with minimal losses, and optional water softening and decarbonizing pre-treatment and chemical post-treatment steps may be included, the latter to remove dirt and heavy metals from the regenerated matter prior to recycle to the operating vessel.

  18. Aggregation and conformational change of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) polyphenoloxidase subjected to thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Liu, Wei; Zou, Liqiang; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Hu, Xiuting; Chen, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated changes in the activity, conformation and microstructure of mushroom polyphenoloxidase (PPO) subjected to thermal treatment. The inactivation of PPO can be achieved by high temperature-short time or mild temperature-long time treatment. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra suggested that heating process induced the rearrangement of secondary structure and the disruption of tertiary structure. Red shifts of fluorescence spectra showed positive correlations with the inactivation rate of PPO. There were significant differences in the conformation and molecular microstructure among PPO samples with the same relative activity, which were obtained by treating PPO at 45, 55 and 65°C for different times. In summary, PPO molecules were deformed at mild temperature, while higher temperature induced the formation of large aggregates. PPO with the same relative activity might exist in different forms. PMID:27507494

  19. Atmospheric Pressure non-thermal plasmas for surface treatment of polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hsiao-Feng; Wen, Chun-Hsiang; Wei, Hsiao-Kuan; Kou, Chwung-Shan

    2006-10-01

    Interest has grown over the past few years in applying atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasmas to surface treatment. In this work, we used an asymmetric glow dielectric-barrier discharge (GDBD), at atmospheric pressure in nitrogen, to improve the surface hydrophilicity of three kinds of polymer films, biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP), polyimide (PI), and triacetyl cellulose (TAC). This set-up consists of two asymmetric electrodes covered by dielectrics. And to prevent the filamentary discharge occur, the frequency, gas flow rate and uniformity of gas flow distribution should be carefully controlled. The discharge performance is monitored through an oscilloscope, which is connected to a high voltage probe and a current monitor. The physical and chemical properties of polymer surfaces before and after GDBD treatment were analyzed via water contact angle (CA) measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques.

  20. Recovery of Cu and valuable metals from E-waste using thermal plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrasinovic, Aleksandar; Pershin, Larry; Wen, John Z.; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2011-08-01

    A thermal plasma treatment was employed for economical recovery of valuable metals from e-waste. Cu-clad plates that simulated circuit boards were fed at the bottom of the reactor and treated with a plasma jet at temperatures between 385 and 840°C. Organic components of the Cu-clad plates were decomposed and contributed to the increased temperature of the offgas. Due to the low temperatures at the base of the reactor, the analyzed samples did not show losses characteristic for the plasma processes such as evaporation or metal oxidation. After plasma treatment, Cu foils were separated from the fiber glass and other solid residues allowing a complete recovery. Solid residues of the plates at the bottom of the reactor were crunched into small particles, allowing easy recycling or use as construction material.

  1. Thermal treatments of foods: a predictive general-purpose code for heat and mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba, Anna Angela

    2005-05-01

    Thermal treatments of foods required accurate processing protocols. In this context, mathematical modeling of heat and mass transfer can play an important role in the control and definition of the process parameters as well as to design processing systems. In this work a code able to simulate heat and mass transfer phenomena within solid bodies has been developed. The code has been written with the ability of describing different geometries and it can account for any kind of different initial/boundary conditions. Transport phenomena within multi-layer bodies can be described, and time/position dependent material parameters can be implemented. Finally, the code has been validated by comparison with a problem for which the analytical solution is known, and by comparison with a differential scanning calorimetry signal that described the heating treatment of a raw potato (Solanum tuberosum).

  2. Addition of bisphosphonate to antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatment reduces bone resorption in experimental Staphylococcus aureus-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Verdrengh, Margareta; Carlsten, Hans; Ohlsson, Claes; Tarkowski, Andrej

    2007-03-01

    Bacterial arthritis is a disease with high morbidity leading to rapidly progressive bone resorption. We have shown earlier that treatment with antibiotics in combination with corticosteroids decreases joint inflammation and mortality but does not significantly affect bone/cartilage destruction of the joints. This study was performed to assess the effect of treatment with bisphosphonate [zoledronic acid (ZA)] in combination with antibiotics and corticosteroids, on the course and outcome of Staphlococcus aureus-induced arthritis. Three days after intravenous inoculation with S. aureus, mice were treated with antibiotics alone, ZA alone, ZA and antibiotics, or ZA combined with antibiotics and corticosteroids, respectively. One group served as controls and received PBS. Clinical assessment of arthritis was performed as well as histological analysis of bone and cartilage destruction in the joints. One femur from each mouse was collected for bone mineral density (BMD) analysis. In addition, serum levels of type I collagen fragments (RatLaps), and osteocalcin, markers for osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity, respectively, were analyzed. Mice treated with ZA and antibiotics or with ZA in combination with antibiotics and corticosteroids lost significantly less in trabecular bone density compared to infected control mice. Furthermore, the addition of corticosteroids to animals treated with ZA and antibiotics, significantly decreased serum levels of RatLaps and osteocalcin, compared to animals treated with ZA and antibiotics or ZA alone. Treatment with bisphosphonates in combination with antimicrobial agents and corticosteroids significantly decreases the activity of osteoclasts in septic arthritis, thereby reducing the risk of skeletal destruction.

  3. Probiotics in addition to antibiotics for the treatment of acute tonsillitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Gilbey, P; Livshits, L; Sharabi-Nov, A; Avraham, Y; Miron, D

    2015-05-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. The probiotic Streptococcus salivarius has been shown to be effective in reducing the frequency of recurrent pharyngeal infections in children and adult populations. However, probiotics have not yet been evaluated in the treatment of acute pharyngotonsillitis in adults. We aimed to examine whether the addition of S. salivarius probiotics to the routine therapy of acute pharyngotonsillitis in adult patients may shorten disease duration and reduce symptom severity. This study was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study comparing treatment with probiotics to placebo in addition to antibiotics in patients who were hospitalized with severe pharyngotonsillitis. Laboratory results, pain levels, body temperature, and daily volume of fluids consumed were recorded for both groups. Sixty participants were recruited, 30 for each group. No statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed regarding any of the major clinical and laboratory parameters examined. Supplement probiotic treatment with S. salivarius in patients with acute pharyngotonsillitis treated with penicillin is ineffective in relation to the parameters examined in this study and we cannot, therefore, recommend the use of S. salivarius during active pharyngotonsillar infection treated with penicillin.

  4. Changes in the structure and function of microbial communities in drinking water treatment bioreactors upon addition of phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Upadhyaya, Giridhar; Yuen, Wangki; Brown, Jess; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2010-11-01

    Phosphorus was added as a nutrient to bench-scale and pilot-scale biologically active carbon (BAC) reactors operated for perchlorate and nitrate removal from contaminated groundwater. The two bioreactors responded similarly to phosphorus addition in terms of microbial community function (i.e., reactor performance), while drastically different responses in microbial community structure were detected. Improvement in reactor performance with respect to perchlorate and nitrate removal started within a few days after phosphorus addition for both reactors. Microbial community structures were evaluated using molecular techniques targeting 16S rRNA genes. Clone library results showed that the relative abundance of perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB) Dechloromonas and Azospira in the bench-scale reactor increased from 15.2% and 0.6% to 54.2% and 11.7% after phosphorus addition, respectively. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) experiments revealed that these increases started within a few days after phosphorus addition. In contrast, after phosphorus addition, the relative abundance of Dechloromonas in the pilot-scale reactor decreased from 7.1 to 0.6%, while Zoogloea increased from 17.9 to 52.0%. The results of this study demonstrated that similar operating conditions for bench-scale and pilot-scale reactors resulted in similar contaminant removal performances, despite dramatically different responses from microbial communities. These findings suggest that it is important to evaluate the microbial community compositions inside bioreactors used for drinking water treatment, as they determine the microbial composition in the effluent and impact downstream treatment requirements for drinking water production. This information could be particularly relevant to drinking water safety, if pathogens or disinfectant-resistant bacteria are detected in the bioreactors.

  5. Effect of glycine addition on the structural, thermal, optical, mechanical and electrical properties of Sr (HCOO)2·2H2O crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthupoongodi, S.; Theodore David Manickam, S.; Mahadevan, C. K.; Angel Mary Greena, J.; Balakumar, S.; Sahaya Shajan, X.

    2015-10-01

    Pure and glycine doped strontium formate dihydrate (SFD) single crystals were grown by the free evaporation method to understand the effect of glycine addition on the structural, thermal, optical, mechanical and electrical properties of SFD crystal. The grown crystals were characterized by carrying out powder X-ray diffraction, high resolution X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectral, Raman spectral, UV-vis-NIR spectral, thermogravimetric (TG/DTA), second harmonic generation (SHG), microhardness and DC electrical conductivity measurements. Results obtained in the present study indicate improvement in crystalline perfection, optical transmittance, and SHG efficiency, and change in microhardness, and DC electrical conductivity on doping SFD with glycine. In addition, a large size (~1.9 cm length, ~1.2 cm breath and ~0.6 cm height) SFD crystal with good optical quality could be grown successfully by the seeded free evaporation method.

  6. Effect of a new thermal treatment in combination with saprobic fungal incubation on the phytotoxicity level of alperujo.

    PubMed

    Sampedro, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Lama-Muñoz, Antonio; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan; García-Romera, Inmaculada

    2011-04-13

    Byproducts generated from food industries, such as olive oil mills, have been studied to decrease harmful pollution and their environmental consequences. In this work, a new thermal pretreatment and saprobic fungal incubation to detoxify alperujo (two-phase olive mill waste) have been evaluated in view of its use as fertilizer in agriculture. The sequential use of both methods simplifies the thermal conditions and incubation times of the fungal treatment. Optimization of the thermal treatment from 150 to 170 °C for 45 and 15 min, respectively, reduced the incubation time with Coriolpsis rigida from 20 to 10 weeks needed to reduce phytotoxic effects on tomato plants. Therefore, the combination of thermal and biological treatments will allow the development of the potential benefits of alperujo to improve nutrients in agricultural soil. PMID:21395263

  7. Effect of a new thermal treatment in combination with saprobic fungal incubation on the phytotoxicity level of alperujo.

    PubMed

    Sampedro, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Lama-Muñoz, Antonio; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan; García-Romera, Inmaculada

    2011-04-13

    Byproducts generated from food industries, such as olive oil mills, have been studied to decrease harmful pollution and their environmental consequences. In this work, a new thermal pretreatment and saprobic fungal incubation to detoxify alperujo (two-phase olive mill waste) have been evaluated in view of its use as fertilizer in agriculture. The sequential use of both methods simplifies the thermal conditions and incubation times of the fungal treatment. Optimization of the thermal treatment from 150 to 170 °C for 45 and 15 min, respectively, reduced the incubation time with Coriolpsis rigida from 20 to 10 weeks needed to reduce phytotoxic effects on tomato plants. Therefore, the combination of thermal and biological treatments will allow the development of the potential benefits of alperujo to improve nutrients in agricultural soil.

