Science.gov

Sample records for additional time needed

  1. Babies Need Tummy Time

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing on social media links Babies Need Tummy Time! Page Content Tummy Time is not only an ... of your baby’s normal growth. What Is Tummy Time? Tummy Time describes the times when you place ...

  2. Students of Process Writing Need Appropriate and Timely Feedback on Their Work, and In Addition, Training in Dealing with That Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowie, Neil

    1995-01-01

    A discussion of the use of feedback in process-oriented second language writing instruction focuses on students' need for feedback, the most effective ways of providing it, appropriate timing for feedback, and how students use this information. Literature on feedback in process-oriented writing instruction is reviewed in light of each of these…

  3. Additional Support Needs Reforms and Social Justice in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Stead, Joan; Weedon, Elisabet; Wright, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    New additional support-needs legislation in Scotland sought to recognise the way in which poverty, as well as individual impairment, contribute to the creation of children's difficulties in learning. As well as identifying a wider range of needs, the legislation sought to provide parents, irrespective of social background, with more powerful means…

  4. Defense Health Care: Additional Information Needed about Mental Health Provider Staffing Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    DEFENSE HEALTH CARE Additional Information Needed about Mental Health Provider Staffing Needs Report to the...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Health Care: Additional Information Needed about Mental ...Z39-18 Page i GAO-15-184 DOD Mental Health Staffing Letter 1 Background 4 DOD and the Military Services Have Increased the

  5. Mapping Transitions in Interpersonal Learning for Students with Additional Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles-Janess, Bernadette; Griffin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the development of an interpersonal measure for students with additional learning needs. A questionnaire and learning continuum were constructed using a methodology devised by Griffin (2007a) for creating criterion-referenced frameworks. Teachers reported on 1619 students, ranging in age from 3 to 18 years. Analysis of the…

  6. 20 CFR 416.263 - No additional application needed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false No additional application needed. 416.263 Section 416.263 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Eligibility Special Provisions for People Who Work Despite A...

  7. Working in disadvantaged communities: What additional competencies do we need?

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark F; Madden, Lynne; Wise, Marilyn; Sainsbury, Peter; MacDonald, John; Gill, Betty

    2009-01-01

    Background Residents of socioeconomically disadvantaged locations are more likely to have poor health than residents of socioeconomically advantaged locations and this has been comprehensively mapped in Australian cities. These inequalities present a challenge for the public health workers based in or responsible for improving the health of people living in disadvantaged localities. The purpose of this study was to develop a generic workforce needs assessment tool and to use it to identify the competencies needed by the public health workforce to work effectively in disadvantaged communities. Methods A two-step mixed method process was used to identify the workforce needs. In step 1 a generic workforce needs assessment tool was developed and applied in three NSW Area Health Services using focus groups, key stakeholder interviews and a staff survey. In step 2 the findings of this needs assessment process were mapped against the existing National Health Training Package (HLT07) competencies, gaps were identified, additional competencies described and modules of training developed to fill identified gaps. Results There was a high level of agreement among the AHS staff on the nature of the problems to be addressed but less confidence indentifying the work to be done. Processes for needs assessments, community consultations and adapting mainstream programs to local needs were frequently mentioned as points of intervention. Recruiting and retaining experienced staff to work in these communities and ensuring their safety were major concerns. Workforce skill development needs were seen in two ways: higher order planning/epidemiological skills and more effective working relationships with communities and other sectors. Organisational barriers to effective practice were high levels of annual compulsory training, balancing state and national priorities with local needs and giving equal attention to the population groups that are easy to reach and to those that are difficult

  8. Overview of Materials Qualification Needs for Metal Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifi, Mohsen; Salem, Ayman; Beuth, Jack; Harrysson, Ola; Lewandowski, John J.

    2016-03-01

    This overview highlights some of the key aspects regarding materials qualification needs across the additive manufacturing (AM) spectrum. AM technology has experienced considerable publicity and growth in the past few years with many successful insertions for non-mission-critical applications. However, to meet the full potential that AM has to offer, especially for flight-critical components (e.g., rotating parts, fracture-critical parts, etc.), qualification and certification efforts are necessary. While development of qualification standards will address some of these needs, this overview outlines some of the other key areas that will need to be considered in the qualification path, including various process-, microstructure-, and fracture-modeling activities in addition to integrating these with lifing activities targeting specific components. Ongoing work in the Advanced Manufacturing and Mechanical Reliability Center at Case Western Reserve University is focusing on fracture and fatigue testing to rapidly assess critical mechanical properties of some titanium alloys before and after post-processing, in addition to conducting nondestructive testing/evaluation using micro-computerized tomography at General Electric. Process mapping studies are being conducted at Carnegie Mellon University while large area microstructure characterization and informatics (EBSD and BSE) analyses are being conducted at Materials Resources LLC to enable future integration of these efforts via an Integrated Computational Materials Engineering approach to AM. Possible future pathways for materials qualification are provided.

  9. Who needs an RVAD in addition to an LVAD?

    PubMed

    Kaczorowski, David J; Woo, Y Joseph

    2011-11-01

    Mechanical circulatory support using left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) has become an accepted mode of therapy for both bridging patients with end-stage heart failure to transplant and as a destination therapy. Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is common after LVAD insertion and is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing LVAD placement. Several studies have identified clinical, laboratory, hemodynamic, and echocardiographic parameters that may serve as risk factors for RV dysfunction after LVAD placement. Furthermore, scoring systems have been established to help quantitatively predict the potential need for RV support after LVAD placement.

  10. Benchmark Study of Industrial Needs for Additive Manufacturing in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindqvist, Markku; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a modern way to produce parts for industrial use. Even though the technical knowledge and research of AM processes are strong in Finland, there are only few industrial applications. Aim of this study is to collect practical knowledge of companies who are interested in industrial use of AM, especially in South-Eastern Finland. Goal of this study is also to investigate demands and requirements of applications for industrial use of AM in this area of Finland. It was concluded, that two of the reasons prohibiting wider industrial use of AM in Finland, are wrong expectations against this technology as well as lack of basic knowledge of possibilities of the technology. Especially, it was noticed that strong 3D-hype is even causing misunderstandings. Nevertheless, the high-level industrial know-how in the area, built around Finnish lumber industry is a strong foundation for the additive manufacturing technology.

  11. Additional Research Needs to Support the GENII Biosphere Models

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Arimescu, Carmen

    2013-11-30

    In the course of evaluating the current parameter needs for the GENII Version 2 code (Snyder et al. 2013), areas of possible improvement for both the data and the underlying models have been identified. As the data review was implemented, PNNL staff identified areas where the models can be improved both to accommodate the locally significant pathways identified and also to incorporate newer models. The areas are general data needs for the existing models and improved formulations for the pathway models. It is recommended that priorities be set by NRC staff to guide selection of the most useful improvements in a cost-effective manner. Suggestions are made based on relatively easy and inexpensive changes, and longer-term more costly studies. In the short term, there are several improved model formulations that could be applied to the GENII suite of codes to make them more generally useful. • Implementation of the separation of the translocation and weathering processes • Implementation of an improved model for carbon-14 from non-atmospheric sources • Implementation of radon exposure pathways models • Development of a KML processor for the output report generator module data that are calculated on a grid that could be superimposed upon digital maps for easier presentation and display • Implementation of marine mammal models (manatees, seals, walrus, whales, etc.). Data needs in the longer term require extensive (and potentially expensive) research. Before picking any one radionuclide or food type, NRC staff should perform an in-house review of current and anticipated environmental analyses to select “dominant” radionuclides of interest to allow setting of cost-effective priorities for radionuclide- and pathway-specific research. These include • soil-to-plant uptake studies for oranges and other citrus fruits, and • Development of models for evaluation of radionuclide concentration in highly-processed foods such as oils and sugars. Finally, renewed

  12. Additive manufacturing metrology: State of the art and needs assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, L.; Taheri, H.; Bond, L. J.; Barnard, D.; Gray, J.

    2016-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a technology that first emerged in 1987 with stereolithography (SL) of plastic materials from 3D Systems. It saw light use for rapid prototyping and very low volume production for a number of years. However, in the past few years AM of metallic materials has become a practical fabrication technology, use is rapidly increasing and is projected to continue with double digit growth in coming years. The promise and flexibility shown by AM has spurred efforts to begin standardization of this type of process. This paper provides an assessment of the state of the art for in-situ process monitoring of AM processes with an emphasis on the production of metallic components. It is seen that with the implementation of proper process control there is potential to create reliable and reproducible materials and geometries previously unachievable using metal removal based means of production. A reliable methodology for detection and control of microstructure and defects would be of great value in terms of enabling broader AM utilization.

  13. Experimental Tests of Cooling: Expectations and Additional Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S

    2008-09-24

    Cooling is a critical aspect for a high-performance Neutrino Factory or a MuonCollider. For this reason, considerable effort is being put toward theexperimental verification of this technique. The international Muon IonizationCooling Experiment, MICE, was approved to operate at Rutherford AppletonLaboratory (RAL) in the UK and beam line commissioning commenced in March, 2008. The MICE collaboration comprises about 130 scientists and engineers from Asia, Europe, and the U.S. In this paper we present the motivation and goals for thisexperiment and describe its present status. MICE is scheduled for completion in2011. We will also indicate the prospects for a future 6D muon coolingexperiment and discuss its possible time schedule.

  14. The Capacity Profile: A Method to Classify Additional Care Needs in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meester-Delver, Anke; Beelen, Anita; Hennekam, Raoul; Nollet, Frans; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the interrater reliability and stability over time of the Capacity Profile (CAP). The CAP is a standardized method for classifying additional care needs indicated by current impairments in five domains of body functions: physical health, neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related, sensory, mental, and voice…

  15. Part-Time Learners Need Support Too

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazackerley, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In England, part-time students have to pay their fees up-front, they can't take out a government-supported loan, and their chances of securing any financial support are depressingly slim. While all full-time students are entitled to some state support, Parliamentary questions have revealed that nine out of 10 part-time students receive nothing at…

  16. Additional Support Needs Policy in Scotland: Challenging or Reinforcing Social Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on Scottish policy on additional support needs and its material outcomes. The central question addressed is the extent to which the Scottish additional support needs system undermines or reinforces existing social and economic inequalities. Administrative data highlight the inflation of the additional support needs category,…

  17. 43 CFR 3430.2-2 - Additional time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional time. 3430.2-2 Section 3430.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...-2 Additional time. (a) If the applicant has timely submitted some, but not all, of the...

  18. 43 CFR 3430.2-2 - Additional time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional time. 3430.2-2 Section 3430.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...-2 Additional time. (a) If the applicant has timely submitted some, but not all, of the...

  19. 43 CFR 3430.2-2 - Additional time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional time. 3430.2-2 Section 3430.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...-2 Additional time. (a) If the applicant has timely submitted some, but not all, of the...

  20. 43 CFR 3430.2-2 - Additional time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional time. 3430.2-2 Section 3430.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...-2 Additional time. (a) If the applicant has timely submitted some, but not all, of the...

  1. Defense Additive Manufacturing: DOD Needs to Systematically Track Department-wide 3D Printing Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Clip Additively Manufactured • The Navy installed a 3D printer aboard the USS Essex to demonstrate the ability to additively develop and produce...desired result and vision to have the capability on the fleet. These officials stated that the Navy plans to install 3D printers on two additional...DEFENSE ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING DOD Needs to Systematically Track Department-wide 3D Printing Efforts Report to

  2. Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Additional Actions Needed to Improve Management and Integration of DOD Efforts to Support Warfighter Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    Services, House of Representatives UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS Additional Actions Needed to Improve Management and Integration of DOD Efforts to...Armed Services, House of Representatives The Department of Defense’s (DOD) use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) continues to increase. In 2000...unmanned aircraft systems This is a work of the U.S. government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. It may be reproduced

  3. Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Additional Support Needs: In the Eye of the Beholder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruggink, Marjon; Goei, Sui L.; Koot, Hans M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, teachers are regarded as key players in the process of identifying and catering to students' additional support needs within mainstream primary classrooms. However, teachers' professional judgements regarding students with special needs have been found to be contextually influenced (e.g. by school context, student population, level of…

  4. 15 CFR 270.204 - Provision of additional resources and services needed by a Team.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... services needed by a Team. 270.204 Section 270.204 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Investigations § 270.204 Provision of additional resources and services needed by a Team. The Director will determine the appropriate resources that a...

  5. A Right to Be Heard: Learning from Learners with Additional Needs in Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhillips, Therese; Shevlin, Michael; Long, Louise

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the consultation experiences of pupils who have additional needs in literacy. An opportunistic sample of eight schools--four in Northern Ireland and four in the Republic of Ireland--were chosen by the researchers; selected pupils were receiving additional literacy support. Focus group discussions and arts-based creative…

  6. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the checklist...

  7. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  8. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the checklist...

  9. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  10. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  11. 30 CFR 210.206 - Will I need to submit additional documents or evidence to MMS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will I need to submit additional documents or evidence to MMS? 210.206 Section 210.206 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT FORMS AND REPORTS Production and Royalty Reports-Solid Minerals §...

  12. Profiling Transitions in Emotional Development for Students with Additional Learning Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Eileen; Griffin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this article was to build a protocol for describing students' development of emotional knowledge and understanding, and to tailor this to the requirements of assessing the progress of students with additional needs. The paper reports the establishment of such a developmental profile, using procedures for…

  13. 49 CFR 512.11 - What if I need an extension of time?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What if I need an extension of time? 512.11... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION Additional Requirements § 512.11 What if I need an extension of time? If a person is unable to submit the...

  14. 29 CFR 25.6 - Time; additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Time; additional time after service by mail. 25.6 Section... OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 10988 § 25.6 Time; additional time after service by mail. (a) In computing any... a notice or other paper upon the Secretary or a party and the notice is served upon him by mail,...

  15. 29 CFR 25.6 - Time; additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Time; additional time after service by mail. 25.6 Section... OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 10988 § 25.6 Time; additional time after service by mail. (a) In computing any... a notice or other paper upon the Secretary or a party and the notice is served upon him by mail,...

  16. 29 CFR 25.6 - Time; additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Time; additional time after service by mail. 25.6 Section 25... EXECUTIVE ORDER 10988 § 25.6 Time; additional time after service by mail. (a) In computing any period of... other paper upon the Secretary or a party and the notice is served upon him by mail, 3 days shall...

  17. 29 CFR 25.6 - Time; additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Time; additional time after service by mail. 25.6 Section 25... EXECUTIVE ORDER 10988 § 25.6 Time; additional time after service by mail. (a) In computing any period of... other paper upon the Secretary or a party and the notice is served upon him by mail, 3 days shall...

  18. 29 CFR 25.6 - Time; additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Time; additional time after service by mail. 25.6 Section... OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 10988 § 25.6 Time; additional time after service by mail. (a) In computing any... a notice or other paper upon the Secretary or a party and the notice is served upon him by mail,...

  19. Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Naval Medical Center Portsmouth Need Additional Management Oversight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-04

    and Surgery CAC Common Access Card CRS Centralized Receivables Service DoD FMR DoD Financial Management Regulation MSA Medical Service Account MTF...H 4 , 2 0 1 5 Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Naval Medical Center Portsmouth Need Additional Management Oversight Report No. DODIG-2015...04 MAR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Naval

  20. Army Corps of Engineers: Additional Steps Needed for Review and Revision of Water Control Manuals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS Additional Steps Needed for Review and Revision of Water Control Manuals Report to...Revision of Water Control Manuals What GAO Found According to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) officials, the agency conducts ongoing, informal...reviews of selected water control manuals and has revised some of them, but the extent of the reviews and revisions is unclear because they are not

  1. Warfighter Support: DOD Needs Additional Steps to Fully Integrate Operational Contract Support into Contingency Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Planning Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Contracting Oversight, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Warfighter Support: DOD Needs Additional Steps to Fully Integrate Operational Contract Support into Contingency Planning 5a...Support into Contingency Planning Why GAO Did This Study DOD has relied extensively on contractors for operations in Iraq and Afghanistan over the

  2. Intelligence is as intelligence does: can additional support needs replace disability?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Samuel R C; Riches, Vivienne C; Stancliffe, Roger J

    2011-12-01

    Abstract In many developed cultures there is an assumption that IQ is intelligence. However, emerging theories of multiple intelligences, of emotional intelligence, as well as the application of IQ testing to other cultural groups, and to people with disability, raises many questions as to what IQ actually measures. Despite recent research that shows IQ testing produces a floor effect when applied to people with lower IQ, as well as research that shows the Flynn effect also applies to people with lower IQ, in practice IQ scores below a certain cut-off are still being used to determine and classify a person's intellectual disability. However, a new paradigm is emerging, almost returning to the original intent of Binet, where measurement is made of the supports the person needs. In this paper, we argue that if one extends the notions of this supports paradigm that diagnosis of intellectual or physical disability could potentially be replaced by diagnosis of additional intellectual support needs, or additional physical support needs.

  3. Discriminating additive from dynamical noise for chaotic time series.

    PubMed

    Strumik, Marek; Macek, Wiesław M; Redaelli, Stefano

    2005-09-01

    We consider the dynamics of the Hénon and Ikeda maps in the presence of additive and dynamical noise. We show that, from the point of view of computations of some statistical quantities, dynamical noise corrupting these deterministic systems can be considered effectively as an additive "pseudonoise" with the Cauchy distribution. In the case of the Hénon and Ikeda maps, this effect occurs only for one variable of the system, while the noise corrupting the second variable is still Gaussian distributed independent of distribution of dynamical noise. Based on these results and using scaling properties of the correlation entropy, we propose a simple method of discriminating additive from dynamical noise. This approach is also useful for estimation of noise level for chaotic time series. We show that the proposed method works well in a wide range of noise levels, providing that one kind of noise predominates and we analyze the variable of the system for which the contamination follows Cauchy-like distribution in the presence of dynamical noise.

  4. Do Health Professionals Need Additional Competencies for Stratified Cancer Prevention Based on Genetic Risk Profiling?

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Susmita; Henneman, Lidewij; Dent, Tom; Hall, Alison; Burton, Alice; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Burton, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that inclusion of genetic information about known common susceptibility variants may enable population risk-stratification and personalized prevention for common diseases including cancer. This would require the inclusion of genetic testing as an integral part of individual risk assessment of an asymptomatic individual. Front line health professionals would be expected to interact with and assist asymptomatic individuals through the risk stratification process. In that case, additional knowledge and skills may be needed. Current guidelines and frameworks for genetic competencies of non-specialist health professionals place an emphasis on rare inherited genetic diseases. For common diseases, health professionals do use risk assessment tools but such tools currently do not assess genetic susceptibility of individuals. In this article, we compare the skills and knowledge needed by non-genetic health professionals, if risk-stratified prevention is implemented, with existing competence recommendations from the UK, USA and Europe, in order to assess the gaps in current competences. We found that health professionals would benefit from understanding the contribution of common genetic variations in disease risk, the rationale for a risk-stratified prevention pathway, and the implications of using genomic information in risk-assessment and risk management of asymptomatic individuals for common disease prevention. PMID:26068647

  5. Do Health Professionals Need Additional Competencies for Stratified Cancer Prevention Based on Genetic Risk Profiling?

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Susmita; Henneman, Lidewij; Dent, Tom; Hall, Alison; Burton, Alice; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Burton, Hilary

    2015-06-09

    There is growing evidence that inclusion of genetic information about known common susceptibility variants may enable population risk-stratification and personalized prevention for common diseases including cancer. This would require the inclusion of genetic testing as an integral part of individual risk assessment of an asymptomatic individual. Front line health professionals would be expected to interact with and assist asymptomatic individuals through the risk stratification process. In that case, additional knowledge and skills may be needed. Current guidelines and frameworks for genetic competencies of non-specialist health professionals place an emphasis on rare inherited genetic diseases. For common diseases, health professionals do use risk assessment tools but such tools currently do not assess genetic susceptibility of individuals. In this article, we compare the skills and knowledge needed by non-genetic health professionals, if risk-stratified prevention is implemented, with existing competence recommendations from the UK, USA and Europe, in order to assess the gaps in current competences. We found that health professionals would benefit from understanding the contribution of common genetic variations in disease risk, the rationale for a risk-stratified prevention pathway, and the implications of using genomic information in risk-assessment and risk management of asymptomatic individuals for common disease prevention.

  6. The Facial Aesthetic index: An additional tool for assessing treatment need

    PubMed Central

    Sundareswaran, Shobha; Ramakrishnan, Ranjith

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Facial Aesthetics, a major consideration in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, may not be judged correctly and completely by simply analyzing dental occlusion or osseous structures. Despite this importance, there is no index to guarantee availability of treatment or prioritize patients based on their soft tissue treatment needs. Individuals having well-aligned teeth but unaesthetic convex profiles do not get included for treatment as per current malocclusion indices. The aim of this investigation is to develop an aesthetic index based on facial profiles which could be used as an additional tool with malocclusion indices. Materials and Methods: A chart showing typical facial profile changes due to underlying malocclusions was generated by soft tissue manipulations of standardized profile photographs of a well-balanced male and female face. A panel of 62 orthodontists judged the profile photographs of 100 patients with different soft tissue patterns for assessing profile variations and treatment need. The index was later tested in a cross-section of school population. Statistical analysis was done using “irr” package of R environment version 2.15.1. Results: The index exhibited very good reliability in determining profile variations (Fleiss kappa 0.866, P < 0.001), excellent reproducibility (kappa 0.9078), high sensitivity, and specificity (95.7%). Testing in population yielded excellent agreement among orthodontists (kappa 0.9286). Conclusions: A new Facial Aesthetic index, based on patient's soft tissue profile requirements is proposed, which can complement existing indices to ensure treatment to those in need. PMID:27127752

  7. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  8. DOD Financial Management: Additional Efforts Needed to Improve Audit Readiness of Navy Military Pay and Other Related Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    DOD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Additional Efforts Needed to Improve Audit Readiness of Navy Military Pay and Other Related...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DOD Financial Management: Additional Efforts Needed to Improve Audit ...Additional Efforts Needed to Improve Audit Readiness of Navy Military Pay and Other Related Activities Why GAO Did This Study DOD continues to work

  9. Military Personnel: Additional Steps Are Needed to Strengthen DOD’s Oversight of Ethics and Professionalism Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    MILITARY PERSONNEL Additional Steps Are Needed to Strengthen DOD’s Oversight of Ethics and Professionalism Issues...DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Personnel: Additional Steps Are Needed to Strengthen DOD’s Oversight of Ethics ...MILITARY PERSONNEL Additional Steps Are Needed to Strengthen DOD’s Oversight of Ethics and Professionalism Issues Why GAO Did This Study

  10. Defense Contractors: Additional Actions Needed to Facilitate the Use of DOD’s Inventory of Contracted Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    DEFENSE CONTRACTORS Additional Actions Needed to Facilitate the Use of DOD’s Inventory of Contracted Services...COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Contractors: Additional Actions Needed to Facilitate the Use of DOD’s Inventory of...CONTRACTORS Additional Actions Needed to Facilitate the Use of DOD’s Inventory of Contracted Services Why GAO Did This Study DOD is the government’s

  11. Laser-based additive manufacturing: where it has been, where it needs to go

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Khershed P.

    2014-03-01

    It is no secret that the laser was the driver for additive manufacturing (AM) of 3D objects since such objects were first demonstrated in the mid-1980s. A myriad of techniques utilizing the directed energy of lasers were invented. Lasers are used to selectively sinter or fuse incremental layers in powder-beds, melt streaming powder following a programmed path, and polymerize photopolymers in a liquid vat layer-by-layer. The laser is an energy source of choice for repair of damaged components, for manufacture of new or replacement parts, and for rapid prototyping of concept designs. Lasers enable microstructure gradients and heterogeneous structures designed to exhibit unique properties and behavior. Laserbased additive manufacturing has been successful in producing relatively simple near net-shape metallic parts saving material and cost, but requiring finish-machining and in repair and refurbishment of worn components. It has been routinely used to produce polymer parts. These capabilities have been widely recognized as evidenced by the explosion in interest in AM technology, nationally. These successes are, however, tempered by challenges facing practitioners such as process and part qualification and verification, which are needed to bring AM as a true manufacturing technology. The ONR manufacturing science program, in collaboration with other agencies, invested in basic R&D in AM since its beginnings. It continues to invest, currently focusing on developing cyber-enabled manufacturing systems for AM. It is believed that such computation, communication and control approaches will help in validating AM and moving it to the factory floor along side CNC machines.

  12. Unmet Needs at the Time of Emergency Department Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Samuels-Kalow, Margaret; Rhodes, Karen; Uspal, Julie; Smith, A. Reyes; Hardy, Emily; Mollen, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Emergency department (ED) discharge requires conveying critical information in a time-limited and distracting setting. Limited health literacy may put patients at risk of incomplete comprehension, but the relationship between discharge communication needs and health literacy has not been well defined. The goal of this study was to characterize the variation in needs and preferences regarding the ED discharge process by health literacy, and identify novel ideas for process improvement from parents and patients. Methods This was an in-depth qualitative interview study in two EDs using asthma as a model system for health communication. Adult patients and parents of pediatric patients with an asthma exacerbation and planned discharge were enrolled using purposive sampling to balance across literacy groups at each site. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, coded independently by two team members, and analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Interviews were conducted until thematic saturation was reached in both literacy groups at each site. Results In-depth interviews were completed with 51 participants: 20 adult patients and 31 pediatric parents. The majority of participants identified barriers related to ED providers, such as use of medical terminology; and systems of care, such as absence of protected time for discharge communication. Patients with limited health literacy, but not those with adequate literacy, identified conflicting information between health care sources as a barrier to successful ED discharge. Conclusions Participants across literacy groups and settings identified multiple actionable areas for improvement in the ED discharge process. These included the use of simplified/lay language, increased visual learning and demonstration, and the desire for complete information. Individuals with limited literacy may particularly benefit from increased attention to consistency. PMID:26683867

  13. Personnel Security Clearances: Additional Guidance and Oversight Needed at DHS and DOD to Ensure Consistent Application of Revocation Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Application of Revocation Process Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on Homeland Security, House of Representatives September 2014 GAO-14-640...Personnel Security Clearances: Additional Guidance and Oversight Needed at DHS and DOD to Ensure Consistent Application of Revocation Process 5a. CONTRACT...2014 PERSONNEL SECURITY CLEARANCES Additional Guidance and Oversight Needed at DHS and DOD to Ensure Consistent Application of Revocation Process

  14. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  15. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  16. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  17. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  18. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  19. Teachers' Capacities to Meet Students' Additional Support Needs in Mainstream Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruggink, M.; Goei, S. L.; Koot, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mainstream primary school teachers generally acknowledge the need to implement adaptive teaching; however, meeting a variety of students' needs is a challenge. Studies have addressed the conditions under which teachers attribute their (in)capacities, but these have mainly involved vignettes. Therefore, it remains unknown whether teachers are…

  20. Timing of Getter Material Addition in Cementitious Wasteforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawter, A.; Qafoku, N. P.; Asmussen, M.; Neeway, J.; Smith, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    A cementitious waste form, Cast Stone, is being evaluated as a possible supplemental immobilization technology for the Hanford sites's low activity waste (LAW), which contains radioactive 99Tc and 129I, as part of the tank waste cleanup mission. Cast Stone is made of a dry blend 47% blast furnace slag, 45% fly ash, and 8% ordinary Portland cement, mixed with a low-activity waste (LAW). To improve the retention of Tc and/or I in Cast Stone, materials with a high affinity for Tc and/or I, termed "getters," can be added to provide a stable domain for the radionuclides of concern. Previous testing conducted with a variety of getters has identified Tin(II)-Apatite and Silver Exchanged Zeolite as promising candidates for Tc and I, respectively. Investigation into the sequence in which getters are added to Cast Stone was performed following two methods: 1) adding getters to the Cast Stone dry blend, and then mixing with liquid waste, and 2) adding getters to the liquid waste first, followed by addition of the Cast Stone dry blend. Cast Stone monolith samples were prepared with each method and leach tests, following EPA method 1315, were conducted in either distilled water or simulated vadose zone porewater for a period of up to 63 days. The leachate was analyzed for Tc, I, Na, NO3-, NO2- and Cr with ICP-MS, ICP-OES and ion chromatography and the results indicated that the Cast Stone with getter addition in the dry blend mix (method 1) has lower rates of Tc and I leaching. The mechanisms of radionuclide release from the Cast Stone were also investigated with a variety of solid phase characterization techniques of the monoliths before and after leaching, such as XRD, SEM/EDS, TEM/SAED and other spectroscopic techniques.

  1. Strengthen forensic entomology in court--the need for data exploration and the validation of a generalised additive mixed model.

    PubMed

    Baqué, Michèle; Amendt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Developmental data of juvenile blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are typically used to calculate the age of immature stages found on or around a corpse and thus to estimate a minimum post-mortem interval (PMI(min)). However, many of those data sets don't take into account that immature blow flies grow in a non-linear fashion. Linear models do not supply a sufficient reliability on age estimates and may even lead to an erroneous determination of the PMI(min). According to the Daubert standard and the need for improvements in forensic science, new statistic tools like smoothing methods and mixed models allow the modelling of non-linear relationships and expand the field of statistical analyses. The present study introduces into the background and application of these statistical techniques by analysing a model which describes the development of the forensically important blow fly Calliphora vicina at different temperatures. The comparison of three statistical methods (linear regression, generalised additive modelling and generalised additive mixed modelling) clearly demonstrates that only the latter provided regression parameters that reflect the data adequately. We focus explicitly on both the exploration of the data--to assure their quality and to show the importance of checking it carefully prior to conducting the statistical tests--and the validation of the resulting models. Hence, we present a common method for evaluating and testing forensic entomological data sets by using for the first time generalised additive mixed models.

  2. Defense Contract Audit Agency: Additional Guidance Needed Regarding DCAA’s Use of Companies’ Internal Audit Reports

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    DEFENSE CONTRACT AUDIT AGENCY Additional Guidance Needed Regarding DCAA’s Use of Companies’ Internal Audit Reports...COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Contract Audit Agency: Additional Guidance Needed Regarding DCAA’s Use of...Companies’ Internal Audit Reports 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f

  3. Veterans Affairs Health Care: Addition to GAO’s High Risk List and Actions Needed for Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-29

    VETERANS AFFAIRS HEALTH CARE Addition to GAO’s High Risk List and Actions Needed for Removal Statement of Debra A...Draper Director, Health Care Testimony Before the Committee on Veterans’ Affairs, U.S. Senate For Release on Delivery Expected at 2:30 p.m. ET...to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Veterans Affairs Health Care: Addition to GAO’s High Risk List and Actions Needed for Removal 5a. CONTRACT

  4. [Effects of menthol as an additive in tobacco products and the need for regulation].

    PubMed

    Kahnert, S; Nair, U; Mons, U; Pötschke-Langer, M

    2012-03-01

    Menthol is the most widely used and the most prominent tobacco additive in tobacco products advertised and marketed by the tobacco industry. Besides its characteristic flavor, it possesses a variety of pharmacological properties facilitating tobacco smoke inhalation and potentiating dependence. These properties of menthol not only favor tobacco initiation and consumption but can also prevent smoking cessation. This article summarizes the effect of menthol as an additive in tobacco products and its effect on tobacco consumption that causes a number of chronic diseases and premature death and, therefore, counteracts tobacco control measures. Currently, there is no legislative regulation in Germany that considers the health hazard, addiction-enhancing and attractiveness-increasing properties of additives permitted in tobacco products. Effective regulation or even a ban could contribute to a reduction of tobacco consumption and, hence, save many people from a long-lasting tobacco dependence.

  5. Department of Defense: Additional Actions Needed to Improve Financial Management of Military Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Internal Controls Over the U.S. Special Operations Command Military Equipment Baseline Valuation Effort, D-2008- 103 (Arlington, Va.: June 13, 2008...Support System-Army (GCSS- Army), and Logistics Modernization Program ( LMP )—thus resulting in the need for manual reconciliations and reduced...risk. Further, as stated above, the Army’s ERPs—GFEBS, GCSS- Army, and LMP —may experience interoperability problems because of the lack of common

  6. Reduced Need of Lubricity Additives in Soybean Oil Blends Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Converging prices of vegetable oils and petroleum, along with increased focus on renewable resources, gave more momentum to vegetable oil lubricants. Boundary lubrication properties of four Extreme Pressure (EP) additive blends in conventional Soy Bean Oil (SBO) and Paraffinic Mineral Oil (PMO) of ...

  7. Developing Social Skills of Students with Additional Needs within the Context of the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Michael; Cooper, Greta; Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research on social skills assessment and intervention indicates the importance of social skills in improving academic achievement. Additionally, a strong evidence base promotes the inclusion of social-emotional learning into the whole school curriculum. In recognition of this evidence, the new Australian Curriculum, under Personal and…

  8. Pension Costs on DOD Contracts: Additional Guidance Needed to Ensure Costs Are Consistent and Reasonable

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    support from a team of DOD actuaries . DOD audits projected and actual costs for contracts, including pension costs, to ensure they are allowable...qualified and credentialed actuaries ) and collected contractor data on incurred CAS pension costs from 2002 to 2011. To understand how pension costs... Actuary of the GAO for actuarial soundness. We also gathered contractor projections of CAS pension costs for 2012 to 2016. See appendix I for additional

  9. Defense Business Transformation: DOD Has Taken Some Steps to Address Weaknesses, but Additional Actions Are Needed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    responsible for DOD’s business transformation efforts. What GAO Recommends GAO recommends that the CMO and DCMO document and communicate priorities for...concurred with GAO’s recommendations. What GAO Found Department of Defense (DOD) senior leadership—specifically the Chief Management Officer ( CMO ) and...not implemented leading performance management practices for federal agencies to help ensure additional progress. For example, DOD’s CMO and DCMO

  10. Reorganizing Nigeria's Vaccine Supply Chain Reduces Need For Additional Storage Facilities, But More Storage Is Required.

    PubMed

    Shittu, Ekundayo; Harnly, Melissa; Whitaker, Shanta; Miller, Roger

    2016-02-01

    One of the major problems facing Nigeria's vaccine supply chain is the lack of adequate vaccine storage facilities. Despite the introduction of solar-powered refrigerators and the use of new tools to monitor supply levels, this problem persists. Using data on vaccine supply for 2011-14 from Nigeria's National Primary Health Care Development Agency, we created a simulation model to explore the effects of variance in supply and demand on storage capacity requirements. We focused on the segment of the supply chain that moves vaccines inside Nigeria. Our findings suggest that 55 percent more vaccine storage capacity is needed than is currently available. We found that reorganizing the supply chain as proposed by the National Primary Health Care Development Agency could reduce that need to 30 percent more storage. Storage requirements varied by region of the country and vaccine type. The Nigerian government may want to consider the differences in storage requirements by region and vaccine type in its proposed reorganization efforts.

  11. [Therapeutic and toxic theophylline levels in asthma attacks--is there a need for additional theophylline?].

    PubMed

    Zeidman, A; Gardyn, J; Fradin, Z; Fink, G; Mittelman, M

    1997-07-01

    Although first-line therapy for bronchial asthma has changed over the past decade to anti-inflammatory medication such as inhaled corticosteroids and cromolyn with possible addition of beta-agonists, theophylline is still useful and therefore widely used. However, several studies have raised serious questions regarding its efficacy in acute asthmatic exacerbations. These studies, the narrow therapeutic range of the drug, the frequency of side effects and interactions with common drugs, and individual variation in clearance and metabolism, have prompted its reevaluation in the management of asthma. Therapeutic serum levels of theophylline are between 10 to 20 mcg/ml. Most adults achieve these concentrations with daily slow-release oral theophylline preparations, 200-400 mg (approximately 10 mg/Kg) twice a day. However, when such a patient presents to the emergency room (ER) in an asthmatic attack, immediate intravenous theophylline is often given, regardless of maintenance treatment. Since the rationale for this common therapeutic approach has been challenged, the current study was undertaken. Serum theophylline levels were measured in 23 consecutive asthmatics presenting to the ER in an acute attack. 15 (68%) had therapeutic levels (above 10 mcg/ml) and 2 had toxic levels (above 20 mcg/ml), prior to receiving the standard intravenous theophylline dose given for an attack. These data indicate that most patients with bronchial asthma on oral maintenance theophylline do not require additional intravenous theophylline when in an attack. It probably will not benefit them and may even induce serious theophylline toxicity.

  12. Additive manufacturing in biomedical sciences and the need for definitions and norms.

    PubMed

    Chhaya, Mohit P; Poh, Patrina S P; Balmayor, Elizabeth R; van Griensven, Martijn; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2015-01-01

    The application of additive biomanufacturing represents one of the most rapidly advancing areas of biomedical science, in which engineers, scientists, and clinicians are contributing to the future of health care. The combined efforts of a large number of groups around the globe have developed a strong research thrust that has resulted in a large number of publications. Reviewing this body of literature, there is an increasing trend of research groups inventing their own definitions and terminology. This has made it difficult to find and compare the results. Therefore, to move the field constructively forward, it is a conditio sine qua non to clarify various terminologies and standards. Based on this background, this article advocates tightening the terminology and has the objective of penning out definitions that will ultimately allow the development of official industry standard terms, such as American Society for Testing and Materials and or International Organization for Standardization for technologies developed for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine.

  13. The Unmet Educational Needs of Full-Time Employees: A Phase II Needs Assessment for New Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Andrew; Shaver, Jon

    To ascertain the extent to which full-time employees in the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) service area would be interested in participating in non-campus based educational opportunities, a needs assessment was conducted. Employee needs that might be met by educational programs, existing employer-sponsored programs, and the extent…

  14. Tick bites and Lyme disease: the need for timely treatment.

    PubMed

    Overstreet, Maria L

    2013-06-01

    In the United States, 30,158 people were reported as having contracted Lyme disease during 2010; 96% of the cases in 2011 were reported from 13 northeast and north-central states. Time of tick attachment is a critical factor. Prolonged attachment allows time for a bacterium to move from tick to human. Patient history and meticulous skin inspection are the most important elements used in diagnosis of Lyme disease. The most common drug for treatment is doxycycline. Ticks find their hosts by several senses: odor, moisture, heat, and vibration. Avoidance of tick-infested areas, such as wooded areas and leaf piles, is paramount in preventing Lyme disease.

  15. Part-Time Faculty Effectiveness: Fulfilling the Need.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Grace Carolyn

    Part-time instructors currently make up 51% of the community college faculty and their numbers will undoubtedly increase in the next decade, especially in high technology areas. This growth, along with changes in community college missions and increasing fiscal stringency, raises critical policy issues for college leaders. These policy issues…

  16. Earthquake recovery of historic buildings: exploring cost and time needs.

    PubMed

    Al-Nammari, Fatima M; Lindell, Michael K

    2009-07-01

    Disaster recovery of historic buildings has rarely been investigated even though the available literature indicates that they face special challenges. This study examines buildings' recovery time and cost to determine whether their functions (that is, their use) and their status (historic or non-historic) affect these outcomes. The study uses data from the city of San Francisco after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake to examine the recovery of historic buildings owned by public agencies and non-governmental organisations. The results show that recovery cost is affected by damage level, construction type and historic status, whereas recovery time is affected by the same variables and also by building function. The study points to the importance of pre-incident recovery planning, especially for building functions that have shown delayed recovery. Also, the study calls attention to the importance of further investigations into the challenges facing historic building recovery.

  17. Effect of additives on the compressive strength and setting time of a Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Machado, Desirée Freitas Mryczka; Bertassoni, Luiz Eduardo; Souza, Evelise Machado de; Almeida, Janaina Bertoncelo de; Rached, Rodrigo Nunes

    2010-01-01

    Improvements in strength and setting time of Portland cements (PC) are needed to enhance their performance as endodontic and load bearing materials. This study sought to enhance the compressive strength and setting time of a PC by adding one of the following additives: 20% and 30% poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA), 20% and 30% irregular and spherical amalgam alloys, and 10% CaCl(2). The control consisted of unreinforced PC specimens. Setting time was determined using a Gillmore apparatus according to standardized methods while compressive strength was measured using a universal testing machine after 21 hours or 60 days of water storage. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey and Games-Howell tests (alpha = 5%). All additives significantly decreased both initial and final setting times as compared with the PC-control (p < .05). 30% PMMA and 30% irregular alloy had the lowest values of initial setting time. 30% irregular alloy also produced the lowest values of final setting time while 30% spherical alloy yielded the highest (p < .05). No differences were detected between the compressive strength values of 21 hours and 60 days. While 10% CaCl(2), 20% and 30% PMMA produced values significantly lower than the PC-control, 30% spherical alloy significantly improved the compressive strength of the reinforced PC (p < .05). In summary, all additives significantly reduced the setting time and 30% spherical amalgam alloy yielded a significant increase in compressive strength for the tested PC, which might represent an improved composition for PCs to expand their use as endodontic and potentially load bearing materials.

  18. Colonoscopy appropriateness: Really needed or a waste of time?

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno-García, Antonio Z; Quintero, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Technical and quality improvements in colonoscopy along with the widespread implementation of population screening programs and the development of open-access units have resulted in an exponential increase in colonoscopy demands, forcing endoscopy units to bear an excessive burden of work. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy appropriateness guideline and the European panel appropriateness of gastrointestinal endoscopy guideline have appeared as potential solutions to tackle this problem and to increase detection rates of relevant lesions. Inappropriate indications based on either guideline are as high as 30%. Strategies based on these clinical criteria or other systems may be used to reduce inappropriate indications, thus decreasing waiting lists for outpatient colonoscopy, saving costs, prioritizing colonoscopy referrals and subsequently decreasing interval times from diagnosis to treatment. Despite the potential role of appropriateness guidelines, they have not been widely adopted partly due to fear of missing significant lesions detected in inappropriate indications. We review the main appropriateness and prioritising systems, their usefulness for detecting relevant lesions, as well as interventions based on those systems and cost-effectiveness. PMID:25685265

  19. The perceptions of teachers and principals toward providing additional compensation to teachers in high-need subject areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longing, Jeffrey Lucian

    The purpose of this study was to determine possible differences in the perceptions of teachers teaching in high-need areas (i.e., math, science, special education, etc.) and teachers not teaching in high-need areas, (i.e., business education, physical education, etc.) as defined by the states of Arkansas and Louisiana, regarding higher compensation for high-need teachers. In addition, possible perception differences among principals and teachers were determined. The independent variables consisted of gender, position held, years of certified experience, and certification areas. The dependent variable was the perceptions of the participants on providing higher compensation for high-need teachers in order to attract and retain them. The data for all variables were collected using the Teacher Compensation Survey. The sample for this study was limited to teachers, grades 9 through 12, and principals of public high schools in south Arkansas and north Louisiana. Forty-four school districts in south Arkansas (Arkansas Department of Education, 2008a) and north Louisiana (Louisiana Department of Education, 2008a) met the criteria for this study. Twenty-two superintendents gave permission for their districts to participate in the research. A sample of 849 teachers and 38 principals were identified in these districts. Surveys were returned from 350 teachers, creating a 41% response rate. When the 31 principals that returned surveys were added to the total population, the response rate increased to 43% with 381 of the 887 surveyed responding. However, 42 of the teachers and two of the principals skipped some of the questions on the survey and were not included in the study. The researcher used a One-Way ANOVA and independent t-tests to determine the presence of statistical differences at the .05 level. The data showed that most math and science teachers agreed that high-need teachers should be compensated at a higher rate than teachers not teaching in high-need areas. The data

  20. Using a logic model to evaluate the Kids Together early education inclusion program for children with disabilities and additional needs.

    PubMed

    Clapham, Kathleen; Manning, Claire; Williams, Kathryn; O'Brien, Ginger; Sutherland, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    Despite clear evidence that learning and social opportunities for children with disabilities and special needs are more effective in inclusive not segregated settings, there are few known effective inclusion programs available to children with disabilities, their families or teachers in the early years within Australia. The Kids Together program was developed to support children with disabilities/additional needs aged 0-8 years attending mainstream early learning environments. Using a key worker transdisciplinary team model, the program aligns with the individualised package approach of the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS).

  1. Vacuum infusion equipment design and the influence of reinforcement layers addition to the resin infusion time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saputra, A. H.; Setyarso, G.

    2016-11-01

    The characteristic of composite material is greatly influenced by the manufacture method of composite. The conventional method that has been used such as hand lay-up and spray up are simple and easy to apply but the composite tend to have a void in it because of the air trapped during the manufacture process. Vacuum infusion is one of the modern composite manufacture process which can replace the conventional method. The problem of this method happens when the resin infusion time become longer due to the addition of reinforcement layers. When the resin infusion time is longer than the resin's gel time, the resin will become gel and not able to flow into the mold. In order to overcome this problem, a study that observe the influence of reinforcement layers addition to the resin infusion time is needed. In this study, vacuum infusion equipment for composite materials manufacturing process that are designed consists of: 1×1m glass as the mold, 1L PVC tube for the resin container, 1L glass tube for the resin trap, and ‘A HP vacuum pump with 7 CFM vacuum speed. The resin that is used in this study is unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) and the fiber used as reinforcement is fiber glass. It is observed that the more number of reinforcement layers the longer resin infusion time will be. The resin infusion time (in seconds) from two until six layers respectively for the area of 15×20cm are: 88, 115, 145, 174, 196; for the area of 15×25cm are: 119, 142, 168, 198, 235; and for the area of 15×35cm are: 181, 203, 235, 263, 303. The maximum reinforcement layers that can be accommodated for each 15×20cm, 15×25cm, and 15×35cm area are respectively 31 layers, 29 layers, and 25 layers.

