Science.gov

Sample records for additional time points

  1. Bifurcated method and apparatus for floating point addition with decreased latency time

    DOEpatents

    Farmwald, Paul M.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for decreasing the latency time associated with floating point addition and subtraction in a computer, using a novel bifurcated, pre-normalization/post-normalization approach that distinguishes between differences of floating point exponents.

  2. Improvements in floating point addition/subtraction operations

    DOEpatents

    Farmwald, P.M.

    1984-02-24

    Apparatus is described for decreasing the latency time associated with floating point addition and subtraction in a computer, using a novel bifurcated, pre-normalization/post-normalization approach that distinguishes between differences of floating point exponents.

  3. Early Time Points Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Kenneth K.; Reese, Timothy G.; Nelissen, Koen; Wu, Ona; Chan, Suk-Tak; Benner, Thomas; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Foley, Mary; Vanduffel, Wim; Chesler, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the feasibility of making relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) maps from MR images acquired with short TR by measuring the initial arrival amount of Gd-DTPA evaluated within a time window before any contrast agent has a chance to leave the tissue. We named this rCBF measurement technique utilizing the early data points of the Gd-DTPA bolus the “early time points” method (ET), based on the hypothesis that early time point signals were proportional to rCBF. Simulation data were used successfully to examine the ideal behavior of ET while monkey’s MRI results offered encouraging support to the utility of ET for rCBF calculation. A better brain coverage for ET could be obtained by applying the Simultaneous Echo Refocusing (SER) EPI technique. A recipe to run ET was presented, with attention paid to the noise problem around the time of arrival (TOA) of the contrast agent. PMID:20851196

  4. Learning the Critical Points for Addition in Matematika GASING

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siregar, Johannes Hamonangan; Wiyanti, Wiwik; Wakhyuningsih, Nur Safitri; Godjali, Ali

    2014-01-01

    We propose learning Matematika GASING to help students better understand the addition material. Matematika GASING is a way of learning mathematics in an easy, fun and enjoyable fashion. GASING is short for GAmpang, aSyIk, and menyenaNGkan (Bahasa Indonesia for easy, fun and enjoyable). It was originally developed by Prof. Yohanes Surya at the…

  5. Time jitter versus additive noise in a game theory context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Abdellatif; Boyer, Remy; Duhamel, Pierre

    2005-03-01

    Imperfectly synchronized watermark communication is almost the most hostile watermark channel. A desynchronization attack can yield a very high probability of bit error rate by simply moving the watermark from elements it has been embedded in, inhibiting hence its reliable retrieval from the original. In this paper, we adress attacks that can be modelled by an Additive White Gaussian Noise and Jitter (AWGN&J) channel in a game theory context. The AWGN&J channel was initially introduced to model local time fluctuations in the context of magnetic recording media. This channel is first briefly presented and characterized in terms of induced objective and perceptual distorsions. Also, performance loss of the one-bit watermarking Spread-Spectrum based scheme over an AWGN&J channel is derived. Then, results are applied in a game theoretic context to answer some questions such as: (i) for a given distortion budget, and from the attacker point of view, what part should be allocated to the desynchronization, and what part should be allocated to the additive noise?, (ii) from the defender point of view, what is the worst distortion? and (iii) is there means to countermeasure the attacker (limit the amount of objective distorsion)?

  6. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  7. Arctic tipping points: governance in turbulent times.

    PubMed

    Young, Oran R

    2012-02-01

    Interacting forces of climate change and globalization are transforming the Arctic. Triggered by a non-linear shift in sea ice, this transformation has unleashed mounting interest in opportunities to exploit the region's natural resources as well as growing concern about environmental, economic, and political issues associated with such efforts. This article addresses the implications of this transformation for governance, identifies limitations of existing arrangements, and explores changes needed to meet new demands. It advocates the development of an Arctic regime complex featuring flexibility across issues and adaptability over time along with an enhanced role for the Arctic Council both in conducting policy-relevant assessments and in promoting synergy in interactions among the elements of the emerging Arctic regime complex. The emphasis throughout is on maximizing the fit between the socioecological features of the Arctic and the character of the governance arrangements needed to steer the Arctic toward a sustainable future. PMID:22270707

  8. 43 CFR 3430.2-2 - Additional time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional time. 3430.2-2 Section 3430.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) NONCOMPETITIVE LEASES Preference Right Leases § 3430.2-2 Additional time. (a) If the...

  9. 22 CFR 161.5 - Major decision points and timing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Major decision points and timing. 161.5 Section... decision points and timing. (a) The responsible action officer shall ensure compliance with these...) Environmental analysis and review of a proposed Departmental action shall be conducted as early as...

  10. 22 CFR 161.5 - Major decision points and timing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Major decision points and timing. 161.5 Section... decision points and timing. (a) The responsible action officer shall ensure compliance with these...) Environmental analysis and review of a proposed Departmental action shall be conducted as early as...

  11. 22 CFR 161.5 - Major decision points and timing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Major decision points and timing. 161.5 Section... decision points and timing. (a) The responsible action officer shall ensure compliance with these...) Environmental analysis and review of a proposed Departmental action shall be conducted as early as...

  12. 22 CFR 161.5 - Major decision points and timing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Major decision points and timing. 161.5 Section... decision points and timing. (a) The responsible action officer shall ensure compliance with these...) Environmental analysis and review of a proposed Departmental action shall be conducted as early as...

  13. 22 CFR 161.5 - Major decision points and timing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Major decision points and timing. 161.5 Section... decision points and timing. (a) The responsible action officer shall ensure compliance with these...) Environmental analysis and review of a proposed Departmental action shall be conducted as early as...

  14. Ultrafast amplifier additive timing jitter characterization and control.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Alexis; D'Acremont, Quentin; Santarelli, Giorgio; Dilhaire, Stefan; Courjaud, Antoine

    2016-03-01

    We report on the characterization and long-term compensation of additive timing jitter introduced by a femtosecond ytterbium regenerative amplifier with a 100 kHz repetition rate. A balanced optical cross-correlation technique is used to generate a jitter error signal. This approach is well suited to characterize the additive timing jitter of Yb amplifiers seeded by narrow spectrum Yb oscillators. The balanced optical cross-correlator is in a noncollinear configuration allowing a background free coindence detection. This setup enables the measurement of additive timing jitter from the amplifier, with a noise floor of 300 as integrated from 10 Hz to 10 kHz. The measured additive timing jitter level is about 5 fs, integrated from 0.1 Hz to 10 kHz. The amplifier timing drift characterization and control are performed for more than an hour. PMID:26974074

  15. Comparing Number Lines and Touch Points to Teach Addition Facts to Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihak, David F.; Foust, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Three elementary students with autism were taught single-digit addition problem-solving skills using number and touch-point strategies. Prior to the study, all students were unable to correctly calculate single-digit addition problems. An alternating-treatments design was used to compare the acquisition performance of single-digit addition…

  16. Low-boiling-point solvent additives can also enable morphological control in polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevapuram, Rakesh C.; Carr, John A.; Chen, Yuqing; Bose, Sayantan; Nalwa, Kanwar S.; Petrich, Jacob W.; Chaudhary, Sumit

    2013-11-02

    Processing organic photovoltaic (OPV) blend solutions with high-boiling-point solvent additives has recently been used for morphological control in bulk-heterojunction OPV cells. Here we show that even low-boiling-point solvents can be effective additives. When P3HT:PCBM OPV cells were processed with a low-boiling-point solvent tetrahydrafuran as an additive in parent solvent o-dichlorobenzene, charge extraction increased leading to fill factors as high as 69.5%, without low work-function cathodes, electrode buffer layers or thermal treatment. This was attributed to PCBM demixing from P3HT domains and better vertical phase separation, as indicated by photoluminescence lifetimes, hole mobilities, and shunt leakage currents. Dependence on solvent parameters and applicability beyond P3HT system was also investigated. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The timing of control signals underlying fast point-to-point arm movements.

    PubMed

    Ghafouri, M; Feldman, A G

    2001-04-01

    on the handle, or computed with equations of motion. In some trials, an electromagnetic brake prevented movements. In such movements, the hand force and joint torques reached a steady state after a time that was much smaller than the movement duration in unobstructed movements and was approximately equal to the time to peak velocity (mean difference < 80 ms). In an additional experiment, subjects were instructed to rapidly initiate corrections of the pushing force in response to movement arrest. They were able to initiate such corrections only when the joint torques and the pushing force had practically reached a steady state. The latency of correction onset was, however, smaller than the duration of unobstructed movements. We concluded that during the time at which the steady state torques were reached, the control pattern of IC shifts remained the same despite the movement block. Thereby the duration of these shifts did not exceed the time of reaching the steady state torques. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that, in unobstructed movements, the IC shifts and resulting shifts in the EP end approximately at peak velocity. In other words, during the latter part of the movement, the control signals responsible for the equilibrium shift remained constant, and the movement was driven by the arm inertial, viscous and elastic forces produced by the muscle-reflex system. Fast movements may thus be completed without continuous control guidance. As a consequence, central corrections and sequential commands may be issued rapidly, without waiting for the end of kinematic responses to each command, which may be important for many motor behaviours including typing, piano playing and speech. Our study also illustrates that the timing of the control signals may be substantially different from that of the resulting motor output and that the same control pattern may produce different motor outputs depending on external conditions. PMID:11355386

  18. Nonparametric directionality measures for time series and point process data.

    PubMed

    Halliday, David M

    2015-06-01

    The need to determine the directionality of interactions between neural signals is a key requirement for analysis of multichannel recordings. Approaches most commonly used are parametric, typically relying on autoregressive models. A number of concerns have been expressed regarding parametric approaches, thus there is a need to consider alternatives. We present an alternative nonparametric approach for construction of directionality measures for bivariate random processes. The method combines time and frequency domain representations of bivariate data to decompose the correlation by direction. Our framework generates two sets of complementary measures, a set of scalar measures, which decompose the total product moment correlation coefficient summatively into three terms by direction and a set of functions which decompose the coherence summatively at each frequency into three terms by direction: forward direction, reverse direction and instantaneous interaction. It can be undertaken as an addition to a standard bivariate spectral and coherence analysis, and applied to either time series or point-process (spike train) data or mixtures of the two (hybrid data). In this paper, we demonstrate application to spike train data using simulated cortical neurone networks and application to experimental data from isolated muscle spindle sensory endings subject to random efferent stimulation. PMID:25958923

  19. 43 CFR 3430.2-2 - Additional time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional time. 3430.2-2 Section 3430.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) NONCOMPETITIVE LEASES Preference Right Leases §...

  20. 43 CFR 3430.2-2 - Additional time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional time. 3430.2-2 Section 3430.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) NONCOMPETITIVE LEASES Preference Right Leases §...

  1. 43 CFR 3430.2-2 - Additional time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional time. 3430.2-2 Section 3430.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) NONCOMPETITIVE LEASES Preference Right Leases §...

  2. Planning time-optimal robotic manipulator motions and work places for point-to-point tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubowsky, S.; Blubaugh, T. D.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented which combines simple time-optimal motions in an optimal manner to yield the minimum-time motions for an important class of complex manipulator tasks composed of point-to-point moves such as assembly, electronic component insertion, and spot welding. This method can also be used to design manipulator actions and work places so that tasks can be completed in minimum time. The method has been implemented in a computer-aided design software system. Several examples are presented. Experimental results show the method's validity and utility.

  3. Clustering space-time interest points for action representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sou-Young; Choi, Ho-Jin

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to represent human actions in a video. Our approach deals with the limitation of local representation, i.e. space-time interest points, which cannot adequately represent actions in a video due to lack of global information about geometric relationships among interest points. It adds the geometric relationships to interest points by clustering interest points using squared Euclidean distances, followed by using a minimum hexahedron to represent each cluster. Within each video, we build a multi-dimensional histogram based on the characteristics of hexahedrons in the video for recognition. The experimental results show that the proposed representation is powerful to include the global information on top of local interest points and it successfully increases the accuracy of action recognition.

  4. Accessing the exceptional points of parity-time symmetric acoustics

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chengzhi; Dubois, Marc; Chen, Yun; Cheng, Lei; Ramezani, Hamidreza; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Parity-time (PT) symmetric systems experience phase transition between PT exact and broken phases at exceptional point. These PT phase transitions contribute significantly to the design of single mode lasers, coherent perfect absorbers, isolators, and diodes. However, such exceptional points are extremely difficult to access in practice because of the dispersive behaviour of most loss and gain materials required in PT symmetric systems. Here we introduce a method to systematically tame these exceptional points and control PT phases. Our experimental demonstration hinges on an active acoustic element that realizes a complex-valued potential and simultaneously controls the multiple interference in the structure. The manipulation of exceptional points offers new routes to broaden applications for PT symmetric physics in acoustics, optics, microwaves and electronics, which are essential for sensing, communication and imaging. PMID:27025443

  5. Accessing the exceptional points of parity-time symmetric acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chengzhi; Dubois, Marc; Chen, Yun; Cheng, Lei; Ramezani, Hamidreza; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-03-01

    Parity-time (PT) symmetric systems experience phase transition between PT exact and broken phases at exceptional point. These PT phase transitions contribute significantly to the design of single mode lasers, coherent perfect absorbers, isolators, and diodes. However, such exceptional points are extremely difficult to access in practice because of the dispersive behaviour of most loss and gain materials required in PT symmetric systems. Here we introduce a method to systematically tame these exceptional points and control PT phases. Our experimental demonstration hinges on an active acoustic element that realizes a complex-valued potential and simultaneously controls the multiple interference in the structure. The manipulation of exceptional points offers new routes to broaden applications for PT symmetric physics in acoustics, optics, microwaves and electronics, which are essential for sensing, communication and imaging.

  6. Accessing the exceptional points of parity-time symmetric acoustics.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chengzhi; Dubois, Marc; Chen, Yun; Cheng, Lei; Ramezani, Hamidreza; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Parity-time (PT) symmetric systems experience phase transition between PT exact and broken phases at exceptional point. These PT phase transitions contribute significantly to the design of single mode lasers, coherent perfect absorbers, isolators, and diodes. However, such exceptional points are extremely difficult to access in practice because of the dispersive behaviour of most loss and gain materials required in PT symmetric systems. Here we introduce a method to systematically tame these exceptional points and control PT phases. Our experimental demonstration hinges on an active acoustic element that realizes a complex-valued potential and simultaneously controls the multiple interference in the structure. The manipulation of exceptional points offers new routes to broaden applications for PT symmetric physics in acoustics, optics, microwaves and electronics, which are essential for sensing, communication and imaging. PMID:27025443

  7. Time scale for point-defect equilibration in nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, Paul C.; Wolf, Dieter; Desai, Tapan; Yamakov, Vesselin

    2008-10-20

    Molecular dynamics simulations of high-temperature annealing are performed on nanostructured materials enabling direct observation of vacancy emission from planar defects (i.e., grain boundaries and free surfaces) to populate the initially vacancy-free grain interiors on a subnanosecond time scale. We demonstrate a universal time-length scale correlation that governs these re-equilibration processes, suggesting that nanostructures are particularly stable against perturbations in their point-defect concentrations, caused for example by particle irradiation or temperature fluctuations.

  8. Point defect concentrations and solid solution hardening in NiAl with Fe additions

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, L.M.; Chang, Y.A.; Liu, C.T.

    1997-08-01

    The solid solution hardening behavior exhibited when Fe is added to NiAl is investigated. This is an interesting problem to consider since the ternary Fe additions may choose to occupy either the Ni or the Al sublattice, affecting the hardness at differing rates. Moreover, the addition of Fe may affect the concentrations of other point defects such as vacancies and Ni anti-sites. As a result, unusual effects ranging from rapid hardening to solid solution softening are observed. Alloys with varying amounts of Fe were prepared in Ni-rich (40 at. % Al) and stoichiometric (50 at. % Al) compositions. Vacancy concentrations were measured using lattice parameter and density measurements. The site occupancy of Fe was determined using ALCHEMI. Using these two techniques the site occupancies of all species could be uniquely determined. Significant differences in the defect concentrations as well as the hardening behavior were encountered between the Ni-rich and stoichiometric regimes.

  9. A novel memristive time-delay chaotic system without equilibrium points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, V.-T.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Volos, C. K.; Jafari, S.; Kuznetsov, N. V.; Hoang, T. M.

    2016-02-01

    Memristor and time-delay are potential candidates for constructing new systems with complex dynamics and special features. A novel time-delay system with a presence of memristive device is proposed in this work. It is worth noting that this memristive time-delay system can generate chaotic attractors although it possesses no equilibrium points. In addition, a circuitry implementation of such time-delay system has been introduced to show its feasibility.

  10. Real time simulator with Ti floating point digital signal processor

    SciTech Connect

    Razazian, K.; Bobis, J.P.; Dieckman, S.L.; Raptis, A.C.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of a Real Time Simulator using Texas Instruments TMS320C30 digital signal processor. This system operates with two banks of memory which provide the input data to digital signal processor chip. This feature enables the TMS320C30 to be utilized in variety of applications for which external connections to acquire input data is not needed. In addition, some practical applications of this Real Time Simulator are discussed.

  11. 19 CFR 201.14 - Computation of time, additional hearings, postponements, continuances, and extensions of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of time, additional hearings, postponements, continuances, and extensions of time. 201.14 Section 201.14 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Initiation and Conduct of Investigations § 201.14 Computation of time,...

  12. Parity-time symmetry broken by point-group symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández, Francisco M. Garcia, Javier

    2014-04-15

    We discuss a parity-time (PT) symmetric Hamiltonian with complex eigenvalues. It is based on the dimensionless Schrödinger equation for a particle in a square box with the PT-symmetric potential V(x, y) = iaxy. Perturbation theory clearly shows that some of the eigenvalues are complex for sufficiently small values of |a|. Point-group symmetry proves useful to guess if some of the eigenvalues may already be complex for all values of the coupling constant. We confirm those conclusions by means of an accurate numerical calculation based on the diagonalization method. On the other hand, the Schrödinger equation with the potential V(x, y) = iaxy{sup 2} exhibits real eigenvalues for sufficiently small values of |a|. Point group symmetry suggests that PT-symmetry may be broken in the former case and unbroken in the latter one.

  13. A Well-Clear Volume Based on Time to Entry Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Upchurch, Jason M.; Chamberlain, James P.; Consiglio, Maria C.

    2014-01-01

    A well-clear volume is a key component of NASA's Separation Assurance concept for the integration of UAS in the NAS. This paper proposes a mathematical definition of the well-clear volume that uses, in addition to distance thresholds, a time threshold based on time to entry point (TEP). The mathematical model that results from this definition is more conservative than other candidate definitions of the wellclear volume that are based on range over closure rate and time to closest point of approach.

  14. Local troposphere augmentation for real-time precise point positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junbo; Xu, Chaoqian; Guo, Jiming; Gao, Yang

    2014-12-01

    The IGS real-time service (RTS) enables real-time precise point positioning (PPP) at a global scale. A long convergence time however is still a challenging factor. In order to reduce the convergence time, external troposphere corrections could be introduced to remove the troposphere effects on the coordinate solution. This paper proposes the use of a local troposphere model to augment real-time PPP. First, undifferenced observations from a network of multiple stations are processed to estimate the station-based troposphere zenith wet delay (ZWD). A set of local troposphere fitting coefficients are then derived using a proposed optimal fitting model. Finally, the determined troposphere fitting coefficients are broadcast to users to reduce the convergence time in the user solution. A continuous operating reference station (CORS) network is utilized to assess the performance of the proposed approach under quiet and active troposphere conditions. The numerical results show that the overall fitting precisions of the local troposphere model can reach 1.42 and 1.05 cm under the two troposphere conditions. The convergence time of the positioning solutions, especially the height solution, can be greatly reduced using the local troposphere model. The horizontal accuracy of 9.2 cm and the vertical accuracy of 10.1 cm are obtainable under the quiet troposphere condition after 20 min of initialization time, compared to the 14.7 cm horizontal and 21.5 cm vertical accuracies in the conventional troposphere estimation approach. Moreover, the horizontal accuracies of 13.0 cm and the vertical accuracies of 12.4 cm have also been obtained after 20 min under the active troposphere condition.

  15. Single time point isothermal drug stability experiments at constant humidity.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jian-Lin; Zhan, Xian-Cheng; Li, Lin-Li; Lin, Bing; Jiang, Lu

    2009-03-01

    A single time point isothermal drug stability experiments at constant humidity is introduced. In the new method, kinetic parameters related to both moisture and temperature were obtained by a single pair of experiments: these related to moisture by one with a group of testing humidities and a fixed temperature, those related to temperature by the other with a group of testing temperatures and a constant humidity. By a simulation, the estimates for the kinetic parameters (E(a), m, A) obtained by the proposed method and the reported programmed humidifying and heating method were statistically evaluated and were compared with those obtained by the isothermal measurements at constant humidity. Results indicated that under the same experimental conditions, the estimates obtained by the proposed method were significantly more precise than those obtained by the reported programmed humidifying and heating method. The estimates obtained by the isothermal method at constant humidity were somewhat more precise than those obtained by the proposed method. However, the experimental period needed by the isothermal method at constant humidity was greatly longer than that needed by the proposed method. The stability of dicloxacillin sodium, as a solid state model, was investigated by the single time point isothermal drug stability experiments at constant humidity. The results indicated that the kinetic parameters obtained by the proposed method were comparable to those from the reported. PMID:19252391

  16. 19 CFR 210.6 - Computation of time, additional hearings, postponements, continuances, and extensions of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of time, additional hearings, postponements, continuances, and extensions of time. 210.6 Section 210.6 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Rules of General Applicability §...

  17. Taming the Exceptional Points of Parity-Time Symmetric Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Marc; Shi, Chengzhi; Chen, Yun; Cheng, Lei; Ramezani, Hamidreza; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    Parity-time (PT) symmetric concept and development lead to a wide range of applications including coherent perfect absorbers, single mode lasers, unidirectional cloaking and sensing, and optical isolators. These new applications and devices emerge from the existence of a phase transition in PT symmetric complex-valued potential obtained by balancing gain and loss materials. However, the systematic extension of such devices is adjourned by the key challenge in the management of the complex scattering process within the structure in order to engineer PT phase and exceptional points. Here, based on active acoustic elements, we experimentally demonstrate the simultaneous control of complex-valued potentials and multiple interference inside the structure at any given frequency. This method broadens the scope of applications for PT symmetric devices in many fields including optics, microwaves, electronics, which are crucial for sensing, imaging, cloaking, lasing, absorbing, etc.

  18. Kinks in subducted slabs: Petrological evidence points to additional hindrance to the exhumation of UHP rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, T.; Klemd, R.; Scherer, E. E.; Rondenay, S.; Gao, J.

    2012-12-01

    Sudden changes in the dip of subducted oceanic plates have been resolved by seismic imaging [1, 2]. Such kinking often coincides with the seismic disappearance of the low-velocity subducted oceanic crust, i.e., at a depth where eclogitization (dehydration) of the upper oceanic crust is nearly complete and the oceanic crust becomes almost seismically indistinguishable from mantle peridotite. We present petrological evidence for this phenomenon derived from oceanic blueschist- and eclogite-facies rocks from the Chinese Tianshan. The peak-metamorphic conditions of the samples range between 330 and 580°C at 1.5 to 2.3 GPa. Such a wide range of peak conditions for intercalated high- and ultrahigh-pressure rocks has also been reported from other Tianshan localities. These observations suggest that the rocks were derived from different depths within the subduction zone and later juxtaposed during exhumation within the subduction channel. Multi-point Lu-Hf isochrons from four high-pressure rocks yield consistent garnet-growth ages of around ~315 Ma, confirming that the eclogite-facies metamorphism of the Tianshan high-pressure rocks resulted from a single subduction event in the Late Carboniferous. These ages, in conjunction with the ~311 Ma cluster of 40Ar-39Ar and Rb-Sr white mica ages from the same localities imply rapid exhumation. Previously reported peak P-T estimates from UHP metasediments and eclogites all lie on a lower geothermal gradient—and thus on a colder P-T path at the slab-wedge interface—than that defined by the HP eclogites and meta-volcaniclastic rocks studied here. This suggests that the slab-subduction angle steepened sharply at approximately 90 km depth, just between the depths at which the HP and UHP rocks equilibrated. The increase in subduction angle may result from a greater slab pull resulting from eclogitization densification. An additional factor may be an ephemeral weakening of the slab as it undergoes eclogitization reactions [3, 4]. We

  19. [Time point and methods for emergency killing in cattle].

    PubMed

    Khol, J L; Schafbauer, T; Wittek, T

    2016-01-01

    Emergency killing is defined as the killing of injured or ill animals to avoid excessive pain or harm. Decision-making for emergency killing or a prolonged therapy can be difficult and has to be based on the case history and results of the clinical examination contributing to the prognosis, particularly in downer cows. Evaluation of enzyme activities and total bilirubin can be used as additional factors pointing to a guarded prognosis; however, none of these parameters provides a clear cut-off value indicating a poor prognosis and mandatory emergency killing. Euthanasia by intravenous drug application is seen as the least stressful method of killing and should therefore always be the first method of choice for emergency killing in cattle. Drugs containing pentobarbital as well as a combination of three different drugs (T61-Injektionslösung, MSD Animal Health) are available for euthanasia in cattle. All drugs must be administered by a veterinarian. Before application of pentobarbital, an animal should be deeply sedated. The administration of T61 requires anaesthesia of the animal and it is not licensed for use in pregnant animals. Alternative methods for emeragency killing, including captive bolt stunning and the use of firearms, although not regularly performed by veterinarians, should be assessed concerning their correct application and performance. When captive bolt stunning or emergency killing using firearms is performed, the correct position of the device is crucial as well as a quick exsanguination or the application of a pithing rod for the actual killing of the animal after captive bolt stunning. In addition to medical considerations, economic and personal factors contribute to the decision about emergency killing in cattle. Therefore, veterinarians should aim to evaluate each case thoroughly based on personal knowledge and experience, case history, clinical findings and laboratory parameters to avoid prolonged suffering of the animal. PMID:26830543

  20. Time trend and change point of reference evapotranspiration over Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P.; Shifteh Some'e, B.; Sobhan Ardakani, S.

    2014-05-01

    Identifying changes in reference evapotranspiration (ETo) can help in future planning of crop water requirements and water resources for high water-use efficiency. This study analyzes the ETo trends on a seasonal and annual timescale by applying various statistical tools to data from 41 Iranian weather stations during the period between 1966 and 2005. The Mann-Kendall test after removal of significant serial correlation was used to determine the statistical significance of the trends, and the change point in the ETo time series was determined using the cumulative sum technique. The results showed that (1) the significant increasing trends of annual ETo were observed at seven stations which are located in different parts of Iran, (2) the stations located at the southeast, northeast, and northwest corners of Iran experienced the highest positive change of annual ETo, and (3) the changes in seasonal ETo were most pronounced in the winter season, both in terms of trend magnitude and the number of stations with significant trends.

  1. The assessment of schizotypal features over two points in time.

    PubMed

    Squires-Wheeler, E; Skodol, A E; Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L

    1991-12-01

    The expression of schizotypal personality traits was assessed in mid-adolescence and again in young adulthood for three groups of offspring defined by the psychiatric diagnosis of their parents. Parental diagnoses included schizophrenic disorder (47 offspring), affective disorder (39 offspring), and 'no psychiatric disorder', or normal controls (82 offspring). Initially, schizotypal traits were assessed from video-taped semi-structured psychiatric interviews, subsequently rated by trained psychiatrists blind to the parental psychiatric status of the subjects, and/or direct clinical interviews (Schedule for Affective Disorders-Lifetime Version (SADS-L)). The second assessment was conducted by trained social workers and psychologists by means of a semi-structured interview specifically for DSM-III-R personality disorders (Personality Disorder Examination) and sections of the SDS-L where indicated. These interviewers were blind to the parental status and to previous psychiatric assessments of the offspring. The rates of stability of features or the rates of progression to axis I psychotic disorders (Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective Disorder, and Unspecified Functional Psychosis) were evaluated. Concordance of assessments over time is reported as a function of threshold for expression of traits at initial evaluation, i.e., two or more, three or more, or four or more features present. Concordance increases as the threshold for expression increases, as expected. The effect of comorbid clinical status, e.g., the coexistence of schizotypal traits and anxiety and/or depressive features on the concordance pattern, is also examined by parental diagnostic group status. The offspring of affective disorder parents exhibited higher rates of anxiety and/or depressive features at both points in time, exhibited higher concordance for anxiety and/or depressive features, and exhibited higher rates of 'transformation' of initial schizotypal features to anxiety and/or depressive features

  2. Timing of Getter Material Addition in Cementitious Wasteforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawter, A.; Qafoku, N. P.; Asmussen, M.; Neeway, J.; Smith, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    A cementitious waste form, Cast Stone, is being evaluated as a possible supplemental immobilization technology for the Hanford sites's low activity waste (LAW), which contains radioactive 99Tc and 129I, as part of the tank waste cleanup mission. Cast Stone is made of a dry blend 47% blast furnace slag, 45% fly ash, and 8% ordinary Portland cement, mixed with a low-activity waste (LAW). To improve the retention of Tc and/or I in Cast Stone, materials with a high affinity for Tc and/or I, termed "getters," can be added to provide a stable domain for the radionuclides of concern. Previous testing conducted with a variety of getters has identified Tin(II)-Apatite and Silver Exchanged Zeolite as promising candidates for Tc and I, respectively. Investigation into the sequence in which getters are added to Cast Stone was performed following two methods: 1) adding getters to the Cast Stone dry blend, and then mixing with liquid waste, and 2) adding getters to the liquid waste first, followed by addition of the Cast Stone dry blend. Cast Stone monolith samples were prepared with each method and leach tests, following EPA method 1315, were conducted in either distilled water or simulated vadose zone porewater for a period of up to 63 days. The leachate was analyzed for Tc, I, Na, NO3-, NO2- and Cr with ICP-MS, ICP-OES and ion chromatography and the results indicated that the Cast Stone with getter addition in the dry blend mix (method 1) has lower rates of Tc and I leaching. The mechanisms of radionuclide release from the Cast Stone were also investigated with a variety of solid phase characterization techniques of the monoliths before and after leaching, such as XRD, SEM/EDS, TEM/SAED and other spectroscopic techniques.

  3. H-point standard additions method for simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids with simultaneous addition of two analytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givianrad, M. H.; Saber-Tehrani, M.; Aberoomand-Azar, P.; Mohagheghian, M.

    2011-03-01

    The applicability of H-point standard additions method (HPSAM) to the resolving of overlapping spectra corresponding to the sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is verified by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The results show that the H-point standard additions method with simultaneous addition of both analytes is suitable for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in aqueous media. The results of applying the H-point standard additions method showed that the two drugs could be determined simultaneously with the concentration ratios of sulfamethoxazole to trimethoprim varying from 1:18 to 16:1 in the mixed samples. Also, the limits of detections were 0.58 and 0.37 μmol L -1 for sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, respectively. In addition the means of the calculated RSD (%) were 1.63 and 2.01 for SMX and TMP, respectively in synthetic mixtures. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in some synthetic, pharmaceutical formulation and biological fluid samples.

  4. Detection of continuous-time quaternion signals in additive noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Moreno, Jesús; Ruiz-Molina, Juan Carlos; Oya, Antonia; Quesada-Rubio, José M.

    2012-12-01

    Different kinds of quaternion signal detection problems in continuous-time by using a widely linear processing are dealt with. The suggested solutions are based on an extension of the Karhunen-Loève expansion to the quaternion domain which provides uncorrelated scalar real-valued random coefficients. This expansion presents the notable advantage of transforming the original four-dimensional eigen problem to a one-dimensional problem. Firstly, we address the problem of detecting a quaternion deterministic signal in quaternion Gaussian noise and a version of Pitcher's Theorem is given. Also the particular case of a general quaternion Wiener noise is studied and an extension of the Cameron-Martin formula is presented. Finally, the problem of detecting a quaternion random signal in quaternion white Gaussian noise is tackled. In such a case, it is shown that the detector depends on the quaternion widely linear estimator of the signal.

  5. Additional Evaluation of the Point-of-Contact Circulating Cathodic Antigen Assay for Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mwinzi, Pauline N. M.; Kittur, Nupur; Ochola, Elizabeth; Cooper, Philip J.; Campbell, Carl H.; King, Charles H.; Colley, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the urine-based point-of-contact cathodic circulating antigen test (POC-CCA) in Schistosoma mansoni-endemic settings in Africa indicate it has good sensitivity in detecting infections, but in areas of low prevalence, the POC-CCA can be positive for persons who are egg-negative by Kato-Katz stool assays. We examined the POC-CCA assay for: (a) batch-to-batch stability; (b) intra-reader and inter-reader variability; (c) day-to-day variability compared to Kato-Katz stool assays, and (d) to see if praziquantel (PZQ) treatment converted Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals to POC-CCA negativity. We found essentially no batch-to-batch variation, negligible intra-reader variability (2%), and substantial agreement for inter-reader reliability. Some day-to-day variation was observed over 5 days of urine collection, but less than the variation in Kato-Katz stool assays over 3 days. To evaluate the effect of treatment on Kato-Katz(−)/POC-CCA(+) children, 149 children in an area of 10–15% prevalence who were Kato-Katz(−) based on 3 stool samples but POC-CCA(+) were enrolled. Seven days after treatment (PZQ 40 mg/kg) samples were again collected and tested. Almost half (47%) POC-CCA positive children turned negative. Those still POC-CCA positive received a second treatment, and 34% of them turned POC-CCA negative upon this second treatment. Most who remained POC-CCA positive shifted each time to a “lesser” POC-CCA “level of positivity.” The data suggest that most Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals harbor low-intensity infections, and each treatment kills all or some of their adult worms. The data also suggest that when evaluated by a more sensitive assay, the effective cure rates for PZQ are significantly less than those inferred from fecal testing. These findings have public health significance for the mapping and monitoring of Schistosoma infections and in planning the transition from schistosomiasis morbidity control to

  6. A multi-resolution fractal additive scheme for blind watermarking of 3D point data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmes, Mark; Wilder, Kathy; Fox, Kevin

    2013-05-01

    We present a fractal feature space for 3D point watermarking to make geospatial systems more secure. By exploiting the self similar nature of fractals, hidden information can be spatially embedded in point cloud data in an acceptable manner as described within this paper. Our method utilizes a blind scheme which provides automatic retrieval of the watermark payload without the need of the original cover data. Our method for locating similar patterns and encoding information in LiDAR point cloud data is accomplished through a look-up table or code book. The watermark is then merged into the point cloud data itself resulting in low distortion effects. With current advancements in computing technologies, such as GPGPUs, fractal processing is now applicable for processing of big data which is present in geospatial as well as other systems. This watermarking technique described within this paper can be important for systems where point data is handled by numerous aerial collectors including analysts use for systems such as a National LiDAR Data Layer.

  7. Time's Arrow and Archimedes' Point - New Directions for the Physics of Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Huw

    1997-12-01

    Why is the future so different from the past? Why does the past affect the future and not the other way around? What does quantum mechanics really tell us about the world? In this important and accessible book, Huw Price throws fascinating new light these great mysteries of modern physics, and connects them in a wholly original way. Price begins with the mystery of the arrow of time. Price shows that, for over a century, most physicists have thought about problems of time in the wrong way. Misled by the human perspective from within time, which distorts and exaggerates the differences between past and future, they have fallen victim to what Price calls the "double standard fallacy": proposed explanations of the difference between the past and the future turn out to rely on a difference which has been slipped in at the beginning, when the physicists themselves treat the past and future in different ways. To avoid this fallacy, Price argues, we need to overcome our natural tendency to think about the past and the future differently. We need to imagine a point outside time--an Archimedean "view from nowhen"--from which to observe time in an unbiased way. Time's Arrow and Archimedes'Point presents an innovative and controversial view of time and contemporary physics. In this exciting book, Price urges physicists, philosophers, and anyone who has ever pondered the mysteries of time to look at the world from the fresh perspective of Archimedes' Point and gain a deeper understanding of ourselves, the universe around us, and our own place in time.

  8. PowerPoint Presentations: A Creative Addition to the Research Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Alan E.

    2003-01-01

    Contends that the requirement of a PowerPoint presentation as part of the research process would benefit students in the following ways: learning how to conduct research; starting their research project sooner; honing presentation and public speaking skills; improving cooperative and social skills; and enhancing technology skills. Outlines the…

  9. Effects of additional external weight on posture and movement adaptations to fatigue induced by a repetitive pointing task.

    PubMed

    Cantú, Hiram; Emery, Kim; Côté, Julie N

    2014-06-01

    Fatigue and additional weight are risk factors of injuries by falls. Posture and trunk movement changes occur with fatigue induced by a repetitive pointing task. These changes facilitate arm movement but they may also jeopardize postural stability. When equilibrium is challenged, e.g. with additional weight, strategies that represent less postural threat could develop with fatigue. Nineteen participants performed two sessions (without, with 20% body weight added load (Load)) of a repetitive pointing task until shoulder fatigue (8 on Borg CR-10). There was no difference in time to fatigue between the two sessions. Anterior deltoid, biceps and upper trapezius muscle activity significantly increased with fatigue. Peak medial-lateral center-of-pressure (CoP) velocity and the mean vertical position of the reaching shoulder were both significantly lower with fatigue, though these fatigue-induced decreases were smaller with the added load. Reach-to-reach variability in CoP displacement significantly increased with fatigue, and more so with the added load. With fatigue, significant contralateral shifts occurred at the reaching shoulder and elbow joints, and ranges of motion (RoM) significantly increased at most joints but not at the center-of-mass (CoM). Conversely, Load main effects were mostly seen in CoM dependent measures. Significantly increased variability in mean and range values was seen with fatigue and Load in most of our kinematic and CoP dependent measures, with the most notable effects on CoM dependent measures. Findings suggest that the postural control system adapts to combined perturbing factors of fatigue and added load, likely by using parallel control mechanisms. PMID:24786737

  10. Disparities and Menthol Marketing: Additional Evidence in Support of Point of Sale Policies

    PubMed Central

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Harris, Jenine; Snider, Doneisha; Walsh, Heidi; Cyr, Julianne; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control. PMID:24071922

  11. Disparities and menthol marketing: additional evidence in support of point of sale policies.

    PubMed

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Harris, Jenine; Snider, Doneisha; Walsh, Heidi; Cyr, Julianne; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-10-01

    This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control. PMID:24071922

  12. Automatic synthesis of quantum circuits for point addition on ordinary binary elliptic curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhathoki, Parshuram; Steinwandt, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    When designing quantum circuits for Shor's algorithm to solve the discrete logarithm problem, implementing the group arithmetic is a cost-critical task. We introduce a software tool for the automatic generation of addition circuits for ordinary binary elliptic curves, a prominent platform group for digital signatures. The resulting circuits reduce the number of -gates by a factor compared to the best previous construction, without increasing the number of qubits or -depth. The software also optimizes the (CNOT) depth for -linear operations by means of suitable graph colorings.

  13. A point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kadioglu, Samet Y.; Berry, Ray A.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2015-05-01

    We introduce a point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems. The method treats the solution variables of interest (that can be located at cell centers, cell edges, or cell nodes) implicitly and the rest of the information related to same or other variables are handled explicitly. The method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods, except it involves a few additional function(s) evaluation steps. Moreover, the method is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. This new approach exhibits the simplicity of implementation of explicit methods and the stability of implicit methods. It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration wherein one would like to perform time integrations with very large time steps. Because the method can be time inaccurate for fast transient problems, particularly with larger time steps, an appropriate solution strategy for a problem that evolves from a fast to a slow transient would be to integrate the fast transient with an explicit or semi-implicit technique and then switch to this point implicit method as soon as the time variation slows sufficiently. We have solved several test problems that result from scalar or systems of flow equations. Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very efficiently; and its implementation is very robust.