  8. Gallium maltolate treatment eradicates Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in thermally injured mice.

    PubMed

    DeLeon, Katrina; Balldin, Fredrik; Watters, Chase; Hamood, Abdul; Griswold, John; Sreedharan, Sunil; Rumbaugh, Kendra P

    2009-04-01

    Gallium (Ga) is a semimetallic element that has demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic-imaging potential in a number of disease settings, including cancer and infectious diseases. Gallium's biological actions stem from its ionic radius being almost the same as that of ferric iron (Fe(3+)), whereby it can replace iron (Fe) in Fe(3+)-dependent biological systems, such as bacterial and mammalian Fe transporters and Fe(3+)-containing enzymes. Unlike Fe(3+), ionic gallium (Ga(3+)) cannot be reduced, and when incorporated, it inactivates Fe(3+)-dependent reduction and oxidation processes that are necessary for bacterial and mammalian cell proliferation. Most pathogenic bacteria require Fe for growth and function, and the availability of Fe in the host or environment can greatly enhance virulence. We examined whether gallium maltolate (GaM), a novel formulation of Ga, had antibacterial activity in a thermally injured acute infection mouse model. Dose-response studies indicated that a GaM dose as low as 25 mg/kg of body weight delivered subcutaneously was sufficient to provide 100% survival in a lethal P. aeruginosa-infected thermally injured mouse model. Mice treated with 100 mg/kg GaM had undetectable levels of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in their wounds, livers, and spleens, while the wounds of untreated mice were colonized with over 10(8) P. aeruginosa CFU/g of tissue and their livers and spleens were colonized with over 10(5) P. aeruginosa CFU/g of tissue. GaM also significantly reduced the colonization of Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii in the wounds of thermally injured mice. Furthermore, GaM was also therapeutically effective in preventing preestablished P. aeruginosa infections at the site of the injury from spreading systemically. Taken together, our data suggest that GaM is potentially a novel antibacterial agent for the prevention and treatment of wound infections following thermal injury. PMID:19188381

  9. Errors between two- and three-dimensional thermal model predictions of hyperthermia treatments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z P; Miller, W H; Roemer, R B; Cetas, T C

    1990-01-01

    A simulation program to study the three-dimensional temperature distributions produced by hyperthermia in anatomically realistic inhomogenous tissue models has been developed using the bioheat transfer equation. The anatomical data for the inhomogeneous tissues of the human body are entered on a digitizing tablet from serial computed tomography (CT) scans. Power deposition patterns from various heating modalities must be calculated independently. The program has been used to comparatively evaluate two- and three-dimensional simulations in a series of parametric calculations based on a simple inhomogeneous tissue model for uniform power deposition. The conclusions are that two-dimensional simulations always lead to significant errors at the ends of tumors (up to tens of degrees). However, they can give valid results for the central region of large tumors, but only with tumor blood perfusions greater than approximately 1 kg/m3/s. These conclusions from the geometrically simple model are substantiated by the results obtained using the full three-dimensional model for actual patient anatomical simulations. In summary, three-dimensional simulations will be necessary for accurate patient treatment planning. The effect of the thermal conductivity, used in the models, on the temperature field has also been studied. The results show that using any thermal conductivity value in the range of 0.4 to 0.6 W/m/degrees C sufficiently characterizes most soft tissues, especially in the presence of high blood perfusion. However, bone (thermal conductivity of 1.16 W/m/degrees C) and fat (thermal conductivity of 0.2 W/m/degrees C) do not fit this generalization and significant errors result if soft tissue values are used.

  10. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions.

  11. Economic aspects of thermal treatment of solid waste in a sustainable WM system

    SciTech Connect

    Massarutto, Antonio

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Provides a comprehensive review of the applied economic literature dedicated to WtE. • Offers a detailed discussion of the main assumptions that characterize alternative positions. • Highlights the most robust achievements obtained by the applied economic research in this field. • Compares economic and non-economic valuation techniques. - Abstract: This paper offers a systematic review of the literature of the last 15 years, which applies economic analysis and theories to the issue of combustion of solid waste. Waste incineration has attracted the interest of economists in the first place concerning the comparative assessment of waste management options, with particular reference to external costs and benefits. A second important field of applied economic research concerns the market failures associated with the provision of thermal treatment of waste, that justify some deviation from the standard competitive market model. Our analysis discusses the most robust achievements and the more controversial areas. All in all, the economic perspective seems to confirm the desirability of assigning a prominent role to thermal treatments in an integrated waste management strategy. Probably the most interesting original contribution it has to offer concerns the refusal of categorical assumptions and too rigid priority ladders, emphasizing instead the need to consider site-specific circumstances that may favor one or another solution.

  12. Economic aspects of thermal treatment of solid waste in a sustainable WM system.

    PubMed

    Massarutto, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    This paper offers a systematic review of the literature of the last 15 years, which applies economic analysis and theories to the issue of combustion of solid waste. Waste incineration has attracted the interest of economists in the first place concerning the comparative assessment of waste management options, with particular reference to external costs and benefits. A second important field of applied economic research concerns the market failures associated with the provision of thermal treatment of waste, that justify some deviation from the standard competitive market model. Our analysis discusses the most robust achievements and the more controversial areas. All in all, the economic perspective seems to confirm the desirability of assigning a prominent role to thermal treatments in an integrated waste management strategy. Probably the most interesting original contribution it has to offer concerns the refusal of categorical assumptions and too rigid priority ladders, emphasizing instead the need to consider site-specific circumstances that may favor one or another solution. PMID:25307494

  13. Purification of p-type CdTe crystals by thermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fochuk, P.; Rarenko, I.; Zakharuk, Z.; Nykoniuk, Ye.; Shlyakhovyj, V.; Bolotnikov, A. E.; Yang, Ge; James, R. B.

    2014-09-01

    We studied the influence of prolonged thermal treatment on the concentration and the acceptor energy level positions in p-CdTe samples. We found that heating them at 720 K entails a decrease in the concentration of electrically active centers, i.e., a "self-cleaning" of the adverse effects of some contaminants. In samples wherein the conductivity was determined by the concentration of acceptors of the A1 type (EV + 0.03-0.05) eV, after heating it becomes controlled by a deeper acceptor of the A2 type (EV + 0.13-0.14) eV, and both the charge-carrier's mobility and the ratio μр80/μр300 increase. This effect reflects the fact that during thermal treatment, the A1 acceptors and the compensating donors are removed from their electrically active positions, most likely due to their diffusion and trapping within the inclusions in the CdTe bulk, where they have little or no influence on carrier scattering and trapping.

  14. Thermal treatment for chlorine removal from coal. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Muchmore, C.B.; Hesketh, H.E.; Chen, Han Lin

    1992-08-01

    It is the goal of this research to provide the technical basis for development of a process to remove chlorine from coal prior to combustion, based on a thermal treatment process. Under the reaction conditions employed, the behavior of other trace elements of concern will also be evaluated. The recovery of the chlorine removed from the coal as a marketable by-product, calcium chloride suitable for use as a road deicer, is also being investigated using a novel absorption/crystallization device. We have previously reported on equipment modifications required to attain the necessary data. A tube furnace system employs a flow of nitrogen across the coal sample to carry the HCl released to an absorber, where a chloride specific electrode measures the concentration of the chloride in solution. The data is analyzed by a least squares technique to provide values of the three kinetic constants in a modified first order rate equation used to model the system. During the past quarter, several runs were performed, and kinetic constants determined. After 20 minutes at 385{degree}C, 90% of the chlorine was removed from IBC-109 {minus}200 mesh coal. The data are encouraging, in terms of being able to provide a basis for design of a precombustion chlorine removal process based on thermal treatment.

  15. [Thermal treatment behavior of PCDD/Fs on the fly ash from medical waste incineration].

    PubMed

    Peng, Zheng; Ding, Qiong; Jiang, Chen; Gao, Xin-hua; Yan, Jian-hua

    2010-08-01

    PCDD/Fs formation distribution in gas phase and solid phase of medical waste incineration fly ash under both the flowing nitrogen and static air condition were studied within temperature range of 200-450 degrees C. Under the flowing nitrogen, PCDD/Fs in solid phase increased with temperature increase, which reached the maximum concentration at 350 degrees C, both the TEQ and total concentration increased 46.0% and 26.0% respectively of original concentration, then, which decreased with temperature's rising, reaching the lowest level at 450 degrees C, of which 86.8% and 80.5% respectively in turn removed. Under the static air, the maximum concentration in solid phase occurred at 250 degrees C, both the TEQ and total concentration increased 20.7% and 28.7% respectively of original concentration, then, which decreased with temperature increase, reaching the lowest level at 450 degrees C, of which 99.5% and 99.5% respectively in turn removed. There were small generation of PCDD/Fs in gas phase, which took only 0.11%-2.16% of the total quantity of PCDD/Fs in both gas phase and solid phase. The optimal conditions for thermal treatment in this study were under the static air at temperature of 450 degrees C in duration of 1 h. The mechanism of destruction played the main role in the thermal treatment, while dechlorination and desorption acted as minor role in this study.

  16. Engineering Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Growth by Decoupled Thermal Treatment of Precursor and Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Meshot, E.; Plata, D; Tawfick, S; Zhang, Y; Verploegen, E; Hart, A

    2009-01-01

    We study synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) 'forests' by a decoupled method that facilitates control of the mean diameter and structural quality of the CNTs and enables tuning of the kinetics for efficient growth to forest heights of several millimeters. The growth substrate temperature (Ts) primarily determines the CNT diameter, whereas independent and rapid thermal treatment (Tp) of the C2H4/H2 reactant mixture significantly changes the growth rate and terminal forest height but does not change the CNT diameter. Synchrotron X-ray scattering is utilized for precise, nondestructive measurement of CNT diameter in large numbers of samples. CNT structural quality monotonically increases with Ts yet decreases with Tp, and forests grown by this decoupled method have significantly higher quality than those grown using a conventional single-zone tube furnace. Chemical analysis reveals that the thermal treatment generates a broad population of hydrocarbon species, and a nonmonotonic relationship between catalyst lifetime and Tp suggests that certain carbon species either enhance or inhibit CNT growth. However, the forest height kinetics, as measured in real-time during growth, are self-similar, thereby indicating that a common mechanism of growth termination may be present over a wide range of process conditions.

  17. Study of thermal treatment combined with radiation on the decomposition of polysaccharides in sugarcane bagasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, C. L.; Ribeiro, M. A.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M. N.

    2013-03-01

    Sugarcane bagasse pretreatment is a physical and chemical process that reduces the crystalline structure and disrupts the hydrogen bonding of cellulose to improve the accessibility to hydrolytic depolymerization reactions. The combination of pretreatment technologies intends to decrease the severity of the processes and to avoid excessive sugar degradation and formation of toxic by-products. An effective pretreatment preserves the pentose fractions and limits the formation of degradation products that inhibits the growth of fermentative microorganisms. This study presents the evaluation of the cleavage of polysaccharides from sugarcane bagasse using ionizing radiation combined with thermal and diluted acid treatment to further enzymatic or chemical hydrolysis of cellulose. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were irradiated using a Radiation Dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV and 37 kW, with different absorbed doses, and then were submitted to thermal and acid (0.1% sulfuric acid, m/m) hydrolysis for 10, 20 and 40 min at 180 °C. Taking into account the sugars and by-products liberated in these treatments the conversion rates of cellulose and hemicelluloses were calculated.

  18. Formation of PCDD and PCDF in the thermal treatment of footwear leather wastes.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Marcelo; Marcilio, Nilson Romeu; Masotti, Leonardo; Martins, Celso Brisolara; Ritter, Diego Elias; Wenzel, Bruno München

    2009-08-15

    The leather waste generated by the footwear industry is considered dangerous due to the presence of trivalent chromium, derived from the salt utilized to tan hides. In Brazil, the majority of this waste is disposed on landfills and only about 3% are recycled. The thermal treatment is an alternative method for purification of such residues. By using this technique it is possible to generate energy and recover the chromium present in the ash for the production of basic chromium sulfate (tanning industry), high carbon ferrochromium or carbon-free ferrochromium (steel industry). In the last 10 years, the gasification and combustion of footwear leather waste have been intensively studied at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. The research experiment for characterization of the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) were carried out in a semi-pilot unit (350 kW(th)). From new investments the thermal capacity of the unit will increase to 600 kW(th). The unit will produce power from the heat generated in the combustion. The experimental results indicated that during the thermal treatment of footwear leather wastes, the formation mechanism of PCDD/F is the de novo synthesis. Most of PCDD/F were found in the particulate phase (>95%). A kinetic model was used for discussion of the achieved experimental results. The model is based in the carbon gasification, PCDD/F formation, desorption and degradation. From the conclusions obtained in this work will be possible minimize the PCDD/F formation in process of combustion of footwear leather wastes. PMID:19303706

  19. Formation of PCDD and PCDF in the thermal treatment of footwear leather wastes.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Marcelo; Marcilio, Nilson Romeu; Masotti, Leonardo; Martins, Celso Brisolara; Ritter, Diego Elias; Wenzel, Bruno München

    2009-08-15

    The leather waste generated by the footwear industry is considered dangerous due to the presence of trivalent chromium, derived from the salt utilized to tan hides. In Brazil, the majority of this waste is disposed on landfills and only about 3% are recycled. The thermal treatment is an alternative method for purification of such residues. By using this technique it is possible to generate energy and recover the chromium present in the ash for the production of basic chromium sulfate (tanning industry), high carbon ferrochromium or carbon-free ferrochromium (steel industry). In the last 10 years, the gasification and combustion of footwear leather waste have been intensively studied at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. The research experiment for characterization of the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) were carried out in a semi-pilot unit (350 kW(th)). From new investments the thermal capacity of the unit will increase to 600 kW(th). The unit will produce power from the heat generated in the combustion. The experimental results indicated that during the thermal treatment of footwear leather wastes, the formation mechanism of PCDD/F is the de novo synthesis. Most of PCDD/F were found in the particulate phase (>95%). A kinetic model was used for discussion of the achieved experimental results. The model is based in the carbon gasification, PCDD/F formation, desorption and degradation. From the conclusions obtained in this work will be possible minimize the PCDD/F formation in process of combustion of footwear leather wastes.