  2. Plants with genetically modified events combined by conventional breeding: an assessment of the need for additional regulatory data.

    PubMed

    Pilacinski, W; Crawford, A; Downey, R; Harvey, B; Huber, S; Hunst, P; Lahman, L K; MacIntosh, S; Pohl, M; Rickard, C; Tagliani, L; Weber, N

    2011-01-01

    Crop varieties with multiple GM events combined by conventional breeding have become important in global agriculture. The regulatory requirements in different countries for such products vary considerably, placing an additional burden on regulatory agencies in countries where the submission of additional data is required and delaying the introduction of innovative products to meet agricultural needs. The process of conventional plant breeding has predictably provided safe food and feed products both historically and in the modern era of plant breeding. Thus, previously approved GM events that have been combined by conventional plant breeding and contain GM traits that are not likely to interact in a manner affecting safety should be considered to be as safe as their conventional counterparts. Such combined GM event crop varieties should require little, if any, additional regulatory data to meet regulatory requirements.

  3. Message sidedness in advertising: the moderating roles of need for cognition and time pressure in persuasion.

    PubMed

    Kao, Danny Tengti

    2011-08-01

    Persuasion has been extensively researched for decades. Much of this research has focused on different message tactics and their effects on persuasion (e.g., Chang & Chou, 2008; Lafferty, 1999). This research aims to assess whether the persuasion of a specific type of message is influenced by need for cognition (NFC) and time pressure. The 336 undergraduates participated in a 2 (message sidedness: one-sided/two-sided) × 3 (time pressure: low/moderate/high) between-subjects design. Results indicate that two-sided messages tend to elicit more favorable ad attitudes than one-sided messages. As compared with low-NFC individuals, high-NFC individuals are likely to express more favorable ad attitudes, brand attitudes and purchase intention. Moderate time pressure tends to lead to more favorable ad attitudes than low time pressure and high time pressure. In addition, moderate time pressure is likely to elicit more favorable brand attitudes and purchase intentions than high time pressure, but does not elicit more favorable brand attitudes and purchase intentions than low time pressure. Furthermore, when high-NFC individuals are under low or moderate time pressure, two-sided messages are more persuasive than one-sided messages; however, message sidedness does not differentially affect the persuasion when high-NFC individuals are pressed for time. In contrast, one-sided messages are more persuasive than two-sided messages when low-NFC individuals are under low or high time pressure, and two-sided messages are more persuasive than one-sided messages when low-NFC individuals are under moderate time pressure.

  4. 46 CFR 201.52 - Additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional time after service by mail. 201.52 Section... RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Time (Rule 5) § 201.52 Additional time after service by mail. Whenever service of a document has been made by mail in accordance with § 201.43 three (3) days shall be added...

  5. 46 CFR 201.52 - Additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional time after service by mail. 201.52 Section... RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Time (Rule 5) § 201.52 Additional time after service by mail. Whenever service of a document has been made by mail in accordance with § 201.43 three (3) days shall be added...

  6. 46 CFR 201.52 - Additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional time after service by mail. 201.52 Section... RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Time (Rule 5) § 201.52 Additional time after service by mail. Whenever service of a document has been made by mail in accordance with § 201.43 three (3) days shall be added...

  7. 46 CFR 201.52 - Additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional time after service by mail. 201.52 Section... RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Time (Rule 5) § 201.52 Additional time after service by mail. Whenever service of a document has been made by mail in accordance with § 201.43 three (3) days shall be added...

  8. 46 CFR 201.52 - Additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional time after service by mail. 201.52 Section... RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Time (Rule 5) § 201.52 Additional time after service by mail. Whenever service of a document has been made by mail in accordance with § 201.43 three (3) days shall be added...

  9. Postgraduate pharmacology curriculum in medical institutions in India: time for need-based appraisal and modifications.

    PubMed

    Badyal, Dinesh K; Desai, Chetna; Tripathi, Santanu K; Dhaneria, S P; Chandy, Sujith J; Bezbaruah, B K

    2014-01-01

    The need to revise the curriculum for the postgraduate course (M.D.) in Pharmacology has been perceived by the academicians in India since quite some time. The changing professional requirements of the graduating students, the current scenario vis a vis animal experimentation and the emphasis of the Medical Council of India on a competency based curriculum has triggered this felt need. In spite of the fact that most medical institutions and universities in India offer postgraduate courses in pharmacology, the curriculum lacks uniformity with extreme variations observed at some places. This article attempts to analyze the existing curricula in pharmacology in India and suggest modifications that could be recommended to the suitable regulatory bodies for implementation. A revision of objectives in the three domains of learning, development of skills that help develop suitable competencies, adoption of teaching learning methods in addition to the conventional methods, and a rethink on the assessment methods have been recommended. Development and validation of alternatives skill-based modules in lieu of animal experiments are recommended. Additional skills like medical writing and communication skills, professionalism and ethics, multi and inter-disciplinary integration and collaboration and a wider exposure of students to the pharmaceutical, academic, regulatory and research institutions for onsite learning were also recommended to fulfill their future career requirements.

  10. 22 CFR 1429.22 - Additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional time after service by mail. 1429.22... MISCELLANEOUS AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General Requirements § 1429.22 Additional time after service by mail... on such party by mail, five (5) days shall be added to the prescribed period....

  11. 22 CFR 1429.22 - Additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Additional time after service by mail. 1429.22... MISCELLANEOUS AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General Requirements § 1429.22 Additional time after service by mail... on such party by mail, five (5) days shall be added to the prescribed period....

  12. 29 CFR 459.2 - Additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional time after service by mail. 459.2 Section 459.2... OF CONDUCT MISCELLANEOUS § 459.2 Additional time after service by mail. Whenever a party has the... service of a notice or other paper upon him and the notice or paper is served on him by mail, five...

  13. 22 CFR 1429.22 - Additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Additional time after service by mail. 1429.22... MISCELLANEOUS AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General Requirements § 1429.22 Additional time after service by mail... on such party by mail, five (5) days shall be added to the prescribed period....

  14. 22 CFR 1429.22 - Additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Additional time after service by mail. 1429.22... MISCELLANEOUS AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General Requirements § 1429.22 Additional time after service by mail... on such party by mail, five (5) days shall be added to the prescribed period....

  15. 29 CFR 459.2 - Additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional time after service by mail. 459.2 Section 459.2... OF CONDUCT MISCELLANEOUS § 459.2 Additional time after service by mail. Whenever a party has the... service of a notice or other paper upon him and the notice or paper is served on him by mail, five...

  16. 29 CFR 459.2 - Additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional time after service by mail. 459.2 Section 459.2... OF CONDUCT MISCELLANEOUS § 459.2 Additional time after service by mail. Whenever a party has the... service of a notice or other paper upon him and the notice or paper is served on him by mail, five...

  17. 5 CFR 2429.22 - Additional time after service by mail or commercial delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional time after service by mail or... REQUIREMENTS General Requirements § 2429.22 Additional time after service by mail or commercial delivery... such party by mail or commercial delivery, 5 days shall be added to the prescribed period:...

  18. 22 CFR 1429.22 - Additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Additional time after service by mail. 1429.22... MISCELLANEOUS AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General Requirements § 1429.22 Additional time after service by mail... on such party by mail, five (5) days shall be added to the prescribed period....

  19. 29 CFR 459.2 - Additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional time after service by mail. 459.2 Section 459.2... OF CONDUCT MISCELLANEOUS § 459.2 Additional time after service by mail. Whenever a party has the... service of a notice or other paper upon him and the notice or paper is served on him by mail, five...

  20. 29 CFR 459.2 - Additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional time after service by mail. 459.2 Section 459.2... OF CONDUCT MISCELLANEOUS § 459.2 Additional time after service by mail. Whenever a party has the... service of a notice or other paper upon him and the notice or paper is served on him by mail, five...

  1. 5 CFR 2429.22 - Additional time after service by mail or commercial delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional time after service by mail or... REQUIREMENTS General Requirements § 2429.22 Additional time after service by mail or commercial delivery... such party by mail or commercial delivery, 5 days shall be added to the prescribed period:...

  2. 5 CFR 2429.22 - Additional time after service by mail or commercial delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS General Requirements § 2429.22 Additional time after service by mail or commercial delivery... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional time after service by mail or commercial delivery. 2429.22 Section 2429.22 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS...

  3. How to Make Additional Time Matter: Integrating Individualized Tutorials into an Extended Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on the effect of extending the school day is decidedly mixed because of the stark differences in how schools use additional time. In this paper, I focus narrowly on the effect of additional time used for individualized tutorials. In 2005, MATCH Charter Public High School integrated two hours of tutorials throughout an extended day. The…

  4. Assessment of PNGV fuels infrastructure. Phase 1 report: Additional capital needs and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Johnson, L.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the methodologies and results of Argonne`s assessment of additional capital needs and the fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels included in this study are reformulated gasoline, low-sulfur diesel, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol are assumed to be burned in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines. Diesel and dimethyl ether are assumed to be burned in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines. Hydrogen and methanol are assumed to be used in fuel-cell vehicles. The authors have analyzed fuels infrastructure impacts under a 3X vehicle low market share scenario and a high market share scenario. The assessment shows that if 3X vehicles are mass-introduced, a considerable amount of capital investment will be needed to build new fuel production plants and to establish distribution infrastructure for methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Capital needs for production facilities will far exceed those for distribution infrastructure. Among the four fuels, hydrogen will bear the largest capital needs. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translates directly into reductions in total energy demand, fossil energy demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency results in substantial petroleum displacement and large reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter of size smaller than 10 microns.

  5. Giving English Language Learners the Time They Need to Succeed: Profiles of Three Expanded Learning Time Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farbman, David A.

    2015-01-01

    With the number of students who are English language learners (ELLs) likely to double in coming years, it is more important than ever for schools across the U.S. to design and implement educational practices and strategies that best meet ELLs' learning needs, says the report, "Giving English Language Learners the Time They Need to…

  6. Bifurcated method and apparatus for floating point addition with decreased latency time

    DOEpatents

    Farmwald, Paul M.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for decreasing the latency time associated with floating point addition and subtraction in a computer, using a novel bifurcated, pre-normalization/post-normalization approach that distinguishes between differences of floating point exponents.

  7. Health behaviors among college students: the influence of future time perspective and basic psychological need satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Preston L.; Hirsch, Jameson K.

    2014-01-01

    Health behavior change may prevent many fatal diseases, and may be influenced by social and motivational constructs. We assessed the interaction effect of future time perspective and basic psychological need fulfillment on positive and negative health behaviors. Future time perspective was associated with more positive, and less negative, health behaviors. Need fulfillment was associated with only positive health behaviors. In moderation analyses, individuals reporting both high need fulfillment and future perspective reported greater positive health behaviors, and were especially unlikely to smoke. Enhancing future-mindedness and supporting need satisfaction in interventions targeting modifiable health behaviors is encouraged. PMID:25750770

  8. The effect of silane addition timing on mixing processability and properties of silica reinforced rubber compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hee-Hoon; Jin, Hyun-Ho; Ha, Sung-Ho; Jang, Suk-Hee; Kang, Yong-Gu; Han, Min-Hyun

    2016-03-01

    A series of experiments were performed to determine an optimum balance between processability and performance of a highly loaded silica compound. The experiments evaluated 4 different silane injection times. All mixing related to silane addition was conducted with a scaled up "Tandem" mixer line. With exception to silane addition timing, almost all operating conditions were controlled between experimental features. It was found that when the silane addition was introduced earlier in the mixing cycle both the reaction was more complete and the bound rubber content was higher. But processability indicators such as sheet forming and Mooney plasticity were negatively impacted. On the other hand, as silane injection was delayed to later in the mixing process the filler dispersion and good sheet forming was improved. However both the bound rubber content and Silane reaction completion were decreased. With the changes in silane addition time, the processability and properties of a silica compound can be controlled.

  9. To establish the parameters of optimal nutrition do we need to consider psychological in addition to physiological parameters?

    PubMed

    Benton, David

    2013-01-01

    The criteria used to establish dietary reference values are discussed and it is suggested that the too often the "need" they aim to satisfy is at the best vaguely specified. The proposition is considered that if we aim to establish optimal nutrition we will gain from considering psychological in addition to physiological parameters. The brain is by a considerable extent the most complex and metabolically active organ in the body. As such it would be predicted that the first signs of minor subclinical deficiencies will be the disruption of the functioning of the brain. The output of the brain is the product of countless millions of biochemical processes, such that if enzyme activity is only a few percentage points less than maximum, a cumulative influence would result. A series of studies of micronutrient supplementation in well-designed trials were reviewed. In metaanalyses the cognitive functioning of children and the mood and memory of adults has been shown to respond to multivitamin/mineral supplementation. Given the concerns that have been expressed about the negative responses to high levels of micronutrients, the implications are discussed of the finding that psychological functioning may benefits from an intake greater than those currently recommended.

  10. Predictors of the Discrepancy between Time Needed and Time Spent in Learning among Boys Exhibiting Behavior Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettinger, Maribeth; Lyon, Mark A.

    1983-01-01

    Based on Carroll's model of school learning, this study sought to identify factors to help explain the discrepancy between time needed for learning and time actually spent in learning. Ninety-six boys were required to read and reread a passage until 100 percent accuracy was achieved on a criterion test. (Author/PN)

  11. Dreams Do Come True: The Creation and Growth of a Recreational Dance Program for Children and Young Adults with Additional Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinders, Nicole; Fletcher, Paula; Bryden, Pam

    2015-01-01

    There are many benefits to dance, both for typically developing individuals and for individuals with additional needs. The purpose of this narrative case study was to analyse a dance program for children and young adults with additional needs from the perspective of the program creator and primary dance instructor. Data collection occurred at two…

  12. Additional technician tasks and turnaround time in the clinical Stat laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Flores, Emilio; Leiva-Salinas, Maria; Lillo, Rosa; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many additional tasks in the Stat laboratory (SL) increase the workload. It is necessary to control them because they can affect the service provided by the laboratory. Our aim is to calculate these tasks, study their evolution over a 10 year period, and compare turnaround times (TAT) in summer period to the rest of the year. Materials and methods Additional tasks were classified as “additional test request” and “additional sample”. We collected those incidences from the laboratory information system (LIS), and calculated their evolution over time. We also calculated the monthly TAT for troponin for Emergency department (ED) patients, as the difference between the verification and LIS registration time. A median time of 30 minutes was our indicator target. TAT results and tests workload in summer were compared to the rest of the year. Results Over a 10-year period, the technologists in the SL performed 51,385 additional tasks, a median of 475 per month. The workload was significantly higher during the summer (45,496 tests) than the rest of the year (44,555 tests) (P = 0.019). The troponin TAT did not show this variation between summer and the rest of the year, complying always with our 30 minutes indicator target. Conclusion The technicians accomplished a significant number of additional tasks, and the workload kept increasing over the period of 10 years. That did not affect the TAT results. PMID:27346970

  13. Variation in Additional Breast Imaging Orders and Impact on Surgical Wait Times at a Comprehensive Cancer Center

    PubMed Central

    Golshan, Mehra; Losk, Katya; Mallory, Melissa A.; Camuso, Kristen; Troyan, Susan; Lin, Nancy U.; Kadish, Sarah; Bunnell, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the multidisciplinary care model, breast imagers frequently provide second opinion reviews of imaging studies performed at outside institutions. However, the need for additional imaging and timeliness of obtaining these studies has yet to be established. We sought to evaluate the frequency of additional imaging orders by breast surgeons and to evaluate the impact of this supplementary imaging on timeliness of surgery. Methods We identified 2,489 consecutive women with breast cancer who underwent first definitive surgery (FDS) at our comprehensive cancer center between 2011 and 2013. The number of breast-specific imaging studies performed for each patient between initial consultation and FDS was obtained. Chi-squared tests were used to quantify the proportion of patients undergoing additional imaging by surgeon. Interval time between initial consultation and additional imaging and/or biopsy was calculated. The delay of additional imaging on time to FDS was assessed by t-test. Results Of 2,489 patients, 615 (24.7%) had at least one additional breast-specific imaging study performed between initial consultation and FDS, with 222 patients undergoing additional biopsies (8.9%). The proportion of patients receiving imaging tests by breast surgeon ranged from 15% to 39% (p<0.0001). Patients receiving additional imaging had statistically longer wait times to FDS for BCT (21.4 to 28.5 days, p<0.0001). Conclusions Substantial variability exists in the utilization of additional breast-specific imaging and in the timeliness of obtaining these tests among breast surgeons. Further research is warranted to assess the sources and impact of this variation on patient care, cost and outcomes. PMID:26307233

  14. MOST Space-based Photometry of the Transiting Exoplanet System HD 209458: Transit Timing to Search for Additional Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller-Ricci, Eliza; Rowe, Jason F.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Guenther, David B.; Kuschnig, Rainer; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Walker, Gordon A. H.; Weiss, Werner W.

    2008-07-01

    We report on the measurement of transit times for the HD 209458 planetary system from photometry obtained with the MOST (Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars) space telescope. Deviations from a constant orbital period can indicate the presence of additional planets in the system that are yet undetected, potentially with masses approaching an Earth mass. The MOST data sets of HD 209458 from 2004 and 2005 represent unprecedented time coverage with nearly continuous observations spanning 14 and 43 days and monitoring three transits and 12 consecutive transits, respectively. The transit times that we obtain show no variations on three scales: (1) no long-term change in P since before 2004 at 25 ms level, (2) no trend in transit timings during the 2005 run, and (3) no individual transit timing deviations above 80 s level. Together with previously published transit times from Agol & Steffen, this allows us to place limits on the presence of additional close-in planets in the system, in some cases down to below an Earth mass. This result, along with previous radial velocity work, now eliminates the possibility that a perturbing planet could be responsible for the additional heat source needed to explain HD 209458b's anomalous low density.

  15. Current Treatment of Dyslipidemia: A New Paradigm for Statin Drug Use and the Need for Additional Therapies.

    PubMed

    Kones, Richard; Rumana, Umme

    2015-07-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in most countries, with the high prevalence currently driven by dual epidemics of obesity and diabetes. Statin drugs, the most effective, evidence-based agents to prevent and treat this disease, have a central role in management and are advised in all published guidelines. The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) cholesterol and assessment guidelines ('new ACC/AHA guidelines') emphasized global cardiovascular (CV) risk reduction as opposed to targeting low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, stressed the use of statins in two dose intensities, utilized a new risk calculator using pooled cohort equations, and lowered the risk cutoff for initiation of statin therapy. Although there were major strengths of the new ACC/AHA guidelines, substantial controversy followed their release, particulars of which are discussed in this review. They were generally regarded as improvements in an ongoing transition using evidenced-based data for maximum patient benefit. Several guidelines, other than the ACC/AHA guidelines, currently provide practitioners with choices, some depending on practice locations. Cholesterol control with statin drugs is used in all paradigms. However, some patients respond inadequately, approximately 15% are intolerant, and other factors prevent attaining cholesterol goals in as many as 40% of patients. Even after treatment, substantial residual risk for ongoing major events remains. Another readily available modality that can rival statin drugs in effectiveness is vast improvement in diet and lifestyle within the general population; however, despite great effort, existing programs to implement such changes have failed. Hence, despite unrivaled success, there is great need for additional drugs to prevent and treat CHD, whether as monotherapy or in combination with statin drugs. New American guidelines do not discuss or recommend any nonstatin drugs for

  16. VA Mental Health: Clearer Guidance on Access Policies and Wait-Time Data Needed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    managed . VHA concurred with GAO’s recommendations but disagreed with certain of its findings, for example, GAO’s calculation of overall wait- times ...Health Care: Management and Oversight of Consult Process Need Improvement to Help Ensure Veterans Receive Timely Outpatient Specialty Care, GAO- 14-808...events or activities, such as ensuring timely access to mental health care, to help ensure management directives are carried out properly.32 VHA

  17. Explaining Variability in Retrieval Times for Addition Produced by Students with Mathematical Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Sarah L.; Lawson, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Predictors of retrieval times produced by students having difficulty developing a reliance on retrieval for simple addition were discovered. The findings support the notion that separate limitations operate in working memory when retrieval occurs and call into question the use of the term "retrieval deficit" to explain difficulties…

  18. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  19. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  20. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  1. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  2. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  3. Falcon: Visual analysis of large, irregularly sampled, and multivariate time series data in additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Steed, Chad A.; Halsey, William; Dehoff, Ryan; ...

    2017-02-16

    Flexible visual analysis of long, high-resolution, and irregularly sampled time series data from multiple sensor streams is a challenge in several domains. In the field of additive manufacturing, this capability is critical for realizing the full potential of large-scale 3D printers. Here, we propose a visual analytics approach that helps additive manufacturing researchers acquire a deep understanding of patterns in log and imagery data collected by 3D printers. Our specific goals include discovering patterns related to defects and system performance issues, optimizing build configurations to avoid defects, and increasing production efficiency. We introduce Falcon, a new visual analytics system thatmore » allows users to interactively explore large, time-oriented data sets from multiple linked perspectives. Falcon provides overviews, detailed views, and unique segmented time series visualizations, all with adjustable scale options. To illustrate the effectiveness of Falcon at providing thorough and efficient knowledge discovery, we present a practical case study involving experts in additive manufacturing and data from a large-scale 3D printer. The techniques described are applicable to the analysis of any quantitative time series, though the focus of this paper is on additive manufacturing.« less

  4. A friend in need: Time-dependent effects of stress on social discounting in men.

    PubMed

    Margittai, Z; Strombach, T; van Wingerden, M; Joëls, M; Schwabe, L; Kalenscher, T

    2015-07-01

    Stress is often associated with a tend-and-befriend response, a putative coping mechanism where people behave generously towards others in order to invest in social relationships to seek comfort and mutual protection. However, this increase in generosity is expected to be directed only towards a delimited number of socially close, but not distant individuals, because it would be maladaptive to befriend everyone alike. In addition, the endocrinological stress response follows a distinct temporal pattern, and it is believed that tend-and-befriend tendencies can be observed mainly under acute stress. By contrast, the aftermath (>1h after) of stress is associated with endocrinological regulatory processes that are proposed to cause increased executive control and reduced emotional reactivity, possibly eliminating the need to tend-and-befriend. In the present experiment, we set out to investigate how these changes immediately and >1h after a stressful experience affect social-distance-dependent generosity levels, a phenomenon called social discounting. We hypothesized that stress has a time-dependent effect on social discounting, with decisions made shortly after (20min), but not 90min after stress showing increased generosity particularly to close others. We found that men tested 20min after stressor onset indeed showed increased generosity towards close but not distant others compared to non-stressed men or men tested 90min after stressor onset. These findings contribute to our understanding on how stress affects prosocial behavior by highlighting the importance of social closeness and the timing of stress relative to the decision as modulating factors in this type of decision making in men.

  5. Capabilities needed for the next generation of thermo-hydraulic codes for use in real time applications

    SciTech Connect

    Arndt, S.A.

    1997-07-01

    The real-time reactor simulation field is currently at a crossroads in terms of the capability to perform real-time analysis using the most sophisticated computer codes. Current generation safety analysis codes are being modified to replace simplified codes that were specifically designed to meet the competing requirement for real-time applications. The next generation of thermo-hydraulic codes will need to have included in their specifications the specific requirement for use in a real-time environment. Use of the codes in real-time applications imposes much stricter requirements on robustness, reliability and repeatability than do design and analysis applications. In addition, the need for code use by a variety of users is a critical issue for real-time users, trainers and emergency planners who currently use real-time simulation, and PRA practitioners who will increasingly use real-time simulation for evaluating PRA success criteria in near real-time to validate PRA results for specific configurations and plant system unavailabilities.

  6. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Additional Enhancements Are Needed for Army Business System Schedule and Cost Estimates to Fully Meet Best Practices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    DOD BUSINESS SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Additional Enhancements Are Needed for Army Business System Schedule and Cost...DATE SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DOD Business Systems Modernization: Additional...Enhancements Are Needed for Army Business System Schedule and Cost Estimates to Fully Meet Best Practices 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  7. Parent Perceptions of Time Spent Meaningfully by Young Adults with Pervasive Support Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Zachary; Lehr, Donna; Lederer, Leslie; Pelerin, Dana; Huang, Shuoxi

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study that examined how 23 young adults with pervasive support needs and limited functional communication spent their time and how their parents (n = 23) and direct support professionals (DSPs; n = 2) defined meaningfulness in relation to the young adults' experiences. Data were collected through…

  8. European hospital reforms in times of crisis: aligning cost containment needs with plans for structural redesign?

    PubMed

    Clemens, Timo; Michelsen, Kai; Commers, Matt; Garel, Pascal; Dowdeswell, Barrie; Brand, Helmut

    2014-07-01

    Hospitals have become a focal point for health care reform strategies in many European countries during the current financial crisis. It has been called for both, short-term reforms to reduce costs and long-term changes to improve the performance in the long run. On the basis of a literature and document analysis this study analyses how EU member states align short-term and long-term pressures for hospital reforms in times of the financial crisis and assesses the EU's influence on the national reform agenda. The results reveal that there has been an emphasis on cost containment measures rather than embarking on structural redesign of the hospital sector and its position within the broader health care system. The EU influences hospital reform efforts through its enhanced economic framework governance which determines key aspects of the financial context for hospitals in some countries. In addition, the EU health policy agenda which increasingly addresses health system questions stimulates the process of structural hospital reforms by knowledge generation, policy advice and financial incentives. We conclude that successful reforms in such a period would arguably need to address both the organisational and financing sides to hospital care. Moreover, critical to structural reform is a widely held acknowledgement of shortfalls in the current system and belief that new models of hospital care can deliver solutions to overcome these deficits. Advancing the structural redesign of the hospital sector while pressured to contain cost in the short-term is not an easy task and only slowly emerging in Europe.

  9. New Stabilization for Dynamical System with Two Additive Time-Varying Delays

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Chen, Xiaozhou

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a new delay-dependent stabilization criterion for systems with two additive time-varying delays. The novel functional is constructed, a tighter upper bound of the derivative of the Lyapunov functional is obtained. These results have advantages over some existing ones because the combination of the delay decomposition technique and the reciprocally convex approach. Two examples are provided to demonstrate the less conservatism and effectiveness of the results in this paper. PMID:24701159

  10. Predicting the Survival Time for Bladder Cancer Using an Additive Hazards Model in Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    TAPAK, Leili; MAHJUB, Hossein; SADEGHIFAR, Majid; SAIDIJAM, Massoud; POOROLAJAL, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Background: One substantial part of microarray studies is to predict patients’ survival based on their gene expression profile. Variable selection techniques are powerful tools to handle high dimensionality in analysis of microarray data. However, these techniques have not been investigated in competing risks setting. This study aimed to investigate the performance of four sparse variable selection methods in estimating the survival time. Methods: The data included 1381 gene expression measurements and clinical information from 301 patients with bladder cancer operated in the years 1987 to 2000 in hospitals in Denmark, Sweden, Spain, France, and England. Four methods of the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, smoothly clipped absolute deviation, the smooth integration of counting and absolute deviation and elastic net were utilized for simultaneous variable selection and estimation under an additive hazards model. The criteria of area under ROC curve, Brier score and c-index were used to compare the methods. Results: The median follow-up time for all patients was 47 months. The elastic net approach was indicated to outperform other methods. The elastic net had the lowest integrated Brier score (0.137±0.07) and the greatest median of the over-time AUC and C-index (0.803±0.06 and 0.779±0.13, respectively). Five out of 19 selected genes by the elastic net were significant (P<0.05) under an additive hazards model. It was indicated that the expression of RTN4, SON, IGF1R and CDC20 decrease the survival time, while the expression of SMARCAD1 increase it. Conclusion: The elastic net had higher capability than the other methods for the prediction of survival time in patients with bladder cancer in the presence of competing risks base on additive hazards model. PMID:27114989

  11. Additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time of rice down-regulates cellulose synthesis in seed endosperm.

    PubMed

    Midorikawa, Keiko; Kuroda, Masaharu; Terauchi, Kaede; Hoshi, Masako; Ikenaga, Sachiko; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Abe, Keiko; Asakura, Tomiko

    2014-01-01

    The balance between carbon and nitrogen is a key determinant of seed storage components, and thus, is of great importance to rice and other seed-based food crops. To clarify the influence of the rhizosphere carbon/nitrogen balance during the maturation stage of several seed components, transcriptome analysis was performed on the seeds from rice plants that were provided additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time. As a result, it was assessed that genes associated with molecular processes such as photosynthesis, trehalose metabolism, carbon fixation, amino acid metabolism, and cell wall metabolism were differentially expressed. Moreover, cellulose and sucrose synthases, which are involved in cellulose synthesis, were down-regulated. Therefore, we compared cellulose content of mature seeds that were treated with additional nitrogen fertilization with those from control plants using calcofluor staining. In these experiments, cellulose content in endosperm from plants receiving additional nitrogen fertilization was less than that in control endosperm. Other starch synthesis-related genes such as starch synthase 1, starch phosphorylase 2, and branching enzyme 3 were also down-regulated, whereas some α-amylase and β-amylase genes were up-regulated. On the other hand, mRNA expression of amino acid biosynthesis-related molecules was up-regulated. Moreover, additional nitrogen fertilization caused accumulation of storage proteins and up-regulated Cys-poor prolamin mRNA expression. These data suggest that additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time changes the expression of some storage substance-related genes and reduces cellulose levels in endosperm.

  12. Human Capital: Additional Actions Needed to Enhance DOD’s Efforts to Address Mental Health Care Stigma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    stress disorder or traumatic brain injury. Additionally, the Defense Suicide Prevention Office reports through the Executive Director of the Office of...Efforts to Address Mental Health Care Stigma Why GAO Did This Study A 2010 DOD task force on suicide prevention concluded that stigma—the negative...Representatives A 2010 Department of Defense (DOD) Task Force on the Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed Forces concluded that

  13. A Modified Time-Delay Addition Method to Extract Resistive Leakage Current of MOSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodsuz, Masume; Mirzaie, Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    Metal oxide surge arresters are one of the most important equipment for power system protection against switching and lightning over-voltages. High-energy stresses and environmental features are the main factors which degrade surge arresters. In order to verify surge arresters good condition, their monitoring is necessary. The majority of surge arrester monitoring techniques is based on total leakage current decomposition of their capacitive and resistive components. This paper introduces a new approach based on time-delay addition method to extract the resistive current from the total leakage current without measuring voltage signal. Surge arrester model for calculating leakage current has been performed in ATP-EMTP. In addition, the signal processing has been done using MATLAB software. To show the accuracy of the proposed method, experimental tests have been performed to extract resistive leakage current by the proposed method.

  14. Carbon doped PDMS: conductance stability over time and implications for additive manufacturing of stretchable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Mahmoud; Rocha, Rui; Osorio, Luis; Almeida, Miguel; de Almeida, Anibal; Ramachandran, Vivek; Tabatabai, Arya; Lu, Tong; Majidi, Carmel

    2017-03-01

    Carbon doped PDMS (cPDMS), has been used as a conductive polymer for stretchable electronics. Compared to liquid metals, cPDMS is low cost and is easier to process or to print with an additive manufacturing process. However, changes on the conductance of the carbon based conductive PDMS (cPDMS) were observed over time, in particular after integration of cPDMS and the insulating polymer. In this article we investigate the process parameters that lead to improved stability over conductance of the cPDMS over time. Slight modifications to the fabrication process parameters were conducted and changes on the conductance of the samples for each method were monitored. Results suggested that change of the conductance happens mostly after integration of a pre-polymer over a cured cPDMS, and not after integration of the cPDMS over a cured insulating polymer. We show that such changes can be eliminated by adjusting the integration priority between the conductive and insulating polymers, by selecting the right curing temperature, changing the concentration of the carbon particles and the thickness of the conductive traces, and when possible by changing the insulating polymer material. In this way, we obtained important conclusions regarding the effect of these parameters on the change of the conductance over time, that should be considered for additive manufacturing of soft electronics. Also, we show that these changes can be possibly due to the diffusion from PDMS into cPDMS.

  15. Report: Enhanced Controls Needed to Prevent Further Abuse of Religious Compensatory Time

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #16-P-0333, September 27, 2016. Inadequate controls for Religious Compensatory Time resulted in payouts to employees of $73,514, and may result in additional payouts of up to $81,927. For more information, please click on the link above.

  16. Time is an affliction: Why ecology cannot be as predictive as physics and why it needs time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boero, F.; Kraberg, A. C.; Krause, G.; Wiltshire, K. H.

    2015-07-01

    Ecological systems depend on both constraints and historical contingencies, both of which shape their present observable system state. In contrast to ahistorical systems, which are governed solely by constraints (i.e. laws), historical systems and their dynamics can be understood only if properly described, in the course of time. Describing these dynamics and understanding long-term variability can be seen as the mission of long time series measuring not only simple abiotic features but also complex biological variables, such as species diversity and abundances, allowing deep insights in the functioning of food webs and ecosystems in general. Long time-series are irreplaceable for understanding change, and crucially inherent system variability and thus envisaging future scenarios. This notwithstanding current policies in funding and evaluating scientific research discourage the maintenance of long term series, despite a clear need for long-term strategies to cope with climate change. Time series are crucial for a pursuit of the much invoked Ecosystem Approach and to the passage from simple monitoring programs of large-scale and long-term Earth observatories - thus promoting a better understanding of the causes and effects of change in ecosystems. The few ongoing long time series in European waters must be integrated and networked so as to facilitate the formation of nodes of a series of observatories which, together, should allow the long-term management of the features and characteristics of European waters. Human capacity building in this region of expertise and a stronger societal involvement are also urgently needed, since the expertise in recognizing and describing species and therefore recording them reliably in the context of time series is rapidly vanishing from the European Scientific community.

  17. Analysis of Time to Event Outcomes in Randomized Controlled Trials by Generalized Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Argyropoulos, Christos; Unruh, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Randomized Controlled Trials almost invariably utilize the hazard ratio calculated with a Cox proportional hazard model as a treatment efficacy measure. Despite the widespread adoption of HRs, these provide a limited understanding of the treatment effect and may even provide a biased estimate when the assumption of proportional hazards in the Cox model is not verified by the trial data. Additional treatment effect measures on the survival probability or the time scale may be used to supplement HRs but a framework for the simultaneous generation of these measures is lacking. Methods By splitting follow-up time at the nodes of a Gauss Lobatto numerical quadrature rule, techniques for Poisson Generalized Additive Models (PGAM) can be adopted for flexible hazard modeling. Straightforward simulation post-estimation transforms PGAM estimates for the log hazard into estimates of the survival function. These in turn were used to calculate relative and absolute risks or even differences in restricted mean survival time between treatment arms. We illustrate our approach with extensive simulations and in two trials: IPASS (in which the proportionality of hazards was violated) and HEMO a long duration study conducted under evolving standards of care on a heterogeneous patient population. Findings PGAM can generate estimates of the survival function and the hazard ratio that are essentially identical to those obtained by Kaplan Meier curve analysis and the Cox model. PGAMs can simultaneously provide multiple measures of treatment efficacy after a single data pass. Furthermore, supported unadjusted (overall treatment effect) but also subgroup and adjusted analyses, while incorporating multiple time scales and accounting for non-proportional hazards in survival data. Conclusions By augmenting the HR conventionally reported, PGAMs have the potential to support the inferential goals of multiple stakeholders involved in the evaluation and appraisal of clinical trial

  18. "It's Almost a Mindset that Teachers Need to Change": First-Year Students' Need to Be Inducted into Time Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Meer, Jacques; Jansen, Ellen; Torenbeek, Marjolein

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the findings related to a number of research projects investigating students' expectations and experiences of the first year in higher education. In particular, findings with regard to first-year students' expectations and challenges with issues of time management are reported. It was found that many students were realistic…

  19. Identifiability of Additive, Time-Varying Actuator and Sensor Faults by State Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Jason M.; Gonzalez, Oscar R.; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has provided a set of necessary and sucient conditions for identifiability of additive step faults (e.g., lock-in-place actuator faults, constant bias in the sensors) using state augmentation. This paper extends these results to an important class of faults which may affect linear, time-invariant systems. In particular, the faults under consideration are those which vary with time and affect the system dynamics additively. Such faults may manifest themselves in aircraft as, for example, control surface oscillations, control surface runaway, and sensor drift. The set of necessary and sucient conditions presented in this paper are general, and apply when a class of time-varying faults affects arbitrary combinations of actuators and sensors. The results in the main theorems are illustrated by two case studies, which provide some insight into how the conditions may be used to check the theoretical identifiability of fault configurations of interest for a given system. It is shown that while state augmentation can be used to identify certain fault configurations, other fault configurations are theoretically impossible to identify using state augmentation, giving practitioners valuable insight into such situations. That is, the limitations of state augmentation for a given system and configuration of faults are made explicit. Another limitation of model-based methods is that there can be large numbers of fault configurations, thus making identification of all possible configurations impractical. However, the theoretical identifiability of known, credible fault configurations can be tested using the theorems presented in this paper, which can then assist the efforts of fault identification practitioners.

  20. A Mumps Outbreak in Vojvodina, Serbia, in 2012 Underlines the Need for Additional Vaccination Opportunities for Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nedeljković, Jasminka; Kovačević-Jovanović, Vesna; Milošević, Vesna; Šeguljev, Zorica; Petrovic, Vladimir; Muller, Claude P.; Hübschen, Judith M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, mumps was introduced from Bosnia and Herzegovina to Vojvodina, causing an outbreak with 335 reported cases. The present manuscript analyses the epidemiological and laboratory characteristics of this outbreak, identifies its main causes and suggests potential future preventive measures. Sera of 133 patients were tested for mumps-specific antibodies by ELISA and 15 nose/throat swabs were investigated for mumps virus RNA by RT-PCR. IgG antibodies were found in 127 patients (95.5%). Mumps infection was laboratory-confirmed in 53 patients, including 44 IgM and 9 PCR positive cases. All other 282 cases were classified as epidemiologically-confirmed. More than half of the patients (n = 181, 54%) were 20–29 years old, followed by the 15–19 age bracket (n = 95, 28.4%). Twice as many males as females were affected (67% versus 33%). Disease complications were reported in 13 cases (3.9%), including 9 patients with orchitis and 4 with pancreatitis. According to medical records or anamnestic data, 190 patients (56.7%) were immunized with two doses and 35 (10.4%) with one dose of mumps-containing vaccine. The Serbian sequences corresponded to a minor genotype G variant detected during the 2011/2012 mumps outbreak in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Vaccine failures, the initial one-dose immunization policy and a vaccine shortage between 1999 and 2002 contributed to the outbreak. Additional vaccination opportunities should be offered to young adults during transition periods in their life trajectories. PMID:26496490

  1. A Mumps Outbreak in Vojvodina, Serbia, in 2012 Underlines the Need for Additional Vaccination Opportunities for Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Nedeljković, Jasminka; Kovačević-Jovanović, Vesna; Milošević, Vesna; Šeguljev, Zorica; Petrovic, Vladimir; Muller, Claude P; Hübschen, Judith M

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, mumps was introduced from Bosnia and Herzegovina to Vojvodina, causing an outbreak with 335 reported cases. The present manuscript analyses the epidemiological and laboratory characteristics of this outbreak, identifies its main causes and suggests potential future preventive measures. Sera of 133 patients were tested for mumps-specific antibodies by ELISA and 15 nose/throat swabs were investigated for mumps virus RNA by RT-PCR. IgG antibodies were found in 127 patients (95.5%). Mumps infection was laboratory-confirmed in 53 patients, including 44 IgM and 9 PCR positive cases. All other 282 cases were classified as epidemiologically-confirmed. More than half of the patients (n = 181, 54%) were 20-29 years old, followed by the 15-19 age bracket (n = 95, 28.4%). Twice as many males as females were affected (67% versus 33%). Disease complications were reported in 13 cases (3.9%), including 9 patients with orchitis and 4 with pancreatitis. According to medical records or anamnestic data, 190 patients (56.7%) were immunized with two doses and 35 (10.4%) with one dose of mumps-containing vaccine. The Serbian sequences corresponded to a minor genotype G variant detected during the 2011/2012 mumps outbreak in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Vaccine failures, the initial one-dose immunization policy and a vaccine shortage between 1999 and 2002 contributed to the outbreak. Additional vaccination opportunities should be offered to young adults during transition periods in their life trajectories.

  2. Just-in-time Design and Additive Manufacture of Patient-specific Medical Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shidid, Darpan; Leary, Martin; Choong, Peter; Brandt, Milan

    Recent advances in medical imaging and manufacturing science have enabled the design and production of complex, patient-specific orthopaedic implants. Additive Manufacture (AM) generates three-dimensional structures layer by layer, and is not subject to the constraints associated with traditional manufacturing methods. AM provides significant opportunities for the design of novel geometries and complex lattice structures with enhanced functional performance. However, the design and manufacture of patient-specific AM implant structures requires unique expertise in handling various optimization platforms. Furthermore, the design process for complex structures is computationally intensive. The primary aim of this research is to enable the just-in-time customisation of AM prosthesis; whereby AM implant design and manufacture be completed within the time constraints of a single surgical procedure, while minimising prosthesis mass and optimising the lattice structure to match the stiffness of the surrounding bone tissue. In this research, a design approach using raw CT scan data is applied to the AM manufacture of femoral prosthesis. Using the proposed just-in-time concept, the mass of the prosthesis was rapidly designed and manufactured while satisfying the associated structural requirements. Compressive testing of lattice structures manufactured using proposed method shows that the load carrying capacity of the resected composite bone can be recovered by up to 85% and the compressive stiffness of the AM prosthesis is statistically indistinguishable from the stiffness of the initial bone.

  3. The need for time management training is universal: evidence from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kisa, Adnan; Ersoy, Korkut

    2005-01-01

    In many developing countries, healthcare administrators are currently facing challenges that are representative of those in the United States. Most healthcare administrators here are physicians with no formal training in healthcare administration, and this is perhaps most apparent in their difficulties with time management. The authors' purpose in this study was to characterize the time management difficulties of administrators working in primary healthcare facilities of the Ministry of Healthcare. In the study, 67 healthcare administrators each completed a 31-item time management questionnaire. Of the participants, 79.1% reported that they have never attended time management courses or workshops. Although 76.1% said they were free to choose the priority of their daily tasks, only 44.8% felt they knew how much time they should allow for each activity in their daily life. These and other findings in the study suggest that the need for time management education is a well-defined target for intervention, both in university-based programs for future healthcare administrators and in workplace-based programs, such as in-service training for healthcare administrators who are already working.

  4. Do temporal changes in vegetation structure additional to time since fire predict changes in bird occurrence?

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, David B; Candy, Steven G; MacGregor, Christopher I; Banks, Sam C; Westgate, Martin; Ikin, Karen; Pierson, Jennifer; Tulloch, Ayesha; Barton, Philip

    2016-10-01

    Fire is a major ecological process in ecosystems globally. Its impacts on fauna can be both direct (e.g., mortality) and indirect (e.g., altered habitat), resulting in population recovery being driven by several possible mechanisms. Separating direct from indirect impacts of fire on faunal population recovery can be valuable in guiding management of biodiversity in fire-prone environments. However, resolving the influence of direct and indirect processes remains a key challenge because many processes affecting fauna can change concomitantly with time since fire. We explore the mechanisms influencing bird response to fire by posing the question, can temporal changes in vegetation structure predict changes in bird occurrence on sites, and can these be separated from other temporal changes using the surrogate of time since fire? We conducted a 12-yr study of bird and vegetation responses to fire at 124 sites across six vegetation classes in Booderee National Park, Australia. Approximately half of these sites, established in 2002, were burned by a large (>3000 ha) wildfire in 2003. To disentangle collinear effects of temporal changes in vegetation and direct demographic effects on population recovery that are subsumed by time since fire, we incorporated both longitudinal and cross-sectional vegetation effects in addition to time since fire within logistic structural equation models. We identified temporal changes in vegetation structure and richness of plant and bird species that characterized burned and unburned sites in all vegetation classes. For nine bird species, a significant component of the year trend was driven by temporal trends in one of three vegetation variables (number of understory or midstory plant species, or midstory cover). By contrast, we could not separate temporal effects between time since fire and vegetation attributes for bird species richness, reporting rate, and the occurrence of 11 other bird species. Our findings help identify species for

  5. Time-Resolved In Situ Measurements During Rapid Alloy Solidification: Experimental Insight for Additive Manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    McKeown, Joseph T.; Zweiacker, Kai; Liu, Can; ...