  14. Lunar Crater Rays Point to a New Lunar Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2004-09-01

    The Lunar Time Scale should be reevaluated -- suggest remote sensing studies of lunar crater rays by B. Ray Hawke (University of Hawaii) and colleagues at the University of Hawaii, NovaSol, Cornell University, National Air and Space Museum, and Northwestern University. These scientists have found that the mere presence of crater rays is not a reliable indicator that the crater is young, as once thought, and that the working definition of the Copernican/Eratosthenian (C/E) boundary should be reconsidered. The team used Earth-based spectral and radar data with FeO, TiO2, and optical maturity maps derived from Clementine UVVIS images to determine the origin and composition of selected lunar ray segments. They conclude that the optical maturity parameter, which uses chemical analyses of lunar samples as its foundation, should be used to redefine the C/E boundary. Under this classification, the Copernican System would be defined as the time required for an immature surface to reach full optical maturity.

  15. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of chromium(VI) and iron (III) by H-point standard addition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionova, E. V.; Bulygina, K. A.

    2016-02-01

    In this work the possibility of simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of chromium (VI) and iron (III) in alloys with help of the mixed organic reagent (diphenylcarbazide and 1,10-phenanthroline) is studied. We have applied H-point standard addition method to determine concentrations of chromium (VI) and iron (III) from the mixture. The pure signals of complexes of chromium (VI) with diphenylcarbazide and iron (III) with the 1,10-phenanthroline and their calibration plots are previously carried out. We established the possibility of simultaneous determination of chromium (VI) and iron (III) in the different concentration ranges by H-point standard addition method. Correctness of determination of concentration by means of the offered technique is proved by "added-found" method for a series of mixtures with different ratios of concentration of chromium (VI) and iron (III). It is founded that the error of determination of concentration doesn't exceed 33%.

  16. MAPT and PAICE: Tools for time series and single time point transcriptionist visualization and knowledge discovery

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Parsa; Tremblay, Arianne; Matthews, Benjamin F; Alkharouf, Nadim W

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of next-generation sequencing, -omics fields such as transcriptomics have experienced increases in data throughput on the order of magnitudes. In terms of analyzing and visually representing these huge datasets, an intuitive and computationally tractable approach is to map quantified transcript expression onto biochemical pathways while employing datamining and visualization principles to accelerate knowledge discovery. We present two cross-platform tools: MAPT (Mapping and Analysis of Pathways through Time) and PAICE (Pathway Analysis and Integrated Coloring of Experiments), an easy to use analysis suite to facilitate time series and single time point transcriptomics analysis. In unison, MAPT and PAICE serve as a visual workbench for transcriptomics knowledge discovery, data-mining and functional annotation. Both PAICE and MAPT are two distinct but yet inextricably linked tools. The former is specifically designed to map EC accessions onto KEGG pathways while handling multiple gene copies, detection-call analysis, as well as UN/annotated EC accessions lacking quantifiable expression. The latter tool integrates PAICE datasets to drive visualization, annotation, and data-mining. Availability The database is available for free at http://sourceforge.net/projects/paice/http://sourceforge.net/projects/mapt/ PMID:22493539

  17. Performance of supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle with additive gases at varying critical points for SFR application

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, W. S.; Jeong, Y. H.

    2012-07-01

    The supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle (S-CO{sub 2} cycle) has received attention as alternative to the energy conversion system for a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). The high cycle efficiency of S-CO{sub 2} cycle is attributed to significantly reduced compressor work. This is because the compressor operates like a pump in the vicinity of CO{sub 2} critical point. To make use of this feature, the minimum cycle operating range of S-CO{sub 2} cycle, which is the main compressor inlet condition, should be located close to the critical point of CO{sub 2}. This translated into that the critical point of CO{sub 2} is the limitation of the lowest cycle condition of S-CO{sub 2} cycles. To increase the flexibility and broaden the applicability of the cycle, changing the critical point of CO{sub 2} by mixing additive gases could be adopted. An increase in the efficiency of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle could be achieved by decreasing critical point of CO{sub 2}. In addition, increasing critical point of CO{sub 2} could be utilized to obtain improved cycle performances at ascending heat sink temperature of hot arid areas. Due to the rapid fluctuations of thermo-physical properties of gas mixtures near the critical point, an in-house cycle analysis code coupled to NIST property database was developed. Several gases were selected as potential additives through the screening process for thermal stability and chemical interaction with sodium. By using the developed cycle code, optimized cycles of each gas mixture were compared with the reference case of S-CO{sub 2} cycle. For decreased critical temperatures, CO{sub 2}-Xe and CO{sub 2}-Kr showed an increase in the total cycle efficiency. At increasing critical temperatures, the performance of CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}-cyclohexane is superior to S-CO{sub 2}cycle when the compressor inlet temperature is above the critical temperature of CO{sub 2}. (authors)

  18. Analysis of the kinetics of lipid peroxidation in terms of characteristic time-points.

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, Ilya; Lichtenberg, Dov

    2014-02-01

    Measuring peroxidation of aggregated lipids in model systems (liposomes, micelles, emulsions or microemulsions) as well as in samples of biological origin ex vivo (isolated lipoproteins, blood sera or plasma) is widely used in medical and biological investigations, to evaluate the oxidative stress, antioxidants' efficiency and lipid oxidizability in different pathophysiological states. To avoid possible artifacts, such investigations must be based on the time course of peroxidation (i.e. on kinetic studies). To be able to compare complex kinetic profiles, it is important to characterize them in terms of mechanistically meaningful and experimentally unequivocal parameters. In this review, we characterize the typically observed continuous kinetic profiles in terms of a limited number of characteristic time-points (both commonly used and additional time-points and their combinations) that can be derived from experimental time-dependencies. The meaning of each of the experimentally observed characteristic parameters is presented in terms of rate constants and concentrations, derived on the basis of mechanistic considerations. Theoretical expressions for these characteristic parameters are based on a model that includes both the inhibited peroxidation and the uninhibited peroxidation occurring after consumption of the antioxidant(s). Comparison between theoretically predicted dependencies and experimental data support our treatment considered with special emphasis on transition metals-induced peroxidation of lipoproteins. PMID:24333462

  19. Calculation of power spectrums from digital time series with missing data points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, C. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Two algorithms are developed for calculating power spectrums from the autocorrelation function when there are missing data points in the time series. Both methods use an average sampling interval to compute lagged products. One method, the correlation function power spectrum, takes the discrete Fourier transform of the lagged products directly to obtain the spectrum, while the other, the modified Blackman-Tukey power spectrum, takes the Fourier transform of the mean lagged products. Both techniques require fewer calculations than other procedures since only 50% to 80% of the maximum lags need be calculated. The algorithms are compared with the Fourier transform power spectrum and two least squares procedures (all for an arbitrary data spacing). Examples are given showing recovery of frequency components from simulated periodic data where portions of the time series are missing and random noise has been added to both the time points and to values of the function. In addition the methods are compared using real data. All procedures performed equally well in detecting periodicities in the data.

  20. Compensation for matrix effects in gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a single point standard addition.

    PubMed

    Garrido Frenich, Antonia; Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Fernández Moreno, José Luis; Romero-González, R

    2009-06-01

    One of the major problems in quantitative analysis of pesticide residues in food samples by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) is the enhancement or the suppression, of the target analyte signals in matrix extracts. Potentially positive samples, which had previously been identified by a rapid screening method, were quantified using standard addition to compensate matrix effects. As example we performed a systematic study on the application of the standard addition calibration (SAC) method for the determination of 12 pesticides (acephate, bromopropylate, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, diazinon, etrimfos, heptenophos, iprodione, methamidophos, procymidone, tetradifon, and triadimefon) in two matrices (cucumber and orange) in the range of initial concentrations of 10-200 microg kg(-1). The influence of some factors, such as the minimum number of standard additions used (single, two, three or four points calibration), as well as the known amount of analyte added to the sample, is evaluated in order to obtain reliable results. Accurate quantification is achieved when a single point SAC at 200 microg kg(-1) was used, obtaining for all the cases recoveries between 70 and 120%. The proposed analytical approach only needs two injections per sample (blank and spiked extracted sample) to determine the final concentration of pesticide in positive samples. PMID:19406413

  1. Effects of reduced pressure and additives on streamers in white oil in long point-plane gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dung, N. V.; Høidalen, H. K.; Linhjell, D.; Lundgaard, L. E.; Unge, M.

    2013-06-01

    Recent experiments show that modern dielectric liquids behave differently from traditional mineral oil, particularly with respect to breakdown voltages for lightning impulse. This paper describes an experimental investigation addressing underlying reasons for this. The influences of reduced pressure and additives on streamers in white oil were investigated under both positive and negative polarities using an 8 cm long point-plane gap. Reduced pressure significantly accelerates streamers, thus increasing stopping length and reducing both breakdown and acceleration voltages. With increasing applied voltage, different typical propagation modes of streamers were recorded for both polarities. A low ionization potential additive strongly affects positive streamers. It significantly changes streamer velocity and reduces the breakdown voltage but increases the acceleration voltage where breakdown streamer velocity increases drastically. Adding an electron scavenger influences streamers of both polarities, but it mainly increases the velocity of negative streamers and results in a reduction of both the breakdown and the acceleration voltages. The propagation mechanisms of streamers are also discussed.

  2. 22 CFR 1429.22 - Additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Additional time after service by mail. 1429.22 Section 1429.22 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY... MISCELLANEOUS AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General Requirements § 1429.22 Additional time after service by...

  3. 22 CFR 1429.22 - Additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Additional time after service by mail. 1429.22 Section 1429.22 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY... MISCELLANEOUS AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General Requirements § 1429.22 Additional time after service by...

  4. 22 CFR 1429.22 - Additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Additional time after service by mail. 1429.22 Section 1429.22 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY... MISCELLANEOUS AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General Requirements § 1429.22 Additional time after service by...

  5. 22 CFR 1429.22 - Additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Additional time after service by mail. 1429.22 Section 1429.22 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY... MISCELLANEOUS AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General Requirements § 1429.22 Additional time after service by...

  6. 22 CFR 1429.22 - Additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional time after service by mail. 1429.22 Section 1429.22 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY... MISCELLANEOUS AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General Requirements § 1429.22 Additional time after service by...

  7. How to Make Additional Time Matter: Integrating Individualized Tutorials into an Extended Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on the effect of extending the school day is decidedly mixed because of the stark differences in how schools use additional time. In this paper, I focus narrowly on the effect of additional time used for individualized tutorials. In 2005, MATCH Charter Public High School integrated two hours of tutorials throughout an extended day. The…

  8. Two-point one-dimensional δ-{\\delta }^{\\prime } interactions: non-abelian addition law and decoupling limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadella, M.; Mateos-Guilarte, J.; Muñoz-Castañeda, J. M.; Nieto, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution to the study of one-dimensional point potentials, we prove that if we take the limit q\\to 0 on a potential of the type {v}0δ (y)+2{v}1{δ }\\prime (y)+{w}0δ (y-q)+2{w}1{δ }\\prime (y-q), we obtain a new point potential of the type {u}0δ (y)+2{u}1{δ }\\prime (y), when u 0 and u 1 are related to v 0, v 1, w 0 and w 1 by a law with the structure of a group. This is the Borel subgroup of {{SL}}2({{R}}). We also obtain the non-abelian addition law from the scattering data. The spectra of the Hamiltonian in the decoupling cases emerging in the study are also described in full. It is shown that for the {v}1=+/- 1, {w}1=+/- 1 values of the {δ }\\prime couplings the singular Kurasov matrices become equivalent to Dirichlet at one side of the point interaction and Robin boundary conditions at the other side.

  9. High-Challenge Teaching for Senior English as an Additional Language Learners in Times of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Jennifer; Jetnikoff, Anita

    2011-01-01

    This paper will present a brief overview of the recent shifts within English and EAL/D (English as an additional language/dialect) curriculum documents and their focus on critical literacy, using the Queensland context as a case in point. The English syllabus landscape in Queensland has continued to morph in recent years. From 2002 to 2009,…

  10. The time-space relationships among data points from multispectral spatial scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, F.

    1983-01-01

    Multispectral scanner and thematic mapper (TM) data from Landsat satellites are discussed in terms of the perceived 'simultaineity' of the images, which are obtained by scanning techniques. Scanning the scenes ensures that the data points of the images are actually sequential, even if the scan is performed at rates that are fast relative to the motion of the spacecraft. The last datum gathered by the MSS is, in fact, taken 29 sec after the first, witih a 56 m distance being present between pixels. The spacing in uneven from band to band on the TM and analyses of the data to produce an image requires consideration of nonfixed time relationships for different locations on the scan within and among the bands. Additionally, corrective measures must be taken to compensate for instrument jitter and attitude changes.

  11. 14 CFR 121.483 - Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional flight crewmember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.483 Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional...

  12. 14 CFR 121.483 - Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional flight crewmember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.483 Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional...

  13. 14 CFR 121.483 - Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional flight crewmember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.483 Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional...

  14. Processing 3D flash LADAR point-clouds in real-time for flight applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, R.; Gravseth, I.; Earhart, R. P.; Bladt, J.; Barnhill, S.; Ruppert, L.; Centamore, C.

    2007-04-01

    Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. has demonstrated real-time processing of 3D imaging LADAR point-cloud data to produce the industry's first time-of-flight (TOF) 3D video capability. This capability is uniquely suited to the rigorous demands of space and airborne flight applications and holds great promise in the area of autonomous navigation. It will provide long-range, three dimensional video information to autonomous flight software or pilots for immediate use in rendezvous and docking, proximity operations, landing, surface vision systems, and automatic target recognition and tracking. This is enabled by our new generation of FPGA based "pixel-tube" processors, coprocessors and their associated algorithms which have led to a number of advancements in high-speed wavefront processing along with additional advances in dynamic camera control, and space laser designs based on Ball's CALIPSO LIDAR. This evolution in LADAR is made possible by moving the mechanical complexity required for a scanning system into the electronics, where production, integration, testing and life-cycle costs can be significantly reduced. This technique requires a state of the art TOF read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) attached to a sensor array to collect high resolution temporal data, which is then processed through FPGAs. The number of calculations required to process the data is greatly reduced thanks to the fact that all points are captured at the same time and thus correlated. This correlation allows extremely efficient FPGA processing. This capability has been demonstrated in prototype form at both Marshal Space Flight Center and Langley Research Center on targets that represent docking and landing scenarios. This report outlines many aspects of this work as well as aspects of our recent testing at Marshall's Flight Robotics Laboratory.

  15. Time-Dependent Searches for Neutrino Point Sources with the IceCube Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Michael Francis

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a km³ detector which recently completed construction at the geographic South Pole. Here we present four searches for flaring point-sources sources of neutrinos using IceCube data using maximum-likelihood techniques. For the first time, a search is performed over the entire parameter space of energy, direction and time with sensitivity to neutrino flares lasting between 20 mus and a year duration from astrophysical sources. This work is also an important step for the IceCube experiment in utilizing a multi-messenger approach, driving IceCube neutrino analysis with information from photon observatories. The use of time information is useful since integrated searches over time are less sensitive to flares as they are affected by a larger background of atmospheric neutrinos and moons that can be reduced by the use of additional timing information. Flaring sources considered here, such as active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts, are promising candidate neutrino emitters. One search is "untriggered" in the sense that it looks for any possible flare in the entire sky. The other two searches are triggered by multi-wavelength information on flares. One triggered search uses lightcurves from Fermi-LAT which provides continuous monitoring. A second triggered search uses information where the flux states have been measured only for short periods of time near the flares. A search for periodic emission of neutrinos is also performed on binary systems in the galaxy which are thought to be sources of particle acceleration. The searches use data taken by 40 strings of IceCube between Apr 5, 2008 and May 20, 2009 and by 59 strings of IceCube between May 20, 2009 and May 31, 2010. The results from all searches are compatible with a fluctuation of the background.

  16. In situ timing and pointing verification of the ICESat altimeter using a ground-based system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magruder, L.; Silverberg, E.; Webb, C.; Schutz, B.

    2005-11-01

    To provide validation of the ICESat laser altimeter time of measurement and geolocation, a ground-based technique was implemented at White Sands Space Harbor (WSSH), during the Laser 2a and 3a operational periods. The activities used an electro-optical detection system and a passive array of corner cube retro reflectors (CCR). The detectors and the CCRs were designed to provide an independent assessment of the laser footprint location, while the detectors also provide timing verification. This ground-based system unambiguously validated the elevation product time tag to 3 μsec +/- 1 μsec. In addition, the ground equipment provided in situ geolocations of the laser pulse. Comparing the in situ results to the ICESat GLA14 data product the positions differ by 10.6 m +/- 4.5 m for Laser 2a (Release 21) operations and 7.5 m +/- 6.6 m for Laser 3a (Release 23). These comparisons correlate to pointing validations at this site, for the specific overflight configurations.

  17. Beyond Traditional Sampling Synthesis: Real-Time Timbre Morphing Using Additive Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haken, Lippold; Fitz, Kelly; Christensen, Paul

    Because of its theoretical advantage for making timbral manipulations, sine wave additive synthesis is an attractive alternative to sampling synthesis, which is currently the most popular method for real-time synthesizers. Nevertheless, until recently performers have seldom used additive synthesis because of the practical difficulty of accomplishing these timbral manipulations, which inherently require modification of large numbers of time-varying amplitude and frequency control functions.

  18. Hierarchical random additive process and logarithmic scaling of generalized high order, two-point correlations in turbulent boundary layer flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. I. A.; Marusic, I.; Meneveau, C.

    2016-06-01

    Townsend [Townsend, The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1976)] hypothesized that the logarithmic region in high-Reynolds-number wall-bounded flows consists of space-filling, self-similar attached eddies. Invoking this hypothesis, we express streamwise velocity fluctuations in the inertial layer in high-Reynolds-number wall-bounded flows as a hierarchical random additive process (HRAP): uz+=∑i=1Nzai . Here u is the streamwise velocity fluctuation, + indicates normalization in wall units, z is the wall normal distance, and ai's are independently, identically distributed random additives, each of which is associated with an attached eddy in the wall-attached hierarchy. The number of random additives is Nz˜ln(δ /z ) where δ is the boundary layer thickness and ln is natural log. Due to its simplified structure, such a process leads to predictions of the scaling behaviors for various turbulence statistics in the logarithmic layer. Besides reproducing known logarithmic scaling of moments, structure functions, and correlation function [" close="]3/2 uz(x ) uz(x +r ) >, new logarithmic laws in two-point statistics such as uz4(x ) > 1 /2, 1/3, etc. can be derived using the HRAP formalism. Supporting empirical evidence for the logarithmic scaling in such statistics is found from the Melbourne High Reynolds Number Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel measurements. We also show that, at high Reynolds numbers, the above mentioned new logarithmic laws can be derived by assuming the arrival of an attached eddy at a generic point in the flow field to be a Poisson process [Woodcock and Marusic, Phys. Fluids 27, 015104 (2015), 10.1063/1.4905301]. Taken together, the results provide new evidence supporting the essential ingredients of the attached eddy hypothesis to describe streamwise velocity fluctuations of large, momentum transporting eddies in wall-bounded turbulence, while

  19. Inference of fitness values and putative appearance time points for evolvable self-replicating molecules from time series of occurrence frequencies in an evolution reactor.

    PubMed

    Aita, Takuyo; Ichihashi, Norikazu; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2016-07-21

    We have established a translation-coupled RNA replication system within a cell-like compartment, and conducted an experimental evolution of the RNA molecules in the system. Then, we obtained a time series of occurrence frequencies of 91 individual genotypes through random sampling and next-generation sequencing. The time series showed a complex clonal interference and a polymorphic population called the "quasispecies". By fitting a deterministic kinetic model of evolvable simple self-replicators to the time series, we estimated the fitness value and "putative appearance time point" for each of the 91 major genotypes identified, where the putative appearance time point is defined as a certain time point at which a certain mutant genotype is supposed to appear in the deterministic kinetic model. As a result, the kinetic model was well fitted and additionally we confirmed that the estimated fitness values for 11 genotypes were considerably close to the experimentally measured ones (Ichihashi et al., 2015). In this sequel paper, with the theoretical basis of the deterministic kinetic model, we present the details of inference of the fitness values and putative appearance time points for the 91 genotypes. It may be possible to apply this methodology to other self-replicating molecules, viruses and bacteria. PMID:27091052

  20. Nonparametric decomposition of quasi-periodic time series for change-point detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemov, Alexey; Burnaev, Evgeny; Lokot, Andrey

    2015-12-01

    The paper is concerned with the sequential online change-point detection problem for a dynamical system driven by a quasiperiodic stochastic process. We propose a multicomponent time series model and an effective online decomposition algorithm to approximate the components of the models. Assuming the stationarity of the obtained components, we approach the change-point detection problem on a per-component basis and propose two online change-point detection schemes corresponding to two real-world scenarios. Experimental results for decomposition and detection algorithms for synthesized and real-world datasets are provided to demonstrate the efficiency of our change-point detection framework.

  1. The effect of silane addition timing on mixing processability and properties of silica reinforced rubber compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hee-Hoon; Jin, Hyun-Ho; Ha, Sung-Ho; Jang, Suk-Hee; Kang, Yong-Gu; Han, Min-Hyun

    2016-03-01

    A series of experiments were performed to determine an optimum balance between processability and performance of a highly loaded silica compound. The experiments evaluated 4 different silane injection times. All mixing related to silane addition was conducted with a scaled up "Tandem" mixer line. With exception to silane addition timing, almost all operating conditions were controlled between experimental features. It was found that when the silane addition was introduced earlier in the mixing cycle both the reaction was more complete and the bound rubber content was higher. But processability indicators such as sheet forming and Mooney plasticity were negatively impacted. On the other hand, as silane injection was delayed to later in the mixing process the filler dispersion and good sheet forming was improved. However both the bound rubber content and Silane reaction completion were decreased. With the changes in silane addition time, the processability and properties of a silica compound can be controlled.

  2. The Role of Additional Processing Time and Lexical Constraint in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoCasto, Paul C.; Connine, Cynthia M.; Patterson, David

    2007-01-01

    Three phoneme monitoring experiments examined the manner in which additional processing time influences spoken word recognition. Experiment 1a introduced a version of the phoneme monitoring paradigm in which a silent interval is inserted prior to the word-final target phoneme. Phoneme monitoring reaction time decreased as the silent interval…

  3. Additional technician tasks and turnaround time in the clinical Stat laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Flores, Emilio; Leiva-Salinas, Maria; Lillo, Rosa; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many additional tasks in the Stat laboratory (SL) increase the workload. It is necessary to control them because they can affect the service provided by the laboratory. Our aim is to calculate these tasks, study their evolution over a 10 year period, and compare turnaround times (TAT) in summer period to the rest of the year. Materials and methods Additional tasks were classified as “additional test request” and “additional sample”. We collected those incidences from the laboratory information system (LIS), and calculated their evolution over time. We also calculated the monthly TAT for troponin for Emergency department (ED) patients, as the difference between the verification and LIS registration time. A median time of 30 minutes was our indicator target. TAT results and tests workload in summer were compared to the rest of the year. Results Over a 10-year period, the technologists in the SL performed 51,385 additional tasks, a median of 475 per month. The workload was significantly higher during the summer (45,496 tests) than the rest of the year (44,555 tests) (P = 0.019). The troponin TAT did not show this variation between summer and the rest of the year, complying always with our 30 minutes indicator target. Conclusion The technicians accomplished a significant number of additional tasks, and the workload kept increasing over the period of 10 years. That did not affect the TAT results. PMID:27346970

  4. Plasmon excitation in metal slab by fast point charge: The role of additional boundary conditions in quantum hydrodynamic model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; An, Sheng-Bai; Song, Yuan-Hong Wang, You-Nian; Kang, Naijing; Mišković, Z. L.

    2014-10-15

    We study the wake effect in the induced potential and the stopping power due to plasmon excitation in a metal slab by a point charge moving inside the slab. Nonlocal effects in the response of the electron gas in the metal are described by a quantum hydrodynamic model, where the equation of electronic motion contains both a quantum pressure term and a gradient correction from the Bohm quantum potential, resulting in a fourth-order differential equation for the perturbed electron density. Thus, besides using the condition that the normal component of the electron velocity should vanish at the impenetrable boundary of the metal, a consistent inclusion of the gradient correction is shown to introduce two possibilities for an additional boundary condition for the perturbed electron density. We show that using two different sets of boundary conditions only gives rise to differences in the wake potential at large distances behind the charged particle. On the other hand, the gradient correction in the quantum hydrodynamic model is seen to cause a reduction in the depth of the potential well closest to the particle, and a reduction of its stopping power. Even for a particle moving in the center of the slab, we observe nonlocal effects in the induced potential and the stopping power due to reduction of the slab thickness, which arise from the gradient correction in the quantum hydrodynamic model.

  5. Kick-Off, Half-Time, and Over-Time: Flexible Scheduling Scores Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Jade

    2005-01-01

    When faculty members at Furman Middle School in Sumter, South Carolina, expressed concern about the lack of time in each day to provide the interventions, remediation, and enrichment the students needed to be prepared for state testing, their principal devised a creative flexible schedule to meet student needs. These include: (1) a morning…

  6. Knee Point Search Using Cascading Top-k Sorting with Minimized Time Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Shian-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    Anomaly detection systems and many other applications are frequently confronted with the problem of finding the largest knee point in the sorted curve for a set of unsorted points. This paper proposes an efficient knee point search algorithm with minimized time complexity using the cascading top-k sorting when a priori probability distribution of the knee point is known. First, a top-k sort algorithm is proposed based on a quicksort variation. We divide the knee point search problem into multiple steps. And in each step an optimization problem of the selection number k is solved, where the objective function is defined as the expected time cost. Because the expected time cost in one step is dependent on that of the afterwards steps, we simplify the optimization problem by minimizing the maximum expected time cost. The posterior probability of the largest knee point distribution and the other parameters are updated before solving the optimization problem in each step. An example of source detection of DNS DoS flooding attacks is provided to illustrate the applications of the proposed algorithm. PMID:24068888

  7. Spatially shifting temporal points: estimating pooled within-time series variograms for scarce hydrological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, A. K.; Cabral, P.

    2015-02-01

    Estimation of pooled within-time series (PTS) variograms is a frequently used technique for geostatistical interpolation of continuous hydrological variables in spatial data-scarce regions conditional that time series are available. The only available method for estimating PTS variograms averages semivariances, which are computed for individual time steps, over each spatial lag within a pooled time series. However, semivariances computed by a~few paired comparisons for individual time steps are erratic and hence they may hamper precision of PTS variogram estimation. Here, we outlined an alternative method for estimating PTS variograms by spatializing temporal data points and shifting them. The data were pooled by ensuring consistency of spatial structure and stationarity within a time series, while pooling sufficient number of data points for reliable variogram estimation. The pooled spatial data point sets from different time steps were assigned to different coordinate sets on the same space. Then a semivariance was computed for each spatial lag within a pooled time series by comparing all point pairs separable by that spatial lag, and a PTS variogram was estimated by controlling the lower and upper boundary of spatial lags. Our method showed higher precision than the available method for PTS variogram estimation and was developed by using the freely available R open source software environment. The method will reduce uncertainty for spatial variability modeling while preserving spatiotemporal properties of data for geostatistical interpolation of hydrological variables in spatial data-scarce developing countries.

  8. Cyclic additional optical true time delay for microwave beam steering with spectral filtering.

    PubMed

    Cao, Z; Lu, R; Wang, Q; Tessema, N; Jiao, Y; van den Boom, H P A; Tangdiongga, E; Koonen, A M J

    2014-06-15

    Optical true time delay (OTTD) is an attractive way to realize microwave beam steering (MBS) due to its inherent features of broadband, low-loss, and compactness. In this Letter, we propose a novel OTTD approach named cyclic additional optical true time delay (CAO-TTD). It applies additional integer delays of the microwave carrier frequency to achieve spectral filtering but without disturbing the spatial filtering (beam steering). Based on such concept, a broadband MBS scheme for high-capacity wireless communication is proposed, which allows the tuning of both spectral filtering and spatial filtering. The experimental results match well with the theoretical analysis. PMID:24978496

  9. Anomalous parity-time-symmetry transition away from an exceptional point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Li

    2016-07-01

    Parity-time (PT ) symmetric systems have two distinguished phases, e.g., one with real-energy eigenvalues and the other with complex-conjugate eigenvalues. To enter one phase from the other, it is believed that the system must pass through an exceptional point, which is a non-Hermitian degenerate point with coalesced eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Here we reveal an anomalous PT transition that takes place away from an exceptional point in a nonlinear system: as the nonlinearity increases, the original linear system evolves along two distinct PT -symmetric trajectories, each of which can have an exceptional point. However, the two trajectories collide and vanish away from these exceptional points, after which the system is left with a PT -broken phase. We first illustrate this phenomenon using a coupled-mode theory and then exemplify it using paraxial wave propagation in a transverse periodic potential.

  10. Quantum percolation and transition point of a directed discrete-time quantum walk

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekar, C. M.; Busch, Th.

    2014-01-01

    Quantum percolation describes the problem of a quantum particle moving through a disordered system. While certain similarities to classical percolation exist, the quantum case has additional complexity due to the possibility of Anderson localisation. Here, we consider a directed discrete-time quantum walk as a model to study quantum percolation of a two-state particle on a two-dimensional lattice. Using numerical analysis we determine the fraction of connected edges required (transition point) in the lattice for the two-state particle to percolate with finite (non-zero) probability for three fundamental lattice geometries, finite square lattice, honeycomb lattice, and nanotube structure and show that it tends towards unity for increasing lattice sizes. To support the numerical results we also use a continuum approximation to analytically derive the expression for the percolation probability for the case of the square lattice and show that it agrees with the numerically obtained results for the discrete case. Beyond the fundamental interest to understand the dynamics of a two-state particle on a lattice (network) with disconnected vertices, our study has the potential to shed light on the transport dynamics in various quantum condensed matter systems and the construction of quantum information processing and communication protocols. PMID:25301394

  11. Quantum percolation and transition point of a directed discrete-time quantum walk.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, C M; Busch, Th

    2014-01-01

    Quantum percolation describes the problem of a quantum particle moving through a disordered system. While certain similarities to classical percolation exist, the quantum case has additional complexity due to the possibility of Anderson localisation. Here, we consider a directed discrete-time quantum walk as a model to study quantum percolation of a two-state particle on a two-dimensional lattice. Using numerical analysis we determine the fraction of connected edges required (transition point) in the lattice for the two-state particle to percolate with finite (non-zero) probability for three fundamental lattice geometries, finite square lattice, honeycomb lattice, and nanotube structure and show that it tends towards unity for increasing lattice sizes. To support the numerical results we also use a continuum approximation to analytically derive the expression for the percolation probability for the case of the square lattice and show that it agrees with the numerically obtained results for the discrete case. Beyond the fundamental interest to understand the dynamics of a two-state particle on a lattice (network) with disconnected vertices, our study has the potential to shed light on the transport dynamics in various quantum condensed matter systems and the construction of quantum information processing and communication protocols. PMID:25301394

  12. Ultimate capacity of linear time-invariant bosonic channels with additive Gaussian noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy Bardhan, Bhaskar; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2016-03-01

    Fiber-optic communications are moving to coherent detection in order to increase their spectral efficiency, i.e., their channel capacity per unit bandwidth. At power levels below the threshold for significant nonlinear effects, the channel model for such operation a linear time-invariant filter followed by additive Gaussian noise is one whose channel capacity is well known from Shannon's noisy channel coding theorem. The fiber channel, however, is really a bosonic channel, meaning that its ultimate classical information capacity must be determined from quantum-mechanical analysis, viz. from the Holevo-Schumacher-Westmoreland (HSW) theorem. Based on recent results establishing the HSW capacity of a linear (lossy or amplifying) channel with additive Gaussian noise, we provide a general continuous-time result, namely the HSW capacity of a linear time-invariant (LTI) bosonic channel with additive Gaussian noise arising from a thermal environment. In particular, we treat quasi-monochromatic communication under an average power constraint through a channel comprised of a stable LTI filter that may be attenuating at all frequencies or amplifying at some frequencies and attenuating at others. Phase-insensitive additive Gaussian noise-associated with the continuous-time Langevin noise operator needed to preserve free-field commutator brackets is included at the filter output. We compare the resulting spectral efficiencies with corresponding results for heterodyne and homodyne detection over the same channel to assess the increased spectral efficiency that might be realized with optimum quantum reception.

  13. 14 CFR 121.483 - Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional flight crewmember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional flight crewmember. 121.483 Section 121.483 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  14. 14 CFR 121.483 - Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional flight crewmember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional flight crewmember. 121.483 Section 121.483 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  15. Passivity and Passification of Memristor-Based Recurrent Neural Networks With Additive Time-Varying Delays.

    PubMed

    Rakkiyappan, Rajan; Chandrasekar, Arunachalam; Cao, Jinde

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a new design scheme for the passivity and passification of a class of memristor-based recurrent neural networks (MRNNs) with additive time-varying delays. The predictable assumptions on the boundedness and Lipschitz continuity of activation functions are formulated. The systems considered here are based on a different time-delay model suggested recently, which includes additive time-varying delay components in the state. The connection between the time-varying delay and its upper bound is considered when estimating the upper bound of the derivative of Lyapunov functional. It is recognized that the passivity condition can be expressed in a linear matrix inequality (LMI) format and by using characteristic function method. For state feedback passification, it is verified that it is apathetic to use immediate or delayed state feedback. By constructing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and employing Jensen's inequality and reciprocal convex combination technique together with a tighter estimation of the upper bound of the cross-product terms derived from the derivatives of the Lyapunov functional, less conventional delay-dependent passivity criteria are established in terms of LMIs. Moreover, second-order reciprocally convex approach is employed for deriving the upper bound for terms with inverses of squared convex parameters. The model based on the memristor with additive time-varying delays widens the application scope for the design of neural networks. Finally, pertinent examples are given to show the advantages of the derived passivity criteria and the significant improvement of the theoretical approaches. PMID:25415991

  16. Change-point detection in time-series data by relative density-ratio estimation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Song; Yamada, Makoto; Collier, Nigel; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2013-07-01

    The objective of change-point detection is to discover abrupt property changes lying behind time-series data. In this paper, we present a novel statistical change-point detection algorithm based on non-parametric divergence estimation between time-series samples from two retrospective segments. Our method uses the relative Pearson divergence as a divergence measure, and it is accurately and efficiently estimated by a method of direct density-ratio estimation. Through experiments on artificial and real-world datasets including human-activity sensing, speech, and Twitter messages, we demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method. PMID:23500502

  17. Multiple Spike Time Patterns Occur at Bifurcation Points of Membrane Potential Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Toups, J. Vincent; Fellous, Jean-Marc; Thomas, Peter J.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Tiesinga, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    The response of a neuron to repeated somatic fluctuating current injections in vitro can elicit a reliable and precisely timed sequence of action potentials. The set of responses obtained across trials can also be interpreted as the response of an ensemble of similar neurons receiving the same input, with the precise spike times representing synchronous volleys that would be effective in driving postsynaptic neurons. To study the reproducibility of the output spike times for different conditions that might occur in vivo, we somatically injected aperiodic current waveforms into cortical neurons in vitro and systematically varied the amplitude and DC offset of the fluctuations. As the amplitude of the fluctuations was increased, reliability increased and the spike times remained stable over a wide range of values. However, at specific values called bifurcation points, large shifts in the spike times were obtained in response to small changes in the stimulus, resulting in multiple spike patterns that were revealed using an unsupervised classification method. Increasing the DC offset, which mimicked an overall increase in network background activity, also revealed bifurcation points and increased the reliability. Furthermore, the spike times shifted earlier with increasing offset. Although the reliability was reduced at bifurcation points, a theoretical analysis showed that the information about the stimulus time course was increased because each of the spike time patterns contained different information about the input. PMID:23093916

  18. A new method of time difference measurement: The time difference method by dual phase coincidence points detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Wei

    1993-01-01

    In the high accurate measurement of periodic signals, the greatest common factor frequency and its characteristics have special functions. A method of time difference measurement - the time difference method by dual 'phase coincidence points' detection is described. This method utilizes the characteristics of the greatest common factor frequency to measure time or phase difference between periodic signals. It can suit a very wide frequency range. Measurement precision and potential accuracy of several picoseconds were demonstrated with this new method. The instrument based on this method is very simple, and the demand for the common oscillator is low. This method and instrument can be used widely.

  19. A mathematical model of saccadic reaction time as a function of the fixation point brightness gain.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Tula, Antonio; Morimoto, Carlos H; Ranvaud, Ronald D

    2015-08-01

    The gap effect refers to a reduction in saccadic reaction time (SRT) to an eccentric target, when the fixation point is removed before the target onset. Though it is known that the gap effect peaks when the fixation point is offset about 200 ms before the onset of the eccentric target, it is unknown how this effect is modulated by stimulus variations. In this paper, we propose and investigate a model of saccadic reaction time as a function of the fixation point brightness gain. The brightness gain is defined as the ratio of the final and initial intensities of the stimulus. We have conducted a typical gap effect experiment with 15 participants, where the brightness of the fixation point was manipulated under four conditions and two gap intervals, at the same time and 200 ms before the onset of the eccentric target. The conditions included removing the fixation point (offset), leaving it with constant brightness (overlap), reducing, and increasing its brightness (lower and higher brightness conditions). Experimental data showed a significant gap effect in the offset and lower brightness conditions when compared to the overlap condition. On the other hand, the SRT was significantly longer for the higher brightness condition than the SRT for the overlap condition. Linear regression analysis using ten values of brightness gain shows that our model fits the data well for the 0- and 200-ms gap, with a coefficient of determination of .89 and .94, respectively. PMID:25962456

  20. Some aspects of improving Multi-GNSS real-time precise point positioning services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Ge, Maorong; Li, Xingxing; Schuh, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Multi-GNSS is expected to achieve a real-time precise point positioning service with better accuracy and reliability than GPS-only service. In this contribution, we address several critical challenges in implementing a GPS+GLONASS+BeiDou+Galileo service to provide global users with centimeter-level positioning in real-time based on the software system developed at GFZ. The specific issues of improving GLONASS orbit quality by resolving ambiguity over long baselines, estimation of inter-system/frequency biases, ambiguity resolution in real-time clock estimation and positioning, and computation efficiency are discussed and investigated in detail. Experimental validation is carried out based on the data streams of the IGS/MGEX network. The real-time orbit and clock products are assessed by comparison with the IGS/MGEX final products, and orbits are also assessed by overlapping day boundaries and satellite laser ranging. The phase bias (uncalibrated phase delay) products are evaluated by comparison with the post-processing results. It is demonstrated that multi-GNSS can contribute significantly to improving the global real-time precise point positioning service in terms of convergence time and accuracy. Keywords: Multi-GNSS, Real-Time, Precise Orbit Determination, Precise Point Positioning, Ambiguity Resolution, Inter-System/Frequency Bias, Algorithm Efficiency

  1. Equilibrium time-correlation functions for one-dimensional hard-point systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendl, Christian B.; Spohn, Herbert

    2014-07-01

    As recently proposed, the long-time behavior of equilibrium time-correlation functions for one-dimensional systems are expected to be captured by a nonlinear extension of fluctuating hydrodynamics. We outline the predictions from the theory aimed at the comparison with molecular dynamics. We report on numerical simulations of a fluid with a hard-shoulder potential and of a hard-point gas with alternating masses. These models have in common that the collision time is zero and their dynamics amounts to iterating collision by collision. The theory is well confirmed, with the twist that the nonuniversal coefficients are still changing at longest accessible times.