  20. Ex-situ and in-situ investigations of thermal anti-oxidation treatments of stainless steels by reflection mode EXAFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Wulff, D.; Wagner, R.; Holländer, U.; Maier, HJ; Frahm, R.

    2016-05-01

    Different thermal treatments were performed for the anti-oxidation of steel surfaces, and the processes were investigated ex-situ and in-situ by surface sensitive reflection mode EXAFS experiments at the Cr and Fe K-edges. While the samples for the ex-situ studies were heat-treated in a conveyor belt furnace at temperatures between 600 and 900 °C in inert carrier gases (N2 or Ar) using different additives such as hydrogen (H2) and monosilane (SiH4), the in- situ anti-oxidation treatments have been performed in a high vacuum environment (p < 10-6 mbar). While the ex-situ experiments suggest that SiH4-additives are needed for the reduction of the steel to a metallic state, the in-vacuum treatments appear successful for temperatures above approx. 900 °C.

  1. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with addition of a low-cost adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sílvia C R; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2015-06-30

    Color removal from textile wastewaters, at a low-cost and consistent technology, is even today a challenge. Simultaneous biological treatment and adsorption is a known alternative to the treatment of wastewaters containing biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants. The present work aims at evaluating the treatability of a simulated textile wastewater by simultaneously combining biological treatment and adsorption in a SBR (sequencing batch reactor), but using a low-cost adsorbent, instead of a commercial one. The selected adsorbent was a metal hydroxide sludge (WS) from an electroplating industry. Direct Blue 85 dye (DB) was used in the preparation of the synthetic wastewater. Firstly, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were studied, in respect to many factors (temperature, pH, WS dosage and presence of salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the aqueous media). At 25 °C and pH 4, 7 and 10, maximum DB adsorption capacities in aqueous solution were 600, 339 and 98.7 mg/g, respectively. These values are quite considerable, compared to other reported in literature, but proved to be significantly reduced by the presence of dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the wastewater. The simulated textile wastewater treatment in SBR led to BOD5 removals of 53-79%, but color removal was rather limited (10-18%). The performance was significantly enhanced by the addition of WS, with BOD5 removals above 91% and average color removals of 60-69%.

  2. Guideline for benchmarking thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.P.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Hermes, W.H.; Bastian, R.E.; Davis, W.T.

    1994-01-01

    A process for benchmarking low-level mixed waste (LLMW) treatment technologies has been developed. When used in conjunction with the identification and preparation of surrogate waste mixtures, and with defined quality assurance and quality control procedures, the benchmarking process will effectively streamline the selection of treatment technologies being considered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for LLMW cleanup and management. Following the quantitative template provided in the benchmarking process will greatly increase the technical information available for the decision-making process. The additional technical information will remove a large part of the uncertainty in the selection of treatment technologies. It is anticipated that the use of the benchmarking process will minimize technology development costs and overall treatment costs. In addition, the benchmarking process will enhance development of the most promising LLMW treatment processes and aid in transferring the technology to the private sector. To instill inherent quality, the benchmarking process is based on defined criteria and a structured evaluation format, which are independent of any specific conventional treatment or emerging process technology. Five categories of benchmarking criteria have been developed for the evaluation: operation/design; personnel health and safety; economics; product quality; and environmental quality. This benchmarking document gives specific guidance on what information should be included and how it should be presented. A standard format for reporting is included in Appendix A and B of this document. Special considerations for LLMW are presented and included in each of the benchmarking categories.

  3. Cleaning of YBa2Cu3O7-x surfaces by thermal oxidation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolewski, M. A.; Semancik, S.; Kreider, K.

    1990-01-01

    When exposed to air, YBa2Cu3O7-x reacts to form a nonsuperconducting surface layer which degrades the quality of devices formed by subsequent deposition of overlayers. Degradation may also be caused by contamination of the surface during prior processing. We have investigated the use of thermal oxidation treatments as a means of restoring these surfaces, in situ, prior to overlayer deposition. The oxidations were performed in a dual chamber UHV system equipped with x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies, ion scattering spectroscopy, and a four point probe for in situ resistance measurements. Sputter-deposited, annealed YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films exposed to air underwent treatments at 350-650 °C for 5-60 min in 10-300 Torr of oxygen. Carbonate contamination was removed at T≥460 °C. Chlorine contamination present on some samples was removed at T≥600 °C. Resistance measurements indicate that the oxygen content within the films can be maintained during these treatments if a suitable temperature profile is used. The resulting surfaces are not ideal—an insulating layer ˜1 nm thick and deficient in yttrium is present. Nevertheless, the treatments described here may prove to be useful steps in device fabrication.

  4. Non-thermal plasma treatment of Radix aconiti wastewater generated by traditional Chinese medicine processing.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yiyong; Yi, Jianping; Zhao, Shen; Jiang, Song; Chi, Yuming; Liu, Kefu

    2016-06-01

    The wastewater effluent from Radix aconiti processing, an important step in the production processes of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is a type of toxic wastewater and difficult to treat. Plasma oxidation methods have emerged as feasible techniques for effective decomposition of toxic organic pollutants. This study examined the performance of a plasma reactor operated in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) to degrade the effluent from R. aconiti processing. The effects of treatment time, discharge voltage, initial pH value and the feeding gas for the reactor on the degradation of this TCM wastewater were investigated. A bacterium bioluminescence assay was adopted in this study to test the toxicity of the TCM wastewater after non-thermal plasma treatment. The degradation ratio of the main toxic component was 87.77% after 60min treatment with oxygen used as feed gas and it was 99.59% when the initial pH value was 8.0. High discharge voltage and alkaline solution environment were beneficial for improving the degradation ratio. The treatment process was found to be capable of reducing the toxicity of the wastewater to a low level or even render it non-toxic. These experimental results suggested that the DBD plasma method may be a competitive technology for primary decomposition of biologically undegradable toxic organic pollutants in TCM wastewater.

  5. Additional Reserve Recovery Using New Polymer Treatment on High Water Oil Ratio Wells in Alameda Field, Kingman County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    James Spillane

    2005-10-01

    The Chemical Flooding process, like a polymer treatment, as a tertiary (enhanced) oil recovery process can be a very good solution based on the condition of this field and its low cost compared to the drilling of new wells. It is an improved water flooding method in which high molecular-weight (macro-size molecules) and water-soluble polymers are added to the injection water to improve the mobility ratio by enhancing the viscosity of the water and by reducing permeability in invaded zones during the process. In other words, it can improve the sweep efficiency by reducing the water mobility. This polymer treatment can be performed on the same active oil producer well rather than on an injector well in the existence of strong water drive in the formation. Some parameters must be considered before any polymer job is performed such as: formation temperature, permeability, oil gravity and viscosity, location and formation thickness of the well, amount of remaining recoverable oil, fluid levels, well productivity, water oil ratio (WOR) and existence of water drive. This improved oil recovery technique has been used widely and has significant potential to extend reservoir life by increasing the oil production and decreasing the water cut. This new technology has the greatest potential in reservoirs that are moderately heterogeneous, contain moderately viscous oils, and have adverse water-oil mobility ratios. For example, many wells in Kansas's Arbuckle formation had similar treatments and we have seen very effective results. In addition, there were previous polymer treatments conducted by Texaco in Alameda Field on a number of wells throughout the Viola-Simpson formation in the early 70's. Most of the treatments proved to be very successful.

  6. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment: Task 6 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.; Deo, M.; Edding, E.G.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.E.; Krumm, R.; Sarofim, Adel; Wang, D.

    2014-08-15

    The long-term objective of this task is to develop a transformational energy production technology by in- situ thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas and/or liquid transportation fuels while leaving much of the coal’s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This task focused on three areas: Experimental. The Underground Coal Thermal Treatment (UCTT) team focused on experiments at two scales, bench-top and slightly larger, to develop data to understand the feasibility of a UCTT process as well as to develop validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) data for the simulation team. Simulation. The investigators completed development of High Performance Computing (HPC) simulations of UCTT. This built on our simulation developments over the course of the task and included the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- based tools to perform HPC simulations of a realistically sized domain representative of an actual coal field located in Utah. CO2 storage. In order to help determine the amount of CO2 that can be sequestered in a coal formation that has undergone UCTT, adsorption isotherms were performed on coals treated to 325, 450, and 600°C with slow heating rates. Raw material was sourced from the Sufco (Utah), Carlinville (Illinois), and North Antelope (Wyoming) mines. The study indicated that adsorptive capacity for the coals increased with treatment temperature and that coals treated to 325°C showed less or similar capacity to the untreated coals.

  7. Climate impact analysis of waste treatment scenarios--thermal treatment of commercial and pretreated waste versus landfilling in Austria.

    PubMed

    Ragossnig, A M; Wartha, C; Pomberger, R

    2009-11-01

    A major challenge for modern waste management lies in a smart integration of waste-to-energy installations in local energy systems in such a way that the energy efficiency of the waste-to-energy plant is optimized and that the energy contained in the waste is, therefore, optimally utilized. The extent of integration of thermal waste treatment processes into regular energy supply systems plays a major role with regard to climate control. In this research, the specific waste management situation looked at scenarios aiming at maximizing the energy recovery from waste (i.e. actual scenario and waste-to-energy process with 75% energy efficiency [22.5% electricity, 52.5% heat]) yield greenhouse gas emission savings due to the fact that more greenhouse gas emissions are avoided in the energy sector than caused by the various waste treatment processes. Comparing dedicated waste-to-energy-systems based on the combined heat and power (CHP) process with concepts based on sole electricity production, the energy efficiency proves to be crucial with regard to climate control. This underlines the importance of choosing appropriate sites for waste-to-energy-plants. This research was looking at the effect with regard to the climate impact of various waste management scenarios that could be applied alternatively by a private waste management company in Austria. The research is, therefore, based on a specific set of data for the waste streams looked at (waste characteristics, logistics needed, etc.). Furthermore, the investigated scenarios have been defined based on the actual available alternatives with regard to the usage of treatment plants for this specific company. The standard scenarios for identifying climate impact implications due to energy recovery from waste are based on the respective marginal energy data for the power and heat generation facilities/industrial processes in Austria.

  8. Global increasing of mean sea level and erroneous treatment of a role of thermal factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    2009-04-01

    in the northern hemisphere. At averaging of measurements over all ocean surface (mainly located in a southern hemisphere where it occupies about 80 % of the areas) there will be an effect of apparent additional increase of the sea level. Therefore this ("apparent") velocity of increase of the sea level accepts the greater value (about 2.4 mm / year) in comparison with coastal determinations of this velocity that is rather close to the data of satellite observations. The additional effect in increase of the sea level is brought by deformation of the ocean bottom. The both mentioned phenomena: the secular drift of the center of mass of the Earth and the secular expansion of southern hemisphere of the Earth have been predicted by author [2], [3] and have obtained confirmations by space geodesy methods. The offered explanation has the extremely - important value for studying a possible role of thermal and climatic factors which can not apply any more for a big component attributed to it in change of the sea level. The account of fictitious component of this velocity results practically in real value of variation of the average sea level about 1.3-1.6 mm / yr, that completely coordinate positions of researchers of ocean by coastal and altimetry (satellite) methods. Moreover, the given work opens a direct opportunity for an explanation of increase of the sea level as result of deformation of the ocean bottom. This deformation is a major factor of change of the average sea level. Water superseded in a southern hemisphere gives the significant contribution to observably value of velocity of sea level rise up to 0.8-1.2 mm / yr [3, 4]. The work fulfilled at financial support of Russian projects of RFBR: N 07-05-00939 and N 06-02-16665. This abstract (without what or changes) has been accepted to EGU GA 2008 Session IS48 "75th Anniversary of the PSML"(Convener: Woodworth P.) but was not included in its program. References. [1] Nerem R.S., Leuliette E.W., Chambers D.P. (2005