    2016-01-27

    In research and industrial environments, additive manufacturing (AM) of metals and alloys is becoming a pervasive technology, though significant challenges remain before widespread implementation of AM can be realized. In situ investigations of rapid alloy solidification with high spatial and temporal resolutions can provide unique experimental insight into microstructure evolution and kinetics that are relevant for AM processing. Hypoeutectic thin-film Al–Cu and Al–Si alloys were investigated using dynamic transmission electron microscopy to monitor pulsed-laser-induced rapid solidification across microsecond timescales. Solid–liquid interface velocities measured from time-resolved images revealed accelerating solidification fronts in both alloys. We observed microstructure evolution, solidification product, andmore » presence of a morphological instability at the solid–liquid interface in the Al–4 at.%Cu alloy are related to the measured interface velocities and small differences in composition that affect the thermophysical properties of the alloys. These time-resolved in situ measurements can inform and validate predictive modeling efforts for AM.« less

  6. Time-Resolved In Situ Measurements During Rapid Alloy Solidification: Experimental Insight for Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, Joseph T.; Zweiacker, Kai; Liu, Can; Coughlin, Daniel R.; Clarke, Amy J.; Baldwin, J. Kevin; Gibbs, John W.; Roehling, John D.; Imhoff, Seth D.; Gibbs, Paul J.; Tourret, Damien; Wiezorek, Jörg M. K.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.

    2016-01-27

    In research and industrial environments, additive manufacturing (AM) of metals and alloys is becoming a pervasive technology, though significant challenges remain before widespread implementation of AM can be realized. In situ investigations of rapid alloy solidification with high spatial and temporal resolutions can provide unique experimental insight into microstructure evolution and kinetics that are relevant for AM processing. Hypoeutectic thin-film Al–Cu and Al–Si alloys were investigated using dynamic transmission electron microscopy to monitor pulsed-laser-induced rapid solidification across microsecond timescales. Solid–liquid interface velocities measured from time-resolved images revealed accelerating solidification fronts in both alloys. We observed microstructure evolution, solidification product, and presence of a morphological instability at the solid–liquid interface in the Al–4 at.%Cu alloy are related to the measured interface velocities and small differences in composition that affect the thermophysical properties of the alloys. These time-resolved in situ measurements can inform and validate predictive modeling efforts for AM.

  7. Regulation of Soil Microbial Carbon-use Efficiency by Soil Moisture, Substrate Addition, and Incubation Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, J.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial carbon-use efficiency (CUE) is a key variable in biogeochemical cycling that regulates soil C sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions, and retention of inorganic nutrients. Microbial CUE is the fraction of C converted to biomass rather than respired as CO2. Biogeochemical models have been shown to be highly sensitive to variation in CUE; however, we currently have a poor understanding of how CUE responds to environmental variables such as soil moisture and nutrient limitations. We examined the effect of soil moisture and C supply on CUE in soil from a western hemlock / sitka spruce forest in Oregon, USA, using a novel technique which supplies 13C and 15N substrates through the gas phase so that water addition is not necessary. Soil samples (28 g oven-dry equiv. wt) at two water potentials (-0.03 and -3.55 MPa) were exposed to 13C-acetic acid vapor for either 6 or 30 sec to provide two different concentrations of acetate to soil microbial communities. The soils were also injected with small amounts of 15NH3 gas to allow quantification of microbial N assimilation rates and to provide an alternate method of calculating CUE. Rates of 13CO2 respiration were measured continuously during a 48-h incubation using cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Soil samples were extracted at seven time intervals (0, 0.5, 1.5, 4.5, 12, 24, and 48 h) in 0.5 M K2SO4 and analyzed for DO13C, microbial 13C, DO15N, inorganic 15N, and microbial 15N to calculate how gross rates of C and N assimilation and microbial CUE change with incubation time. As expected, microbial C and N assimilation rates and CUE increased with soil moisture and the quantity of acetate added; however, C:N assimilated was higher at lower soil moisture, suggesting that either C-storage compounds were being created, or that fungal communities were responsible for a greater proportion of the assimilation in drier soils. Assimilation rates and CUE also changed with incubation time, demonstrating that estimates of CUE

  8. Real-time seismic monitoring needs of a building owner - And the solution: A cooperative effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.; Sanli, A.; Sinclair, M.; Gallant, S.; Radulescu, D.

    2004-01-01

    A recently implemented advanced seismic monitoring system for a 24-story building facilitates recording of accelerations and computing displacements and drift ratios in near-real time to measure the earthquake performance of the building. The drift ratio is related to the damage condition of the specific building. This system meets the owner's needs for rapid quantitative input to assessments and decisions on post-earthquake occupancy. The system is now successfully working and, in absence of strong shaking to date, is producing low-amplitude data in real time for routine analyses and assessment. Studies of such data to date indicate that the configured monitoring system with its building specific software can be a useful tool in rapid assessment of buildings and other structures following an earthquake. Such systems can be used for health monitoring of a building, for assessing performance-based design and analyses procedures, for long-term assessment of structural characteristics, and for long-term damage detection.

  9. Real-Time Series Resistance Monitoring in PV Systems Without the Need for IV Curves

    SciTech Connect

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-06-14

    We apply the physical principles of a familiar method, suns-Voc, to a new application: the real-time detection of series resistance changes in modules and systems operating outside. The real-time series resistance (RTSR) method that we describe avoids the need for collecting IV curves or constructing full series-resistance-free IV curves. RTSR is most readily deployable at the module level on micro-inverters or module-integrated electronics, but it can also be extended to full strings. Automated detection of series resistance increases can provide early warnings of some of the most common reliability issues, which also pose fire risks, including broken ribbons, broken solder bonds, and contact problems in the junction or combiner box. We describe the method in detail and describe a sample application to data collected from modules operating in the field.

  10. Analog quantum computing (AQC) and the need for time-symmetric physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werbos, Paul J.; Dolmatova, Ludmilla

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses what will be necessary to achieve the full potential capabilities of analog quantum computing (AQC), which is defined here as the enrichment of continuous-variable computing to include stochastic, nonunitary circuit elements such as dissipative spin gates and address the wider range of tasks emerging from new trends in engineering, such as approximation of stochastic maps, ghost imaging and new forms of neural networks and intelligent control. This paper focuses especially on what is needed in terms of new experiments to validate remarkable new results in the modeling of triple entanglement, and in creating a pathway which links fundamental theoretical work with hard core experimental work, on a pathway to AQC similar to the pathway to digital quantum computing already blazed by Zeilinger's group. It discusses the most recent experiments and reviews two families of alternative models based on the traditional eigenvector projection model of polarizers and on a new family of local realistic models based on Markov Random Fields across space-time adhering to the rules of time-symmetric physics. For both families, it reviews lumped parameter versions, continuous time extension and possibilities for extension to continuous space and time.

  11. Outpatient Management of Postbiopsy Pneumothorax with Small-Caliber Chest Tubes: Factors Affecting the Need for Prolonged Drainage and Additional Interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sanjay Hicks, Marshall E.; Wallace, Michael J.; Ahrar, Kamran; Madoff, David C.; Murthy, Ravi

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of outpatient management of postbiopsy pneumothoraces with small-caliber chest tubes and to assess the factors that influence the need for prolonged drainage or additional interventions.We evaluated the medical records of patients who were treated with small-caliber chest tubes attached to Heimlich valves for pneumothoraces resulting from image-guided transthoracic needle biopsy to determine the hospital admission rates, the number of days the catheters were left in place, and the need for further interventions. We also evaluated the patient, lesion, and biopsy technique characteristics to determine their influence on the need for prolonged catheter drainage or additional interventions. Of the 191 patients included in our study, 178 (93.2%) were treated as outpatients. Ten patients (5.2%) were admitted for chest tube-related problems, either for underwater suction (n = 8) or for pain control (n = 2). No further interventions were required in 146 patients (76.4%), with successful removal of the chest tubes the day after the biopsy procedure. Prolonged catheter drainage (mean, 4.3 days) was required in 44 patients (23%). Nineteen patients (9.9%) underwent additional interventions for management of pneumothorax. Presence of emphysema was noted more frequently in patients who required additional interventions or prolonged chest tube drainage than in those who did not (51.1% vs. 24.7%; p = 0.001).We conclude that use of the Heimlich valve allows safe and successful outpatient treatment of most patients requiring chest tube placement for postbiopsy pneumothorax. Additional interventions or prolonged chest tube drainage are needed more frequently in patients with emphysema in the needle path.

  12. On the Frequency of Additional Planets in Short Period Hot Jupiter Systems from Transit Timing Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Jason; Close, L.; Scuderi, L.

    2011-05-01

    The large number of hot Jupiter planets allows one to probe these systems for additional unseen planets via transit timing variations (TTVs). Even relatively small terrestrial planets, when placed in an energetically favorable mean motion resonance (MMR), can cause detectable TTVs with an amplitude of several minutes (Holman and Murray 2005, Agol et al. 2005). In an effort to discover and characterize such companions, we have embarked on a systematic study of known transiting hot Jupiters, utilizing the 1.55 meter Kuiper telescope on Mt. Bigelow to measure multiple individual transits in an observing season to within 30 second precision, and constrain the nature of any planetary companions. Here, we present current and preliminary results on this study, and show that the systems HAT-P-5, HAT- P-6, HAT-P-8, HAT-P-9, WASP-11/HAT-P-10, HAT-P-11, TrES-2, and WASP-10 do not contain small mass companions in MMRs, or moderate mass companions in close enough proximity to induce TTVs on the order of 1.5 minutes.

  13. Time- and isomer-resolved measurements of sequential addition of acetylene to the propargyl radical

    DOE PAGES

    Savee, John D.; Selby, Talitha M.; Welz, Oliver; ...

    2015-10-06

    Soot formation in combustion is a complex process in which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are believed to play a critical role. Recent works concluded that three consecutive additions of acetylene (C2H2) to propargyl (C3H3) create a facile route to the PAH indene (C9H8). However, the isomeric forms of C5H5 and C7H7 intermediates in this reaction sequence are not known. We directly investigate these intermediates using time- and isomer-resolved experiments. Both the resonance stabilized vinylpropargyl (vp-C5H5) and 2,4-cyclopentadienyl (c-C5H5) radical isomers of C5H5 are produced, with substantially different intensities at 800 K vs 1000 K. In agreement with literature master equationmore » calculations, we find that c-C5H5 + C2H2 produces only the tropyl isomer of C7H7 (tp-C7H7) below 1000 K, and that tp-C7H7 + C2H2 terminates the reaction sequence yielding C9H8 (indene) + H. Lastly, this work demonstrates a pathway for PAH formation that does not proceed through benzene.« less

  14. Does addition of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in conservative care of knee arthritis successfully postpone the need for joint replacement?

    PubMed

    Ip, David

    2015-12-01

    The current study evaluates whether the addition of low-level laser therapy into standard conventional physical therapy in elderly with bilateral symptomatic tri-compartmental knee arthritis can successfully postpone the need for joint replacement surgery. A prospective randomized cohort study of 100 consecutive unselected elderly patients with bilateral symptomatic knee arthritis with each knee randomized to receive either treatment protocol A consisting of conventional physical therapy or protocol B which is the same as protocol A with added low-level laser therapy. The mean follow-up was 6 years. Treatment failure was defined as breakthrough pain which necessitated joint replacement surgery. After a follow-up of 6 years, patients clearly benefited from treatment with protocol B as only one knee needed joint replacement surgery, while nine patients treated with protocol A needed surgery (p < 0.05). We conclude low-level laser therapy should be incorporated into standard conservative treatment protocol for symptomatic knee arthritis.

  15. Regulation of Cancer-Causing Food Additives-Time for a Change?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-11

    essential nutrient, (2) economic benefits--reduced cost or increased supply, and (3) other benefits, such as increased appeal--improved aesthetic value...additives. Although color additives and new animal drugs are exempt from food additive status, the FD&C Act sets out standards essentially identical to... essential nature of a disease in animals, especially the struc- tural and functional changes in tissues and organs of a body which cause or are caused by

  16. Time- and isomer-resolved measurements of sequential addition of acetylene to the propargyl radical

    SciTech Connect

    Savee, John D.; Selby, Talitha M.; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.

    2015-10-06

    Soot formation in combustion is a complex process in which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are believed to play a critical role. Recent works concluded that three consecutive additions of acetylene (C2H2) to propargyl (C3H3) create a facile route to the PAH indene (C9H8). However, the isomeric forms of C5H5 and C7H7 intermediates in this reaction sequence are not known. We directly investigate these intermediates using time- and isomer-resolved experiments. Both the resonance stabilized vinylpropargyl (vp-C5H5) and 2,4-cyclopentadienyl (c-C5H5) radical isomers of C5H5 are produced, with substantially different intensities at 800 K vs 1000 K. In agreement with literature master equation calculations, we find that c-C5H5 + C2H2 produces only the tropyl isomer of C7H7 (tp-C7H7) below 1000 K, and that tp-C7H7 + C2H2 terminates the reaction sequence yielding C9H8 (indene) + H. Lastly, this work demonstrates a pathway for PAH formation that does not proceed through benzene.

  17. Taming Wild Horses: The Need for Virtual Time-based Scheduling of VMs in Network Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Yoginath, Srikanth B; Perumalla, Kalyan S; Henz, Brian J

    2012-01-01

    The next generation of scalable network simulators employ virtual machines (VMs) to act as high-fidelity models of traffic producer/consumer nodes in simulated networks. However, network simulations could be inaccurate if VMs are not scheduled according to virtual time, especially when many VMs are hosted per simulator core in a multi-core simulator environment. Since VMs are by default free-running, on the outset, it is not clear if, and to what extent, their untamed execution affects the results in simulated scenarios. Here, we provide the first quantitative basis for establishing the need for generalized virtual time scheduling of VMs in network simulators, based on an actual prototyped implementations. To exercise breadth, our system is tested with multiple disparate applications: (a) a set of message passing parallel programs, (b) a computer worm propagation phenomenon, and (c) a mobile ad-hoc wireless network simulation. We define and use error metrics and benchmarks in scaled tests to empirically report the poor match of traditional, fairness-based VM scheduling to VM-based network simulation, and also clearly show the better performance of our simulation-specific scheduler, with up to 64 VMs hosted on a 12-core simulator node.

  18. Assessment of Professional Development Activities, Instructional Needs, and Delivery Methods of Part-Time Technical and Occupational Faculty in U.S. Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Brian A.; McCaslin, N. L.

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to describe the frequency of professional development activities provided to part-time occupational and technical program faculty. Additionally, the perceptions of occupational education officers concerning the instructional professional development needs and their appropriate delivery method(s) for these faculty members…

  19. On the time needed to reach an equilibrium structure of the radiation belts

    DOE PAGES

    Ripoll, J. -F.; Loran, V.; Cunningham, Gregory Scott; ...

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we complement the notion of equilibrium states of the radiation belts with a discussion on the dynamics and time needed to reach equilibrium. We solve for the equilibrium states obtained using 1D radial diffusion with recently developed hiss and chorus lifetimes at constant values of Kp = 1, 3 and 6. We find that the equilibrium states at moderately low Kp, when plotted vs L-shell (L) and energy (E), display the same interesting S-shape for the inner edge of the outer belt as recently observed by the Van Allen Probes. The S-shape is also produced as themore » radiation belts dynamically evolve toward the equilibrium state when initialized to simulate the buildup after a massive dropout or to simulate loss due to outward diffusion from a saturated state. Physically, this shape, intimately linked with the slot structure, is due to the dependence of electron loss rate (originating from wave-particle interactions) on both energy and L-shell. Equilibrium electron flux profiles are governed by the Biot number (τDiffusion/τloss), with large Biot number corresponding to low fluxes and low Biot number to large fluxes. The time it takes for the flux at a specific (L, E) to reach the value associated with the equilibrium state, starting from these different initial states, is governed by the initial state of the belts, the property of the dynamics (diffusion coefficients), and the size of the domain of computation. Its structure shows a rather complex scissor form in the (L, E) plane. The equilibrium value (phase space density or flux) is practically reachable only for selected regions in (L, E) and geomagnetic activity. Convergence to equilibrium requires hundreds of days in the inner belt for E > 300 keV and moderate Kp (≤3). It takes less time to reach equilibrium during disturbed geomagnetic conditions (Kp ≥ 3), when the system evolves faster. Restricting our interest to the slot region, below L = 4, we find that only small regions in (L, E) space

  20. On the time needed to reach an equilibrium structure of the radiation belts

    SciTech Connect

    Ripoll, J. -F.; Loran, V.; Cunningham, Gregory Scott; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Shprits, Y. Y.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we complement the notion of equilibrium states of the radiation belts with a discussion on the dynamics and time needed to reach equilibrium. We solve for the equilibrium states obtained using 1D radial diffusion with recently developed hiss and chorus lifetimes at constant values of Kp = 1, 3 and 6. We find that the equilibrium states at moderately low Kp, when plotted vs L-shell (L) and energy (E), display the same interesting S-shape for the inner edge of the outer belt as recently observed by the Van Allen Probes. The S-shape is also produced as the radiation belts dynamically evolve toward the equilibrium state when initialized to simulate the buildup after a massive dropout or to simulate loss due to outward diffusion from a saturated state. Physically, this shape, intimately linked with the slot structure, is due to the dependence of electron loss rate (originating from wave-particle interactions) on both energy and L-shell. Equilibrium electron flux profiles are governed by the Biot number (τDiffusionloss), with large Biot number corresponding to low fluxes and low Biot number to large fluxes. The time it takes for the flux at a specific (L, E) to reach the value associated with the equilibrium state, starting from these different initial states, is governed by the initial state of the belts, the property of the dynamics (diffusion coefficients), and the size of the domain of computation. Its structure shows a rather complex scissor form in the (L, E) plane. The equilibrium value (phase space density or flux) is practically reachable only for selected regions in (L, E) and geomagnetic activity. Convergence to equilibrium requires hundreds of days in the inner belt for E > 300 keV and moderate Kp (≤3). It takes less time to reach equilibrium during disturbed geomagnetic conditions (Kp ≥ 3), when the system evolves faster. Restricting our interest to the slot region, below L = 4, we find that only small regions in

  1. Effects of Wait Time When Communicating with Children Who Have Sensory and Additional Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nicole; Parker, Amy T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study utilized wait-time procedures to determine if they are effective in helping children with deafblindness or multiple disabilities that include a visual impairment communicate in their home. Methods: A single subject with an alternating treatment design was used for the study. Zero- to one-second wait time was utilized…

  2. Improvements and Additions to NASA Near Real-Time Earth Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cechini, Matthew; Boller, Ryan; Baynes, Kathleen; Schmaltz, Jeffrey; DeLuca, Alexandar; King, Jerome; Thompson, Charles; Roberts, Joe; Rodriguez, Joshua; Gunnoe, Taylor; Wong, Minnie; Alarcon, Christian; DeCesare, Cristina; Pressley, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    For many years, the NASA Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) has worked closely with the Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) system to provide near real-time imagery visualizations of AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder), MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer), OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), and recently VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) science parameters. These visualizations are readily available through standard web services and the NASA Worldview client. Access to near real-time imagery provides a critical capability to GIBS and Worldview users. GIBS continues to focus on improving its commitment to providing near real-time imagery for end-user applications. The focus of this presentation will be the following completed or planned GIBS system and imagery enhancements relating to near real-time imagery visualization.

  3. High-Challenge Teaching for Senior English as an Additional Language Learners in Times of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Jennifer; Jetnikoff, Anita

    2011-01-01

    This paper will present a brief overview of the recent shifts within English and EAL/D (English as an additional language/dialect) curriculum documents and their focus on critical literacy, using the Queensland context as a case in point. The English syllabus landscape in Queensland has continued to morph in recent years. From 2002 to 2009,…

  4. Impact of Storage Time on the Needed Capture Efficiency for Volatile Radionuclides - 13369

    SciTech Connect

    Jubin, R.T.; Ilas, G.; Soelberg, N.R.; Strachan, D.M.

    2013-07-01

    During the processing of used nuclear fuel (UNF), volatile radionuclides will be discharged from the facility stack if no recovery processes are in place to limit their release. The volatile radionuclides of concern are {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I. There are three key regulations that address the release of these radionuclides to the environment- 40 CFR 61, 40 CFR 190, and 10 CFR 20. These regulations apply to the total radionuclide release and establish dose limits for the maximum exposed individual (MEI) in the public both in terms of whole body dose and dose to specific organs such as the thyroid. Each radionuclide released to the environment contributes to the total dose to some degree. In this paper we attempt to evaluate the efficiency requirements for the capture processes to limit the doses to the MEI to regulatory levels. Since the total amount of each volatile radionuclide present in the UNF changes with the age of the fuel, the respective capture requirements also change with time. Specifically, we are interested in the impact of the decreasing contribution of {sup 3}H and {sup 85}Kr, which have relatively short half-lives, 12.32 y and 10.76 y, respectively, with the increasing age of the fuel (i.e., time between when the UNF is removed from the reactor and the time it is processed) on the capture requirements. In this paper we examine the capture requirements for these four radionuclides for three fuel types (pressurized water reactor [PWR] with uranium oxide fuel [UOX], PWR with mixed oxide fuel [MOX], and an advanced high temperature gas-cooled reactor [AHTGR]), several burnup values, and time out of reactor extending to 200 y. We calculate doses to the MEI with the EPA code CAP-88 and look at two dose contribution cases. In the first case, we assume that the total allowable dose is attributed to only the four volatile radionuclides. This establishes the lowest capture efficiency value possible. Since this is unrealistic, because

  5. Effect of Hydrogen Addition on Methane HCCI Engine Ignition Timing and Emissions Using a Multi-zone Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-han; Wang, Chun-mei; Tang, Hua-xin; Zuo, Cheng-ji; Xu, Hong-ming

    2009-06-01

    Ignition timing control is of great importance in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. The effect of hydrogen addition on methane combustion was investigated using a CHEMKIN multi-zone model. Results show that hydrogen addition advances ignition timing and enhances peak pressure and temperature. A brief analysis of chemical kinetics of methane blending hydrogen is also performed in order to investigate the scope of its application, and the analysis suggests that OH radical plays an important role in the oxidation. Hydrogen addition increases NOx while decreasing HC and CO emissions. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) also advances ignition timing; however, its effects on emissions are generally the opposite. By adjusting the hydrogen addition and EGR rate, the ignition timing can be regulated with a low emission level. Investigation into zones suggests that NOx is mostly formed in core zones while HC and CO mostly originate in the crevice and the quench layer.

  6. Filovirus Research: The Need for an Integrated Approach in Time and Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinzon, Jorge E.

    2010-01-01

    The episodic appearance of Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) across central Africa over the last 15 years not only underscores the importance of filoviruses as uniquely virulent agents to both human and wildlife communities but also implies a very complex transmission scenario that must be understood if we are to prevent or mitigate filovirus outbreaks in the future. Efforts of a global network of scientists and healthcare workers have expanded our knowledge of filoviruses to meet the growing threat of Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers in Africa. In recent decades, several newly emerging diseases have resulted in major threats to both affected communities and global public health. Viruses from wildlife hosts in particular, have exhibited a capability for cross-species transmission (CST), and have caused high-impact diseases in humans Such as Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers, Nipah and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SAILS). It has been estimated that about 60.3% (Jones et al. 2008) of human infectious diseases are of animal origin (zoonoses) and even some important viral diseases that are traditionally considered of human origin, for example measles and smallpox, may very well have their prehistoric origins in wildlife (Wolfe et al 2007). It maybe logical and prudent therefore, to anticipate that there are other, new filoviruses out there that will cross into humans at some point in time. If we anticipate that these will happen and wish to be prepared for and mitigate this potential, then an understanding of filoviruses as a biologic system in the environment will be essential to that process. We will need to know how the ecological dynamic of CST interacts with a 'new' viruse's evolutionary factors to overcome environmental, demographic and host-specific barriers to transmission and infectivity to humans.

  7. Ocean-Science Mission Needs: Real-Time AUV Data for Command, Control, and Model Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, Kendall L.; Costello, D. K.; Warrior, H.; Langebrake, L. C.; Hou, W.; Patten, J. T.; Kaltenbacher, E.

    2001-01-01

    Predictive models for tides, hydrodynamics, and bio-optical properties affecting the visibility and buoyancy of coastal waters are needed to evaluate the safety of personnel and equipment engaged in maritime operations under potentially hazardous conditions. Predicted currents can be markedly different for two-layer systems affected by terrestrial runoff than for well-mixed conditions because the layering decouples the surface and bottom Ekman layers and rectifies the current response to oscillatory upwelling-and downwelling-favorable winds. Standard ocean models (e.g. Princeton Ocean Model) require initial-and boundary data on the physical and optical properties of the multilayered water column to provide accurate simulations of heat budgets and circulation. Two observational systems are designed to measure vertically structured conditions on the West Florida Shelf (WFS): a tethered buoy network and an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) observational system. The AUV system is described with a focus on the observational systems that challenge or limit the communications command and control network for various types of measurement programs. These include vertical oscillatory missions on shelf transects to observe the optical and hydrographic properties of the water column, and bottom-following missions for measuring the bottom albedo. Models of light propagation, absorption, and conversion to heat as well as determination of the buoyancy terms for physical models require these measurements. High data rates associated with video bottom imagery are the most challenging for the real-time, command and control communications system, but they are met through a combination of loss-less and lossy data-compression methods, depending upon the data-rate of the radio links.

  8. Strategies to Extend Thrombolytic Time Window for Ischemic Stroke Treatment: An Unmet Clinical Need

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Ike dela; Borlongan, Cesar; Shen, Guofang; Davis, Willie

    2017-01-01

    To date, reperfusion with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) remains the gold standard treatment for ischemic stroke. However, when tPA is given beyond 4.5 hours of stroke onset, deleterious effects of the drug ensue, especially, hemorrhagic transformation (HT), which causes the most significant morbidity and mortality in stroke patients. An important clinical problem at hand is to develop strategies that will enhance the therapeutic time window for tPA therapy and reduce the adverse effects (especially HT) of delayed tPA treatment. We reviewed the pharmacological agents which reduced the risk of HT associated with delayed (beyond 4.5 hours post-stroke) tPA treatment in preclinical studies, which we classified into those that putatively preserve the blood-brain barrier (e.g., minocycline, cilostazol, fasudil, candesartan, and bryostatin) and/or enhance vascularization and protect the cerebrovasculature (e.g., coumarin derivate IMM-H004 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor). Recently, other new therapeutic modalities (e.g., oxygen transporters) have been reported which improved delayed tPA-associated outcomes by acting through other mechanisms. While the above-mentioned interventions unequivocally reduced delayed tPA-induced HT in stroke models, the long-term efficacy of these drugs are not yet established. Further optimization is required to expedite their future clinical application. The findings from this review indicate the need to explore the most ideal adjunctive interventions that will not only reduce delayed tPA–induced HT, but also preserve neurovascular functions. While waiting for the next breakthrough drug in acute stroke treatment, it is equally important to allocate considerable effort to find approaches to address the limitations of the only FDA-approved stroke therapy. PMID:28178410

  9. The Time Needed to Implement the Blue Ribbon Commission Recommendation on Interim Storage - 13124

    SciTech Connect

    Voegele, Michael D.; Vieth, Donald

    2013-07-01

    The report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future [1] makes a number of important recommendations to be considered if Congress elects to redirect U.S. high-level radioactive waste disposal policy. Setting aside for the purposes of this discussion any issues related to political forces leading to stopping progress on the Yucca Mountain project and driving the creation of the Commission, an important recommendation of the Commission was to institute prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities. The Blue Ribbon Commission noted that this recommended strategy for future storage and disposal facilities and operations should be implemented regardless of what happens with Yucca Mountain. It is too easy, however, to focus on interim storage as an alternative to geologic disposal. The Blue Ribbon Commission report does not go far enough in addressing the magnitude of the contentious problems associated with reopening the issues of relative authorities of the states and federal government with which Congress wrestled in crafting the Nuclear Waste Policy Act [2]. The Blue Ribbon Commission recommendation for prompt adoption of an interim storage program does not appear to be fully informed about the actions that must be taken, the relative cost of the effort, or the realistic time line that would be involved. In essence, the recommendation leaves to others the details of the systems engineering analyses needed to understand the nature and details of all the operations required to reach an operational interim storage facility without derailing forever the true end goal of geologic disposal. The material presented identifies a number of impediments that must be overcome before the country could develop a centralized federal interim storage facility. In summary, and in the order presented, they are: 1. Change the law, HJR 87, PL 107-200, designating Yucca Mountain for the development of a repository. 2. Bring new nuclear waste

  10. Supporting Youth with Special Needs in Out-of-School Time: A Study of OST Providers in New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Jane; Rodas, Elizabeth Rivera; Sadovnik, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    Although the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 requires accommodations for individuals with disabilities in community settings, many out-of-school time (OST) programs struggle to successfully support youth with special needs. Programs that fully include children with special needs are less available for school-age children and…

  11. Equivalence of time and aperture domain additive noise in ultrasound coherence.

    PubMed

    Bottenus, Nick B; Trahey, Gregg E

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic echoes backscattered from diffuse media, recorded by an array transducer and appropriately focused, demonstrate coherence predicted by the van Cittert-Zernike theorem. Additive noise signals from off-axis scattering, reverberation, phase aberration, and electronic (thermal) noise can all superimpose incoherent or partially coherent signals onto the recorded echoes, altering the measured coherence. An expression is derived to describe the effect of uncorrelated random channel noise in terms of the noise-to-signal ratio. Equivalent descriptions are made in the aperture dimension to describe uncorrelated magnitude and phase apodizations of the array. Binary apodization is specifically described as an example of magnitude apodization and adjustments are presented to minimize the artifacts caused by finite signal length. The effects of additive noise are explored in short-lag spatial coherence imaging, an image formation technique that integrates the calculated coherence curve of acquired signals up to a small fraction of the array length for each lateral and axial location. A derivation of the expected contrast as a function of noise-to-signal ratio is provided and validation is performed in simulation.

  12. Use of Time Domain Reflectometers (TDRs) in Permeable Pavement Systems to Predict Maintenance Needs and Effectiveness

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the surface in permeable pavement systems clogs, infiltration capacity decreases, so maintenance is required to maintain hydrologic performance. There is limited direct guidance for determining when maintenance is needed to prevent surface runoff bypass. Research is being co...

  13. Need a 36 Hour Day? Time Management Tips for Counselors and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Billie

    This guide presents an outline of time management tips for counselors and students. Following the introduction, six principles of managing time are listed: (1) analyze how time is used; (2) set goals; (3) divide large projects into small steps; (4) make a "to-do" list; (5) decide priorities; and (6) schedule quiet time. Subheadings define…

  14. Nutrient and water addition effects on day- and night-time conductance and transpiration in a C3 desert annual.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Fulco; Jewitt, Rebecca A; Donovan, Lisa A

    2006-06-01

    Recent research has shown that many C3 plant species have significant stomatal opening and transpire water at night even in desert habitats. Day-time stomatal regulation is expected to maximize carbon gain and prevent runaway cavitation, but little is known about the effect of soil resource availability on night-time stomatal conductance (g) and transpiration (E). Water (low and high) and nutrients (low and high) were applied factorially during the growing season to naturally occurring seedlings of the annual Helianthus anomalus. Plant height and biomass were greatest in the treatment where both water and nutrients were added, confirming resource limitations in this habitat. Plants from all treatments showed significant night-time g (approximately 0.07 mol m(-2) s(-1)) and E (approximately 1.5 mol m(-2) s(-1)). In July, water and nutrient additions had few effects on day- or night-time gas exchange. In August, however, plants in the nutrient addition treatments had lower day-time photosynthesis, g and E, paralleled by lower night-time g and E. Lower predawn water potentials and higher integrated photosynthetic water-use efficiency suggests that the nutrient addition indirectly induced a mild water stress. Thus, soil resources can affect night-time g and E in a manner parallel to day-time, although additional factors may also be involved.

  15. 14 CFR 121.521 - Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one additional airman as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots... Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.521 Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one additional... to be aloft as a member of the flight crew in an airplane that has a crew of two pilots and at...

  16. Velocity addition and a closed time cycle in Lorentz-noninvariant theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabad, A. E.

    2016-06-01

    In theories whose Lorentz invariance is violated by the presence of an external tensor of any rank, we show that a signal velocity, understood as the group velocity of a wave, is added to the velocity of the reference frame according to the standard relativistic rule for adding velocities. In the case where we have a superluminal signal, this observation allows creating a closed time cycle and thus coming to a conclusion about a causality violation even in the absence of relativistic invariance. We also reveal an optical anisotropy of a moving medium that is isotropic at rest.

  17. Investigating critical effects of variegated lubricants, glidants and hydrophilic additives on lag time of press coated ethylcellulose tablets.

    PubMed

    Patadia, Riddhish; Vora, Chintan; Mittal, Karan; Mashru, Rajashree

    2016-01-01

    The research envisaged focuses on vital impacts of variegated lubricants, glidants and hydrophilic additives on lag time of press coated ethylcellulose (EC) tablets using prednisone as a model drug. Several lubricants and glidants such as magnesium stearate, colloidal SiO2, sodium stearyl fumarate, talc, stearic acid, polyethylene glycol (6000) and glyceryl behenate were investigated to understand their effects on lag time by changing their concentrations in outer coat. Further, the effects of hydrophilic additives on lag time were examined for hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (E5), hydroxypropylcellulose (EF and SSL), povidone (K30), copovidone, polyethylene glycol (4000), lactose and mannitol. In vitro drug release testing revealed that each selected lubricant/glidant, if present even at concentration of 0.25% w/w, significantly reduced the lag time of press coated tablets. Specifically, colloidal SiO2 and/or magnesium stearate were detrimental while other lubricants/glidants were relatively less injurious. Among hydrophilic additives, freely water soluble fillers had utmost influence in lag time, whereas, comparatively less impact was observed with polymeric binders. Concisely, glidant and lubricant should be chosen to have minimal impact on lag time and further judicious selection of hydrophilic additives should be exercised for modulating lag time of pulsatile release formulations.

  18. Vectran Fiber Time-Dependent Behavior and Additional Static Loading Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fette, Russell B.; Sovinski, Marjorie F.

    2004-01-01

    Vectran HS appears from literature and testing to date to be an ideal upgrade from Kevlar braided cords for many long-term, static-loading applications such as tie-downs on solar arrays. Vectran is a liquid crystalline polymer and exhibits excellent tensile properties. The material has been touted as a zero creep product. Testing discussed in this report does not support this statement, though the creep is on the order of four times slower than with similar Kevlar 49 products. Previous work with Kevlar and new analysis of Vectran testing has led to a simple predictive model for Vectran at ambient conditions. The mean coefficient of thermal expansion (negative in this case) is similar to Kevlar 49, but is not linear. A positive transition in the curve occurs near 100 C. Out-gassing tests show that the material performs well within parameters for most space flight applications. Vectran also offers increased abrasion resistance, minimal moisture regain, and similar UV degradation. The effects of material construction appear to have a dramatic effect in stress relaxation for braided Vectran. To achieve the improved relaxation rate, upgrades must also examine alternate construction or preconditioning methods. This report recommends Vectran HS as a greatly improved replacement material for applications where time-dependent relaxation is a major factor.

  19. Addition of prothrombin to plasma can result in a paradoxical increase in activated partial thromboplastin time.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Kenny M; Björkqvist, Jenny; Deinum, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    In the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay, a variety of nonphysiological reagents is used to induce contact activation. The sensitivity of the APTT response for different thrombin inhibitors has previously been found to be dependent on the used reagent. Recently, infusion of prothrombin (FII) has been used in in-vivo coagulopathy models and its effect has been analyzed in different assays. Therefore, we investigated whether the FII plasma concentration might affect APTT using different commercial reagents, applying both turbidimetry and viscometry. We compared both plasma-derived human FII (pd-hFII) and recombinant human FII (r-hFII). Similar results were found for pd-hFII and r-hFII with different APTT reagents. As expected, no effect on APTT was found by increasing the plasma concentration of FII using APTT reagents consisting of ellagic acid (Actin FS or Actin). Although with Pathromtin SL, consisting of SiO2, only a slight increase was found, with most other commercial APTT reagents, consisting of SiO2 or kaolin, APTT dose-dependently increased by increasing concentration of FII. Therefore, both Pathromtin SL and Actin FS were used to compare r-hFII and pd-hFII by determining the KM at 37C using FII-depleted plasma, providing values of 6 ± 0.3 nmol/l FII for both. Thus, at normal plasma concentrations of FII, the maximal initial thrombin generation rate should be reached and no effect on the coagulation time is expected at higher FII concentrations. To completely avoid the paradoxical effect in the APTT assay at FII concentrations higher than normal, Actin or Actin FS is the preferable reagent.

  20. Effect of Powder Reuse Times on Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V by Selective Electron Beam Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, H. P.; Qian, M.; Liu, N.; Zhang, X. Z.; Yang, G. Y.; Wang, J.

    2015-03-01

    An advantage of the powder-bed-based metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes is that the powder can be reused. The powder reuse or recycling times directly affect the affordability of the additively manufactured parts, especially for the AM of titanium parts. This study examines the influence of powder reuse times on the characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V powder, including powder composition, particle size distribution (PSD), apparent density, tap density, flowability, and particle morphology. In addition, tensile samples were manufactured and evaluated with respect to powder reuse times and sample locations in the powder bed. The following findings were made from reusing the same batch of powder 21 times for AM by selective electron beam melting: (i) the oxygen (O) content increased progressively with increasing reuse times but both the Al content and the V content remained generally stable (a small decrease only); (ii) the powder became less spherical with increasing reuse times and some particles showed noticeable distortion and rough surfaces after being reused 16 times; (iii) the PSD became narrower and few satellite particles were observed after 11 times of reuse; (iv) reused powder showed improved flowability; and (v) reused powder showed no measurable undesired influence on the AM process and the samples exhibited highly consistent tensile properties, irrespective of their locations in the powder bed. The implications of these findings were discussed.

  1. A Comparison of Time Needed To Complete Measurement Tasks Using Customary and Metric Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tew, E. James, Jr.

    Adult students taking a dimensional metrology course usually do so to fulfill a need for their present employment, advancement, or expected employment. In order to assure that the quality of training is maintained it has become necessary to investigate alternatives to existing instructional approaches whereby the contents of the course can be…

  2. Beyond Banning War and Superhero Play: Meeting Children's Needs in Violent Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Diane E.

    2003-01-01

    Details reasons for children's fascination with war play, and teachers' concerns about such play. Asserts that although the best strategy is to reduce the amount of violence children see, children need to find ways to work out the violence they do see. Offers suggestions for addressing children's violent play, including promoting imaginative and…

  3. The effect of quantity and timing of brine addition on water binding and textural characteristics of cooked beef rolls.

    PubMed

    Pietrasik, Z; Shand, P J

    2003-10-01

    The combined influence of quantity and timing of water/sodium chloride/phosphate addition on quality characteristics of beef rolls processed with 25 or 50% brine level was investigated. Properties of beef rolls were determined by measuring hydration and textural characteristics. The higher level of brine addition (50%) had detrimental effects on product water binding and textural characteristics. Late addition of brine/water during tumbling (i.e. during the last hour) resulted in rolls which were less hard, chewy and elastic, and had poorer water holding properties. Addition of brine in two parts favourably affected hydration properties and thermal stability, yielding lower cooking loss and purge and higher WHC, irrespective of level of brine addition. It also increased hardness and chewiness and improved springiness, cohesiveness and bind of cooked beef rolls.

  4. A ride in the time machine: information management capabilities health departments will need.

    PubMed

    Foldy, Seth; Grannis, Shaun; Ross, David; Smith, Torney

    2014-09-01

    We have proposed needed information management capabilities for future US health departments predicated on trends in health care reform and health information technology. Regardless of whether health departments provide direct clinical services (and many will), they will manage unprecedented quantities of sensitive information for the public health core functions of assurance and assessment, including population-level health surveillance and metrics. Absent improved capabilities, health departments risk vestigial status, with consequences for vulnerable populations. Developments in electronic health records, interoperability and information exchange, public information sharing, decision support, and cloud technologies can support information management if health departments have appropriate capabilities. The need for national engagement in and consensus on these capabilities and their importance to health department sustainability make them appropriate for consideration in the context of accreditation.

  5. A Ride in the Time Machine: Information Management Capabilities Health Departments Will Need

    PubMed Central

    Grannis, Shaun; Ross, David; Smith, Torney

    2014-01-01

    We have proposed needed information management capabilities for future US health departments predicated on trends in health care reform and health information technology. Regardless of whether health departments provide direct clinical services (and many will), they will manage unprecedented quantities of sensitive information for the public health core functions of assurance and assessment, including population-level health surveillance and metrics. Absent improved capabilities, health departments risk vestigial status, with consequences for vulnerable populations. Developments in electronic health records, interoperability and information exchange, public information sharing, decision support, and cloud technologies can support information management if health departments have appropriate capabilities. The need for national engagement in and consensus on these capabilities and their importance to health department sustainability make them appropriate for consideration in the context of accreditation. PMID:25033122

  6. Novel Analytic Methods Needed for Real-Time Continuous Core Body Temperature Data.

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, Vicki; Mac, Valerie; Elon, Lisa; Mutic, Nathan; Mutic, Abby; Peterman, Katherine; Tovar-Aguilar, J Antonio; Economos, Eugenia; Flocks, Joan; McCauley, Linda

    2016-10-18

    Affordable measurement of core body temperature (Tc) in a continuous, real-time fashion is now possible. With this advance comes a new data analysis paradigm for occupational epidemiology. We characterize issues arising after obtaining Tc data over 188 workdays for 83 participating farmworkers, a population vulnerable to effects of rising temperatures due to climate change. We describe a novel approach to these data using smoothing and functional data analysis. This approach highlights different data aspects compared with describing Tc at a single time point or summaries of the time course into an indicator function (e.g., did Tc ever exceed 38 °C, the threshold limit value for occupational heat exposure). Participants working in ferneries had significantly higher Tc at some point during the workday compared with those working in nurseries, despite a shorter workday for fernery participants. Our results typify the challenges and opportunities in analyzing big data streams from real-time physiologic monitoring.

  7. Time optimal control of an additional food provided predator-prey system with applications to pest management and biological conservation.

    PubMed

    Srinivasu, P D N; Prasad, B S R V

    2010-04-01

    Use of additional food has been widely recognized by experimental scientists as one of the important tools for biological control such as species conservation and pest management. The quality and quantity of additional food supplied to the predators is known to play a vital role in the controllability of the system. The present study is continuation of a previous work that highlights the importance of quality and quantity of the additional food in the dynamics of a predator-prey system in the context of biological control. In this article the controllability of the predator-prey system is analyzed by considering inverse of quality of the additional food as the control variable. Control strategies are offered to steer the system from a given initial state to a required terminal state in a minimum time by formulating Mayer problem of optimal control. It is observed that an optimal strategy is a combination of bang-bang controls and could involve multiple switches. Properties of optimal paths are derived using necessary conditions for Mayer problem. In the light of the results evolved in this work it is possible to eradicate the prey from the eco-system in the minimum time by providing the predator with high quality additional food, which is relevant in the pest management. In the perspective of biological conservation this study highlights the possibilities to drive the state to an admissible interior equilibrium (irrespective of its stability nature) of the system in a minimum time.

  8. Processing time of addition or withdrawal of single or combined balance-stabilizing haptic and visual information

    PubMed Central

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Crisafulli, Oscar; Sozzi, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the integration time of haptic and visual input and their interaction during stance stabilization. Eleven subjects performed four tandem-stance conditions (60 trials each). Vision, touch, and both vision and touch were added and withdrawn. Furthermore, vision was replaced with touch and vice versa. Body sway, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus activity were measured. Following addition or withdrawal of vision or touch, an integration time period elapsed before the earliest changes in sway were observed. Thereafter, sway varied exponentially to a new steady-state while reweighting occurred. Latencies of sway changes on sensory addition ranged from 0.6 to 1.5 s across subjects, consistently longer for touch than vision, and were regularly preceded by changes in muscle activity. Addition of vision and touch simultaneously shortened the latencies with respect to vision or touch separately, suggesting cooperation between sensory modalities. Latencies following withdrawal of vision or touch or both simultaneously were shorter than following addition. When vision was replaced with touch or vice versa, adding one modality did not interfere with the effect of withdrawal of the other, suggesting that integration of withdrawal and addition were performed in parallel. The time course of the reweighting process to reach the new steady-state was also shorter on withdrawal than addition. The effects of different sensory inputs on posture stabilization illustrate the operation of a time-consuming, possibly supraspinal process that integrates and fuses modalities for accurate balance control. This study also shows the facilitatory interaction of visual and haptic inputs in integration and reweighting of stance-stabilizing inputs. PMID:26334013

  9. Time needed to board an airplane: A power law and the structure behind it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frette, Vidar; Hemmer, Per C.