  2. Experimental model and analytic solution for real-time observation of vehicle's additional steer angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Li, Liang; Pan, Deng; Cao, Chengmao; Song, Jian

    2014-03-01

    The current research of real-time observation for vehicle roll steer angle and compliance steer angle(both of them comprehensively referred as the additional steer angle in this paper) mainly employs the linear vehicle dynamic model, in which only the lateral acceleration of vehicle body is considered. The observation accuracy resorting to this method cannot meet the requirements of vehicle real-time stability control, especially under extreme driving conditions. The paper explores the solution resorting to experimental method. Firstly, a multi-body dynamic model of a passenger car is built based on the ADAMS/Car software, whose dynamic accuracy is verified by the same vehicle's roadway test data of steady static circular test. Based on this simulation platform, several influencing factors of additional steer angle under different driving conditions are quantitatively analyzed. Then ɛ-SVR algorithm is employed to build the additional steer angle prediction model, whose input vectors mainly include the sensor information of standard electronic stability control system(ESC). The method of typical slalom tests and FMVSS 126 tests are adopted to make simulation, train model and test model's generalization performance. The test result shows that the influence of lateral acceleration on additional steer angle is maximal (the magnitude up to 1°), followed by the longitudinal acceleration-deceleration and the road wave amplitude (the magnitude up to 0.3°). Moreover, both the prediction accuracy and the calculation real-time of the model can meet the control requirements of ESC. This research expands the accurate observation methods of the additional steer angle under extreme driving conditions.

  3. New Stabilization for Dynamical System with Two Additive Time-Varying Delays

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Chen, Xiaozhou

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a new delay-dependent stabilization criterion for systems with two additive time-varying delays. The novel functional is constructed, a tighter upper bound of the derivative of the Lyapunov functional is obtained. These results have advantages over some existing ones because the combination of the delay decomposition technique and the reciprocally convex approach. Two examples are provided to demonstrate the less conservatism and effectiveness of the results in this paper. PMID:24701159

  4. GPS/GLONASS time offset monitoring based on combined Precise Point Positioning (PPP) approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, G.; Zhang, Q.; Fu, W.; Guo, H.

    2015-06-01

    A new strategy is proposed to monitor GPS/GLONASS time offsets for common navigation users using a combined GPS/GLONASS Precise Point Positioning (PPP) method based on the orbit and clock products of different time scales. The results of the inter-system GPS/GLONASS time offset, the user time offset and the inter-system device delay difference were obtained using the proposed method. The properties of these results were analyzed in terms of the stability, precision and variation characteristics. Moreover, the practicality of the time offset results in an actual navigation application was tested and demonstrated. The results indicate that the monitoring and prediction of the user time offset, but not the inter-system time offset, has important values for navigation users.

  5. Predicting the Survival Time for Bladder Cancer Using an Additive Hazards Model in Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    TAPAK, Leili; MAHJUB, Hossein; SADEGHIFAR, Majid; SAIDIJAM, Massoud; POOROLAJAL, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Background: One substantial part of microarray studies is to predict patients’ survival based on their gene expression profile. Variable selection techniques are powerful tools to handle high dimensionality in analysis of microarray data. However, these techniques have not been investigated in competing risks setting. This study aimed to investigate the performance of four sparse variable selection methods in estimating the survival time. Methods: The data included 1381 gene expression measurements and clinical information from 301 patients with bladder cancer operated in the years 1987 to 2000 in hospitals in Denmark, Sweden, Spain, France, and England. Four methods of the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, smoothly clipped absolute deviation, the smooth integration of counting and absolute deviation and elastic net were utilized for simultaneous variable selection and estimation under an additive hazards model. The criteria of area under ROC curve, Brier score and c-index were used to compare the methods. Results: The median follow-up time for all patients was 47 months. The elastic net approach was indicated to outperform other methods. The elastic net had the lowest integrated Brier score (0.137±0.07) and the greatest median of the over-time AUC and C-index (0.803±0.06 and 0.779±0.13, respectively). Five out of 19 selected genes by the elastic net were significant (P<0.05) under an additive hazards model. It was indicated that the expression of RTN4, SON, IGF1R and CDC20 decrease the survival time, while the expression of SMARCAD1 increase it. Conclusion: The elastic net had higher capability than the other methods for the prediction of survival time in patients with bladder cancer in the presence of competing risks base on additive hazards model. PMID:27114989

  6. Portable Dew Point Mass Spectrometry System for Real-Time Gas and Moisture Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C.; Gillespie, Stacey; Ratzel, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    A portable instrument incorporates both mass spectrometry and dew point measurement to provide real-time, quantitative gas measurements of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide, along with real-time, quantitative moisture analysis. The Portable Dew Point Mass Spectrometry (PDP-MS) system comprises a single quadrupole mass spectrometer and a high vacuum system consisting of a turbopump and a diaphragm-backing pump. A capacitive membrane dew point sensor was placed upstream of the MS, but still within the pressure-flow control pneumatic region. Pressure-flow control was achieved with an upstream precision metering valve, a capacitance diaphragm gauge, and a downstream mass flow controller. User configurable LabVIEW software was developed to provide real-time concentration data for the MS, dew point monitor, and sample delivery system pressure control, pressure and flow monitoring, and recording. The system has been designed to include in situ, NIST-traceable calibration. Certain sample tubing retains sufficient water that even if the sample is dry, the sample tube will desorb water to an amount resulting in moisture concentration errors up to 500 ppm for as long as 10 minutes. It was determined that Bev-A-Line IV was the best sample line to use. As a result of this issue, it is prudent to add a high-level humidity sensor to PDP-MS so such events can be prevented in the future.

  7. Estimation of the lag time in a subsequent monomer addition model for fibril elongation.

    PubMed

    Shoffner, Suzanne K; Schnell, Santiago

    2016-08-01

    Fibrillogenesis, the production or development of protein fibers, has been linked to protein folding diseases. The progress curve of fibrils or aggregates typically takes on a sigmoidal shape with a lag phase, a rapid growth phase, and a final plateau regime. The study of the lag phase and the estimation of its critical timescale provide insight into the factors regulating the fibrillation process. However, methods to estimate a quantitative expression for the lag time rely on empirical expressions, which cannot connect the lag time to kinetic parameters associated with the reaction mechanisms of protein fibrillation. Here we introduce an approach for the estimation of the lag time using the governing rate equations of the elementary reactions of a subsequent monomer addition model for protein fibrillation as a case study. We show that the lag time is given by the sum of the critical timescales for each fibril intermediate in the subsequent monomer addition mechanism and therefore reveals causal connectivity between intermediate species. Furthermore, we find that single-molecule assays of protein fibrillation can exhibit a lag phase without a nucleation process, while dyes and extrinsic fluorescent probe bulk assays of protein fibrillation do not exhibit an observable lag phase during template-dependent elongation. Our approach could be valuable for investigating the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors to the protein fibrillation reaction mechanism and provides physicochemical insights into parameters regulating the lag phase. PMID:27250246

  8. Additional Nitrogen Fertilization at Heading Time of Rice Down-Regulates Cellulose Synthesis in Seed Endosperm

    PubMed Central

    Midorikawa, Keiko; Kuroda, Masaharu; Terauchi, Kaede; Hoshi, Masako; Ikenaga, Sachiko; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Abe, Keiko; Asakura, Tomiko

    2014-01-01

    The balance between carbon and nitrogen is a key determinant of seed storage components, and thus, is of great importance to rice and other seed-based food crops. To clarify the influence of the rhizosphere carbon/nitrogen balance during the maturation stage of several seed components, transcriptome analysis was performed on the seeds from rice plants that were provided additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time. As a result, it was assessed that genes associated with molecular processes such as photosynthesis, trehalose metabolism, carbon fixation, amino acid metabolism, and cell wall metabolism were differentially expressed. Moreover, cellulose and sucrose synthases, which are involved in cellulose synthesis, were down-regulated. Therefore, we compared cellulose content of mature seeds that were treated with additional nitrogen fertilization with those from control plants using calcofluor staining. In these experiments, cellulose content in endosperm from plants receiving additional nitrogen fertilization was less than that in control endosperm. Other starch synthesis-related genes such as starch synthase 1, starch phosphorylase 2, and branching enzyme 3 were also down-regulated, whereas some α-amylase and β-amylase genes were up-regulated. On the other hand, mRNA expression of amino acid biosynthesis-related molecules was up-regulated. Moreover, additional nitrogen fertilization caused accumulation of storage proteins and up-regulated Cys-poor prolamin mRNA expression. These data suggest that additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time changes the expression of some storage substance-related genes and reduces cellulose levels in endosperm. PMID:24905454

  9. Precise Point Positioning technique for short and long baselines time transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejba, Pawel; Nawrocki, Jerzy; Lemanski, Dariusz; Foks-Ryznar, Anna; Nogas, Pawel; Dunst, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    In this work the clock parameters determination of several timing receivers TTS-4 (AOS), ASHTECH Z-XII3T (OP, ORB, PTB, USNO) and SEPTENTRIO POLARX4TR (ORB, since February 11, 2012) by use of the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique were presented. The clock parameters were determined for several time links based on the data delivered by time and frequency laboratories mentioned above. The computations cover the period from January 1 to December 31, 2012 and were performed in two modes with 7-day and one-month solution for all links. All RINEX data files which include phase and code GPS data were recorded in 30-second intervals. All calculations were performed by means of Natural Resource Canada's GPS Precise Point Positioning (GPS-PPP) software based on high-quality precise satellite coordinates and satellite clock delivered by IGS as the final products. The used independent PPP technique is a very powerful and simple method which allows for better control of antenna positions in AOS and a verification of other time transfer techniques like GPS CV, GLONASS CV and TWSTFT. The PPP technique is also a very good alternative for calibration of a glass fiber link PL-AOS realized at present by AOS. Currently PPP technique is one of the main time transfer methods used at AOS what considerably improve and strengthen the quality of the Polish time scales UTC(AOS), UTC(PL), and TA(PL). KEY-WORDS: Precise Point Positioning, time transfer, IGS products, GNSS, time scales.

  10. A real-time recursive filter for the attitude determination of the Spacelab instrument pointing subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    A real-time estimation filter which reduces sensitivity to system variations and reduces the amount of preflight computation is developed for the instrument pointing subsystem (IPS). The IPS is a three-axis stabilized platform developed to point various astronomical observation instruments aboard the shuttle. Currently, the IPS utilizes a linearized Kalman filter (LKF), with premission defined gains, to compensate for system drifts and accumulated attitude errors. Since the a priori gains are generated for an expected system, variations result in a suboptimal estimation process. This report compares the performance of three real-time estimation filters with the current LKF implementation. An extended Kalman filter and a second-order Kalman filter are developed to account for the system nonlinearities, while a linear Kalman filter implementation assumes that the nonlinearities are negligible. The performance of each of the four estimation filters are compared with respect to accuracy, stability, settling time, robustness, and computational requirements. It is shown, that for the current IPS pointing requirements, the linear Kalman filter provides improved robustness over the LKF with less computational requirements than the two real-time nonlinear estimation filters.

  11. Time required to obtain representative point-integrated suspended sediment samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitto, A.; Venditti, J. G.; Kostaschuk, R.; Church, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Suspended sediment sampling by conventional bottle sampling methods remains one of the primary ways in which sediment input is measured for sediment budgets. Depth- and point-integrated methods are commonly assumed to accurately represent suspended sediment transport and to contain minimal error, however a recent study of depth-integrated sampling has identified considerable uncertainty between grain-size classes of multiple samples. The uncertainty surrounding point-integrated sampling methods is less well understood. This field study examines at-a-point variability in suspended sediment concentration, grain-size distribution, and grain-size moments to determine if traditional point-integrated methods accurately provide a representative sample of suspended sediment. Here, we present observations of suspended sediment from the sand bedded portion of the Fraser River at Mission, British Columbia, Canada, using a LISST laser-diffraction instrument. Measurements were obtained during the 2010 and 2013 freshet to address scales of sediment transport variability related to turbulence and hydraulic phenomena, respectively. Our observations indicate that the minimum sampling time to obtain representative indicators of suspended sediment transport ranges between 100 to 200 seconds. We are exploring the scales of variability embedded in the flow and the uncertainty in point-integrated sampling. Our goal is to understand the magnitude and the sources of error in suspended sediment measurements, to better understand the sources of uncertainty in sediment budgets.

  12. A Modified Time-Delay Addition Method to Extract Resistive Leakage Current of MOSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodsuz, Masume; Mirzaie, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    Metal oxide surge arresters are one of the most important equipment for power system protection against switching and lightning over-voltages. High-energy stresses and environmental features are the main factors which degrade surge arresters. In order to verify surge arresters good condition, their monitoring is necessary. The majority of surge arrester monitoring techniques is based on total leakage current decomposition of their capacitive and resistive components. This paper introduces a new approach based on time-delay addition method to extract the resistive current from the total leakage current without measuring voltage signal. Surge arrester model for calculating leakage current has been performed in ATP-EMTP. In addition, the signal processing has been done using MATLAB software. To show the accuracy of the proposed method, experimental tests have been performed to extract resistive leakage current by the proposed method.

  13. Winter-time CO2 addition in high rate algal mesocosms for enhanced microalgal performance.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Donna L; Montemezzani, Valerio; Mehrabadi, Abbas; Craggs, Rupert J

    2016-02-01

    Carbon limitation in domestic wastewater high rate algal ponds is thought to constrain microalgal photo-physiology and productivity and CO2 augmentation is often used to overcome this limitation in summer. However, the implications of carbon limitation during winter are poorly understood. This paper investigates the effects of 0.5%, 2%, 5% and 10% CO2 addition on the winter-time performance of wastewater microalgae in high rate algal mesocosms. Performance was measured in terms of light absorption, photosynthetic efficiency, biomass production and nutrient removal rates, along with community composition. Varying percentage CO2 addition and associated change in culture pH resulted in 3 distinct microalgal communities. Light absorption by the microalgae increased by up to 144% with CO2 addition, while a reduction in the package effect meant that there was less internal self-shading thereby increasing the efficiency of light absorption. Carbon augmentation increased the maximum rate of photosynthesis by up to 172%, which led to increased microalgal biovolume by up to 181% and an increase in total organic biomass for all treatments except 10% CO2. While 10% CO2 improved light absorption and photosynthesis this did not translate to enhanced microalgal productivity. Increased microalgal productivity with CO2 addition did not result in increased dissolved nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) removal. This experiment demonstrated that winter-time carbon augmentation up to 5% CO2 improved microalgal light absorption and utilisation, which ultimately increased microalgal biomass and is likely to enhance total annual microalgal areal productivity in HRAPs. PMID:26707731

  14. State to State and Charged Particle Kinetic Modeling of Time Filtering and Cs Addition

    SciTech Connect

    Capitelli, M.; Gorse, C.; Longo, S.; Diomede, P.; Pagano, D.

    2007-08-10

    We present here an account on the progress of kinetic simulation of non equilibrium plasmas in conditions of interest for negative ion production by using the 1D Bari code for hydrogen plasma simulation. The model includes the state to state kinetics of the vibrational level population of hydrogen molecules, plus a PIC/MCC module for the multispecies dynamics of charged particles. In particular we present new results for the modeling of two issues of great interest: the time filtering and the Cs addition via surface coverage.

  15. Complete positivity, finite-temperature effects, and additivity of noise for time-local qubit dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lankinen, Juho; Lyyra, Henri; Sokolov, Boris; Teittinen, Jose; Ziaei, Babak; Maniscalco, Sabrina

    2016-05-01

    We present a general model of qubit dynamics which entails pure dephasing and dissipative time-local master equations. This allows us to describe the combined effect of thermalization and dephasing beyond the usual Markovian approximation. We investigate the complete positivity conditions and introduce a heuristic model that is always physical and provides the correct Markovian limit. We study the effects of temperature on the non-Markovian behavior of the system and show that the noise additivity property discussed by Yu and Eberly [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 140403 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.140403] holds beyond the Markovian limit.

  16. Analysis of Time to Event Outcomes in Randomized Controlled Trials by Generalized Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Argyropoulos, Christos; Unruh, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Randomized Controlled Trials almost invariably utilize the hazard ratio calculated with a Cox proportional hazard model as a treatment efficacy measure. Despite the widespread adoption of HRs, these provide a limited understanding of the treatment effect and may even provide a biased estimate when the assumption of proportional hazards in the Cox model is not verified by the trial data. Additional treatment effect measures on the survival probability or the time scale may be used to supplement HRs but a framework for the simultaneous generation of these measures is lacking. Methods By splitting follow-up time at the nodes of a Gauss Lobatto numerical quadrature rule, techniques for Poisson Generalized Additive Models (PGAM) can be adopted for flexible hazard modeling. Straightforward simulation post-estimation transforms PGAM estimates for the log hazard into estimates of the survival function. These in turn were used to calculate relative and absolute risks or even differences in restricted mean survival time between treatment arms. We illustrate our approach with extensive simulations and in two trials: IPASS (in which the proportionality of hazards was violated) and HEMO a long duration study conducted under evolving standards of care on a heterogeneous patient population. Findings PGAM can generate estimates of the survival function and the hazard ratio that are essentially identical to those obtained by Kaplan Meier curve analysis and the Cox model. PGAMs can simultaneously provide multiple measures of treatment efficacy after a single data pass. Furthermore, supported unadjusted (overall treatment effect) but also subgroup and adjusted analyses, while incorporating multiple time scales and accounting for non-proportional hazards in survival data. Conclusions By augmenting the HR conventionally reported, PGAMs have the potential to support the inferential goals of multiple stakeholders involved in the evaluation and appraisal of clinical trial

  17. Search for UHE point-source emission over various time scales

    SciTech Connect

    The CYGNUS Collaboration

    1993-05-01

    A method has been developed to search for pulsed and/or unpulsed ultra high energy (UHE) emission from point sources over a range of time scales. This method has been applied to data accumulated with the CYGNUS extensive air-shower array for events associated with the directions of Cyg X-3, Her X-1, the Crab nebula, and a collection of 48 secondary source candidates. An examination of time scales ranging from minutes to years has yielded results consistent with background fluctuations.

  18. Search for UHE point-source emission over various time scales

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    A method has been developed to search for pulsed and/or unpulsed ultra high energy (UHE) emission from point sources over a range of time scales. This method has been applied to data accumulated with the CYGNUS extensive air-shower array for events associated with the directions of Cyg X-3, Her X-1, the Crab nebula, and a collection of 48 secondary source candidates. An examination of time scales ranging from minutes to years has yielded results consistent with background fluctuations.

  19. A Point-of-Care Prothrombin Time Test on a Microfluidic Disk Analyzer Using Alternate Spinning.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hui; Lin, Kun-Wei; Yen, Daniel; Shih, Chih-Hsin; Lu, Chien-Hsing; Wang, Jiunn-Min; Lin, Chi-Yu

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we conducted a fully integrated point-of-care prothrombin time test on a microfluidic disk analyzer. The microfluidic functions integrated on the disk were capable of separating whole blood, decanting plasma, and mixing it with reagents in sequence under alternate spinning. The assay protocol was completed by alternate spinning without using microvalves or surface modification. Clinical sample tests on prothrombin time measurement were conducted by both the microfluidic disk analyzer and the reference instrument used in medical centers. The test results showed a good correlation and agreement between the two instruments. PMID:26353663

  20. Toward a Deterministic Polynomial Time Algorithm with Optimal Additive Query Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bshouty, Nader H.; Mazzawi, Hanna

    In this paper, we study two combinatorial search problems: The coin weighing problem with a spring scale (also known as the vector reconstructing problem using additive queries) and the problem of reconstructing weighted graphs using additive queries. Suppose we are given n identical looking coins. Suppose that m out of the n coins are counterfeit and the rest are authentic. Assume that we are allowed to weigh subsets of coins with a spring scale. It is known that the optimal number of weighing for identifying the counterfeit coins and their weights is at least Ω(mlog n/log m). We give a deterministic polynomial time adaptive algorithm for identifying the counterfeit coins and their weights using O(mlog n/log m+ mlog log m) weighings, assuming that the weight of the counterfeit coins are greater than the weight of the authentic coin. This algorithm is optimal when m ≤ n c/loglogn , where c is any constant. Also our weighing complexity is within loglogm times the optimal complexity for all m.

  1. A time-domain CMOS oscillator-based thermostat with digital set-point programming.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Lin, Shih-Hao

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a time-domain CMOS oscillator-based thermostat with digital set-point programming [without a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) or external resistor] to achieve on-chip thermal management of modern VLSI systems. A time-domain delay-line-based thermostat with multiplexers (MUXs) was used to substantially reduce the power consumption and chip size, and can benefit from the performance enhancement due to the scaling down of fabrication processes. For further cost reduction and accuracy enhancement, this paper proposes a thermostat using two oscillators that are suitable for time-domain curvature compensation instead of longer linear delay lines. The final time comparison was achieved using a time comparator with a built-in custom hysteresis to generate the corresponding temperature alarm and control. The chip size of the circuit was reduced to 0.12 mm2 in a 0.35-mm TSMC CMOS process. The thermostat operates from 0 to 90 °C, and achieved a fine resolution better than 0.05 °C and an improved inaccuracy of ± 0.6 °C after two-point calibration for eight packaged chips. The power consumption was 30 µW at a sample rate of 10 samples/s. PMID:23385403

  2. Identifiability of Additive, Time-Varying Actuator and Sensor Faults by State Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Jason M.; Gonzalez, Oscar R.; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has provided a set of necessary and sucient conditions for identifiability of additive step faults (e.g., lock-in-place actuator faults, constant bias in the sensors) using state augmentation. This paper extends these results to an important class of faults which may affect linear, time-invariant systems. In particular, the faults under consideration are those which vary with time and affect the system dynamics additively. Such faults may manifest themselves in aircraft as, for example, control surface oscillations, control surface runaway, and sensor drift. The set of necessary and sucient conditions presented in this paper are general, and apply when a class of time-varying faults affects arbitrary combinations of actuators and sensors. The results in the main theorems are illustrated by two case studies, which provide some insight into how the conditions may be used to check the theoretical identifiability of fault configurations of interest for a given system. It is shown that while state augmentation can be used to identify certain fault configurations, other fault configurations are theoretically impossible to identify using state augmentation, giving practitioners valuable insight into such situations. That is, the limitations of state augmentation for a given system and configuration of faults are made explicit. Another limitation of model-based methods is that there can be large numbers of fault configurations, thus making identification of all possible configurations impractical. However, the theoretical identifiability of known, credible fault configurations can be tested using the theorems presented in this paper, which can then assist the efforts of fault identification practitioners.

  3. GPU-accelerated Modeling and Element-free Reverse-time Migration with Gauss Points Partition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Z.; Jia, X.

    2014-12-01

    Element-free method (EFM) has been applied to seismic modeling and migration. Compared with finite element method (FEM) and finite difference method (FDM), it is much cheaper and more flexible because only the information of the nodes and the boundary of the study area are required in computation. In the EFM, the number of Gauss points should be consistent with the number of model nodes; otherwise the accuracy of the intermediate coefficient matrices would be harmed. Thus when we increase the nodes of velocity model in order to obtain higher resolution, we find that the size of the computer's memory will be a bottleneck. The original EFM can deal with at most 81×81 nodes in the case of 2G memory, as tested by Jia and Hu (2006). In order to solve the problem of storage and computation efficiency, we propose a concept of Gauss points partition (GPP), and utilize the GPUs to improve the computation efficiency. Considering the characteristics of the Gaussian points, the GPP method doesn't influence the propagation of seismic wave in the velocity model. To overcome the time-consuming computation of the stiffness matrix (K) and the mass matrix (M), we also use the GPUs in our computation program. We employ the compressed sparse row (CSR) format to compress the intermediate sparse matrices and try to simplify the operations by solving the linear equations with the CULA Sparse's Conjugate Gradient (CG) solver instead of the linear sparse solver 'PARDISO'. It is observed that our strategy can significantly reduce the computational time of K and Mcompared with the algorithm based on CPU. The model tested is Marmousi model. The length of the model is 7425m and the depth is 2990m. We discretize the model with 595x298 nodes, 300x300 Gauss cells and 3x3 Gauss points in each cell. In contrast to the computational time of the conventional EFM, the GPUs-GPP approach can substantially improve the efficiency. The speedup ratio of time consumption of computing K, M is 120 and the

  4. Real-Time IGS products verification in the context of their use in Precise Point Positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadas, Tomasz; Bosy, Jaroslaw; Kaplon, Jan; Sierny, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a positioning technique of single GNSS receiver which applies high quality products from permanent GNSS observations to utilize the computational potential of global network analysis. Estimated satellite orbits and clocks corrections are introduced into equation system as known parameters. PPP requires the application of precise products, since their quality directly reflects the positioning accuracy. In June 2007 IGS Real-time Pilot Project has started in order to satisfy real-time users, which is especially important for Precise Point Positioning. Currently available streams including precise orbits, clocks and code biases are standardized on RTCM-SC 104 formats and may be used as a substitute for ultra-rapid products. The target combination product performances are 0.3ns for satellite clock accuracy and orbit accuracy at the level of the IGS Ultra predictions with maximum latency of 10s. This study presents the quality assessment of currently available Real-Time IGS products. Long-term test include comparisons of disseminated information with final and high-rate products, stability assessment over time, as well as latency validation of available RTCM streams.

  5. Detecting Space-Time Alternating Biological Signals Close to the Bifurcation Point

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Zhiheng; Bien, Harold; Entcheva, Emilia

    2011-01-01

    Time-alternating biological signals, i.e., alternans, arise in variety of physiological states marked by dynamic instabilities, e.g., period doubling. Normally, a sequence of large–small–large transients, they can exhibit variable patterns over time and space, including spatial discordance. Capture of the early formation of such alternating regions is challenging because of the spatiotemporal similarities between noise and the small-amplitude alternating signals close to the bifurcation point. We present a new approach for automatic detection of alternating signals in large noisy spatiotemporal datasets by exploiting quantitative measures of alternans evolution, e.g., temporal persistence, and by preserving phase information. The technique specifically targets low amplitude, relatively short alternating sequences and is validated by combinatorics-derived probabilities and empirical datasets with white noise. Using high-resolution optical mapping in live cardiomyocyte networks, exhibiting calcium alternans, we reveal for the first time early fine-scale alternans, close to the noise level, which are linked to the later formation of larger regions and evolution of spatially discordant alternans. This robust method aims at quantification and better understanding of the onset of cardiac arrhythmias and can be applied to general analysis of space-time alternating signals, including the vicinity of the bifurcation point. PMID:19695992

  6. Effects of Heat and Momentum Addition Inside and Outside the Compound Sonic Point of the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Q.; Webb, G. M.; McKenzie, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    We consider the effect of heat and momentum addition to the solar wind for a model including the effects of Alfven waves and plasma pressure (proton plus electron pressure). The mass flux per unit area in 1D flow maximizes when the flow speed equals the compound sound speed, including the effects of the Alfven wave pressure. We discuss the analogue of the Laval nozzle for the solar wind flow, and the dependence of the effective nozzle area as a function of radial distance, and the relationship of the nozzle area to the momentum equation and the Mach number of the flow. An analysis is carried out of the effects of heat and momentum addition to the wind, using a thin slice approximation, which leads to Rankine Hugoniot relations for weak deflagrations and detonations (i.e. the combustion Hugoniot). The linearized Hugoniot is used to analyze the effects of small momentum and energy addition to the wind in the thin slice approximation. We obtain the fully nonlinear Rankine Hugoniot equation solutions. The analysis also holds in the presence of Alfven waves, in which the wave energy exchange equation yields the wave action flux conservation law when their contribution to the compound sound speed is taken into account. The effective polytropic index γgamma and flow speed relative to the compound flow speed ahead of the slice play crucial roles in determining whether local acceleration or deceleration results. Some results are at first sight unexpected since γgamma for Alfven waves ranges from -1/2 (in sub-Alfvenic flow) to 3/2 in super-Alfvenic flow.

  7. Motion data classification on the basis of dynamic time warping with a cloud point distance measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switonski, Adam; Josinski, Henryk; Zghidi, Hafedh; Wojciechowski, Konrad

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with the problem of classification of model free motion data. The nearest neighbors classifier which is based on comparison performed by Dynamic Time Warping transform with cloud point distance measure is proposed. The classification utilizes both specific gait features reflected by a movements of subsequent skeleton joints and anthropometric data. To validate proposed approach human gait identification challenge problem is taken into consideration. The motion capture database containing data of 30 different humans collected in Human Motion Laboratory of Polish-Japanese Academy of Information Technology is used. The achieved results are satisfactory, the obtained accuracy of human recognition exceeds 90%. What is more, the applied cloud point distance measure does not depend on calibration process of motion capture system which results in reliable validation.

  8. RNA polymerase pausing regulates translation initiation by providing additional time for TRAP-RNA interaction.

    PubMed

    Yakhnin, Alexander V; Yakhnin, Helen; Babitzke, Paul

    2006-11-17

    RNA polymerase (RNAP) pause sites have been identified in several prokaryotic genes. Although the presumed biological function of RNAP pausing is to allow synchronization of RNAP position with regulatory factor binding and/or RNA folding, a direct causal link between pausing and changes in gene expression has been difficult to establish. RNAP pauses at two sites in the Bacillus subtilis trpEDCFBA operon leader. Pausing at U107 and U144 participates in transcription attenuation and trpE translation control mechanisms, respectively. Substitution of U144 caused a substantial pausing defect in vitro and in vivo. These mutations led to increased trp operon expression that was suppressed by overproduction of TRAP, indicating that pausing at U144 provides additional time for TRAP to bind to the nascent transcript and promote formation of an RNA structure that blocks translation of trpE. These results establish that pausing is capable of playing a role in regulating translation in bacteria. PMID:17114058

  9. Time-Resolved In Situ Measurements During Rapid Alloy Solidification: Experimental Insight for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, Joseph T.; Zweiacker, Kai; Liu, Can; Coughlin, Daniel R.; Clarke, Amy J.; Baldwin, J. Kevin; Gibbs, John W.; Roehling, John D.; Imhoff, Seth D.; Gibbs, Paul J.; Tourret, Damien; Wiezorek, Jörg M. K.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) of metals and alloys is becoming a pervasive technology in both research and industrial environments, though significant challenges remain before widespread implementation of AM can be realized. In situ investigations of rapid alloy solidification with high spatial and temporal resolutions can provide unique experimental insight into microstructure evolution and kinetics that are relevant for AM processing. Hypoeutectic thin-film Al-Cu and Al-Si alloys were investigated using dynamic transmission electron microscopy to monitor pulsed-laser-induced rapid solidification across microsecond timescales. Solid-liquid interface velocities measured from time-resolved images revealed accelerating solidification fronts in both alloys. The observed microstructure evolution, solidification product, and presence of a morphological instability at the solid-liquid interface in the Al-4 at.%Cu alloy are related to the measured interface velocities and small differences in composition that affect the thermophysical properties of the alloys. These time-resolved in situ measurements can inform and validate predictive modeling efforts for AM.

  10. Time-Resolved In Situ Measurements During Rapid Alloy Solidification: Experimental Insight for Additive Manufacturing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McKeown, Joseph T.; Zweiacker, Kai; Liu, Can; Coughlin, Daniel R.; Clarke, Amy J.; Baldwin, J. Kevin; Gibbs, John W.; Roehling, John D.; Imhoff, Seth D.; Gibbs, Paul J.; et al

    2016-01-27

    In research and industrial environments, additive manufacturing (AM) of metals and alloys is becoming a pervasive technology, though significant challenges remain before widespread implementation of AM can be realized. In situ investigations of rapid alloy solidification with high spatial and temporal resolutions can provide unique experimental insight into microstructure evolution and kinetics that are relevant for AM processing. Hypoeutectic thin-film Al–Cu and Al–Si alloys were investigated using dynamic transmission electron microscopy to monitor pulsed-laser-induced rapid solidification across microsecond timescales. Solid–liquid interface velocities measured from time-resolved images revealed accelerating solidification fronts in both alloys. We observed microstructure evolution, solidification product, andmore » presence of a morphological instability at the solid–liquid interface in the Al–4 at.%Cu alloy are related to the measured interface velocities and small differences in composition that affect the thermophysical properties of the alloys. These time-resolved in situ measurements can inform and validate predictive modeling efforts for AM.« less

  11. An evaluation of explicit time integration schemes for use with the generalized interpolation material point method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallstedt, P. C.; Guilkey, J. E.

    2008-11-01

    The stability and accuracy of the generalized interpolation material point (GIMP) Method is measured directly through carefully-formulated manufactured solutions over wide ranges of CFL numbers and mesh sizes. The manufactured solutions are described in detail. The accuracy and stability of several time integration schemes are compared via numerical experiments. The effect of various treatments of particle "size" are also considered. The hypothesis that GIMP is most accurate when particles remain contiguous and non-overlapping is confirmed by comparing manufactured solutions with and without this property.

  12. Multiaxis inertial sensing with long-time point source atom interferometry.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Susannah M; Hogan, Jason M; Sugarbaker, Alex; Johnson, David M S; Kasevich, Mark A

    2013-08-23

    We show that light-pulse atom interferometry with atomic point sources and spatially resolved detection enables multiaxis (two rotation, one acceleration) precision inertial sensing at long interrogation times. Using this method, we demonstrate a light-pulse atom interferometer for 87Rb with 1.4 cm peak wave packet separation and a duration of 2T=2.3 s. The inferred acceleration sensitivity of each shot is 6.7×10(-12)g, which improves on previous limits by more than 2 orders of magnitude. We also measure Earth's rotation rate with a precision of 200 nrad/s. PMID:24010433

  13. Regulation of Soil Microbial Carbon-use Efficiency by Soil Moisture, Substrate Addition, and Incubation Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, J.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial carbon-use efficiency (CUE) is a key variable in biogeochemical cycling that regulates soil C sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions, and retention of inorganic nutrients. Microbial CUE is the fraction of C converted to biomass rather than respired as CO2. Biogeochemical models have been shown to be highly sensitive to variation in CUE; however, we currently have a poor understanding of how CUE responds to environmental variables such as soil moisture and nutrient limitations. We examined the effect of soil moisture and C supply on CUE in soil from a western hemlock / sitka spruce forest in Oregon, USA, using a novel technique which supplies 13C and 15N substrates through the gas phase so that water addition is not necessary. Soil samples (28 g oven-dry equiv. wt) at two water potentials (-0.03 and -3.55 MPa) were exposed to 13C-acetic acid vapor for either 6 or 30 sec to provide two different concentrations of acetate to soil microbial communities. The soils were also injected with small amounts of 15NH3 gas to allow quantification of microbial N assimilation rates and to provide an alternate method of calculating CUE. Rates of 13CO2 respiration were measured continuously during a 48-h incubation using cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Soil samples were extracted at seven time intervals (0, 0.5, 1.5, 4.5, 12, 24, and 48 h) in 0.5 M K2SO4 and analyzed for DO13C, microbial 13C, DO15N, inorganic 15N, and microbial 15N to calculate how gross rates of C and N assimilation and microbial CUE change with incubation time. As expected, microbial C and N assimilation rates and CUE increased with soil moisture and the quantity of acetate added; however, C:N assimilated was higher at lower soil moisture, suggesting that either C-storage compounds were being created, or that fungal communities were responsible for a greater proportion of the assimilation in drier soils. Assimilation rates and CUE also changed with incubation time, demonstrating that estimates of CUE

  14. Time reversal ultrasound focusing to a point away from the beacon location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinelnikov, Yegor; Sutin, Alexander; Gandhi, Gaurav; Sarvazyan, Armen

    2012-10-01

    In percutaneous procedures there is often a need to focus therapeutic ultrasound to a predefined area without affecting surrounding tissues. Focusing based on Time Reversal Acoustics (TRA) principles constitutes a promising approach for generating high intensity ultrasound field tailored to the shape of the predefined area. Conventional TRA technique enables ultrasound focusing only at a site, where there is an ultrasound beacon, e.g. piezo-transducer mounted at the tip of a catheter. We developed a method of steering the focus away from the beacon location. The method is based on the measurements of impulse response (IR) in several reference points and calculating virtual IRs for the points outside the reference beacon location. The IR for the point away from the beacon is constructed based on mathematical extrapolation of the measured reference IRs frequency spectra, particularly phases. The effectiveness of extrapolated TRA focusing is explored experimentally and by computer simulation. Potential applications include ultrasounda-ssisted drug delivery, artery recanalization and tumor ablation.

  15. End points for adjuvant therapy trials: has the time come to accept disease-free survival as a surrogate end point for overall survival?

    PubMed

    Gill, Sharlene; Sargent, Daniel

    2006-06-01

    The intent of adjuvant therapy is to eradicate micro-metastatic residual disease following curative resection with the goal of preventing or delaying recurrence. The time-honored standard for demonstrating efficacy of new adjuvant therapies is an improvement in overall survival (OS). This typically requires phase III trials of large sample size with lengthy follow-up. With the intent of reducing the cost and time of completing such trials, there is considerable interest in developing alternative or surrogate end points. A surrogate end point may be employed as a substitute to directly assess the effects of an intervention on an already accepted clinical end point such as mortality. When used judiciously, surrogate end points can accelerate the evaluation of new therapies, resulting in the more timely dissemination of effective therapies to patients. The current review provides a perspective on the suitability and validity of disease-free survival (DFS) as an alternative end point for OS. Criteria for establishing surrogacy and the advantages and limitations associated with the use of DFS as a primary end point in adjuvant clinical trials and as the basis for approval of new adjuvant therapies are discussed. PMID:16794241

  16. Point Bar and Overbank Deposit Storage Time Distributions in a Simulated Meandering River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, T. R.; Pizzuto, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Floodplain storage durations are important geologically and for managing pollutants. They provide necessary input data for sediment routing models, but the functions that describe storage are hard to define with field data. Using a meandering river model, a 36ka simulation is analyzed in 20 year time steps. Channel length, and eroded, deposited, and stored sediment volumes stabilize in under 2ka while the region explored by the river expands as time0.3. The simulated channel was 70m (3 pixels) wide and freely migrated within a 30 by 40km reach simulated with constant erodibility, and mean migration rate ±0.06 channel widths per year. No incision or aggradation was permitted. Sediment storage was partitioned by elevation. Point bar deposits are emplaced immediately as the channel moves away and comprise the lower 40% of a vertical section, while the upper 60% of the floodplain consists of vertically accreted 'overbank' deposits that accumulate with decreasing rates as elevation and distance from the channel increase. Point bar deposits have the highest probability of erosion at 80 years, and contribute 2/3 of eroded material despite representing only 40% of the floodplain volume. When eroded, vertical accretion deposits are 1.25 times older than point bar deposits. Apart from these differences, the storage distributions for both deposits are very similar, though there is much more scatter in the point bar distributions. Eroded sediment 2ka in age is well fit with a power law distribution. On average, 10% of eroded material is <80 years old, 30% from 80 - 500 years, 38% from 500 - 2000 years, 15% from 2ka to 10ka and 7% of eroded material is >10ka in age. However, the fraction older than 10ka is widely variable (0% to 30%, σ = 6.8%) in any 20 year interval. The patchiness and variability in the age of eroded sediment observed in these model results may be similar to natural settings and would be difficult to quantify or address with field measurements.