  9. Effect of non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment on gingival wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2016-02-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas have been applied in the biomedical field for the improvement of various cellular activities. In dentistry, the healing of gingival soft tissue plays an important role in health and aesthetic outcomes. While the biomedical application of plasma has been thoroughly studied in dentistry, a detailed investigation of plasma-mediated human gingival fibroblast (HGF) migration for wound healing and its underlying biological mechanism is still pending. Therefore, the aim of this study is to apply a non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAAPPJ) to HGF to measure the migration and to reveal the underlying biological mechanisms involved in the migration. After the characterization of NTAAPPJ by optical emission spectroscopy, the adherent HGF was treated with NTAAPPJ or air with a different flow rate. Cell viability, lipid peroxidation, migration, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the expression of migration-related genes (EGFR, PAK1, and MAPK3) were investigated. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. NTAAPPJ and air treatment with a flow rate of 250–1000 standard cubic centimetres per minute (sccm) for up to 30 s did not induce significant decreases in cell viability or membrane damage. A significant increase in the migration of mitomycin C-treated HGF was observed after 30 s of NTAAPPJ treatment compared to 30 s air-only treatment, which was induced by high levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). An increase in migration-related gene expression and EGFR activation was observed following NTAAPPJ treatment in an air flow rate-dependent manner. This is the first report that NTAAPPJ treatment induces an increase in HGF migration without changing cell viability or causing membrane damage. HGF migration was related to an increase in intracellular ROS, changes in the expression of three of the migration-related genes (EGFR, PAK1, and MAPK1), and EGFR activation. Therefore

  10. Effect of non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment on gingival wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2016-02-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas have been applied in the biomedical field for the improvement of various cellular activities. In dentistry, the healing of gingival soft tissue plays an important role in health and aesthetic outcomes. While the biomedical application of plasma has been thoroughly studied in dentistry, a detailed investigation of plasma-mediated human gingival fibroblast (HGF) migration for wound healing and its underlying biological mechanism is still pending. Therefore, the aim of this study is to apply a non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAAPPJ) to HGF to measure the migration and to reveal the underlying biological mechanisms involved in the migration. After the characterization of NTAAPPJ by optical emission spectroscopy, the adherent HGF was treated with NTAAPPJ or air with a different flow rate. Cell viability, lipid peroxidation, migration, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the expression of migration-related genes (EGFR, PAK1, and MAPK3) were investigated. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. NTAAPPJ and air treatment with a flow rate of 250-1000 standard cubic centimetres per minute (sccm) for up to 30 s did not induce significant decreases in cell viability or membrane damage. A significant increase in the migration of mitomycin C-treated HGF was observed after 30 s of NTAAPPJ treatment compared to 30 s air-only treatment, which was induced by high levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). An increase in migration-related gene expression and EGFR activation was observed following NTAAPPJ treatment in an air flow rate-dependent manner. This is the first report that NTAAPPJ treatment induces an increase in HGF migration without changing cell viability or causing membrane damage. HGF migration was related to an increase in intracellular ROS, changes in the expression of three of the migration-related genes (EGFR, PAK1, and MAPK1), and EGFR activation. Therefore

  11. Reversible alteration of CO2 adsorption upon photochemical or thermal treatment in a metal-organic framework.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinhee; Yuan, Daqiang; Pham, Khanh T; Li, Jian-Rong; Yakovenko, Andrey; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-01-11

    A metal-organic framework (MOF) for reversible alteration of guest molecule adsorption, here carbon dioxide, upon photochemical or thermal treatment has been discovered. An azobenzene functional group, which can switch its conformation upon light irradiation or heat treatment, has been introduced to the organic linker of a MOF. The resulting MOF adsorbs different amount of CO(2) after UV or heat treatment. This remarkable stimuli-responsive adsorption effect has been demonstrated through experiments.

  12. Effects of buffer additives and thermal processing methods on the solubility of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) proteins and the immunoreactivity of its major allergen.

    PubMed

    Lasekan, Adeseye O; Nayak, Balunkeswar

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the potential of two buffer additives (Tween 20 and DTT) to improve the solubility of proteins from shrimp subjected to different heat treatments and the allergenicity of tropomyosin in the extracts. The concentration of soluble proteins extracted by all the buffers from processed shrimp was significantly reduced compared with untreated samples. The concentration of total soluble proteins from heat treated shrimp increased significantly when phosphate buffer containing both surfactant and reducing agent was used as the extraction buffer. However, the concentrations of heat-stable proteins in the buffers were mostly similar. The electrophoretic profile of extracted proteins showed that tropomyosin is very stable under the different heat treatment methods used in this study except for high pressure steaming where the intensity of tropomyosin band was reduced. Competitive inhibition ELISA showed that high pressure steaming reduced the allergenicity of tropomyosin compared with other heat treatments methods.

  13. [Introduction of additional thiol groups into glucoamylase in Aspergillus awamori and their effect on the thermal stability and catalytic activity of the enzyme].

    PubMed

    Surzhik, M A; Shmidt, A E; Glazunov, E A; Firsov, D L; Petukhov, M G

    2014-01-01

    Five mutant forms of glucoamylase (GA) from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus awamori with artificial disulfide bonds (4D-G137A\\A14C, 6D-A14C\\Y419C\\G137A, 10D-V13C\\G396C, 11D-V13C\\G396C\\A14C\\Y419C\\G137A, and 20D-G137A\\A246C\\A14C) were constructed using computer simulation and experimentally tested for thermostability. The introduction of two additional disulfide bonds between its first and thirteenth alpha-helices and that of the loop located close to a catalytic residue--E400--made it possible to assess the effects of disulfide bridges on protein thermostability. The mutant proteins with combined amino acid substitutions G137A\\A14C, V13C\\G396C\\A14C\\Y419C\\G137A, and G137A\\A246C\\A14C showed higher thermal stability as compared to the wild-type protein. At the same time, new disulfide bridges in the mutant A14C\\Y419C\\G137A and V13C\\G396C proteins led to the destabilization of their structure and the loss of thermal stability.

  14. Thermal evolution behavior and fluid dynamics during laser additive manufacturing of Al-based nanocomposites: Underlying role of reinforcement weight fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Dongdong; Yuan, Pengpeng

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a three-dimensional transient computational fluid dynamics model was established to investigate the influence of reinforcement weight fraction on thermal evolution behavior and fluid dynamics during selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing of TiC/AlSi10Mg nanocomposites. The powder-to-solid transition and nonlinear variation of thermal physical properties of as-used materials were considered in the numerical model, using the Gaussian distributed volumetric heat source. The simulation results showed that the increase of operating temperature and the resultant formation of larger melt pool were caused by the increase of weight fraction of reinforcement. The Marangoni convection was intensified using a larger reinforcement content, accelerating the coupled motion of fluid and solid particles. The circular flows appeared when the TiC content reached 5.0 wt. % and the larger-sized circular flows were present as the reinforcement content increased to 7.5 wt. %. The experimental study on surface morphologies and microstructures on the polished sections of SLM-processed TiC/AlSi10Mg nanocomposite parts was performed. A considerably dense and smooth surface free of any balling effect and pore formation was obtained when the reinforcement content was optimized at 5.0 wt. %, due to the sufficient liquid formation and moderate Marangoni flow. Novel ring-structured reinforcing particulates were tailored because of the combined action of the attractive effect of centripetal force and repulsive force, which was consistent with the simulation results.

  15. Volatile profile of breast milk subjected to high-pressure processing or thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Contador, R; Delgado, F J; García-Parra, J; Garrido, M; Ramírez, R

    2015-08-01

    The effect of Holder pasteurisation (HoP) (62.5°C for 30 min) or high-pressure treatments (400 or 600 MPa for 3 or 6 min) on the volatile compound profile of human breast milk was evaluated, in order to compare both preservation technologies. A total of 46 different volatile compounds was found in milk samples. The most abundant compounds detected were aliphatic hydrocarbons. In general, the effect of some high-pressure treatments on the volatile profile of human milk was less intense than that caused by HoP. The treatments at 400 and 600 MPa for 3 min maintained the volatile compounds at similar levels to those found in control milk samples. However, the application of 600 MPa for 6 min changed the original volatile compounds of human milk, even more than HoP. Since, HPP at 400 or 600 MPa for 3 min preserved the original volatile compounds of human milk, this novel process may be an alternative to thermal pasteurisation.

  16. Recycling potential of air pollution control residue from sewage sludge thermal treatment as artificial lightweight aggregates.

    PubMed

    Bialowiec, Andrzej; Janczukowicz, Wojciech; Gusiatin, Zygmunt M; Thornton, Arthur; Rodziewicz, Joanna; Zielinska, Magdalena

    2014-03-01

    Thermal treatment of sewage sludge produces fly ash, also known as the air pollution control residue (APCR), which may be recycled as a component of artificial lightweight aggregates (ALWA). Properties of APCR are typical: high content of Ca, Mg, P2O5, as well as potential to induce alkaline reactions. These properties indicate that ALWA prepared with a high content of APCR may remove heavy metals, phosphorus, and ammonium nitrogen from wastewater with high efficiency. The aim of this preliminary study was to determine the optimal composition of ALWA for potential use as a filter media in wastewater treatment systems. Five kinds of ALWA were produced, with different proportions of ash (shown as percentages in subscripts) in mixture with bentonite: ALWA0 (reference), ALWA12.5, ALWA25, ALWA50, and ALWA100. The following parameters of ALWA were determined: density, bulk density, compressive strength, hydraulic conductivity, and removal efficiency of ions Zn(2+), NH4 (+), and PO4 (3-). Tests showed that ALWA had good mechanical and hydraulic properties, and might be used in wastewater filtering systems. Phosphates and zinc ions were removed with high efficiency (80-96%) by ALWA25-100 in static (batch) conditions. The efficiency of ammonium nitrogen removal was low, <18%. Artificial wastewater treatment performance in dynamic conditions (through-flow), showed increasing removal efficiency of Zn(2+), PO4 (3-) with a decrease in flow rate.

  17. Effects of anodizing parameters and heat treatment on nanotopographical features, bioactivity, and cell culture response of additively manufactured porous titanium.

    PubMed

    Amin Yavari, S; Chai, Y C; Böttger, A J; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2015-06-01

    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium.

  18. A comparison of additional treatment processes to limit particle accumulation and microbial growth during drinking water distribution.

    PubMed

    Liu, G; Lut, M C; Verberk, J Q J C; Van Dijk, J C

    2013-05-15

    Water quality changes, particle accumulation and microbial growth occurring in pilot-scale water distribution systems fed with normally treated and additional treated groundwater were monitored over a period of almost one year. The treatment processes were ranked in the following order: nanofiltration (NF) > (better than) ultrafiltration (UF) > ion exchange (IEX) for limiting particle accumulation. A different order was found for limiting overall microbial growth: NF > IEX > UF. There were strong correlations between particle load and particle accumulation, and between nutrient load and microbial growth. It was concluded that particle accumulation can be controlled by reducing the particle load in water treatment plants; and the microbial growth can be better controlled by limiting organic nutrients rather than removing biomass in water treatment plants. The major focus of this study was on microbial growth. The results demonstrated that growth occurred in all types of treated water, including the phases of bulk water, biofilm and loose deposits. Considering the growth in different phases, similar growth in bulk water was observed for all treatments; NF strongly reduced growth both in loose deposits and in biofilm; UF promoted growth in biofilm, while strongly limiting growth in loose deposits. IEX had good efficiency in between UF and NF, limiting both growths in loose deposits and in biofilm. Significant growth was found in loose deposits, suggesting that loose deposit biomass should be taken into account for growth evaluation and/or prediction. Strong correlations were found between microbial growth and pressure drop in a membrane fouling simulator which proved that a membrane fouling simulator can be a fast growth predictor (within a week). Different results obtained by adenosine triphosphate and flow cytometry cell counts revealed that ATP can accurately describe both suspended and particle-associated biomass, and flow cytometry files of TCC measurements needs

  19. Effects of anodizing parameters and heat treatment on nanotopographical features, bioactivity, and cell culture response of additively manufactured porous titanium.

    PubMed

    Amin Yavari, S; Chai, Y C; Böttger, A J; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2015-06-01

    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. PMID

  20. Effects of Mo addition on thermal stability and magnetic properties of a ferromagnetic Fe75P10C10B5 metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Jia, Xingjie; Li, Yanhui; Fang, Canfeng

    2014-05-01

    The effects of Mo content on the thermal stability, glass-forming ability (GFA), magnetic and mechanical properties of Fe75-xMoxP10C10B5 (x = 0-10) metallic glasses were investigated. The stabilization of supercooled liquid and GFA were significantly enhanced by addition of Mo. Although the saturation magnetization (Is) of the alloys reduced with increasing Mo content, the coercive force (Hc) decreased. The metallic glasses with x = 2.5-7.5 exhibit low glass transition temperature of 733-749 K, large supercooled liquid region of 61-96 K, and high GFA with critical fully glassy sample diameters of 1.5-3.0 mm. They also possess rather high Is of 0.81-1.11 T, low Hc of 2.07-4.87 A/m, high Vicker's hardness of 860-992, high compressive yield strength of over 3000 MPa with a distinct plastic strain.