    2012-01-01

    A simple model for the boarding of an airplane is studied. Passengers have reserved seats but enter the airplane in arbitrary order. Queues are formed along the aisle, as some passengers have to wait to reach the seats for which they have reservation. We label a passenger by the number of his or her reserved seat. In most cases the boarding process is much slower than for the optimal situation, where passenger and seat orders are identical. We study this dynamical system by calculating the average boarding time when all permutations of N passengers are given equal weight. To first order, the boarding time for a given permutation (ordering) of the passengers is given by the number s of sequences of monotonically increasing values in the permutation. We show that the distribution of s is symmetric on [1,N], which leads to an average boarding time (N+1)/2. We have found an exact expression for s and have shown that the full distribution of s approaches a normal distribution as N increases. However, there are significant corrections to the first-order results, due to certain correlations between passenger ordering and the substrate (seat ordering). This occurs for some cases in which the sequence of the seats is partially mirrored in the passenger ordering. These cases with correlations have a boarding time that is lower than predicted by the first-order results. The large number of cases with reduced boarding times have been classified. We also give some indicative results on the geometry of the correlations, with sorting into geometry groups. With increasing N, both the number of correlation types and the number of cases belonging to each type increase rapidly. Using enumeration we find that as a result of these correlations the average boarding time behaves like Nα, with α≃0.69, as compared with α=1.0 for the first-order approximation.

  10. Time needed to board an airplane: a power law and the structure behind it.

    PubMed

    Frette, Vidar; Hemmer, Per C

    2012-01-01

    A simple model for the boarding of an airplane is studied. Passengers have reserved seats but enter the airplane in arbitrary order. Queues are formed along the aisle, as some passengers have to wait to reach the seats for which they have reservation. We label a passenger by the number of his or her reserved seat. In most cases the boarding process is much slower than for the optimal situation, where passenger and seat orders are identical. We study this dynamical system by calculating the average boarding time when all permutations of N passengers are given equal weight. To first order, the boarding time for a given permutation (ordering) of the passengers is given by the number s of sequences of monotonically increasing values in the permutation. We show that the distribution of s is symmetric on [1,N], which leads to an average boarding time (N+1)/2. We have found an exact expression for s and have shown that the full distribution of s approaches a normal distribution as N increases. However, there are significant corrections to the first-order results, due to certain correlations between passenger ordering and the substrate (seat ordering). This occurs for some cases in which the sequence of the seats is partially mirrored in the passenger ordering. These cases with correlations have a boarding time that is lower than predicted by the first-order results. The large number of cases with reduced boarding times have been classified. We also give some indicative results on the geometry of the correlations, with sorting into geometry groups. With increasing N, both the number of correlation types and the number of cases belonging to each type increase rapidly. Using enumeration we find that as a result of these correlations the average boarding time behaves like N(α), with α≃0.69, as compared with α=1.0 for the first-order approximation.

  11. Using Part-Time Working to Support Graduate Employment: Needs and Perceptions of Employers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Carl; Maxfield, Tim; Gbadamosi, Gbolahan

    2015-01-01

    An exploration of the value attached to the work experience of graduates, and particularly the value of part-time working whilst studying for a degree, from an employer's perspective, is reported. A documentary analysis of graduate recruiters was conducted to assess the extent to which work experience was specified for graduate employment…

  12. Timeliness of Diagnosing Lung Cancer: Number of Procedures and Time Needed to Establish Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Akash; Lim, Albert Y.H.; Tai, Dessmon Y.H.; Goh, Soon Keng; Kor, Ai Ching; A., Dokeu Basheer A.; Chopra, Akhil; Abisheganaden, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To study number of procedures and time to diagnose lung cancer and factors affecting the timeliness of clinching this diagnosis. Retrospective cohort study of lung cancer patients who consecutively underwent diagnostic bronchoscopy in 1 year (October 2013 to September 2014). Out of 101 patients diagnosed with lung cancer from bronchoscopy, average time interval between first abnormal computed tomogram (CT) scan-to-1st procedure, 1st procedure-to-diagnosis, and 1st abnormal CT scan-to-diagnosis was 16 ± 26, 11 ± 19, and 27 ± 33 days, respectively. These intervals were significantly longer in those requiring repeat procedures. Multivariate analysis revealed inconclusive 1st procedure to be the predictor of prolonged (>30 days) CT scan to diagnosis time (P = 0.04). Twenty-nine patients (28.7%) required repeat procedures (n = 63). Reasons behind repeating the procedures were inadequate procedure (n = 14), inaccessibility of lesion (n = 9), inappropriate procedure (n = 5), mutation analysis (n = 2), and others (n = 2). Fifty had visible endo-bronchial lesion, 20 had positive bronchus sign, and 83 had enlarged mediastinal/hilar lymph-nodes or central masses adjacent to the airways. Fewer procedures, and shorter procedure to diagnosis time, were observed in those undergoing convex probe endobronchial ultrasound-transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) (P = 0.04). Most patients exhibit enlarged mediastinal lymph node or mass adjacent to the central airway accessible by convex probe EBUS-TBNA. Hence, combining it with conventional bronchoscopic techniques such as bronchoalveolar lavage, brush, and forceps biopsy increases detection rate, and reduces number of procedures and time to establish diagnosis. This may translate into cost and resource savings, timeliness of diagnosis, greater patient satisfaction, and conceivably better outcomes. PMID:26200646

  13. A multiple imputation approach to the analysis of clustered interval-censored failure time data with the additive hazards model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling; Sun, Jianguo; Xiong, Chengjie

    2016-01-01

    Clustered interval-censored failure time data can occur when the failure time of interest is collected from several clusters and known only within certain time intervals. Regression analysis of clustered interval-censored failure time data is discussed assuming that the data arise from the semiparametric additive hazards model. A multiple imputation approach is proposed for inference. A major advantage of the approach is its simplicity because it avoids estimating the correlation within clusters by implementing a resampling-based method. The presented approach can be easily implemented by using the existing software packages for right-censored failure time data. Extensive simulation studies are conducted, indicating that the proposed imputation approach performs well for practical situations. The proposed approach also performs well compared to the existing methods and can be more conveniently applied to various types of data representation. The proposed methodology is further demonstrated by applying it to a lymphatic filariasis study. PMID:27773956

  14. Optimal timing of speech and language therapy for aphasia after stroke: more evidence needed.

    PubMed

    Nouwens, Femke; Visch-Brink, Evy G; Van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke M E; Dippel, Diederik W J; Koudstaal, Peter J; de Lau, Lonneke M L

    2015-01-01

    Aphasia due to stroke affects communication and quality of life. Most stroke survivors with aphasia receive speech and language therapy. Although an early start of treatment is advocated in clinical practice, evidence for "The earlier, the better" in aphasia rehabilitation is weak. Hence, clinicians are faced with the dilemma of when to initiate intensive treatment: as early as possible, when most of the spontaneous recovery occurs but when patients are often ill, or later, when the patients' condition is more stabilized. Here we discuss whether aphasia outcome is affected by timing of treatment in relation to stroke onset and whether there is evidence for an optimal window of time during which language therapy should be provided. Findings from various rehabilitation research fields are discussed and combined to provide principles for future research.

  15. Food and Drug Administration: Laboratory Analysis of Product Samples needs to be more Timely.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    protect the American consumer from adulterated or misbranded (vio- lative) products. The role of FDA’s field laboratories in accomplishing this... adulterated or misbranded products from the market is the timely processing of products through the laboratory. FDA has not given its laboratories... adulterated or misbranded products reaching the market. GAo’s analysis showed that the laboratories took an average of 28 calendar days to complete product

  16. Comment on "Time needed to board an airplane: a power law and the structure behind it".

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Noam

    2012-08-01

    Frette and Hemmer [Phys. Rev. E 85, 011130 (2012)] recently showed that for a simple model for the boarding of an airplane, the mean time to board scales as a power law with the number of passengers N and the exponent is less than 1. They note that this scaling leads to the prediction that the "back-to-front" strategy, where passengers are divided into groups from contiguous ranges of rows and each group is allowed to board in turn from back to front once the previous group has found their seats, has a longer boarding time than would a single group. Here I extend their results to a larger number of passengers using a sampling approach and explore a scenario where the queue is presorted into groups from back to front, but allowed to enter the plane as soon as they can. I show that the power law dependence on passenger numbers is different for large N and that there is a boarding time reduction for presorted groups, with a power law dependence on the number of presorted groups.

  17. Comment on ``Time needed to board an airplane: A power law and the structure behind it''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Noam

    2012-08-01

    Frette and Hemmer [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.85.011130 85, 011130 (2012)] recently showed that for a simple model for the boarding of an airplane, the mean time to board scales as a power law with the number of passengers N and the exponent is less than 1. They note that this scaling leads to the prediction that the “back-to-front” strategy, where passengers are divided into groups from contiguous ranges of rows and each group is allowed to board in turn from back to front once the previous group has found their seats, has a longer boarding time than would a single group. Here I extend their results to a larger number of passengers using a sampling approach and explore a scenario where the queue is presorted into groups from back to front, but allowed to enter the plane as soon as they can. I show that the power law dependence on passenger numbers is different for large N and that there is a boarding time reduction for presorted groups, with a power law dependence on the number of presorted groups.

  18. Which Components of Medical Homes Reduce the Time Burden on Families of Children with Special Health Care Needs?

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jane E; Nugent, Colleen N; Russell, Louise B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine which components of medical homes affect time families spend arranging/coordinating health care for their children with special health care needs (CSHCNs) and providing health care at home. Data Sources 2009–2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN), a population-based survey of 40,242 CSHCNs. Study Design NS-CSHCN is a cross-sectional, observational study. We used generalized ordered logistic regression, testing for nonproportional odds in the associations between each of five medical home components and time burden, controlling for insurance, child health, and sociodemographics. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Medical home components were collected using Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative definitions. Principal Findings Family-centered care, care coordination, and obtaining needed referrals were associated with 15–32 percent lower odds of time burdens arranging/coordinating and 16–19 percent lower odds providing health care. All five components together were associated with lower odds of time burdens, with greater reductions for higher burdens providing care. Conclusions Three of the five medical home components were associated with lower family time burdens arranging/coordinating and providing health care for children with chronic conditions. If the 55 percent of CSHCNs lacking medical homes had one, the share of families with time burdens arranging care could be reduced by 13 percent. PMID:25100200

  19. Stone Soup Projects: Using real-time resources and creative partnering to meet multiple needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, S.; Searle, R.; Zala, K.

    2010-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada oversees the VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada undersea cabled observatories. Its Centre for Enterprise and Engagement communicates the scientific discoveries and technological innovations happening at the two systems. Not surprisingly, funders in ocean science are interested in seeing evidence of increased recruitment of Highly Qualified Personnel into marine science and industry. This demand creates a series of opportunities for inspiring students, ranging from graduate school down to middle school, to pursue studies in chemistry, biology, physics, geology, engineering, and beyond. As the Engagement section is a small operation, we partner with others to produce educational assets incorporating real-time data from VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada observatories that enable frontline educators to create exciting ocean science experiences for students and the public. In one project, the lab component of an entire undergraduate course lets students conduct their own investigations into marine oxygen levels by using VENUS data. In another, Fine Arts graduate and undergraduate students are using high-tech tools to create a series of webisodes that map the principles of Ocean Literacy onto the science themes of VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada. In a third project, we hosted a website for a collaborative expedition to small coastal towns that focused on the marine science happening in the Salish Sea, British Columbia. Our projects and challenges for engaging students and the public with ocean science using real-time and other data offer strategies for outreach and education sections of similar organizations.

  20. Timing of deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease: a need for reappraisal?

    PubMed

    deSouza, Ruth-Mary; Moro, Elena; Lang, Anthony E; Schapira, Anthony H V

    2013-05-01

    We review the current application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson disease (PD) and consider the evidence that earlier use of DBS confers long-term symptomatic benefit for patients compared to best medical therapy. Electronic searches were performed of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify all article types relating to the timing of DBS in PD. Current evidence suggests that DBS is typically performed in late stage PD, a mean of 14 to 15 years after diagnosis. Current guidelines recommend that PD patients who are resistant to medical therapies, have significant medication side effects and lengthening off periods, but are otherwise cognitively intact and medically fit for surgery be considered for DBS. If these criteria are rigidly interpreted, it may be that, by the time medical treatment options have been exhausted, the disease has progressed to the point that the patient may no longer be fit for neurosurgical intervention. From the evidence available, we conclude that surgical management of PD alone or in combination with medical therapy results in greater improvement of motor symptoms and quality of life than medical treatment alone. There is evidence to support the use of DBS in less advanced PD and that it may be appropriate for earlier stages of the disease than for which it is currently used. The improving short and long-term safety profile of DBS makes early application a realistic possibility.

  1. Who Needs What? A Study of the Financial Needs and Resources of Full-Time Undergraduate Students in the State of Iowa, 1974-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jerry S.; Van Dusen, William D.

    Information drawn from a number of different sources was combined through a technique known as aggregate need analysis to measure the unmet financial needs of different groups of postsecondary students. It was found that: (1) after consideration of parental contributions and student self-help, there is an aggregate need for assistance of nearly…

  2. Effect of ultrasound treatment, oil addition and storage time on lycopene stability and in vitro bioaccessibility of tomato pulp.

    PubMed

    Anese, Monica; Bot, Francesca; Panozzo, Agnese; Mirolo, Giorgio; Lippe, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the influence of ultrasound processing on tomato pulp containing no sunflower oil, or increasing amounts (i.e. 2.5%, 5% and 10%), on lycopene concentration and in vitro bioaccessibility at time zero and during storage at 5 °C. Results confirmed previous findings in that ultrasonication was responsible for cell breakage and subsequent lycopene release in a highly viscous matrix. Neither the ultrasound process nor oil addition affected lycopene concentration. A decrease of approximately 35% lycopene content occurred at storage times longer than 15 days, due to isomerisation and oxidation reactions. No differences in lycopene in vitro bioaccessibility were found between the untreated and ultrasonically treated samples; this parameter decreased as a consequence of oil addition. Losses of lycopene in vitro bioaccessibility ranging between 50% and 80% occurred in the untreated and ultrasonically treated tomato pulps with and without oil during storage, mainly due to carotenoid degradation.

  3. Timing of Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson Disease: A Need for Reappraisal?

    PubMed Central

    deSouza, Ruth-Mary; Moro, Elena; Lang, Anthony E; Schapira, Anthony H V

    2013-01-01

    We review the current application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson disease (PD) and consider the evidence that earlier use of DBS confers long-term symptomatic benefit for patients compared to best medical therapy. Electronic searches were performed of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify all article types relating to the timing of DBS in PD. Current evidence suggests that DBS is typically performed in late stage PD, a mean of 14 to 15 years after diagnosis. Current guidelines recommend that PD patients who are resistant to medical therapies, have significant medication side effects and lengthening off periods, but are otherwise cognitively intact and medically fit for surgery be considered for DBS. If these criteria are rigidly interpreted, it may be that, by the time medical treatment options have been exhausted, the disease has progressed to the point that the patient may no longer be fit for neurosurgical intervention. From the evidence available, we conclude that surgical management of PD alone or in combination with medical therapy results in greater improvement of motor symptoms and quality of life than medical treatment alone. There is evidence to support the use of DBS in less advanced PD and that it may be appropriate for earlier stages of the disease than for which it is currently used. The improving short and long-term safety profile of DBS makes early application a realistic possibility. Ann Neurol 2013;73:565–575 PMID:23483564

  4. Optimizing the performance of a reactor by reducing the retention time and addition of glycerin for anaerobically digesting manure

    PubMed Central

    Timmerman, Maikel; Schuman, Els; van Eekert, Miriam; van Riel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure is a widely accepted technology for energy production. However, only a minimal portion of the manure production in the EU is anaerobically digested and occurs predominantly in codigestion plants. There is substantial potential for biogas plants that primarily operate on manure (>90%); however, the methane yields of manure are less compared to coproducts, which is one of the reasons for manure-based biogas plants often being economically non-viable. Therefore, it is essential to begin increasing the efficiency of these biogas plants. This study investigated the effect of decreasing retention time and introducing a moderate amount of glycerin on the biogas production as methods to improve efficiency. An experiment has been conducted with two different manure types in four biogas reactors. The results of the study demonstrated that, first, it was possible to decrease the retention time to 10–15 days; however, the effect on biogas production varied per manure type. Secondly, the biogas production almost triples at a retention time of 15.6 days with an addition of 4% glycerin. The relative production-enhancing effect of glycerin did not vary significantly with both manure types. However, the absolute production-enhancing effect of glycerin differed per manure type since the biogas production per gram VS differed per manure type. Thirdly, the positive effect of the glycerin input declines with shorter retention times. Therefore, the effect of glycerin addition depends on the manure type and retention time. PMID:25401272

  5. Need for desiccant in containers exposed to atmospheric conditions for long periods of time

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, K.E.

    1981-11-01

    Current component and system designs are required to perform satisfactorily up to 25 years. A maximum leak rate of 1 x 10/sup -6/ cc(STP) helium/sec-atm is a frequent requirement for component containers. Calculations show that undesiccated component containers continuously exposed to 50% relative humidity at 20/sup 0/C and having an internal free volume of less than 300 cc and the above leak rate will allow the internal dew point to rise enough for potential liquid condensation in less than four years. For the same vapor pressure differential, the moisture permeation rate through one linear inch of silicone o-ring is 750 times as fast as moisture enters a welded container whose leak rate is 1 x 10/sup -6/ cc(STP) helium/sec-atm. For ethylene propylene o-ring material this ratio is about 13. These values correspond to the ratios of the quantities of desiccant required to maintain an acceptable dew point temperature when the moisture capacity of the free volume is not included. Charts are provided for estimating the amount of desiccant required for helium leak tested containers and for containers sealed with elastomeric o-rings.

  6. Routine Urine Culture at the Time of Percutaneous Urinary Drainage: Does Every Patient Need One?

    SciTech Connect

    Brody, L.A. Brown, K.T.; Covey, A.M.; Brown, A.E.; Getrajdman, G.I.

    2006-08-15

    Purpose. To determine the clinical variables associated with bacteriuria in patients undergoing primary percutaneous antegrade urinary drainage procedures in order to predict the utility of routinely obtaining urine cultures at the time of the procedure. Methods. Between October 1995 and March 1998 urine cultures were prospectively obtained in all patients undergoing a primary percutaneous antegrade urinary drainage procedure. One hundred and eighty-seven patients underwent 264 procedures. Results were available in 252 cases. Culture results were correlated with clinical, laboratory, and demographic variables. Anaerobic cultures were not uniformly performed. Results. Urine cultures were positive in 24 of 252 (9.5%) cases. An indwelling or recently removed ipsilateral device (catheter or stent) and a history of previous cystectomy with urinary diversion were significant predictors of a positive culture. Patients without either of these predictors, and without clinical or laboratory evidence of infection, were rarely found to have positive cultures. Conclusion. The likelihood of a positive urine culture can be predicted on the basis of the aforementioned clinical variables. In the absence of these clinical indicators routine urine cultures are neither useful nor cost-effective.

  7. I Want You to Like Me: Extraversion, Need for Approval, and Time on Facebook as Predictors of Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Steers, Mai-Ly; Quist, Michelle C; Bryan, Jennifer L; Foster, Dawn W; Young, Chelsie M; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-09-01

    Although social networking sites such as Facebook have been touted as creating a global village, there may be a downside to such computer-mediated interactions on user's well-being. One such consequence is that stimuli via computer-mediated interactions may be anxiety-provoking for some users. As such, recent studies have tried to ascertain personality factors and individual differences that are associated with higher anxiety in connection with extensive Facebook use. The current study evaluated the relationships among extraversion, time on Facebook, need for approval, and anxiety among college students (N=280). Results revealed that need for approval significantly moderated the association between extraversion and anxiety. Specifically, individuals higher in extraversion tended to be less anxious, although this was less true for those extraverts who were higher in need for approval. Further, this moderating effect was stronger among extraverts who were high in need for approval and spent more time on Facebook relative to those who spent less time on Facebook. The present research contributes to the emerging literature by providing evidence regarding how personality factors interact with Facebook usage.

  8. Influence of the timing of nitrogen additions during synthetic grape must fermentations on fermentation kinetics and nitrogen consumption.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Gemma; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Rozès, Nicolas; Mas, Albert; Guillamón, José M

    2005-02-23

    Nitrogen deficiencies in grape musts are one of the main causes of stuck or sluggish wine fermentations. In the present study, we have supplemented nitrogen-deficient fermentations with a mixture of ammonium and amino acids at various stages throughout the alcoholic fermentation. The timing of the nitrogen additions influenced the biomass yield, the fermentation performance, the patterns of ammonium and amino acid consumption, and the production of secondary metabolites. These nitrogen additions induced a nitrogen-repressed situation in the cells, and this situation determined which nitrogen sources were selected. Glutamine and tryptophan were the main amino acids consumed in all the fermentations. Ammonium is the preferred nitrogen source for biomass production but was hardly consumed when it was added in the final stages of the fermentation. The higher ammonium consumption in some fermentations correlated with a greater synthesis of glycerol, acetate, and acetaldehyde but with a lower synthesis of higher alcohols.

  9. Real-time interferometric monitoring and measuring of photopolymerization based stereolithographic additive manufacturing process: sensor model and algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X.; Rosen, D. W.

    2017-01-01

    As additive manufacturing is poised for growth and innovations, it faces barriers of lack of in-process metrology and control to advance into wider industry applications. The exposure controlled projection lithography (ECPL) is a layerless mask-projection stereolithographic additive manufacturing process, in which parts are fabricated from photopolymers on a stationary transparent substrate. To improve the process accuracy with closed-loop control for ECPL, this paper develops an interferometric curing monitoring and measuring (ICM&M) method which addresses the sensor modeling and algorithms issues. A physical sensor model for ICM&M is derived based on interference optics utilizing the concept of instantaneous frequency. The associated calibration procedure is outlined for ICM&M measurement accuracy. To solve the sensor model, particularly in real time, an online evolutionary parameter estimation algorithm is developed adopting moving horizon exponentially weighted Fourier curve fitting and numerical integration. As a preliminary validation, simulated real-time measurement by offline analysis of a video of interferograms acquired in the ECPL process is presented. The agreement between the cured height estimated by ICM&M and that measured by microscope indicates that the measurement principle is promising as real-time metrology for global measurement and control of the ECPL process.

  10. Real-time Data Fusion Platforms: The Need of Multi-dimensional Data-driven Research in Biomedical Informatics.

    PubMed

    Raje, Satyajeet; Kite, Bobbie; Ramanathan, Jay; Payne, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Systems designed to expedite data preprocessing tasks such as data discovery, interpretation, and integration that are required before data analysis drastically impact the pace of biomedical informatics research. Current commercial interactive and real-time data integration tools are designed for large-scale business analytics requirements. In this paper we identify the need for end-to-end data fusion platforms from the researcher's perspective, supporting ad-hoc data interpretation and integration.

  11. Evaluating the time and source of hydrocarbon additions to soils using lead isotopes and historical changes in industrial lead sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, R.W. California State Univ., Los Angeles, CA )

    1994-04-01

    Isotopic analysis of anthropogenic Pb in well-dated, southern California coastal sediments have been integrated with historical changes in ore Pb sources to produce calibration curves (206Pb/207Pb vs. time) that allow us to model the time anthropogenic Pb was added to a soil horizon. The major, historical sources of anthropogenic Pb in southern California are fossil fuels (e.g. gasoline). Hence, Pb model ages (LABILE model; Los Angeles Borderland Industrial Lead) provide time constraints on Pb deposition from fossil fuel combustion via airborne deposition, runoff, and/or sewage outfall in this region. The correlation between the LABILE model age and known times of anthropogenic Pb additions at 17 specific sites is good (r = 0.978); the accuracy of the method ranges from one to five years in the post-1960 time interval. Factors influencing accuracy include analytical uncertainties in Pb isotopic measurements ([<=]0.1%), the scatter in isotopic ratios of anthropogenic Pb (circa 0.2%), and the uncertainty in the sediment age used to calibrate the method (0-15 yr). At one site three statistically distinguishable events were identified; they correlate with residential development (1968), airborne vehicular Pb deposition (1983), and site remediation (1991). Gasoline incursions at two tests sites have been dated accurately ([+-] 1 yr). The limitations of the LABILE model (geographic, age, types of hydrocarbons, and industry to which it applies) are now under investigation.

  12. The effect of exercise training with an additional inspiratory load on inspiratory muscle fatigue and time-trial performance.

    PubMed

    McEntire, Serina J; Smith, Joshua R; Ferguson, Christine S; Brown, Kelly R; Kurti, Stephanie P; Harms, Craig A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose was to determine the effect of moderate-intensity exercise training (ET) on inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) and if an additional inspiratory load during ET (ET+IL) would further improve inspiratory muscle strength, IMF, and time-trial performance. 15 subjects were randomly divided to ET (n=8) and ET+IL groups (n=7). All subjects completed six weeks of exercise training three days/week at ∼70%V̇O2peak for 30min. The ET+IL group breathed through an inspiratory muscle trainer (15% PImax) during exercise. 5-mile, and 30-min time-trials were performed pre-training, weeks three and six. Inspiratory muscle strength increased (p<0.05) for both groups to a similar (p>0.05) extent. ET and ET+IL groups improved (p<0.05) 5-mile time-trial performance (∼10% and ∼18%) and the ET+IL group was significantly faster than ET at week 6. ET and ET+IL groups experienced less (p<0.05) IMF compared to pre-training following the 5-mile time-trial. In conclusion, these data suggest ET leads to less IMF, ET+IL improves inspiratory muscle strength and IMF, but not different than ET alone.

  13. Understanding Solidification of Polythiophene Thin Films during Spin-Coating: Effects of Spin-Coating Time and Processing Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jin Yeong; Kang, Boseok; Sin, Dong Hun; Cho, Kilwon; Park, Yeong Don

    2015-08-01

    Spin-coating has been used extensively in the fabrication of electronic devices; however, the effects of the processing parameters have not been fully explored. Here, we systematically characterize the effects of the spin-coating time on the microstructure evolution during semiconducting polymer solidification in an effort to establish the relationship between this parameter and the performances of the resulting polymer field-effect transistors (FETs). We found that a short spin-coating time of a few seconds dramatically improve the morphology and molecular order in a conjugated polymer thin film because the π-π stacking structures formed by the polymer molecules grow slowly and with a greater degree of order due to the residual solvent present in the wet film. The improved ordering is correlated with improved charge carrier transport in the FETs prepared from these films. We also demonstrated the effects of various processing additives on the resulting FET characteristics as well as on the film drying behavior during spin-coating. The physical properties of the additives are found to affect the film drying process and the resulting device performance.

  14. Understanding Solidification of Polythiophene Thin Films during Spin-Coating: Effects of Spin-Coating Time and Processing Additives

    PubMed Central

    Na, Jin Yeong; Kang, Boseok; Sin, Dong Hun; Cho, Kilwon; Park, Yeong Don

    2015-01-01

    Spin-coating has been used extensively in the fabrication of electronic devices; however, the effects of the processing parameters have not been fully explored. Here, we systematically characterize the effects of the spin-coating time on the microstructure evolution during semiconducting polymer solidification in an effort to establish the relationship between this parameter and the performances of the resulting polymer field-effect transistors (FETs). We found that a short spin-coating time of a few seconds dramatically improve the morphology and molecular order in a conjugated polymer thin film because the π-π stacking structures formed by the polymer molecules grow slowly and with a greater degree of order due to the residual solvent present in the wet film. The improved ordering is correlated with improved charge carrier transport in the FETs prepared from these films. We also demonstrated the effects of various processing additives on the resulting FET characteristics as well as on the film drying behavior during spin-coating. The physical properties of the additives are found to affect the film drying process and the resulting device performance. PMID:26299676

  15. Understanding Solidification of Polythiophene Thin Films during Spin-Coating: Effects of Spin-Coating Time and Processing Additives.

    PubMed

    Na, Jin Yeong; Kang, Boseok; Sin, Dong Hun; Cho, Kilwon; Park, Yeong Don

    2015-08-24

    Spin-coating has been used extensively in the fabrication of electronic devices; however, the effects of the processing parameters have not been fully explored. Here, we systematically characterize the effects of the spin-coating time on the microstructure evolution during semiconducting polymer solidification in an effort to establish the relationship between this parameter and the performances of the resulting polymer field-effect transistors (FETs). We found that a short spin-coating time of a few seconds dramatically improve the morphology and molecular order in a conjugated polymer thin film because the π-π stacking structures formed by the polymer molecules grow slowly and with a greater degree of order due to the residual solvent present in the wet film. The improved ordering is correlated with improved charge carrier transport in the FETs prepared from these films. We also demonstrated the effects of various processing additives on the resulting FET characteristics as well as on the film drying behavior during spin-coating. The physical properties of the additives are found to affect the film drying process and the resulting device performance.

  16. The real-time state of the aurora -- a research to operations need with a citizen science solution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heavner, M.; MacDonald, E.; Case, N.; McCloat, S.

    2015-12-01

    A prototype citizen science application called Aurorasaurus has been developed and launched in 2014. The goal of this platform is crowdsourcing observations of the aurora in real-time in order to assess global visibility of the aurora for the public. Users can submit observations, verify relevant social media observations, learn about the aurora, and receive location-based alerts based on verified reports, all in near real-time. The size and distribution of the citizen scientist community around the world has tremendous potential both for documenting the visible manifestations of global space weather impacts as well as providing quality control on the reported sightings. Information with high spatial and temporal resolution of the largest, most dynamic and mysterious space weather events is made possible by this solution, and this data can be integrated with other ground and space based measures of auroral activity. We will present initial results during the large geomagnetic events of 2015 and comparison to other measures of auroral activity. Our findings indicate the prototype application can be a valuable tool for real-time aurora knowledge and should be included in discussions of real-time aurora nowcasting needs. We will discuss those needs and assess the feasibility of available systems for meeting them.

  17. [Autoimmune processes after long-term low-level exposure to electromagnetic fields (the results of an experiment). Part 1. Mobile communications and changes in electromagnetic conditions for the population. Needs for additional substantiation of the existing hygienic standards].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu G; Grigor'ev, O A; Ivanov, A A; Liaginskaia, A M; Merkulov, A V; Stepanov, V S; Shagina, N B

    2010-01-01

    Mobile communications provides a new source of electromagnetic exposure for almost the whole population of the Russian Federation. For the first time in the history of civilization the brain of mobile phone users was exposed to localized radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). Population exposure from the base stations is also considered to be specific. However, existing standards for limiting the exposure do not account for this special EMF source and may not ensure the absence of health effects. There was a need for reliable information that would extend databases used for development of new standards. As recommended by the World Health Organization an additional experiment was performed under the supervision of foreign experts, which showed changes in autoimmune status in rats after long-term low-level RF EMF exposure with an incident power density of 500 microW/cm2.

  18. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 9: Aerothermodynamics (M-3). A: Statement. B: Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2). D. Additional assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Twelve aerothermodynamic space technology needs were identified to reduce the design uncertainties in aerodynamic heating and forces experienced by heavy lift launch vehicles, orbit transfer vehicles, and advanced single stage to orbit vehicles for the space transportation system, and for probes, planetary surface landers, and sample return vehicles for solar system exploration vehicles. Research and technology needs identified include: (1) increasing the fluid dynamics capability by at least two orders of magnitude by developing an advanced computer processor for the solution of fluid dynamic problems with improved software; (2) predicting multi-engine base flow fields for launch vehicles; and (3) developing methods to conserve energy in aerothermodynamic ground test facilities.

  19. DOD Schools: Limitations in DOD-Sponsored Study on Transfer Alternatives Underscore Need for Additional Assessment. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-05-469

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Government Accountability Office, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DOD) operates 59 elementary and secondary schools serving over a dozen military bases in the continental United States. Periodically, questions have been raised concerning the continuing need for such schools. In 2002, DOD commissioned the Donahue Institute of the University of Massachusetts to examine the potential for…

  20. Results of a national survey indicating information technology skills needed by nurses at time of entry into the work force.

    PubMed

    McCannon, Melinda; O'Neal, Pamela V

    2003-08-01

    A national survey was conducted to determine the information technology skills nurse administrators consider critical for new nurses entering the work force. The sample consisted of 2,000 randomly selected members of the American Organization of Nurse Executives. Seven hundred fifty-two usable questionnaires were returned, for a response rate of 38%. The questionnaire used a 5-point Likert scale and consisted of 17 items that assessed various technology skills and demographic information. The questionnaire was developed and pilot tested with content experts to establish content validity. Descriptive analysis of the data revealed that using e-mail effectively, operating basic Windows applications, and searching databases were critical information technology skills. The most critical information technology skill involved knowing nursing-specific software, such as bedside charting and computer-activated medication dispensers. To effectively prepare nursing students with technology skills needed at the time of entry into practice, nursing faculty need to incorporate information technology skills into undergraduate nursing curricula.

  1. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 3: Sensors (E-3). A. Statement. B. Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2). D. Additional assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Developments required to support the space power, SETI, solar system exploration and global services programs are identified. Instrumentation and calibration sensors (rather than scientific) are needed for the space power system. Highly sophisticated receivers for narrowband detection of microwave sensors and sensors for automated stellar cataloging to provide a mapping data base for SETI are needed. Various phases of solar system exploration require large area solid state imaging arrays from UV to IR; a long focal plane telescope; high energy particle detectors; advanced spectrometers; a gravitometer; and atmospheric distanalyzer; sensors for penetrometers; in-situ sensors for surface chemical analysis, life detection, spectroscopic and microscopic analyses of surface soils, and for meteorological measurements. Active and passive multiapplication sensors, advanced multispectral scanners with improved resolution in the UV and IR ranges, and laser techniques for advanced probing and oceanographic characterization will enhance for global services.

  2. Effects of hydraulic retention time and bioflocculant addition on membrane fouling in a sponge-submerged membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lijuan; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao; Du, Bing; Wei, Qin; Tran, Ngoc Han; Nguyen, Nguyen Cong; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Li, Jianxin

    2016-06-01

    The characteristics of activated sludge and membrane fouling were evaluated in a sponge-submerged membrane bioreactor (SSMBR) at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (6.67, 5.33 and 4.00h). At shorter HRT, more obvious membrane fouling was caused by exacerbated cake layer formation and aggravated pore blocking. Activated sludge possessed more extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) due to excessive growth of biomass and lower protein to polysaccharide ratio in soluble microbial products (SMP). The cake layer resistance was aggravated by increased sludge viscosity together with the accumulated EPS and biopolymer clusters (BPC) on membrane surface. However, SMP showed marginal effect on membrane fouling when SSMBRs were operated at all HRTs. The SSMBR with Gemfloc® addition at the optimum HRT of 6.67h demonstrated superior sludge characteristics such as larger floc size, less SMP in mixed liquor with higher protein/polysaccharide ratio, less SMP and BPC in cake layer, thereby further preventing membrane fouling.

  3. Spray Nozzles, Pressures, Additives and Stirring Time on Viability and Pathogenicity of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida) for Greenhouses

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Grazielle Furtado; Batista, Elder Simões de Paula; Campos, Henrique Borges Neves; Lemos, Raphael Emilio; Ferreira, Marcelo da Costa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different strategies for the application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN). Three different models of spray nozzles with air induction (AI 11003, TTI 11003 and AD-IA 11004), three spray pressures (207, 413 and 720 kPa), four different additives for tank mixtures (cane molasses, mineral oil, vegetable oil and glycerin) and the influence of tank mixture stirring time were all evaluated for their effect on EPN (Steinernema feltiae) viability and pathogenicity. The different nozzles, at pressures of up to 620 kPa, were found to be compatible with S. feltiae. Vegetable oil, mineral oil and molasses were found to be compatible adjuvants for S. feltiae, and stirring in a motorized backpack sprayer for 30 minutes did not impact the viability or pathogenicity of this nematode. Appropriate techniques for the application of nematodes with backpack sprayers are discussed. PMID:23755280

  4. Spray nozzles, pressures, additives and stirring time on viability and pathogenicity of entomopathogenic nematodes (nematoda: rhabditida) for greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Grazielle Furtado; Batista, Elder Simões de Paula; Campos, Henrique Borges Neves; Lemos, Raphael Emilio; Ferreira, Marcelo da Costa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different strategies for the application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN). Three different models of spray nozzles with air induction (AI 11003, TTI 11003 and AD-IA 11004), three spray pressures (207, 413 and 720 kPa), four different additives for tank mixtures (cane molasses, mineral oil, vegetable oil and glycerin) and the influence of tank mixture stirring time were all evaluated for their effect on EPN (Steinernema feltiae) viability and pathogenicity. The different nozzles, at pressures of up to 620 kPa, were found to be compatible with S. feltiae. Vegetable oil, mineral oil and molasses were found to be compatible adjuvants for S. feltiae, and stirring in a motorized backpack sprayer for 30 minutes did not impact the viability or pathogenicity of this nematode. Appropriate techniques for the application of nematodes with backpack sprayers are discussed.

  5. Real-Time Series Resistance Monitoring in PV Systems Without the Need for I-V Curves

    SciTech Connect

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-10-01

    We apply the physical principles of a familiar method, suns-Voc, to a new application: the real-time detection of series resistance changes in modules and systems operating outside. The real-time series resistance (RTSR) method that we describe avoids the need for collecting I-V curves or constructing full series resistance-free I-V curves. RTSR is most readily deployable at the module level on microinverters or module-integrated electronics, but it can also be extended to full strings. We found that automated detection of series resistance increases can provide early warnings of some of the most common reliability issues, which also pose fire risks, including broken ribbons, broken solder bonds, and contact problems in the junction or combiner box. We also describe the method in detail and describe a sample application to data collected from modules operating in the field.

  6. Influence of addition order and contact time on thorium(IV) retention by hematite in the presence of humic acids.

    PubMed

    Reiller, Pascal; Casanova, Florence; Moulin, Valérie

    2005-03-15

    The influence of addition order and contact time in the system hematite (alpha-Fe2O3)-humic acid (HA)-thorium(IV) (Th(IV)) was studied in batch experiments. Th(IV) is considered here as a chemical analogue of other actinides (IV). The sorption isotherms were acquired varying pH in the range 2-10 and HA concentration in the range 1-100 mg/L. As already observed by numerous authors, Th(IV) retention was hindered when HA and hematite were equilibrated beforehand during 24 h. As it has been observed in a previous study, this effect was drastic when the ratio between humic and surface (iron oxide) sites exceeds a critical value. However, when HA was added after a 24-h equilibration of the hematite-Th(IV) system, Th(IV) was barely desorbed from the iron oxide surface. Furthermore, no drastic effect of the ratio between humic and surface sites could be evidenced, as the increase of HA concentration only results in a slight monotonic decrease in Th(IV) retention. Increasing contact time between components of the systems only indicated slight Th(IV) retention variation. This was interpreted as a consequence of slow kinetic controls of both the Th(IV)-HA complexation and HA-hematite sorption.

  7. Thermal aging of traditional and additively manufactured foams: analysis by time-temperature-superposition, constitutive, and finite-element models

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, A.; Weisgraber, T. H.; Small, W.; Lewicki, J. P.; Duoss, E. B.; Spadaccini, C. M.; Pearson, M. A.; Chinn, S. C.; Wilson, T. S.; Maxwell, R. S.

    2016-12-08

    Cellular solids or foams are a very important class of materials with diverse applications ranging from thermal insulation and shock absorbing support cushions, to light-weight structural and floatation components, and constitute crucial components in a large number of industries including automotive, aerospace, electronics, marine, biomedical, packaging, and defense. In many of these applications the foam material is subjected to long periods of continuous stress, which can, over time, lead to a permanent change in structure and a degradation in performance. In this report we summarize our modeling efforts to date on polysiloxane foam materials that form an important component in our systems. Aging of the materials was characterized by two measured quantities, i.e., compression set and load retention. Results of accelerated aging experiments were analyzed by an automated time-temperaturesuperposition (TTS) approach, which creates a master curve that can be used for long-term predictions (over decades) under ambient conditions. When comparing such master curves for traditional (stochastic) foams with those for recently 3D-printed (i.e., additively manufactured, or AM) foams, it became clear that AM foams have superior aging behavior. To gain deeper understanding, we imaged the microstructure of both foams using X-ray computed tomography, and performed finite-element analysis of the mechanical response within these microstructures. This indicates a wider stress variation in the stochastic foam with points of more extreme local stress as compared to the 3D printed material.

  8. Transit Timing Variation Measurements of WASP-12b and Qatar-1b: No Evidence Of Additional Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Karen A.; Kielkopf, John F.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2017-02-01

    WASP-12b and Qatar-1b are transiting hot Jupiters for which previous works have suggested the presence of transit timing variations (TTVs) indicative of additional bodies in these systems—an Earth-mass planet in WASP-12 and a brown-dwarf mass object in Qatar-1. Here, we present 23 new WASP-12b and 18 new Qatar-1b complete (or nearly complete) transit observations. We perform global system fits to all of our light curves for each system, as well as RV and stellar spectroscopic parameters from the literature. The global fits provide refined system parameters and uncertainties for each system, including precise transit center times for each transit. The transit model residuals of the combined and five minute binned light curves have an rms of 183 and 255 parts per million (ppm) for WASP-12b and Qatar-1b, respectively. Most of the WASP-12b system parameter values from this work are consistent with values from previous studies, but have ∼40%–50% smaller uncertainties. Most of the Qatar-1b system parameter values and uncertainties from this work are consistent with values recently reported in the literature. We find no convincing evidence for sinusoidal TTVs with a semi-amplitude of more than ∼35 and ∼25 s in the WASP-12b and Qatar-1b systems, respectively.

  9. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  10. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed.

    PubMed

    Mccranie, James R

    2015-03-13

    An updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras is provided. The list includes three amphibian species (Ptychohyla euthysanota, Bolitoglossa odonnelli, Oedipina chortiorum) and two reptile species (Laemanctus waltersi [elevated from subspecies status], Epictia phenops) not included in the most recent checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of the country. Also, one amphibian genus and species (Triprion petasatus) is removed from the country list and one Honduran lizard (Ctenosaura praeocularis) is synonymized with an older name. Comments where more study is needed are also included where pertinent. Authors, dates, and original spellings of the higher-level taxonomy of all taxa covered herein are also given. A total of 401 species (137 amphibians and 264 reptiles) are now known from the country with 111 species (27.7%) being Honduran endemics (52 amphibians and 59 reptiles).

  11. The Dynamics of the WASP-47 Planetary System: A Hot Jupiter, Two Additional Planets, and Observable Transit Timing Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Fred C.; Becker, Juliette C.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Rappaport, Saul; Schwengeler, Hans Martin

    2015-12-01

    New data from the K2 mission indicate that WASP-47, a previously known Hot Jupiter host, also hosts two additional transiting planets: a Neptune-sized outer planet and a super-Earth inner companion. The measured period ratios and size ratios for these planets are unusual (extreme) for Hot Jupiter systems. We measure the planetary properties from the K2 light curve and detect transit timing variations, thereby confirming the planetary nature of the outer planet. We performed a large ensemble of numerical simulations to study the dynamical stability of the system and to find the theoretically expected transit timing variations (TTVs). The system is stable provided that the orbital eccentricities are small. The theoretically predicted TTVs are in good agreement with those observed, and we use the TTVs to determine the masses of two planets, and place a limit on the third. The WASP-47 planetary system is important because the companion planets can both be inferred by TTVs and are also detected directly through transit observations. The depth of the Hot Jupiter’s transits make ground-based TTV measurements possible, and the brightness of the host star makes it amenable for precise radial velocity measurements. The system thus serves as a Rosetta Stone for understanding TTVs as a planet detection technique. Moreover, this compact set of planets in nearly circular, coplanar orbits demonstrates that at least a subset of Jupiter-size planets can migrate in close to their host star in a dynamically quiet manner. As final curiosity, WASP-47 hosts one of few extrasolar planetary systems that can observe Earth in transit.