  17. Real-time estimation of FLE statistics for 3-D tracking with point-based registration.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Andrew D; Peters, Terry M

    2009-09-01

    Target registration error (TRE) has become a widely accepted error metric in point-based registration since the error metric was introduced in the 1990s. It is particularly prominent in image-guided surgery (IGS) applications where point-based registration is used in both image registration and optical tracking. In point-based registration, the TRE is a function of the fiducial marker geometry, location of the target and the fiducial localizer error (FLE). While the first two items are easily obtained, the FLE is usually estimated using an a priori technique and applied without any knowledge of real-time information. However, if the FLE can be estimated in real-time, particularly as it pertains to optical tracking, then the TRE can be estimated more robustly. In this paper, a method is presented where the FLE statistics are estimated from the latest measurement of the fiducial registration error (FRE) statistics. The solution is obtained by solving a linear system of equations of the form Ax=b for each marker at each time frame where x are the six independent FLE covariance parameters and b are the six independent estimated FRE covariance parameters. The A matrix is only a function of the tool geometry and hence the inverse of the matrix can be computed a priori and used at each instant in which the FLE estimation is required, hence minimizing the level of computation at each frame. When using a good estimate of the FRE statistics, Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the root mean square of the FLE can be computed within a range of 70-90 microm. Robust estimation of the TRE for an optically tracked tool, using a good estimate of the FLE, will provide two enhancements in IGS. First, better patient to image registration will be obtained by using the TRE of the optical tool as a weighting factor of point-based registration used to map the patient to image space. Second, the directionality of the TRE can be relayed back to the surgeon giving the surgeon the option

  18. Local radial point interpolation (MLRPI) method for solving time fractional diffusion-wave equation with damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Vahid Reza; Shivanian, Elyas; Chen, Wen

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the current investigation is to determine numerical solution of time-fractional diffusion-wave equation with damping for Caputo's fractional derivative of order α (1 < α ≤ 2). A meshless local radial point interpolation (MLRPI) scheme based on Galerkin weak form is analyzed. The reason of choosing MLRPI approach is that it does not require any background integrations cells, instead integrations are implemented over local quadrature domains which are further simplified for reducing the complication of computation using regular and simple shape. The unconditional stability and convergence with order O (τ 6 - 2 α) are proved, where τ is time stepping. Also, several numerical experiments are illustrated to verify theoretical analysis.

  19. Real-time IP-hologram conversion hardware based on floating point DSPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oi, Ryutaro; Mishina, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Kenji; Okui, Makoto

    2009-02-01

    Holography is a 3-D display method that fully satisfies the visual characteristics of the human eye. However, the hologram must be developed in a darkroom under laser illumination. We attempted hologram generation under white light by adopting an integral photography (IP) technique as the input. In this research, we developed a hardware converter to convert IP input (with 120×66 elemental images) to a hologram with high definition television (HDTV) resolution (approximately 2 million pixels). This conversion could be carried out in real time. In this conversion method, each elemental image can be independently extracted and processed. Our hardware contains twenty 300-MHz floating-point digital signal processors (DSPs) operating in parallel. We verified real-time conversion operations by the implemented hardware.

  20. Scattering experiments with microwave billiards at an exceptional point under broken time-reversal invariance.

    PubMed

    Bittner, S; Dietz, B; Harney, H L; Miski-Oglu, M; Richter, A; Schäfer, F

    2014-03-01

    Scattering experiments with microwave cavities were performed and the effects of broken time-reversal invariance (TRI), induced by means of a magnetized ferrite placed inside the cavity, on an isolated doublet of nearly degenerate resonances were investigated. All elements of the effective Hamiltonian of this two-level system were extracted. As a function of two experimental parameters, the doublet and the associated eigenvectors could be tuned to coalesce at a so-called exceptional point (EP). The behavior of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors when encircling the EP in parameter space was studied, including the geometric amplitude that builds up in the case of broken TRI. A one-dimensional subspace of parameters was found where the differences of the eigenvalues are either real or purely imaginary. There, the Hamiltonians were found to be PT invariant under the combined operation of parity (P) and time reversal (T) in a generalized sense. The EP is the point of transition between both regions. There a spontaneous breaking of PT occurs. PMID:24730915

  1. Computing the three-point correlation function of galaxies in O(N^2) time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slepian, Zachary; Eisenstein, Daniel J.

    2015-12-01

    We present an algorithm that computes the multipole coefficients of the galaxy three-point correlation function (3PCF) without explicitly considering triplets of galaxies. Rather, centring on each galaxy in the survey, it expands the radially binned density field in spherical harmonics and combines these to form the multipoles without ever requiring the relative angle between a pair about the central. This approach scales with number and number density in the same way as the two-point correlation function, allowing run-times that are comparable, and 500 times faster than a naive triplet count. It is exact in angle and easily handles edge correction. We demonstrate the algorithm on the LasDamas SDSS-DR7 mock catalogues, computing an edge corrected 3PCF out to 90 Mpc h-1 in under an hour on modest computing resources. We expect this algorithm will render it possible to obtain the large-scale 3PCF for upcoming surveys such as Euclid, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument.

  2. ICESAT Laser Altimeter Pointing, Ranging and Timing Calibration from Integrated Residual Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, Scott B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Carabajal, C. C.; Harding, D. H.; Bufton, J. L.; Williams, T. A.

    2003-01-01

    On January 12, 2003 the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) was successfully placed into orbit. The ICESat mission carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), which has a primary measurement of short-pulse laser- ranging to the Earth s surface at 1064nm wavelength at a rate of 40 pulses per second. The instrument has collected precise elevation measurements of the ice sheets, sea ice roughness and thickness, ocean and land surface elevations and surface reflectivity. The accurate geolocation of GLAS s surface returns, the spots from which the laser energy reflects on the Earth s surface, is a critical issue in the scientific application of these data. Pointing, ranging, timing and orbit errors must be compensated to accurately geolocate the laser altimeter surface returns. Towards this end, the laser range observations can be fully exploited in an integrated residual analysis to accurately calibrate these geolocation/instrument parameters. ICESat laser altimeter data have been simultaneously processed as direct altimetry from ocean sweeps along with dynamic crossovers in order to calibrate pointing, ranging and timing. The calibration methodology and current calibration results are discussed along with future efforts.

  3. Social behavior in a genetic model of dopamine dysfunction at different neurodevelopmental time points

    PubMed Central

    Kabitzke, P. A.; Simpson, E. H.; Kandel, E. R.; Balsam, P. D.

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in social behavior characterize many neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders. In fact, the temporal emergence and trajectory of these deficits can define the disorder, specify their treatment and signal their prognosis. The sophistication of mouse models with neurobiological endophenotypes of many aspects of psychiatric diseases has increased in recent years, with the necessity to evaluate social behavior in these models. We adapted an assay for the multimodal characterization of social behavior at different development time points (juvenile, adolescent and adult) in control mice in different social contexts (specifically, different sex pairings). Although social context did not affect social behavior in juvenile mice, it did have an effect on the quantity and type of social interaction as well as ultrasonic vocalizations in both adolescence and adulthood. We compared social development in control mice to a transgenic mouse model of the increase in postsynaptic striatal D2R activity observed in patients with schizophrenia (D2R-OE mice). Genotypic differences in social interactions emerged in adolescence and appeared to become more pronounced in adulthood. That vocalizations emitted from dyads with a D2R-OE subject were negatively correlated with active social behavior while vocalizations from control dyads were positively correlated with both active and passive social behavior also suggest social deficits. These data show that striatal dopamine dysfunction plays an important role in the development of social behavior and mouse models such as the one studied here provide an opportunity for screening potential therapeutics at different developmental time points. PMID:26176662

  4. Alterations in grapevine leaf metabolism upon inoculation with Plasmopara viticola in different time-points.

    PubMed

    Ali, Kashif; Maltese, Federica; Figueiredo, Andreia; Rex, Martina; Fortes, Ana Margarida; Zyprian, Eva; Pais, Maria Salomé; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2012-08-01

    Grapevines are easily infected by plant pathogens. It was found that resistant grapevines induce a wide range of phenolics upon the pathogen-infection. In this study in order to gain insight into these processes in different time-points the metabolic changes during the interaction of two grapevine cultivars, 'Regent' (resistant) and 'Trincadeira' (susceptible), with the downy mildew pathogen (Plasmopara viticola) were investigated. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy on leaf extracts was used at several time points after experimental inoculation. A wide range of metabolites were identified using various two-dimensional (2D)-NMR techniques. Multivariate data analysis characterized both the resistant and the susceptible cultivars and their response against the pathogen. Metabolites responsible for their discrimination were identified as a fertaric acid, caftaric acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, linolenic acid, and alanine in the resistant cultivar 'Regent', while the susceptible 'Trincadeira' showed higher levels of glutamate, succinate, ascorbate and glucose. This study portrays the analytical capability of NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analyses methods for the metabolic profiling of plant samples. The results obtained will underline the role of phenylpropanoids and flavonoids in resistance against biotic stresses which in turn provides a firm platform for the metabolic engineering of grapevine cultivars with higher resistance towards pathogens. PMID:22682569

  5. Time-critical neurological emergencies: the unfulfilled role for point-of-care testing

    PubMed Central

    Knight, William A.; Clark, Joseph F.; Beyette, Fred R.; Pancioli, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Background Neurological emergencies are common and frequently devastating. Every year, millions of Americans suffer an acute stroke, severe traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, status epilepticus, or spinal cord injury severe enough to require medical intervention. Aims Full evaluation of the diseases in the acute setting often requires advanced diagnostics, and treatment frequently necessitates transfer to specialized centers. Delays in diagnosis and/or treatment may result in worsened outcomes; therefore, optimization of diagnostics is critical. Methods Point-of-care (POC) testing brings advanced diagnostics to the patient’s bedside in an effort to assist medical providers with real-time decisions based on real-time information. POC testing is usually associated with blood tests (blood glucose, troponin, etc.), but can involve imaging, medical devices, or adapting existing technologies for use outside of the hospital. Noticeably missing from the list of current point-of-care technologies are real-time bedside capabilities that address neurological emergencies. Results Unfortunately, the lack of these technologies may result in delayed identification of patients of these devastating conditions and contribute to less aggressive therapies than is seen with other disease processes. Development of time-dependent technologies appropriate for use with the neurologically ill patient are needed to improve therapies and outcomes. Conclusion POC-CENT is designed to support the development of novel ideas focused on improving diagnostic or prognostic capabilities for acute neurological emergencies. Eligible examples include biomarkers of traumatic brain injury, non-invasive measurements of intracranial pressure or cerebral vasospasm, and improved detection of pathological bacteria in suspected meningitis. PMID:20606822

  6. Two-Time-Point FDG PET/CT: Liver SULmean Repeatability

    PubMed Central

    Tahari, Abdel K.; Paidpally, Vasavi; Chirindel, Alin; Wahl, Richard L.; Subramaniam, Rathan M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of liver mean standardized uptake value normalized to lean body mass (SULmean) in the same patients at different time points within the right lobe of the liver at 18F-FDG PET/CT, in a clinical setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two PET/CT studies performed on two different dates from each of 130 patients who had normal livers according to structural imaging were included in this reader study. The mean (± SD) length of time between the studies was 235 ± 192 days. SULmean was measured with a 30-mm diameter spherical volume of interest (VOI) placed within the right lobe of the liver (above, below, and at the level of the main portal vein) by two expert readers. ANOVA, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland-Altman analysis were performed. RESULTS The ICC for the first and second set of studies varied between 0.487 and 0.535 for reader 1 and between 0.472 and 0.545 for reader 2. The mean percentage variation for SULmean between the two time scans for the VOIs placed above, below, and at the level of the main portal vein were 3.55% ± 23.19%, 4.65% ± 23.87%, and 4.30% ± 23.03%, respectively, for reader 1 and 4.49% ± 23.23%, 4.33% ± 23.74%, and 4.48% ± 23.01%, respectively, for reader 2. Using 95% CI, the reference range for intrapatient variations between the studies in liver SULmean was −0.5 to 0.60. CONCLUSION There is only fair repeatability of liver SULmean measured between two time points in the same patient in a clinical setting. Scan-to-scan intrapatient variation in absolute liver SULmean was −0.5 to 0.60. PMID:25615764

  7. Improving efficiency and color purity of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) through addition of a high boiling-point solvent of 1-chloronaphthalene.

    PubMed

    Liang, Junfei; Yu, Lei; Sen Zhao; Ying, Lei; Liu, Feng; Yang, Wei; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong

    2016-07-15

    In this work, the β-phase of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) was used as a probe to study the effects of the addition of a high boiling-point solvent of 1-chloronaphthalene on the nanostructures and electroluminescence of PFO films. Both absorption and photoluminescence spectra showed that the content of the β-phase in PFO film was obviously enhanced as a result of the addition of a small amount of 1-chloronaphthalene into the processing solvent of p-xylenes. Apparently rougher morphology associated with the effectively enhanced ordering of polymer chains across the entire film was observed for films processed from p-xylene solutions consisting of a certain amount of 1-chloronaphthalene, as revealed by atomic force microscopy and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements. In addition to the effects on the nanostructures of films, of particular interest is that the performance and color purity of polymer light-emitting devices can be noticeably enhanced upon the addition of 1-chloronaphthalene. These observations highlight the importance of controlling the nanostructures of the emissive layer, and demonstrate that the addition of a low volume ratio of high boiling-point additive can be a promising strategy to attain high-performance polymer light-emitting diodes. PMID:27250786

  8. Improving efficiency and color purity of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) through addition of a high boiling-point solvent of 1-chloronaphthalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Junfei; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Sen; Ying, Lei; Liu, Feng; Yang, Wei; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the β-phase of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) was used as a probe to study the effects of the addition of a high boiling-point solvent of 1-chloronaphthalene on the nanostructures and electroluminescence of PFO films. Both absorption and photoluminescence spectra showed that the content of the β-phase in PFO film was obviously enhanced as a result of the addition of a small amount of 1-chloronaphthalene into the processing solvent of p-xylenes. Apparently rougher morphology associated with the effectively enhanced ordering of polymer chains across the entire film was observed for films processed from p-xylene solutions consisting of a certain amount of 1-chloronaphthalene, as revealed by atomic force microscopy and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements. In addition to the effects on the nanostructures of films, of particular interest is that the performance and color purity of polymer light-emitting devices can be noticeably enhanced upon the addition of 1-chloronaphthalene. These observations highlight the importance of controlling the nanostructures of the emissive layer, and demonstrate that the addition of a low volume ratio of high boiling-point additive can be a promising strategy to attain high-performance polymer light-emitting diodes.

  9. Oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane at millisecond contact times: Effect of H{sub 2} addition

    SciTech Connect

    Bodke, A.S.; Henning, D.; Schmidt, L.D.; Bharadwaj, S.S.; Maj, J.J.; Siddall, J.

    2000-04-01

    The oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane using Pt/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and various bimetallic catalysts operating at {approximately}1,000 C and very short contact times is examined with H{sub 2} addition to the feed. When H{sub 2} is added with a Pt catalyst, the ethylene selectivity rises from 65 to 72% but ethane conversion drops from 70 to 52%. However, using a Pt-Sn/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, the C{sub 2}H{sub 4} selectivity increases from 70 to greater than 85%, while the conversion remains {approximately}70%. The process also produces approximately as much H{sub 2} as is added to the feed. Effects of other metal promoters, sphere bed and fibermat supports, preheat, pressure, nitrogen dilution, and flow rate are examined in an effort to further elucidate the mechanism. Deactivation of the Pt-Sn catalyst is examined, and a simple method of regenerating the activity on-line is demonstrated. Possible mechanisms to explain high selectivities to ethylene are discussed. Although the process can be regarded as a simple two-step reaction sequence with the exothermic oxidation of hydrogen or ethane driving the endothermic dehydrogenation of ethane to ethylene, the exact contributions of heterogeneous or gas-phase reactions and their spatial variations within the catalyst are yet to be determined.

  10. Time- and Isomer-Resolved Measurements of Sequential Addition of Acetylene to the Propargyl Radical.

    PubMed

    Savee, John D; Selby, Talitha M; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A; Osborn, David L

    2015-10-15

    Soot formation in combustion is a complex process in which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are believed to play a critical role. Recent works concluded that three consecutive additions of acetylene (C2H2) to propargyl (C3H3) create a facile route to the PAH indene (C9H8). However, the isomeric forms of C5H5 and C7H7 intermediates in this reaction sequence are not known. We directly investigate these intermediates using time- and isomer-resolved experiments. Both the resonance stabilized vinylpropargyl (vp-C5H5) and 2,4-cyclopentadienyl (c-C5H5) radical isomers of C5H5 are produced, with substantially different intensities at 800 K vs 1000 K. In agreement with literature master equation calculations, we find that c-C5H5 + C2H2 produces only the tropyl isomer of C7H7 (tp-C7H7) below 1000 K, and that tp-C7H7 + C2H2 terminates the reaction sequence yielding C9H8 (indene) + H. This work demonstrates a pathway for PAH formation that does not proceed through benzene. PMID:26722791

  11. Real-Time Single Frequency Precise Point Positioning Using SBAS Corrections.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Jia, Chun; Zhao, Lin; Cheng, Jianhua; Liu, Jianxu; Ding, Jicheng

    2016-01-01

    Real-time single frequency precise point positioning (PPP) is a promising technique for high-precision navigation with sub-meter or even centimeter-level accuracy because of its convenience and low cost. The navigation performance of single frequency PPP heavily depends on the real-time availability and quality of correction products for satellite orbits and satellite clocks. Satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) provides the correction products in real-time, but they are intended to be used for wide area differential positioning at 1 meter level precision. By imposing the constraints for ionosphere error, we have developed a real-time single frequency PPP method by sufficiently utilizing SBAS correction products. The proposed PPP method are tested with static and kinematic data, respectively. The static experimental results show that the position accuracy of the proposed PPP method can reach decimeter level, and achieve an improvement of at least 30% when compared with the traditional SBAS method. The positioning convergence of the proposed PPP method can be achieved in 636 epochs at most in static mode. In the kinematic experiment, the position accuracy of the proposed PPP method can be improved by at least 20 cm relative to the SBAS method. Furthermore, it has revealed that the proposed PPP method can achieve decimeter level convergence within 500 s in the kinematic mode. PMID:27517930

  12. Beach response dynamics of a littoral cell using a 17-year single-point time series of sand thickness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, P.L.; Hubbard, D.M.; Dugan, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    A 17-year time series of near-daily sand thickness measurements at a single intertidal location was compared with 5. years of semi-annual 3-dimensional beach surveys at the same beach, and at two other beaches within the same littoral cell. The daily single point measurements correlated extremely well with the mean beach elevation and shoreline position of ten high-spatial resolution beach surveys. Correlations were statistically significant at all spatial scales, even for beach surveys 10s of kilometers downcoast, and therefore variability at the single point monitoring site was representative of regional coastal behavior, allowing us to examine nearly two decades of continuous coastal evolution. The annual cycle of beach oscillations dominated the signal, typical of this region, with additional, less intense spectral peaks associated with seasonal wave energy fluctuations (~. 45 to 90. days), as well as full lunar (~. 29. days) and semi-lunar (~. 13. days; spring-neap cycle) tidal cycles. Sand thickness variability was statistically linked to wave energy with a 2. month peak lag, as well as the average of the previous 7-8. months of wave energy. Longer term anomalies in sand thickness were also apparent on time scales up to 15. months. Our analyses suggest that spatially-limited morphological data sets can be extremely valuable (with robust validation) for understanding the details of beach response to wave energy over timescales that are not resolved by typical survey intervals, as well as the regional behavior of coastal systems. ?? 2011.

  13. Comparison of Result Times Between Urine and Whole Blood Point-of-care Pregnancy Testing

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Michael; Wnek, Kristopher; Moskoff, Jordan; Christian, Errick; Bailitz, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Point-of-care (POC) pregnancy testing is commonly performed in the emergency department (ED). One prior study demonstrated equivalent accuracy between urine and whole blood for one common brand of POC pregnancy testing. Our study sought to determine the difference in result times when comparing whole blood versus urine for the same brand of POC pregnancy testing. Methods We conducted a prospective, observational study at an urban, academic, tertiary care hospital comparing the turnaround time between order and result for urine and whole blood pregnancy tests collected according to standard protocol without intervention from the investigators. After the blood was collected, the nurse would place three drops onto a Beckman Coulter ICON 25 Rapid HCG bedside pregnancy test and set a timer for 10 minutes. At the end of the 10 minutes, the result and time were recorded on an encoded data sheet and not used clinically. The same make and model analyzer was also used for urine tests in the lab located within the ED. The primary outcome was the difference in mean turnaround time between whole blood in the ED and urine testing in the adjacent lab results. Concordance between samples was assessed as a secondary outcome. Results 265 total patients were included in the study. The use of whole blood resulted in a mean time savings of 21 minutes (95% CI 16–25 minutes) when compared with urine (p<0.001). There was 99.6% concordance between results, with one false negative urine specimen with a quantitative HCG level of 81 mIU/L. Conclusion Our results suggest that the use of whole blood in place of urine for bedside pregnancy testing may reduce the total result turnaround time without significant changes in accuracy in this single-center study. PMID:27429695

  14. Double point source W-phase inversion: Real-time implementation and automated model selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nealy, Jennifer L.; Hayes, Gavin P.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid and accurate characterization of an earthquake source is an extremely important and ever evolving field of research. Within this field, source inversion of the W-phase has recently been shown to be an effective technique, which can be efficiently implemented in real-time. An extension to the W-phase source inversion is presented in which two point sources are derived to better characterize complex earthquakes. A single source inversion followed by a double point source inversion with centroid locations fixed at the single source solution location can be efficiently run as part of earthquake monitoring network operational procedures. In order to determine the most appropriate solution, i.e., whether an earthquake is most appropriately described by a single source or a double source, an Akaike information criterion (AIC) test is performed. Analyses of all earthquakes of magnitude 7.5 and greater occurring since January 2000 were performed with extended analyses of the September 29, 2009 magnitude 8.1 Samoa earthquake and the April 19, 2014 magnitude 7.5 Papua New Guinea earthquake. The AIC test is shown to be able to accurately select the most appropriate model and the selected W-phase inversion is shown to yield reliable solutions that match published analyses of the same events.

  15. Double point source W-phase inversion: Real-time implementation and automated model selection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nealy, Jennifer; Hayes, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and accurate characterization of an earthquake source is an extremely important and ever evolving field of research. Within this field, source inversion of the W-phase has recently been shown to be an effective technique, which can be efficiently implemented in real-time. An extension to the W-phase source inversion is presented in which two point sources are derived to better characterize complex earthquakes. A single source inversion followed by a double point source inversion with centroid locations fixed at the single source solution location can be efficiently run as part of earthquake monitoring network operational procedures. In order to determine the most appropriate solution, i.e., whether an earthquake is most appropriately described by a single source or a double source, an Akaike information criterion (AIC) test is performed. Analyses of all earthquakes of magnitude 7.5 and greater occurring since January 2000 were performed with extended analyses of the September 29, 2009 magnitude 8.1 Samoa earthquake and the April 19, 2014 magnitude 7.5 Papua New Guinea earthquake. The AIC test is shown to be able to accurately select the most appropriate model and the selected W-phase inversion is shown to yield reliable solutions that match published analyses of the same events.

  16. Implementation of a Point Algorithm for Real-Time Convex Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acikmese, Behcet; Motaghedi, Shui; Carson, John

    2007-01-01

    The primal-dual interior-point algorithm implemented in G-OPT is a relatively new and efficient way of solving convex optimization problems. Given a prescribed level of accuracy, the convergence to the optimal solution is guaranteed in a predetermined, finite number of iterations. G-OPT Version 1.0 is a flight software implementation written in C. Onboard application of the software enables autonomous, real-time guidance and control that explicitly incorporates mission constraints such as control authority (e.g. maximum thrust limits), hazard avoidance, and fuel limitations. This software can be used in planetary landing missions (Mars pinpoint landing and lunar landing), as well as in proximity operations around small celestial bodies (moons, asteroids, and comets). It also can be used in any spacecraft mission for thrust allocation in six-degrees-of-freedom control.

  17. Single-point position and transition defects in continuous time quantum walks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Z. J.; Wang, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of continuous time quantum walks (CTQW) with both position and transition defects defined at a single point in the line. Analytical solutions of both traveling waves and bound states are obtained, which provide valuable insight into the dynamics of CTQW. The number of bound states is found to be critically dependent on the defect parameters, and the localized probability peaks can be readily obtained by projecting the state vector of CTQW on to these bound states. The interference between two bound states are also observed in the case of a transition defect. The spreading of CTQW probability over the line can be finely tuned by varying the position and transition defect parameters, offering the possibility of precision quantum control of the system. PMID:26323855

  18. Undergraduate Consent Form Reading in Relation to Conscientiousness, Procrastination, and the Point-of-Time Effect.

    PubMed

    Theiss, Justin D; Hobbs, William B; Giordano, Peter J; Brunson, Olivia M

    2014-07-01

    Informed consent is central to conducting ethical research with human participants. The present study investigated differences in consent form reading in relation to conscientiousness, procrastination, and the point-of-time (PT) effect among undergraduate participants at a U.S. university. As hypothesized, conscientious participants and those who signed up to participate in a research study more days in advance and for earlier sessions (PT effect) read the consent form more thoroughly. However, procrastination was not related to consent form reading. Most importantly, consent form reading in general was poor, with 80% of participants demonstrating that they had not read the consent form. Conscientious participants were more likely to self-report reading the consent form, irrespective of their measured consent form reading. The article closes with suggestions to improve the process of obtaining informed consent with undergraduate participants. PMID:25746782

  19. Near-real-time regional troposphere models for the GNSS precise point positioning technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadas, T.; Kaplon, J.; Bosy, J.; Sierny, J.; Wilgan, K.

    2013-05-01

    The GNSS precise point positioning (PPP) technique requires high quality product (orbits and clocks) application, since their error directly affects the quality of positioning. For real-time purposes it is possible to utilize ultra-rapid precise orbits and clocks which are disseminated through the Internet. In order to eliminate as many unknown parameters as possible, one may introduce external information on zenith troposphere delay (ZTD). It is desirable that the a priori model is accurate and reliable, especially for real-time application. One of the open problems in GNSS positioning is troposphere delay modelling on the basis of ground meteorological observations. Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics of Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences (IGG WUELS) has developed two independent regional troposphere models for the territory of Poland. The first one is estimated in near-real-time regime using GNSS data from a Polish ground-based augmentation system named ASG-EUPOS established by Polish Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography (GUGiK) in 2008. The second one is based on meteorological parameters (temperature, pressure and humidity) gathered from various meteorological networks operating over the area of Poland and surrounding countries. This paper describes the methodology of both model calculation and verification. It also presents results of applying various ZTD models into kinematic PPP in the post-processing mode using Bernese GPS Software. Positioning results were used to assess the quality of the developed models during changing weather conditions. Finally, the impact of model application to simulated real-time PPP on precision, accuracy and convergence time is discussed.

  20. On troposphere delay constraining in real-time GNSS Precise Point Positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadas, Tomasz; Kazmierski, Kamil; Bosy, Jaroslaw

    2015-04-01

    A common procedure in Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is to have the adjustment model accounting for the correction to an a priori value of the total troposphere delay (ZTD) given at the first epoch of data processing, and the troposphere wet delay filter is updated epoch by epoch. This approach requires some time so that a change in satellite geometry allows to efficiently de-correlate among tropospheric delay, receiver clock error and height. Empirical troposphere state models and mapping functions are available, however they may not reflect properly the actual state of the troposphere, especially in severe weather conditions. It might be more appropriate to take advantage on a regional troposphere model derived from near real-time (NRT) processing of GBAS network. To evaluate the impact of troposphere constraining in real-time PPP, one week long period was selected, that was characterized with active troposphere conditions. Using the development version of original GNSS-WARP software, a 1 Hz kinematic positioning was performed for 10 selected Polish GBAS stations using IGS Real-Time Service (RTS) products. Two processing strategies were used, one reflecting the common PPP approach and the second with NRT ZTD to constrain the troposphere delay estimates. GPS only and GPS+GLONASS positioning was performed and analyzed using both strategies. For unconstrained solutions, the convergence time of one hour (GPS only) and 15 minutes (GPS+GLONASS) was reached, providing the sub-decimeter accuracy in horizontal and vertical component. However, for some epochs, and outlying height estimates were observed with the residuals reaching up to 0.5m with the estimated error of 0.2m. At the same time, the unconstrained estimated troposphere delay differs up to 12 cm from the reference NRT ZTD solution. In case the troposphere delay is constrained, all three coordinate components remains accurate and precise for entire processing period after the convergence is reached. From the

  1. Lateralization of High-Frequency Clicks Based on Interaural Time: Additivity of Information across Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth Marie

    Lateralization performance based on interaural differences of time (IDTs) was measured for trains of Gaussian clicks which varied in spectral content. In the first experiment, thresholds ((DELTA)IDTs) were measured as a function of the number of clicks in the train (n = 1 to 32), the interclick interval (ICI = 2.5 or 5 ms), and the spectral content (1 vs. 2 or 4 carriers). Subjects' performance was compared to perfect statistical summation which predicts slopes of -.50 when log-(DELTA)IDT vs. long -n is plotted. The results showed that increasing the spectral content of the clicks decreased the intercepts of the log -log functions (decreased thresholds) while having little effect on their slopes. Shortening the ICIs caused the slopes of the functions to decrease in absolute value. To estimate the bandwidth of frequency-interaction in lateralization, d's were measured for clicks with constant IDTs (n = 1) with a fixed carrier (FF = 4000, 5200, 6000 or 7200 Hz), both alone and combined with a second click whose carrier (F) varied from 3500 to 8500 Hz. Performance in combined conditions was compared to independent summation of the information carried by the two frequency-bands. Performance improved as the separation between F and FF increased until the level predicted by independence was reached. The final experiment investigated the interaction of frequency content with IDT. d's were measured as a function of the IDT in clicks with carriers of 5200, 6000 or 7200 Hz, both alone and combined with a 4000-Hz click with a fixed IDT. Performance in combined conditions was again compared to independent additivity. The improvement with frequency was explained by an increase in the number of samples of the IDT reaching the binaural centers due to spread of excitation along the basilar membrane. Less than independent summation was explained by correlation between overlapping bands which reduced the amount of information exciting independent channels. The data also suggest that

  2. Two Point Space-Time Correlation of Density Fluctuations Measured in High Velocity Free Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta

    2006-01-01

    Two-point space-time correlations of air density fluctuations in unheated, fully-expanded free jets at Mach numbers M(sub j) = 0.95, 1.4, and 1.8 were measured using a Rayleigh scattering based diagnostic technique. The molecular scattered light from two small probe volumes of 1.03 mm length was measured for a completely non-intrusive means of determining the turbulent density fluctuations. The time series of density fluctuations were analyzed to estimate the integral length scale L in a moving frame of reference and the convective Mach number M(sub c) at different narrow Strouhal frequency (St) bands. It was observed that M(sub c) and the normalized moving frame length scale L*St/D, where D is the jet diameter, increased with Strouhal frequency before leveling off at the highest resolved frequency. Significant differences were observed between data obtained from the lip shear layer and the centerline of the jet. The wave number frequency transform of the correlation data demonstrated progressive increase in the radiative part of turbulence fluctuations with increasing jet Mach number.

  3. Terahertz time domain interferometry of a SIS tunnel junction and a quantum point contact

    SciTech Connect

    Karadi, C

    1995-09-01

    The author has applied the Terahertz Time Domain Interferometric (THz-TDI) technique to probe the ultrafast dynamic response of a Superconducting-Insulating-Superconducting (SIS) tunnel junction and a Quantum Point Contact (QPC). The THz-TDI technique involves monitoring changes in the dc current induced by interfering two picosecond electrical pulses on the junction as a function of time delay between them. Measurements of the response of the Nb/AlO{sub x}/Nb SIS tunnel junction from 75--200 GHz are in full agreement with the linear theory for photon-assisted tunneling. Likewise, measurements of the induced current in a QPC as a function of source-drain voltage, gate voltage, frequency, and magnetic field also show strong evidence for photon-assisted transport. These experiments together demonstrate the general applicability of the THz-TDI technique to the characterization of the dynamic response of any micron or nanometer scale device that exhibits a non-linear I-V characteristic. 133 refs., 49 figs.

  4. Spatial Rainfall Simulation: Trading Time for Space with Multiple Point Statistics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriani, F.; Straubhaar, J.; Mariethoz, G.; Renard, P.

    2014-12-01

    Detailed rainfall spatial distribution plays an important role in various applications of hydrological management such as flood forecasting or recharge estimation. However, limited rain gauge network density often makes it difficult to characterize the small-scale variability of rainfall, and reduces the reliability of interpolations methods such as kriging. Here, we test a non-parametric technique that produces spatial rainfall fields by relying on time series data rather than dense spatial data sets. If the velocity of the rain cells is known, the time series can be projected into a one-dimensional space, reflecting the same type of variability observable in the direction of the rain cell displacement. Assuming spatio-temporal ergodicity for a small area, we estimate the mean rainfall cells displacement direction i and velocity vi by optimizing the cross correlation between two subsequent radar images at time t and t+dt. Then, given a time series in the same time lapse R([t,...,t+dt]) and applying the linear transformation R([t,...,t+dt])=S([t,...,t+dt]vi), we obtain a spatial series S generally more densely informed than the available rain-gauge network, used to represent the spatial variability in the direction i. For example, from a 1 min spaced time series R and an estimated velocity v=20 km/h, we obtain a 333 m spaced series S. The obtained spatial series are then employed as a basis to generate 2D spatial rainfall fields using the Direct Sampling (DS), a multiple-point technique that allows simulating complex statistical relations by respecting the similarity of multiple scales patterns. Here the DS is used to complete the 2D field by reproducing one-dimensional patterns borrowed from the spatial series. The approach is tested on the rain-gauge network of the Swiss plateau (Switzerland) and on radar data for the same region. The proposed technique has the potential to characterize realistic spatial fields even for sparse observation networks.

  5. Determination of earthquake magnitude using GPS displacement waveforms from real-time precise point positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Rongxin; Shi, Chuang; Song, Weiwei; Wang, Guangxing; Liu, Jingnan

    2014-01-01

    For earthquake and tsunami early warning and emergency response, earthquake magnitude is the crucial parameter to be determined rapidly and correctly. However, a reliable and rapid measurement of the magnitude of an earthquake is a challenging problem, especially for large earthquakes (M > 8). Here, the magnitude is determined based on the GPS displacement waveform derived from real-time precise point positioning (RTPPP). RTPPP results are evaluated with an accuracy of 1 cm in the horizontal components and 2-3 cm in the vertical components, indicating that the RTPPP is capable of detecting seismic waves with amplitude of 1 cm horizontally and 2-3 cm vertically with a confidence level of 95 per cent. In order to estimate the magnitude, the unique information provided by the GPS displacement waveform is the horizontal peak displacement amplitude. We show that the empirical relation of Gutenberg (1945) between peak displacement and magnitude holds up to nearly magnitude 9.0 when displacements are measured with GPS. We tested the proposed method for three large earthquakes. For the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake, our method provides a magnitude of M7.18 ± 0.18. For the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake the estimated magnitude is M8.74 ± 0.06, and for the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake the value is M8.7 ± 0.1 after excluding some near-field stations. We, therefore, conclude that depending on the availability of high-rate GPS observations, a robust value of magnitude up to 9.0 for a point source earthquake can be estimated within tens of seconds or a few minutes after an event using a few GPS stations close to the epicentre. The rapid magnitude could be as a pre-requisite for tsunami early warning, fast source inversion and emergency response is feasible.

  6. Travel Time Estimation Using Freeway Point Detector Data Based on Evolving Fuzzy Neural Inference System

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jinjun; Zou, Yajie; Ash, John; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yinhai

    2016-01-01

    Travel time is an important measurement used to evaluate the extent of congestion within road networks. This paper presents a new method to estimate the travel time based on an evolving fuzzy neural inference system. The input variables in the system are traffic flow data (volume, occupancy, and speed) collected from loop detectors located at points both upstream and downstream of a given link, and the output variable is the link travel time. A first order Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy rule set is used to complete the inference. For training the evolving fuzzy neural network (EFNN), two learning processes are proposed: (1) a K-means method is employed to partition input samples into different clusters, and a Gaussian fuzzy membership function is designed for each cluster to measure the membership degree of samples to the cluster centers. As the number of input samples increases, the cluster centers are modified and membership functions are also updated; (2) a weighted recursive least squares estimator is used to optimize the parameters of the linear functions in the Takagi-Sugeno type fuzzy rules. Testing datasets consisting of actual and simulated data are used to test the proposed method. Three common criteria including mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute relative error (MARE) are utilized to evaluate the estimation performance. Estimation results demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the EFNN method through comparison with existing methods including: multiple linear regression (MLR), instantaneous model (IM), linear model (LM), neural network (NN), and cumulative plots (CP). PMID:26829639

  7. Integrity monitoring in real-time precise point positioning in the presence of ionospheric disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wezka, K.; Galas, R.

    2013-12-01

    Ionospheric disturbances are characterized as fast and random variability in the ionosphere. Those phenomena are difficult to predict, detect and model. Occurrence of some strong ionospheric disturbances can cause, inter alia degradation and interruption of GNSS signals. Therefore they are especially harmful for real-time applications, as for example Precise Point Positioning (PPP) in real time, where one of the most important requirements is to ensure the high level of reliability. In such applications verification and confirmation of a high trust degree towards the estimated coordinates is a very critical issue. In one of the previous papers (K. Wezka, 2012 -Identification of system performance parameters and their usability) two sets of parameters have been proposed for enhance reliability of the PPP. The first one for data quality control (QC) of the raw GNSS observations and the second one for examination of the quality, robustness and performance of various processing approaches (strategies). To the second group the following parameters has been proposed: accuracy, precision, availability, integrity and convergence time. In consideration of perturbation of GNSS signal resulting from sudden ionospheric disturbances, one of the most important demands is effective autonomous integrity monitoring. The poster presents first preliminary results of the applicability of the proposed parameters in order to ensure the high level of reliability/integrity of GNSS observations and positioning results under the presence of strong ionospheric anomalies. The data-set from continuously operated GNSS station located at high latitude, where ionospheric disturbances occur more frequently, were used for the analysis. Various selected Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) approaches for quality control of the GNSS observables are applied to the data sets recorded under different (low/quite and high) ionospheric activities. Based on those analyses the usability of the

  8. Travel Time Estimation Using Freeway Point Detector Data Based on Evolving Fuzzy Neural Inference System.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinjun; Zou, Yajie; Ash, John; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yinhai

    2016-01-01

    Travel time is an important measurement used to evaluate the extent of congestion within road networks. This paper presents a new method to estimate the travel time based on an evolving fuzzy neural inference system. The input variables in the system are traffic flow data (volume, occupancy, and speed) collected from loop detectors located at points both upstream and downstream of a given link, and the output variable is the link travel time. A first order Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy rule set is used to complete the inference. For training the evolving fuzzy neural network (EFNN), two learning processes are proposed: (1) a K-means method is employed to partition input samples into different clusters, and a Gaussian fuzzy membership function is designed for each cluster to measure the membership degree of samples to the cluster centers. As the number of input samples increases, the cluster centers are modified and membership functions are also updated; (2) a weighted recursive least squares estimator is used to optimize the parameters of the linear functions in the Takagi-Sugeno type fuzzy rules. Testing datasets consisting of actual and simulated data are used to test the proposed method. Three common criteria including mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute relative error (MARE) are utilized to evaluate the estimation performance. Estimation results demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the EFNN method through comparison with existing methods including: multiple linear regression (MLR), instantaneous model (IM), linear model (LM), neural network (NN), and cumulative plots (CP). PMID:26829639

  9. Triple positive solutions of three-point boundary value problems for p-Laplacian dynamic equations on time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Shihuang

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we present sufficient conditions for the existence of at least three positive solutions of three-point boundary value problems for p-Laplacian dynamic equations on a time scale. To show our main results, we apply a new fixed point theorem due to Avery and Peterson [Three positive fixed points of nonlinear operators on ordered Banach spaces, Comput. Math. Appl. 42 (2001) 313-322].