  1. Effects of thermal treatment of nanostructured trititanates on their crystallographic and textural properties

    SciTech Connect

    Morgado, Edisson; Jardim, Paula M.; Araujo, Antonio S.

    2007-09-04

    Nanostructured titanates (TTNT) with general formula Na {sub x}H{sub 2-x}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}.nH{sub 2}O were synthesized by hydrothermally reacting different TiO{sub 2} anatase (distinct crystal sizes) with NaOH at 120 deg. C followed by washing with water or diluted acid and drying of the precipitate. The resulting powders with different sodium contents were submitted to various calcination temperatures up to 800 deg. C and each calcined product was characterized as for its phase structure, composition, crystallite size and textural properties, namely BET surface area, mesopore volume and pore size distribution. Thermal transformations of TTNT samples were investigated by monitoring the modifications on crystallographic (X-ray diffraction) and textural (N{sub 2} desorption isotherms) properties, revealing the influence of the type of starting anatase and sodium content over the stability of TTNT. Moreover, a detailed study on the reduction of the interlayer distance in TTNT samples upon thermal treatment allowed corroborating the formation of an intermediate nanostructured hexatitanate, just before phase transformation into the corresponding TiO{sub 2} polymorphs and/or titanate crystals, depending on the sodium content and calcination temperature.

  2. Thermal treatment for chlorine removal from coal. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Muchmore, C.B.

    1991-12-31

    It is the goal of this research to provide the technical basis for development of a process to remove chlorine from coal prior to combustion, based on a thermal treatment process. Through a bench scale study, mechanisms will be investigated, reaction rate constants and activation energies determined, and energy and mass balances performed. The recovery of the chlorine removed from the coal as a markable by-product, calcium chloride suitable for use as a road deicer, will be investigated using a novel absorption/crystallization device. The investigation of recovery of the chlorine as calcium chloride would also be applicable to the waste stream generated by a water leaching process, as well as the thermal process which is being investigated here. Although chlorine removal and utilization are the major thrusts of this research, data will also be obtained on the behavior during heating under controlled conditions of several other trace elements of growing concern (mercury, selenium etc.) since the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments last November.

  3. Stability of Organically Modified Montmorillonites and Their Polystyrene Nanocomposites After Prolonged Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Frankowski,D.; Capracotta, M.; Martin, J.; Khan, S.; Spontak, R.

    2007-01-01

    Melt intercalation of montmorillonite (MMT) into polymeric matrices to improve the mechanical properties of polymers has evolved into a subject of tremendous fundamental and technological interest. The thermal treatment experienced during processing or end use can substantially affect the clay and diminish the target properties of polymer/clay nanocomposites (NCs) because of deintercalation or degradation of surface modifiers. In this work, changes in morphology, chemistry, and thermal stability of organically modified (OM) MMT after annealing in O{sub 2}-rich and N{sub 2} environments are investigated. Degradation of the alkyl ammonium cation occurs at temperatures as low as 105 {sup o}C upon prolonged exposure in an O{sub 2}-rich environment. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) performed in situ establishes the response of two OM-MMTs to elevated temperatures at short times, whereas ex situ XRD provides insight into high-temperature exposure at long times. Active sites on the silicate surfaces are found to induce scission of, as well as chemical interaction with, the chains comprising a polystyrene (PS) matrix. Size-exclusion chromatography indicates that PS chain scission occurs primarily after relatively short annealing times, whereas branching and cross-linking are more prevalent after long exposure times in an O{sub 2}-rich environment.

  4. Effectiveness of thermal treatments and biocides in the inactivation of Argentinian Lactococcus lactis phages.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Viviana B; Reinheimer, Jorge A

    2002-11-01

    The thermal and chemical resistance levels of four autochthonal bacteriophages of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, isolated from cheese processes, was investigated. The times required to obtain 99% inactivation of phages (T99) at 63 and 72 degrees C in three suspension media (M17 broth, reconstituted commercial nonfat skim milk, and Tris magnesium gelatin buffer) were determined. Thermal resistance was dependent on the phage studied, and the results of this study demonstrate that pasteurization treatments used in dairy industries may leave viable viral particles in milk. It was possible to determine that M17 broth was generally the least protective medium, while phosphate buffer was the most protective one. Peracetic acid (0.15%, vol/vol) was the most effective viricidal agent, with exposures of 5 min being sufficient to inactivate high-titer phage suspensions (>10(6) PFU/ml). To achieve total inactivation (<10 PFU/ml) of viral suspensions, sodium hypochlorite was effective at 100 ppm for only two phages, while the other two phages needed concentrations of 200 and 300 ppm. Ethanol at concentrations of 100 and 75% proved to be very efficient in inactivating phages, but isopropanol was not effective against them.

  5. Phosphorus availability from the solid fraction of pig slurry is altered by composting or thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Christel, Wibke; Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-10-01

    The alteration of easily available phosphorus (P) from the separated solid fraction of pig slurry by composting and thermal processing (pyrolysis or combustion at 300-1000 °C) was investigated by water and acidic extractions and the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Temporal changes in P availability were monitored by repeated DGT application in three amended temperate soils over 16 weeks. P availability was found to decrease in the order: drying>composting>pyrolysis>combustion with increasing degree of processing. Water extractions suggested that no P would be available after pyrolysis above 700 °C or combustion above 400 °C, respectively, but during soil incubation, even char and ash, processed at 800 °C, increased P availability. Low-temperature pyrolysis vs. combustion was found to favor P availability as did application to acidic vs. neutral soil. Composting and thermal treatment produced a slow-release P fertilizer, with P availability being governed by abiotic and biotic mechanisms.

  6. Analysis of the Influence of Thermal Treatment on the Dry Turning of Al-Cu Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salguero, J.; Carrilero, M. S.; Batista, M.; Álvarez, M.; Marcos, M.

    2009-11-01

    Manufacturing performance improvement must take into account economic, energetic and environmental considerations. Thus, when intermediate processes are avoided, manufacturing performance is improved from the three cited viewpoints. In the aerospace industry, pre-forms of UNS A92024 (Al-Cu) alloy-based structural elements are machined in T3 temper state previously to be thermally treated to reach O state, in order to facilitate its posterior plastic forming process. In this work, a comparative study of the dry turning of UNS A92024 alloy in both states has been carried out in order to eliminate the thermal treatment process. This study has been based on the finishing surface quality, cutting tool changes and chip arrangement. SOM/SEM/EDS analysis has shown that the main deviations are caused by secondary adhesion effects, which involve not only changes in the initial tool geometry but also a reduction of the chip shrinkage factor as a consequence of the lateral compression. However, the obtained results have revealed that alloy in O state can be dry-machined at cutting speeds higher than 120 m/min in order to reach similar quality levels as alloy in T3 state.

  7. Deformation mechanisms, defects, heat treatment, and thermal conductivity in large grain niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieler, Thomas R.; Kang, Di; Baars, Derek C.; Chandrasekaran, Saravan; Mapar, Aboozar; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Wright, Neil T.; Pourboghrat, Farhang; Murphy, James E.; Compton, Chris C.; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2015-12-01

    The physical and mechanical metallurgy underlying fabrication of large grain cavities for superconducting radio frequency accelerators is summarized, based on research of 1) grain orientations in ingots, 2) a metallurgical assessment of processing a large grain single cell cavity and a tube, 3) assessment of slip behavior of single crystal tensile samples extracted from a high purity ingot slice before and after annealing at 800 °C / 2 h, 4) development of crystal plasticity models based upon the single crystal experiments, and 5) assessment of how thermal conductivity is affected by strain, heat treatment, and exposure to hydrogen. Because of the large grains, the plastic anisotropy of deformation is exaggerated, and heterogeneous strains and localized defects are present to a much greater degree than expected in polycrystalline material, making it highly desirable to computationally anticipate potential forming problems before manufacturing cavities.

  8. Potential of different mechanical and thermal treatments to control off-flavour generation in broccoli puree.

    PubMed

    Koutidou, Maria; Grauwet, Tara; Van Loey, Ann; Acharya, Parag

    2017-02-15

    The aim of this study was scientifically investigate the impact of the sequence of different thermo-mechanical treatments on the volatile profile of differently processed broccoli puree, and to investigate if any relationship persists between detected off-flavour changes and microstructural changes as a function of selected process conditions. Comparison of the headspace GC-MS fingerprinting of the differently processed broccoli purees revealed that an adequate combination of processing steps allows to reduce the level of off-flavour volatiles. Moreover, applying mechanical processing before or after the thermal processing at 90°C determines the pattern of broccoli tissue disruption, resulting into different microstructures and various enzymatic reactions inducing volatile generation. These results may aid the identification of optimal process conditions generating a reduced level of off-flavour in processed broccoli. In this way, broccoli can be incorporated as a food ingredient into mixed food products with limited implications on sensorial consumer acceptance. PMID:27664669

  9. Improvement of the EPR detection of irradiated dry plants using microwave saturation and thermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yordanov, Nicola D.; Aleksieva, Katerina; Mansour, Issa

    2005-05-01

    The reported EPR studies on the dependence of the microwave saturation behavior as a function of temperature (up to 60 °C) and heating time of some dry plants demonstrate the possibility to distinguish naturally present from radiation induced EPR signals independently of the fact that they have equal g-factors in X- and Q-band spectra. Using these properties of the dry plants a new approach for identification of their previous radiation processing is considered. It is based on the fact that the intensity of the EPR line appearing after irradiation increases at high microwave power (for example 100 mW) and decreases at low microwave power (for example 1 mW) when the irradiated sample is recorded after thermal treatment (up to 60 °C, 60 min). The intensity of the naturally present EPR signal observed in non-irradiated samples remains, meanwhile, unchanged.

  10. Deformation mechanisms, defects, heat treatment, and thermal conductivity in large grain niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Bieler, Thomas R. Kang, Di Baars, Derek C.; Chandrasekaran, Saravan; Mapar, Aboozar Wright, Neil T.; Ciovati, Gianluigi Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Pourboghrat, Farhang; Murphy, James E.; Compton, Chris C.

    2015-12-04

    The physical and mechanical metallurgy underlying fabrication of large grain cavities for superconducting radio frequency accelerators is summarized, based on research of 1) grain orientations in ingots, 2) a metallurgical assessment of processing a large grain single cell cavity and a tube, 3) assessment of slip behavior of single crystal tensile samples extracted from a high purity ingot slice before and after annealing at 800 °C / 2 h, 4) development of crystal plasticity models based upon the single crystal experiments, and 5) assessment of how thermal conductivity is affected by strain, heat treatment, and exposure to hydrogen. Because of the large grains, the plastic anisotropy of deformation is exaggerated, and heterogeneous strains and localized defects are present to a much greater degree than expected in polycrystalline material, making it highly desirable to computationally anticipate potential forming problems before manufacturing cavities.

  11. The resolution of thermal oedema at various temperatures under coumarin treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Piller, N. B.

    1975-01-01

    The treatment of thermal oedema with coumarin (a benzopyrone) has been found to be most effect when fast moving air of 20 degrees was blown over the burnt animals. Coumarin has two main effects: one is to cause vascular injury thus allowing extra protein and fluid into the tissues; the other is to stimulate phagocytosis, enzyme production and thus proteolysis and a subsequent removal of protein and fluid from the injured tissues. At lower temperatures the injurious nature of coumarin is prominent. At medium range temperatures the proteolytic actions of coumarin outweigh its injurious nature. Resolution thus proceeds much more rapidly. At high temperatures resolution is slowed. This is a consequence of the antioxidant effect of coumarin on adrenaline and ambient temperature on peripheral dilatation. The results obtained tie in well with those obtained by workers using water of equivalent temperature. PMID:1203170

  12. Potential of different mechanical and thermal treatments to control off-flavour generation in broccoli puree.

    PubMed

    Koutidou, Maria; Grauwet, Tara; Van Loey, Ann; Acharya, Parag

    2017-02-15

    The aim of this study was scientifically investigate the impact of the sequence of different thermo-mechanical treatments on the volatile profile of differently processed broccoli puree, and to investigate if any relationship persists between detected off-flavour changes and microstructural changes as a function of selected process conditions. Comparison of the headspace GC-MS fingerprinting of the differently processed broccoli purees revealed that an adequate combination of processing steps allows to reduce the level of off-flavour volatiles. Moreover, applying mechanical processing before or after the thermal processing at 90°C determines the pattern of broccoli tissue disruption, resulting into different microstructures and various enzymatic reactions inducing volatile generation. These results may aid the identification of optimal process conditions generating a reduced level of off-flavour in processed broccoli. In this way, broccoli can be incorporated as a food ingredient into mixed food products with limited implications on sensorial consumer acceptance.