  12. Screening Retinopathy of Prematurity in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in China and the Need for Earlier Screening Times

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianxun; Chen, Feng; He, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To convey the need for a revised screening strategy for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants in China. Design. A retrospective longitudinal study. Methods. The medical charts of infants with a birth weight (BW) of less than 1 kg were reviewed. The infants were divided into three groups: group A, without ROP; group B, with ROP but not up to type 1 prethreshold or threshold ROP; group C, with type 1 prethreshold or threshold ROP. Data collected included gender, gestational age (GA), BW, postmenstrual age (PMA), age of onset of ROP, and age at which treatment was carried out, if required. Results. A total of 77 infants were involved. Fifty-six infants developed ROP at any stage and 38 infants developed type 1 prethreshold or threshold ROP. The mean BW and GA of infants in group A were significantly different compared with groups B and C. The mean PMA of onset of ROP in infants who developed mild ROP was 37 weeks compared with 34 weeks for infants who developed severe ROP. Conclusion. ELBW infants have a higher incidence of ROP in China which highlights the need for optimizing neonatal care for these infants. In ELBW infants, ROP tends to develop more severely when it occurs earlier. It is necessary for ELBW infants, especially for those with a BW less than 800 g or a GA less than 25 weeks, to be initially screened at an earlier time. PMID:28116141

  13. Gibbs energy additivity approaches to QSRR in generating gas chromatographic retention time for identification of fatty acid methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Pojjanapornpun, Siriluck; Aryusuk, Kornkanok; Lilitchan, Supathra; Krisnangkura, Kanit

    2017-02-06

    The Gibbs energy additivity method was used to correlate the retention time (t R) of common fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) to their chemical structures. The t R of 20 standard FAMEs eluted from three capillary columns of different polarities (ZB-WAXplus, BPX70, and SLB-IL111) under both isothermal gas chromatography and temperature-programmed gas chromatography (TPGC) conditions were accurately predicted. Also, the predicted t R of FAMEs prepared from flowering pak choi seed oil obtained by multistep TPGC with the BPX70 column were within 1.0% of the experimental t R. The predicted t R or mathematical t R (t R(math)) values could possibly be used as references in identification of common FAMEs. Hence, FAMEs prepared from horse mussel and fish oil capsules were chromatographed on the BPX70 and ZB-WAXplus columns in single-step and multistep TPGC. Identification was done by comparison of t R with the t R of standard FAMEs and with t R(math). Both showed correct identifications. The proposed model has six numeric constants. Five of six could be directly transferred to other columns of the same stationary phase. The first numeric constant (a), which contained the column phase ratio, could also be transferred with the adjustment of the column phase ratio to the actual phase ratio of the transferred column. Additionally, the numeric constants could be transferred across laboratories, with similar correction of the first numeric constant. The TPGC t R predicted with the transferred column constants were in good agreement with the reported experimental t R of FAMEs. Moreover, hexane was used in place of the conventional t M marker in the calculation. Hence, the experimental methods were much simplified and practically feasible. The proposed method for using t R(math) as the references would provide an alternative to the uses of real FAMEs as the references. It is simple and rapid and with good accuracy compared with the use of experimental t R as references.

  14. It’s about time: How do sky surveys manage uncertainty about scientific needs many years into the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darch, Peter T.; Sands, Ashley E.

    2016-06-01

    Sky surveys, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), generate data on an unprecedented scale. While many scientific projects span a few years from conception to completion, sky surveys are typically on the scale of decades. This paper focuses on critical challenges arising from long timescales, and how sky surveys address these challenges.We present findings from a study of LSST, comprising interviews (n=58) and observation. Conceived in the 1990s, the LSST Corporation was formed in 2003, and construction began in 2014. LSST will commence data collection operations in 2022 for ten years.One challenge arising from this long timescale is uncertainty about future needs of the astronomers who will use these data many years hence. Sources of uncertainty include scientific questions to be posed, astronomical phenomena to be studied, and tools and practices these astronomers will have at their disposal. These uncertainties are magnified by the rapid technological and scientific developments anticipated between now and the start of LSST operations.LSST is implementing a range of strategies to address these challenges. Some strategies involve delaying resolution of uncertainty, placing this resolution in the hands of future data users. Other strategies aim to reduce uncertainty by shaping astronomers’ data analysis practices so that these practices will integrate well with LSST once operations begin.One approach that exemplifies both types of strategy is the decision to make LSST data management software open source, even now as it is being developed. This policy will enable future data users to adapt this software to evolving needs. In addition, LSST intends for astronomers to start using this software well in advance of 2022, thereby embedding LSST software and data analysis approaches in the practices of astronomers.These findings strengthen arguments for making the software supporting sky surveys available as open

  15. Coaching to vision versus coaching to improvement needs: a preliminary investigation on the differential impacts of fostering positive and negative emotion during real time executive coaching sessions

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Anita R.

    2015-01-01

    session predominantly in the PEA (or, alternatively, predominantly in the NEA) fosters emotional processing that is driven by this initial framing; and that both the PEA (and associated positive emotions) and NEA (and associated negative emotions) play an important and recurrent role in shaping the change process. Further study on these outcomes will enable researchers to shed more light on the differential impact of the PEA versus NEA on intentional change, and how to leverage the benefits of both emotional attractors. Findings also suggest that coaches can benefit from better understanding the importance of tapping intrinsic motivation and personal passions through coaching to vision/the PEA. Coaches additionally may benefit from better understanding how to leverage the long-term advantages, and restorative benefits, of positive emotions during coaching engagements. The findings also highlight coaches’ need to appreciate the impact of timing effects on coaching intentional change, and how coaches can play a critical role in calibrating the pace and focus of work on intentional change. Early arousal of the coachee’s PEA, accompanied by recurrent PEA–NEA induction, may help coachees be/become more creative, optimistic, and resilient during a given change process. Overall, primary focus on vision/PEA and secondary focus on improvement needs/NEA may better equip coaches and coaching recipients to work together on building robust learning, development, and change. Keywords-133pt executive coaching, vision, improvement needs, positive emotion, negative emotion, emotional appraisal, intentional change, positive psychology PMID:25964768

  16. Coaching to vision versus coaching to improvement needs: a preliminary investigation on the differential impacts of fostering positive and negative emotion during real time executive coaching sessions.

    PubMed

    Howard, Anita R

    2015-01-01

    session predominantly in the PEA (or, alternatively, predominantly in the NEA) fosters emotional processing that is driven by this initial framing; and that both the PEA (and associated positive emotions) and NEA (and associated negative emotions) play an important and recurrent role in shaping the change process. Further study on these outcomes will enable researchers to shed more light on the differential impact of the PEA versus NEA on intentional change, and how to leverage the benefits of both emotional attractors. Findings also suggest that coaches can benefit from better understanding the importance of tapping intrinsic motivation and personal passions through coaching to vision/the PEA. Coaches additionally may benefit from better understanding how to leverage the long-term advantages, and restorative benefits, of positive emotions during coaching engagements. The findings also highlight coaches' need to appreciate the impact of timing effects on coaching intentional change, and how coaches can play a critical role in calibrating the pace and focus of work on intentional change. Early arousal of the coachee's PEA, accompanied by recurrent PEA-NEA induction, may help coachees be/become more creative, optimistic, and resilient during a given change process. Overall, primary focus on vision/PEA and secondary focus on improvement needs/NEA may better equip coaches and coaching recipients to work together on building robust learning, development, and change. Keywords-133pt executive coaching, vision, improvement needs, positive emotion, negative emotion, emotional appraisal, intentional change, positive psychology.

  17. 14 CFR 121.523 - Flight time limitations: Crew of three or more pilots and additional airmen as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of three or... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.523 Flight time limitations: Crew of three... operations may schedule an airman for flight deck duty as a flight engineer, or navigator in a crew of...

  18. Participatory Research to Design a Novel Telehealth System to Support the Night-Time Needs of People with Dementia: NOCTURNAL

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Suzanne; Augusto, Juan Carlos; Mc Cullagh, Paul; Carswell, William; Zheng, Huiru; Wang, Haiying; Wallace, Jonathan; Mulvenna, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Strategies to support people living with dementia are broad in scope, proposing both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions as part of the care pathway. Assistive technologies form part of this offering as both stand-alone devices to support particular tasks and the more complex offering of the “smart home” to underpin ambient assisted living. This paper presents a technology-based system, which expands on the smart home architecture, orientated to support people with daily living. The system, NOCTURNAL, was developed by working directly with people who had dementia, and their carers using qualitative research methods. The research focused primarily on the nighttime needs of people living with dementia in real home settings. Eight people with dementia had the final prototype system installed for a three month evaluation at home. Disturbed sleep patterns, night-time wandering were a focus of this research not only in terms of detection by commercially available technology but also exploring if automated music, light and visual personalized photographs would be soothing to participants during the hours of darkness. The NOCTURNAL platform and associated services was informed by strong user engagement of people with dementia and the service providers who care for them. NOCTURNAL emerged as a holistic service offering a personalised therapeutic aspect with interactive capabilities. PMID:24304507

  19. How much time do drivers need to obtain situation awareness? A laboratory-based study of automated driving.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhenji; Coster, Xander; de Winter, Joost

    2017-04-01

    Drivers of automated cars may occasionally need to take back manual control after a period of inattentiveness. At present, it is unknown how long it takes to build up situation awareness of a traffic situation. In this study, 34 participants were presented with animated video clips of traffic situations on a three-lane road, from an egocentric viewpoint on a monitor equipped with eye tracker. Each participant viewed 24 videos of different durations (1, 3, 7, 9, 12, or 20 s). After each video, participants reproduced the end of the video by placing cars in a top-down view, and indicated the relative speeds of the placed cars with respect to the ego-vehicle. Results showed that the longer the video length, the lower the absolute error of the number of placed cars, the lower the total distance error between the placed cars and actual cars, and the lower the geometric difference between the placed cars and the actual cars. These effects appeared to be saturated at video lengths of 7-12 s. The total speed error between placed and actual cars also reduced with video length, but showed no saturation up to 20 s. Glance frequencies to the mirrors decreased with observation time, which is consistent with the notion that participants first estimated the spatial pattern of cars after which they directed their attention to individual cars. In conclusion, observers are able to reproduce the layout of a situation quickly, but the assessment of relative speeds takes 20 s or more.

  20. Green technology effect of injection pressure, timing and compression ratio in constant pressure heat addition cycle by an eco-friendly material.

    PubMed

    Karthikayan, S; Sankaranarayanan, G; Karthikeyan, R

    2015-11-01

    Present energy strategies focus on environmental issues, especially environmental pollution prevention and control by eco-friendly green technologies. This includes, increase in the energy supplies, encouraging cleaner and more efficient energy management, addressing air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. Biofuels provide the panorama of new fiscal opportunities for people in rural area for meeting their need and also the demand of the local market. Biofuels concern protection of the environment and job creation. Renewable energy sources are self-reliance resources, have the potential in energy management with less emissions of air pollutants. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependability on imported crude oil with connected economic susceptibility, reduce greenhouse gases, other pollutants and invigorate the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. The use of neat paradise tree oil and induction of eco-friendly material Hydrogen through inlet manifold in a constant pressure heat addition cycle engine (diesel engine) with optimized engine operating parameters such as injection timing, injection pressure and compression ratio. The results shows the heat utilization efficiency for neat vegetable oil is 29% and neat oil with 15% Hydrogen as 33%. The exhaust gas temperature (EGT) for 15% of H2 share as 450°C at full load and the heat release of 80J/deg. crank angle for 15% Hydrogen energy share.

  1. Measuring care of the elderly: psychometric testing and modification of the Time in Care instrument for measurement of care needs in nursing homes

    PubMed Central

    Thorsell, Kajsa BE; Nordström, Berit; Nyberg, Per; Sivberg, Bengt V

    2008-01-01

    Background Aging entails not only a decrease in the ability to be active, but also a trend toward increased dependence to sustain basic life functions. An important aspect for appropriately elucidating the individual's care needs is the ability to measure them both simply and reliably. Since 2006 a new version of the Time in Care needs (TIC-n) instrument (19-item version) has been explored and used in one additional municipality with the same structure as the one described in an earlier study. Methods The TIC-n assessment was conducted on a total of 1282 care recipients. Factor analysis (principal component) was applied to explore the construct validity of the TIC-n. Cronbach's alpha was calculated to test reliability and for each of the items remaining in the instrument after factor analysis, an inter-rater comparison was carried out on all recipients in both municipalities. Independently of each other, a weighted Kappa (Kw) was calculated. Results. The mean of each weighted Kappa (Kw) for the dimensions in the two municipalities was 0.75 and 0.76, respectively. Factor analysis showed that all 19 items had a factor loading of ≥ 0.40. Three factors (General Care, Medical Care and Cognitive Care) were created. Conclusion The TIC-n instrument has now been tested for validity and reliability in two municipalities with satisfactory results. However, TIC-n can not yet be used as a golden standard, but it can be recommended for use of measurement of individual care needs in municipal elderly care. PMID:18816418

  2. Evaluation of gold nanoparticles as the additive in real-time polymerase chain reaction with SYBR Green I dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenchao; Mi, Lijuan; Cao, Xueyan; Zhang, Xiaodong; Fan, Chunhai; Hu, Jun

    2008-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been proven to be able to improve the specificity or increase the efficiency of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) when a suitable amount of AuNPs was used. However, there is still a lack of systematic evaluation of AuNPs in real-time PCR. In this study, DNA degradation and the fluorescence quenching effect of AuNPs were first tested in real-time PCR. Then two different kinds of Taq DNA polymerase, native and recombinant Taq polymerase, were employed to evaluate the AuNPs' effect on the threshold cycle (CT) values, standard curves and melting curves in real-time PCR. Different ratios of the amount of native Taq DNA polymerase to the amount of AuNPs were also tested. It was found that AuNPs could be applied in real-time PCR with correlation coefficient R2>0.989. The combination of 2.09 nM AuNPs with 3.75 U of native Taq DNA polymerase could make the amplification curves shift to the left and enhance the efficiency of the real-time PCR (0.628 39 without AuNPs compared with 0.717 89 with 2.09 nM AuNPs), thus enabling faster detection in comparison with those of control samples. However, no improvement ability of AuNPs was found in real-time PCR based on recombinant rTaq DNA polymerase. Besides, the results suggest that a complex interaction exists between AuNPs and native Taq DNA polymerase.

  3. Study of polymeric additive effect on calcium oxalate dihydrate crystal growth using real-time atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Taesung; Kim, Jong-Nam; Kim, Woo-Sik; Kyun Choi, Chang

    2011-07-01

    Microscopic events associated with crystal growth and characterization of the growth hillocks on the (1 0 0) and (1 0 1) faces of COD were examined by atomic force microscopy. The (1 0 0) and (1 0 1) faces of COD developed elliptical and triangular hillocks and pits, respectively. Each face exhibited hillocks with step sites that can be assigned to specific crystal planes, enabling direct determination of the growth rates along specific crystallographic directions. The addition of macromolecules with anionic side chains, poly- L-aspartate, poly- L-glutamate, and polyacrylate resulted in inhibition of growth on the hillock step planes. The magnitude of their effect depended on the macromolecule structures and identity of the step site. The isotropic shape of the COD hillocks mimicked the shape of the resulting macroscopic COD crystals based on step-specific binding of the macromolecules to the COD crystal, with stronger step pinning along the [0 1 0] direction than in the [0 0 1] direction. Electrostatic matching between the crystal faces and additives according to the ionic array of calcium oxalate in the COD structure was found to be responsible for the preferential binding of the macromolecules to terraces.

  4. Dewey Need To Be Organized? Time Management and Organization from a Librarian Who Knows Whereof She Speaks!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foust, J'aime

    2000-01-01

    Suggests time management techniques that can be useful for school librarians. Highlights include differences in right brain-left brain chemistry; making lists; setting priorities; using a daily planner; and creative uses of time, including breaks. (LRW)

  5. Modeling of time dependent localized flow shear stress and its impact on cellular growth within additive manufactured titanium implants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ziyu; Yuan, Lang; Lee, Peter D; Jones, Eric; Jones, Julian R

    2014-01-01

    Bone augmentation implants are porous to allow cellular growth, bone formation and fixation. However, the design of the pores is currently based on simple empirical rules, such as minimum pore and interconnects sizes. We present a three-dimensional (3D) transient model of cellular growth based on the Navier–Stokes equations that simulates the body fluid flow and stimulation of bone precursor cellular growth, attachment, and proliferation as a function of local flow shear stress. The model's effectiveness is demonstrated for two additive manufactured (AM) titanium scaffold architectures. The results demonstrate that there is a complex interaction of flow rate and strut architecture, resulting in partially randomized structures having a preferential impact on stimulating cell migration in 3D porous structures for higher flow rates. This novel result demonstrates the potential new insights that can be gained via the modeling tool developed, and how the model can be used to perform what-if simulations to design AM structures to specific functional requirements. PMID:24664988

  6. Faithful Fathering in Trying Times: Religious Beliefs and Practices of Latter-Day Saint Fathers of Children with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollahite, David C.; Marks, Loren D.; Olson, Michael M.

    There has been relatively little social science research on the influence of religious beliefs and practices on fathering. This study examined narrative accounts obtained through in-depth interviews from 16 Mormon fathers of children with special needs in the context of Mormon religious belief and practice, research on stress and special needs…

  7. Balancing the Need for Reliability and Time Efficiency: Short Forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeyakumar, Sharon L. E.; Warriner, Erin M.; Raval, Vaishali V.; Ahmad, Saadia A.

    2004-01-01

    Tables permitting the conversion of short-form composite scores to full-scale IQ estimates have been published for previous editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Equivalent tables are now needed for selected subtests of the WAIS-III. This article used Tellegen and Briggs's formulae to convert the sum of scaled scores for four…

  8. A Lesson of Lost Political Capital in Public Higher Education: Leadership Challenges in a Time of Needed Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Mark; Jacobson, Rod

    2012-01-01

    All higher education institutions are struggling with a rapidly changing market and financial landscape. Here is a management-centered analysis of what happened when a college president, recognizing the need to make a radical adaptation to those changes, tried moving a campus community to a new organizational model, without collegial consensus,…

  9. Performance analysis for time-frequency MUSIC algorithm in presence of both additive noise and array calibration errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodja, Mohamed; Belouchrani, Adel; Abed-Meraim, Karim

    2012-12-01

    This article deals with the application of Spatial Time-Frequency Distribution (STFD) to the direction finding problem using the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC)algorithm. A comparative performance analysis is performed for the method under consideration with respect to that using data covariance matrix when the received array signals are subject to calibration errors in a non-stationary environment. An unified analytical expression of the Direction Of Arrival (DOA) error estimation is derived for both methods. Numerical results show the effect of the parameters intervening in the derived expression on the algorithm performance. It is particularly observed that for low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and high Signal to sensor Perturbation Ratio (SPR) the STFD method gives better performance, while for high SNR and for the same SPR both methods give similar performance.

  10. M Times Photon Subtraction-Addition Coherent Superposition Operated Odd-Schrődinger-cat State: Nonclassicality and Decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li; Guo, Qin; Jiang, Li-ying; Chen, Ge; Xu, Xue-xiang; Yuan, Wen

    2015-08-01

    We introduce a new non-Gaussian state (MCSO-OSCS), generated by m times coherent superposition operation acos θ + a †sin θ (MCSO) on odd-Schrődinger-cat state | α 0> - | - α 0>(OSCS), whose normalized constant is shown to be related to Hermite polynomials. We investigate the nonclassical properties of the MCSO-OSCS through Mandel's Q-parameter, quadrature squeezing, the photocount distribution and Wigner function (WF), which is turned out to be influenced by parameters m, θ and α 0. Especially the volume of negative region of WF could increase through controlling the parameters m, θ and α 0. We also investigate the decoherence of the MCSO-OSCS in terms of the fadeaway of the negativity of WF in a thermal environment.

  11. Zoom-TOFMS: addition of a constant-momentum-acceleration "zoom" mode to time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Elise A; Gundlach-Graham, Alexander W; Ray, Steven J; Enke, Christie G; Barinaga, Charles J; Koppenaal, David W; Hieftje, Gary M

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the performance of a new mass spectrometry concept called zoom time-of-flight mass spectrometry (zoom-TOFMS). In our zoom-TOFMS instrument, we combine two complementary types of TOFMS: conventional, constant-energy acceleration (CEA) TOFMS and constant-momentum acceleration (CMA) TOFMS to provide complete mass-spectral coverage as well as enhanced resolution and duty factor for a narrow, targeted mass region, respectively. Alternation between CEA- and CMA-TOFMS requires only that electrostatic instrument settings (i.e., reflectron and ion optics) and ion acceleration conditions be changed. The prototype zoom-TOFMS instrument has orthogonal-acceleration geometry, a total field-free distance of 43 cm, and a direct-current glow-discharge ionization source. Experimental results demonstrate that the CMA-TOFMS "zoom" mode offers resolution enhancement of 1.6 times over single-stage acceleration CEA-TOFMS. For the atomic mass range studied here, the maximum resolving power at full-width half-maximum observed for CEA-TOFMS was 1,610 and for CMA-TOFMS the maximum was 2,550. No difference in signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio was observed between the operating modes of zoom-TOFMS when both were operated at equivalent repetition rates. For a 10-kHz repetition rate, S/N values for CEA-TOFMS varied from 45 to 990 and from 67 to 10,000 for CMA-TOFMS. This resolution improvement is the result of a linear TOF-to-mass scale and the energy-focusing capability of CMA-TOFMS. Use of CMA also allows ions outside a given m/z range to be rejected by simple ion-energy barriers to provide a substantial improvement in duty factor.

  12. A Multiple Case Study Discovering Part-Time Faculties' Perceptions of Their Professional Needs, Working Conditions, Social Network, and Job Satisfaction at Three Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millner-Harlee, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    This study employed a multiple case study design to evaluate the perspectives of part-time faculties at three community colleges in the Northeast. The purpose of this study was to discover how needs, working conditions, and social networks influence the part-time faculties' job satisfaction. Maslow (1954), Bourdieu (1986), and Herzberg, Mausner,…

  13. How Need-Based Financial Aid Reduces College Attrition among Low-Income Public University Students: The Role of Time Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Harris, Douglas N.; Benson, James

    2011-01-01

    The authors examine whether a need-based financial grant distribution "at random" to 1,500 Wisconsin Pell Grant recipients attending 13 public universities had an impact on how they allocated their time devoted to (a) working, (b) studying, (c) sleeping, and (d) socializing. To test whether time use mediates the relationship between aid…

  14. Photopolarization of Fucus zygotes is determined by time sensitive vectorial addition of environmental cues during axis amplification.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Kenny A; Beeckman, Tom; De Clerck, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Fucoid zygotes have been extensively used to study cell polarization and asymmetrical cell division. Fertilized eggs are responsive to different environmental cues (e.g., light, gravity) for a long period before the polarity is fixed and the cells germinate accordingly. First, it is commonly believed that the direction and sense of the polarization vector are established simultaneously as indicated by the formation of an F-actin patch. Secondly, upon reorientation of the zygote, a new polar gradient is formed and it is assumed that the position of the future rhizoid pole is only influenced by the latter. Here we tested these two hypotheses investigating photopolarization in Fucus zygotes by reorienting zygotes 90° relative to a unilateral light source at different time points during the first cell cycle. We conclude that fixation of direction and sense of the polarization vector is indeed established simultaneously. However, the experiments yielded a distribution of polarization axes that cannot be explained if only the last environmental cue is supposed to determine the polarization axis. We conclude that our observations, together with published findings, can only be explained by assuming imprinting of the different polarization vectors and their integration as a vectorial sum at the moment of axis fixation. This way cells will average different serially perceived cues resulting in a polarization vector representative of the dynamic intertidal environment, instead of betting exclusively on the perceived vector at the moment of axis fixation.

  15. Photopolarization of Fucus zygotes is determined by time sensitive vectorial addition of environmental cues during axis amplification

    PubMed Central

    Bogaert, Kenny A.; Beeckman, Tom; De Clerck, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Fucoid zygotes have been extensively used to study cell polarization and asymmetrical cell division. Fertilized eggs are responsive to different environmental cues (e.g., light, gravity) for a long period before the polarity is fixed and the cells germinate accordingly. First, it is commonly believed that the direction and sense of the polarization vector are established simultaneously as indicated by the formation of an F-actin patch. Secondly, upon reorientation of the zygote, a new polar gradient is formed and it is assumed that the position of the future rhizoid pole is only influenced by the latter. Here we tested these two hypotheses investigating photopolarization in Fucus zygotes by reorienting zygotes 90° relative to a unilateral light source at different time points during the first cell cycle. We conclude that fixation of direction and sense of the polarization vector is indeed established simultaneously. However, the experiments yielded a distribution of polarization axes that cannot be explained if only the last environmental cue is supposed to determine the polarization axis. We conclude that our observations, together with published findings, can only be explained by assuming imprinting of the different polarization vectors and their integration as a vectorial sum at the moment of axis fixation. This way cells will average different serially perceived cues resulting in a polarization vector representative of the dynamic intertidal environment, instead of betting exclusively on the perceived vector at the moment of axis fixation. PMID:25691888

  16. Space Takes Time: Concentration Dependent Output Codes from Primary Olfactory Networks Rapidly Provide Additional Information at Defined Discrimination Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kevin C.; Bradley, Samual; Chapman, Phillip D.; Staudacher, Erich M.; Tiede, Regina; Schachtner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    As odor concentration increases, primary olfactory network representations expand in spatial distribution, temporal complexity and duration. However, the direct relationship between concentration dependent odor representations and the psychophysical thresholds of detection and discrimination is poorly understood. This relationship is absolutely critical as thresholds signify transition points whereby representations become meaningful to the organism. Here, we matched stimulus protocols for psychophysical assays and intracellular recordings of antennal lobe (AL) projection neurons (PNs) in the moth Manduca sexta to directly compare psychophysical thresholds and the output representations they elicit. We first behaviorally identified odor detection and discrimination thresholds across an odor dilution series for a panel of structurally similar odors. We then characterized spatiotemporal spiking patterns across a population of individually filled and identified AL PNs in response to those odors at concentrations below, at, and above identified thresholds. Using spatial and spatiotemporal based analyses we observed that each stimulus produced unique representations, even at sub-threshold concentrations. Mean response latency did not decrease and the percent glomerular activation did not increase with concentration until undiluted odor. Furthermore, correlations between spatial patterns for odor decreased, but only significantly with undiluted odor. Using time-integrated Euclidean distance (ED) measures, we determined that added spatiotemporal information was present at the discrimination but not detection threshold. This added information was evidenced by an increase in integrated distance between the sub-detection and discrimination threshold concentrations (of the same odor) that was not present in comparison of the sub-detection and detection threshold. After consideration of delays for information to reach the AL we find that it takes ~120–140 ms for the AL to

  17. Combined action of time-delay and colored cross-associated multiplicative and additive noises on stability and stochastic resonance for a stochastic metapopulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kang-Kang; Zong, De-Cai; Wang, Ya-Jun; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the transition between the stable state of a big density and the extinction state and stochastic resonance (SR) for a time-delayed metapopulation system disturbed by colored cross-correlated noises are investigated. By applying the fast descent method, the small time-delay approximation and McNamara and Wiesenfeld's SR theory, we investigate the impacts of time-delay, the multiplicative, additive noises and colored cross-correlated noise on the SNR and the shift between the two states of the system. Numerical results show that the multiplicative, additive noises and time-delay can all speed up the transition from the stable state to the extinction state, while the correlation noise and its correlation time can slow down the extinction process of the population system. With respect to SNR, the multiplicative noise always weakens the SR effect, while noise correlation time plays a dual role in motivating the SR phenomenon. Meanwhile, time-delay mainly plays a negative role in stimulating the SR phenomenon. Conversely, it could motivate the SR effect to increase the strength of the cross-correlation noise in the SNR-β plot, while the increase of additive noise intensity will firstly excite SR, and then suppress the SR effect.

  18. Assessing direct analysis in real-time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for the rapid identification of additives in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, L K; Noonan, G O; Begley, T H

    2009-12-01

    The ambient ionization technique direct analysis in real time (DART) was characterized and evaluated for the screening of food packaging for the presence of packaging additives using a benchtop mass spectrometer (MS). Approximate optimum conditions were determined for 13 common food-packaging additives, including plasticizers, anti-oxidants, colorants, grease-proofers, and ultraviolet light stabilizers. Method sensitivity and linearity were evaluated using solutions and characterized polymer samples. Additionally, the response of a model additive (di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate) was examined across a range of sample positions, DART, and MS conditions (temperature, voltage and helium flow). Under optimal conditions, molecular ion (M+H+) was the major ion for most additives. Additive responses were highly sensitive to sample and DART source orientation, as well as to DART flow rates, temperatures, and MS inlet voltages, respectively. DART-MS response was neither consistently linear nor quantitative in this setting, and sensitivity varied by additive. All additives studied were rapidly identified in multiple food-packaging materials by DART-MS/MS, suggesting this technique can be used to screen food packaging rapidly. However, method sensitivity and quantitation requires further study and improvement.

  19. Analysis of the time and workers needed to conduct systematic reviews of medical interventions using data from the PROSPERO registry

    PubMed Central

    Borah, Rohit; Brown, Andrew W; Capers, Patrice L; Kaiser, Kathryn A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To summarise logistical aspects of recently completed systematic reviews that were registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) registry to quantify the time and resources required to complete such projects. Design Meta-analysis. Data sources and study selection All of the 195 registered and completed reviews (status from the PROSPERO registry) with associated publications at the time of our search (1 July 2014). Data extraction All authors extracted data using registry entries and publication information related to the data sources used, the number of initially retrieved citations, the final number of included studies, the time between registration date to publication date and number of authors involved for completion of each publication. Information related to funding and geographical location was also recorded when reported. Results The mean estimated time to complete the project and publish the review was 67.3 weeks (IQR=42). The number of studies found in the literature searches ranged from 27 to 92 020; the mean yield rate of included studies was 2.94% (IQR=2.5); and the mean number of authors per review was 5, SD=3. Funded reviews took significantly longer to complete and publish (mean=42 vs 26 weeks) and involved more authors and team members (mean=6.8 vs 4.8 people) than those that did not report funding (both p<0.001). Conclusions Systematic reviews presently take much time and require large amounts of human resources. In the light of the ever-increasing volume of published studies, application of existing computing and informatics technology should be applied to decrease this time and resource burden. We discuss recently published guidelines that provide a framework to make finding and accessing relevant literature less burdensome. PMID:28242767

  20. Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of dry-cured Halal goat meat. Effect of salting time and addition of olive oil and paprika covering.

    PubMed

    Cherroud, Sanâa; Cachaldora, Aida; Fonseca, Sonia; Laglaoui, Amin; Carballo, Javier; Franco, Inmaculada

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this work was to define a simple technological process for dry-cured Halal goat meat elaboration. The aims of this study were to analyze physicochemical parameters and to enumerate the microbial population at the end of the different manufacturing processes (two salting times and the addition of olive oil and paprika covering) on 36 units of meat product. A total of 532 strains were isolated from several selective culture media and then identified using classical and molecular methods. In general, salt effect and the addition of olive oil and paprika were significant for all the studied microbial groups as well as on NaCl content and water activity. Molecular analysis proves that staphylococci, especially Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus equorum, were the most common naturally occurring microbiota. The best manufacturing process would be obtained with a longer salting time and the addition of the olive oil and paprika covering.

  1. The mouse is roaring. Internet technology is slashing the time it takes to get needed data to and from providers.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, J

    1999-08-09

    The process would have been highly costly and cumbersome, if not impossible, a couple of years ago. But a powerful combination of Internet technology and entrepreneurial enterprise is quickly connecting doctors and hospitals, slashing the time and expense it takes to share information and leading to quick, easy reaction by providers.

  2. There Is Enough Time: Accounting for Each Student's Learning Trajectory and Identity Needs With Proleptic-Ethnodrama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Sarah R.; Vu, Julie F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws upon an explanation of the proleptic, an understanding of time as being socially constructed within specific contexts, to interpret a series of dramatic sequences enacted in ethnodramatic pedagogy. The authors present two major arguments: (1) teachers can help students analyze the processes that influence and shape their…

  3. The Library Needs of Part-Time Students Preparing for Professional Examinations. Library Research Digest No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blagden, Pauline

    The City of London Polytechnic offers a number of part-time courses leading to qualifications awarded by professional associations and similar examining bodies. The majority of the courses are taught by the departments of accounting and finance, banking and insurance, transport studies, and marketing. There are also courses in biological sciences,…

  4. Psychological Needs as Mediators? The Relationship between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Well Being in People Diagnosed with Osteoporosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnell, Katie E.; Mack, Diane E.; Wilson, Philip M.; Adachi, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by reduced bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue resulting in compromised bone strength, increased fracture risk, and reduced well being. With evidence attesting to the positive effects of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) on biomedical health in people with…

  5. Barriers to Need-Based Financial Aid: Predictors of Timely FAFSA Completion among Low-Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeney, Mary; Heroff, John

    2013-01-01

    Access to financial aid is dependent on a variety of factors, including the time of application; the earlier students apply for financial aid, the greater their access to institutional and often state resources. We use the Illinois Monetary Award Program (MAP) as a case for investigating the economic, social, and academic factors that affect…

  6. Assessment of the time-dependent need for stay in a high dependency unit (HDU) after major surgery by using data from an anesthesia information management system.

    PubMed

    Betten, Jan; Roness, Aleksander Kirkerud; Endreseth, Birger Henning; Trønnes, Håkon; Tyvold, Stig Sverre; Klepstad, Pål; Nordseth, Trond

    2016-04-01

    Admittance to a high dependency unit (HDU) is expensive. Patients who receive surgical treatment with 'low anterior resection of the rectum' (LAR) or 'abdominoperineal resection of the rectum' (APR) at our hospital are routinely treated in an HDU the first 16-24 h of the postoperative (PO) period. The aim of this study was to describe the extent of HDU-specific interventions given. We included patients treated with LAR or APR at the St. Olav University Hospital (Trondheim, Norway) over a 1-year period. Physiologic data and HDU-interventions recorded during the PO-period were obtained from the anesthesia information management system (AIMS). HDU-specific interventions were defined as the need for respiratory support, fluid replacement therapy >500 ml/h, vasoactive medications, or a need for high dose opioids (morphine >7.5 mg/h i.v.). Sixty-two patients were included. Most patients needed HDU-specific interventions during the first 6 h of the PO period. After this, one-third of the patients needed one or more of the HDU-specific interventions for shorter periods of time. Another one-third of the patients had a need for HDU-specific therapies for more than ten consecutive hours, primarily an infusion of nor-epinephrine. Most patients treated with LAR or APR was in need of an HDU-specific intervention during the first 6 h of the PO-period, with a marked decline after this time period. The applied methodology, using an AIMS, demonstrates that there is great variability in individual patients' postoperative needs after major surgery, and that these needs are dynamic in their nature.

  7. The uncertain role of diversity dependence in species diversification and the need to incorporate time-varying carrying capacities

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Charles R.; Quental, Tiago B.

    2016-01-01

    There is no agreement among palaeobiologists or biologists as to whether, or to what extent, there are limits on diversification and species numbers. Here, we posit that part of the disagreement stems from: (i) the lack of explicit criteria for defining the relevant species pools, which may be defined phylogenetically, ecologically or geographically; (ii) assumptions that must be made when extrapolating from population-level logistic growth to macro-evolutionary diversification; and (iii) too much emphasis being placed on fixed carrying capacities, rather than taking into account the opportunities for increased species richness on evolutionary timescales, for example, owing to increased biologically available energy, increased habitat complexity and the ability of many clades to better extract resources from the environment, or to broaden their resource base. Thus, we argue that a more effective way of assessing the evidence for and against the ideas of bound versus unbound diversification is through appropriate definition of the relevant species pools, and through explicit modelling of diversity-dependent diversification with time-varying carrying capacities. Here, we show that time-varying carrying capacities, either increases or decreases, can be accommodated through changing intrinsic diversification rates (diversity-independent effects), or changing the effects of crowding (diversity-dependent effects). PMID:26977059

  8. The uncertain role of diversity dependence in species diversification and the need to incorporate time-varying carrying capacities.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Charles R; Quental, Tiago B

    2016-04-05

    There is no agreement among palaeobiologists or biologists as to whether, or to what extent, there are limits on diversification and species numbers. Here, we posit that part of the disagreement stems from: (i) the lack of explicit criteria for defining the relevant species pools, which may be defined phylogenetically, ecologically or geographically; (ii) assumptions that must be made when extrapolating from population-level logistic growth to macro-evolutionary diversification; and (iii) too much emphasis being placed on fixed carrying capacities, rather than taking into account the opportunities for increased species richness on evolutionary timescales, for example, owing to increased biologically available energy, increased habitat complexity and the ability of many clades to better extract resources from the environment, or to broaden their resource base. Thus, we argue that a more effective way of assessing the evidence for and against the ideas of bound versus unbound diversification is through appropriate definition of the relevant species pools, and through explicit modelling of diversity-dependent diversification with time-varying carrying capacities. Here, we show that time-varying carrying capacities, either increases or decreases, can be accommodated through changing intrinsic diversification rates (diversity-independent effects), or changing the effects of crowding (diversity-dependent effects).

  9. The influence of an additional load on time and force changes in the ground reaction force during the countermovement vertical jump.

    PubMed

    Vaverka, Frantisek; Jakubsova, Zlatava; Jandacka, Daniel; Zahradnik, David; Farana, Roman; Uchytil, Jaroslav; Supej, Matej; Vodicar, Janez

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how an additional load influences the force-vs-time relationship of the countermovement vertical jump (CMVJ). The participants that took part in the experiment were 18 male university students who played sport recreationally, including regular games of volleyball. They were asked to perform a CMVJ without involving the arms under four conditions: without and with additional loads of 10%, 20%, and 30% of their body weight (BW). The vertical component of the ground reaction force (GRF) was measured by a force plate. The GRF was used to calculate the durations of the preparatory, braking, and acceleration phases, the total duration of the jump, force impulses during the braking and acceleration phases, average forces during the braking and acceleration phases, and the maximum force of impact at landing. Results were evaluated using repeated-measures ANOVA. Increasing the additional load prolonged both the braking and acceleration phases of the jump, with statistically significant changes in the duration of the acceleration phase found for an additional load of 20% BW. The magnitude of the force systematically and significantly increased with the additional load. The force impulse during the acceleration phase did not differ significantly between jumps performed with loads of 20% and 30% BW. The results suggest that the optimal additional load for developing explosive strength in vertical jumping ranges from 20% to 30% of BW, with this value varying between individual subjects.

  10. Crystallization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in a flowing system: Influence of Cu2+ additives on induction time and crystalline phase transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usmany, Y.; Putranto, W. A.; Bayuseno, A. P.; Muryanto, S.

    2016-04-01

    Scaling of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is commonly found in piping systems in oil, gas, desalination and other chemical processes. The scale may create technical problems, leading to the reduction of heat transfer, increase of energy consumption and unscheduled equipment shutdown. This paper presents crystallization scaling experiments and evaluation of the effect of Cu2+ additives on the induction time and calcium carbonate transformation. The crystals precursors were prepared using equimolar of CaCl2 and Na2CO3 resulted in concentrations of 3000 ppm Ca2+ in the solution. The Cu2+ in amounts of 0, 1 and 10 ppm was separately added in the solution. The flow rates (20, 35, and 60 mL/min) and elevated temperatures (27, 35 and 45°C) were selected in the study. The induction time for crystallization of CaCO3 was observed by measuring the solution conductivity over time, while the phase transformation of calcium carbonate was examined by XRD method and SEM/EDX. It was found that the conductivity remained steady for a certain period reflecting to the induction time of crystal formation, and then decreased sharply afterwards,. The induction time was increased from 34 and 48 minutes in the presence of Cu additives (1 and 10 ppm), depending on the flow rates and temperature observed. In all the experiments, the Cu2+ addition leads to the reduction of mass of crystals. Apparently, the presence of Cu2+ could inhibit the CaCO3 crystallization. In the absence of Cu2+ and at elevated temperature, the crystals obtained were a mixture of vaterite and calcite. In the presence of Cu2+ and at elevated temperature, the crystals formed were aragonite and calcite. Here, the presence of Cu2+ additives might have controlled the crystal transformation of CaCO3.

  11. A test of basic psychological needs theory in young soccer players: time-lagged design at the individual and team levels.

    PubMed

    González, L; Tomás, I; Castillo, I; Duda, J L; Balaguer, I

    2016-09-27

    Within the framework of basic psychological needs theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) with a time-lagged design was used to test a mediation model examining the relationship between perceptions of coaches' interpersonal styles (autonomy supportive and controlling), athletes' basic psychological needs (satisfaction and thwarting), and indicators of well-being (subjective vitality) and ill-being (burnout), estimating separately between and within effects. The participants were 597 Spanish male soccer players aged between 11 and 14 years (M = 12.57, SD = 0.54) from 40 teams who completed a questionnaire package at two time points in a competitive season. Results revealed that at the individual level, athletes' perceptions of autonomy support positively predicted athletes' need satisfaction (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), whereas athletes' perceptions of controlling style positively predicted athletes' need thwarting (autonomy, competence, and relatedness). In turn, all three athletes' need satisfaction dimensions predicted athletes' subjective vitality and burnout (positively and negatively, respectively), whereas competence thwarting negatively predicted subjective vitality and competence and relatedness positively predicted burnout. At the team level, team perceptions of autonomy supportive style positively predicted team autonomy and relatedness satisfaction. Mediation effects only appeared at the individual level.

  12. Growth behavior of additional offspring with a beneficial reversal allele in the asymmetric sharply-peaked landscape in the coupled discrete-time mutation-selection model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Wonpyong

    2013-01-01

    The probability of additional offspring with a beneficial reversal allele for growing to a size NC for a range of population sizes N, sequence lengths L, selective advantages s, and measuring parameters C was calculated for a haploid, asexual population in the coupled discrete-time mutation-selection model in an asymmetric sharply-peaked landscape with a positive selective advantage of the reversal allele over the optimal allele. The growing probability in the stochastic region was inversely proportional to the measuring parameter when C < 1 /Ns, bent when C ≈ 1/ Ns and saturated when C > 1/ Ns. The crossing time and the time dependence of the increase in relative density of the reversal allele in the coupled discrete-time mutation-selection model was approximated using the Wright-Fisher two-allele model with the same selective advantage and corresponding effective mutation rate. The growth behavior of additional offspring with the reversal allele in the asymmetric sharply-peaked landscape in the coupled discrete-time mutation-selection model was controlled by the selective advantage of the reversal allele compared to the optimal allele and could be described by using the Wright-Fisher two-allele model, in spite of there being many other alleles with lower fitness, and in spite of there being two alleles, the optimal and reversal allele, separated by a low-fitness valley with a tunable depth and width.

  13. Time needed for first lichen colonization of terminal moraines in the Tröllaskagi peninsula (North Iceland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Nuria; Palacios, David; Brynjólfsson, Skafti; Sæmundsson, Þorsteinn

    2015-04-01

    The Tröllaskagi peninsula is located in Central North Iceland. The peninsula belong to the Tertiary basaltic areas in Iceland and is characterised by numerous glacially eroded valleys and fjords. The altitude ranges from sea level to 1500 m. Around 150 glaciers, debris covered glaciers and clean glaciers exist in the cirques of the Tröllaskagi peninsula. Lichenometric techniques were applied to date moraines formed by some of these glaciers, especially from 1970-90, establishing growth rates for some species, e.g. 0.5 mm/year for Rizocarpon geographicum. However there is no information available on how long the lichens take to colonize the boulders in a moraine once it has become detached from the retreating glacier. The aim of this paper is to observe how long it takes for the boulders on the moraines to be colonized by lichens in the Tröllaskagi peninsula, where the separation date of a moraine from the retreating glacier tongue is known. Two case studies were used. The first was the surging glacier Búrfellsjökull, in the Búrfelllsdalur valley, an affluent of the Svarfaðardalur valley. The Búrfellsjökull glacier surged in 2001-2004 and the glacial terminus advanced 150-240 m, overrunnig a moraine formed around 1955 and formed a new moraine. About 2-3 years after the surge termination in 2004 the glacial terminus was already retreating and had left the moraine isolated (Brynjólfsson et al. 2012). The other case is the Gljúlfurárjökull glacier, in the Gljúlfurárdalur valley, an affluent of the Skíðadalur valley. It can be seen from the series of aerial photographs that the glacier terminus advanced during the 1990s until the year 2000. In 2004 the glacial terminus was already retreating and had separated from a small moraine formed during the previous advance. Thus, two different glaciers halted and formed one moraine each which they separated from almost similar time. During the detailed field work carried out in August 2014 on both moraines

  14. Illness Mapping: a time and cost effective method to estimate healthcare data needed to establish community-based health insurance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most healthcare spending in developing countries is private out-of-pocket. One explanation for low penetration of health insurance is that poorer individuals doubt their ability to enforce insurance contracts. Community-based health insurance schemes (CBHI) are a solution, but launching CBHI requires obtaining accurate local data on morbidity, healthcare utilization and other details to inform package design and pricing. We developed the “Illness Mapping” method (IM) for data collection (faster and cheaper than household surveys). Methods IM is a modification of two non-interactive consensus group methods (Delphi and Nominal Group Technique) to operate as interactive methods. We elicited estimates from “Experts” in the target community on morbidity and healthcare utilization. Interaction between facilitator and experts became essential to bridge literacy constraints and to reach consensus. The study was conducted in Gaya District, Bihar (India) during April-June 2010. The intervention included the IM and a household survey (HHS). IM included 18 women’s and 17 men’s groups. The HHS was conducted in 50 villages with1,000 randomly selected households (6,656 individuals). Results We found good agreement between the two methods on overall prevalence of illness (IM: 25.9% ±3.6; HHS: 31.4%) and on prevalence of acute (IM: 76.9%; HHS: 69.2%) and chronic illnesses (IM: 20.1%; HHS: 16.6%). We also found good agreement on incidence of deliveries (IM: 3.9% ±0.4; HHS: 3.9%), and on hospital deliveries (IM: 61.0%. ± 5.4; HHS: 51.4%). For hospitalizations, we obtained a lower estimate from the IM (1.1%) than from the HHS (2.6%). The IM required less time and less person-power than a household survey, which translate into reduced costs. Conclusions We have shown that our Illness Mapping method can be carried out at lower financial and human cost for sourcing essential local data, at acceptably accurate levels. In view of the good fit of results

  15. Characterizing a switching reagent ion chemical ionization high resolution time of flight mass spectrometer: Standard additions, External calibrations, and Inlet response during SOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, P.; Farmer, D.