  10. Real Time Precise Point Positioning: Preliminary Results for the Brazilian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Haroldo; Monico, João.; Hirokazu Shimabukuro, Milton; Aquino, Marcio

    2010-05-01

    GNSS positioning can be carried out in relative or absolute approach. In the last years, more attention has been driven to the real time precise point positioning (PPP). To achieve centimeter accuracy with this method in real time it is necessary to have available the satellites precise coordinates as well as satellites clocks corrections. The coordinates can be used from the predicted IGU ephemeris, but the satellites clocks must be estimated in a real time. It can be made from a GNSS network as can be seen from EUREF Permanent Network. The infra-structure to realize the PPP in real time is being available in Brazil through the Brazilian Continuous Monitoring Network (RBMC) together with the Sao Paulo State GNSS network which are transmitting GNSS data using NTRIP (Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol) caster. Based on this information it was proposed a PhD thesis in the Univ. Estadual Paulista (UNESP) aiming to investigate and develop the methodology to estimate the satellites clocks and realize PPP in real time. Then, software is being developed to process GNSS data in the real time PPP mode. A preliminary version of the software was called PPP_RT and is able to process GNSS code and phase data using precise ephemeris and satellites clocks. The PPP processing can be accomplished considering the absolute satellite antenna Phase Center Variation (PCV), Ocean Tide Loading (OTL), Earth Body Tide, among others. The first order ionospheric effects can be eliminated or minimized by ion-free combination or parameterized in the receiver-satellite direction using a stochastic process, e.g. random walk or white noise. In the case of ionosphere estimation, a pseudo-observable is introduced in the mathematical model for each satellite and the initial value can be computed from Klobuchar model or from Global Ionospheric Map (GIM). The adjustment is realized in the recursive mode and the DIA (Detection Identification and Adaptation) is used for quality control. In

  11. Effects of Wait Time When Communicating with Children Who Have Sensory and Additional Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nicole; Parker, Amy T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study utilized wait-time procedures to determine if they are effective in helping children with deafblindness or multiple disabilities that include a visual impairment communicate in their home. Methods: A single subject with an alternating treatment design was used for the study. Zero- to one-second wait time was utilized…

  12. Addition of random run FM noise to the KPW time scale algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    2002-01-01

    The KPW (Kalman plus weights) time scale algorithm uses a Kalman filter to provide frequency and drift information to a basic time scale equation. This paper extends the algorithm to three-state clocks nd gives results for a simulated eight-clock ensemble.

  13. Entanglement, quantum phase transition and fixed-point bifurcation in the N-atom Jaynes Cummings model with an additional symmetry breaking term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagas, E. A.; Furuya, K.

    2008-08-01

    In the present work we analyze the quantum phase transition (QPT) in the N-atom Jaynes-Cummings model (NJCM) with an additional symmetry breaking interaction term in the Hamiltonian. We show that depending on the type of symmetry breaking term added the transition order can change or not and also the fixed point associated to the classical analogue of the Hamiltonian can bifurcate or not. We present two examples of symmetry broken Hamiltonians and discuss based on them, the interconnection between the transition order, appearance of bifurcation and the behavior of the entanglement.

  14. The Way Point Planning Tool: Real Time Flight Planning for Airborne Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Yubin; Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael; Hall, John

    2012-01-01

    Airborne real time observation are a major component of NASA's Earth Science research and satellite ground validation studies. For mission scientist, planning a research aircraft mission within the context of meeting the science objective is a complex task because it requires real time situational awareness of the weather conditions that affect the aircraft track. Multiple aircraft are often involved in the NASA field campaigns the coordination of the aircraft with satellite overpasses, other airplanes and the constantly evolving dynamic weather conditions often determine the success of the campaign. A flight planning tool is needed to provide situational awareness information to the mission scientist and help them plan and modify the flight tracks successfully. Scientists at the University of Alabama Huntsville and the NASA Marshal Space Flight Center developed the Waypoint Planning Tool (WPT), an interactive software tool that enables scientist to develop their own flight plans (also known as waypoints), with point and click mouse capabilities on a digital map filled with time raster and vector data. The development of this Waypoint Planning Tool demonstrates the significance of mission support in responding to the challenges presented during NASA field campaigns. Analyses during and after each campaign helped identify both issues and new requirements, initiating the next wave of development. Currently the Waypoint Planning Tool has gone through three rounds of development and analysis processes. The development of this waypoint tool is directly affected by the technology advances on GIS/Mapping technologies. From the standalone Google Earth application and simple KML functionalities to the Google Earth Plugin and Java Web Start/Applet on web platform, as well as to the rising open source GIS tools with new JavaScript frameworks, the Waypoint planning Tool has entered its third phase of technology advancement. The newly innovated, cross-platform, modular designed

  15. Effect of Hydrogen Addition on Methane HCCI Engine Ignition Timing and Emissions Using a Multi-zone Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-han; Wang, Chun-mei; Tang, Hua-xin; Zuo, Cheng-ji; Xu, Hong-ming

    2009-06-01

    Ignition timing control is of great importance in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. The effect of hydrogen addition on methane combustion was investigated using a CHEMKIN multi-zone model. Results show that hydrogen addition advances ignition timing and enhances peak pressure and temperature. A brief analysis of chemical kinetics of methane blending hydrogen is also performed in order to investigate the scope of its application, and the analysis suggests that OH radical plays an important role in the oxidation. Hydrogen addition increases NOx while decreasing HC and CO emissions. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) also advances ignition timing; however, its effects on emissions are generally the opposite. By adjusting the hydrogen addition and EGR rate, the ignition timing can be regulated with a low emission level. Investigation into zones suggests that NOx is mostly formed in core zones while HC and CO mostly originate in the crevice and the quench layer.

  16. Brachytherapy in cancer cervix: Time to move ahead from point A?

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Anurita; Datta, Niloy Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Brachytherapy forms an integral part of the radiation therapy in cancer cervix. The dose prescription for intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) in cancer cervix is based on Tod and Meredith’s point A and has been in practice since 1938. This was proposed at a time when accessibility to imaging technology and dose computation facilities was limited. The concept has been in practice worldwide for more than half a century and has been the fulcrum of all ICBT treatments, strategies and outcome measures. The method is simple and can be adapted by all centres practicing ICBT in cancer cervix. However, with the widespread availability of imaging techniques, clinical use of different dose-rates, availability of a host of applicators fabricated with image compatible materials, radiobiological implications of dose equivalence and its impact on tumour and organs at risk; more and more weight is being laid down on individualised image based brachytherapy. Thus, computed tomography, magnetic-resonance imaging and even positron emission computerized tomography along with brachytherapy treatment planning system are being increasingly adopted with promising outcomes. The present article reviews the evolution of dose prescription concepts in ICBT in cancer cervix and brings forward the need for image based brachytherapy to evaluate clinical outcomes. As is evident, a gradual transition from “point” based brachytherapy to “profile” based image guided brachytherapy is gaining widespread acceptance for dose prescription, reporting and outcome evaluation in the clinical practice of ICBT in cancer cervix. PMID:25302176

  17. Atmospheric plume progression as a function of time and distance from the release point for radioactive isotopes.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, Paul W; Bowyer, Ted W; Cameron, Ian M; Hayes, James C; Miley, Harry S

    2015-10-01

    The radionuclide network of the International Monitoring System comprises up to 80 stations around the world that have aerosol and xenon monitoring systems designed to detect releases of radioactive materials to the atmosphere from nuclear explosions. A rule of thumb description of plume concentration and duration versus time and distance from the release point is useful when designing and deploying new sample collection systems. This paper uses plume development from atmospheric transport modeling to provide a power-law rule describing atmospheric dilution factors as a function of distance from the release point. Consider the plume center-line concentration seen by a ground-level sampler as a function of time based on a short-duration ground-level release of a nondepositing radioactive tracer. The concentration C (Bq m(-3)) near the ground varies with distance from the source with the relationship C=R×A(D,C) ×e (-λ(-1.552+0.0405×D)) × 5.37×10(-8) × D(-2.35) where R is the release magnitude (Bq), D is the separation distance (km) from the ground level release to the measurement location, λ is the decay constant (h(-1)) for the radionuclide of interest and AD,C is an attenuation factor that depends on the length of the sample collection period. This relationship is based on the median concentration for 10 release locations with different geographic characteristics and 365 days of releases at each location, and it has an R(2) of 0.99 for 32 distances from 100 to 3000 km. In addition, 90 percent of the modeled plumes fall within approximately one order of magnitude of this curve for all distances. PMID:26151301

  18. Ultra-Wideband Time-Difference-of-Arrival Two-Point-Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun David; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dekome, Kent; Dusl, John

    2009-01-01

    A UWB TDOA Two-Point-Tracking System has been conceived and developed at JSC. This system can provide sub-inch tracking capability of two points on one target. This capability can be applied to guide a docking process in a 2D space. Lab tests demonstrate the feasibility of this technology.

  19. Equivalence of time and aperture domain additive noise in ultrasound coherence

    PubMed Central

    Bottenus, Nick B.; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic echoes backscattered from diffuse media, recorded by an array transducer and appropriately focused, demonstrate coherence predicted by the van Cittert–Zernike theorem. Additive noise signals from off-axis scattering, reverberation, phase aberration, and electronic (thermal) noise can all superimpose incoherent or partially coherent signals onto the recorded echoes, altering the measured coherence. An expression is derived to describe the effect of uncorrelated random channel noise in terms of the noise-to-signal ratio. Equivalent descriptions are made in the aperture dimension to describe uncorrelated magnitude and phase apodizations of the array. Binary apodization is specifically described as an example of magnitude apodization and adjustments are presented to minimize the artifacts caused by finite signal length. The effects of additive noise are explored in short-lag spatial coherence imaging, an image formation technique that integrates the calculated coherence curve of acquired signals up to a small fraction of the array length for each lateral and axial location. A derivation of the expected contrast as a function of noise-to-signal ratio is provided and validation is performed in simulation. PMID:25618045

  20. A Bayesian approach to estimation of a statistical change-point in the mean parameter for high dimensional non-linear time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speegle, Darrin; Steward, Robert

    2015-08-01

    We propose a semiparametric approach to infer the existence of and estimate the location of a statistical change-point to a nonlinear high dimensional time series contaminated with an additive noise component. In particular, we consider a p―dimensional stochastic process of independent multivariate normal observations where the mean function varies smoothly except at a single change-point. Our approach first involves a dimension reduction of the original time series through a random matrix multiplication. Next, we conduct a Bayesian analysis on the empirical detail coefficients of this dimensionally reduced time series after a wavelet transform. We also present a means to associate confidence bounds to the conclusions of our results. Aside from being computationally efficient and straight forward to implement, the primary advantage of our methods is seen in how these methods apply to a much larger class of time series whose mean functions are subject to only general smoothness conditions.

  1. Tripled Readout Slices in Multi Time-Point pCASL Using Multiband Look-Locker EPI

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke; Yun, Seong Dae; Shah, N. Jon

    2015-01-01

    Multi time-point pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling (pCASL) with a Look-Locker EPI readout can sample the signal curve of blood kinetics at multiple time points after the labelling pulse. However, due to signal relaxation of labelled blood, the number of readout slices is limited. The aim of this study is to employ a multiband excitation technique to triple the number of readout slices in multi time-point pCASL. The multiband technique, along with 2-fold in-plane parallel imaging, was incorporated into the Look-Locker EPI for the multi time-point sampling of blood kinetic behaviour following the pCASL labelling scheme. The performance evaluation of the multiband and the single-band techniques were performed on four healthy subjects using a 32-channel head RF coil at 3T. Quantitative perfusion maps were analysed using a combination of labelling with and without flow suppression gradients. The perfusion maps provided by the multiband accelerated multi time-point pCASL were in good agreement with the conventional single-band technique. Multiband acceleration caused SNR loss but offered quantitative perfusion maps in 6.23 min with 18 slices compared with 6 slices within the same time period for the single-band method. As conclusion, the multiband technique can successfully triple the number of readout slices while achieving comparable perfusion data in the same measurement time as the conventional single-band readout. PMID:26544715

  2. Investigating critical effects of variegated lubricants, glidants and hydrophilic additives on lag time of press coated ethylcellulose tablets.

    PubMed

    Patadia, Riddhish; Vora, Chintan; Mittal, Karan; Mashru, Rajashree

    2016-01-01

    The research envisaged focuses on vital impacts of variegated lubricants, glidants and hydrophilic additives on lag time of press coated ethylcellulose (EC) tablets using prednisone as a model drug. Several lubricants and glidants such as magnesium stearate, colloidal SiO2, sodium stearyl fumarate, talc, stearic acid, polyethylene glycol (6000) and glyceryl behenate were investigated to understand their effects on lag time by changing their concentrations in outer coat. Further, the effects of hydrophilic additives on lag time were examined for hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (E5), hydroxypropylcellulose (EF and SSL), povidone (K30), copovidone, polyethylene glycol (4000), lactose and mannitol. In vitro drug release testing revealed that each selected lubricant/glidant, if present even at concentration of 0.25% w/w, significantly reduced the lag time of press coated tablets. Specifically, colloidal SiO2 and/or magnesium stearate were detrimental while other lubricants/glidants were relatively less injurious. Among hydrophilic additives, freely water soluble fillers had utmost influence in lag time, whereas, comparatively less impact was observed with polymeric binders. Concisely, glidant and lubricant should be chosen to have minimal impact on lag time and further judicious selection of hydrophilic additives should be exercised for modulating lag time of pulsatile release formulations. PMID:25566928

  3. Vectran Fiber Time-Dependent Behavior and Additional Static Loading Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fette, Russell B.; Sovinski, Marjorie F.

    2004-01-01

    Vectran HS appears from literature and testing to date to be an ideal upgrade from Kevlar braided cords for many long-term, static-loading applications such as tie-downs on solar arrays. Vectran is a liquid crystalline polymer and exhibits excellent tensile properties. The material has been touted as a zero creep product. Testing discussed in this report does not support this statement, though the creep is on the order of four times slower than with similar Kevlar 49 products. Previous work with Kevlar and new analysis of Vectran testing has led to a simple predictive model for Vectran at ambient conditions. The mean coefficient of thermal expansion (negative in this case) is similar to Kevlar 49, but is not linear. A positive transition in the curve occurs near 100 C. Out-gassing tests show that the material performs well within parameters for most space flight applications. Vectran also offers increased abrasion resistance, minimal moisture regain, and similar UV degradation. The effects of material construction appear to have a dramatic effect in stress relaxation for braided Vectran. To achieve the improved relaxation rate, upgrades must also examine alternate construction or preconditioning methods. This report recommends Vectran HS as a greatly improved replacement material for applications where time-dependent relaxation is a major factor.

  4. Stochastic modelling for biodosimetry: Predicting the chromosomal response to radiation at different time points after exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deperas-Standylo, Joanna; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Ritter, Sylvia

    2014-07-01

    Cytogenetic data accumulated from the experiments with peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to densely ionizing radiation clearly demonstrate that for particles with linear energy transfer (LET) >100 keV/ μm the derived relative biological effectiveness (RBE) will strongly depend on the time point chosen for the analysis. A reasonable prediction of radiation-induced chromosome damage and its distribution among cells can be achieved by exploiting Monte Carlo methodology along with the information about the radius of the penetrating ion-track and the LET of the ion beam. In order to examine the relationship between the track structure and the distribution of aberrations induced in human lymphocytes and to clarify the correlation between delays in the cell cycle progression and the aberration burden visible at the first post-irradiation mitosis, we have analyzed chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes exposed to Fe-ions with LET values of 335 keV/ μm and formulated a Monte Carlo model which reflects time-delay in mitosis of aberrant cells. Within the model the frequency distributions of aberrations among cells follow the pattern of local energy distribution and are well approximated by a time-dependent compound Poisson statistics. The cell-division cycle of undamaged and aberrant cells and chromosome aberrations are modelled as a renewal process represented by a random sum of (independent and identically distributed) random elements S N = ∑ N i=0 X i . Here N stands for the number of particle traversals of cell nucleus, each leading to a statistically independent formation of X i aberrations. The parameter N is itself a random variable and reflects the cell cycle delay of heavily damaged cells. The probability distribution of S N follows a general law for which the moment generating function satisfies the relation Φ S N = Φ N ( Φ X i ). Formulation of the Monte Carlo model which allows to predict expected fluxes of aberrant and non-aberrant cells has been based

  5. New definitions of pointing stability - ac and dc effects. [constant and time-dependent pointing error effects on image sensor performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucke, Robert L.; Sirlin, Samuel W.; San Martin, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    For most imaging sensors, a constant (dc) pointing error is unimportant (unless large), but time-dependent (ac) errors degrade performance by either distorting or smearing the image. When properly quantified, the separation of the root-mean-square effects of random line-of-sight motions into dc and ac components can be used to obtain the minimum necessary line-of-sight stability specifications. The relation between stability requirements and sensor resolution is discussed, with a view to improving communication between the data analyst and the control systems engineer.

  6. Effect of Powder Reuse Times on Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V by Selective Electron Beam Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, H. P.; Qian, M.; Liu, N.; Zhang, X. Z.; Yang, G. Y.; Wang, J.

    2015-03-01

    An advantage of the powder-bed-based metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes is that the powder can be reused. The powder reuse or recycling times directly affect the affordability of the additively manufactured parts, especially for the AM of titanium parts. This study examines the influence of powder reuse times on the characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V powder, including powder composition, particle size distribution (PSD), apparent density, tap density, flowability, and particle morphology. In addition, tensile samples were manufactured and evaluated with respect to powder reuse times and sample locations in the powder bed. The following findings were made from reusing the same batch of powder 21 times for AM by selective electron beam melting: (i) the oxygen (O) content increased progressively with increasing reuse times but both the Al content and the V content remained generally stable (a small decrease only); (ii) the powder became less spherical with increasing reuse times and some particles showed noticeable distortion and rough surfaces after being reused 16 times; (iii) the PSD became narrower and few satellite particles were observed after 11 times of reuse; (iv) reused powder showed improved flowability; and (v) reused powder showed no measurable undesired influence on the AM process and the samples exhibited highly consistent tensile properties, irrespective of their locations in the powder bed. The implications of these findings were discussed.

  7. Radioisotopic Tie Points of the Quaternary Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale (GITS): How Accurate and Precise?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    Reversals and excursions of the geomagnetic field are recorded globally by sedimentary and volcanic rocks. These geodynamo instabilities provide a rich set of chronostratigraphic tie points for the Quaternary period that can provide tests of age models central to paleoclimate studies. Radioisotopic dating of volcanic rocks, mainly 40Ar/39Ar dating of lava flows, coupled with astronomically-dated deep sea sediments, reveals 10 polarity reversals and 27 field excursions during the Quaternary (Singer, 2014). A key question concerns the uncertainties associated with radioisotopic dates of those geodynamo instabilities that have been identified both in terrestrial volcanic rocks and in deep sea sediments. These particular features offer the highest confidence in linking 40Ar/39Ar dates to the global marine climate record. Geological issues aside, for rocks in which the build-up of 40Ar by decay of 40K may be overwhelmed by atmospheric 40Ar at the time of eruption, the uncertainty in 40Ar/39Ar dates derives from three sources: (1) analytical uncertainty associated with measurement of the isotopes; this is straightforward to estimate; (2) systematic uncertainties stemming from the age of standard minerals, such as the Fish Canyon sanidine, and in the 40K decay constant; and (3) systematic uncertainty introduced during analysis, mainly the size and reproducibility of procedural blanks. Whereas 1 and 2 control the precision of an age determination, 2 and 3 also control accuracy. In parallel with an astronomical calibration of 28.201 Ma for the Fish Canyon sanidine standard, awareness of the importance of procedural blanks, and a new generation multi-collector mass spectrometer capable of exceptionally low-blank and isobar-free analysis, are improving both accuracy and precision of 40Ar/39Ar dates. Results from lavas recording the Matuyama-Brunhes reversal, the Santa Rosa excursion, and the reversal at the top of the Cobb Mtn subchron demonstrate these advances. Current best

  8. Hereditary angioedema: Validation of the end point time to onset of relief by correlation with symptom intensity.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Jonathan A; Ritchie, Bruce; Levy, Robyn J; Wasserman, Richard L; Bewtra, Againdra K; Hurewitz, David S; Obtułowicz, Krystyna; Reshef, Avner; Moldovan, Dumitru; Shirov, Todor; Grivcheva-Panovska, Vesna; Kiessling, Peter C; Keinecke, Heinz-Otto; Craig, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Time to onset of symptom relief in hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a common primary end point in clinical studies but it has never been validated by correlation with the course of HAE symptoms. This study was designed as a retrospective validation of the primary end point for a placebo-controlled phase II/III study in patients with HAE. Ninety-eight abdominal attacks were treated with 10 or 20 U/kg of a highly purified C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) concentrate or placebo. The primary end point was the time to onset of symptom relief, as determined by the patients. Patients assessed the intensity of the symptoms of pain, nausea, vomiting, cramps, and diarrhea over time. By Spearman rank correlation, the primary end point was compared with the time to first reduction of (1) any symptom intensity, (2) the sum of symptom intensity scores, and (3) the intensity of the last symptom present at baseline. The C1-INH, 20 U/kg, and placebo groups were compared by one-sided two-sample Wilcoxon tests. The time to first reduction in intensity of the last symptom present at baseline had the highest correlation with the primary end point (r = 0.77). The time to onset of symptom relief and the time to the first reduction in intensity of the last symptom were significantly shorter for the C1-INH, 20 U/kg, group compared with placebo (p = 0.009 and p = 0.0036, respectively). The association with the intensity of single symptoms confirmed that the time to onset of symptom relief is an appropriate end point for assessing the efficacy of C1-INH therapy. PMID:21262096

  9. The effects of cuing in time-shared tasks. [for aircraft flight route-way-point information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chechile, R. A.; Sadoski, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    The results of two divided-attention experiments involving the editing of route-way-point displays on an avionics computer unit are reported. Two side tasks were required of the subjects, and either no cue, verbal cues appearing on the CRT, or symbolic cues (lights on the keyboard adjacent to keys to be used) were given to facilitate the primary editing task. Forty female and 30 male undergraduates were trained in the separate and combined tasks and divided randomly into groups of 25 for the cuing tests. A second test with three 10-subject groups was conducted at least one month later to investigate the efficacy of cuing for infrequently used procedures. It is found that only symbolic cuing significantly improved primary-task performance, increasing editing accuracy in the repetitive tests and reducing editing time in the delayed tests. Verbal cuing, probably because it requires additional cognitive effort, has no significant beneficial effect. These results are considered important for designing instruments for work environments requiring the performance of concurrent tasks, and as aircraft cockpits.

  10. FUSING POINT AND AREAL LEVEL SPACE-TIME DATA WITH APPLICATION TO WET DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Motivated by the problem of predicting annual wet chemical deposition in the eastern United States, this paper develops a framework for joint modeling of point and grid referenced spatio-temporal data. The proposed hierarchical model is able to provide accurate spatial interpolat...

  11. Change over Time in First Graders' Strategic Use of Information at Point of Difficulty in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Lea M.; Kim, Hwewon; Nelson, Kathryn S.; Fried, Mary D.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we describe young students' actions at point of difficulty in reading and examine changes in their strategic use of sources of information. We examined errors from running records of first graders who entered Reading Recovery (RR) in the fall and ended the year reading at the first-grade level compared with RR first graders who did…

  12. CONSORT: Effects of adding adefovirdipivoxil to peginterferon alfa-2a at different time points on HBeAg-positivepatients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ka; Cao, Hong; Liang, Jiayi; Shu, Xin; Sun, Haixia; Li, Gang; Xu, Qihuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy and safety of the addition of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) (started at different time points) to pegylated interferon alpha-2a (PEG-INF-α2a) and PEG-INF-α2a monotherapy. This prospective, randomized study sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the combination of PEG-INF-α2a and ADV at different time points.120 patients were randomized into groups that received PEG-INF-α2a as monotherapy (group A) or in combination with ADV started at week 0 (group B), 12 (group C), or 24 (group D). All patients were followed for 48 weeks. Efficacy and safety analyses were performed. Methods: Patients in group a received 135 μg of PEG-INF-α2a by subcutaneous injection once weekly for 48 weeks. Patients in the ADV add-on group received 135 μg of PEG-INF-α2a subcutaneously once weekly and received 10 mg of ADV administered once daily for 48 weeks. HBV DNA, HBsAg, HBeAg, and hepatitis B e antibody levels were determined. Responses were determined at week 12 (ADV add-on), the end of treatment for PEG-INF-α2a (48weeks) and ADV (EOT) and at the end of 96 weeks of follow-up (EOF). Results: The rate of HBV DNA loss were higher in the combination groups than group A at the week 12, week 48, the EOT and EOF (P < 0.05). The rates of HBeAg seroconversion and HBsAg loss were similar among the treatment groups (P>0.05). The alanineaminotransferase (ALT) normalization rate was higher in the combination group than group A only at the EOT (P = 0.007). By the EOF, the patients with ADV added at week 12 achieved higher rates of HBV DNA loss (71.9%), HBeAg seroconversion (50.0%), HBsAg loss (15.6%), and ALT normalization (78.1%). Conclusions: PEG-INF-α2a plus ADV combination therapy is safe and superior to PEG-INF-α2amonotherapyfor decreasing serum HBV DNA and normalizing the ALT level but has no significant impact on the rate of HBeAg seroconversion and HBsAg loss. Adding ADV at week 12 may be an

  13. 26 CFR 301.6110-5 - Notice and time requirements; actions to restrain disclosure; actions to obtain additional...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Internal Revenue Service determines that the request constitutes a request for disclosure of the... the Internal Revenue Service has determined that additional disclosure of information other than the... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice and time requirements; actions...

  14. Effect of enzyme concentration, addition of water and incubation time on increase in yield of starch from potato.

    PubMed

    Sit, Nandan; Agrawal, U S; Deka, Sankar C

    2014-05-01

    Enzymatic treatment process for starch extraction from potato was investigated using cellulase enzyme and compared with conventional process. The effects of three parameters, cellulase enzyme concentration, incubation time and addition of water were evaluated for increase in starch yield as compared to the conventional process i.e., without using enzyme. A two-level full factorial design was used to study the process. The results indicated that all the main parameters and their interactions are statistically significant. Enzyme concentration and incubation time had a positive effect on the increase in starch yield while addition of water had a negative effect. The increase in starch yield ranged from 1.9% at low enzyme concentration and incubation time and high addition of water to a maximum of 70% increase from conventional process in starch yield was achieved when enzyme concentration and incubation time were high and addition of water was low suggesting water present in the ground potato meal is sufficient for access to the enzyme with in the slurry ensuring adequate contact with the substrate. PMID:24803713

  15. 38 CFR 20.304 - Rule 304. Filing additional evidence does not extend time limit for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule 304. Filing additional evidence does not extend time limit for appeal. 20.304 Section 20.304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) BOARD OF VETERANS' APPEALS: RULES OF PRACTICE Filing § 20.304 Rule 304. Filing...

  16. Different RAN Components Relate to Reading at Different Points in Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Kaizer, Eleni L.

    2014-01-01

    The present 10-year longitudinal study examined how rapid automatized naming (RAN) components--articulation time and pause time--relate to reading fluency. Seventy-five Greek-speaking children were followed from Grade 1 to Grade 10 and were assessed five times (in Grades 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10) on RAN (digits and objects) and reading fluency (word…

  17. Processing time of addition or withdrawal of single or combined balance-stabilizing haptic and visual information.

    PubMed

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Crisafulli, Oscar; Sozzi, Stefania; Schieppati, Marco

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the integration time of haptic and visual input and their interaction during stance stabilization. Eleven subjects performed four tandem-stance conditions (60 trials each). Vision, touch, and both vision and touch were added and withdrawn. Furthermore, vision was replaced with touch and vice versa. Body sway, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus activity were measured. Following addition or withdrawal of vision or touch, an integration time period elapsed before the earliest changes in sway were observed. Thereafter, sway varied exponentially to a new steady-state while reweighting occurred. Latencies of sway changes on sensory addition ranged from 0.6 to 1.5 s across subjects, consistently longer for touch than vision, and were regularly preceded by changes in muscle activity. Addition of vision and touch simultaneously shortened the latencies with respect to vision or touch separately, suggesting cooperation between sensory modalities. Latencies following withdrawal of vision or touch or both simultaneously were shorter than following addition. When vision was replaced with touch or vice versa, adding one modality did not interfere with the effect of withdrawal of the other, suggesting that integration of withdrawal and addition were performed in parallel. The time course of the reweighting process to reach the new steady-state was also shorter on withdrawal than addition. The effects of different sensory inputs on posture stabilization illustrate the operation of a time-consuming, possibly supraspinal process that integrates and fuses modalities for accurate balance control. This study also shows the facilitatory interaction of visual and haptic inputs in integration and reweighting of stance-stabilizing inputs. PMID:26334013

  18. Real-time 2D floating-point fast Fourier transforms for seeker simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, Richard; Lord, Eric; Shand, David J.

    2002-07-01

    The floating point Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is one of the most useful basic functions available to the image and signal processing engineer allowing many complex and detailed special functions to be implemented more simply in the frequency domain. In the Hardware-in-the-Loop field an image transformed using FFT would allow the designer to think about accurate frequency based simulation of seeker lens effects, motion blur, detector transfer functions and much more. Unfortunately, the transform requires many hundreds of thousands or millions of floating point operations on a single modest sized image making it impractical for realtime Hardware-in-the-Loop systems. .until now. This paper outlines the development, by Nallatech, of an FPGA based IEEE floating point core. It traces the subsequent use of this core to develop a full 256 X 256 FFT and filter process implemented on COTS hardware at frame rates up to 150Hz. This transform can be demonstrated to model optical transfer functions at a far greater accuracy than the current spatial models. Other applications and extensions of this technique will be discussed such as filtering for image tracking algorithms and in the simulation of radar processing in the frequency domain.

  19. Real-time GPS sensing of atmospheric water vapor: Precise point positioning with orbit, clock, and phase delay corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingxing; Dick, Galina; Ge, Maorong; Heise, Stefan; Wickert, Jens; Bender, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The recent development of the International Global Navigation Satellite Systems Service Real-Time Pilot Project and the enormous progress in precise point positioning (PPP) techniques provide a promising opportunity for real-time determination of Integrated Water Vapor (IWV) using GPS ground networks for various geodetic and meteorological applications. In this study, we develop a new real-time GPS water vapor processing system based on the PPP ambiguity fixing technique with real-time satellite orbit, clock, and phase delay corrections. We demonstrate the performance of the new real-time water vapor estimates using the currently operationally used near-real-time GPS atmospheric data and collocated microwave radiometer measurements as an independent reference. The results show that an accuracy of 1.0 ~ 2.0 mm is achievable for the new real-time GPS based IWV value. Data of such accuracy might be highly valuable for time-critical geodetic (positioning) and meteorological applications.

  20. The Effects of Part-Time Employment on High School Students' Grade Point Averages and Rate of School Attendance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffez, Jack

    To determine what effects employment will have on high school students' grade point averages and rate of school attendance, the author involved fifty-six students in an experiment. Twenty-eight students were employed part-time under the Youth Incentive Entitlement Project (YIEP). The twenty-eight students in the control group were eligible for…

  1. 13 CFR 121.602 - At what point in time must a 8(a) BD applicant be small?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) BD applicant be small? 121.602 Section 121.602 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS SIZE REGULATIONS Size Eligibility Provisions and Standards Size Eligibility Requirements for the 8(a) Business Development Program § 121.602 At what point in time must a 8(a) BD...

  2. 13 CFR 121.602 - At what point in time must a 8(a) BD applicant be small?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) BD applicant be small? 121.602 Section 121.602 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS SIZE REGULATIONS Size Eligibility Provisions and Standards Size Eligibility Requirements for the 8(a) Business Development Program § 121.602 At what point in time must a 8(a) BD...

  3. 13 CFR 121.602 - At what point in time must a 8(a) BD applicant be small?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) BD applicant be small? 121.602 Section 121.602 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS SIZE REGULATIONS Size Eligibility Provisions and Standards Size Eligibility Requirements for the 8(a) Business Development Program § 121.602 At what point in time must a 8(a) BD...

  4. 13 CFR 121.602 - At what point in time must a 8(a) BD applicant be small?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) BD applicant be small? 121.602 Section 121.602 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS SIZE REGULATIONS Size Eligibility Provisions and Standards Size Eligibility Requirements for the 8(a) Business Development Program § 121.602 At what point in time must a 8(a) BD...

  5. 13 CFR 121.602 - At what point in time must a 8(a) BD applicant be small?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) BD applicant be small? 121.602 Section 121.602 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS SIZE REGULATIONS Size Eligibility Provisions and Standards Size Eligibility Requirements for the 8(a) Business Development Program § 121.602 At what point in time must a 8(a) BD...

  6. An Exploratory Investigation of Diffused Point Arrival Time and Source Credibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Leslie A.; Ward, Jean M.

    Because much conjecture (but limited empirical research) exists about the nonverbal variable to time, this exploratory study investigated the effects of differential arrival times on four dimensions of source credibility: sociability, dynamism, competence, and composure. Subjects were 84 educational secretaries with a mean age of 49 years. Each…

  7. The Use and Abuse of Part-Time Faculty: The Part-Timers' Point of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Wendy L.

    Problems faced by part-time faculty members are identified, and suggestions to avoid mistreatment of these teachers are offered. Disadvantages of part-time teaching include the lack of equitable pay and benefits. Since most institutions have a standard pay rate for part-timers, it is suggested that teaching excellence be recognized by creating…

  8. Point process time-frequency analysis of respiratory sinus arrhythmia under altered respiration dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kodituwakku, Sandun; Lazar, Sara W; Indic, Premananda; Brown, Emery N; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is largely mediated by the autonomic nervous system through its modulating influence on the heartbeat. We propose an algorithm for quantifying instantaneous RSA as applied to heart beat interval and respiratory recordings under dynamic respiration conditions. The blood volume pressure derived heart beat series (pulse intervals, PI) are modeled as an inverse gaussian point process, with the instantaneous mean PI modeled as a bivariate regression incorporating both past PI and respiration values observed at the beats. A point process maximum likelihood algorithm is used to estimate the model parameters, and instantaneous RSA is estimated by a frequency domain transfer function approach. The model is statistically validated using Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) goodness-of-fit analysis, as well as independence tests. The algorithm is applied to subjects engaged in meditative practice, with distinctive dynamics in the respiration patterns elicited as a result. Experimental results confirm the ability of the algorithm to track important changes in cardiorespiratory interactions elicited during meditation, otherwise not evidenced in control resting states. PMID:21096135

  9. Point process time-frequency analysis of dynamic respiratory patterns during meditation practice.

    PubMed

    Kodituwakku, Sandun; Lazar, Sara W; Indic, Premananda; Chen, Zhe; Brown, Emery N; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2012-03-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is largely mediated by the autonomic nervous system through its modulating influence on the heart beats. We propose a robust algorithm for quantifying instantaneous RSA as applied to heart beat intervals and respiratory recordings under dynamic breathing patterns. The blood volume pressure-derived heart beat series (pulse intervals, PIs) are modeled as an inverse Gaussian point process, with the instantaneous mean PI modeled as a bivariate regression incorporating both past PIs and respiration values observed at the beats. A point process maximum likelihood algorithm is used to estimate the model parameters, and instantaneous RSA is estimated via a frequency domain transfer function evaluated at instantaneous respiratory frequency where high coherence between respiration and PIs is observed. The model is statistically validated using Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit analysis, as well as independence tests. The algorithm is applied to subjects engaged in meditative practice, with distinctive dynamics in the respiration patterns elicited as a result. The presented analysis confirms the ability of the algorithm to track important changes in cardiorespiratory interactions elicited during meditation, otherwise not evidenced in control resting states, reporting statistically significant increase in RSA gain as measured by our paradigm. PMID:22350435

  10. H-point standard addition method for simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of Co(II) and Ni(II) by 1-(2-pyridylazo)2-naphthol in micellar media.

    PubMed

    Afkhami, Abbas; Bahram, Morteza

    2004-01-01

    A very simple and selective spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of Co(II) and Ni(II) by 1-(2-pyridylazo) 2-naphthol (PAN), in micellar media, using H-point standard addition method (HPSAM) is described. The ligand and its metal complexes (Co(II)-PAN and Ni(II)-PAN) were made water-soluble by the neutral surfactant Triton X-100, and therefore, no extraction with organic solvents was required. Formation of both the complexes was complete within 10 min at pH 9 (adjusted by ammonia buffer). The linear range was 0.10-2.00 microg ml(-1) for Co(II) and 0.05-1.50 microg ml(-1) for Ni(II). The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for the simultaneous determination of 0.50 microg ml(-1) each of Co(II) and Ni(II) was 2.32 and 3.13%, respectively. Interference effects of common anions and cations were studied and the method was applied to simultaneous determination of Co(II) and Ni(II) in alloy samples. The method was compared with derivative spectrophotometric method. PMID:14670476

  11. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of Fe(II) in the presence of Fe(III) by H-point standard addition method in mixed micellar medium.

    PubMed

    Hasani, Masoumeh; Rezaei, Alireza; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2007-11-01

    The H-point standard addition method was applied to kinetic data for simultaneous determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) or selective determination of Fe(II) in the presence of Fe(III). The method is based on the difference in the rate of complex formation between iron in two different oxidation states and methylthymol blue (MTB) at pH 3.5 in mixed cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Triton X-100 micellar medium. Fe(II) can be determined in the range 0.25-2.5 microg ml(-1) with satisfactory accuracy and precision in the presence of excess Fe(III) and other metal ions that rapidly form complexes with MTB under working condition. The proposed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) or selective determination of Fe(II) in the presence of Fe(III) in spiked real environmental and synthetic samples with complex composition. PMID:17329160

  12. Kinetic spectrophotometric H-point standard addition method for the simultaneous determination of diloxanide furoate and metronidazole in binary mixtures and biological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, Mahmoud Mohamed; Nejem, R.'afat Mahmoud; Shanab, Alaa Mohamed Abu; Shaat, Nahed Talab

    2013-10-01

    Simple, reliable, and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of diloxanide furoate and metronidazole using H-point standard addition method (HPSAM). The method is based on the oxidation rate difference of diloxanide and metronidazole by potassium permanganate in basic medium. A green color has been developed and measured at 610 nm. Different experimental parameters were carefully optimized. The limiting logarithmic and the initial-rate methods were adopted for the construction of the calibration curve of each individual reaction with potassium permanganate. Under the optimum conditions, Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 1.0-20.0 and 5.0-25.0 μg ml-1 for diloxanide furoate and metronidazole, respectively. The detection limits were 0.22 μg ml-1 for diloxanide furoate and 0.83 μg ml-1 for metronidazole. Correlation coefficients of the regression equations were greater than 0.9970 in all cases. The precision of the method was satisfactory; the maximum value of relative standard deviation did not exceed 1.06% (n = 5). The accuracy, expressed as recovery was between 99.4% and 101.4% with relative error of 0.12 and 0.14 for diloxanide furoate and metronidazole, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of both drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms and human urine samples and compared with alternative HPLC method.