  13. Removal of lead from cathode ray tube funnel glass by combined thermal treatment and leaching processes.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Nishimura, Fumihiro; Yonezawa, Susumu

    2015-11-01

    The reduction melting process is useful to recover toxic lead from cathode ray tube funnel glass; however, this process generates SiO2-containing residues that are disposed in landfill sites. To reduce the volume of landfill waste, it is desirable to recycle the SiO2-containing residues. In this study, SiO2 powder was recovered from the residue generated by reduction melting. The funnel glass was treated by a process combining reduction melting at 1000°C and annealing at 700°C to recover a large quantity of lead from the glass. The oxide phase generated by the thermal treatment was subjected to water leaching and acid leaching with 1M hydrochloric acid to wash out unwanted non-SiO2 elements for SiO2 purification. In the water washing, the oxide phase was microparticulated, and porous structures formed on the oxide surfaces. This increased the surface area of the oxide phase, and the unwanted elements were effectively washed out during the subsequent acid leaching. By controlling the acid leaching time and the amount of added acid, porous and amorphous SiO2 (purity >95 wt%) was recovered. In the obtained SiO2-concentrated product, unrecovered lead remained at concentrations of 0.25-0.79 wt%. When the Na2CO3 dosage in the thermal treatment was increased, the lead removal by acid leaching was enhanced, and the lead concentration in the obtained product decreased to 0.016 wt%.

  14. Randomized clinical trial assessing whether additional massage treatments for chronic neck pain improve 12- and 26-week outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Andrea J.; Wellman, Robert D.; Cherkin, Daniel C.; Kahn, Janet R.; Sherman, Karen J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Context This is the first study to systematically evaluate the value of a longer treatment period for massage. We provide a framework of how to conceptualize an optimal dose in this challenging setting of non-pharmacological treatments. Purpose To determine the optimal dose of massage for neck pain. Study Design/Setting Two-phase randomized trial for persons with chronic non-specific neck pain. Primary randomization to one of 5 groups receiving 4 weeks of massage (30 minutes 2×/ or 3×/week or 60 minutes 1×, 2×, or 3×/week). Booster randomization of participants to receive an additional 6 massages, 60 minute 1×/week, or no additional massage. Patient Sample 179 participants from Group Health and the general population of Seattle, WA USA recruited between June 2010 and August 2011. Outcome Measures Primary outcomes self-reported neck-related dysfunction (Neck Disability Index) and pain (0–10 scale) were assessed at baseline, 12, and 26 weeks. Clinically meaningful improvement was defined as >5 point decrease in dysfunction and > 30% decrease in pain from baseline. Methods Clinically meaningful improvement for each primary outcome with both follow-up times was analyzed using adjusted modified Poisson generalized estimating equations. Secondary analyses for the continuous outcomes used linear generalized estimating equations. This study was funded the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, NIH, USA (R01 AT004411). The funders had no role in the interpretation or reporting of results. Results There were no observed differences by primary treatment group at 12 or 26 weeks. Those receiving booster dose had improvements in both dysfunction and pain at 12 weeks (dysfunction: RR=1.56(1.08–2.25), P=0.018; pain: RR=1.25(0.98–1.61); P=0.077), but those were non-significant at 26 weeks (dysfunction: RR=1.22(0.85–1.74); pain: RR=1.09(0.82–1.43)). Subgroup analysis by primary and booster treatments found the booster dose only

  15. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A.

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

  16. Reduction of dioxin-like toxicity in effluents by additional wastewater treatment and related effects in fish.

    PubMed

    Maier, Diana; Benisek, Martin; Blaha, Ludek; Dondero, Francesco; Giesy, John P; Köhler, Heinz-R; Richter, Doreen; Scheurer, Marco; Triebskorn, Rita

    2016-10-01

    Efficiency of advanced wastewater treatment technologies to reduce micropollutants which mediate dioxin-like toxicity was investigated. Technologies compared included ozonation, powdered activated carbon and granular activated carbon. In addition to chemical analyses in samples of effluents, surface waters, sediments, and fish, (1) dioxin-like potentials were measured in paired samples of effluents, surface waters, and sediments by use of an in vitro biotest (reporter gene assay) and (2) dioxin-like effects were investigated in exposed fish by use of in vivo activity of the mixed-function, monooxygenase enzyme, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) in liver. All advanced technologies studied, based on degradation or adsorption, significantly reduced dioxin-like potentials in samples and resulted in lesser EROD activity in livers of fish. Results of in vitro and in vivo biological responses were not clearly related to quantification of targeted analytes by use of instrumental analyses. PMID:27262214

  17. Controlled evaluation of thermal biofeedback in treatment of elevated blood pressure in unmedicated mild hypertension.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, E B; Eisele, G; Vollmer, A; Payne, A; Gordon, M; Cornish, P; Gilmore, L

    1996-06-01

    In the first of two studies, 42 unmedicated mild hypertensives completed either 16 sessions of thermal biofeedback (TBF) training for hand (7 sessions) and foot (9 sessions) warming or 8 weeks of monitoring BPs at home. There was a trend (p < .10) for more of those treated (57.1%) to have DBPs lower than 90 mm Hg than for those only monitoring BPs at home (33%). Analyses of clinic BP values from random zero sphygmomanometer measurements, from 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, and from home BP measurements made by the patient showed no advantage for treatment versus BP monitoring. Sixteen of the 21 patients in BP monitoring were later treated. Analyses of treatment effects across all treated subjects by gender revealed a significant (p = .02) decrease in DBP for treated female subjects (n = 13) but not for males (n = 24). In the second study the 22 initial treatment successes, that is, those whose DBP was below 90 mm Hg at posttreatment (59.4% of those who completed treatment), were randomized to an intensive follow-up (monthly visits for 6 months, then visits every two months) emphasizing regular home practice with an electronic TBF device or regular follow-up (visits every 3 months). Twelve of the 22 were still normotensive at 12 months. There were no differences at any point during the follow-up between the two conditions in success rate or BPs despite a numerical advantage in reported frequency of home practice by those in the intensive follow-up condition. PMID:8805965

  18. Dissolved organic matter removal during coal slag additive soil aquifer treatment for secondary effluent recharging: Contribution of aerobic biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liangliang; Li, Siliang; Noguera, Daniel R; Qin, Kena; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Kong, Xiangjuan; Cui, Fuyi

    2015-06-01

    Recycling wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent at low cost via the soil aquifer treatment (SAT), which has been considered as a renewable approach in regenerating potable and non-potable water, is welcome in arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. In this study, the effect of a coal slag additive on the bulk removal of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in WWTP effluent during SAT operation was explored via the matrix configurations of both coal slag layer and natural soil layer. Azide inhibition and XAD-resins fractionation experiments indicated that the appropriate configuration designing of an upper soil layer (25 cm) and a mixture of soil/coal slag underneath would enhance the removal efficiency of adsorption and anaerobic biodegradation to the same level as that of aerobic biodegradation (31.7% vs 32.2%), while it was only 29.4% compared with the aerobic biodegradation during traditional 50 cm soil column operation. The added coal slag would preferentially adsorb the hydrophobic DOM, and those adsorbed organics could be partially biodegraded by the biomass within the SAT systems. Compared with the relatively lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet light adsorption at 254 nm (UV-254) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) removal rate of the original soil column (42.0%, 32.9%, and 28.0%, respectively), SSL2 and SSL4 columns would enhance the bulk removal efficiency to more than 60%. Moreover, a coal slag additive in the SAT columns could decline the aromatic components (fulvic-like organics and tryptophan-like proteins) significantly. PMID:25845997

  19. Addition of immunosuppressive treatment to hemoperfusion is associated with improved survival after paraquat poisoning: a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Pyng; Lai, Ming-Nan; Lin, Ching-Heng; Li, Yu-Fen; Lin, Ching-Yuang; Wu, Ming-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat poisoning associates very high mortality rate. Early treatment with hemoperfusion is strongly suggested by animal and human studies. Although the survival benefit of additional immunosuppressive treatment (IST) in combination with hemoperfusion is also reported since 1971, the large-scale randomized control trials to confirm the effects of IST is difficult to be executed. Therefore, we designed this nationwide large-scale population-based retrospective cohort study to investigate the outcome of paraquat poisoning with hemoperfusion and the additional effects of IST combined with hemoperfusion. This nationwide retrospective cohort study utilized data retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. A total of 1811 hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of paraquat poisoning who received hemoperfusion between 1997 and 2009 were enrolled. The mean age of all 1811 study subjects was 47.3 years. 70% was male. The overall survival rate was only 26.4%. Respiratory failure and renal failure were diagnosed in 56.2% and 36% patients. The average frequency of hemoperfusion was twice. IST was added in 42.2% patients. IST significantly increases survival rate (from 24.3% to 29.3%, P<0.001). The combined IST with methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone associates with the highest survival rate (48%, P<0.001). Moreover, patients younger than 45 years of age in the IST group had the best survival (41.0% vs. 33.7%, p<0.001). Our results support the use of IST with hemoperfusion for paraquat-poisoned patients. The best survival effect of IST is the combination of methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide and daily dexamethasone, especially in patients with younger age.

  20. Dissolved organic matter removal during coal slag additive soil aquifer treatment for secondary effluent recharging: Contribution of aerobic biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liangliang; Li, Siliang; Noguera, Daniel R; Qin, Kena; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Kong, Xiangjuan; Cui, Fuyi

    2015-06-01

    Recycling wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent at low cost via the soil aquifer treatment (SAT), which has been considered as a renewable approach in regenerating potable and non-potable water, is welcome in arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. In this study, the effect of a coal slag additive on the bulk removal of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in WWTP effluent during SAT operation was explored via the matrix configurations of both coal slag layer and natural soil layer. Azide inhibition and XAD-resins fractionation experiments indicated that the appropriate configuration designing of an upper soil layer (25 cm) and a mixture of soil/coal slag underneath would enhance the removal efficiency of adsorption and anaerobic biodegradation to the same level as that of aerobic biodegradation (31.7% vs 32.2%), while it was only 29.4% compared with the aerobic biodegradation during traditional 50 cm soil column operation. The added coal slag would preferentially adsorb the hydrophobic DOM, and those adsorbed organics could be partially biodegraded by the biomass within the SAT systems. Compared with the relatively lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet light adsorption at 254 nm (UV-254) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) removal rate of the original soil column (42.0%, 32.9%, and 28.0%, respectively), SSL2 and SSL4 columns would enhance the bulk removal efficiency to more than 60%. Moreover, a coal slag additive in the SAT columns could decline the aromatic components (fulvic-like organics and tryptophan-like proteins) significantly.

  1. Reduction of salt in pork sausages by the addition of carrot fibre or potato starch and high pressure treatment.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Alberto; Søltoft-Jensen, Jakob; Knudsen, Jes Christian; Christensen, Mette; Orlien, Vibeke

    2012-12-01

    The combined effect of high pressure processing (HPP) (400, 600 and 800 MPa) and carrot fibre (CF) and potato starch (PS) on low salt (1.2%) pork sausages was investigated and compared with high (1.8%) salt sausages. Sausages had a marked increase in whitening with increasing content of fibre or starch, pressure level, and process temperature. The degree of redness was mainly affected by pressure level and heat treatment. An important finding regarding salt reduction was that the use of starch or fibre had more impact on textural properties than the level of salt since Young's modulus and strain at fracture were mainly affected by formulation and HPP. Water binding capacity of low salt sausages was improved to the same level as high salt sausages with HPP and addition of CF or PS particularly by the addition of PS which produced sausages with better sensory properties than CF. The sensory analysis showed that this approach is promising for producing low salt sausages. PMID:22682686

  2. MWIP: Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 4, Wastewater treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Stevenson, R.J.; Richmond, A.A.; Bickford, D.F.

    1994-01-01

    The category of sludges, filter cakes, and other waste processing residuals represent the largest volume of low-level mixed (hazardous and radioactive) wastes within the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Treatment of these wastes to minimize the mobility of contaminants, and to eliminate the presence of free water, is required under the Federal Facility Compliance Act agreements between DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency. In the text, we summarize the currently available data for several of the high priority mixed-waste sludge inventories within DOE. Los Alamos National Laboratory TA-50 Sludge and Rocky Flats Plant By-Pass Sludge are transuranic (TRU)-contaminated sludges that were isolated with the use of silica-based filter aids. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant West End Treatment Facility Sludge is predominantly calcium carbonate and biomass. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site Pond Waste is a large-volume waste stream, containing clay, silt, and other debris in addition to precipitated metal hydroxides. We formulate ``simulants`` for the waste streams described above, using cerium oxide as a surrogate for the uranium or plutonium present in the authentic material. Use of nonradiological surrogates greatly simplifies material handling requirements for initial treatability studies. The use of synthetic mixtures for initial treatability testing will facilitate compositional variation for use in conjunction with statistical design experiments; this approach may help to identify any ``operating window`` limitations. The initial treatability testing demonstrations utilizing these ``simulants`` will be based upon vitrification, although the materials are also amenable to testing grout-based and other stabilization procedures. After the feasibility of treatment and the initial evaluation of treatment performance has been demonstrated, performance must be verified using authentic samples of the candidate waste stream.