    2013-12-01

    A high-resolution time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HRToF-CIMS) with switching reagent ion source and low pressure, gas-phase inlet was deployed during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) in Brent, Alabama. Acetate chemistry was employed for the detection of small acids and iodine chemistry for the detection of peroxy acids. Switching between the two ion sources was found to be possible on less than ten minute time scales with minimal artifacts observed. Online calibrations for formic acid on both the acetate and iodine sources were performed every hour using both standard addition techniques as well as external standard calibrations; offline formic acid calibrations were also conducted. Inlet responses were investigated though a number of experiments finding that the inlet has minimal hysteresis and rapid response times.

  16. Effect of mobile phase additives on qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides by liquid chromatography hybrid quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan; Guan, Tianye; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yanna; Xing, Lu; Zheng, Xiao; Dai, Chen; Du, Ping; Rao, Tai; Zhou, Lijun; Yu, Xiaoyi; Hao, Kun; Xie, Lin; Wang, Guangji

    2013-07-05

    This study was to systematically investigate the effect of mobile phase additives, including ammonia water, formic acid, acetic acid, ammonium chloride and water (as a control), on qualitative and quantitative analysis of fifteen representative ginsenosides based on liquid chromatography hybrid quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF/MS). To evaluate the influence of mobile phase additives on qualitative performance, the quality of the negative mode MS/MS spectra of ginsenosides produced by online LC-Q-TOF/MS analyses, particularly the numbers and intensities of fragment ions, were compared under different adduct ion states, and found to be strongly affected by the mobile phase additives. When 0.02% acetic acid was added in the mobile phase, the deprotonated ginsenosides ions produced the most abundant product ions, while almost no product ion was observed for the chlorinated ginsenoside ions when 0.1mM ammonium chloride was used as the mobile phase additive. On the other hand, sensitivity, linear range and precision were adopted to investigate the quantitative performance affected by different mobile phase additives. Validation results of the LC-Q-TOF/MS-based quantitative performance for ginsenosides showed that ammonium chloride not only provided the highest sensitivity for all the target analytes, but also dramatically improved the linear ranges, the intra-day and inter-day precisions comparing to the results obtained using other mobile phase additives. Importantly, the validated method, using 0.1mM ammonium chloride as the mobile phase additive, was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in rat plasma after intragastric administration of Ginsenoside Extract at 200mg/kg. In conclusion, 0.02% acetic acid was deemed to be the most suitable mobile phase additive for qualitative analysis of ginsenosides, and 0.1mM ammonium chloride in mobile phase could lead to the best quantitative performance. Our results reveal that

  17. Rapid identification of additives in poly(vinyl chloride) lid gaskets by direct analysis in real time ionisation and single-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rothenbacher, Thorsten; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Gaskets for lids of glass jars usually consist of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) containing plasticisers and additional additives, which may migrate into packed foodstuffs. To conform to legal regulations, any such migration has to be determined analytically, which is a big challenge due to the huge chemical variety of additives in use. Therefore, a rapid screening method by means of direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS), using a single-quadrupole mass spectrometer, was developed. On introducing a plastisol sample into the DART interface, protonated molecules and ammonium adducts were obtained as the typical ionisation products of any additives present, and cleavages of ester bonds as typical fragmentation processes. Generally, additives present in the 1% range could be directly and easily identified if ion suppressive effects deriving from specific molecules did not occur. These effects could be avoided by analysing toluene extracts of plastisol samples, and this also improved the sensitivity. Using this method, it was possible to identify phthalates, fatty acid amides, tributyl O-acetylcitrate, dibutyl sebacate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate, 1,2-diisononyl 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylate, and even more complex additives like acetylated mono- and diacylglycerides, epoxidised soybean oil, and polyadipates, with a limit of detection of < or = 1% in PVC plastisols. Only in the case of epoxidised linseed oil were levels of > or = 5% required for identification. The detection of azodicarbonamide, used as a foaming agent within the manufacturing process, was possible in principle, but was not highly reproducible due to the very low concentrations in plastisols.

  18. Defense Science And Technology: Further DOD And DOE Actions Needed to Provide Timely Conference Decisions and Analyze Risks from Changes in Participation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    At DOE, a Sandia National Laboratories official estimated that Sandia attendance at a key conference declined by about half f rom 2011 through 2013...annual fall conference declined from 45 participants in 2011 to 23 participants in 2013. DEFENSE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Further DOD and DOE...Actions Needed to Provide Timely Conference Decisions and Analyze Risks from Changes in Participation Report to Congressional Committees

  19. All the Time They Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, Ellin Oliver

    2014-01-01

    "Reader, say something smart. Right now. Share a deep insight or a subtle point. Quick. No? OK (with obvious disappointment), I'll come back to you later. Anybody else?" We've all experienced this in school, the author notes--the teacher giving up, concluding that we weren't going to say something smart in the allotted…

  20. Mechanism Underlying Time-dependent Cross-phenomenon between Concentration-response Curves and Concentration Addition Curves: A Case Study of Sulfonamides-Erythromycin mixtures on Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Haoyu; Ge, Hongming; Zheng, Min; Lin, Zhifen; Liu, Ying

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have identified a phenomenon in which the concentration-response curves (CRCs) for mixtures cross the curves for concentration addition model when predicting or judging joint toxic actions. However, mechanistic investigations of this phenomenon are extremely limited. In this study, a similar phenomenon was observed when we determined the joint toxic actions of sulfonamides (SAs) and erythromycin (ERY) on Escherichia coli (E. coli), which we named the “cross-phenomenon”, and it was characterized by antagonism in the low-concentration range, addition in the medium-concentration range, and synergism in the high-concentration range. The mechanistic investigation of the cross-phenomenon was as follows: SAs and ERY could form a double block to inhibit the bacterial growth by exhibiting a synergistic effect; however, the hormetic effect of SAs on E. coli led to antagonism in the low-concentration range, resulting from the stimulation of sdiA mRNA expression by SAs, which increased the expression of the efflux pump (AcrAB-TolC) to discharge ERY. Furthermore, this cross-phenomenon was observed to be a time-dependent process induced by the increase of both the concentration and extent of stimulation of sdiA mRNA with exposure time. This work explains the dose-dependent and time-dependent cross-phenomenon and provides evidence regarding the interaction between hormesis and cross-phenomenon.

  1. Stochastic sampled-data control for synchronization of complex dynamical networks with control packet loss and additive time-varying delays.

    PubMed

    Rakkiyappan, R; Sakthivel, N; Cao, Jinde

    2015-06-01

    This study examines the exponential synchronization of complex dynamical networks with control packet loss and additive time-varying delays. Additionally, sampled-data controller with time-varying sampling period is considered and is assumed to switch between m different values in a random way with given probability. Then, a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) with triple integral terms is constructed and by using Jensen's inequality and reciprocally convex approach, sufficient conditions under which the dynamical network is exponentially mean-square stable are derived. When applying Jensen's inequality to partition double integral terms in the derivation of linear matrix inequality (LMI) conditions, a new kind of linear combination of positive functions weighted by the inverses of squared convex parameters appears. In order to handle such a combination, an effective method is introduced by extending the lower bound lemma. To design the sampled-data controller, the synchronization error system is represented as a switched system. Based on the derived LMI conditions and average dwell-time method, sufficient conditions for the synchronization of switched error system are derived in terms of LMIs. Finally, numerical example is employed to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  2. Mechanism Underlying Time-dependent Cross-phenomenon between Concentration-response Curves and Concentration Addition Curves: A Case Study of Sulfonamides-Erythromycin mixtures on Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Haoyu; Ge, Hongming; Zheng, Min; Lin, Zhifen; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have identified a phenomenon in which the concentration-response curves (CRCs) for mixtures cross the curves for concentration addition model when predicting or judging joint toxic actions. However, mechanistic investigations of this phenomenon are extremely limited. In this study, a similar phenomenon was observed when we determined the joint toxic actions of sulfonamides (SAs) and erythromycin (ERY) on Escherichia coli (E. coli), which we named the “cross-phenomenon”, and it was characterized by antagonism in the low-concentration range, addition in the medium-concentration range, and synergism in the high-concentration range. The mechanistic investigation of the cross-phenomenon was as follows: SAs and ERY could form a double block to inhibit the bacterial growth by exhibiting a synergistic effect; however, the hormetic effect of SAs on E. coli led to antagonism in the low-concentration range, resulting from the stimulation of sdiA mRNA expression by SAs, which increased the expression of the efflux pump (AcrAB-TolC) to discharge ERY. Furthermore, this cross-phenomenon was observed to be a time-dependent process induced by the increase of both the concentration and extent of stimulation of sdiA mRNA with exposure time. This work explains the dose-dependent and time-dependent cross-phenomenon and provides evidence regarding the interaction between hormesis and cross-phenomenon. PMID:27644411

  3. Suitability of live yeast addition to alleviate the adverse effects due to the restriction of the time of access to feed in sheep fed only pasture.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruchel, A; Repetto, J L; Cajarville, C

    2013-12-01

    The effect of yeast addition on intake and digestive utilization of pasture was studied in ovines under restricted time of access to forage. Eighteen wethers housed in metabolic cages and fed fresh forage (predominantly Lotus corniculatus) were randomly assigned to three treatments: forage available all day (AD); forage available only 6 h/day (R) and forage available only 6 h/day plus live Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (RY). Feed intake and digestibility, feeding behaviour, kinetics of passage, ruminal pH and ammonia concentration, nitrogen balance and microbial nitrogen synthesis (MNS) were determined in vivo, and ruminal liquor activity of animals was evaluated in vitro. Restricted animals consumed less than those fed all day but achieved more than 75% of the intake and spent less time ruminating (p = 0.014). Although animals without restriction consumed more feed, they had a lower rate of passage (p = 0.030). The addition of yeast did affect neither intake nor feeding behaviour, but increased digestibility. Organic matter digestibility tended to increase 11% by yeast addition (p = 0.051), mainly by a rise in NDF (27%, p = 0.032) and ADF digestibility (37%, p = 0.051). Ingested and retained N was lower in restricted animals, as MNS (p ≤ 0.045). The use of yeasts did not significantly change the N balance or MNS, but retained N tended to be higher in supplemented animals (p = 0.090). Neither ruminal pH nor ammonia concentrations were affected by the restriction, but restricted animals had a lower ruminal activity evidenced by a lower volume of gas (p = 0.020). The addition of yeast overcame this limitation, noted by a higher volume of gas of inocula from supplemented animals (p = 0.015). Yeast addition emerged as a useful tool to improve digestibility of forage cell walls in ovines under restricted time of access to forage.

  4. Assessing the efficacy over time of the addition of industrial by-products to remediate contaminated soils at a pilot-plant scale.

    PubMed

    González-Núñez, Raquel; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel

    2017-04-01

    The effect of the addition of industrial by-products (gypsum and calcite) on the leaching of As and metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb and Cd) in a soil contaminated by pyritic minerals was monitored over a period of 6 months at a two-pit pilot plant. The contaminated soil was placed in one pit (non-remediated soil), whereas a mixture of the contaminated soil (80% w/w) with gypsum (10% w/w) and calcite (10% w/w) was placed in the other pit (remediated soil). Soil samples and leachates of the two pits were collected at different times. Moreover, the leaching pattern of major and trace elements in the soil samples was assessed at laboratory level through the application of the pHstat leaching test. Addition of the by-products led to an increase in initial soil pH from around 2.0 to 7.5, and it also provoked that the concentration of trace elements in soil extracts obtained from the pHstat leaching test decreased to values lower than quantification limits of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and lower than the hazardous waste threshold for soil management. The trace element concentration in the pilot-plant leachates decreased over time in the non-remediated soil, probably due to the formation of more insoluble secondary minerals containing sulphur, but especially decreased in pit of the remediated soil, in agreement with laboratory data. The pH in the remediated soil remained constant over the 6-month period, and the X-ray diffraction analyses confirmed that the phases did not vary over time, thus indicating the efficacy of the addition of the by-products. This finding suggests that soil remediation may be a feasible option for the re-use of non-hazardous industrial by-products.

  5. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  6. Computer simulation for the growing probability of additional offspring with an advantageous reversal allele in the decoupled continuous-time mutation-selection model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Wonpyong

    2016-01-01

    This study calculated the growing probability of additional offspring with the advantageous reversal allele in an asymmetric sharply-peaked landscape using the decoupled continuous-time mutation-selection model. The growing probability was calculated for various population sizes, N, sequence lengths, L, selective advantages, s, fitness parameters, k and measuring parameters, C. The saturated growing probability in the stochastic region was approximately the effective selective advantage, s*, when C≫1/Ns* and s*≪1. The present study suggests that the growing probability in the stochastic region in the decoupled continuous-time mutation-selection model can be described using the theoretical formula for the growing probability in the Moran two-allele model. The selective advantage ratio, which represents the ratio of the effective selective advantage to the selective advantage, does not depend on the population size, selective advantage, measuring parameter and fitness parameter; instead the selective advantage ratio decreases with the increasing sequence length.

  7. Standard Addition Quantitative Real-Time PCR (SAQPCR): A Novel Approach for Determination of Transgene Copy Number Avoiding PCR Efficiency Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Changqing; Wang, Weiwei; Grierson, Donald; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has been previously applied to estimate transgene copy number in transgenic plants. However, the results can be erroneous owing to inaccurate estimation of PCR efficiency. Here, a novel qPCR approach, named standard addition qPCR (SAQPCR), was devised to accurately determine transgene copy number without the necessity of obtaining PCR efficiency data. The procedures and the mathematical basis for the approach are described. A recombinant plasmid harboring both the internal reference gene and the integrated target gene was constructed to serve as the standard DNA. It was found that addition of suitable amounts of standard DNA to test samples did not affect PCR efficiency, and the guidance for selection of suitable cycle numbers for analysis was established. Samples from six individual T0 tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were analyzed by SAQPCR, and the results confirmed by Southern blot analysis. The approach produced accurate results and required only small amounts of plant tissue. It can be generally applied to analysis of different plants and transgenes. In addition, it can also be applied to zygosity analysis. PMID:23308234

  8. Boar spermatozoa and prostaglandin F2alpha. Quality of boar sperm after the addition of prostaglandin F2alpha to the short-term extender over cooling time.

    PubMed

    Yeste, M; Briz, M; Pinart, E; Sancho, S; Garcia-Gil, N; Badia, E; Bassols, J; Pruneda, A; Bussalleu, E; Casas, I; Bonet, S

    2008-10-01

    Prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) has been used to improve reproductive performance in swine. The goal of the present work was to determine how the addition of PGF2alpha affects boar sperm quality. Eleven different treatments were evaluated: eight with only PGF2alpha (0.625, 1.25, 2.50, 5, 10, 12.50, 25 and 50mg PGF2alpha/100ml) and three binary treatments (0.625mg PGF2alpha/100ml+200microg/ml hyaluronic acid (HA), 1.25mg PGF2alpha/100ml+200microg/ml HA, 0.625mg PGF2alpha/100ml+7.5microM caffeine (Caf)). All these substances were added to 16 ejaculates from 16 healthy and sexually mature boars (n=16), and each ejaculate was considered as a replicate. Our study also assessed the effects of these 11 treatments over different periods of preservation. Sperm quality was tested immediately after the addition of treatments (time 0), and after 1, 3, 6 and 10 days of cooling at 15 degrees C. To evaluate sperm quality, five parameters were analysed: (1) sperm viability, acrosome and mitochondrial sheath integrity (using a multiple fluorochrome-staining test), (2) sperm motility, (3) sperm morphology and (4) agglutination (using a computer assisted system) and (5) osmotic resistance (using the ORT). Parametric (analysis of variance for repeated measures) and non-parametric tests (Friedman test) were used as statistical analyses. Treatments with PGF2alpha concentrations higher than 12.5mg/100ml were cytotoxic while the others did not damage boar spermatozoa. Thus, the other treatments may be used to produce profitable effects without adverse effects. Moreover, the addition of PGF2alpha at 5mg/100ml to sperm diluted in BTS may maintain sperm viability and motility better after 6 days of cooling, because significant differences were observed (P<0.05) compared with control at the same time.

  9. Additional in-series compliance reduces muscle force summation and alters the time course of force relaxation during fixed-end contractions.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, Dean L; Launikonis, Bradley S; Cresswell, Andrew G; Lichtwark, Glen A

    2016-11-15

    There are high mechanical demands placed on skeletal muscles in movements requiring rapid acceleration of the body or its limbs. Tendons are responsible for transmitting muscle forces, but, because of their elasticity, can manipulate the mechanics of the internal contractile apparatus. Shortening of the contractile apparatus against the stretch of tendon affects force generation according to known mechanical properties; however, the extent to which differences in tendon compliance alter force development in response to a burst of electrical impulses is unclear. To establish the influence of series compliance on force summation, we studied electrically evoked doublet contractions in the cane toad peroneus muscle in the presence and absence of a compliant artificial tendon. Additional series compliance reduced tetanic force by two-thirds, a finding predicted based on the force-length property of skeletal muscle. Doublet force and force-time integral expressed relative to the twitch were also reduced by additional series compliance. Active shortening over a larger range of the ascending limb of the force-length curve and at a higher velocity, leading to a progressive reduction in force-generating potential, could be responsible. Muscle-tendon interaction may also explain the accelerated time course of force relaxation in the presence of additional compliance. Our findings suggest that a compliant tendon limits force summation under constant-length conditions. However, high series compliance can be mechanically advantageous when a muscle-tendon unit is actively stretched, permitting muscle fibres to generate force almost isometrically, as shown during stretch-shorten cycles in locomotor activities. Restricting active shortening would likely favour rapid force development.

  10. Effects of spawn, supplement and phase II compost additions and time of re-casing second break compost on mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) yield and biological efficiency.

    PubMed

    Royse, Daniel J; Chalupa, William

    2009-11-01

    Three cropping experiments (0710, 0803 and 0805) were conducted to determine the effect of adding spawn, various levels of delayed release nutrient, and phase II compost to 2nd break mushroom compost (2BkC) on mushroom yield and biological efficiency (BE). We also investigated the effect of delaying time of re-casing non-supplemented and supplemented 2BkC on mushroom yields and BEs. The addition of 14.6% spawn to nutrient-supplemented 2BkC (w.w./d.w) increased yield by 11.1% over the control (no spawn) but did not affect BE. The addition of delayed release supplements to 2BkC increased maximum yields by 29-54%, depending on the treatment. Substitution of 15% phase II compost in 2BkC (15/85) did not significantly affect mushroom yields. However, use of 15% phase II compost in 2BkC increased the response of the mixture to delayed release supplement. Yield response to increasing levels of supplement was greater in the 15/85 mixture compared to 100% 2BkC. Yields also increased as time of re-casing was delayed up to 10 days. Mushroom yields increased approximately 2.1% for each day re-casing was delayed. Overall yields were generally higher from commercial 2BkC compared to 2BkC originating from the Penn State Mushroom Research Center (MRC) probably due to nitrogen (N) content of the 2BkC. Nitrogen content in commercial 2BkC (Crop 0805) was 3% while N content in 2BkC from Crops 0710 and 0803 was 2.2% and 2.1%, respectively. By optimizing supplement levels and adding 15% phase II compost to commercial 2BkC, or by delaying casing by 5-10 days, it was possible to obtain BEs that were equivalent to supplemented phase II compost.

  11. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  12. Effect of addition of lycopene to calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine as intracanal medicament on fracture resistance of radicular dentin at two different time intervals: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudhana, Koppolu; Archanagupta, Kasamsetty; Suneelkumar, Chinni; Lavanya, Anumula; Deepthi, Mandava

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long-term use of intracanal medicaments such as calcium hydroxide (CH) reduces the fracture resistance of dentin. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the fracture resistance of radicular dentin on long-term use of CH, chlorhexidine (CHX) with lycopene (LP). Aim: To compare the fracture resistance of radicular dentin when intracanal medicaments such as CH, CHX with LP were used for 1-week and 1-month time interval. Settings and Design: Sixty single-rooted extracted human permanent premolars were collected, and complete instrumentation was done. Samples were divided into three groups based on intracanal medicament used. Materials and Methods: Group 1 - no medicament was placed (CON), group 2 - mixture of 1.5 g of CH and 1 ml of 2% CHX (CHCHX), group 3 - mixture of 1.5 g of CH, 1 ml of CHX and 1 ml of 5% LP solution (CHCHXLP). After storage period of each group for 1-week and 1-month, middle 8 mm root cylinder was sectioned and tested for fracture resistance. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed using paired t-test. Results: At 1-month time interval, there was a statistically significant difference in fracture resistance between CHCHX and CHCHXLP groups. Conclusion: Addition of LP has not decreased the fracture resistance of radicular dentin after 1-month. PMID:26069405

  13. Level and predictors of agreement between patients and their dentists concerning need for replacement of teeth at the time of extraction.

    PubMed

    Trovik, Tordis Agnete; Klock, Kristin Solveig; Haugejorden, Ola

    2002-06-01

    The aims were to determine the level of agreement between patient and dentist about the need for a replacement of teeth at the time of extraction, and to identify and assess the effect of predictor variables on the level of agreement. Data were obtained from questionnaires. A systematic random sample of 1,500 Norwegian general dental practitioners were contacted, 67% of them responded and 75% of their patients. The final sample consisted of 427 patients (16-92 years old) and 224 dentists. Overall agreement was 62% of the cases and agreement about replacement 26%. Multiple logistic regression analysis with overall agreement as dependent variable identified tooth type (OR = 2.7 for anterior teeth versus molars, 95% CI: 1.3; 5.6 and OR = 1.9 for molars versus premolars, 95% CI: 1.2; 3.2), service sector, dentist's age and patient gender as significant predictors. Tooth type (OR = 36.0 for anterior teeth versus molars, 95% CI: 12.5; 104.0 and OR = 5.8 for premolars versus molars, 95% CI: 2.7; 12.3), service sector (OR = 7.0, 95% CI: 2.3; 21.1), the number of teeth extracted and the number of remaining natural teeth affected the likelihood of agreement about the need for replacement of extracted teeth. Predictors of no need for replacement were tooth type (OR = 6.7 for molars versus premolars, 95% CI: 3.3; 13.7) and the dentist's age (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2; 3.6). Clinical factors were the most important predictors of patients' and dentists' likelihood to agree about replacement, but service sector, dentist's age and patient's gender had also a significant impact on the level of agreement.

  14. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  15. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  16. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  17. Improving the extraction of Ara h 6 (a peanut allergen) from a chocolate-based matrix for immunosensing detection: Influence of time, temperature and additives.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rita C; Pimentel, Filipa B; Nouws, Henri P A; Silva, Túlio H B; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2017-03-01

    The extraction of Ara h 6 (a peanut allergen) from a complex chocolate-based food matrix was optimized by testing different temperatures, extraction times, and the influence of additives (NaCl and skimmed milk powder) in a total of 36 different conditions. Analyses were carried out using an electrochemical immunosensor. Three conditions were selected since they allowed the extraction of the highest levels of Ara h 6. These extractions were performed using 2g of sample and 20ml of Tris-HNO3 (pH=8) containing: a) 0.1M NaCl and 2g of skimmed milk powder at 21°C for 60min; b) 1M NaCl and 1g of skimmed milk powder at 21°C for 60min; and c) 2g of skimmed milk powder at 60°C for 60min. Recoveries were similar or higher than 94.7%. This work highlights the importance to adjust extraction procedures regarding the target analyte and food matrix components.

  18. Nutritional Needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic growth of infants during the 1st yr of life (a 3-fold increase in weight; a 50% increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from 1 yr of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. The needs for growth are superimposed on relatively high maintenance nee...

  19. Life and Death of the Resurrection Plate: Evidence for an Additional Plate in the NE Pacific in Paleocene-Eocene Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeussler, P. J.; Bradley, D. C.; Wells, R.; Rowley, D. B.; Miller, M.; Otteman, A.; Labay, K.

    2001-12-01

    We propose an additional plate in the northeastern Pacific Ocean in Paleocene-Eocene time. The Resurrection Plate, named after exposures of the Resurrection Peninsula ophiolite near Seward Alaska, was located northeast of the Kula Plate and north of the Farallon plate. We interpret concurrent near-trench magmatism in southern Alaska and the northwestern US as evidence for two slab windows associated with trench-ridge-trench (TRT) triple junctions that formed the boundaries of the Resurrection Plate. A compilation of geochronology from 100 Ma to the present from Alaska to Oregon displayed in movie form shows the following features. The Sanak-Baranof belt of near trench-intrusions in southern Alaska records a west to east migration of the northern TRT triple junction along a 2100-km-long section of coastline between 61-50 Ma. In Oregon, Washington, and southern Vancouver Island, voluminous basaltic volcanism of the Siletz River Volcanics, Crescent, and Metchosin Formations occurred between ~66-48 Ma. Lack of an age progression indicates this southern triple junction did not migrate significantly. Synchronous near-trench magmatism in southeastern Alaska, on southern Vancouver Island and beneath Puget Sound at ~50 Ma indicates a spreading center was subparallel to the margin of southeastern Alaska and British Columbia and was subducted all at once. We interpret 50 Ma as the approximate time of death of the Resurrection plate. The existence and demise of the Resurrection plate explains: 1) rapid northward terrane transport between 70 and 50 Ma; 2) uplift and magmatism in the Coast Mountains prior to 50 Ma; 3) cessation of magmatism in the Coast Mountains of BC and SE Alaska around 50 Ma; and 4) a major change in Pacific-North America plate motion and birth of the Queen Charlotte transform margin around 50 Ma. Death of the Resurrection plate was a contributing factor in the extensional collapse of the southern Canadian Cordilleran foreland fold and thrust belt after 50

  20. Classification of small lesions in dynamic breast MRI: Eliminating the need for precise lesion segmentation through spatio-temporal analysis of contrast enhancement over time.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Mahesh B; Huber, Markus B; Schlossbauer, Thomas; Leinsinger, Gerda; Krol, Andrzej; Wismüller, Axel

    2013-10-01

    Characterizing the dignity of breast lesions as benign or malignant is specifically difficult for small lesions; they don't exhibit typical characteristics of malignancy and are harder to segment since margins are harder to visualize. Previous attempts at using dynamic or morphologic criteria to classify small lesions (mean lesion diameter of about 1 cm) have not yielded satisfactory results. The goal of this work was to improve the classification performance in such small diagnostically challenging lesions while concurrently eliminating the need for precise lesion segmentation. To this end, we introduce a method for topological characterization of lesion enhancement patterns over time. Three Minkowski Functionals were extracted from all five post-contrast images of sixty annotated lesions on dynamic breast MRI exams. For each Minkowski Functional, topological features extracted from each post-contrast image of the lesions were combined into a high-dimensional texture feature vector. These feature vectors were classified in a machine learning task with support vector regression. For comparison, conventional Haralick texture features derived from gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) were also used. A new method for extracting thresholded GLCM features was also introduced and investigated here. The best classification performance was observed with Minkowski Functionals area and perimeter, thresholded GLCM features f8 and f9, and conventional GLCM features f4 and f6. However, both Minkowski Functionals and thresholded GLCM achieved such results without lesion segmentation while the performance of GLCM features significantly deteriorated when lesions were not segmented (p < 0.05). This suggests that such advanced spatio-temporal characterization can improve the classification performance achieved in such small lesions, while simultaneously eliminating the need for precise segmentation.

  1. Health Council of The Netherlands: no need to change from SAR to time-temperature relation in electromagnetic fields exposure limits.

    PubMed

    van Rhoon, Gerard C; Aleman, André; Kelfkens, Gert; Kromhout, Hans; Van Leeuwen, Flora E; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Wadman, Wytse J; Van De Weerdt, Rik D H J; Zwamborn, A Peter M; Van Rongen, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The Health Council of the Netherlands (HCN) and other organisations hold the basic assumption that induced electric current and the generation and absorption of heat in biological material caused by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields are the only causal effects with possible adverse consequences for human health that have been scientifically established to date. Hence, the exposure guidelines for the 10 MHz-10 GHz frequency range are based on avoiding adverse effects of increased temperatures that may occur of the entire human body at a specific absorption rate (SAR) level above 4 W/kg. During the workshop on Thermal Aspects of Radio Frequency Exposure on 11-12 January 2010 in Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA, the question was raised whether there would be a practical advantage in shifting from expressing the exposure limits in SAR to expressing them in terms of a maximum allowable temperature increase. This would mean defining adverse time-temperature thresholds. In this paper, the HCN discusses the need for this, considering six points: consistency, applicability, quantification, causality, comprehensibility and acceptability. The HCN concludes that it seems unlikely that a change of dosimetric quantity will help us forward in the discussion on the scientific controversies regarding the existence or non-existence of non-thermal effects in humans following long duration, low intensity exposure to electromagnetic fields. Therefore, the HCN favours maintaining the current approach of basic restrictions and reference levels being expressed as SAR and in V/m or µT, respectively.

  2. Incorporating measures of time-varying emissions to enhance top-down BC emissions: what is done well, what needs improvement, and what are the consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, J. B.; Xi, X.; Wang, C.

    2012-12-01

    Black Carbon (BC) and other absorbing aerosols uniquely impact the climate system by both scattering and absorbing solar radiation, leading to simultaneous heating and cooling of the climate system. A critical understanding of the emissions, processing, transport, and removal of these aerosols are necessary to increase our understanding of their impacts on climate system. However, BC is tricky to model: it has a mostly anthropogenic origin that is highly variable in both space and time. Furthermore, its atmospheric chemical and physical processing involves interaction with third-party chemical species. Finally, there is a strong correlation between uncertainty in prediction of the primary removal mechanism, precipitation, and those regions having the highest emissions, such as Monsoon regions of Asia. Recent work using a coupled climate/radiation/aerosol/urbanization model, data of BC concentrations and remotely sensed AAODs from more than 100 different sites, and a Kalman Filter, has lead to an average estimate of the BC average and uncertainty range of emissions. These average results ranged from about 200% to 300% the emissions currently used by the IPCC, AEROCOM, and GFED. The differences in the modeled concentrations, AAODs, radiative forcings, and climate response between these annual average different emissions levels, as well as the error bounds associated with the Kalman Filter emissions has been explored and will be summarized. Additionally, since absorbing aerosols are regionally and temporally non-uniform, an improved comparison between these differences will be highlighted using an additional data source: MISR AOD and a new analysis technique to mathematically constrain and identify unique temporally and spatially varying properties. These new constraints will be further combined with model runs under the different emissions scenarios to test the impacts of both annual average as well as more realistic cases of large-scale, season-to-season, and year

  3. Implications of Meeting California’s Greenhouse Gas Emission Goals in the Electricity Sector in 2050 and at the same time generating the Electricity needed by the State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, W. B.

    2009-12-01

    The State of California has promulgated strict greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction requirements in Assembly Bill 32 (AB32). AB32 states that by 2020 California GHG emissions will be reduced to 1990 levels, which is 427 MMt-CO2e/yr. The State has also passed Executive Order EO S-3-05, signed by Gov. Schwarzenegger that looks further into the future of GHG reduction goals in California. This executive order states that GHG emissions will be reduced to 20 % of 1990 levels by 2050, or to 85 MMt-CO2 e/yr. While not a legal regulatory requirement, meeting this stricter goal with much larger GHG emission reductions and at the same time providing for California’s electricity needs, would be a huge challenge. This poster examines potential issues that could arise should the State pursue compliance with this executive order. In this poster two GHG emission trajectories for California are developed. The trajectories are projected GHG emissions by sector from present to 2050. One trajectory shows the business-as-usual scenario, while the second trajectory attains the desired GHG emission rates that would be in compliance with EO S-3-05. While projections for all sectors are made, the focus of the poster is on the electrical energy sector. Today’s electrical energy portfolio is examined, and the associated GHG emissions from this sector are calculated from carbon emission factors. An important finding is that the emission factors for renewable sources of energy, while small, are not exactly zero, so that as the use of renewable energy sources grow, so do the CO2 emissions. As will be shown in the poster, these emissions are not trivial when compared to the goals of EO S-3-05. Then a 2050 energy portfolio for California is developed. Such a portfolio is not unique, and the strategy behind the particular portfolio developed is presented. Once the portfolio has been developed, issues associated with its attainment are identified and discussed. An example is the need for

  4. In situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction of tobermorite formation in autoclaved aerated concrete: Influence of silica source reactivity and Al addition

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Kunio; Kikuma, Jun; Tsunashima, Masamichi; Ishikawa, Tetsuji; Matsuno, Shin-ya; Ogawa, Akihiro; Sato, Masugu

    2011-05-15

    The hydrothermal formation of tobermorite during the processing of autoclaved aerated concrete was investigated by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. High-energy X-rays from a synchrotron radiation source in combination with a newly developed autoclave cell and a photon-counting pixel array detector were used. To investigate the effects of the silica source, reactive quartz from chert and less-reactive quartz from quartz sand were used as starting materials. The effect of Al addition on tobermorite formation was also studied. In all cases, C-S-H, hydroxylellestadite and katoite were clearly observed as intermediates. Acceleration of tobermorite formation by Al addition was clearly observed. However, Al addition did not affect the dissolution rate of quartz. Two pathways, via C-S-H and katoite, were also observed in the Al-containing system. These results suggest that the structure of initially formed C-S-H is important for the subsequent tobermorite formation reactions.

  5. Time-resolved XAFS spectroscopic studies of B-H and N-H oxidative addition to transition metal catalysts relevant to hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bitterwolf, Thomas E.

    2014-12-09

    Successful catalytic dehydrogenation of aminoborane, H3NBH3, prompted questions as to the potential role of N-H oxidative addition in the mechanisms of these processes. N-H oxidative addition reactions are rare, and in all cases appear to involve initial dative bonding to the metal by the amine lone pairs followed by transfer of a proton to the basic metal. Aminoborane and its trimethylborane derivative block this mechanism and, in principle, should permit authentic N-H oxidative attrition to occur. Extensive experimental work failed to confirm this hypothesis. In all cases either B-H complexation or oxidative addition of solvent C-H bonds dominate the chemistry.

  6. Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Ray, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on special needs instruction and technology: (1) "Hawaii Special Education Teacher Induction" (Kalena Oliva and Quinn Avery); (2) "The Impact of Group v Individual Use of Hypermedia-Based Instruction" (Lewis R. Johnson, Louis P. Semrau, and Gail E. Fitzgerald); (3) "Assistive…

  7. Needs Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunnag, Jane

    The discussion paper consists principally of two checklists of preoperational research needs for development projects in developing nations. (Preoperational research is focused on the possibility or feasibility of introducing a given innovation, its implications, and necessary modification.) The checklists, the first on factors relevant for…

  8. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  9. One-Time Addition of Nano-TiO2 Triggers Short-Term Responses in Benthic Bacterial Communities in Artificial Streams.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Alexandra; Adams, Erin; Binh, Chu Thi Thanh; Tong, Tiezheng; Gaillard, Jean-François; Gray, Kimberly A; Kelly, John J

    2016-02-01

    Nano-TiO2 is an engineered nanomaterial whose production and use are increasing rapidly. Hence, aquatic habitats are at risk for nano-TiO2 contamination due to potential inputs from urban and suburban runoff and domestic wastewater. Nano-TiO2 has been shown to be toxic to a wide range of aquatic organisms, but little is known about the effects of nano-TiO2 on benthic microbial communities. This study used artificial stream mesocosms to assess the effects of a single addition of nano-TiO2 (P25 at a final concentration of 1 mg l(-1)) on the abundance, activity, and community composition of sediment-associated bacterial communities. The addition of nano-TiO2 resulted in a rapid (within 1 day) decrease in bacterial abundance in artificial stream sediments, but bacterial abundance returned to control levels within 3 weeks. Pyrosequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes did not indicate any significant changes in the relative abundance of any bacterial taxa with nano-TiO2 treatment, indicating that nano-TiO2 was toxic to a broad range of bacterial taxa and that recovery of the bacterial communities was not driven by changes in community composition. Addition of nano-TiO2 also resulted in short-term increases in respiration rates and denitrification enzyme activity, with both returning to control levels within 3 weeks. The results of this study demonstrate that single-pulse additions of nano-TiO2 to aquatic habitats have the potential to significantly affect the abundance and activity of benthic microbial communities and suggest that interactions of TiO2 nanoparticles with environmental matrices may limit the duration of their toxicity.

  10. Alternating layer addition approach to CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots with near-unity quantum yield and high on-time fractions

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Peter M.; Liu, Wenhao; Zhao, Jing; Young, Elizabeth R.; Popović, Zoran; Walker, Brian

    2014-01-01

    We report single-particle photoluminescence (PL) intermittency (blinking) with high on-time fractions in colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QD) with conformal CdS shells of 1.4 nm thickness, equivalent to approximately 4 CdS monolayers. All QDs observed displayed on-time fractions > 60% with the majority > 80%. The high-on-time-fraction blinking is accompanied by fluorescence quantum yields (QY) close to unity (up to 98% in an absolute QY measurement) when dispersed in organic solvents and a monoexponential ensemble photoluminescence (PL) decay lifetime. The CdS shell is formed in high synthetic yield using a modified selective ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique that employs a silylated sulfur precursor. The CdS shell provides sufficient chemical and electronic passivation of the QD excited state to permit water solubilization with greater than 60% QY via ligand exchange with an imidazole-bearing hydrophilic polymer. PMID:24932403

  11. Growth of anatase and rutile phase TiO2 nanoparticles using pulsed laser ablation in liquid: Influence of surfactant addition and ablation time variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Amita; Joshi, M. P.; Mondal, P.; Sinha, A. K.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2017-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were grown using nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ti target in DI water and in 0.001 M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant aqueous solution. Growth was carried out with varying ablation times i. e. 30 min, 60 min and 90 min. The objective of our study was to investigate the influence of variations in liquid ambience conditions on the growth of the nanoparticles in a pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) process. Size, composition and optical properties of the grown TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), optical absorption, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The obtained nanoparticles of TiO2 were found almost spherical in shape and polycrystalline in nature in both the liquid mediums i.e. DI water and aqueous solution of surfactant. Nanoparticles number density was also found to increase with increasing ablation time in both the liquid mediums. However crystalline phase of the grown TiO2 nanoparticles differs with the change in liquid ambience conditions. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED), PL and XRD studies suggest that DI water ambience is favorable for the growth of anatase phase TiO2 nanoparticles for all ablation times. While Surfactant added water ambience is favorable for the growth of rutile phase TiO2 nanoparticles but for shorter ablation times of 30 min and 60 min only, for longer ablation time of 90 min anatase phase was also observed along with the rutile phase TiO2 nanoparticles. The formation of anatase phase in DI water and rutile and anatase phase in aqueous solution of surfactant is explained on the basis of varying thermodynamic conditions with the two different liquid ambiences and different ablation times.

  12. Reducing Perceptions of Time Required to Complete Math Assignments by Adding Problems to Assignments: A Synthesis of the Additive Interspersal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billington, Eric J.; Skinner, Christopher H.

    2006-01-01

    Results from nine experiments were analyzed to evaluate the relationship between relative problem completion rates (RPCR) and judgments of time involving mathematics assignments. For each experiment, control assignments contained only target mathematics computation or word problems. Matched experimental assignments contained similar target…

  13. Meeting Learners' Academic Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Examines five important student learning needs that are being met in an English language institute in Mexico. These needs include feeling important and secure in the learning environment, understanding learning goals, having time to integrate learning, understanding the learning process, and receiving feedback. (Author/VWL)

  14. Are C-loss rates from drained peatlands constant over time? The additive value of soil profile based and flux budget approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifeld, J.; Bader, C.; Borraz, E.; Hoffmann, M.; Giebels, M.; Sommer, M.; Augustin, J.

    2014-08-01

    Drained peatlands are CO2 hotspots and lose important soil functions over time. In contrast to mineral soils, their high carbon density induces long lasting and high emissions. These emissions can be estimated using various approaches which cover different system boundaries in time and space. Here we compare 5 years flux measurements from manual chambers with a soil profile based method to estimate carbon losses from two temperate fens under different management intensity drained at the end of the 19th century. According to the flux measurements, both grassland sites currently lose significant amounts of carbon as CO2 in the order of 7.1 and 9.1 t CO2-C ha-1a-1 when managed non-intensively or intensively, respectively. Profile based estimates, which make use of the difference in ash concentration along the soil profile, reveal a total of 284 and 619 t C ha-1 since the onset of drainage. These substantial losses are accompanied by a sharp decrease in peat quality as measured by NMR spectroscopy, confirming that a large part of former topsoil material is already mineralized. On average, the profile based estimate converts to smaller annual loss rates of 2.2 (non-intensive) and 4.8 t CO2-C ha-1a-1 (intensive) management. Our data, together with historical flux measurements at this site, provide evidence that peat decomposition rates increased over time, despite declining organic matter quality. We suggest that higher management intensities (i.e., higher fertilization and changes in carbon export from the field), including drainage, and increased mean annual temperature may be important factors for higher emissions today. These two methods are complementary in terms of time horizon and system boundary and, in conjunction, confirm the long-term emission potential of temperate drained organic grassland soils.

  15. Effect of non-starch-polysaccharide-degrading enzymes as feed additive on the rumen bacterial population in non-lactating cows quantified by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Zeitz, J O; Guertler, P; Pfaffl, M W; Eisenreich, R; Wiedemann, S; Schwarz, F J

    2013-12-01

    The effects of non-starch-polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, added to a maize silage- and grass silage-based total mixed ration (TMR) at least 14 h before feeding, on the rumen bacterial population were investigated. Six non-lactating Holstein Friesian cows were allocated to three treatment groups using a duplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design with three 31-day periods (29 days of adaptation and 2 days of sampling). Treatments were control TMR [69% forage and 31% concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis] or TMR with 13.8 or 27.7 ml/kg of feed DM of Roxazyme G2 liquid with activities (U/ml enzyme preparation) of xylanase 260 000, β-glucanase 180 000 and cellulase 8000 (DSM Nutritional Products, Basel, Switzerland). The concentrations of 16S rDNA of Anaerovibrio lipolytica, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Prevotella ruminicola, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Selenomonas ruminantium and Treponema bryantii, and their relative percentage of total bacteria in rumen samples obtained before feeding and 3 and 7 h after feeding and from two rumen fractions were determined using real-time PCR. Sampling time had only little influence, but bacterial numbers and the composition of the population differed between the transition layer between rumen fluid and the fibre mat (fraction A) and the rumen fluid (fraction B) highlighting the importance to standardize sampling. The 16S rDNA copies of total bacteria and the six bacterial species as well as the population composition were mainly unaffected by the high levels of exogenous enzymes supplemented at all sampling times and in both rumen fractions. Occasionally, the percentages of the non-fibrolytic species P. ruminicola and A. lipolytica changed in response to enzyme supplementation. Some increases in the potential degradability of the diet and decreases in lag time which occurred collaterally indicate that other factors than changes in numbers of non-particle-associated bacteria are mainly responsible for the effects of

  16. The Adult Learner in the University: Does Anybody Care? A Study of Need Based on an Investigation of the Facilities and Services Provided by the University of Toronto for Mature, Full-Time Undergraduate Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelhorne, Jean M.