  13. Effects of ulinastatin administered at different time points on the pathological morphologies of the lung tissues of rats with hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    QIN, ZAI-SHENG; TIAN, PEI; WU, XIA; YU, HONG-MEI; GUO, NA

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthermia not only directly induces cell injury of body tissues, but also causes the body to release large amounts of inflammatory mediators and cells with extensive biological activities to induce a systemic inflammatory response and immune dysfunction. Thus, hyperthermia causes systemic inflammatory response syndrome, aggravating injuries to various organs. This study aimed to observe the effects of ulinastatin (UTI) administered at different time points on the cellular morphologies of the lung tissues of rats with systemic hyperthermia. A total of 40 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: The normal control group (C group), the hyperthermia group without medication (H group), the hyperthermia and UTI pre-treatment group (HU group), the group treated with UTI at 1 h after hyperthermia (HU1 group), and the group treated with UTI at 2 h after hyperthermia (HU2 group). The systemic hyperthermia rat model was established in a heating chamber with a biological oxygen supply. For the HU, HU1 and HU2 groups, UTI (5×104 U/kg) was administered at different time points. For the C and H groups, an equivalent volume of normal saline was administered. During heating, the respiratory frequency and rectal temperature were measured and recorded once every 30 min. After 2.5 h of heating, the wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio of the lung tissues of the rats was measured. Additionally, the cellular morphologies of the lung tissues were observed under light and electron microscopes. The respiratory frequencies and lung tissue W/D ratios of the rats in the various hyperthermia groups were significantly higher than those of the rats in the C group (all P<0.05). The respiratory frequencies and lung tissue W/D values of the HU and HU1 groups were significantly lower than those of the H group (all P<0.05). Under the light microscope, the bronchial surrounding tissues of the HU and HU1 groups were loose, and the majority of the pulmonary alveolar structures were

  14. A hierarchical model combining distance sampling and time removal to estimate detection probability during avian point counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amundson, Courtney L.; Royle, J. Andrew; Handel, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Imperfect detection during animal surveys biases estimates of abundance and can lead to improper conclusions regarding distribution and population trends. Farnsworth et al. (2005) developed a combined distance-sampling and time-removal model for point-transect surveys that addresses both availability (the probability that an animal is available for detection; e.g., that a bird sings) and perceptibility (the probability that an observer detects an animal, given that it is available for detection). We developed a hierarchical extension of the combined model that provides an integrated analysis framework for a collection of survey points at which both distance from the observer and time of initial detection are recorded. Implemented in a Bayesian framework, this extension facilitates evaluating covariates on abundance and detection probability, incorporating excess zero counts (i.e. zero-inflation), accounting for spatial autocorrelation, and estimating population density. Species-specific characteristics, such as behavioral displays and territorial dispersion, may lead to different patterns of availability and perceptibility, which may, in turn, influence the performance of such hierarchical models. Therefore, we first test our proposed model using simulated data under different scenarios of availability and perceptibility. We then illustrate its performance with empirical point-transect data for a songbird that consistently produces loud, frequent, primarily auditory signals, the Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla); and for 2 ptarmigan species (Lagopus spp.) that produce more intermittent, subtle, and primarily visual cues. Data were collected by multiple observers along point transects across a broad landscape in southwest Alaska, so we evaluated point-level covariates on perceptibility (observer and habitat), availability (date within season and time of day), and abundance (habitat, elevation, and slope), and included a nested point

  15. The Origin of Sterol Biosynthesis: A Time-Point for the Evolution of Eukaryotes and the Presence of O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, A.; Budin, M.; Brocks, J. J.

    2003-12-01

    The evolution of sterol biosynthesis is of critical interest to geoscientists as well as to evolutionary biologists. The first enzyme in the pathway, squalene monooxygenase (Sqmo), requires molecular oxygen (O2), suggesting that this process post-dates the evolution of Cyanobacteria. Additionally, the presence of steranes in ancient rocks marks the suggested time-point of eukaryogenesis(1). Sterol biosynthesis is viewed primarily as a eukaryotic process, and the frequency of its occurrence in bacteria long has been a subject of controversy. In this work, 19 protein gene sequences for Sqmo from eukaryotes were compared to all available complete and partial prokaryotic genomes. Twelve protein gene sequences representing oxidosqualene cyclase (Osc), the second enzyme of the sterol biosynthetic pathway, also were examined. The only unequivocal matches among the bacteria were the alpha-proteobacterium, Methylococcus capsulatus, in which sterol biosynthesis already is known, and the planctomycete, Gemmata obscuriglobus. The latter species contains the most abbreviated sterol pathway yet identified in any organism. Experiments show that the major sterols in Gemmata are lanosterol and its uncommon isomer, parkeol. In bacteria, the sterol biosynthesis genes occupy a contiguous coding region and may represent a single operon. Phylogenetic trees show that the sterol pathway in bacteria and eukaryotes has a common ancestry. Gemmata may retain the most ancient remnants of the pathway's origin, and it is likely that sterol biosynthesis in eukaryotes was acquired through gene transfer from bacteria. However, this work indicates that no known prokaryotes could produce the 24-ethyl steranes found in Archaean rocks(1). Therefore these compounds remain indicative of the presence of both eukaryotes and O2 at 2.7 Ga. 1. J. J. Brocks, G. A. Logan, R. Buick, R. E. Summons, (1999) Science 285, 1033-1036.

  16. Effect of ultrasound treatment, oil addition and storage time on lycopene stability and in vitro bioaccessibility of tomato pulp.

    PubMed

    Anese, Monica; Bot, Francesca; Panozzo, Agnese; Mirolo, Giorgio; Lippe, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the influence of ultrasound processing on tomato pulp containing no sunflower oil, or increasing amounts (i.e. 2.5%, 5% and 10%), on lycopene concentration and in vitro bioaccessibility at time zero and during storage at 5 °C. Results confirmed previous findings in that ultrasonication was responsible for cell breakage and subsequent lycopene release in a highly viscous matrix. Neither the ultrasound process nor oil addition affected lycopene concentration. A decrease of approximately 35% lycopene content occurred at storage times longer than 15 days, due to isomerisation and oxidation reactions. No differences in lycopene in vitro bioaccessibility were found between the untreated and ultrasonically treated samples; this parameter decreased as a consequence of oil addition. Losses of lycopene in vitro bioaccessibility ranging between 50% and 80% occurred in the untreated and ultrasonically treated tomato pulps with and without oil during storage, mainly due to carotenoid degradation. PMID:25442608

  17. Application of a develop end point detector as a timely and cost-effective alternative to using an SEM for CD measurement in production photolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikov, Dimitri L.; Goldman, Mark; Hester, Dee; Kukas, Alan W.; Takemoto, Clifford H.; Goetz, Ken; Zhang, Hua; Karklin, Linard

    1996-05-01

    This paper focuses on the use of a track-mounted, in-situ develop end point (EP) to reduce CD measurement via scanning electron microscope (SEM) in the production environment. Commonly, a few wafers are selected from a lot and examined to ensure conformance with desired CDs. Typically, the wafer's image linewidth is measured. If required, a corresponding adjustment is made to the stepper's exposure energy in order to obtain the targeted CD. While this methodology works, it does have its shortcomings such as: incomplete determination of wafer-to-wafer variations, the impossibility of detecting random 'problem' wafers, and the additional backlog CD measurement adds to the SEM station -- which generally results in production bottlenecks. The use of a track-mounted, in-situ develop end point detector facilitates rapid and accurate measurement of photoresist characteristics. Due to the direct correlation between develop end point time and CDs, a detector can be used to signal out-of- spec conditions. The nature of the data collected and analyzed by the detector allows exposure and other process variations to be revealed. In addition to providing this 'watchdog' function, some detectors can be programmed to automatically correct out-of-spec CDs by varying the development cycle time. Use of an in-situ detector, as described, will have a direct bearing on reducing the use of high-cost SEMs in the production environment as well as minimizing the number of scrapped wafers.

  18. Optimizing the performance of a reactor by reducing the retention time and addition of glycerin for anaerobically digesting manure

    PubMed Central

    Timmerman, Maikel; Schuman, Els; van Eekert, Miriam; van Riel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure is a widely accepted technology for energy production. However, only a minimal portion of the manure production in the EU is anaerobically digested and occurs predominantly in codigestion plants. There is substantial potential for biogas plants that primarily operate on manure (>90%); however, the methane yields of manure are less compared to coproducts, which is one of the reasons for manure-based biogas plants often being economically non-viable. Therefore, it is essential to begin increasing the efficiency of these biogas plants. This study investigated the effect of decreasing retention time and introducing a moderate amount of glycerin on the biogas production as methods to improve efficiency. An experiment has been conducted with two different manure types in four biogas reactors. The results of the study demonstrated that, first, it was possible to decrease the retention time to 10–15 days; however, the effect on biogas production varied per manure type. Secondly, the biogas production almost triples at a retention time of 15.6 days with an addition of 4% glycerin. The relative production-enhancing effect of glycerin did not vary significantly with both manure types. However, the absolute production-enhancing effect of glycerin differed per manure type since the biogas production per gram VS differed per manure type. Thirdly, the positive effect of the glycerin input declines with shorter retention times. Therefore, the effect of glycerin addition depends on the manure type and retention time. PMID:25401272

  19. A new universal equation for the time of transfer between two points of the central gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdaev, M. N.

    2011-10-01

    The paper presents the derivation of two new equations for calculating the time of transfer between two points of the central gravitational field: for hyperbolic orbits and the universal equation for elliptical and hyperbolic orbits. In the paper we have used as an independent variable, instead of the linear elements (semimajor axis, focal parameter of orbit or a chord connecting the ends of boundary radii of transfer), the angular parameter—the angle between the radius vector of an initial point of transfer and the vector of initial velocity of transfer. Paper's material is a continuation of that presented in the "Space research" Journal, vol. 2, March-April, 2009.

  20. Atmospheric plume progression as a function of time and distance from the release point for radioactive isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Hayes, James C.; Miley, Harry S.

    2015-10-01

    The International Monitoring System contains up to 80 stations around the world that have aerosol and xenon monitoring systems designed to detect releases of radioactive materials to the atmosphere from nuclear tests. A rule of thumb description of plume concentration and duration versus time and distance from the release point is useful when designing and deploying new sample collection systems. This paper uses plume development from atmospheric transport modeling to provide a power-law rule describing atmospheric dilution factors as a function of distance from the release point.

  1. Timing readout in paper device for quantitative point-of-use hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzyme-based bioassays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Fan, Jinlong; Nie, Jinfang; Le, Shangwang; Zhu, Wenyuan; Gao, Dong; Yang, Jiani; Zhang, Songbai; Li, Jianping

    2015-11-15

    This work describes a quantitative point-of-use hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzyme-based assay that integrates a simple timing detection motif with low-cost, portable microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs). The timing readout is based on the selective DNAzyme-mediated wettability change of paper from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity. Its utility is well demonstrated with sensitive, specific detection of K(+) ion as a model analyte in artificial samples as well as real human serum samples. This new method only requires a ubiquitous cheap timer (or a cell phone with a timing function) to provide quantitative results. It could offer new opportunities for the development of more peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme-based bioassays that are simple, affordable, portable, and operable by minimally-trained users for broad point-of-use applications especially in resource-poor settings. PMID:26042873

  2. Grayscale image segmentation for real-time traffic sign recognition: the hardware point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Tam P.; Deng, Guang; Elton, Darrell

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we study several grayscale-based image segmentation methods for real-time road sign recognition applications on an FPGA hardware platform. The performance of different image segmentation algorithms in different lighting conditions are initially compared using PC simulation. Based on these results and analysis, suitable algorithms are implemented and tested on a real-time FPGA speed sign detection system. Experimental results show that the system using segmented images uses significantly less hardware resources on an FPGA while maintaining comparable system's performance. The system is capable of processing 60 live video frames per second.

  3. A key time point for cell growth and magnetosome synthesis of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense based on real-time analysis of physiological factors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Li, Shuqi; Huang, Xiuliang; Tang, Tao; Jiang, Weizhong; Zhang, Tongwei; Li, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Pure culture of magnetotactic bacteria with high magnetosome yield has been achieved for only a few strains. The major obstacles involve the nutritional requirements and culture conditions of the cells. To increase cell density and magnetosome production, it is necessary to elucidate the physiological characteristics of a particular strain during cell growth and develop an appropriate artificial control strategy. Large-scale culture of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense strain MSR-1 was successfully performed for 48 h in a 42-L autofermentor, and several key physiological parameters were measured in real time. Maximal values of cell density (OD565) (19.4) and cell yield (dry weight) (4.76 g/L) were attained at 40 h. The key time point for cell growth and magnetosome formation was found to be 18–20 h. At this point, cells entered the log phase of growth, the maximal values of Cmag (1.78), iron content (0.47%), and magnetosome number (26 ± 3 per cell) were observed, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity began to decrease more rapidly, ATP content dropped to an extremely low level (0.17 fmol), and reducing power (NADH/NAD+ ratio) began to increase very rapidly. Excessive levels of dissolved oxygen (≥20 ppb) and lactic acid in the medium caused notable cytotoxic effects after 20 h. Artificial control measures for fermentation must be based on realistic cell physiological conditions. At the key time point (18–20 h), cell density is high and magnetosomes have matured. The process of magnetosome synthesis involves a high consumption of ATP and reducing power, and the cells require replenishment of nutrients prior to the 18–20 h time point. Culture conditions that effectively minimize dissolved oxygen accumulation, lactic acid content, and reducing power at this point will enhance magnetosome yield without obvious inhibition of cell growth. PMID:23898327

  4. Grade Point Average as a Predictor of Timely Graduation from Associate Degree Registered Nursing Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Delores J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if admission selection strategies that utilize cumulative and/or pre-requisite GPA are predictive of timely graduation for associate degree nursing (RN-AD) students. Data were obtained from de-identified records of 437 associate degree nursing students enrolled in three Midwest community colleges from…

  5. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  6. The cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay: A point-of-care diagnostic at an opportune time.

    PubMed

    Tang, Michele W; Clemons, Karl V; Katzenstein, David A; Stevens, David A

    2016-08-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is a devastating HIV-related opportunistic infection, affecting nearly 1 million individuals and causing over 500 000 deaths each year. The burden of disease is greatest in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, where cryptococcal disease is the most common cause of meningitis. Rapid, accurate and affordable diagnosis of cryptococcal disease has been lacking in many of the most heavily affected areas. Here, we review a point-of-care assay for cryptococcal disease, the dipstick-formatted cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay (LFA) (IMMY, Norman, OK). In comparison to culture, the assay is 99.5% sensitive and 98% specific. In comparison to other commercially available tests for cryptococcal antigen, the LFA has equal or superior sensitivity and specificity in CSF, plasma and serum samples. We discuss potential applications for the use of the assay in resource-limited settings, including what is likely to be an important role of the LFA in screening for early cryptococcal infection before clinical disease and in evaluating pre-emptive treatment. PMID:25612826

  7. [Forestalling policy as a strategic objective of space biology and medicine at the present time point].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B

    2011-01-01

    The article ushers into the acrimonious debates about paths of innovative development and criticality of fundamental sciences in technological progress for Russia security, and breakthrough potential. Among the alternative routes of technical development are different forms of priority boost of growing points in which Russia has attained and held steadily the leading position occupying a prominent segment in the international division of labor. Space effort of Russia gives a model example of successful implementation of the national program and demonstrates leadership in this area of human activities. The article presents analysis of the factors and circumstances that predetermined the winning in the early, Gagarin's period of piloted space flights of the forefront position of the country as well as the vector of cosmonautics' advance for many years ahead Despite the host of issues with implementation of the ISS utilization program and planning of exploration missions to the Moon and Mars, the unique experience of preparations and carrying out investigations and tests with humans in space, the enormous groundwork in fundamental biomedical researches over the past 50 years of piloted flights allow optimistic prognosis of gaining headway with essentially new ambitious space projects. The key question is whether the forestalling policy of priority development of piloted cosmonautics as the most integrated and science intensive sector of innovation techniques will be realized. The answer will guide near- and long-term future of the space industry and, consequently, the fortune of national fundamental space sciences, space biomedicine being its part and parcel. PMID:21675188

  8. [Multiple time scales analysis of spatial differentiation characteristics of non-point source nitrogen loss within watershed].

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei-bing; Chen, Xing-wei; Chen, Ying

    2015-07-01

    Identification of the critical source areas of non-point source pollution is an important means to control the non-point source pollution within the watershed. In order to further reveal the impact of multiple time scales on the spatial differentiation characteristics of non-point source nitrogen loss, a SWAT model of Shanmei Reservoir watershed was developed. Based on the simulation of total nitrogen (TN) loss intensity of all 38 subbasins, spatial distribution characteristics of nitrogen loss and critical source areas were analyzed at three time scales of yearly average, monthly average and rainstorms flood process, respectively. Furthermore, multiple linear correlation analysis was conducted to analyze the contribution of natural environment and anthropogenic disturbance on nitrogen loss. The results showed that there were significant spatial differences of TN loss in Shanmei Reservoir watershed at different time scales, and the spatial differentiation degree of nitrogen loss was in the order of monthly average > yearly average > rainstorms flood process. TN loss load mainly came from upland Taoxi subbasin, which was identified as the critical source area. At different time scales, land use types (such as farmland and forest) were always the dominant factor affecting the spatial distribution of nitrogen loss, while the effect of precipitation and runoff on the nitrogen loss was only taken in no fertilization month and several processes of storm flood at no fertilization date. This was mainly due to the significant spatial variation of land use and fertilization, as well as the low spatial variability of precipitation and runoff. PMID:26710649

  9. Joint transfer of time and frequency signals and multi-point synchronization via fiber network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Cheng; Wei, Chen; Qin, Liu; Dan, Xu; Fei, Yang; You-Zhen, Gui; Hai-Wen, Cai

    2016-01-01

    A system of jointly transferring time signals with a rate of 1 pulse per second (PPS) and frequency signals of 10 MHz via a dense wavelength division multiplex-based (DWDM) fiber is demonstrated in this paper. The noises of the fiber links are suppressed and compensated for by a controlled fiber delay line. A method of calibrating and characterizing time is described. The 1PPS is synchronized by feed-forward calibrating the fiber delays precisely. The system is experimentally examined via a 110 km spooled fiber in laboratory. The frequency stabilities of the user end with compensation are 1.8×10-14 at 1 s and 2.0×10-17 at 104 s average time. The calculated uncertainty of time synchronization is 13.1 ps, whereas the direct measurement of the uncertainty is 12 ps. Next, the frequency and 1PPS are transferred via a metropolitan area optical fiber network from one central site to two remote sites with distances of 14 km and 110 km. The frequency stabilities of 14 km link reach 3.0×10-14 averaged in 1 s and 1.4×10-17 in 104 s respectively; and the stabilities of 110 km link are 8.3×10-14 and 1.7×10-17, respectively. The accuracies of synchronization are estimated to be 12.3 ps for the 14 km link and 13.1 ps for the 110 km link, respectively. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61405227).

  10. Effect of cycle time on fungal morphology, broth rheology, and recombinant enzyme productivity during pulsed addition of limiting carbon source.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Swapnil; Wenger, Kevin S; Rane, Kishore; Rising, Vanessa; Marten, Mark R

    2005-03-01

    For many years, high broth viscosity has remained a key challenge in large-scale filamentous fungal fermentations. In previous studies, we showed that broth viscosity could be reduced by pulsed addition of limiting carbon during fed-batch fermentation. The objective in this study was to determine how changing the frequency of pulsed substrate addition affects fungal morphology, broth rheology, and recombinant enzyme productivity. To accomplish this, a series of duplicate fed-batch fermentations were performed in 20-L fermentors with a recombinant glucoamylase producing strain of Aspergillus oryzae. The total cycle time for substrate pulsing was varied over a wide range (30-2,700 s), with substrate added only during the first 30% of each cycle. As a control, a fermentation was conducted with continuous substrate feeding, and in all fermentations the same total amount of substrate was added. Results show that the total biomass concentration remained relatively unaltered, while a substantial decrease in the mean projected area of fungal elements (i.e., average size) was observed with increasing cycle time. This led to reduced broth viscosity and increased oxygen uptake rate. However, high values of cycle time (i.e., 900-2,700 s) showed a significant increase in fungal conidia formation and significantly reduced recombinant enzyme productivity, suggesting that the fungi channeled substrate to storage compounds rather than to recombinant protein. In addition to explaining the effect of cycle time on fermentation performance, these results may aid in explaining the discrepancies observed on scale-up to larger fermentors. PMID:15643626

  11. Real-Time Point Positioning Performance Evaluation of Single-Frequency Receivers Using NASA's Global Differential GPS System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Iijima, Byron; Meyer, Robert; Bar-Sever, Yoaz; Accad, Elie

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of a single-frequency receiver using the 1-Hz differential corrections as provided by NASA's global differential GPS system. While the dual-frequency user has the ability to eliminate the ionosphere error by taking a linear combination of observables, the single-frequency user must remove or calibrate this error by other means. To remove the ionosphere error we take advantage of the fact that the magnitude of the group delay in range observable and the carrier phase advance have the same magnitude but are opposite in sign. A way to calibrate this error is to use a real-time database of grid points computed by JPL's RTI (Real-Time Ionosphere) software. In both cases we evaluate the positional accuracy of a kinematic carrier phase based point positioning method on a global extent.

  12. A material point time integration procedure for anisotropic, thermo rheologically simple, viscoelastic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, H.; Ahmad, M. F.

    This study presents an effective and robust time integration procedure for general anisotropic, thermal rheologically simple viscoelasticity, that is suitable for implementation in a broad spectrum of general purpose nonlinear finite element programs. It features a judicious choice of state variables which record the extent of inelastic flow (creep), a stable backward Euler integration step, and a consistent tangent operator. Numerical examples involving homogeneous stress states such as uniaxial tension and simple shear, and non-uniform stress states such as a beam under tip load, were carried out by incorporating the present scheme into a general purpose FEM package. Excellent agreement with analytical results is observed.

  13. Solar glare hazard analysis tool on account of determined points of time

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K; Sims, Cianan Alexander

    2014-09-23

    Technologies pertaining to determining when glare will be perceived by a hypothetical observer from a glare source and the intensity of glare that will be perceived by the hypothetical observer from the glare source are described herein. A first location of a potential source of solar glare is received, and a second location of the hypothetical observer is received. Based upon such locations, including respective elevations, and known positions of the sun over time, a determination as to when the hypothetical observer will perceive glare from the potential source of solar glare is made. Subsequently, an amount of irradiance entering the eye of the hypothetical observer is calculated to assess potential ocular hazards.

  14. Self-action of a point charge in a wormhole space-time

    SciTech Connect

    Khusnutdinov, Nail R.; Bakhmatov, Ilya V.

    2007-12-15

    We consider the self-energy and the self-force for an electrically charged particle at rest in the wormhole space-time. We develop a general approach to finding the self-force and apply it to the two specific profiles of the wormhole throat with singular and with smooth curvature. The self-force for these two profiles is found in manifest form; it turns out to be an attractive force. We also find an expression for the self-force in the case of arbitrary symmetric throat profile. Far from the throat the self-force is always attractive.

  15. The relative timing between eye and hand in rapid sequential pointing is affected by time pressure, but not by advance knowledge.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, F J A; van Polanen, V; Savelsbergh, G J P; Bennett, S J

    2011-08-01

    The present study examined the effect of timing constraints and advance knowledge on eye-hand coordination strategy in a sequential pointing task. Participants were required to point at two successively appearing targets on a screen while the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) and the trial order were manipulated, such that timing constraints were high (ISI = 300 ms) or low (ISI = 450 ms) and advance knowledge of the target location was present (fixed order) or absent (random order). Analysis of eye and finger onset and completion times per segment of the sequence indicated that oculo-manual behaviour was in general characterized by eye movements preceding the finger, as well as 'gaze anchoring' (i.e. eye fixation of the first target until completion of the finger movement towards that target). Advance knowledge of future target locations lead to shorter latency times of eye and hand, and smaller eye-hand lead times, which in combination resulted in shorter total movement times. There was, however, no effect of advance knowledge on the duration of gaze anchoring. In contrast, gaze anchoring did change as a function of the interval between successive stimuli and was shorter with a 300 ms ISI versus 450 ms ISI. Further correlation analysis provided some indication that shorter residual latency is associated with shorter pointing duration, without affecting accuracy. These results are consistent with a neural mechanism governing the coupling of eye and arm movements, which has been suggested to reside in the superior colliculus. The temporal coordination resulting from this coupling is a function of the time pressure on the visuo-manual system resulting from the appearance of external stimuli. PMID:21744087

  16. An engineering time-domain model for curve squeal: Tangential point-contact model and Green's functions approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenzerovic, I.; Kropp, W.; Pieringer, A.

    2016-08-01

    Curve squeal is a strong tonal sound that may arise when a railway vehicle negotiates a tight curve. In contrast to frequency-domain models, time-domain models are able to capture the nonlinear and transient nature of curve squeal. However, these models are computationally expensive due to requirements for fine spatial and time discretization. In this paper, a computationally efficient engineering model for curve squeal in the time-domain is proposed. It is based on a steady-state point-contact model for the tangential wheel/rail contact and a Green's functions approach for wheel and rail dynamics. The squeal model also includes a simple model of sound radiation from the railway wheel from the literature. A validation of the tangential point-contact model against Kalker's transient variational contact model reveals that the point-contact model performs well within the squeal model up to at least 5 kHz. The proposed squeal model is applied to investigate the influence of lateral creepage, friction and wheel/rail contact position on squeal occurrence and amplitude. The study indicates a significant influence of the wheel/rail contact position on squeal frequencies and amplitudes. Friction and lateral creepage show an influence on squeal occurrence and amplitudes, but this is only secondary to the influence of the contact position.

  17. Specific inhibition of nitric oxide synthases at different time points in a murine model of pulmonary sepsis.

    PubMed

    Lange, Matthias; Hamahata, Atsumori; Traber, Daniel L; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Traber, Lillian D; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2011-01-21

    Excessive production of nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthase (NOS) and a subsequent oxidative stress reaction are thought to be critically involved in the pathophysiology of sepsis. Previous studies suggested that NO production by neuronal NOS (nNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) is implemented in the disease process at different time points after the injury. Here we tested the roles of selective pharmacological inhibition of nNOS and iNOS at different time points in a murine model of pulmonary sepsis. The injury was induced by intranasal administration of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.2×10(7) colony-forming units) in C57BL/6 wild-type mice. The animals received no treatment (control) or treatment with a specific nNOS inhibitor (4 or 8h), iNOS inhibitor (4 or 8h), or non-specific NOS inhibitor (4 or 8h). In controls, the injury was associated with excessive releases of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the plasma, enhanced tissue lipid peroxidation, and decreased survival. Non-specific NOS inhibition at either time point did not influence survival and was not further investigated. While nNOS inhibition at 4h was associated with a trend toward improved survival and significantly reduced contents of lung nitrite/nitrate (NO(x)) and liver malondialdehyde, the blockade of nNOS at 8h had no effect on these parameters. In contrast, early iNOS inhibition was associated with a trend toward decreased survival and no effects on lung NO(x) and liver malondialdehyde contents, whereas later iNOS blockade was associated with decreased malondialdehyde content in liver homogenates. In conclusion, pulmonary sepsis in mice may be beneficially influenced by specific pharmacological nNOS inhibition at an earlier time point and iNOS inhibition at a later time points post-injury. Future investigations should identify the time changes of the expression and activation of NOS isoforms. PMID:21184738

  18. Instantaneous and time-averaged dispersion and measurement models for estimation theory applications with elevated point source plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamante, J. M.; Englar, T. S., Jr.; Jazwinski, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Estimation theory, which originated in guidance and control research, is applied to the analysis of air quality measurements and atmospheric dispersion models to provide reliable area-wide air quality estimates. A method for low dimensional modeling (in terms of the estimation state vector) of the instantaneous and time-average pollutant distributions is discussed. In particular, the fluctuating plume model of Gifford (1959) is extended to provide an expression for the instantaneous concentration due to an elevated point source. Individual models are also developed for all parameters in the instantaneous and the time-average plume equations, including the stochastic properties of the instantaneous fluctuating plume.

  19. Multiple Time Courses of Vestibular Set-Point Adaptation Revealed by Sustained Magnetic Field Stimulation of the Labyrinth.

    PubMed

    Jareonsettasin, Prem; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Ward, Bryan K; Roberts, Dale C; Schubert, Michael C; Zee, David S

    2016-05-23

    A major focus in neurobiology is how the brain adapts its motor behavior to changes in its internal and external environments [1, 2]. Much is known about adaptively optimizing the amplitude and direction of eye and limb movements, for example, but little is known about another essential form of learning, "set-point" adaptation. Set-point adaptation balances tonic activity so that reciprocally acting, agonist and antagonist muscles have a stable platform from which to launch accurate movements. Here, we use the vestibulo-ocular reflex-a simple behavior that stabilizes the position of the eye while the head is moving-to investigate how tonic activity is adapted toward a new set point to prevent eye drift when the head is still [3, 4]. Set-point adaptation was elicited with magneto-hydrodynamic vestibular stimulation (MVS) by placing normal humans in a 7T MRI for 90 min. MVS is ideal for prolonged labyrinthine activation because it mimics constant head acceleration and induces a sustained nystagmus similar to natural vestibular lesions [5, 6]. The MVS-induced nystagmus diminished slowly but incompletely over multiple timescales. We propose a new adaptation hypothesis, using a cascade of imperfect mathematical integrators, that reproduces the response to MVS (and more natural chair rotations), including the gradual decrease in nystagmus as the set point changes over progressively longer time courses. MVS set-point adaptation is a biological model with applications to basic neurophysiological research into all types of movements [7], functional brain imaging [8], and treatment of vestibular and higher-level attentional disorders by introducing new biases to counteract pathological ones [9]. PMID:27185559

  20. Real-time resolution of point mutations that cause phenovariance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Zhan, Xiaowei; Bu, Chun-Hui; Lyon, Stephen; Pratt, David; Hildebrand, Sara; Choi, Jin Huk; Zhang, Zhao; Zeng, Ming; Wang, Kuan-wen; Turer, Emre; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Duanwu; Yue, Tao; Wang, Ying; Shi, Hexin; Wang, Jianhui; Sun, Lei; SoRelle, Jeff; McAlpine, William; Hutchins, Noelle; Zhan, Xiaoming; Fina, Maggy; Gobert, Rochelle; Quan, Jiexia; Kreutzer, McKensie; Arnett, Stephanie; Hawkins, Kimberly; Leach, Ashley; Tate, Christopher; Daniel, Chad; Reyna, Carlos; Prince, Lauren; Davis, Sheila; Purrington, Joel; Bearden, Rick; Weatherly, Jennifer; White, Danielle; Russell, Jamie; Sun, Qihua; Tang, Miao; Li, Xiaohong; Scott, Lindsay; Moresco, Eva Marie Y.; McInerney, Gerald M.; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B.; Xie, Yang; Beutler, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    With the wide availability of massively parallel sequencing technologies, genetic mapping has become the rate limiting step in mammalian forward genetics. Here we introduce a method for real-time identification of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mutations that cause phenotypes in mice. All mutations are identified by whole exome G1 progenitor sequencing and their zygosity is established in G2/G3 mice before phenotypic assessment. Quantitative and qualitative traits, including lethal effects, in single or multiple combined pedigrees are then analyzed with Linkage Analyzer, a software program that detects significant linkage between individual mutations and aberrant phenotypic scores and presents processed data as Manhattan plots. As multiple alleles of genes are acquired through mutagenesis, pooled “superpedigrees” are created to analyze the effects. Our method is distinguished from conventional forward genetic methods because it permits (1) unbiased declaration of mappable phenotypes, including those that are incompletely penetrant (2), automated identification of causative mutations concurrent with phenotypic screening, without the need to outcross mutant mice to another strain and backcross them, and (3) exclusion of genes not involved in phenotypes of interest. We validated our approach and Linkage Analyzer for the identification of 47 mutations in 45 previously known genes causative for adaptive immune phenotypes; our analysis also implicated 474 genes not previously associated with immune function. The method described here permits forward genetic analysis in mice, limited only by the rates of mutant production and screening. PMID:25605905

  1. Real-time resolution of point mutations that cause phenovariance in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Zhan, Xiaowei; Bu, Chun-Hui; Lyon, Stephen; Pratt, David; Hildebrand, Sara; Choi, Jin Huk; Zhang, Zhao; Zeng, Ming; Wang, Kuan-wen; Turer, Emre; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Duanwu; Yue, Tao; Wang, Ying; Shi, Hexin; Wang, Jianhui; Sun, Lei; SoRelle, Jeff; McAlpine, William; Hutchins, Noelle; Zhan, Xiaoming; Fina, Maggy; Gobert, Rochelle; Quan, Jiexia; Kreutzer, McKensie; Arnett, Stephanie; Hawkins, Kimberly; Leach, Ashley; Tate, Christopher; Daniel, Chad; Reyna, Carlos; Prince, Lauren; Davis, Sheila; Purrington, Joel; Bearden, Rick; Weatherly, Jennifer; White, Danielle; Russell, Jamie; Sun, Qihua; Tang, Miao; Li, Xiaohong; Scott, Lindsay; Moresco, Eva Marie Y; McInerney, Gerald M; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B; Xie, Yang; Beutler, Bruce

    2015-02-01

    With the wide availability of massively parallel sequencing technologies, genetic mapping has become the rate limiting step in mammalian forward genetics. Here we introduce a method for real-time identification of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mutations that cause phenotypes in mice. All mutations are identified by whole exome G1 progenitor sequencing and their zygosity is established in G2/G3 mice before phenotypic assessment. Quantitative and qualitative traits, including lethal effects, in single or multiple combined pedigrees are then analyzed with Linkage Analyzer, a software program that detects significant linkage between individual mutations and aberrant phenotypic scores and presents processed data as Manhattan plots. As multiple alleles of genes are acquired through mutagenesis, pooled "superpedigrees" are created to analyze the effects. Our method is distinguished from conventional forward genetic methods because it permits (1) unbiased declaration of mappable phenotypes, including those that are incompletely penetrant (2), automated identification of causative mutations concurrent with phenotypic screening, without the need to outcross mutant mice to another strain and backcross them, and (3) exclusion of genes not involved in phenotypes of interest. We validated our approach and Linkage Analyzer for the identification of 47 mutations in 45 previously known genes causative for adaptive immune phenotypes; our analysis also implicated 474 genes not previously associated with immune function. The method described here permits forward genetic analysis in mice, limited only by the rates of mutant production and screening. PMID:25605905

  2. Regulation of intracellular Zn homeostasis in two intestinal epithelial cell models at various maturation time points.

    PubMed

    Gefeller, Eva-Maria; Bondzio, Angelika; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Martens, Holger; Einspanier, Ralf; Scharfen, Franziska; Zentek, Jürgen; Pieper, Robert; Lodemann, Ulrike

    2015-07-01

    After weaning, piglets are often fed diets supplemented with high concentrations of zinc (Zn) to decrease post-weaning diarrhea. The aim of this study was to elucidate the regulation of Zn homeostasis within intestinal epithelial cells during excessive Zn exposure. High Zn concentrations elevated the intracellular Zn level in IPEC-J2 and Caco-2 cells which was influenced by differentiation status and time of exposure. With increasing Zn concentrations, mRNA and protein levels of metallothionein (MT) and zinc transporter 1 (ZnT1) were upregulated, whereas zinc transporter 4 (ZIP4) expression was downregulated. Metal-regulatory transcription factor-1 (MTF1) mRNA expression was upregulated at high Zn concentrations in IPEC-J2 cells, which corresponded to higher intracellular Zn concentrations. Based on these results, we suggest that intestinal epithelial cells adapt the expression of these genes to the amount of extracellular Zn available in order to maintain Zn homeostasis. Cell line-dependent differences in the regulation of Zn homeostasis were detected. PMID:25757458

  3. Station-keeping of real Earth-Moon libration point orbits using discrete-time sliding mode control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yijun; Gómez, Gerard; Masdemont, Josep J.; Tang, Guojian

    2014-10-01

    In this work, station-keeping of real Earth-Moon libration point orbits is studied using discrete-time sliding mode control (DSMC). For comparison, a discrete linear quadratic regulator (DLQR) controller is also considered. The libration orbits are termed “real” in the sense that they are obtained in a complete Solar System model, taking into account all the gravitational forces of the planets, the Moon, and the Sun. This is a key point for any station-keeping study, that the use of far from real orbits as nominal ones increases unnecessarily the station-keeping cost. The resulting controlled system, linearised with respect to some nominal orbit, takes a discrete-time form suitable for applying impulsive maneuvers. The DSMC controller is designed by the reaching law with the parameters chosen in an adaptive way. A method for designing the sliding surface is proposed. In order to assess and compare the performance of the two controllers, simulations are done for six libration point orbits around the L2 point (three halo orbits and three Lissajous ones) during a time span of 10 years. Several practical constraints are also considered in the simulations. Extensive Monte Carlo results show that the proposed DSMC approach is able to maintain the spacecraft within a close vicinity of the nominal orbits with a maneuver cost less than 2 m/s per year, and it outperforms the DLQR approach in terms of the position controllability. Some comparison with previous results obtained by other authors with different procedures is also given.

  4. The effect of exercise training with an additional inspiratory load on inspiratory muscle fatigue and time-trial performance.

    PubMed

    McEntire, Serina J; Smith, Joshua R; Ferguson, Christine S; Brown, Kelly R; Kurti, Stephanie P; Harms, Craig A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose was to determine the effect of moderate-intensity exercise training (ET) on inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) and if an additional inspiratory load during ET (ET+IL) would further improve inspiratory muscle strength, IMF, and time-trial performance. 15 subjects were randomly divided to ET (n=8) and ET+IL groups (n=7). All subjects completed six weeks of exercise training three days/week at ∼70%V̇O2peak for 30min. The ET+IL group breathed through an inspiratory muscle trainer (15% PImax) during exercise. 5-mile, and 30-min time-trials were performed pre-training, weeks three and six. Inspiratory muscle strength increased (p<0.05) for both groups to a similar (p>0.05) extent. ET and ET+IL groups improved (p<0.05) 5-mile time-trial performance (∼10% and ∼18%) and the ET+IL group was significantly faster than ET at week 6. ET and ET+IL groups experienced less (p<0.05) IMF compared to pre-training following the 5-mile time-trial. In conclusion, these data suggest ET leads to less IMF, ET+IL improves inspiratory muscle strength and IMF, but not different than ET alone. PMID:27195511

  5. Real time, TV-based, point-image quantizer and sorter

    DOEpatents

    Case, Arthur L.; Davidson, Jackson B.

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for improving the vertical resolution in a television-based, two-dimensional readout for radiation detection systems such as are used to determine the location of light or nuclear radiation impinging a target area viewed by a television camera, where it is desired to store the data indicative of the centroid location of such images. In the example embodiment, impinging nuclear radiation detected in the form of a scintillation occurring in a crystal is stored as a charge image on a television camera tube target. The target is scanned in a raster and the image position is stored according to a corresponding vertical scan number and horizontal position number along the scan. To determine the centroid location of an image that may overlap a number of horizontal scan lines along the vertical axis of the raster, digital logic circuits are provided with at least four series-connected shift registers, each having 512 bit positions according to a selected 512 horizontal increment of resolutions along a scan line. The registers are shifted by clock pulses at a rate of 512 pulses per scan line. When an image or portion thereof is detected along a scan, its horizontal center location is determined and the present front bit is set in the first shift register and shifted through the registers one at a time for each horizontal scan. Each register is compared bit-by-bit with the preceding register to detect coincident set bit positions until the last scan line detecting a portion of the image is determined. Depending on the number of shift registers through which the first detection of the image is shifted, circuitry is provided to store the vertical center position of the event according to the number of shift registers through which the first detection of the event is shifted. Interpolation circuitry is provided to determine if the event centroid is between adjacent scan lines and stored in a vertical address accordingly. The horizontal location of the event

  6. Understanding Solidification of Polythiophene Thin Films during Spin-Coating: Effects of Spin-Coating Time and Processing Additives

    PubMed Central

    Na, Jin Yeong; Kang, Boseok; Sin, Dong Hun; Cho, Kilwon; Park, Yeong Don

    2015-01-01

    Spin-coating has been used extensively in the fabrication of electronic devices; however, the effects of the processing parameters have not been fully explored. Here, we systematically characterize the effects of the spin-coating time on the microstructure evolution during semiconducting polymer solidification in an effort to establish the relationship between this parameter and the performances of the resulting polymer field-effect transistors (FETs). We found that a short spin-coating time of a few seconds dramatically improve the morphology and molecular order in a conjugated polymer thin film because the π-π stacking structures formed by the polymer molecules grow slowly and with a greater degree of order due to the residual solvent present in the wet film. The improved ordering is correlated with improved charge carrier transport in the FETs prepared from these films. We also demonstrated the effects of various processing additives on the resulting FET characteristics as well as on the film drying behavior during spin-coating. The physical properties of the additives are found to affect the film drying process and the resulting device performance. PMID:26299676

  7. An Efficient Real-Time Precise Point Positioning (RT-PPP) Solution for Offshore Surveys in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelazeem, Mohamed; Nurhan Çelik, Rahmi

    2016-07-01

    Recently, the international global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) service (IGS) has launched the real-time service (IGS-RTS). The IGS-RTS has shown promise accuracy in precise point positioning applications. Currently, the precise point positioning technique is used extensively in marine applications. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of the real-time precise point positioning (RT-PPP) solution using the IGS-RTS for offshore surveys in Turkey. Dual-frequency GPS data is collected onboard a vessel and then processed using the Bernese 5.2 PPP module. The IGS-RTS precise orbit and clock products are used in order to account for the satellite orbit and clock products. To investigate the accuracy of the RT-PPP technique, the positioning accuracy is assessed and compared with the traditional double-difference solution. It is shown that the RT-PPP solution has good agreement with the double-difference solution. Also, the proposed solution efficiently fulfills the international maritime organization (IMO) standards for the offshore surveys.