  3. Hydrogen production by auto-thermal reforming of ethanol over Ni/γ-Al 2O 3 catalysts: Effect of second metal addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Min Hye; Seo, Jeong Gil; Kim, Pil; Kim, Jae Jeong; Lee, Ho-In; Song, In Kyu

    Ni/γ-Al 2O 3 catalysts containing a second metal (Ce, Co, Cu, Mg and Zn) are prepared by a co-impregnation method to investigate the effect of second metal addition on the catalytic performance in the auto-thermal reforming of ethanol. Among the second metals tested, Cu is found to be the most efficient promoter for the production of hydrogen. It is revealed that Cu species are active in the water-gas shift reaction to produce hydrogen from CO and H 2O, and furthermore, Cu species serve as a barrier for preventing the growth of Ni particles. In particular, the addition of Cu decreases the interaction between Ni-species and γ-Al 2O 3, leading to the facile reduction of Ni-Cu/γ-Al 2O 3 catalyst. Among Ni-Cu/γ-Al 2O 3 catalysts with different Cu content, a 5 wt.% Cu-containing Ni-Cu/γ-Al 2O 3 catalyst, which retains an intermediate state of Cu species between copper aluminate and copper oxide, shows the best catalytic performance in terms of hydrogen production and CO composition in the outlet stream. By contrast, a 7 wt.% Cu-containing Ni-Cu/γ-Al 2O 3 catalyst exhibits rather a low catalytic performance in the production of hydrogen because of the suppressed gasification activity over large Cu particles in the catalyst.

  4. [Recommendations for acute treatment for chemical and thermal burns of eyes and lids].

    PubMed

    Schrage, N F; Struck, H G; Gerard, M

    2011-10-01

    With these recommendations the authors want to improve the acute therapy of eye burns based on the literature and clinical experience. Due to the lack of studies with high evidential value we base these recommendations on the results of experimental work and reports of successfully treated eye burns. A development of this document by systematic research is necessary. Despite the limited knowledge, the collated facts are the current state of the art of treatment according to the knowledge and research of the authors. The most important clinical recommendation is to rinse a chemically or thermally burnt eye as soon and as extensively as possible. Any delay worsens the prognosis. Substances on the market for first aid have different levels of clinical evidence. Thus saline and amphoteric diphoterine have been evaluated in a prospective clinical study showing an advantage for the amphoter. Water, borate buffer, phosphate buffers and derivatives have never been proven to work in clinical applications. Nevertheless, they are recommended. Within experimental work in vitro we could show the value of polyvalent decontamination. Side-effects of phosphate buffers have been demonstrated in retrospective clinical and prospective experimental studies so that even in cases of beneficial effects on pH we cannot recommend these substances which propagate corneal calcification. Special types of burns, such as hydrofluoric acid need special treatment but as clinical studies are lacking only experimental data can offer suitable recommendations. PMID:22037724

  5. Effects of thermal treatment on chemical, mechanical and colour traits in Norway spruce wood.

    PubMed

    Kačíková, Danica; Kačík, František; Cabalová, Iveta; Durkovič, Jaroslav

    2013-09-01

    In several different branches of the wood industry heat treatment is a growing application as it changes the chemical, mechanical, physical and biological properties of wood. Investigations using wet chemical analyses, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, and CIELab colour system have been conducted to study the changes in Norway spruce wood subjected to temperature up to 270°C over a 30 min time period. The results showed that mass loss (ML), total crystallinity index (TCI) of cellulose, total colour difference (ΔE*), and the content of lignin and extractives increased with the temperature, whereas degree of polymerization (DP) of cellulose, modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), lightness difference (ΔL*), and the content of holocellulose, cellulose and hemicelluloses all decreased with the thermal treatment. Relationships between temperature and the examined wood traits were all fitted by exponential curves. Power law relationships were found to fit the trends for DP of cellulose with ΔE*, ΔL*, and TCI of cellulose. Also found were power law regressions for the content of hemicelluloses with MOE, MOR, ΔL*, and ML. Temperatures ranging from 20 to 187°C formed a compact cluster, clearly separated from the higher examined temperatures in the multivariate wood trait space.

  6. Partitioning of selected fission products from irradiated oxide fuel induced by thermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbina, Natalia; Kivel, Niko; Günther-Leopold, Ines

    2013-06-01

    The release of fission products (FPs) from spent nuclear fuel (SNF) has been studied as a function of the temperature and redox conditions. The present paper concerns essentially the high temperature separation of Cs and Sr from irradiated pressurized (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel of different burn-up levels with use of an in-house designed system for inductive vaporization (InVap). Using thermodynamic calculations with the Module of Fission Product Release (MFPR) code along with annealing experiments on SNF in the InVap it was shown that the speciation of Cs and Sr, hence their release behavior at high temperature, is sensitive to the redox conditions during thermal treatment. It was demonstrated that annealing conditions in the InVap can be adjusted in the way to promote the release of selected FPs without significant loss of the fuel matrix or actinides: complete release of Cs and I was achieved during treatment of irradiated fuel at 1800 °C under reducing atmosphere (0.7% H2/Ar mixture). The developed partitioning procedure can be used for the SNF pretreatment as an advanced head-end step in the hydrometallurgical or pyrochemical reprocessing technology.

  7. Development of the fluidized bed thermal treatment process for treating mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Semones, G.B.; Williams, P.M.; Stiefvater, S.P.; Mitchell, D.L.; Roecker, B.D.

    1993-05-01

    A fluidized bed system is being developed at Rocky Flats for the treatment of mixed waste (a mixture of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste). The current program builds on experience gained in the 1970`s and 1980`s in tests with bench-scale, pilot-scale, and demonstration-scale fluidized bed systems. The system operates at low temperatures ({approx} 525--600{degree}C) which eliminates many of the disadvantages associated with high temperature thermal treatment processes. The process has shown the ability to destroy polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB`s) with 99.9999% (``six-nines``) destruction efficiency in tests monitored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The bed makes use of in situ neutralization of acidic off-gases by incorporating sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in the bed media. This eliminates using wet scrubbers to treat the off-gas; these produce a high volume of secondary waste. Once in operation, it is expected that the fluidized bed process will yield up to a 40:1 reduction in the volume of the waste.

  8. [Recommendations for acute treatment for chemical and thermal burns of eyes and lids].

    PubMed

    Schrage, N F; Struck, H G; Gerard, M

    2011-10-01

    With these recommendations the authors want to improve the acute therapy of eye burns based on the literature and clinical experience. Due to the lack of studies with high evidential value we base these recommendations on the results of experimental work and reports of successfully treated eye burns. A development of this document by systematic research is necessary. Despite the limited knowledge, the collated facts are the current state of the art of treatment according to the knowledge and research of the authors. The most important clinical recommendation is to rinse a chemically or thermally burnt eye as soon and as extensively as possible. Any delay worsens the prognosis. Substances on the market for first aid have different levels of clinical evidence. Thus saline and amphoteric diphoterine have been evaluated in a prospective clinical study showing an advantage for the amphoter. Water, borate buffer, phosphate buffers and derivatives have never been proven to work in clinical applications. Nevertheless, they are recommended. Within experimental work in vitro we could show the value of polyvalent decontamination. Side-effects of phosphate buffers have been demonstrated in retrospective clinical and prospective experimental studies so that even in cases of beneficial effects on pH we cannot recommend these substances which propagate corneal calcification. Special types of burns, such as hydrofluoric acid need special treatment but as clinical studies are lacking only experimental data can offer suitable recommendations.

  9. Superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic binary micropatterns by localized thermal treatment of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)-silica films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutzius, Thomas M.; Bayer, Ilker S.; Jursich, Gregory M.; Das, Arindam; Megaridis, Constantine M.

    2012-08-01

    Surfaces patterned with alternating (binary) superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic regions can be found naturally, offering a bio-inspired template for efficient fluid collection and management technologies. We describe a simple wet-processing, thermal treatment method to produce such patterns, starting with inherently superhydrophobic polysilsesquioxane-silica composite coatings prepared by spray casting nanoparticle dispersions. Such coatings become superhydrophilic after localized thermal treatment by means of laser irradiation or open-air flame exposure. When laser processed, the films are patternable down to ~100 μm scales. The dispersions consist of hydrophobic fumed silica (HFS) and methylsilsesquioxane resin, which are dispersed in isopropanol and deposited onto various substrates (glass, quartz, aluminum, copper, and stainless steel). The coatings are characterized by advancing, receding, and sessile contact angle measurements before and after thermal treatment to delineate the effects of HFS filler concentration and thermal treatment on coating wettability. SEM, XPS and TGA measurements reveal the effects of thermal treatment on surface chemistry and texture. The thermally induced wettability shift from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic is interpreted with the Cassie-Baxter wetting theory. Several micropatterned wettability surfaces demonstrate potential in pool boiling heat transfer enhancement, capillarity-driven liquid transport in open surface-tension-confined channels (e.g., lab-on-a-chip), and select surface coating applications relying on wettability gradients. Advantages of the present approach include the inherent stability and inertness of the organosilane-based coatings, which can be applied on many types of surfaces (glass, metals, etc.) with ease. The present method is also scalable to large areas, thus being attractive for industrial coating applications.Surfaces patterned with alternating (binary) superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic regions

  10. Changing the surface properties on naval steel as result of non-thermal plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnatiuc, B.; Sabău, A.; Dumitrache, C. L.; Hnatiuc, M.; Crețu, M.; Astanei, D.

    2016-08-01

    The problem of corrosion, related to Biofouling formation, is an issue with very high importance in the maritime domain. According to new rules, the paints and all the technologies for the conditioning of naval materials must fulfil more restrictive environmental conditions. In order to solve this issue, different new clean technologies have been proposed. Among them, the use of non-thermal plasmas produced at atmospheric pressure plays a very important role. This study concerns the opportunity of plasma treatment for preparation or conditioning of naval steel OL36 type. The plasma reactors chosen for the experiments can operate at atmospheric pressure and are easy to use in industrial conditions. They are based on electrical discharges GlidArc and Spark, which already proved their efficiency for the surface activation or even for coatings of the surface. The non-thermal character of the plasma is ensured by a gas flow blown through the electrical discharges. One power supply has been used for reactors that provide a 5 kV voltage and a maximum current of 100 mA. The modifications of the surface properties and composition have been studied by XPS technique (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy). There were taken into consideration 5 samples: 4 of them undergoing a Mini-torch plasma, a Gliding Spark, a GlidArc with dry air and a GlidArc with CO2, respectively the fifth sample which is the untreated witness. Before the plasma treatment, samples of naval steel were processed in order to obtain mechanical gloss. The time of treatment was chosen to 12 minutes. In the spectroscopic analysis, done on a ULVAC-PHI, Inc. PHI 5000 Versa Probe scanning XPS microprobe, a monocromated Al Kα X-ray source with a spot size of 100 μm2 was used to scan each sample while the photoelectrons were collected at a 45-degree take-off angle. Differences were found between atomic concentrations in each individual case, which proves that the active species produced by each type of plasma affects

  11. Superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic binary micropatterns by localized thermal treatment of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)-silica films.