    Responding to personal experiences as a full-time mature woman student at the University of Toronto, the author engaged in a preliminary probe to determine the needs and problems of older full-time undergraduates (especially women), to determine the response of university administrators, and to compare the findings with other university campuses.…

  17. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  18. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  19. Effect of zinc addition and vacuum annealing time on the properties of spin-coated low-cost transparent conducting 1 at% Ga-ZnO thin films.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Jitendra

    2013-12-01

    Pure and 1 at% gallium (Ga)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been prepared with a low-cost spin coating technique on quartz substrates and annealed at 500 °C in vacuum ∼10(-3) mbar to create anion vacancies and generate charge carriers for photovoltaic application. Also, 0.5-1.5 at% extra zinc species were added in the precursor sol to investigate changes in film growth, morphology, optical absorption, electrical properties and photoluminescence. It is shown that 1 at% Ga-ZnO thin films with 0.5 at% extra zinc content after vacuum annealing for 60 min correspond to wurtzite-type hexagonal structure with (0001) preferred orientation, electrical resistivity of ∼9 × 10(-3) Ω cm and optical transparency of ∼65-90% in the visible range. Evidence has been advanced for the presence of defect levels within bandgap such as zinc vacancy (VZn), zinc interstitial (Zni), oxygen vacancy (Vo) and oxygen interstitial (Oi). Further, variation in ZnO optical bandgap occurring with Ga doping and insertion of additional zinc species has been explained by invoking two competing phenomena, namely bandgap widening and renormalization, usually observed in semiconductors with increasing carrier concentration.

  20. Effect of zinc addition and vacuum annealing time on the properties of spin-coated low-cost transparent conducting 1 at% Ga–ZnO thin films

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Jitendra

    2013-01-01

    Pure and 1 at% gallium (Ga)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been prepared with a low-cost spin coating technique on quartz substrates and annealed at 500 °C in vacuum ∼10−3 mbar to create anion vacancies and generate charge carriers for photovoltaic application. Also, 0.5–1.5 at% extra zinc species were added in the precursor sol to investigate changes in film growth, morphology, optical absorption, electrical properties and photoluminescence. It is shown that 1 at% Ga–ZnO thin films with 0.5 at% extra zinc content after vacuum annealing for 60 min correspond to wurtzite-type hexagonal structure with (0001) preferred orientation, electrical resistivity of ∼9 × 10−3 Ω cm and optical transparency of ∼65–90% in the visible range. Evidence has been advanced for the presence of defect levels within bandgap such as zinc vacancy (VZn), zinc interstitial (Zni), oxygen vacancy (Vo) and oxygen interstitial (Oi). Further, variation in ZnO optical bandgap occurring with Ga doping and insertion of additional zinc species has been explained by invoking two competing phenomena, namely bandgap widening and renormalization, usually observed in semiconductors with increasing carrier concentration. PMID:27877622

  1. Effect of zinc addition and vacuum annealing time on the properties of spin-coated low-cost transparent conducting 1 at% Ga-ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Jitendra

    2013-12-01

    Pure and 1 at% gallium (Ga)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been prepared with a low-cost spin coating technique on quartz substrates and annealed at 500 °C in vacuum ˜10-3 mbar to create anion vacancies and generate charge carriers for photovoltaic application. Also, 0.5-1.5 at% extra zinc species were added in the precursor sol to investigate changes in film growth, morphology, optical absorption, electrical properties and photoluminescence. It is shown that 1 at% Ga-ZnO thin films with 0.5 at% extra zinc content after vacuum annealing for 60 min correspond to wurtzite-type hexagonal structure with (0001) preferred orientation, electrical resistivity of ˜9 × 10-3 Ω cm and optical transparency of ˜65-90% in the visible range. Evidence has been advanced for the presence of defect levels within bandgap such as zinc vacancy (VZn), zinc interstitial (Zni), oxygen vacancy (Vo) and oxygen interstitial (Oi). Further, variation in ZnO optical bandgap occurring with Ga doping and insertion of additional zinc species has been explained by invoking two competing phenomena, namely bandgap widening and renormalization, usually observed in semiconductors with increasing carrier concentration.

  2. Rheological characterization of concentrated aqueous beta-tricalcium phosphate suspensions: the effect of liquid-to-powder ratio, milling time, and additives.

    PubMed

    Baroud, G; Cayer, E; Bohner, M

    2005-05-01

    The field of injectable calcium phosphate suspensions and cements is experiencing vigorous research activity. This is stimulated by their importance for the cement augmentation procedure (vertebroplasty), which is an emerging procedure to treat osteoporotic fragility fractures. The rheological properties such as the yield stress and viscosity play an important role in the process of cement delivery and infiltration into the cancellous bone cavities. However, the number of studies relating to their rheological properties is very limited. The objective of this first study was to examine the effects of the following three variables on the rheological properties of a non-setting beta-tricalcium phosphate suspension: liquid-to-powder ratio, milling of powder particles, and additives. The broad finding is that all the variables affect the rheological properties remarkably. The more specific salient finding is the large variation in viscosity and in the yield stress. The viscosity spanned three orders of magnitude and the yield stress spanned five orders of magnitude. It appears that the rheological properties can be altered at will. However, one has to exercise extreme caution because these changes are not without cost to other important properties such as the cohesiveness and mechanical properties of the cement. Another important finding is that a linear correlation between the yield stress and the viscosity was found. Measurement of one of these variables might be enough to determine the other.

  3. Translation of a laboratory-validated equine herpesvirus-1 specific real-time PCR assay into an insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) assay for point-of-need diagnosis using POCKIT™ nucleic acid analyzer.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Lee, Pei-Yu Alison; Tsai, Yun-Long; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Shen, Yu-Han; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Skillman, Ashley; Wang, Hwa-Tang Thomas; Pronost, Stéphane; Zhang, Yan

    2017-03-01

    Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a major problem for the equine industry in the United States, is caused by equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1). In addition, EHV-1 is associated with upper respiratory disease, abortion, and chorioretinal lesions in horses. Here we describe the development and evaluation of an inexpensive, user-friendly insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR) method targeting open reading 30 (ORF30) to detect both neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic strains on the field-deployable POCKIT™ device for point-of-need detection of EHV-1. The analytical sensitivity of the EHV-1 iiPCR assay was 13 genome equivalents per reaction. The assay did not cross react with ten non-target equine viral pathogens. Performance of the EHV-1 iiPCR assay was compared to two previously described real-time PCR (qPCR) assays in two laboratories by using 104 archived clinical samples. All 53 qPCR-positive and 46 of the 51 qPCR-negative samples tested positive and negative, respectively, by the iiPCR. The agreement between the two assays was 95.19% (confidence interval 90.48-99.90%) with a kappa value of 0.90. In conclusion, the newly developed EHV-1 iiPCR assay is robust to provide specificity and sensitivity comparable to qPCR assays for the detection of EHV-1 nucleic acid in clinical specimens.

  4. Defense Satellite Communications: DOD Needs Additional Information to Improve Procurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    commercial satellite communications (SATCOM), or bandwidth, is fragmented and inefficient. Historically, commercial SATCOM was used to augment military...leased commercial SATCOM services to augment military capacity; however, DOD has become increasingly reliant upon commercial SATCOM to support...military constellation. DSCS III capability was augmented by commercial SATCOM in support of US military operations abroad, such as Operation Desert

  5. 20 CFR 1002.104 - Is the employee required to accommodate his or her employer's needs as to the timing, frequency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Eligibility For Reemployment Period of Service § 1002.104 Is the employee required to accommodate his or her... concerns over the timing, frequency, or duration of the employee's service to the attention of...

  6. Part-Time Work and the High School Student: Costs, Benefits and Future. A Review of the Literature and Research Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Stephen B.

    This report assesses the literature on part-time work by high school students, describing the various types of studies that have been undertaken on this topic over the last 20 years. Most of the studies reviewed are from the United States or Canada, although a few are from the United Kingdom or Australia. Earlier studies were more likely to be…

  7. States Need to Fill in the Gaps on Expanded Learning Time: Troubling Lack of Detail Seen in No Child Left Behind Waiver Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Schedule redesign is only one small part of the much larger approach to turning around low-performing schools. Even so, most states' No Child Left Behind waiver applications show a disappointing lack of detail on learning time. While they've done some careful thinking about schedule redesign, states must continue to think critically and…

  8. Extending the Trans-Contextual Model in Physical Education and Leisure-Time Contexts: Examining the Role of Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Hagger, Martin S.; Lambropoulos, George; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2010-01-01

    Background: The trans-contextual model (TCM) is an integrated model of motivation that aims to explain the processes by which agentic support for autonomous motivation in physical education promotes autonomous motivation and physical activity in a leisure-time context. It is proposed that perceived support for autonomous motivation in physical…

  9. A Prospective, Descriptive, Quality Improvement Study to Investigate the Impact of a Turn-and-Position Device on the Incidence of Hospital-acquired Sacral Pressure Ulcers and Nursing Staff Time Needed for Repositioning Patients.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kimberly D; Clark, Rebecca C

    2016-11-01

    Patients in critical care areas are at risk for developing hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs) due to their physical conditions and limited ability to reposition themselves. A prospective, 2-phase quality improvement study was conducted from September to November 2011 and from February to April 2012 in 1 medical and 1 surgical ICU to investigate the impact of a turn-and-assist device on the incidence of HAPUs and the time and personnel required to reposition patients reported as person/minutes (staff x minutes). A consecutive, convenience sample of patients was selected from newly admitted ICU patients who were at least 18 years old, nonambulatory, and required 2 or more people to assist with turning and repositioning. Sociodemographic data (patient age, gender, height, weight, body mass index, incontinence status); total Braden score and subscores for Activity, Mobility, and Moisture on admission; length of ICU stay and ventilator days; and sacral pressure ulcer incidence and stage and turn-and-assist data were collected. Fifty (50) patients participated in each phase. In phase 1, standard care for positioning included pillows, underpads, standard low-air-loss beds and additional staff as required for turning. In phase 2, the study product replaced standard care repositioning products including pillows; and a larger disposable moisture-wicking underpad (included as part of the turn study project kit) was substituted for the smaller, standard moisture-wicking disposable underpad. Turning procedures were timed with a stopwatch. Data were collected for a total of 32 hours during the observation periods; all patients were followed from admission until discharge from the ICU for a maximum of 14 days. T-tests were used to compare patient characteristics and person-minutes needed for repositioning differences, and Fisher's exact test was used to compare the incidence of sacral HAPUs during phase 1 and phase 2 of the study. No statistically significant

  10. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  11. The need to examine metastatic tissue at the time of progression of breast cancer: is re-biopsy a necessity or a luxury?

    PubMed

    Khasraw, Mustafa; Brogi, Edi; Seidman, Andrew D

    2011-02-01

    Knowledge of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status is necessary for determining the optimal treatment of breast cancer patients. At the same time, the discordance between marker profiles (ER/PR and HER2) of primary and metastatic breast cancer is well documented. Whether discordant cases are secondary to "clonal selection" in the face of targeted anti-estrogen or anti-HER2 therapy or whether they are a laboratory artifact is still debated; both scenarios are likely. This article outlines current modalities for ER, PR, and HER2 testing in primary breast carcinoma and its metastases and reviews prospective and retrospective studies that have addressed these issues, as well as recent advances in the field.

  12. Recruiting and retaining geoscience students at a large public university: Balancing the needs of first-time freshman and upper-division transfer students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, D. D.; Clemens-Knott, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Geological Sciences at California State University, Fullerton (CSUF) is one of the largest geology programs in the state. Approximately 4,000 students at CSUF take general education geology classes; this provides a large pool from which to recruit undergraduate students for either the Geology B.S. or Earth Sciences B.A. offered by the department. The department has seen a dramatic increase in majors over the last decade, from a low of 28 majors in 2002 to more than 110 in 2012. This increase does not appear to be driven by growth in the oil industry; in a recent survey of CSUF geoscience (BS or BA) students, 15% of respondents indicated an interest in a career in petroleum. The department has engaged in aggressive recruitment and outreach efforts over the last decade, with activities ranging from earthquake preparedness rallies in conjunction with the annual California ShakeOut, to an emerging high school and community college intern program at the department's paleontology curation facility. Despite these efforts, the majority of CSUF geoscience students declared the geology major after taking an introductory physical geology course either at CSUF or a local community college. Over the last ten years, approximately 50% of the geoscience majors at CSUF transferred from a community college. Among the geoscience students who began their career at CSUF, only one third had declared a geoscience major in their freshman year. Over two thirds of geoscience majors at CSUF declared their major after completing more than 60 units. The strong tendency for students to declare a geoscience major late in their career poses significant challenges to students' ability to graduate in a timely manner. To mitigate this problem, the department has an aggressive advising program, wherein students attend mandatory advising with a faculty member every semester. The department is also working closely with community college partners to improve the preparation of transfer

  13. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  14. Electrochemical performance evaluations and safety investigations of pentafluoro(phenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene as a flame retardant electrolyte additive for application in lithium ion battery systems using a newly designed apparatus for improved self-extinguishing time measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagger, Tim; Lürenbaum, Constantin; Schappacher, Falko M.; Winter, Martin

    2017-02-01

    A modified self-extinguishing time (SET) device which enhances the reproducibility of the results is presented. Pentafluoro(phenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene (FPPN) is investigated as flame retardant electrolyte additive for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in terms of thermal stability and electrochemical performance. SET measurements and adiabatic reaction calorimetry are applied to determine the flammability and the reactivity of a standard LIB electrolyte containing 5% FPPN. The results reveal that the additive-containing electrolyte is nonflammable for 10 s whereas the commercially available reference electrolyte inflames instantaneously after 1 s of ignition. The onset temperature of the safety enhanced electrolyte is delayed by ≈ 21 °C. Compatibility tests in half cells show that the electrolyte is reductively stable while the cyclic voltammogram indicates oxidative decomposition during the first cycle. Cycling experiments in full cells show improved cycling performance and rate capability, which can be attributed to cathode passivation during the first cycle. Post-mortem analysis of the electrolyte by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry confirms the presence of the additive in high amounts after 501 cycles which ensures enhanced safety of the electrolyte. The investigations present FPPN as stable electrolyte additive that improves the intrinsic safety of the electrolyte and its cycling performance at the same time.

  15. Time to Face the Need for Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Christy D.

    2012-01-01

    Today the author received the umpteenth parental request from a mother wanting help with her child who is reading far above grade level and yet remains in an on-grade-level reading group. The frustration from this and every other parent who has spoken to the author about this subject is palatable. Parents want what is best for their child, but in…

  16. Management Needs for Computer Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Alice J.

    University management has many and varied needs for effective computer services in support of their processing and information functions. The challenge for the computer center managers is to better understand these needs and assist in the development of effective and timely solutions. Management needs can range from accounting and payroll to…

  17. Children's understanding of additive concepts.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Katherine M; Dubé, Adam K; Beatch, Jacqueline-Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most research on children's arithmetic concepts is based on one concept at a time, limiting the conclusions that can be made about how children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic develops. This study examined six arithmetic concepts (identity, negation, commutativity, equivalence, inversion, and addition and subtraction associativity) in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Identity (a-0=a) and negation (a-a=0) were well understood, followed by moderate understanding of commutativity (a+b=b+a) and inversion (a+b-b=a), with weak understanding of equivalence (a+b+c=a+[b+c]) and associativity (a+b-c=[b-c]+a). Understanding increased across grade only for commutativity and equivalence. Four clusters were found: The Weak Concept cluster understood only identity and negation; the Two-Term Concept cluster also understood commutativity; the Inversion Concept cluster understood identity, negation, and inversion; and the Strong Concept cluster had the strongest understanding of all of the concepts. Grade 3 students tended to be in the Weak and Inversion Concept clusters, Grade 4 students were equally likely to be in any of the clusters, and Grade 5 students were most likely to be in the Two-Term and Strong Concept clusters. The findings of this study highlight that conclusions about the development of arithmetic concepts are highly dependent on which concepts are being assessed and underscore the need for multiple concepts to be investigated at the same time.

  18. Use of NaHCO3 and MgO as additives for sheep fed only pasture for a restricted period of time per day: effects on intake, digestion and the rumen environment.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruchel, A; Repetto, J L; Cajarville, C

    2014-12-01

    Effects of NaHCO3 and MgO buffer addition on intake and digestive utilization of a pasture were studied in wethers allowed a restricted time of access to forage. Twelve wethers housed in metabolic cages and fed fresh forage (predominantly Lotus corniculatus) ad libitum for 6 h/d were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: a control forage without buffer (C) or a forage plus buffer composed of a mixture of 750 g/kg NaHCO3 and 250 g/kg MgO at 20 g/kg dry matter intake (B). Feeding behaviour, feed and water intake and digestibility, urine output, Na urine elimination, kinetics of passage, ruminal pH and ammonia concentration, N balance and ruminal microbial N synthesis were determined in vivo, and the ruminal liquor activity was evaluated in vitro by fermentation of wheat straw. Addition of buffer increased total water intake (p = 0.05), Na urinary output (p = 0.01), purine derivative excretion in urine (p = 0.05) and tended to decrease mean total retention time in the digestive tract (p = 0.09). However, buffer addition increased ruminal pH (p < 0.001) and tended to decrease the ammonia concentration (p = 0.05). That use of buffer decreased ruminal activity was evidenced by a lower volume of gas produced in vitro (p = 0.01) possibly due to a lower microbial concentration in rumen liquor. The higher rumen dilution rate, likely due to a higher water intake, seems to have been the key driver of the actions of buffer supplementation on the rumen environment. Moreover, addition of NaHCO3 led to an increased urinary Na excretion, which should be considered due to its likely negative environmental impacts.

  19. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a lactobacillus additive an anaerobic sludge digestion under normal, variable, and overload operating conditions. The additive was a whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with CaCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid. The lactobacillus additive is multifunctional in nature and provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. The experimental work consisted of several pairs of parallel mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion runs (control and test) conducted in five experimental phases. Baseline runs without the additive showed that the two experimental digesters had the same methane content, gas production rate (GPR), and ethane yield. The effect of the additive was to increase methane yield and GPR by about 5% (which was statistically significant) during digester operation at a loading rate (LR) of 3.2 kg VS/m/sup 3/-day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. Data collected from the various experimental phases showed that the biochemical additive increased methane yield, gas production rate, and VS reduction, and decreased volatile acids accumulation. In addition, it enhanced digester buffer capacity and improved the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue.

  20. Liquid chromatography coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and post-column addition of metal salt solutions as a powerful tool for the metabolic profiling of Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Cirigliano, Adriana M; Rodriguez, M Alejandra; Gagliano, M Laura; Bertinetti, Brenda V; Godeas, Alicia M; Cabrera, Gabriela M

    2016-03-25

    Fusarium oxysporum L11 is a non-pathogenic soil-borne fungal strain that yielded an extract that showed antifungal activity against phytopathogens. In this study, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (API-QTOF-MS) was applied for the comprehensive profiling of the metabolites from the extract. The employed sources were electrospray (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). Post-column addition of metal solutions of Ca, Cu and Zn(II) was also tested using ESI. A total of 137 compounds were identified or tentatively identified by matching their accurate mass signals, suggested molecular formulae and MS/MS analysis with previously reported data. Some compounds were isolated and identified by NMR. The extract was rich in cyclic peptides like cyclosporins, diketopiperazines and sansalvamides, most of which were new, and are reported here for the first time. The use of post-column addition of metals resulted in a useful strategy for the discrimination of compound classes since specific adducts were observed for the different compound families. This technique also allowed the screening for compounds with metal binding properties. Thus, the applied methodology is a useful choice for the metabolic profiling of extracts and also for the selection of metabolites with potential biological activities related to interactions with metal ions.

  1. A pilot study of cytoreductive chemotherapy combined with infusion of additional peripheral blood stem cells reserved at time of harvest for transplantation in case of relapsed hematologic malignancies after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Kim, J G; Sohn, S K; Kim, D H; Lee, N Y; Suh, J S; Lee, K S; Lee, K B

    2004-01-01

    Reharvesting leukocytes from donors for a donor leukocyte infusion (DLI) is inconvenient and occasionally impossible in case of unrelated donors. It is well known that the effect of a growth factor-primed DLI is comparable to that of a nonprimed DLI. In total, 42 patients with hematologic malignancies and a high risk of relapse were allocated, on an intent-to-treat basis, a peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) from HLA-matched sibling donors, and then at the time of harvest, additional peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) were also reserved for a therapeutic primed DLI in case of relapse. In all, 12 patients who relapsed after allogeneic PBSCT were treated with mainly cytarabine-based chemotherapy followed by a cryopreserved PBSC infusion. The median dose of CD3+ and CD34+ cells for the primed DLIs was 1.43 x 10(8)/kg and 4.75 x 10(6)/kg, respectively. Six of the 12 relapsed patients exhibited a complete response after the primed DLI, plus their 1-year survival rate was 33%. The new development or progression of graft-versus-host disease after a primed DLI was observed in 50% of the patients. Overall, the survival at 1 year was 16.7%. Accordingly, the induction of a graft-versus-leukemia effect through a primed DLI, using additional PBSCs reserved at the original time of harvest, would appear to be feasible for patients with relapsed hematologic malignancies. Furthermore, this approach is also more convenient for donors.

  2. Regional Needs Analysis Report. 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) is required to develop a comprehensive and ongoing needs assessment process to analyze demand for additional degrees and programs [RCW 28B.76.230 (1)]. This report fulfills a portion of that mandate by focusing on employer demand on the regional level, but also includes additional information on…

  3. On the Standard Rounding Rule for Addition and Subtraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Wei; Mulliss, Christopher L.; Chu, Hung-Chih

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the commonly suggested rounding rule for addition and subtraction including its derivation from a basic assumption. Uses Monte-Carlo simulations to show that this rule predicts the minimum number of significant digits needed to preserve precision 100% of the time. (Author/KHR)

  4. Global Neurosurgery: The Unmet Need.

    PubMed

    Park, Kee B; Johnson, Walter D; Dempsey, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    Globally, the lack of access to basic surgical care causes 3 times as much deaths as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria combined. The magnitude of this unmet need has been described recently, and the numbers are startling. Major shifts in global health agenda have highlighted access to essential and emergency surgery as a high priority. A broad examination of the current global neurosurgical efforts to improve access has revealed some strengths, particularly in the realm of training; however, the demand grossly outstrips the supply; most people in low-income countries do not have access to basic surgical care, either due to lack of availability or affordability. Projects that help create a robust and resilient health system within low- and middle-income countries require urgent implementation. In this context, concurrent scale-up of human resources, investments in capacity building, local data collection, and analysis for accurate assessment are essential. In addition, through process of collaboration and consensus building within the neurosurgical community, a unified voice of neurosurgery is necessary to effectively advocate for all those who need neurosurgical care wherever, whenever.

  5. Relating Needs Assessment and Needs Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger; Valentine, Glenn

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the necessity of relating needs assessment and needs analysis in performance management. Topics discussed include measurable objectives; the identification and selection of needs; performance improvement; the Organizational Elements Model (OEM), which helps to identify means and ends; and training requirements analysis. (eight…

  6. Vocational Counseling Needs of Young Women as Perceived by Working Business and Professional Women. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haczynski, Sharon L.

    Designed to determine the additional competencies women need to obtain jobs and advance in them, a study focused on the counseling needs of young women as perceived by the membership of the Wisconsin Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs comprised of 2,700 women who are working part-time, full-time, or in partnership. The…

  7. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  8. Screening of additives in plastics with high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry and different ionization sources: direct probe injection (DIP)-APCI, LC-APCI, and LC-ion booster ESI.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana; Jonkers, Tim; Covaci, Adrian; de Boer, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    Plastics are complex mixtures consisting of a polymer and additives with different physico-chemical properties. We developed a broad screening method to elucidate the nature of compounds present in plastics used in electrical/electronic equipment commonly found at homes (e.g., electrical adaptors, computer casings, heaters). The analysis was done by (a) solvent extraction followed by liquid chromatography coupled to high accuracy/resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) with different ionization sources or (b) direct analysis of the solid by ambient mass spectrometry high accuracy/resolution TOFMS. The different ionization methods showed different selectivity and sensitivity for the different compound classes and were complementary. A variety of antioxidants, phthalates, UV filters, and flame retardants were found in most samples. Furthermore, some recently reported impurities or degradation products derived from flame retardants were identified, such as hydroxylated triphenyl phosphate and tetrabromobisphenol A monoglycidyl ether.

  9. Future needs for biomedical transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooten, F. T.

    1971-01-01

    In summary there are three major classes of transducer improvements required: improvements in existing transducers, needs for unexploited physical science phenomena in transducer design, and needs for unutilized physiological phenomena in transducer design. During the next decade, increasing emphasis will be placed on noninvasive measurement in all of these areas. Patient safety, patient comfort, and the need for efficient utilization of the time of both patient and physician requires that noninvasive methods of monitoring be developed.

  10. NEEDS - Information Adaptive System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, W. L.; Benz, H. F.; Meredith, B. D.

    1980-01-01

    The Information Adaptive System (IAS) is an element of the NASA End-to-End Data System (NEEDS) Phase II and is focused toward onboard image processing. The IAS is a data preprocessing system which is closely coupled to the sensor system. Some of the functions planned for the IAS include sensor response nonuniformity correction, geometric correction, data set selection, data formatting, packetization, and adaptive system control. The inclusion of these sensor data preprocessing functions onboard the spacecraft will significantly improve the extraction of information from the sensor data in a timely and cost effective manner, and provide the opportunity to design sensor systems which can be reconfigured in near real-time for optimum performance. The purpose of this paper is to present the preliminary design of the IAS and the plans for its development.

  11. Hypoglycemia education needs.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Leslie; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen

    2011-09-01

    Because more than half of those participating in a community-based diabetes session expressed experience with hypoglycemia, we sought additional information by conducting focus groups before developing programs or materials for educational support. The objectives of these focus groups were to determine how and to what extent hypoglycemia affected people, and what, if any, methods were used to prevent or treat the condition, to better target education in the future. Four focus groups were held using a tiered discussion script with a moderator and comoderator. Discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed by content by independent researchers. Five themes emerged from the discussions: friends, family, and neighbors need hypoglycemia education as well as individuals themselves; leaving home is a concern if you experience hypoglycemia; overeating occurs when treating hypoglycemia; routine is important; and hypoglycemia is a limitation. We found that hypoglycemia had a significant impact on the participants' quality of life.

  12. Environmental restoration and statistics: Issues and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, R.O.

    1991-10-01

    Statisticians have a vital role to play in environmental restoration (ER) activities. One facet of that role is to point out where additional work is needed to develop statistical sampling plans and data analyses that meet the needs of ER. This paper is an attempt to show where statistics fits into the ER process. The statistician, as member of the ER planning team, works collaboratively with the team to develop the site characterization sampling design, so that data of the quality and quantity required by the specified data quality objectives (DQOs) are obtained. At the same time, the statistician works with the rest of the planning team to design and implement, when appropriate, the observational approach to streamline the ER process and reduce costs. The statistician will also provide the expertise needed to select or develop appropriate tools for statistical analysis that are suited for problems that are common to waste-site data. These data problems include highly heterogeneous waste forms, large variability in concentrations over space, correlated data, data that do not have a normal (Gaussian) distribution, and measurements below detection limits. Other problems include environmental transport and risk models that yield highly uncertain predictions, and the need to effectively communicate to the public highly technical information, such as sampling plans, site characterization data, statistical analysis results, and risk estimates. Even though some statistical analysis methods are available off the shelf'' for use in ER, these problems require the development of additional statistical tools, as discussed in this paper. 29 refs.

  13. Adults Need Vaccines, Too!

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Adult Vaccinations Adults Need Vaccines, Too! Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... of the millions of adults not receiving the vaccines you need? What vaccines do you need? All ...

  14. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  15. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  16. ELF and Community Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kharma, Nayef

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of the English language needs of the Arab world looks at two general kinds of needs: societal and educational-cultural. Some major needs analysis studies conducted in the Arab world, particularly that of the Gulf region, are reviewed. The need for comprehensive research in this area, for the purpose of curriculum design, is emphasized.…

  17. Needs of Seeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    The "Needs of Seeds" formative assessment probe can be used to find out whether students recognize that seeds have needs both similar to and different from plants and other living organisms (Keeley, Eberle, and Tugel 2007). The probe reveals whether students overgeneralize the needs of seeds by assuming they have the same needs as the adult plants…

  18. Supplier Selection Using Weighted Utility Additive Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karande, Prasad; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem which mainly involves evaluating a number of available suppliers according to a set of common criteria for choosing the best one to meet the organizational needs. For any manufacturing or service organization, selecting the right upstream suppliers is a key success factor that will significantly reduce purchasing cost, increase downstream customer satisfaction and improve competitive ability. The past researchers have attempted to solve the supplier selection problem employing different MCDM techniques which involve active participation of the decision makers in the decision-making process. This paper deals with the application of weighted utility additive (WUTA) method for solving supplier selection problems. The WUTA method, an extension of utility additive approach, is based on ordinal regression and consists of building a piece-wise linear additive decision model from a preference structure using linear programming (LP). It adopts preference disaggregation principle and addresses the decision-making activities through operational models which need implicit preferences in the form of a preorder of reference alternatives or a subset of these alternatives present in the process. The preferential preorder provided by the decision maker is used as a restriction of a LP problem, which has its own objective function, minimization of the sum of the errors associated with the ranking of each alternative. Based on a given reference ranking of alternatives, one or more additive utility functions are derived. Using these utility functions, the weighted utilities for individual criterion values are combined into an overall weighted utility for a given alternative. It is observed that WUTA method, having a sound mathematical background, can provide accurate ranking to the candidate suppliers and choose the best one to fulfill the organizational requirements. Two real time examples are illustrated to prove

  19. Transient design of landfill liquid addition systems.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pradeep; Townsend, Timothy G; Tolaymat, Thabet M

    2014-09-01

    This study presents the development of design charts that can be used to estimate lateral and vertical spacing of liquids addition devices (e.g., vertical well, horizontal trenches) and the operating duration needed for transient operating conditions (conditions until steady-state operating conditions are achieved). These design charts should be used in conjunction with steady-state design charts published earlier by Jain et al. (2010a, 2010b). The data suggest that the liquids addition system operating time can be significantly reduced by utilizing moderately closer spacing between liquids addition devices than the spacing needed for steady-state conditions. These design charts can be used by designers to readily estimate achievable flow rate and lateral and vertical extents of the zone of impact from liquid addition devices, and analyze the sensitivity of various input variables (e.g., hydraulic conductivity, anisotropy, well radius, screen length) to the design. The applicability of the design charts, which are developed based on simulations of a continuously operated system, was also evaluated for the design of a system that would be operated intermittently (e.g., systems only operated during facility operating hours). The design charts somewhat underestimates the flow rate achieved and overestimates the lateral extent of the zone of impact over an operating duration for an intermittently operated system. The associated estimation errors would be smaller than the margin of errors associated with measurement of other key design inputs such as waste properties (e.g., hydraulic conductivity) and wider variation of these properties at a given site due to heterogeneous nature of waste.

  20. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  1. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  2. Who needs Medicaid?

    PubMed

    Rogers, D E; Blendon, R J; Moloney, T W

    1982-07-01

    Faced by a worsening economy and a powerful public mandate to decrease taxes and non-defense government expenditures, many are calling for additional cuts in spending for Medicaid-a large, not very popular program that pays for the medical care of many of the nation's poor. Available evidence suggests that Medicaid has been far more valuable than is commonly realized: It serves a broad cross-section of the American people, its adoption coincides with major improvements in the health of Americans, and its costs per recipient are about the same as the costs of care per person for all Americans of similar age. Not widely recognized is the program's importance to the financial well-being (if not the very survival) of any major teaching hospitals and the majority of nursing homes in this country. Public and professional awareness of the accomplishments of this program may be a crucial factor in determining whether the cuts will spare many of the gains in access to medical care that have been made during the past two decades. If we do not wish to reduce needed medical services to the poor, health-care institutions and health professionals will have to cooperate with each other and with the government in developing less costly ways of delivering high-quality care.

  3. Women need health education.

    PubMed

    1980-05-01

    Groups of 15-20 women in Dacca, Bangladesh received a 2-week training program in basic health and nutrition in addition to advice on contraceptive methods and use. Contraceptives were also supplied. There were 18 field teams at work, operating in 24 union councils around Dacca city. The basic health training included 1 week of theoretical classes on sore eyes, scabies and parasites. The 2nd week was devoted to practical application and demonstration. At this time the mothers were given the formula to prepare saline water -- oral rehydration fluid. The mothers then prepared the saline and used it for the children in case of any diarrheal incidence in the community. It was the experience of the fieldworkers of the Concerned Women for Family Planning (CWFP) that the communities under their program live under unsanitary conditions.

  4. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  5. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  6. Dimensions of Educational Need.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Roe L., Ed.; And Others

    Roe L. Johns and J. Alan Thomas survey the problem of educational need; and Kern Alexander considers the implications of the dimensions of educational need for school financing. Dimensions of need in the following areas are defined: early childhood and basic elementary and secondary education, by William P. McLure; educational programs for…

  7. Assessing Special Educational Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfendale, Sheila, Ed.

    This essays in this book contain valuable and up-to-date information about current issues and developments in assessing special educational needs. The context of the book is the mainstream setting in the United Kingdom. The aim of these chapters is to consider special needs in inclusive education, consistent with British special needs legislation.…

  8. XY Needs in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neidlinger, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This project examined the unique needs of boys in education. Biologically and physically, male students' developmental needs differ from their female counterparts. As a result, their educational needs are typically underserved and misunderstood in the standard co-educational classroom. This misunderstanding has led to a gap in educational…

  9. Time Manager Software for a Flight Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoerne, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Data analysis is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data to highlight useful information and suggest conclusions. Accurate timestamps and a timeline of vehicle events are needed to analyze flight data. By moving the timekeeping to the flight processor, there is no longer a need for a redundant time source. If each flight processor is initially synchronized to GPS, they can freewheel and maintain a fairly accurate time throughout the flight with no additional GPS time messages received. How ever, additional GPS time messages will ensure an even greater accuracy. When a timestamp is required, a gettime function is called that immediately reads the time-base register.

  10. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  11. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  12. Meeting Regulatory Needs.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michael Fred

    2017-02-01

    The world is experiencing change at an unprecedented pace, as reflected in social, cultural, economic, political, and technological advances around the globe. Regulatory agencies, like the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), must also transform in response to and in preparation for these changes. In 2014, the NRC staff commenced Project Aim 2020 to transform the agency by enhancing efficiency, agility, and responsiveness, while accomplishing NRC's safety and security mission. Following Commission review and approval in 2015, the NRC began implementing the approved strategies, including strategic workforce planning to provide confidence that NRC will have employees with the right skills and talents at the right time to accomplish the agency's mission. Based on the work conducted so far, ensuring an adequate pipeline of radiation protection professionals is a significant need that NRC shares with states and other government agencies, private industry, academia, as well as international counterparts. NRC is working to ensure that sufficient radiation protection professionals will be available to fulfill its safety and security mission and leverage the work of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, the Health Physics Society, the Organization of Agreement States, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Nuclear Energy Agency, and others.

  13. Global trends, needs, issues.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, R G

    1998-01-01

    Worldwide, Pharmaceutical Plant Management struggles with the competing priorities of lowering costs, rising customer expectations, more demanding government regulations, and the need to reduce cycle times especially in the introduction of new products. All of this takes place in an environment of global competition, regulatory harmonization, mergers and downsizing, and employee insecurity. Employees are expected to do more with less, work with more sophisticated equipment and processes, take more personal responsibility for quality and productivity, work in teams, etc. In summary, we are talking about CHANGE, the speed of which will accelerate in the years to come. This presentation will discuss how some pharmaceutical plants are addressing these challenges. Examples will be given in the areas of validation, process reengineering, risk analysis, role of the quality function and people. It is my contention that most of the global trends today are insufficient to meet the challenges that we face. I hope that this presentation will generate some ideas on what the global trends should be.

  14. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  15. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  16. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  17. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  18. Meeting Teen Sleep Needs Creatively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Amy R.; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2005-01-01

    Research on the sleep needs of adolescents and the influence of sleep on learning and behavior have captured the interest of school districts nationwide and in other countries as well. As a result, school officials are being urged to acknowledge the evidence and to adjust school schedules accordingly (e.g., to delay high school start times). The…

  19. Maslow, Needs, and War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-28

    man desires to be met. These desired needs begin with self - esteem issues but ultimately lead to self -actualization, or the perfection of capability...leads an individual to self -confidence and adequacy, while failing to achieve leads to inferiority and feelings of helplessness.21 Esteem needs are more...sovereignty, than it would to support (or export) its values, or its self - esteem or actualization needs. So, what are the implications? Agents ith their

  20. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  1. Publishers: Save Authors' Time.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2017-02-02

    Scientific journals ask authors to put their manuscripts, at the submission stage, sometimes in a complex style and a specific pagination format that are time consuming while it is unclear yet that the submitted manuscripts will be accepted. In the case of rejections, authors need to submit to another journal most likely with a different style and formatting that require additional work and time. To save authors' time, publishers should allow authors to submit their manuscripts in any format and to comply with the style required by the targeted journal only in revised versions, but not at the submission step when the manuscripts are not yet approved for publication.

  2. Robust stability under additive perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.

  3. Diesel injector additives for a clean exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Herbstman, S.; Virk, K.S.

    1988-08-01

    Increased public awareness of clean air is causing closer examination of potential health problems associated with diesel exhaust particulates. Recently, the EPA published standards mandating a sixfold reduction in diesel exhaust particulates for heavy duty engines from 0.60 gm/bhp-hr in 1988-1990 to 0.10 gm/bhp-hr in 1994. NOx exhaust concentrations were also reduced. For some time now, we have been interested in ways to reduce black smoke from diesel engines since it is one of the prime contributors to exhaust particulates. One of its causes is dirty or clogged fuel injectors due to deposit buildup. During operation with dirty injectors, the spray pattern of fuel into the combustion chamber is distorted, usually resulting in a fuel-rich environment. Incomplete burning of the rich fuel mixture results in an excess of carbonaceous material which is discharged in the exhaust as black smoke. We are engaged in evaluating additives with detergency and antioxidant properties to reduce deposit buildup in the injectors. Long chain alkylamines, and other types of surfactant molecules have been reported as active in preventing deposit buildup. However, little practical information was available concerning structure-activity relationships for use in developing a commercially acceptable additive package. We decided to investigate additives which are active either as gasoline carburetor detergents or as lubricant dispersants; both categories appear to have the necessary surfactant behavior and oil solubility to satisfy our needs for a diesel injector keep clean agent. Our approach to the problem was to develop an additive package for future use in Texaco fuels to reduce black smoke.

  4. Assessing Campus Counseling Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrar, William R.; Affsprung, Eric H.; Long, Jeffrey C.

    2010-01-01

    Campus mental health needs are in the spotlight. Whether the nature and severity of problems presenting in college counseling centers are increasing or not, it is important to provide appropriate services for the campus as a whole. By surveying the general campus population, a better basis for determining the needs of students can be established…

  5. CELSS science needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    Questions and areas of study that need to be persued in order to develope a Controlled Ecological Life Support System are posed. Research topics needing attention are grouped under various leadings: ecology, genetics, plant pathology, cybernetics, chemistry, computer science, fluid dynamics, optics, and solid-state physics.

  6. Youth Friendly Needs Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artz, Sibylle; Nicholson, Diana; Halsall, Elaine; Larke, Susan

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a needs assessment guide that is user-friendly, facilitates the development of the youth-counsellor relationship, and is sensitive to gender, sexual orientation and cultural diversity. Through a three-phase collaborative process with counsellors and youth, the major issues in needs assessment were uncovered…

  7. Employer Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Richard A.

    In 1990, Cuesta College (CC) conducted a needs assessment of local employers to determine the type of work done by their employees, number of employees, hiring plans, the current level of employee training, and training needs. The mailed survey had 266 usable responses for a 40.9% return rate. Study findings included the following: (1) 31% of the…

  8. Women Student Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franck, Robin

    1981-01-01

    Discusses women students' needs in higher education by analyzing the responses of 500 women university students to a survey on role models and conflict in their roles as student, employee, mate, and family member. Relates study findings to the needs of community college students. (WL)

  9. The University Needs "You"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Allen

    2009-01-01

    Colleges and universities need English education professors who know what it is to teach five classes a day, accommodate IEPs, and still take on extracurricular activities. They need English education professors who not only present at NCTE Annual Conventions, but who also want to be in schools talking to teachers on a regular basis. They need…

  10. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  11. Determination of hydrologic properties needed to calculate average linear velocity and travel time of ground water in the principal aquifer underlying the southeastern part of Salt Lake Valley, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freethey, G.W.; Spangler, L.E.; Monheiser, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    A 48-square-mile area in the southeastern part of the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, was studied to determine if generalized information obtained from geologic maps, water-level maps, and drillers' logs could be used to estimate hydraulic conduc- tivity, porosity, and slope of the potentiometric surface: the three properties needed to calculate average linear velocity of ground water. Estimated values of these properties could be used by water- management and regulatory agencies to compute values of average linear velocity, which could be further used to estimate travel time of ground water along selected flow lines, and thus to determine wellhead protection areas around public- supply wells. The methods used to estimate the three properties are based on assumptions about the drillers' descriptions, the depositional history of the sediments, and the boundary con- ditions of the hydrologic system. These assump- tions were based on geologic and hydrologic infor- mation determined from previous investigations. The reliability of the estimated values for hydro- logic properties and average linear velocity depends on the accuracy of these assumptions. Hydraulic conductivity of the principal aquifer was estimated by calculating the thickness- weighted average of values assigned to different drillers' descriptions of material penetrated during the construction of 98 wells. Using these 98 control points, the study area was divided into zones representing approximate hydraulic- conductivity values of 20, 60, 100, 140, 180, 220, and 250 feet per day. This range of values is about the same range of values used in developing a ground-water flow model of the principal aquifer in the early 1980s. Porosity of the principal aquifer was estimated by compiling the range of porosity values determined or estimated during previous investigations of basin-fill sediments, and then using five different values ranging from 15 to 35 percent to delineate zones in the study area that were assumed to

  12. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  13. Using the number needed to treat in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Douglas L; Noteboom, J Timothy

    2004-10-01

    The number needed to treat (NNT) is gaining attention as a method of reporting the results of clinical trails with dichotomous outcome measures. The NNT is defined as the number of patients who would need to be treated, on average, with a specific intervention to prevent 1 additional bad outcome or to achieve 1 desirable outcome in a given time period. Because it reports outcomes in terms of patient numbers, it is extremely useful to clinicians for making decisions about the effort expended with a particular intervention to achieve a single positive outcome. This special communication describes the NNT statistic and its utility for choosing clinical interventions.

  14. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  15. Fluency with Basic Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza-Kling, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, learning basic facts has focused on rote memorization of isolated facts, typically through the use of flash cards, repeated drilling, and timed testing. However, as many experienced teachers have seen, "drill alone does not develop mastery of single-digit combinations." In contrast, a fluency approach to learning basic addition…

  16. Robot Technicians: Is There a Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minty, Gordon

    1987-01-01

    The study attempted to determine needs for training robotic technicians in Michigan. The survey had three parts: (1) needed technical specialities, (2) current problems with robot maintenance and repair, and (3) number of robots needed to keep a full-time technician occupied. (CH)

  17. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  18. Clean Watersheds Needs Survey

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Watershed Needs Survey is a national assessment of the future capital cost for publicly owned wastewater collection and treatment facilities to meet the Clean Water Act's water quality goals.

  19. Who Needs Parent Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1978-01-01

    The author proposes that those most in need of parent education are non-parents; the basis for this contradictory conclusion is in the changes that have been taking place in the structure and position of the American family. (MM)

  20. ANTHRAX REMEDIATION RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency has initiated a research program to respond to the immediate needs arising from the recent Bacillus anthracis bioterrorism events. Although the program has a strong emphasis on anthrax, other pathogens and chemical agents, including toxic indu...

  1. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  2. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  3. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  4. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  5. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  6. The effect of one additional driver mutation on tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Johannes G; Bozic, Ivana; Allen, Benjamin; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A

    2013-01-01

    Tumor growth is caused by the acquisition of driver mutations, which enhance the net reproductive rate of cells. Driver mutations may increase cell division, reduce cell death, or allow cells to overcome density-limiting effects. We study the dynamics of tumor growth as one additional driver mutation is acquired. Our models are based on two-type branching processes that terminate in either tumor disappearance or tumor detection. In our first model, both cell types grow exponentially, with a faster rate for cells carrying the additional driver. We find that the additional driver mutation does not affect the survival probability of the lesion, but can substantially reduce the time to reach the detectable size if the lesion is slow growing. In our second model, cells lacking the additional driver cannot exceed a fixed carrying capacity, due to density limitations. In this case, the time to detection depends strongly on this carrying capacity. Our model provides a quantitative framework for studying tumor dynamics during different stages of progression. We observe that early, small lesions need additional drivers, while late stage metastases are only marginally affected by them. These results help to explain why additional driver mutations are typically not detected in fast-growing metastases.