  8. Remotely-sensed, nocturnal, dew point correlates with malaria transmission in Southern Province, Zambia: a time-series study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum transmission has decreased significantly in Zambia in the last decade. The malaria transmission is influenced by environmental variables. Incorporation of environmental variables in models of malaria transmission likely improves model fit and predicts probable trends in malaria disease. This work is based on the hypothesis that remotely-sensed environmental factors, including nocturnal dew point, are associated with malaria transmission and sustain foci of transmission during the low transmission season in the Southern Province of Zambia. Methods Thirty-eight rural health centres in Southern Province, Zambia were divided into three zones based on transmission patterns. Correlations between weekly malaria cases and remotely-sensed nocturnal dew point, nocturnal land surface temperature as well as vegetation indices and rainfall were evaluated in time-series analyses from 2012 week 19 to 2013 week 36. Zonal as well as clinic-based, multivariate, autoregressive, integrated, moving average (ARIMAX) models implementing environmental variables were developed to model transmission in 2011 week 19 to 2012 week 18 and forecast transmission in 2013 week 37 to week 41. Results During the dry, low transmission season significantly higher vegetation indices, nocturnal land surface temperature and nocturnal dew point were associated with the areas of higher transmission. Environmental variables improved ARIMAX models. Dew point and normalized differentiated vegetation index were significant predictors and improved all zonal transmission models. In the high-transmission zone, this was also seen for land surface temperature. Clinic models were improved by adding dew point and land surface temperature as well as normalized differentiated vegetation index. The mean average error of prediction for ARIMAX models ranged from 0.7 to 33.5%. Forecasts of malaria incidence were valid for three out of five rural health centres; however, with poor

  9. A porcine model of relief of unilateral ureteral obstruction: study on self-repairing capability over multiple time points.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingying; Sun, Jing; Miao, Lining; Ji, Lei; Luo, Manyu; Li, Bing; Cui, Wenpeng; Wang, Yangwei; Xie, Yuansheng; Chen, Xiangmei

    2016-08-01

    It is still controversial whether renal tubular interstitial fibrosis (TIF) is a reversible process. Although previous studies examining TIF have been carried out in rodents, their kidney size and physiological character differ with humans, and the difference among diverse individuals before and after damage was obvious. Thus an experimental animal model to simulate human kidney disease was urged to be established. In order to clarify whether TIF is reversible, and the exact time points that the kidney has the capacity to be repaired, a porcine relief of unilateral ureteral obstruction (R-UUO) model was developed. Kidney damage and reparation were observed dynamically in vivo over various time points. Pigs were randomized divided into three groups (n = 6): UUO 5 days group, UUO 7 days, and UUO 10 days group. Each porcine in that groups underwent UUO and subsequent R-UUO for three time points. Renal function, histological structure, and protein expressions of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin and E-cadherin were evaluated at different time points. Following R-UUO after 5 and 7 days of UUO, compared to UUO, serum creatinine levels were significantly decreased. Renal pathological tissue damage was repaired. The expressions of α-SMA and vimentin were decreased and E-cadherin expression was increased (P < 0.05). However, during R-UUO 14, 28, and 56 days after 10 days of UUO, serum creatinine was not decreased significantly. The expressions of α-SMA and vimentin consistently remained at high levels. Renal damage was unable to be restored and resulted in chronic lesions. Kidney damage induced by UUO can be reversed in early stages. However, longer time of UUO with significant levels of TIF showed limited reversibility. The porcine R-UUO model provides an ideal animal model for the investigation of kidney injury and repair as well as for the evaluation of the effect of drug treatment. PMID:27381184

  10. Performing forward-viewing endoscopy at time of pancreaticobiliary EUS and ERCP may detect additional upper gastrointestinal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Ashby; Vamadevan, Arunan S; Slattery, Eoin; Sejpal, Divyesh V; Trindade, Arvind J

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: It is unknown whether significant incidental upper gastrointestinal lesions are missed when using non-forward-viewing endoscopes without completing a forward-viewing exam in linear endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) exams. We evaluated whether significant upper GI lesions are missed during EUS and ERCP when upper endoscopy is not performed routinely with a gastroscope. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis was performed in which an EGD with a forward-viewing gastroscope was performed after using a non-forward-viewing endoscope (linear echoendoscope, duodenoscope, or both) during a single procedure. Upper gastrointestinal tract findings were recorded separately for each procedure. Significant lesions found with a forward-viewing gastroscope were defined as findings that led to a change in the patient’s medication regimen, additional endoscopic surveillance/interventions, or the need for other imaging studies. Results: A total of 168 patients were evaluated. In 83 patients, a linear echoendoscope was used, in 52 patients a duodenoscope was used, and in 33 patients both devices were used. Clinically significant additional lesions diagnosed with a gastroscope but missed by a non-forward-viewing endoscope were found in 30 /168 patients (18 %). EGD after linear EUS resulted in additional lesion findings in 17 /83 patients (20.5 %, χ2 = 13.385, P = 0.00025). EGD after use of a duodenoscope resulted in additional lesions findings in 10 /52 patients (19.2 %, χ2 = 9.987, P = 0.00157). EGD after the use of both a linear echoendoscope and a duodenoscope resulted in additional lesions findings in 3/33 patients (9 %, χ2 = 3.219, P = 0.07). Conclusion: Non forward-viewing endoscopes miss a significant amount of incidental upper gastrointestinal lesions during pancreaticobiliary endoscopy. Performing an EGD with a gastroscope at the time of linear EUS or

  11. Time-Point Dependent Activation of Autophagy and the UPS in SOD1G93A Mice Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Oliván, Sara; Calvo, Ana Cristina; Gasco, Samanta; Muñoz, María Jesús; Zaragoza, Pilar; Osta, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by a selective loss of motor neurons together with a progressive muscle weakness. Albeit the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease remain unknown, growing evidence suggests that skeletal muscle can be a target of ALS toxicity. In particular, the two main intracellular degradation mechanisms, autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome degradative system (UPS) have been poorly studied in this tissue. In this study we investigated the activation of autophagy and the UPS as well as apoptosis in the skeletal muscle from SOD1G93A mice along disease progression. Our results showed a significant upregulation of proteasome activity at early symptomatic stage, while the autophagy activation was found at presymptomatic and terminal stages. The mRNA upregulated levels of LC3, p62, Beclin1, Atg5 and E2f1 were only observed at symptomatic and terminal stages, which reinforced the time-point activation of autophagy. Furthermore, no apoptosis activation was observed along disease progression. The combined data provided clear evidence for the first time that there is a time-point dependent activation of autophagy and UPS in the skeletal muscle from SOD1G93A mice. PMID:26244336

  12. Does Delayed-Time-Point Imaging Improve 18F-FDG-PET in Patients With MALT Lymphoma?

    PubMed Central

    Mayerhoefer, Marius E.; Giraudo, Chiara; Senn, Daniela; Hartenbach, Markus; Weber, Michael; Rausch, Ivo; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Herold, Christian J.; Hacker, Marcus; Pones, Matthias; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Müllauer, Leonhard; Dolak, Werner; Lukas, Julius; Raderer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether in patients with extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT), delayed–time-point 2-18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) performs better than standard–time-point 18F-FDG-PET. Materials and Methods Patients with untreated histologically verified MALT lymphoma, who were undergoing pretherapeutic 18F-FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) and consecutive 18F-FDG-PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using a single 18F-FDG injection, in the course of a larger-scale prospective trial, were included. Region-based sensitivity and specificity, and patient-based sensitivity of the respective 18F-FDG-PET scans at time points 1 (45–60 minutes after tracer injection, TP1) and 2 (100–150 minutes after tracer injection, TP2), relative to the reference standard, were calculated. Lesion-to-liver and lesion-to-blood SUVmax (maximum standardized uptake values) ratios were also assessed. Results 18F-FDG-PET at TP1 was true positive in 15 o f 23 involved regions, and 18F-FDG-PET at TP2 was true-positive in 20 of 23 involved regions; no false-positive regions were noted. Accordingly, region-based sensitivities and specificities were 65.2% (confidence interval [CI], 45.73%–84.67%) and 100% (CI, 100%-100%) for 18F-FDG-PET at TP1; and 87.0% (CI, 73.26%–100%) and 100% (CI, 100%-100%) for 18F-FDG-PET at TP2, respectively. FDG-PET at TP1 detected lymphoma in at least one nodal or extranodal region in 7 of 13 patients, and 18F-FDG-PET at TP2 in 10 of 13 patients; accordingly, patient-based sensitivity was 53.8% (CI, 26.7%–80.9%) for 18F-FDG-PET at TP1, and 76.9% (CI, 54.0%–99.8%) for 18F-FDG-PET at TP2. Lesion-to-liver and lesion-to-blood maximum standardized uptake value ratios were significantly lower at TP1 (ratios, 1.05 ± 0.40 and 1.52 ± 0.62) than at TP2 (ratios, 1.67 ± 0.74 and 2.56 ± 1.10; P = 0.003 and P = 0.001). Conclusions Delayed–time-point imaging

  13. The effects of arm movement on reaction time in patients with latent and active upper trapezius myofascial trigger point

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Marzieh; Talebian, Saeed; Ebrahimi Takamjani, Ismail; Maroufi, Nader; Ahmadi, Amir; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Emrani, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Myofascial pain syndrome is a significant source of mechanical pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of arm movement on reaction time in females with latent and active upper trapezius myofascial trigger point. Methods: In this interventional study, a convenience sample of fifteen women with one active MTP, fifteen women with one latent MTP in the upper trapezius, and fifteen normal healthy women were participated. Participants were asked to stand for 10 seconds in an erect standing position. Muscle reaction times were recorded including anterior deltoid (AD), cervical paraspinal (CP) lumbar paraspinal (LP), both of upper trapezius (UT), sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and medial head of gastrocnemius (GcM). Participants were asked to flex their arms in response to a sound stimulus preceded by a warning sound stimulus. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA Test. Results: There was significant differences in motor time and reaction time between active and control groups (p< 0.05) except for GcM. There was no significant difference in motor time between active and passive groups except for UT without MTP and SCM (p< 0.05). Also, there were no significant differences in motor times between latent MTP and control groups. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in premotor times between the three groups. Conclusion: The present study shows that patients with active MTP need more time to react to stimulus, but patients with latent MTP are similar to healthy subjects in the reaction time. Patients with active MTP had less compatibility with environmental stimulations, and they responded to a specific stimulation with variability in Surface Electromyography (SEMG). PMID:26913258

  14. A Time Scheduling Model of Logistics Service Supply Chain Based on the Customer Order Decoupling Point: A Perspective from the Constant Service Operation Time

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC. PMID:24715818

  15. A time scheduling model of logistics service supply chain based on the customer order decoupling point: a perspective from the constant service operation time.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weihua; Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC. PMID:24715818

  16. Enhancing the focal-resolution of aeroacoustic time-reversal using a point sponge-layer damping technique.

    PubMed

    Mimani, A; Doolan, C J; Medwell, P R

    2014-09-01

    This letter presents the Point-Time-Reversal-Sponge-Layer (PTRSL) technique to enhance the focal-resolution of aeroacoustic Time-Reversal (TR). A PTRSL is implemented on a square domain centered at the predicted source location and is based on damping the radial components of the incoming and outgoing fluxes propagating toward and away from the source, respectively. A PTRSL is shown to overcome the conventional half-wavelength diffraction-limit; its implementation significantly reduces the focal spot size to one-fifth of a wavelength for a monopole source. Furthermore, PTRSL reduces the focal spots of a dipole source to three-tenths of a wavelength, as compared to three-fifths without its implementation. PMID:25190421

  17. Impacts of real-time satellite clock errors on GPS precise point positioning-based troposphere zenith delay estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junbo; Xu, Chaoqian; Li, Yihe; Gao, Yang

    2015-08-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) has become a cost-effective tool to determine troposphere zenith total delay (ZTD) with accuracy comparable to other atmospheric sensors such as the radiosonde, the water vapor radiometer, the radio occultation and so on. However, the high accuracy of GPS troposphere ZTD estimates relies on the precise satellite orbit and clock products available with various latencies. Although the International GNSS Service (IGS) can provide predicted orbit and clock products for real-time applications, the predicted clock accuracy of 3 ns cannot always guarantee the high accuracy of troposphere ZTD estimates. Such limitations could be overcome by the use of the newly launched IGS real-time service which provides 5 cm orbit and 0.2-1.0 ns (an equivalent range error of 6-30 cm) clock products in real time. Considering the relatively larger magnitude of the clock error than that of the orbit error, this paper investigates the effect of real-time satellite clock errors on the GPS precise point positioning (PPP)-based troposphere ZTD estimation. Meanwhile, how the real-time satellite clock errors impact the GPS PPP-based troposphere ZTD estimation has also been studied to obtain the most precise ZTD solutions. First, two types of real-time satellite clock products are assessed with respect to the IGS final clock product in terms of accuracy and precision. Second, the real-time GPS PPP-based troposphere ZTD estimation is conducted using data from 34 selected IGS stations over three independent weeks in April, July and October, 2013. Numerical results demonstrate that the precision, rather than the accuracy, of the real-time satellite clock products impacts the real-time PPP-based ZTD solutions more significantly. In other words, the real-time satellite clock product with better precision leads to more precise real-time PPP-based troposphere ZTD solutions. Therefore, it is suggested that users should select and apply real-time satellite products with

  18. Dual-time-point FDG-PET/CT Imaging of Temporal Bone Chondroblastoma: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Toriihara, Akira; Tsunoda, Atsunobu; Takemoto, Akira; Kubota, Kazunori; Machida, Youichi; Tateishi, Ukihide

    2015-01-01

    Temporal bone chondroblastoma is an extremely rare benign bone tumor. We encountered two cases showing similar imaging findings on computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and dual-time-point 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. In both cases, CT images revealed temporal bone defects and sclerotic changes around the tumor. Most parts of the tumor showed low signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI images and non-uniform enhancement on gadolinium contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. No increase in signal intensity was noted in diffusion-weighted images. Dual-time-point PET/CT showed markedly elevated 18F-FDG uptake, which increased from the early to delayed phase. Nevertheless, immunohistochemical analysis of the resected tumor tissue revealed weak expression of glucose transporter-1 and hexokinase II in both tumors. Temporal bone tumors, showing markedly elevated 18F-FDG uptake, which increases from the early to delayed phase on PET/CT images, may be diagnosed as malignant bone tumors. Therefore, the differential diagnosis should include chondroblastoma in combination with its characteristic findings on CT and MRI. PMID:27408892

  19. Location and release time identification of pollution point source in river networks based on the Backward Probability Method.

    PubMed

    Ghane, Alireza; Mazaheri, Mehdi; Mohammad Vali Samani, Jamal

    2016-09-15

    The pollution of rivers due to accidental spills is a major threat to environment and human health. To protect river systems from accidental spills, it is essential to introduce a reliable tool for identification process. Backward Probability Method (BPM) is one of the most recommended tools that is able to introduce information related to the prior location and the release time of the pollution. This method was originally developed and employed in groundwater pollution source identification problems. One of the objectives of this study is to apply this method in identifying the pollution source location and release time in surface waters, mainly in rivers. To accomplish this task, a numerical model is developed based on the adjoint analysis. Then the developed model is verified using analytical solution and some real data. The second objective of this study is to extend the method to pollution source identification in river networks. In this regard, a hypothetical test case is considered. In the later simulations, all of the suspected points are identified, using only one backward simulation. The results demonstrated that all suspected points, determined by the BPM could be a possible pollution source. The proposed approach is accurate and computationally efficient and does not need any simplification in river geometry and flow. Due to this simplicity, it is highly recommended for practical purposes. PMID:27219462

  20. ICESat Laser Altimeter Pointing, Ranging and Timing Calibration from Integrated Residual Analysis: A Summary of Early Mission Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutchke, Scott B.; Rowlands, David D.; Harding, David J.; Bufton, Jack L.; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Williams, Teresa A.

    2003-01-01

    On January 12, 2003 the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) was successfUlly placed into orbit. The ICESat mission carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), which consists of three near-infrared lasers that operate at 40 short pulses per second. The instrument has collected precise elevation measurements of the ice sheets, sea ice roughness and thickness, ocean and land surface elevations and surface reflectivity. The accurate geolocation of GLAS's surface returns, the spots from which the laser energy reflects on the Earth's surface, is a critical issue in the scientific application of these data Pointing, ranging, timing and orbit errors must be compensated to accurately geolocate the laser altimeter surface returns. Towards this end, the laser range observations can be fully exploited in an integrated residual analysis to accurately calibrate these geolocation/instrument parameters. Early mission ICESat data have been simultaneously processed as direct altimetry from ocean sweeps along with dynamic crossovers resulting in a preliminary calibration of laser pointing, ranging and timing. The calibration methodology and early mission analysis results are summarized in this paper along with future calibration activities

  1. Dual-time-point FDG-PET/CT Imaging of Temporal Bone Chondroblastoma: A Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Toriihara, Akira; Tsunoda, Atsunobu; Takemoto, Akira; Kubota, Kazunori; Machida, Youichi; Tateishi, Ukihide

    2015-01-01

    Temporal bone chondroblastoma is an extremely rare benign bone tumor. We encountered two cases showing similar imaging findings on computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and dual-time-point (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. In both cases, CT images revealed temporal bone defects and sclerotic changes around the tumor. Most parts of the tumor showed low signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI images and non-uniform enhancement on gadolinium contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. No increase in signal intensity was noted in diffusion-weighted images. Dual-time-point PET/CT showed markedly elevated (18)F-FDG uptake, which increased from the early to delayed phase. Nevertheless, immunohistochemical analysis of the resected tumor tissue revealed weak expression of glucose transporter-1 and hexokinase II in both tumors. Temporal bone tumors, showing markedly elevated (18)F-FDG uptake, which increases from the early to delayed phase on PET/CT images, may be diagnosed as malignant bone tumors. Therefore, the differential diagnosis should include chondroblastoma in combination with its characteristic findings on CT and MRI. PMID:27408892

  2. Space Takes Time: Concentration Dependent Output Codes from Primary Olfactory Networks Rapidly Provide Additional Information at Defined Discrimination Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kevin C.; Bradley, Samual; Chapman, Phillip D.; Staudacher, Erich M.; Tiede, Regina; Schachtner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    As odor concentration increases, primary olfactory network representations expand in spatial distribution, temporal complexity and duration. However, the direct relationship between concentration dependent odor representations and the psychophysical thresholds of detection and discrimination is poorly understood. This relationship is absolutely critical as thresholds signify transition points whereby representations become meaningful to the organism. Here, we matched stimulus protocols for psychophysical assays and intracellular recordings of antennal lobe (AL) projection neurons (PNs) in the moth Manduca sexta to directly compare psychophysical thresholds and the output representations they elicit. We first behaviorally identified odor detection and discrimination thresholds across an odor dilution series for a panel of structurally similar odors. We then characterized spatiotemporal spiking patterns across a population of individually filled and identified AL PNs in response to those odors at concentrations below, at, and above identified thresholds. Using spatial and spatiotemporal based analyses we observed that each stimulus produced unique representations, even at sub-threshold concentrations. Mean response latency did not decrease and the percent glomerular activation did not increase with concentration until undiluted odor. Furthermore, correlations between spatial patterns for odor decreased, but only significantly with undiluted odor. Using time-integrated Euclidean distance (ED) measures, we determined that added spatiotemporal information was present at the discrimination but not detection threshold. This added information was evidenced by an increase in integrated distance between the sub-detection and discrimination threshold concentrations (of the same odor) that was not present in comparison of the sub-detection and detection threshold. After consideration of delays for information to reach the AL we find that it takes ~120–140 ms for the AL to

  3. Terrestrial laser scanning point clouds time series for the monitoring of slope movements: displacement measurement using image correlation and 3D feature tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornemann, Pierrick; Jean-Philippe, Malet; André, Stumpf; Anne, Puissant; Julien, Travelletti

    2016-04-01

    Dense multi-temporal point clouds acquired with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) have proved useful for the study of structure and kinematics of slope movements. Most of the existing deformation analysis methods rely on the use of interpolated data. Approaches that use multiscale image correlation provide a precise and robust estimation of the observed movements; however, for non-rigid motion patterns, these methods tend to underestimate all the components of the movement. Further, for rugged surface topography, interpolated data introduce a bias and a loss of information in some local places where the point cloud information is not sufficiently dense. Those limits can be overcome by using deformation analysis exploiting directly the original 3D point clouds assuming some hypotheses on the deformation (e.g. the classic ICP algorithm requires an initial guess by the user of the expected displacement patterns). The objective of this work is therefore to propose a deformation analysis method applied to a series of 20 3D point clouds covering the period October 2007 - October 2015 at the Super-Sauze landslide (South East French Alps). The dense point clouds have been acquired with a terrestrial long-range Optech ILRIS-3D laser scanning device from the same base station. The time series are analyzed using two approaches: 1) a method of correlation of gradient images, and 2) a method of feature tracking in the raw 3D point clouds. The estimated surface displacements are then compared with GNSS surveys on reference targets. Preliminary results tend to show that the image correlation method provides a good estimation of the displacement fields at first order, but shows limitations such as the inability to track some deformation patterns, and the use of a perspective projection that does not maintain original angles and distances in the correlated images. Results obtained with 3D point clouds comparison algorithms (C2C, ICP, M3C2) bring additional information on the

  4. Rapid earthquake magnitude from real-time GPS precise point positioning for earthquake early warning and emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Rongxin; Shi, Chuang; Song, Weiwei; Wang, Guangxing; Liu, Jingnan

    2014-05-01

    For earthquake early warning (EEW) and emergency response, earthquake magnitude is the crucial parameter to be determined rapidly and correctly. However, a reliable and rapid measurement of the magnitude of an earthquake is a challenging problem, especially for large earthquakes (M>8). Here, the magnitude is determined based on the GPS displacement waveform derived from real-time precise point positioning (PPP). The real-time PPP results are evaluated with an accuracy of 1 cm in the horizontal components and 2-3 cm in the vertical components, indicating that the real-time PPP is capable of detecting seismic waves with amplitude of 1cm horizontally and 2-3cm vertically with a confidence level of 95%. In order to estimate the magnitude, the unique information provided by the GPS displacement waveform is the horizontal peak displacement amplitude. We show that the empirical relation of Gutenberg (1945) between peak displacement and magnitude holds up to nearly magnitude 9.0 when displacements are measured with GPS. We tested the proposed method for three large earthquakes. For the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake, our method provides a magnitude of M7.18±0.18. For the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake the estimated magnitude is M8.74±0.06, and for the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake the value is M8.7±0.1 after excluding some near-field stations. We therefore conclude that depending on the availability of high-rate GPS observations, a robust value of magnitude up to 9.0 for a point source earthquake can be estimated within 10s of seconds or a few minutes after an event using a few GPS stations close to the epicenter. The rapid magnitude could be as a pre-requisite for tsunami early warning, fast source inversion, and emergency response is feasible.

  5. Effects of hydraulic retention time and bioflocculant addition on membrane fouling in a sponge-submerged membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lijuan; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao; Du, Bing; Wei, Qin; Tran, Ngoc Han; Nguyen, Nguyen Cong; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Li, Jianxin

    2016-06-01

    The characteristics of activated sludge and membrane fouling were evaluated in a sponge-submerged membrane bioreactor (SSMBR) at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (6.67, 5.33 and 4.00h). At shorter HRT, more obvious membrane fouling was caused by exacerbated cake layer formation and aggravated pore blocking. Activated sludge possessed more extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) due to excessive growth of biomass and lower protein to polysaccharide ratio in soluble microbial products (SMP). The cake layer resistance was aggravated by increased sludge viscosity together with the accumulated EPS and biopolymer clusters (BPC) on membrane surface. However, SMP showed marginal effect on membrane fouling when SSMBRs were operated at all HRTs. The SSMBR with Gemfloc® addition at the optimum HRT of 6.67h demonstrated superior sludge characteristics such as larger floc size, less SMP in mixed liquor with higher protein/polysaccharide ratio, less SMP and BPC in cake layer, thereby further preventing membrane fouling. PMID:26852274

  6. Assessing short- and long-time displacements in the Venice coastland by synthetic aperture radar interferometric point target analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, Pietro; Strozzi, Tazio; Tosi, Luigi; Wegmüller, Urs; Werner, Charles; Carbognin, Laura

    2007-03-01

    The Venice Lagoon in Italy is a unique environment vulnerable to loss in surface elevation relative to the mean sea level. We present detailed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometric analyses on persistent point targets for the historical center of Venice, the tourist area of Sottomarina, and the Zennare farmland close to the southern lagoon edge. The selected areas are characterized by different degrees of development and our analyses show the remarkable capability of SAR Interferometric Point Target Analysis (IPTA) to map land displacement rates in densely urbanized zones and to detect movement information on isolated structures with a mm/year accuracy. A detailed analysis of the time series from 1992 to 2000 provided by IPTA shows that the vertical component of the measured displacements are the superposition of a short timescale, generally seasonal, movement on the order of 1 cm that is likely related to the fluctuation of environmental variables (temperature, piezometric head in the aquifer system underlying the lagoon, sea/lagoon water level) and a long-term ground deformation associated with building construction, the geomorphology of the area, and the human development of natural resources. If Venice is confirmed to be generally stable, significant long-term subsidence on the order of 4 mm/year is detected at the Sottomarina coastland. The highest displacement rates, of up to 8-10 mm/year, are recorded in the farmland bounding the lagoon margin where the movements are found to be highly site-specific.

  7. Parcellation of the Healthy Neonatal Brain into 107 Regions Using Atlas Propagation through Intermediate Time Points in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Blesa, Manuel; Serag, Ahmed; Wilkinson, Alastair G; Anblagan, Devasuda; Telford, Emma J; Pataky, Rozalia; Sparrow, Sarah A; Macnaught, Gillian; Semple, Scott I; Bastin, Mark E; Boardman, James P

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39(+5) weeks, range 37(+2)-41(+6)). An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO) was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database), with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33) constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization (SyGN) method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modeling brain growth during development. PMID:27242423

  8. Parcellation of the Healthy Neonatal Brain into 107 Regions Using Atlas Propagation through Intermediate Time Points in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Blesa, Manuel; Serag, Ahmed; Wilkinson, Alastair G.; Anblagan, Devasuda; Telford, Emma J.; Pataky, Rozalia; Sparrow, Sarah A.; Macnaught, Gillian; Semple, Scott I.; Bastin, Mark E.; Boardman, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39+5 weeks, range 37+2–41+6). An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO) was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database), with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33) constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization (SyGN) method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modeling brain growth during development. PMID:27242423

  9. Locating single-point sources from arrival times containing large picking errors (LPEs): the virtual field optimization method (VFOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xi-Bing; Wang, Ze-Wei; Dong, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microseismic monitoring systems using local location techniques tend to be timely, automatic and stable. One basic requirement of these systems is the automatic picking of arrival times. However, arrival times generated by automated techniques always contain large picking errors (LPEs), which may make the location solution unreliable and cause the integrated system to be unstable. To overcome the LPE issue, we propose the virtual field optimization method (VFOM) for locating single-point sources. In contrast to existing approaches, the VFOM optimizes a continuous and virtually established objective function to search the space for the common intersection of the hyperboloids, which is determined by sensor pairs other than the least residual between the model-calculated and measured arrivals. The results of numerical examples and in-site blasts show that the VFOM can obtain more precise and stable solutions than traditional methods when the input data contain LPEs. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of LPEs on objective functions to determine the LPE-tolerant mechanism, velocity sensitivity and stopping criteria of the VFOM. The proposed method is also capable of locating acoustic sources using passive techniques such as passive sonar detection and acoustic emission.

  10. Locating single-point sources from arrival times containing large picking errors (LPEs): the virtual field optimization method (VFOM).

    PubMed

    Li, Xi-Bing; Wang, Ze-Wei; Dong, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microseismic monitoring systems using local location techniques tend to be timely, automatic and stable. One basic requirement of these systems is the automatic picking of arrival times. However, arrival times generated by automated techniques always contain large picking errors (LPEs), which may make the location solution unreliable and cause the integrated system to be unstable. To overcome the LPE issue, we propose the virtual field optimization method (VFOM) for locating single-point sources. In contrast to existing approaches, the VFOM optimizes a continuous and virtually established objective function to search the space for the common intersection of the hyperboloids, which is determined by sensor pairs other than the least residual between the model-calculated and measured arrivals. The results of numerical examples and in-site blasts show that the VFOM can obtain more precise and stable solutions than traditional methods when the input data contain LPEs. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of LPEs on objective functions to determine the LPE-tolerant mechanism, velocity sensitivity and stopping criteria of the VFOM. The proposed method is also capable of locating acoustic sources using passive techniques such as passive sonar detection and acoustic emission. PMID:26754955

  11. Reducing start-up time and minimizing energy losses of Microbial Fuel Cells using Maximum Power Point Tracking strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molognoni, Daniele; Puig, Sebastià; Balaguer, M. Dolors; Liberale, Alessandro; Capodaglio, Andrea G.; Callegari, Arianna; Colprim, Jesús

    2014-12-01

    Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) are considered to be an environmental friendly energy conversion technology. The main limitations that delay their industrialization include low current and power densities achievable and long start-up times. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) has been proposed as a method to enhance MFCs electrical performances. However, the specialized literature is still lacking of experimental works on scaled-up reactors and/or real wastewater utilization. This study evaluates the impact of a MPPT system applied to MFCs treating swine wastewater in terms of start-up time and long-term performance. For this purpose, two replicate cells were compared, one with applied MPPT control and one working with fixed resistance. Both MFCs were continuously fed with swine wastewater to validate the control system under real and dynamic conditions. The study demonstrated that the automatic resistance control was able to reduce the start-up time of about one month. Moreover, MPPT system increased of 40% the Coulombic efficiency at steady-state conditions, reduced energy losses associated with anode and cathode reactions and limited methanogenic activity in the anode chamber. A power density of 5.0 ± 0.2 W m-3 NAC was achieved feeding the system at an organic loading rate of 10 kg COD m-3 d-1.

  12. A space-time point process model for analyzing and predicting case patterns of diarrheal disease in northwestern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jaeil; Johnson, Timothy D.; Bhavnani, Darlene; Eisenberg, Joseph N.S.; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2014-01-01

    We consider modeling case-patterns under a complex spatial and longitudinal sampling design as conducted via a serial case–control study of diarrheal disease in northwestern Ecuador. We build a two-stage space-time model to understand the role of spatially and temporally referenced covariates that reflect social and natural environments in the sampled region, after accounting for unmeasured residual heterogeneities. All diarrheal case events are collected from 21 sampled communities in Esmeraldes province in Ecuador, during seven sampling cycles from 2003 to 2008. The region of interest comprises 158 communities along a river basin. Prediction of case counts at unsampled communities at a future time is of interest along with estimation of risk-related parameters. We propose a computationally feasible two-stage Bayesian approach to estimate the risk-related parameters and conduct predictive inference. We first apply the log Gaussian Cox process (LGCP), commonly used to model spatial clustering of point patterns, to accommodate temporal variation within the sampled communities. Prediction of the number of cases at unsampled communities at a future time is obtained by a disease mapping model conditional on the expected case counts from Stage I. PMID:24889991

  13. Locating single-point sources from arrival times containing large picking errors (LPEs): the virtual field optimization method (VFOM)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xi-Bing; Wang, Ze-Wei; Dong, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microseismic monitoring systems using local location techniques tend to be timely, automatic and stable. One basic requirement of these systems is the automatic picking of arrival times. However, arrival times generated by automated techniques always contain large picking errors (LPEs), which may make the location solution unreliable and cause the integrated system to be unstable. To overcome the LPE issue, we propose the virtual field optimization method (VFOM) for locating single-point sources. In contrast to existing approaches, the VFOM optimizes a continuous and virtually established objective function to search the space for the common intersection of the hyperboloids, which is determined by sensor pairs other than the least residual between the model-calculated and measured arrivals. The results of numerical examples and in-site blasts show that the VFOM can obtain more precise and stable solutions than traditional methods when the input data contain LPEs. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of LPEs on objective functions to determine the LPE-tolerant mechanism, velocity sensitivity and stopping criteria of the VFOM. The proposed method is also capable of locating acoustic sources using passive techniques such as passive sonar detection and acoustic emission. PMID:26754955

  14. Defect states and exceptional point splitting in the band gaps of one-dimensional parity-time lattices.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xue-Feng

    2015-08-24

    We investigated defect states in band gaps of one-dimensional photonic lattices with delicate modulations of gain and loss that respect parity-time-symmetry (PT-symmetry), viz. n(z) = n*(-z). For the sake of generality, we employ not only periodic structures but also quasiperiodic structures, e.g. Fibonacci sequences, to construct aperiodic PT lattices. Differed from lossless systems for which the defect state is related to only one exceptional point (EP) of the S-matrix, we observed the splitting of one EP into a pair after the introduction of judiciously designed gain and loss in those PT systems, where the defect state enters a non-threshold broken symmetry phase bounded by the EP pair. Some interesting properties associated with defect states and EP splitting are demonstrated, such as enhanced spectral localization, double optical phase abrupt change, and wavelength sensitive reversion of unidirectional transparency. PMID:26368199

  15. Reference intervals for coagulation times using two point-of-care analysers in healthy pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Mentré, V; Bulliot, C; Linsart, A; Ronot, P

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of this study was to establish reference intervals for prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial prothrombin time (aPTT) in healthy rabbits using two different point-of-care analysers (Idexx Coag DX and MS Quick Vet Coag Combo). These intervals would be useful in the diagnosis of coagulopathies and in the determination of coagulation status in critical patients. We are unaware of reports of coagulation values in pet rabbits. Blood samples were analysed from 81 clinically healthy pet rabbits under three years of age (49 females and 32 males). The reference intervals were as follows (non-parametric method for the MS Quick Vet Coag Combo and Box-Cox Robust method for the Idexx Coag DX, p<0.05 limit for statistical significance): PT (MS Quick Vet Coag Combo)=N=33, 17.2-28.5; PT (Idexx Coag DX)=N=48, 10.0-14.8, aPTT (MS Quick Vet Coag Combo)=N=33, 103.2-159.2 and aPTT (Idexx Coag DX)=N=48, 104.2-159.1. PT was significantly longer using the MS Quick Vet Coag Combo. aPTT was significantly shorter with the MS Quick Vet Coag Combo. On each type of analyser, there was no significant difference between sexes and blood sampling sites. A significant difference was present for the use or not of anaesthesia with the MS Quick Vet Coag Combo analyser. This study on healthy pet rabbits will be useful in point-of-care diagnosis of coagulopathies. PMID:24722233

  16. Impact of the single point of access referral system to reduce waiting times and improve clinical outcomes in an assistive technology service.

    PubMed

    Hosking, Jonathan; Gibson, Colin

    2016-07-01

    The introduction of a single point referral system that prioritises clients depending on case complexity and overcomes the need for re-admittance to a waiting list via a review system has been shown to significantly reduce maximum waiting times for a Posture and Mobility (Special Seating) Service from 102.0 ± 24.33 weeks to 19.2 ± 8.57 weeks (p = 0.015). Using this service model linear regression revealed a statistically significant improvement in the performance outcome of prescribed seating solutions with shorter Episode of Care completion times (p = 0.023). In addition, the number of Episodes of Care completed per annum was significantly related to the Episode of Care completion time (p = 0.019). In conclusion, it is recommended that it may be advantageous to apply this service model to other assistive technology services in order to reduce waiting times and to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:27098983

  17. Impact of Influenza on Outpatient Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths by Using a Time Series Poisson Generalized Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ru-ning; Zheng, Hui-zhen; Ou, Chun-quan; Huang, Li-qun; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Can-kun; Lin, Jin-yan; Zhong, Hao-jie; Song, Tie; Luo, Hui-ming

    2016-01-01

    Background The disease burden associated with influenza in developing tropical and subtropical countries is poorly understood owing to the lack of a comprehensive disease surveillance system and information-exchange mechanisms. The impact of influenza on outpatient visits, hospital admissions, and deaths has not been fully demonstrated to date in south China. Methods A time series Poisson generalized additive model was used to quantitatively assess influenza-like illness (ILI) and influenza disease burden by using influenza surveillance data in Zhuhai City from 2007 to 2009, combined with the outpatient, inpatient, and respiratory disease mortality data of the same period. Results The influenza activity in Zhuhai City demonstrated a typical subtropical seasonal pattern; however, each influenza virus subtype showed a specific transmission variation. The weekly ILI case number and virus isolation rate had a very close positive correlation (r = 0.774, P < 0.0001). The impact of ILI and influenza on weekly outpatient visits was statistically significant (P < 0.05). We determined that 10.7% of outpatient visits were associated with ILI and 1.88% were associated with influenza. ILI also had a significant influence on the hospitalization rates (P < 0.05), but mainly in populations <25 years of age. No statistically significant effect of influenza on hospital admissions was found (P > 0.05). The impact of ILI on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was most significant (P < 0.05), with 33.1% of COPD-related deaths being attributable to ILI. The impact of influenza on the mortality rate requires further evaluation. Conclusions ILI is a feasible indicator of influenza activity. Both ILI and influenza have a large impact on outpatient visits. Although ILI affects the number of hospital admissions and deaths, we found no consistent influence of influenza, which requires further assessment. PMID:26894876

  18. 14 CFR 121.523 - Flight time limitations: Crew of three or more pilots and additional airmen as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of three or... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.523 Flight time limitations: Crew of three... duty for more than 30 hours. Such a crewmember is considered to be on continuous duty from the time...

  19. 14 CFR 121.485 - Flight time limitations: Three or more pilots and an additional flight crewmember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Three or more... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.485 Flight time limitations: Three or more pilots... excess of seven days may be given at any time before the pilot is again scheduled for flight duty on...

  20. 14 CFR 121.523 - Flight time limitations: Crew of three or more pilots and additional airmen as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of three or... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.523 Flight time limitations: Crew of three... hours before beginning flight duty, one half of the time spent in deadhead transportation must...

  1. 14 CFR 121.523 - Flight time limitations: Crew of three or more pilots and additional airmen as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of three or... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.523 Flight time limitations: Crew of three... hours before beginning flight duty, one half of the time spent in deadhead transportation must...