    PubMed

    Schutzius, Thomas M; Bayer, Ilker S; Jursich, Gregory M; Das, Arindam; Megaridis, Constantine M

    2012-09-01

    Surfaces patterned with alternating (binary) superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic regions can be found naturally, offering a bio-inspired template for efficient fluid collection and management technologies. We describe a simple wet-processing, thermal treatment method to produce such patterns, starting with inherently superhydrophobic polysilsesquioxane-silica composite coatings prepared by spray casting nanoparticle dispersions. Such coatings become superhydrophilic after localized thermal treatment by means of laser irradiation or open-air flame exposure. When laser processed, the films are patternable down to ∼100 μm scales. The dispersions consist of hydrophobic fumed silica (HFS) and methylsilsesquioxane resin, which are dispersed in isopropanol and deposited onto various substrates (glass, quartz, aluminum, copper, and stainless steel). The coatings are characterized by advancing, receding, and sessile contact angle measurements before and after thermal treatment to delineate the effects of HFS filler concentration and thermal treatment on coating wettability. SEM, XPS and TGA measurements reveal the effects of thermal treatment on surface chemistry and texture. The thermally induced wettability shift from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic is interpreted with the Cassie-Baxter wetting theory. Several micropatterned wettability surfaces demonstrate potential in pool boiling heat transfer enhancement, capillarity-driven liquid transport in open surface-tension-confined channels (e.g., lab-on-a-chip), and select surface coating applications relying on wettability gradients. Advantages of the present approach include the inherent stability and inertness of the organosilane-based coatings, which can be applied on many types of surfaces (glass, metals, etc.) with ease. The present method is also scalable to large areas, thus being attractive for industrial coating applications. PMID:22820974

  12. Superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic binary micropatterns by localized thermal treatment of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)-silica films.

    PubMed

    Schutzius, Thomas M; Bayer, Ilker S; Jursich, Gregory M; Das, Arindam; Megaridis, Constantine M

    2012-09-01

    Surfaces patterned with alternating (binary) superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic regions can be found naturally, offering a bio-inspired template for efficient fluid collection and management technologies. We describe a simple wet-processing, thermal treatment method to produce such patterns, starting with inherently superhydrophobic polysilsesquioxane-silica composite coatings prepared by spray casting nanoparticle dispersions. Such coatings become superhydrophilic after localized thermal treatment by means of laser irradiation or open-air flame exposure. When laser processed, the films are patternable down to ∼100 μm scales. The dispersions consist of hydrophobic fumed silica (HFS) and methylsilsesquioxane resin, which are dispersed in isopropanol and deposited onto various substrates (glass, quartz, aluminum, copper, and stainless steel). The coatings are characterized by advancing, receding, and sessile contact angle measurements before and after thermal treatment to delineate the effects of HFS filler concentration and thermal treatment on coating wettability. SEM, XPS and TGA measurements reveal the effects of thermal treatment on surface chemistry and texture. The thermally induced wettability shift from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic is interpreted with the Cassie-Baxter wetting theory. Several micropatterned wettability surfaces demonstrate potential in pool boiling heat transfer enhancement, capillarity-driven liquid transport in open surface-tension-confined channels (e.g., lab-on-a-chip), and select surface coating applications relying on wettability gradients. Advantages of the present approach include the inherent stability and inertness of the organosilane-based coatings, which can be applied on many types of surfaces (glass, metals, etc.) with ease. The present method is also scalable to large areas, thus being attractive for industrial coating applications.

  13. Thermal formation of PBDD/F from tetrabromobisphenol A--a comparison of polymer linked TBBP A with its additive incorporation in thermoplastics.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, H; Dettmer, F T; Bahadir, M

    2002-04-01

    For a long period, polybrominated flame retardants are under discussion because of the formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDD)/dibenzofurans (PBDF) (PBDD/F) in case of thermal stress. Concerning polymer linked tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBP A), formation of PBDD/F was commonly presumed to be sterically hindered because of the covalent fixation into the polymer backbone. Combustion experiments with additively incorporated TBBP A compared with its polymer linkage revealed, that this assumption is incorrect and has to be revised. Under same conditions, similar PBDD/F concentrations in the range of 17.5-19.6 mg PBBD/F per kg TBBP A applied were analyzed. PBDD/F homologue distribution patterns were almost identical predominated by low brominated PBDF. These findings for PBDD/F formation have to be considered in future discussions regarding thermal stress caused by combustion or recycling processes, including other flame retardants bound in polymer matrix, e.g. polybrominated polystyrene (PS), or those with molecular structures showing less analogy to PBDD/F, like hexabromocyclododecane. The second aspect introduced, is the influence of different plastics on the formation rates of PBDD/F. In this context, combustion experiments were performed in an atmosphere consisting of synthetic air and HBr. PBDD/F concentrations were 8.47 mg/kg polyethylene, 1.67 mg/kg PS, 3.92 mg/kg phenolic resin and 18.1 mg/kg epoxy resin. Distribution patterns of PBDD/F homologues could partly be correlated with the occurrence of the precursors polybrominated benzenes and phenols.

  14. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge in a wastewater treatment plant by means of mechanical and thermal pre-treatments: Performance, energy and economical assessment.

    PubMed

    Ruffino, Barbara; Campo, Giuseppe; Genon, Giuseppe; Lorenzi, Eugenio; Novarino, Daniel; Scibilia, Gerardo; Zanetti, Mariachiara

    2015-01-01

    Performances of mechanical and low-temperature (<100°C) thermal pre-treatments were investigated to improve the present efficiency of anaerobic digestion (AD) carried out on waste activated sludge (WAS) in the largest Italian wastewater treatment plant (2,300,000p.e.). Thermal pre-treatments returned disintegration rates of one order of magnitude higher than mechanical ones (about 25% vs. 1.5%). The methane specific production increased by 21% and 31%, with respect to untreated samples, for treatment conditions of respectively 70 and 90°C, 3h. Thermal pre-treatments also decreased WAS viscosity. Preliminary energy and economic assessments demonstrated that a WAS final total solid content of 5% was enough to avoid the employment of auxiliary methane for the pre-treatment at 90°C and the subsequent AD process, provided that all the heat generated was transferred to WAS through heat exchangers. Moreover, the total revenues from sale of the electricity produced from biogas increased by 10% with respect to the present scenario. PMID:25459836

  15. Magnetic property enhancement and characterization of nano-structured barium ferrite by mechano-thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Molaei, M.J.; Ataie, A.; Raygan, S.; Rahimipour, M.R.; Picken, S.J.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Legarra, E.; Plazaola, F.

    2012-01-15

    In this research a mixture of barium ferrite and graphite powders was milled in a planetary ball mill and then heat treated in vacuum to produce BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Fe/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nano-composites. The effects of milling time and heat treatment temperature on the characteristics of powder mixture were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis, vibrating sample magnetometer, transmission electron microscopy and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Phase analysis results showed that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in barium ferrite partially reduced to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} during milling; hence, the reduced phase and remaining barium ferrite formed a nano-composite of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} after 20 h of milling. Heat treatment of the 40 h milled samples at 750-900 Degree-Sign C resulted in formation of Fe containing nano-composite. Magnetic measurements indicated that the coercivity of 267.92 Oe for 40 h milled sample decreased to 22.57 Oe by heat treatment at 900 Degree-Sign C, while its saturation magnetization increased from 31.56 to 169.43 emu/g due to the formation of Fe nano-crystallites. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Barium hexaferrite and graphite were treated mechano-thermally. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer After 20 h milling, a nano-composite of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} formed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heat treatment of milled sample resulted in formation of Fe/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing heat treatment temperature results in higher saturation magnetization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The milled and heat treated samples were nano-crystalline.

  16. Thermal Treatment of Al2O3, MgO, and CeO2 Granulated Powders by Induction Thermal Plasma: A Numerical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. Mofazzal; Alam, M. Rafiqul; Watanabe, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    A plasma--particle interactive flow model has been developed for the investigation of plasma temperature, velocity, particle temperature, diameter, and flight path during in-fight thermal treatment of granulated powders --- Al2O3, MgO, and CeO2 in induction thermal plasma, taking into account of plasma particle interaction and particle loading effects. In this model, the conservative equations are solved to investigate the influence of feed-rate and particle diameter on the melting behavior of granulated powders and to predict particle trajectories, temperature histories etc. In this paper attention is given to the effects of carrier gas flow-rate, powder feed-rate and secondary gas (oxygen) flow-rate on the particles' final diameter and trajectory for Al2O3, MgO, and CeO2 powders. Results show that the particles diameter after thermal treatment is strongly dependent on the powder feed-rate, oxygen gas flow-rate and carrier gas flow-rate. Among the three types of powders, particle diameter decrement is significant in case of MgO and less significant in case of Al2O3; and the effect of oxygen flow-rate on the particle diameter decrement is significant in case of MgO. Particles trajectories are wider for smaller particles than that of larger particles. Particle temperature is lowest for MgO and highest for Al2O3 particles.

  17. Thermal Treatment of Al2O3, MgO, and CeO2 Granulated Powders by Induction Thermal Plasma: A Numerical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mofazzal Hossain, M.; Rafiqul Alam, M.; Watanabe, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    A plasma-particle interactive flow model has been developed for the investigation of plasma temperature, velocity, particle temperature, diameter, and flight path during in-fight thermal treatment of granulated powders - Al2O3, MgO, and CeO2 in induction thermal plasma, taking into account of plasma particle interaction and particle loading effects. In this model, the conservative equations are solved to investigate the influence of feed-rate and particle diameter on the melting behavior of granulated powders and to predict particle trajectories, temperature histories etc. In this paper attention is given to the effects of carrier gas flow-rate, powder feed-rate and secondary gas (oxygen) flow-rate on the particles' final diameter and trajectory for Al2O3, MgO, and CeO2 powders. Results show that the particles diameter after thermal treatment is strongly dependent on the powder feed-rate, oxygen gas flow-rate and carrier gas flow-rate. Among the three types of powders, particle diameter decrement is significant in case of MgO and less significant in case of Al2O3; and the effect of oxygen flow-rate on the particle diameter decrement is significant in case of MgO. Particles trajectories are wider for smaller particles than that of larger particles. Particle temperature is lowest for MgO and highest for Al2O3 particles.

  18. Microwave and thermal pretreatment as methods for increasing the biogas potential of secondary sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, the sludge was pretreated with microwave irradiation and low-temperature thermal method, both conducted under the same temperature range (30-100°C). Microwave pretreatment was found to be superior over the thermal treatment with respect to sludge solubilization and biogas production. Taking into account the specific energy demand of solubilization, the sludge pre-treated at 60-70°C by microwaves of 900 W was chosen for further experiments in continuous mode, which was more energetically sustainable compared to lower value (700 W) and thermal treatment. Continuous biogas reactor experiments indicated that pre-treated sludge (microwave irradiation: 900 W, temperature: 60-70°C) gave 35% more methane, compared to untreated sludge. Moreover, the results of this study clearly demonstrated that microwave pretreated sludge showed better degree of sanitation. PMID:23500587

  19. Microwave and thermal pretreatment as methods for increasing the biogas potential of secondary sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, the sludge was pretreated with microwave irradiation and low-temperature thermal method, both conducted under the same temperature range (30-100°C). Microwave pretreatment was found to be superior over the thermal treatment with respect to sludge solubilization and biogas production. Taking into account the specific energy demand of solubilization, the sludge pre-treated at 60-70°C by microwaves of 900 W was chosen for further experiments in continuous mode, which was more energetically sustainable compared to lower value (700 W) and thermal treatment. Continuous biogas reactor experiments indicated that pre-treated sludge (microwave irradiation: 900 W, temperature: 60-70°C) gave 35% more methane, compared to untreated sludge. Moreover, the results of this study clearly demonstrated that microwave pretreated sludge showed better degree of sanitation.

  20. Thermal process of fluff: preliminary tests on a full-scale treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Mancini, G; Tamma, R; Viotti, P

    2010-01-01

    Until only recently fluff has been largely disposed of in controlled landfill sites. However, in Europe environmental regulations, including the EU Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC and ELV (End of Life Vehicle) Directive 2000/53/EC, have dramatically increased the pressure on all stakeholders to develop alternative solutions. As increasingly stringent legislation forces Shredder Residues (SR) to be diverted from landfilling, newly developed technologies will be in a position to compete for the market value of disposing of the waste. However, the fluff waste stream is so variable that it cannot be automatically assumed that processes developed for one type of fluff will prove to be suitable for other fluff streams. This situation has contributed towards convincing stakeholders to withhold investment funds or delay taking decisions as to how best to proceed; as a consequence, very few technologies have been fully developed on a commercial basis. It is of particular interest therefore that commercial alternatives to be used in dealing with this complex waste stream should be identified. The present paper illustrates the findings of a full-scale thermal treatment performed on SR samples obtained from various shredding plants. The outcome of the study provides an important contribution towards assessing the feasibility and reliability of the process, thus constituting a basic prerequisite for process performance evaluation. The full-scale plant, designed for the thermo-valorization of tyres, was purpose-modified to allow for fluff combustion. Three different fluff compositions (car fluff with different percentage of shredding, whites and 100% car fluff) were taken into consideration. Both the raw samples and solid products were thoroughly characterized. Combustion emissions were continuously analyzed during the test period, alternatively operating for tyre and fluff combustion. Classification of combustion residues for landfill disposal was carried out indicating only 2