  7. Real-time detection of carboplatin using a microfluidic system† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C6AN01446A Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Phairatana, Tonghathai; Leong, Chi Leng; Gowers, Sally A. N.; Patel, Bhavik Anil

    2016-01-01

    A microfluidic sensor system based on a carbon nanotube-epoxy composite electrode was fabricated to allow detection of the presence of the anti-cancer drug carboplatin in healthy tissue in real time during chemotherapy. Detection of carboplatin was carried out by observing the effects of the drug on the differential pulse voltammetry of free purine bases using a novel carbon nanotube-epoxy composite electrode. In free solution these electrodes performed better than glassy carbon electrodes for oxidation of the free purine bases AMP and GMP, and than DNA-modified carbon nanotube-epoxy composite sensors for detection of carboplatin. On-line carboplatin detection was performed using a computer-controlled microfluidic platform. The methodology for on-line carboplatin detection was optimised in terms of the analysis time and to allow repeated carboplatin measurement using the same electrode. Microdialysis sampling and our microfluidic platform were combined to give a proof-of-concept system for real-time carboplatin detection with a limit of detection of 0.014 μM carboplatin in the sampled media. This paper is dedicated to Craig Lunte's pioneering work in analysis and microdialysis. PMID:27796386

  8. Unmet contraceptive needs among refugees

    PubMed Central

    Aptekman, Marina; Rashid, Meb; Wright, Vanessa; Dunn, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe what women of reproductive age who received primary care at a refugee health clinic were using for contraception upon arrival to the clinic, and to quantify the unmet contraceptive needs within that population. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Crossroads Clinic in downtown Toronto, Ont. Participants Women of reproductive age (15 to 49 years) who first presented for care between December 1, 2011, and December 1, 2012. To be included, a woman had to have had 2 or more clinic visits or an annual health examination. Exclusion criteria for the contraception prevalence calculation were female sexual partner, menopause, hysterectomy, pregnancy, or trying to conceive. Main outcome measures Contraception use prevalence was measured, as was unmet contraceptive need, which was calculated using a modified version of the World Health Organization’s definition: the number of women with an unmet need was expressed as a percentage of women of reproductive age who were married or in a union, or who were sexually active. Results Overall, 52 women met the criteria for inclusion in the contraceptive prevalence calculation. Of these, 16 women (30.8%) did not use any form of contraception. Twelve women were pregnant at some point in the year and stated the pregnancy was unwanted or mistimed. An additional 14 women were not using contraception but had no intention of becoming pregnant within the next 2 years. There were no women with postpartum amenorrhea not using contraception and who had wanted to delay or prevent their previous pregnancy. In total, 97 women were married or in a union, or were sexually active. Unmet need was calculated as follows: (12 + 14 + 0)/97 = 26.8%. Conclusion There was a high unmet contraceptive need in the refugee population in our study. All women of reproductive age should be screened for contraceptive need when first seeking medical care in Canada. PMID:25642489

  9. Training Needs of New Mexico Agricultural Education Teachers Related to Inclusion of Students with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreasen, Randall J.; Seevers, Brenda S.; Dormody, Thomas J.; VanLeeuwen, Dawn M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe New Mexico secondary agricultural education teachers' perceptions of the importance and their level of competence on state special needs inclusion competencies and skills for teaching students with special needs. Additionally, this study sought to determine pre-service and in-service training needs for…

  10. Cryogenic needs for future tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katheder, H.

    The ITER tokamak is a machine using superconducting magnets. The windings of these magnets will be subjected to high heat loads resulting from a combination of nuclear energy absorption and AC-losses. It is estimated that about 100 kW at 4.5 K are needed. The total cooling mass flow rate will be around 10 - 15 kg/s. In addition to the large cryogenic power required for the superconducting magnets cryogenic power is also needed for refrigerated radiation shield, various cryopumps, fuel processing and test beds. A general description of the overall layout and the envisaged refrigerator cycle, necessary cold pumps and ancillary equipment is given. The basic cryogenic layout for the ITER tokakmak design, as developed during the conceptual design phase and a short overview about existing tokamak designs using superconducting magnets is given.

  11. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  12. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  13. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  14. Validation of transport models using additive flux minimization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankin, A. Y.; Kruger, S. E.; Groebner, R. J.; Hakim, A.; Kritz, A. H.; Rafiq, T.

    2013-10-01

    A new additive flux minimization technique is proposed for carrying out the verification and validation (V&V) of anomalous transport models. In this approach, the plasma profiles are computed in time dependent predictive simulations in which an additional effective diffusivity is varied. The goal is to obtain an optimal match between the computed and experimental profile. This new technique has several advantages over traditional V&V methods for transport models in tokamaks and takes advantage of uncertainty quantification methods developed by the applied math community. As a demonstration of its efficiency, the technique is applied to the hypothesis that the paleoclassical density transport dominates in the plasma edge region in DIII-D tokamak discharges. A simplified version of the paleoclassical model that utilizes the Spitzer resistivity for the parallel neoclassical resistivity and neglects the trapped particle effects is tested in this paper. It is shown that a contribution to density transport, in addition to the paleoclassical density transport, is needed in order to describe the experimental profiles. It is found that more additional diffusivity is needed at the top of the H-mode pedestal, and almost no additional diffusivity is needed at the pedestal bottom. The implementation of this V&V technique uses the FACETS::Core transport solver and the DAKOTA toolkit for design optimization and uncertainty quantification. The FACETS::Core solver is used for advancing the plasma density profiles. The DAKOTA toolkit is used for the optimization of plasma profiles and the computation of the additional diffusivity that is required for the predicted density profile to match the experimental profile.

  15. Bearings: Technology and needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    A brief status report on bearing technology and present and near-term future problems that warrant research support is presented. For rolling element bearings a material with improved fracture toughness, life data in the low Lambda region, a comprehensive failure theory verified by life data and incorporated into dynamic analyses, and an improved corrosion resistant alloy are perceived as important needs. For hydrodynamic bearings better definition of cavitation boundaries and pressure distributions for squeeze film dampers, and geometry optimization for minimum power loss in turbulent film bearings are needed. For gas film bearings, foil bearing geometries that form more nearly optimum film shapes for maximum load capacity, and more effective surface protective coatings for high temperature operation are needed.

  16. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  17. Staff Development Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Canyons, Valencia, CA. Office of Institutional Development.

    In September 1993, California's College of the Canyons surveyed a total of 415 faculty and staff regarding their satisfaction with their employment at the college and their perceptions of opportunities for development. Responses were received from 41% (n=170) of the employees, including 56 full-time and 58 part-time faculty and 41 full-time and 13…

  18. Fuel additive programs at crossroads of regulation, market dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, K.

    1998-01-01

    Fuel additive manufacturers, gasoline marketers and automakers seem to be forgetting about the power of the marketplace in their efforts to use additives to help reduce emissions and improve vehicle performance. Recall that the port fuel injector (PFI) and intake valve deposit (IVD) problems of the 1980s were addressed quickly by the fuels industry. In just a few months after the PFID problem surfaced, additive makers had detergents on the market, and fuel marketers followed up with an effective advertising campaign. Formal regulations came about a decade later. The solution to the BMW IVD problem was similar. BMW provided an enticing incentive for oil companies to differentiate through better additives and many did. Contrast those developments with the command-and-control approach that has been in effect since January 1995. EPA`s additive rule is working almost to perfection - if adherence to strict rules is considered. All gasolines in the US are additized, and a wide variety of packages have been developed that meet the regulatory standards. But by the measure of real-world performance, the circumstances can look quite different. And with industry finalizing a better IVD test and conducting research into the need for a combustion chamber deposit (CCD) regulation, now may be the time to limit the regulatory approach and let refiners and additive suppliers return to creating products that target excellence instead of regulatory minimums.

  19. Examining Oregon Agriculture Teachers' Professional Development Needs by Career Phase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Tyson J.; Lambert, Misty D.; McKim, Aaron J.

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture teachers face challenges at every stage of their career, creating a need for professional development to meet their individual needs. Additionally, research suggests the need for periodic needs assessments to be conducted within individual states. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe, using the Borich needs assessment…

  20. I Need A Friend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Charlotte Baker

    1980-01-01

    Contains the second part of the "I Need a Friend" Copy Master Series designed for use by educators to teach children about the responsibilities humans have for their fellow creatures. The stories can be reproduced for distribution to students or used as a coloring book. (Author/SA)

  1. Who Needs Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginger, Ann Fagan

    1979-01-01

    Affirmative action and reverse discrimination are discussed. Facts that were omitted from the court record on the Bakke case are examined. The need for encouraging minority students and women to continue to press for school admission and for lawyers to continue to press affirmative action suits is stressed. (MC)

  2. "i" Am Needed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The mysteries of mathematics are not easily revealed. Much of present day school mathematics is the product of years, sometimes centuries, of inquiring, wrestling and discovering by men of the highest intellect. The number "i" (designation for the square root of -1) is no exception. This article presents a lesson on the need for "i".

  3. Exceptional Students: Exceptional Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Marilyn; And Others

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the needs and problems of exceptional middle school students as well as their perceptions of guidance services. Participants in the study were 229 educable mentally-retarded (EMR) and 245 gifted (GIF) students in six Alachua County (Florida) middle schools. The racial distribution of the students…

  4. Biotechnician Needs Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Charles W., III

    The need for the development of a biotechnician curriculum was investigated. A search for operational job descriptions for biotechnicians was conducted. Industry consensus was that this is a generic term too broad to be useful. Biotechnology companies within a 300-mile radius of Chicago and universities and other colleges in Illinois that hire…

  5. College: Who Needs It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), New York, NY.

    This Department of Labor report presents tables that describe future manpower needs and examine the changing nature of the labor force. Areas covered include: age distribution; job opportunities available; future growth; level of education of future labor force; educational differences between black and white labor force; and estimated lifetime…

  6. Academic Program Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinebaug Valley Community Coll., Danielson, CT.

    During the spring 1981 semester, Quinebaug Valley Community College (QVCC) conducted a survey of high school students and influential members of the community to obtain assessments of the need for various academic programs at QVCC. Questionnaires were distributed to nine high schools, where juniors and seniors were asked to indicate their possible…

  7. High Technology Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern Louisiana Univ., Hammond.

    A project produced a high technology status report providing needs assessment data for educational planning. The purpose was to determine the impact and future of high technology in Louisiana. Information was obtained from 68 Louisiana manufacturing industries by mailed questionnaire. Data indicated that 45 industries were involved in high tech. A…

  8. Rural Research Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lewis W.

    The following rural sociological research needs were identified: (1) acceptance of general sociological theory and methodology for use in "Rural" research; (2) recognition of bench marks and probable base lines in rural sociological research; (3) collection of widely scattered reports for examination and perhaps respecification; (4) establishment…

  9. Why physics needs mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrlich, Fritz

    2011-12-01

    Classical and the quantum mechanical sciences are in essential need of mathematics. Only thus can the laws of nature be formulated quantitatively permitting quantitative predictions. Mathematics also facilitates extrapolations. But classical and quantum sciences differ in essential ways: they follow different laws of logic, Aristotelian and non-Aristotelian logics, respectively. These are explicated.

  10. Student Needs Assessment Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jean; And Others

    Designed as a component of a career exploratory program at Vale Middle School, Vale, Oregon, the Student Needs Assessment Guide provides middle school teachers with an instrument to be used in helping students assess themselves as individuals and to match this assessment with current and expected roles in the adult world. The guide consists of two…

  11. Unmet Legislative Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Tom

    1977-01-01

    An attorney cites the needs for legislation to secure the rights of hearing impaired persons in legal issues (to assure confidential communication between attorney and client and to provide interpreter services), in automobile driving and insurance, and in unanswered questions regarding P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act.…

  12. Teachers We Need.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theory Into Practice, 1967

    1967-01-01

    This issue, with introduction by Charles M. Galloway, contains eight articles on the needed directions and content of teacher education: "A Search for Relevancy" (through theories of education, liberal education, and college-school cooperation to prepare teachers as innovators in a multicultural world) by Don Davies; "Professional Education: The…

  13. Meeting Children's Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keniston, Kenneth

    1979-01-01

    Until government policy puts greater emphasis on changing the social and economic factors that contribute so massively to family problems, our social programs will remain directed at healing wounds, not preventing them. More resources of money and authority are needed to strengthen parents' abilities to do their jobs. (Author/EB)

  14. Children's Needs: Psychological Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Alex, Ed.; Grimes, Jeff, Ed.

    This monograph was written as a reference for practitioners who need an authoritative source of information on a wide variety of topics beyond the classroom and the child's own personal characteristics that influence school success. Included are 93 separate chapters, written by a diverse group of school psychologists and arranged alphabetically…

  15. Big Brother Not Needed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinen, Edward

    1983-01-01

    Cites the recent United States State Department's labeling of recent Canadian films--one on nuclear war and two on acid rain--as political propaganda as a sign of the need to review the nature of propaganda. Suggests that teaching students to intelligently evaluate propaganda is preferable to submitting to government dictum. (MM)

  16. AECT Needs Survey, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Theodore W.; Richter, Kurt; Kim, Minhee; Yang, Jessica Chao-I; Duvenci, Abdullah

    The purpose of this study was to determine the needs of AECT (Association for Educational Communications and Technology) members. A total of 590 individuals completed a Web-based 16-question survey after receiving an e-mail invitation from AECT. This survey was active between October 30 and November 10, 2000. The survey was categorized into three…

  17. Special Needs Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Board of Vocational Education, Boise.

    The curriculum guide was designed for Vocational Special Needs Programs in Idaho and concentrates on preparing handicapped and disadvantaged students to succeed in regular vocational programs. The subjects, pre-vocational in nature, include: Living Skills (self concept, life management, community resources, food and nutrition, clothing and…

  18. Children and Their Basic Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Debra Lindsey; Howard, Esther M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes obstacles presented by poverty in the fulfillment of the basic needs of children. Individually addresses Maslow's five basic needs with regard to children reared in poverty: (1) physiological needs; (2) safety needs; (3) belonging and love needs; (4) self-esteem needs; and (5) self-actualization needs. (Author/SD)

  19. Hybrid Additive Manufacturing Technologies - An Analysis Regarding Potentials and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merklein, Marion; Junker, Daniel; Schaub, Adam; Neubauer, Franziska

    Imposing the trend of mass customization of lightweight construction in industry, conventional manufacturing processes like forming technology and chipping production are pushed to their limits for economical manufacturing. More flexible processes are needed which were developed by the additive manufacturing technology. This toolless production principle offers a high geometrical freedom and an optimized utilization of the used material. Thus load adjusted lightweight components can be produced in small lot sizes in an economical way. To compensate disadvantages like inadequate accuracy and surface roughness hybrid machines combining additive and subtractive manufacturing are developed. Within this paper the principles of mainly used additive manufacturing processes of metals and their possibility to be integrated into a hybrid production machine are summarized. It is pointed out that in particular the integration of deposition processes into a CNC milling center supposes high potential for manufacturing larger parts with high accuracy. Furthermore the combination of additive and subtractive manufacturing allows the production of ready to use products within one single machine. Additionally actual research for the integration of additive manufacturing processes into the production chain will be analyzed. For the long manufacturing time of additive production processes the combination with conventional manufacturing processes like sheet or bulk metal forming seems an effective solution. Especially large volumes can be produced by conventional processes. In an additional production step active elements can be applied by additive manufacturing. This principle is also investigated for tool production to reduce chipping of the high strength material used for forming tools. The aim is the addition of active elements onto a geometrical simple basis by using Laser Metal Deposition. That process allows the utilization of several powder materials during one process what

  20. Elderly Mental Health: Needs*

    PubMed Central

    Parkar, Shubhangi R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights the mental health needs of the elderly. It tackles the issues of their institutionalisation and community care. Rapid urbanisation in Indian society throws up special problems in elderly care. There is great evidence of a raise in morbidity, mortality, hospitalisation and loss of functional status related to common mental disorders in the elderly patients. Overlap of depression and anxiety is very common with up to almost half of the elderly patients reporting significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. Also, depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in late life. Growth in the elderly population means a direct increase in age related diseases such as dementia and poor mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, suicide and serious constraints on the quality of life among elderly individuals. The need to identify new and unmet problem areas and develop efficient therapeutic outcomes for this special population is stressed. PMID:25838727

  1. VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    C.R. Gorrell

    1998-07-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options.

  2. Propulsion system needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, Stanley

    1991-01-01

    The needs of the designer of a solid core nuclear rocket engine are discussed. Some of the topics covered include: (1) a flight thrust module/feed system module assembly; (2) a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR), expander cycle, dual T/P; (3) turbopump operating conditions; (4) typical system parameters; (5) growth capability composite fuel elements; (6) a NTR radiation cooled nozzle extension; (7) a NFS-3B Feed System; and (8) a NTR Integrated Pneumatic-Fluidics Control System.

  3. NASA Astrophysics Technology Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2012-01-01

    July 2010, NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) initiated an activity to create and maintain a NASA integrated roadmap for 15 key technology areas which recommend an overall technology investment strategy and prioritize NASA?s technology programs to meet NASA?s strategic goals. Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems(SIOSS) roadmap addresses technology needs to achieve NASA?s highest priority objectives -- not only for the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), but for all of NASA.

  4. What All Novices Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuddapah, Jennifer Locraft; Burtin, Anika Spratley

    2012-01-01

    The assumption behind movements to get alternatively certified teachers quickly into classrooms as full-time teachers is that high-performing college graduates with content knowledge can become good teachers through a summer of training and full-time, evening, teacher training courses. But when the authors asked new, precertified teachers who were…

  5. Criminal Justice Involvement and Service Need among Men on Methadone who Have Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Elwin; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Sarfo, Bright; Seewald, Randy

    2010-07-01

    Perpetrators of male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) may be likely to have multiple service needs, the extent of which may vary with respect to criminal justice involvement. The salience of the criminal justice system and the potential impact on service needs due to arrest and incarceration is underscored given the association between substance use and IPV. This study utilized a sample of men in methadone treatment who perpetrated male-to-female IPV in order to examine associations between criminal justice involvement and perceived additional service need(s). Results indicate that the likelihood of having a service need(s) significantly increased as time since most recent arrest or incarceration decreased. These findings highlight the need and potential benefit that can be derived from greater coordination amongst the criminal justice, IPV prevention, and drug treatment systems and service providers.

  6. Urgent need for human resources to promote global cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Vedanthan, Rajesh; Fuster, Valentin

    2011-02-01

    The World Health Organization estimates the existence of a global shortage of over 4 million health-care workers. Given the growing global burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the shortfall in global human resources for health (HRH) is probably even greater than predicted. A critical challenge going forward is to determine how to integrate CVD-related human resource needs into the overall global HRH agenda. We describe the CVD implications of core HRH objectives, including coverage, motivation, and competence, in addition to issues such as health-care worker migration and the need for input from multiple stakeholders to successfully address the current problems. We emphasize gaps in knowledge regarding HRH for global CVD-related care and research opportunities. In light of the current global epidemiologic transition from communicable to noncommunicable diseases, now is the time for the global health community to focus on CVD-related human resource needs.

  7. The Classroom Experiences of Pupils with Special Educational Needs in Mainstream Primary Schools--1976 to 2012. What Do Data from Systematic Observation Studies Reveal about Pupils' Educational Experiences over Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Rob

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results of an analysis of primary-aged pupils' educational experiences over a 35 year period. Data drawn from a set of large-scale systematic observation studies, conducted in the UK between 1976 and 2012, are used to describe pupils' average classroom experiences at six points in time over this period. These data are then used…

  8. Community Needs Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, Ronald; And Others

    A telephone survey was conducted by Diablo Valley College (DVC) in 1979 to determine the characteristics of community residents and their opinions concerning DVC's programs and services. In addition to demographic data (i.e., length of residence in Central Contra Costa County, age, size of household, head of household's employment and marital…

  9. [Safety of food additives in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ito, Sumio

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many accidents relating to food happened in Japan. The consumer's distrust for food, food companies, and the administration is increasing. The consumer especially has an extreme refusal feeling for chemicals such as food additives and agricultural chemicals, and begins to request agricultural chemical-free vegetables and food additive-free food. Food companies also state no agricultural chemicals and no food additives to correspond with consumers' request and aim at differentiating. The food additive is that the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare specifies the one that person's health might not be ruined by providing for Food Sanitation Law Article 10 in our country. The standard for food additives and standard for use of food additives are provided according to regulations of Food Sanitation Law Article 11. Therefore, it is thought that the food additive used is safe now. Then, it reports on the procedure and the safety examination, etc. in our country for designation for food additive this time.

  10. Evaluation of Degreasers as Brine Curing Additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The length of time needed for brine curing of raw hides and skins, a minimum of 18 h, is a time-consuming and expensive process. In this paper we initially report the results of an investigation of the stratigraphic distribution of sodium chloride and water in fleshed hides cured for varying interv...

  11. Relation of NEEDS to OSTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The NEEDS program was examined, the interfaces between OSTA and NEEDS were identified, and the responsiveness of the NEEDS program to OSTA technological requirements were assessed. Existing and planned NEEDS elements are discussed.

  12. Do bacteria need to be regulated?

    PubMed

    Silley, P

    2006-09-01

    Additives for use in animal nutrition are regulated under Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003. The scope of this paper addresses the specific microbiological issues relevant to a microbial feed additive, containing a Bacillus spp. and uses as an example a product with the trade name, Calsporin. Bacillus subtilis C-3102 is the active ingredient in Calsporin and is added to animal feed to favourably affect animal production and performance (growth and feed efficiency), by modulating the gastrointestinal flora. It is not the purpose of this review to present the raw data for Calsporin but rather to use Calsporin as an example of the type of data required by the European regulatory authorities. At the time of preparation of this manuscript Calsporin has yet to be reviewed by the authorities. The regulatory system under the auspices of the EFSA FEEDAP Panel is clearly attempting to move in line with development of scientific opinion and is to be applauded for such efforts. Bacteria do need to be regulated, and the regulations clearly provide adequate and appropriate protection to human health and to environmental considerations.

  13. 48 CFR 1603.7002 - Additional guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 1603.7002 Section 1603.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising 1603.7002 Additional guidelines. Any... employee and need forms, contact the Office of Personnel Management at P.O. Box 809, Washington, DC 20044....

  14. 48 CFR 1603.7002 - Additional guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... 1603.7002 Section 1603.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising 1603.7002 Additional guidelines. Any... Federal employee and need forms, contact the Office of Personnel Management at P.O. Box 809,...

  15. Teaching Additional Languages. Educational Practices Series 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Elliot L.; Tan, Lihua; Walberg, Herbert J.

    This booklet describes key principles of and research on teaching additional languages. The 10 chapters focus on the following: (1) "Comprehensible Input" (learners need exposure to meaningful, understandable language); (2) "Language Opportunities" (classroom activities should let students use natural and meaningful language with their…

  16. Class Schedules Need Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monfette, Ronald J.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that college publications, including class schedules, must be accurate, timely, and easy to read and follow. Describes Schoolcraft College's unified format approach to publications marketing. Offers suggestions on the design, format, and distribution of class schedules. (DMM)

  17. Students' perceived supervisory needs.

    PubMed

    Dowling, S; Wittkopp, J

    1982-07-01

    One hundred and ninety-one students from six Michigan University speech-language pathology training programs completed a 43-item questionnaire concerning their perceived supervisory needs in five areas: lesson plan and report writing, supervisor observation, conferencing, professional responsibility, and general supervisory practices. Selection criteria for students were academic status, university attended, and earned clinical clock hours. Student's perceptions of positive and negative supervisory practices differed significantly as a function of earned clinical clock hours and site of training. However, there were no differences in perception between undergraduate and graduate students.

  18. Geomatics Education: Need Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, A.

    2014-11-01

    the other hand, the industry requires high skilled manpower, high experienced manpower. This is a low equilibrium situation. Since the need is enhancing day by day, the shortage of the skilled manpower is increasing, the need of the geomatics education emerges. This paper researches on the need assessment of the education in geospatial specialization. It emphasises on the challenges and issues prevail in geospatial education and in the specialized fields of remote sensing and GIS. This paper analyse the need assessment through all the three actors: government, geospatial industry and education institutions.

  19. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  20. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  1. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  2. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this gap by conducting a county-level cross-sectional analysis of interactions between Environmental Quality Index (EQI) domain indices on preterm birth in the Unites States from 2000-2005.METHODS: The EQI, a county-level index constructed for the 2000-2005 time period, was constructed from five domain-specific indices (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) using principal component analyses. County-level preterm birth rates (n=3141) were estimated using live births from the National Center for Health Statistics. Linear regression was used to estimate prevalence differences (PD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing worse environmental quality to the better quality for each model for a) each individual domain main effect b) the interaction contrast and c) the two main effects plus interaction effect (i.e. the “net effect”) to show departure from additive interaction for the all U.S counties. Analyses were also performed for subgroupings by four urban/rural strata. RESULTS: We found the suggestion of antagonistic interactions but no synergism, along with several purely additive (i.e., no interaction) associations. In the non-stratified model, we observed antagonistic interac

  3. Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project is developing technology to build structures on planetary surfaces using in-situ resources. The project focuses on the construction of both 2D (landing pads, roads, and structure foundations) and 3D (habitats, garages, radiation shelters, and other structures) infrastructure needs for planetary surface missions. The ACME project seeks to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of two components needed for planetary surface habitation and exploration: 3D additive construction (e.g., contour crafting), and excavation and handling technologies (to effectively and continuously produce in-situ feedstock). Additionally, the ACME project supports the research and development of new materials for planetary surface construction, with the goal of reducing the amount of material to be launched from Earth.

  4. The need for GPS standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Wlodzimierz W.; Petit, Gerard; Thomas, Claudine

    1992-01-01

    A desirable and necessary step for improvement of the accuracy of Global Positioning System (GPS) time comparisons is the establishment of common GPS standards. For this reason, the CCDS proposed the creation of a special group of experts with the objective of recommending procedures and models for operational time transfer by GPS common-view method. Since the announcement of the implementation of Selective Availability at the end of last spring, action has become much more urgent and this CCDS Group on GPS Time Transfer Standards has now been set up. It operates under the auspices of the permanent CCDS Working Group on TAI and works in close cooperation with the Sub-Committee on Time of the Civil GPS Service Interface Committee (CGSIC). Taking as an example the implementation of SA during the first week of July 1991, this paper illustrates the need to develop urgently at least two standardized procedures in GPS receiver software: monitoring GPS tracks with a common time scale and retaining broadcast ephemeris parameters throughout the duration of a track. Other matters requiring action are the adoption of common models for atmospheric delay, a common approach to hardware design and agreement about short-term data processing. Several examples of such deficiencies in standardization are presented.

  5. Sexuality and Aging: A Timely Addition to the Gerontology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Tanya R.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development and content of a course on sexuality in aging for a gerontology master's program. Topics include physical health, AIDS, gay/lesbian issues, widows/widowers, marriage, ethnic issues, menopause, and impotence. Provides a 33-item bibliography. (SK)

  6. Home Schooling Children with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffey, Jane G.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 121 families who were home schooling children with special needs found family profiles were similar to the general home schooling population and, unlike the general home schooling population, children often spent as much time in a school setting as in a home school environment. Four case studies identified themes as needs-based…

  7. Women need legal protection.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    During a workshop in Gender Responsive Planning Sensitization, the chiefs observed that the dismissal of the Affiliation Act made it more difficult for them to protect the rights and interests of single mothers and their children. Single mothers, who are usually mistresses of married men, experience financial problems that subsequently force them to live in extremely difficult circumstances in the event of calamities such as death of the man. They have no protection under the chiefs' Authority Act. A chief in Nairobi expressed the need to form self-help groups among single mothers in order to ensure the protection of their rights and that of their children. Furthermore, the chiefs agreed to intensify educational programs for couples that emphasize responsibility within marriage.

  8. We need psychologists!

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Meta; Barozzino, Tony; Milligan, Karen; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth; Freeman, Sloane

    2016-01-01

    Paediatricians are more likely than ever to encounter patients with mental health problems on a daily basis. There is a need for investment in proven treatments, such as psychology-based interventions, for children identified with mental health disorders. There are four main arguments supporting the engagement of psychologists for children with mental health problems: there is clear evidence that psychological interventions can effectively treat a wide range of mental health disorders; many parents and children are more open to exploring psychological therapies rather than medication for mental health problems; psychologists are trained and licensed to perform psychoeducational assessments, which can provide invaluable information about a child's learning profile, attention problems and overall intelligence; and behaviour problems in children can be prevented or improved through parent-based interventions. The authors' strongly advocate for the public funding of psychology services - both in collaborative primary care models and in the school setting.

  9. The Kind of Schools We Need.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Elliot W.

    2002-01-01

    Elliot Eisner, Lee Jacks Professor of Education and Art, Stanford University, imparts his thoughts about the salient features of schools he believes America needs, for example, having principals spend about one-third of their time in the classroom. (PKP)

  10. No Need to See.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetrone, Karen

    1986-01-01

    A literature unit is based on three books with major characters to whom gifted students can relate: "A Wrinkle in Time" by M. Engel, "The Mark of Conte" by S. Levitin, and "Very Far Away from Any Place Else" by U. LeGuin. (CL)

  11. Individualization and Needed Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Jack M.; And Others

    As has been the case in medicine, social work, and psychiatry, progress in education will follow closely the adequacy of our category system concerning pertinent functions of a child, our understanding of these functions, how children fail to function properly (malfunction), causes of malfunction, signs of malfunction, course of malfunction (time,…

  12. Ecotoxicological effects of activated carbon addition to sediments.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Michiel T O; Suijkerbuijk, Martin P W; Schmitt, Heike; Sinnige, Theo L

    2009-08-01

    Activated carbon (AC) addition is a recently developed technique for the remediation of sediments and soils contaminated with hydrophobic organic chemicals. Laboratory and field experiments have demonstrated that the addition of 3-4% of AC can reduce aqueous concentrations and the bioaccumulation potential of contaminants. However, one aspect of the technique that has hardly received any attention is the possible occurrence of secondary, eco(toxico)logical effects, i.e., effects of AC addition on the health, behavior, and habitat quality of local organisms. In the present study, several ecotoxicological effects were investigated in AC-water and AC-enriched (0-25%) sediment systems. It was demonstrated that (i) powdered activated carbons can be toxic to aquatic invertebrates (Lumbriculus variegatus, Daphnia magna, and Corophium volutator) based on different mechanisms and preferably should be washed prior to application; (ii) Asellus aquaticus and Corophium volutator may physically avoid AC-enriched sediments; (iii) exposure of Lumbriculus variegatus to AC-enriched sediments lead to a time and dose-dependent reduction in the worms' lipid content, which was most probably caused by the observation that (iv) worm egestion rates decreased drastically upon AC addition, indicating that the presence of AC disturbed feeding behavior; and (v) there were no obvious effects on the microbiological community structure. All in all, these results suggest potential ecotoxicological effects of powdered AC addition and stress the need for a detailed further investigation of secondary effects of the technique, prior to any large-scale field application.

  13. Selection of color additives: a regulatory view.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuj; Dureja, Harish; Madan, Anil K

    2012-01-01

    Color additives have a unique place in the categories of the excipients. However, most of the color additives are complex heterogeneous organic compounds. In pharmaceuticals, colors are used in various oral (solid, liquid) and topical dosage form. Different regulatory authorities have their own specific set of regulation for registration, approval, and control of color additives. However, at this time of globalization, selection of appropriate color is not an easy task when a company wants to sale its product in many countries. In this article, the authors have explored various important factors which should be considered in the selection of color additives.

  14. Bullying and Youth with Disabilities and Special Health Needs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Youth with Special Health Needs Federal Civil Rights Laws and Youth with Disabilities Additional Resources Creating a Safe Environment for Youth with Disabilities Special considerations are needed when addressing bullying in youth with ...

  15. Needs assessment final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepulveda, Jose A.

    1992-01-01

    The stated purposes of the Management Science Faculty Fellowship Project were to: (1) provide a comprehensive analysis of KSC management training for engineers and other management professionals from project/program lead through executive levels; and (2) development of evaluation methodologies which can be used to perform ongoing program-wide course-to-course assessments. This report will focus primarily in the first stated purpose for the project. Ideally, the analysis of KSC management training will build in the current system and efficiently propose improvements to achieve existing goals and objectives while helping to identify new visions and new outcomes for the Center's Management Training Mission. Section 2 describes the objectives, approach, and specific tasks used to analyze KSC's Management training System. Section 3 discusses the main conclusions derived from an analysis of the available training data. Section 4 discusses the characteristics and benefits envisioned for a Management Training System. Section 5 proposes a Training System as identified by the results of a Needs Assessment exercise conducted at KSC this summer. Section 6 presents a number of recommendations for future work.

  16. Scientists need political literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Scientists need to sharpen their political literacy to promote public and congressional awareness of science policy issues. This was the message of a panel of politically savvy scientists at a recent workshop at the American Association for the Advancement of Science's annual meeting in Washington, D.C. Researchers can maximize their lobbying efforts by targeting critical points of the legislative and federal funding cycles, the panel said, and by understanding the differences between the science and policy processes.Drastic modifications to the federal budget process this year will influence how much funding flows to research and development. A new feature for FY 1991-1993 is caps on federal expenditure in three areas: defense, foreign aid, and domestic “discretionary” spending. (Most of the agencies that fund geophysics fall into the domestic category.) Money cannot now be transferred from one of these areas to another, said Michael L. Telson, analyst for the House Budget Committee, and loopholes will be “very tough to find.” What is more, non-defense discretionary spending has dropped over a decade from 24% of the budget to the present 15%. Another new requirement is the “pay-as-you-go” system. Under this, a bill that calls for an increase in “entitlement” or other mandatory spending must offset this by higher taxes or by a cut in other spending.

  17. Production scheduling with discrete and renewable additional resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinowski, K.; Grabowik, C.; Paprocka, I.; Kempa, W.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper an approach to planning of additional resources when scheduling operations are discussed. The considered resources are assumed to be discrete and renewable. In most research in scheduling domain, the basic and often the only type of regarded resources is a workstation. It can be understood as a machine, a device or even as a separated space on the shop floor. In many cases, during the detailed scheduling of operations the need of using more than one resource, required for its implementation, can be indicated. Resource requirements for an operation may relate to different resources or resources of the same type. Additional resources are most often referred to these human resources, tools or equipment, for which the limited availability in the manufacturing system may have an influence on the execution dates of some operations. In the paper the concept of the division into basic and additional resources and their planning method was shown. A situation in which sets of basic and additional resources are not separable - the same additional resource may be a basic resource for another operation is also considered. Scheduling of operations, including greater amount of resources can cause many difficulties, depending on whether the resource is involved in the entire time of operation, only in the selected part(s) of operation (e.g. as auxiliary staff at setup time) or cyclic - e.g. when an operator supports more than one machine, or supervises the execution of several operations. For this reason the dates and work times of resources participation in the operation can be different. Presented issues are crucial when modelling of production scheduling environment and designing of structures for the purpose of scheduling software development.

  18. Determining Educational and Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Robert D.

    1982-01-01

    The process of assessing the learning needs of a target population involves goal and objective definition, program assessment, needs identification, and decision making. A variety of needs assessment models with applications to many different situations are discussed. (FG)

  19. Meeting human needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

    1992-01-01

    Manned space flight can be viewed as an interaction of three general elements: the human crewmember, spacecraft systems, and the environment. While the human crewmember is a crucial element in the system, certain physiological, psychological, environ- mental and spacecraft systems factors can compromise human performance in space. These factors include atmospheric pressure, physiology, uncertainties associated with space radiation, the potential for exposure to toxic materials in the closed environment, and spacecraft habitability. Health protection in space, for current and future missions, relies on a philosophy of risk reduction, which in the space program is achieved in four ways-through health maintenance, health care, design criteria, an selection and training. Emphasis is place upon prevention, through selection criteria and careful screening. Spacecraft health care systems must be absolutely reliable, and they will be automated and computerized to the maximum extent possible, but still designed with the human crewmember's capabilities in mind. The autonomy and technological sophistication of future missions will require a greater emphasis on high-level interaction between the human operator and automated systems, with effective allocation of tasks between humans and machines. Performance in space will include complex tasks during extravehicular activity (EVA) and on planetary surfaces, and knowledge of crewmembers' capability and limitations during such operations will be critical to mission success. Psychological support will become increasingly important on space missions, as crews spend long periods in remote and potentially hazardous environments. The success of future missions will depend on both individual psychological health and group cohesion and productivity, particularly as crew profiles become more heterogeneous. Thus, further human factors are needed in the area of small-group dynamics and performance.

  20. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How Safe are Color Additives? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (380 K) Color additives give the red tint to your fruit ...

  1. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  2. The grays of medical device color additives.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    The United States' medical device color additive regulations are unknown to some, and confusing to many. This article reviews statutory language on color additives in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), as amended, including the Delaney Clause on carcinogenicity; color additive regulatory language as it relates to medical devices in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Parts 70-82; reports on the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) likely current and historical practices in dealing with color additives in medical devices; and speculates on what may have given rise to decades of seemingly ad hoc color additives practices, which may now be difficult to reconstruct and satisfactorily modify. Also addressed is the Center for Devices and Radiological Health's (CDRH's) recent publicly-vetted approach to color additives in Section 7 of its April 2013 draft guidance, Use of International Standard ISO-10993, "Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1: Evaluation and Testing," which the author concludes is a change in the right direction, but which, at least in its current draft form, is not a fix to the CDRH's color additives dilemma. Lastly, the article suggests what the CDRH might consider in further developing a new approach to color additives. Such an approach would treat color additives as if they were any other potentially toxic group of chemicals, and could be fashioned in such a way that the CDRH could still satisfy the broad aspects of Congressional color additives mandates, and.yet be consistent with ISO 10993. In doing this, the CDRH would need to recommend a more directed use of its Quality System Regulation, 21 C.F.R. Part 820, for material and vendor qualification and validation in general; approach Congress for needed statutory changes; or make administrative changes. In order for any approach to be successful, whether it is a new twist on past practices, or an entirely new path forward, the FDA must, to the best of its

  3. Defense Business Transformation: Improvements Made but Additional Steps Needed to Strengthen Strategic Planning and Assess Progress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    chosen. GAO also recommends that DOD further define its performance management approach. DOD partially concurred with our first recommendation and...to regularly review performance results or defined how these structures will routinely integrate various sources of performance data to assess...measures related to supply and security, which are key areas in DOD’s strategy for achieving operational energy efficiency. Better defining and

  4. Littoral Combat Ship: Additional Testing and Improved Weight Management Needed Prior to Further Investments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    to Singapore, the Navy added 20 extra beds—called berths —to the ship to accommodate extra people, and has also made a similar change to LCS 2 and...no more than 180 metric tons when installed aboard a seaframe. Of this 180-metric-ton allocation , 105 metric tons are allotted to the actual mission

  5. Navy Small Boats: Maintenance Report Addressed Most Directed Elements, but Additional Information Needed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Used for tethered diving operations and scuba operations Oil spill response boats 366 Oil skimmers, platform boats, and utility boats for the oil...Description Amphibious landing boats 79 Landing craft to bring troops, tanks, trucks, supplies, and equipment to and across the beach Dive boats 117

  6. Defense Health Care: Additional Efforts Needed to Ensure Compliance with Personality Disorder Separation Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Health Care Page 21 GAO-09-31 DOD Personality Disorder Separations List of Congressional Addressees The Honorable Carl Levin Chairman The...Separations The Honorable Ken Salazar United States Senate The Honorable Bernard Sanders United States Senate Page 23 GAO-09-31 DOD Personality

  7. Report: Additional Efforts Needed to Improve EPA’s Oversight of Assistance Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2002-P-00018, September 30, 2002. Although EPA developed corrective actions to improve oversight controls for assistance agreements, a number of EPA OIG, Agency, and GAO reviews determined that oversight continued to be a weakness.

  8. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Additional Action Needed to Achieve Intended Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    2015 certification and approval cycle, which was completed before this act was signed into law . bA covered defense business system is any defense...activities and the business rules, laws , regulations, and policies associated with them. According to DOD, its architecture is being developed using an...surveyed reported that the business enterprise architecture was effective in enabling compliance with all applicable laws . However, fewer than 40

  9. Defense Inventory: DOD Needs Additional Information for Managing War Reserve Levels of Meals Ready to Eat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    subsistence supply chain includes food and food-related supplies, including condiments, utensils, paper products, and bottled water. Department of Defense...and Testimony Order by Phone Connect with GAO To Report Fraud, Waste, and Abuse in Federal Programs Congressional Relations Public Affairs Please Print on Recycled Paper.

  10. Defense Health Care: Additional Analysis of Costs and Benefits of Potential Governance Structures Is Needed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    options, (2) a business case analysis and strategy for implementing its shared services concept, and (3) more complete analyses of the options’ strengths...and weaknesses. DoD concurred with developing a business case analysis for its shared services concept. DoD did not concur with the other two

  11. Bulk Fuel Pricing: DOD Needs to Take Additional Actions to Establish a More Reliable Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-19

    begins to actually purchase the fuel at the current market rate.1 Historically, DOD has used economic assumptions data provided by the Office of...during the budget year of execution to account for actual prices for fuel on the world market . According to DOD officials, this is not their...to develop a more precise estimate, but the new methodology does not reflect actual market conditions or fully account for risks to the reliability

  12. Dispute Resolution in Additional and Special Educational Needs: Local Authority Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Harris, Neville; Smith, Emily; Weedon, Elisabet

    2010-01-01

    The UK Government is keen to encourage the use of mediation, rather than court or tribunal, as the best means of resolving disputes between citizen and state on the grounds that legal proceedings are costly, lengthy and stressful. The policy of proportionate dispute resolution appears to be particularly applicable to the field of special…

  13. Defense Management: Steps Taken to Better Manage Fuel Demand but Additional Information Sharing Mechanisms Are Needed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-28

    Medium Mobile Power Source (AMMPS) 35 Figure 7: 1-megawatt Microgrid at Bagram Airfield 36 Figure 8: Aerial shot of the Base Camp Integration...26A microgrid is a power distribution system that includes multiple energy storage components, such as solar power components, or...the efficiency and energy savings from replacing six generators with a microgrid within a 150-man base camp environment. In a separate initiative

  14. Critical Technologies: Agency Initiatives Address Some Weaknesses, but Additional Interagency Collaboration Is Needed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    investment in U.S. companies. However, these technologies can also be targets for forms of unauthorized transfer, such as theft, espionage, reverse ...might be vulnerable to exploitation—through such means as reverse engineering—when weapons leave U.S. control through export or loss on the battlefield... Logistics and the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, and members include the Defense Security Cooperation Agency, the military

  15. Additional Guidance and Training Needed to Improve Afghan National Army Pharmaceutical Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-07

    Nonstatistical Sample Discrepancies 24 Management Comments North Atlantic Treaty Organization Training Mission...4 The November 2011 penalties were for 1 percent of each vendor’s contract award amount for the 2 week delay. AT&L...officials assessed vendor penalties using an amount of 0.1 percent per day (0.5 percent for each week of delay). 5 All U.S. dollar amounts were converted

  16. Report: EPA Data Standards Plan Completed But Additional Steps Are Needed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #12-P-0519, June 5, 2012. The actions taken by EPA were either incomplete or lacked steps to help management determine the overall effectiveness of the Agency’s implementation of data standards.

  17. Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at David Grant Air Force Medical Center Need Additional Management Oversight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-24

    facilities. DGMC provides a full spectrum of care to a prime service area of more than 106,000 Tricare-eligible patients in the San Francisco-Sacramento...area and 370,000 patients from the Department of Veterans Affairs Northern California Health Care System that covers more than 40,000 square miles and...members of the Military Services and others entitled to or eligible for DoD medical care and benefits. U.S. Treasury FedDebt FedDebt is an online

  18. Is the addition of aminoglycosides to beta-lactams in cancer patients with febrile neutropenia needed?

    PubMed

    Contreras, Valeria; Sepúlveda, Sebastián; Heredia, Ana

    2016-02-24

    It is still controversial if the combined use of beta-lactam antibiotics and aminoglycosides has advantages over broad-spectrum beta-lactam monotherapy for the empirical treatment of cancer patients with febrile neutropenia. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified three systematic reviews including 14 pertinent randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded the combination of beta-lactam antibiotics and aminoglycosides probably does not lead to a reduced mortality in febrile neutropenic cancer patients and it might increase nephrotoxicity.

  19. VA Health Care. Additional Efforts to Better Assess Joint Ventures Needed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Kans. Okla. Minn. Iowa Mo. Ark. La. Ill. Miss. Ind. Ky. Tenn. Ala. Ga. S.C. N.C. Va. Ohio N.H. Mass. Mich . Calif. Wash. Wis. N.Y. Maine Vt. W.Va...train VA personnel in a variety of areas, including basic life support and advanced cardiac life support. Finally, VA officials and academic

  20. Defense Forensics: Additional Planning and Oversight Needed to Establish an Enduring Expeditionary Forensic Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    expeditionary forensics for collecting fingerprints and deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) to identify, target, and disrupt terrorists and enemy combatants in...acid ( DNA ) and latent fingerprints.1 For the purposes of this report, expeditionary forensics refers to the employment of forensic applications by an...traditionally used forensics for law enforcement and medical purposes, such as identifying and prosecuting criminals and determining the