  2. 14 CFR 121.485 - Flight time limitations: Three or more pilots and an additional flight crewmember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Three or more... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.485 Flight time limitations: Three or more pilots... excess of seven days may be given at any time before the pilot is again scheduled for flight duty on...

  3. 14 CFR 121.485 - Flight time limitations: Three or more pilots and an additional flight crewmember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Three or more... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.485 Flight time limitations: Three or more pilots... excess of seven days may be given at any time before the pilot is again scheduled for flight duty on...

  4. 14 CFR 121.523 - Flight time limitations: Crew of three or more pilots and additional airmen as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of three or... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.523 Flight time limitations: Crew of three... hours before beginning flight duty, one half of the time spent in deadhead transportation must...

  5. 14 CFR 121.485 - Flight time limitations: Three or more pilots and an additional flight crewmember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Three or more... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.485 Flight time limitations: Three or more pilots... excess of seven days may be given at any time before the pilot is again scheduled for flight duty on...

  6. Paramagnetic point defects in amorphous thin films of SiO{sub 2} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}: Updates and additions

    SciTech Connect

    Poindexter, E.H.; Warren, W.L.

    1995-07-01

    Recent research on point defects in thin films of silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and silicon oxynitride on Si is presented and reviewed. In SiO{sub 2}, it now clear that no one type of E{prime} are proposed. Molecular orbital theory and easy passivation of E{prime} by H{sub 2} suggest that released H might depassivate interface P{sub b} sites. A charged E{prime}{sub {delta}} center has been seen in Cl-free SIMOX (separation by implantation of oxygen) and thermal oxide films, and it is reassigned to an electron delocalized over four O{sub 3}{triple_bond}Si units around a fifth Si. In Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, a new model for the amphoteric charging of {sm_bullet}Si{triple_bond}N{sub 3} moieties is based on local shifts in defect energy with respect to the Fermi level, arising from nonuniform composition; it does not assume negative U electron correlation. A new defect NN{sub 2}{sup 0} has been identified, with dangling orbital on a two-coordinated N atom bonded to another N. Silicon oxynitride defects are briefly presented.

  7. Potential performance of dual-time-point 18F-FDG PET/CT compared with single-time-point imaging for differential diagnosis of metastatic lymph nodes: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guohua; Deng, Houfu; Hu, Shuang; Jia, Zhiyun

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, dual-time-point (DTP) fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET/computed tomography (CT) has emerged as a new method for evaluating metastatic lymph nodes in cancer patients. We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the performance of DTP PET/CT compared with single-time-point (STP) imaging for differential diagnosis of lymph nodes metastases. On the basis of data from included studies, pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were calculated. Summary receiver-operating characteristic curves were also constructed to assess the diagnostic value of DTP PET/CT and STP imaging in detecting metastatic lymph nodes. Totally, 17 articles were included in the analysis. On a per-patient basis, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.74 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68-0.79] and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.72-0.81) for DTP PET/CT and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.61-0.73) and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.78-0.85) for STP PET/CT, respectively. On a per-lesion basis, the pooled sensitivity of DTP and STP PET/CT was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.79-0.84) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.78-0.83), respectively. The pooled specificity was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.86-0.89) for DTP PET/CT and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.80-0.84) for STP PET/CT. Compared with STP imaging, DTP PET/CT has higher sensitivity but lower specificity in detecting lymph nodes metastases on a per-patient analysis, and DTP PET/CT performs only a little better than STP PET/CT on a per-lesion basis. The current results of our meta-analysis do not support the routine use of DTP imaging for the diagnosis of metastatic lymph nodes. Further prospective research with large samples is required to better define the potential benefits of DTP PET/CT imaging. PMID:25023998

  8. Principal Component Analysis of the Time- and Position-dependent Point-Spread Function of the Advanced Camera for Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jee, M. J.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Sirianni, M.; Martel, A. R.; White, R. L.; Ford, H. C.

    2007-12-01

    We describe the time- and position-dependent point-spread function (PSF) variation of the wide-field channel (WFC) of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) with the principal component analysis (PCA) technique. The time-dependent change is caused by the temporal variation of the HST focus, whereas the position-dependent PSF variation in ACS WFC at a given focus is mainly the result of changes in aberrations and charge diffusion across the detector, which appear as position-dependent changes in the elongation of the astigmatic core and blurring of the PSF, respectively. Using ˜ 20 ) of principal components or "eigen-PSFs" per exposure can robustly reproduce the observed variation of the ellipticity and size of the PSF. Our primary interest in this investigation is the application of this PSF library to precision weak-lensing analyses, where accurate knowledge of the instrument's PSF is crucial. However, the high fidelity of the model judged from the nice agreement with observed PSFs suggests that the model is potentially also useful in other applications, such as crowded field stellar photometry, galaxy profile fitting, AGN studies, etc., which similarly demand a fair knowledge of the PSFs at objects' locations. Our PSF models, applicable to any WFC image rectified with the Lanczos3 kernel, are publicly available.

  9. Neuroscience education in addition to trigger point dry needling for the management of patients with mechanical chronic low back pain: A preliminary clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Téllez-García, Mario; de-la-Llave-Rincón, Ana I; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Palacios-Ceña, Maria; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the short-term effects of trigger point dry needling (TrP-DN) alone or combined with neuroscience education on pain, disability, kinesiophobia and widespread pressure sensitivity in patients with mechanical low back pain (LBP). Twelve patients with LBP were randomly assigned to receive either TrP-DN (TrP-DN) or TrP-DN plus neuroscience education (TrP-DN + EDU). Pain intensity (Numerical Pain Rating Scale, 0-10), disability (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire-RMQ-, Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index-ODI), kinesiophobia (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia-TSK), and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, transverse process of L3 vertebra, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior muscle were collected at baseline and 1-week after the intervention. Patients treated with TrP-DN + EDU experienced a significantly greater reduction of kinesiophobia (P = 0.008) and greater increases in PPT over the transverse process of L3 (P = 0.049) than those patients treated only with TrP-DN. Both groups experienced similar decreases in pain, ODI and RMQ, and similar increases in PPT over the C5/C6 joint, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior after the intervention (all, P > 0.05). The results suggest that TrP-DN was effective for improving pain, disability, kinesiophobia and widespread pressure sensitivity in patients with mechanical LBP at short-term. The inclusion of a neuroscience educational program resulted in a greater improvement in kinesiophobia. PMID:26118519

  10. A multiscale maximum entropy moment closure for locally regulated space-time point process models of population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Raghib, Michael; Hill, Nicholas A; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2011-05-01

    The prevalence of structure in biological populations challenges fundamental assumptions at the heart of continuum models of population dynamics based only on mean densities (local or global). Individual-based models (IBMs) were introduced during the last decade in an attempt to overcome this limitation by following explicitly each individual in the population. Although the IBM approach has been quite useful, the capability to follow each individual usually comes at the expense of analytical tract ability, which limits the generality of the statements that can be made. For the specific case of spatial structure in populations of sessile (and identical) organisms, space-time point processes with local regulation seem to cover the middle ground between analytical tract ability and a higher degree of biological realism. This approach has shown that simplified representations of fecundity, local dispersal and density-dependent mortality weighted by the local competitive environment are sufficient to generate spatial patterns that mimic field observations. Continuum approximations of these stochastic processes try to distill their fundamental properties, and they keep track of not only mean densities, but also higher order spatial correlations. However, due to the non-linearities involved they result in infinite hierarchies of moment equations. This leads to the problem of finding a 'moment closure'; that is, an appropriate order of (lower order) truncation, together with a method of expressing the highest order density not explicitly modelled in the truncated hierarchy in terms of the lower order densities. We use the principle of constrained maximum entropy to derive a closure relationship for truncation at second order using normalisation and the product densities of first and second orders as constraints, and apply it to one such hierarchy. The resulting 'maxent' closure is similar to the Kirkwood superposition approximation, or 'power-3' closure, but it is

  11. Dynamics of the Sanières rockslide from the time-lapse analysis of airborne and terrestrial point clouds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malet, Jean-Philippe; Skupinsky, Gregorz; Guérin, Antoine; Derron, Marc-Henri; Bornemann, Pierrick

    2015-04-01

    The Roche-Plombée rocsklide (South French Alps) has been triggered in early August 2013 in the lower part of the Sanières catchment as a result of undercutting of the torrent banks after a debris flow event. During several days, a large amount of debris have been mobilised along a 300m length cliff. Deposits have reached and filled the torrential channel downslope. Several field observations carried out in the following weeks have shown the progressive opening of fissures along the main scarp. Today, large volumes of unstable debris are still available on the slope. Local stakeholders are now expecting the formation of a debris-dam in the channel which could lead to a debris flow in case of failure. This work is focused on the use of remote sensing techniques (terrestrial photogrammetry, airborne and terrestrical LiDAR) to detect and quantify spatial and temporal distribution of materials on the slope. The Structure From Motion (SFM) technique is used to generate multi-date high-resolution digital elevation models (HRDEMs) in order to quantify volumes changes; a time-lapse image correlation analysis of four terrestrial LiDAR scans is used to estimate displacements at the surface. The analysis of the point cloud dataset indicates a global deformation of the rockslope along several slip surfaces. The progressive development of the main scarp with velocity of a few cm.month-1 is also monitored. The analysis of an airborne LiDAR point cloud allows to characterize the main discontinuities. The possibility of extension of the rockslide is discussed.

  12. Time-frequency analysis of single-point engine-block vibration measurements for multiple excitation-event identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulli, S.; Dunne, J. F.; Potenza, R.; Richardson, D.; King, P.

    2009-04-01

    The short-term-Fourier-transform (STFT) is used to identify different sources of IC engine-block vibration from single-point acceleration measurements taken with a commercial knock sensor. Interest is focused on using the STFT to distinguish normal combustion from other sources of excitation including valve impact, injector pulses, and abnormal combustion, such as knocking. Positive identification of these other events using a single method can be useful for pre-processing of measured knock-sensor data for neural-network-based reconstruction of cylinder pressure. It can also be useful separately as part of a fast knock detection system. A series of experiments is discussed to create the data to isolate these different events on a 3-cylinder gasoline engine. In each case, the measured data is processed using the STFT to attempt to isolate the occurrence of particular events in the time domain. Four classes of experiments are undertaken: (i) an un-fired (motored) engine, driven by a dynamometer, with spark plugs fitted, and then removed, to isolate valve impact; (ii) a fired engine running under idle conditions, to contrast no-load combustion with no combustion; (iii) a part-loaded engine running normally, and then running with one injector switched-off, and (iv) a fully-loaded engine running normally, and then running with knock-control switched-off. The paper shows that a single Time-frequency analysis method, applied to knock sensor data in the form of an appropriately-tuned STFT, can effectively identify the occurrence of these events in the time domain if responses are adequately separated and strong enough.

  13. 14 CFR 121.485 - Flight time limitations: Three or more pilots and an additional flight crewmember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Three or more... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.485 Flight time limitations: Three or more pilots... his base and who is a pilot on an airplane that has a crew of three or more pilots and an...

  14. 14 CFR 121.523 - Flight time limitations: Crew of three or more pilots and additional airmen as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of three or... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.523 Flight time limitations: Crew of three... operations may schedule an airman for flight deck duty as a flight engineer, or navigator in a crew of...

  15. 14 CFR 121.521 - Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one additional airman as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.521 Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one...

  16. 14 CFR 121.521 - Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one additional airman as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.521 Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one...

  17. 14 CFR 121.521 - Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one additional airman as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.521 Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one...

  18. 14 CFR 121.521 - Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one additional airman as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.521 Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one...

  19. Adaptive error detection for HDR/PDR brachytherapy: Guidance for decision making during real-time in vivo point dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Kertzscher, Gustavo Andersen, Claus E.; Tanderup, Kari

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: This study presents an adaptive error detection algorithm (AEDA) for real-timein vivo point dosimetry during high dose rate (HDR) or pulsed dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy (BT) where the error identification, in contrast to existing approaches, does not depend on an a priori reconstruction of the dosimeter position. Instead, the treatment is judged based on dose rate comparisons between measurements and calculations of the most viable dosimeter position provided by the AEDA in a data driven approach. As a result, the AEDA compensates for false error cases related to systematic effects of the dosimeter position reconstruction. Given its nearly exclusive dependence on stable dosimeter positioning, the AEDA allows for a substantially simplified and time efficient real-time in vivo BT dosimetry implementation. Methods: In the event of a measured potential treatment error, the AEDA proposes the most viable dosimeter position out of alternatives to the original reconstruction by means of a data driven matching procedure between dose rate distributions. If measured dose rates do not differ significantly from the most viable alternative, the initial error indication may be attributed to a mispositioned or misreconstructed dosimeter (false error). However, if the error declaration persists, no viable dosimeter position can be found to explain the error, hence the discrepancy is more likely to originate from a misplaced or misreconstructed source applicator or from erroneously connected source guide tubes (true error). Results: The AEDA applied on twoin vivo dosimetry implementations for pulsed dose rate BT demonstrated that the AEDA correctly described effects responsible for initial error indications. The AEDA was able to correctly identify the major part of all permutations of simulated guide tube swap errors and simulated shifts of individual needles from the original reconstruction. Unidentified errors corresponded to scenarios where the dosimeter position was

  20. Effect of time-of-flight and point spread function modeling on detectability of myocardial defects in PET

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefferkoetter, Joshua; Ouyang, Jinsong; Rakvongthai, Yothin; El Fakhri, Georges; Nappi, Carmela

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A study was designed to investigate the impact of time-of-flight (TOF) and point spread function (PSF) modeling on the detectability of myocardial defects. Methods: Clinical FDG-PET data were used to generate populations of defect-present and defect-absent images. Defects were incorporated at three contrast levels, and images were reconstructed by ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) iterative methods including ordinary Poisson, alone and with PSF, TOF, and PSF+TOF. Channelized Hotelling observer signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was the surrogate for human observer performance. Results: For three iterations, 12 subsets, and no postreconstruction smoothing, TOF improved overall defect detection SNR by 8.6% as compared to its non-TOF counterpart for all the defect contrasts. Due to the slow convergence of PSF reconstruction, PSF yielded 4.4% less SNR than non-PSF. For reconstruction parameters (iteration number and postreconstruction smoothing kernel size) optimizing observer SNR, PSF showed larger improvement for faint defects. The combination of TOF and PSF improved mean detection SNR as compared to non-TOF and non-PSF counterparts by 3.0% and 3.2%, respectively. Conclusions: For typical reconstruction protocol used in clinical practice, i.e., less than five iterations, TOF improved defect detectability. In contrast, PSF generally yielded less detectability. For large number of iterations, TOF+PSF yields the best observer performance.

  1. Effect of time-of-flight and point spread function modeling on detectability of myocardial defects in PET

    PubMed Central

    Schaefferkoetter, Joshua; Ouyang, Jinsong; Rakvongthai, Yothin; Nappi, Carmela; El Fakhri, Georges

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A study was designed to investigate the impact of time-of-flight (TOF) and point spread function (PSF) modeling on the detectability of myocardial defects. Methods: Clinical FDG-PET data were used to generate populations of defect-present and defect-absent images. Defects were incorporated at three contrast levels, and images were reconstructed by ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) iterative methods including ordinary Poisson, alone and with PSF, TOF, and PSF+TOF. Channelized Hotelling observer signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was the surrogate for human observer performance. Results: For three iterations, 12 subsets, and no postreconstruction smoothing, TOF improved overall defect detection SNR by 8.6% as compared to its non-TOF counterpart for all the defect contrasts. Due to the slow convergence of PSF reconstruction, PSF yielded 4.4% less SNR than non-PSF. For reconstruction parameters (iteration number and postreconstruction smoothing kernel size) optimizing observer SNR, PSF showed larger improvement for faint defects. The combination of TOF and PSF improved mean detection SNR as compared to non-TOF and non-PSF counterparts by 3.0% and 3.2%, respectively. Conclusions: For typical reconstruction protocol used in clinical practice, i.e., less than five iterations, TOF improved defect detectability. In contrast, PSF generally yielded less detectability. For large number of iterations, TOF+PSF yields the best observer performance. PMID:24877836

  2. Clinical Impact of Time-of-Flight and Point Response Modeling in PET Reconstructions: A Lesion Detection Study

    PubMed Central

    Schaefferkoetter, Joshua; Casey, Michael; Townsend, David; Fakhri, Georges El

    2013-01-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) and point spread function (PSF) modeling have been shown to improve PET reconstructions, but the impact on physicians in the clinical setting has not been thoroughly investigated. A lesion detection and localization study was performed using simulated lesions in real patient images. Four reconstruction schemes were considered: ordinary Poisson OSEM (OP) alone and combined with TOF, PSF, and TOF+PSF. The images were presented to physicians experienced in reading PET images, and the performance of each was quantified using localization receiver operating characteristic (LROC). Numerical observers (non-prewhitening and Hotelling) were used to identify optimal reconstruction parameters, and observer SNR was compared to the performance of the physicians. The numerical models showed good agreement with human performance, and best performance was achieved by both when using TOF+PSF. These findings suggest a large potential benefit of TOF+PSF for oncology PET studies, especially in the detection of small, low-intensity, focal disease in larger patients. PMID:23403399

  3. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  4. The use of multiple versus single assessment time points to improve screening accuracy in identifying children at risk for later serious antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Petras, Hanno; Buckley, Jacquelyn A; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2013-10-01

    Guided by Kraemer et al.'s (Psychological Methods, 3:257-271, 1999) framework for measuring the potency of risk factors, we sought to improve on the classification accuracy reported in Petras et al. (Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 43:88-96, 2004a) and Petras et al. (Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 44:790-797, 2005) by using multiple as opposed to single point in time assessments of early aggressive and disruptive behavior in the classification of youth who would likely benefit from targeted preventive interventions. Different from Petras et al. (2004a, 2005), the outcome used in this study included serious antisocial behavior in young adulthood as well as in adolescence. Among males, the use of multiple time points did not yield greater classification accuracy than the highest single time points, that is, third and fifth grades. For females, although fifth grade represented the best single time point in terms of classification accuracy, no significant association was found between earlier time points and the later outcome, rendering a test of the multiple time points hypothesis moot. The findings presented in this study have strong implications for the design of targeted intervention for violence prevention, indicating that the screening quality based on aggression ratings during the elementary years is rather modest, particularly for females. PMID:23408279

  5. Time-Lapse Analysis of Methane Quantity in the Mary Lee Group of Coal Seams Using Filter-Based Multiple-Point Geostatistical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Olea, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Coal seam degasification and its success are important for controlling methane, and thus for the health and safety of coal miners. During the course of degasification, properties of coal seams change. Thus, the changes in coal reservoir conditions and in-place gas content as well as methane emission potential into mines should be evaluated by examining time-dependent changes and the presence of major heterogeneities and geological discontinuities in the field. In this work, time-lapsed reservoir and fluid storage properties of the New Castle coal seam, Mary Lee/Blue Creek seam, and Jagger seam of Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, were determined from gas and water production history matching and production forecasting of vertical degasification wellbores. These properties were combined with isotherm and other important data to compute gas-in-place (GIP) and its change with time at borehole locations. Time-lapsed training images (TIs) of GIP and GIP difference corresponding to each coal and date were generated by using these point-wise data and Voronoi decomposition on the TI grid, which included faults as discontinuities for expansion of Voronoi regions. Filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulations, which were preferred in this study due to anisotropies and discontinuities in the area, were used to predict time-lapsed GIP distributions within the study area. Performed simulations were used for mapping spatial time-lapsed methane quantities as well as their uncertainties within the study area. The systematic approach presented in this paper is the first time in literature that history matching, TIs of GIPs and filter simulations are used for degasification performance evaluation and for assessing GIP for mining safety. Results from this study showed that using production history matching of coalbed methane wells to determine time-lapsed reservoir data could be used to compute spatial GIP and representative GIP TIs generated through Voronoi decomposition

  6. Time-lapse analysis of methane quantity in Mary Lee group of coal seams using filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karacan, C. Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A.

    2013-01-01

    The systematic approach presented in this paper is the first time in literature that history matching, TIs of GIPs and filter simulations are used for degasification performance evaluation and for assessing GIP for mining safety. Results from this study showed that using production history matching of coalbed methane wells to determine time-lapsed reservoir data could be used to compute spatial GIP and representative GIP TIs generated through Voronoi decomposition. Furthermore, performing filter simulations using point-wise data and TIs could be used to predict methane quantity in coal seams subjected to degasification. During the course of the study, it was shown that the material balance of gas produced by wellbores and the GIP reductions in coal seams predicted using filter simulations compared very well, showing the success of filter simulations for continuous variables in this case study. Quantitative results from filter simulations of GIP within the studied area briefly showed that GIP was reduced from an initial ∼73 Bcf (median) to ∼46 Bcf (2011), representing a 37 % decrease and varying spatially through degasification. It is forecasted that there will be an additional ∼2 Bcf reduction in methane quantity between 2011 and 2015. This study and presented results showed that the applied methodology and utilized techniques can be used to map GIP and its change within coal seams after degasification, which can further be used for ventilation design for methane control in coal mines.

  7. Evaluation of gold nanoparticles as the additive in real-time polymerase chain reaction with SYBR Green I dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenchao; Mi, Lijuan; Cao, Xueyan; Zhang, Xiaodong; Fan, Chunhai; Hu, Jun

    2008-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been proven to be able to improve the specificity or increase the efficiency of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) when a suitable amount of AuNPs was used. However, there is still a lack of systematic evaluation of AuNPs in real-time PCR. In this study, DNA degradation and the fluorescence quenching effect of AuNPs were first tested in real-time PCR. Then two different kinds of Taq DNA polymerase, native and recombinant Taq polymerase, were employed to evaluate the AuNPs' effect on the threshold cycle (CT) values, standard curves and melting curves in real-time PCR. Different ratios of the amount of native Taq DNA polymerase to the amount of AuNPs were also tested. It was found that AuNPs could be applied in real-time PCR with correlation coefficient R2>0.989. The combination of 2.09 nM AuNPs with 3.75 U of native Taq DNA polymerase could make the amplification curves shift to the left and enhance the efficiency of the real-time PCR (0.628 39 without AuNPs compared with 0.717 89 with 2.09 nM AuNPs), thus enabling faster detection in comparison with those of control samples. However, no improvement ability of AuNPs was found in real-time PCR based on recombinant rTaq DNA polymerase. Besides, the results suggest that a complex interaction exists between AuNPs and native Taq DNA polymerase.

  8. Body mass index in adolescent anorexia nervosa patients in relation to age, time point and site of admission.

    PubMed

    Bühren, Katharina; von Ribbeck, Linda; Schwarte, Reinhild; Egberts, Karin; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Fleischhaker, Christian; Wewetzer, Christoph; Kennes, Lieven N; Dempfle, Astrid; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2013-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) at admission is an important predictor of outcome in adolescent eating disorders. However, few studies have investigated BMI at admission, its changes in recent years, or modifying factors, such as duration of illness and age at onset in different geographical regions. Thus, this study aimed to investigate changes in BMI at admission over the past decade in one clinic, the differences in BMI between various treatment sites and the influence of duration of illness before admission and age at admission. Our sample consisted of 158 adolescent female patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) admitted between 2001 and 2009 to a major university hospital and 169 adolescent female patients recruited in a multicenter study between 2007 and 2010. We assessed the differences between departments in different regions of Germany in the multi-site sample. Changes over time in age-adjusted BMI and age at admission as well as modifying factors for age-adjusted BMI at admission, such as age at admission and duration of illness, were assessed in a representative local sample. There were no significant differences between departments in different regions of Germany. Over the course of the local study, there was a small but significant increase in the age-adjusted BMI score and absolute BMI at admission. In addition, there was a positive association between year of admission and age at admission. Older adolescents with AN had a lower age-adjusted BMI score and a longer duration of illness at the time of admission. The BMI at admission, which is one of the most important predictors of outcome in AN, has increased slightly during the past 10 years. Education strategies for parents and professionals should continue to be improved to further shorten the duration of illness before admission, especially for older adolescents. PMID:23392754

  9. 77 FR 23239 - Bryant Mountain, LLC; Notice of Additional Scoping Meetings, Extension of Time To File Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Time To File Comments on the PAD and Scoping Document, and Identification of Issues and Associated... comments on the Pre- Application Document (PAD) and Scoping Document 1 (SD1). b. Type of Filing: Notice of..., filed with the Commission a PAD (including a proposed process plan and schedule), pursuant to 18 CFR...

  10. Change Points in the Population Trends of Aerial-Insectivorous Birds in North America: Synchronized in Time across Species and Regions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam C; Hudson, Marie-Anne R; Downes, Constance M; Francis, Charles M

    2015-01-01

    North American populations of aerial insectivorous birds are in steep decline. Aerial insectivores (AI) are a group of bird species that feed almost exclusively on insects in flight, and include swallows, swifts, nightjars, and flycatchers. The causes of the declines are not well understood. Indeed, it is not clear when the declines began, or whether the declines are shared across all species in the group (e.g., caused by changes in flying insect populations) or specific to each species (e.g., caused by changes in species' breeding habitat). A recent study suggested that population trends of aerial insectivores changed for the worse in the 1980s. If there was such a change point in trends of the group, understanding its timing and geographic pattern could help identify potential causes of the decline. We used a hierarchical Bayesian, penalized regression spline, change point model to estimate group-level change points in the trends of 22 species of AI, across 153 geographic strata of North America. We found evidence for group-level change points in 85% of the strata. Change points for flycatchers (FC) were distinct from those for swallows, swifts and nightjars (SSN) across North America, except in the Northeast, where all AI shared the same group-level change points. During the 1980s, there was a negative change point across most of North America, in the trends of SSN. For FC, the group-level change points were more geographically variable, and in many regions there were two: a positive change point followed by a negative change point. This group-level synchrony in AI population trends is likely evidence of a response to a common environmental factor(s) with similar effects on many species across broad spatial extents. The timing and geographic patterns of the change points that we identify here should provide a spring-board for research into the causes behind aerial insectivore declines. PMID:26147572

  11. Change Points in the Population Trends of Aerial-Insectivorous Birds in North America: Synchronized in Time across Species and Regions

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adam C.; Hudson, Marie-Anne R.; Downes, Constance M.; Francis, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    North American populations of aerial insectivorous birds are in steep decline. Aerial insectivores (AI) are a group of bird species that feed almost exclusively on insects in flight, and include swallows, swifts, nightjars, and flycatchers. The causes of the declines are not well understood. Indeed, it is not clear when the declines began, or whether the declines are shared across all species in the group (e.g., caused by changes in flying insect populations) or specific to each species (e.g., caused by changes in species’ breeding habitat). A recent study suggested that population trends of aerial insectivores changed for the worse in the 1980s. If there was such a change point in trends of the group, understanding its timing and geographic pattern could help identify potential causes of the decline. We used a hierarchical Bayesian, penalized regression spline, change point model to estimate group-level change points in the trends of 22 species of AI, across 153 geographic strata of North America. We found evidence for group-level change points in 85% of the strata. Change points for flycatchers (FC) were distinct from those for swallows, swifts and nightjars (SSN) across North America, except in the Northeast, where all AI shared the same group-level change points. During the 1980s, there was a negative change point across most of North America, in the trends of SSN. For FC, the group-level change points were more geographically variable, and in many regions there were two: a positive change point followed by a negative change point. This group-level synchrony in AI population trends is likely evidence of a response to a common environmental factor(s) with similar effects on many species across broad spatial extents. The timing and geographic patterns of the change points that we identify here should provide a spring-board for research into the causes behind aerial insectivore declines. PMID:26147572

  12. Chimpanzees remember the results of one-by-one addition of food items to sets over extended time periods.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Beran, Mary M

    2004-02-01

    Four chimpanzees were highly accurate in selecting the larger of two concurrent accumulations of bananas in two opaque containers over a span of 20 min. One at a time, bananas were placed into the containers, which were outside the chimpanzees' cages. The chimpanzees never saw more than one banana at a time, and there were no cues indicating the locations of the bananas after they were placed into the containers. The performance of these animals matched that of human infants and young children in similar tests. The chimpanzees were successful even when the sets to be compared were sufficiently large (5 vs. 8, 5 vs. 10, and 6 vs. 10) to cast doubt on the possibility that the chimpanzees were using an object file mechanism. These chimpanzees are the first nonhuman animals to demonstrate extended memory for accumulated quantity. PMID:14738515

  13. Intensifying instruction: Does additional instructional time make a difference for the most at-risk first graders?

    PubMed

    Harn, Beth A; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia; Roberts, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Research is clear on the benefit of early intervention efforts and the importance of intensive instructional supports; however, understanding which features to intensify is less clear. General intervention features of group size, instructional delivery, and time are areas schools can consider manipulating to intensify instruction. Also, each of these features can vary along a continuum making them easier or more challenging for schools to implement. What is unclear is if implementing very intensive interventions early in school (first grade), which require significantly more school resources, provides accordingly accelerated student learning. This article investigates the role of intensifying instructional time for the most at-risk first graders in schools implementing research-based instructional and assessment practices within multitiered instructional support systems. Results indicate that students receiving more intensive intervention made significantly more progress across a range of early reading measures. Intervention features, limitations, recommendations for practice, and implications for treatment resisters are discussed. PMID:18354932

  14. Identification of a time-varying point source in a system of two coupled linear diffusion-advection- reaction equations: application to surface water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Adel

    2009-11-01

    This paper deals with the identification of a point source (localization of its position and recovering the history of its time-varying intensity function) that constitutes the right-hand side of the first equation in a system of two coupled 1D linear transport equations. Assuming that the source intensity function vanishes before reaching the final control time, we prove the identifiability of the sought point source from recording the state relative to the second coupled transport equation at two observation points framing the source region. Note that at least one of the two observation points should be strategic. We establish an identification method that uses these records to identify the source position as the root of a continuous and strictly monotonic function. Whereas the source intensity function is recovered using a recursive formula without any need of an iterative process. Some numerical experiments on a variant of the surface water pollution BOD-OD coupled model are presented.

  15. Modeling of time dependent localized flow shear stress and its impact on cellular growth within additive manufactured titanium implants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ziyu; Yuan, Lang; Lee, Peter D; Jones, Eric; Jones, Julian R

    2014-01-01

    Bone augmentation implants are porous to allow cellular growth, bone formation and fixation. However, the design of the pores is currently based on simple empirical rules, such as minimum pore and interconnects sizes. We present a three-dimensional (3D) transient model of cellular growth based on the Navier–Stokes equations that simulates the body fluid flow and stimulation of bone precursor cellular growth, attachment, and proliferation as a function of local flow shear stress. The model's effectiveness is demonstrated for two additive manufactured (AM) titanium scaffold architectures. The results demonstrate that there is a complex interaction of flow rate and strut architecture, resulting in partially randomized structures having a preferential impact on stimulating cell migration in 3D porous structures for higher flow rates. This novel result demonstrates the potential new insights that can be gained via the modeling tool developed, and how the model can be used to perform what-if simulations to design AM structures to specific functional requirements. PMID:24664988

  16. Performance analysis for time-frequency MUSIC algorithm in presence of both additive noise and array calibration errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodja, Mohamed; Belouchrani, Adel; Abed-Meraim, Karim

    2012-12-01

    This article deals with the application of Spatial Time-Frequency Distribution (STFD) to the direction finding problem using the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC)algorithm. A comparative performance analysis is performed for the method under consideration with respect to that using data covariance matrix when the received array signals are subject to calibration errors in a non-stationary environment. An unified analytical expression of the Direction Of Arrival (DOA) error estimation is derived for both methods. Numerical results show the effect of the parameters intervening in the derived expression on the algorithm performance. It is particularly observed that for low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and high Signal to sensor Perturbation Ratio (SPR) the STFD method gives better performance, while for high SNR and for the same SPR both methods give similar performance.

  17. Zoom-TOFMS: addition of a constant-momentum-acceleration "zoom" mode to time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Elise A; Gundlach-Graham, Alexander W; Ray, Steven J; Enke, Christie G; Barinaga, Charles J; Koppenaal, David W; Hieftje, Gary M

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the performance of a new mass spectrometry concept called zoom time-of-flight mass spectrometry (zoom-TOFMS). In our zoom-TOFMS instrument, we combine two complementary types of TOFMS: conventional, constant-energy acceleration (CEA) TOFMS and constant-momentum acceleration (CMA) TOFMS to provide complete mass-spectral coverage as well as enhanced resolution and duty factor for a narrow, targeted mass region, respectively. Alternation between CEA- and CMA-TOFMS requires only that electrostatic instrument settings (i.e., reflectron and ion optics) and ion acceleration conditions be changed. The prototype zoom-TOFMS instrument has orthogonal-acceleration geometry, a total field-free distance of 43 cm, and a direct-current glow-discharge ionization source. Experimental results demonstrate that the CMA-TOFMS "zoom" mode offers resolution enhancement of 1.6 times over single-stage acceleration CEA-TOFMS. For the atomic mass range studied here, the maximum resolving power at full-width half-maximum observed for CEA-TOFMS was 1,610 and for CMA-TOFMS the maximum was 2,550. No difference in signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio was observed between the operating modes of zoom-TOFMS when both were operated at equivalent repetition rates. For a 10-kHz repetition rate, S/N values for CEA-TOFMS varied from 45 to 990 and from 67 to 10,000 for CMA-TOFMS. This resolution improvement is the result of a linear TOF-to-mass scale and the energy-focusing capability of CMA-TOFMS. Use of CMA also allows ions outside a given m/z range to be rejected by simple ion-energy barriers to provide a substantial improvement in duty factor. PMID:24866712

  18. A Jiles-Atherton and fixed-point combined technique for time periodic magnetic field problems with hysteresis

    SciTech Connect

    Chiampi, M.; Repetto, M.; Chiarabaglio, D.

    1995-11-01

    The hysteresis phenomenon can significantly affect the behavior of magnetic cores in electrical machines and devices. This paper presents a finite element solution of periodic steady state magnetic field problems in soft materials with scalar hysteresis. The Jiles-Atherton model is employed for the generation of symmetric B-H loops and it is coupled with the Fixed Point Technique for handling magnetic nonlinearities. The proposed procedure is applied to a hysteretic model problem whose analytical solution is available. The results show that the Fixed Point Technique can efficiently deal with non-single valued material characteristics under periodic operating conditions.

  19. Identification of potential surrogate end points in randomized clinical trials of aggressive and indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: correlation of complete response, time-to-event and overall survival end points

    PubMed Central

    Lee, L.; Wang, L.; Crump, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The correlation between efficacy end points in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of systemic therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was investigated to identify an appropriate surrogate end point for overall survival (OS). Methods: RCTs of previously untreated NHL published from 1990 to 2009 were identified. Associations between absolute differences in efficacy end points were determined using nonparametric Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (rs). Results: Thirty-eight RCTs representing 85 treatment arms for aggressive NHL and 20 RCTs representing 42 arms for indolent NHL were included. For aggressive NHL, differences in 3-year progression-free survival (PFS)/event-free survival (EFS) were high correlated with differences in 5-year OS {rs of 0.90 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73–0.96]} and linear regression determined that a 10% improvement in 3-year EFS or PFS would predict for a 7% ± 1% improvement in 5-year OS. For indolent histology disease, differences in complete response were strongly correlated with differences in 3-year EFS [rs 0.86 (95% CI 0.35–0.97)], but there was no correlation between 3-year time-to-event end points and 5-year OS. Conclusions: Improvements in 3-year EFS/PFS are highly correlated with improvements in 5-year OS in aggressive NHL and should be explored as a candidate surrogate end point. Definition of these relationships may inform future clinical trial design and interpretation of interim trial data. PMID:21266519

  20. Estimation of point source fugitive emission rates from a single sensor time series: a conditionally-sampled Gaussian plume reconstruction

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a technique for determining the trace gas emission rate from a point source. The technique was tested using data from controlled methane release experiments and from measurement downwind of a natural gas production facility in Wyoming. Concentration measuremen...

  1. Estimation of point source fugitive emission rates from a single sensor time series: A conditionally-sampled Gaussian plume reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster-Wittig, Tierney A.; Thoma, Eben D.; Albertson, John D.

    2015-08-01

    Emerging mobile fugitive emissions detection and measurement approaches require robust inverse source algorithms to be effective. Two Gaussian plume inverse approaches are described for estimating emission rates from ground-level point sources observed from remote vantage points. The techniques were tested using data from 41 controlled methane release experiments (14 studies) and further investigated using 7 field studies executed downwind of oil and gas well pads in Wyoming. Analyzed measurements were acquired from stationary observation locations 18-106 m downwind of the emission sources. From the fluctuating wind direction, the lateral plume geometry is reconstructed using a derived relationship between the wind direction and crosswind plume position. The crosswind plume spread is determined with both modeled and reconstructed Gaussian plume approaches and estimates of source emission rates are found through inversion. The source emission rates were compared to a simple point source Gaussian emission estimation approach that is part of Draft EPA Method OTM 33A. Compared to the known release rates, the modeled, reconstructed, and point source Gaussian controlled release results yield average percent errors of -5%, -2%, and 6% with standard deviations of 29%, 25%, and 37%, respectively. Compared to each other, the three methods agree within 30% for 78% of all 48 observations (41 CR and 7 Wyoming).

  2. Real-time attitude commanding to detect coverage gaps and generate high resolution point clouds for RSO shape characterization with a laser rangefinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, M.; Beck, J.; Udrea, B.

    This paper expands on previous studies by the authors into 3D imaging with a single-beam laser rangefinder (LRF) by implementing real-time attitude maneuvers of a chaser satellite flying in relative orbit around a resident space object (RSO). Point clouds generated with an LRF are much sparser than those generated with an imaging LIDAR, making it difficult to autonomously distinguish between gaps in coverage and truly empty space. Furthermore, if both the attitude and the shape of the target RSO are unknown, it is particularly difficult to register a collection of LRF strike points together and detect gaps in strike point coverage in realtime. This paper presents the incorporation of a narrow field of-view (NFOV) camera that detects the strike point on the RSO and supplements LRF distance measurements with image data. This data is used to generate attitude command profiles that efficiently fill LRF coverage gaps and generate high density point clouds, thus maximizing coverage of an unknown RSO. Results obtained so far point the way to a real-time implementation of the algorithm. A method to detect and close gaps in LRF strike point coverage is presented first. Coverage gap detection is achieved using Voronoi diagrams, where Voronoi cells are centered at the LRF strike points. A three-part algorithm is used that 1) creates a 3D panoramic map from “ stitched” NFOV camera images; 2) correlates the areas of sparse LRF coverage to the map; and 3) generates attitude commands to close the coverage gaps. The map provides a consistent and reliable method to register positions of strike points relative to each other and to the NFOV image of the RSO without a priori knowledge of the RSO attitude. Using this algorithm, gaps and sparse areas in LRF coverage are covered with strike points, allowing for the generation of a higher-resolution point cloud than that obtained with preprogrammed attitude profiles. Attitude maneuvers can now be designed on-line in real-ti- e such

  3. Detonation of highly dilute porous explosives; II: Influence of inert additives on the structure of the front, the parameters, and the reaction time

    SciTech Connect

    Shvedov, K.K.; Aniskin, A.I.; Dremin, A.N.; Il'in, A.N.

    1982-06-01

    For the detonation of porous explosives with inert additives, as for the detonation of individual porous explosives, the basic postulates and conclusions of the modern gasdynamic theory of detonation are valid. The influence of solid, refractory inert additives on the decomposition mechanism of porous explosives depends on the individual properties of the explosives and mainly on the dispersity of the additives. With the elimination of pronounced heating of the additives in mixtures with TNT, a certain positive influence on the appearance of decomposition sources and the total reaction time is observed. In cases with hexogen, no such influence is observed, which is evidently the result of physical inhomogeneity of the porous structure of the charge and the sufficiently high detonation pressures of the mixtures. The basic influence of inert additives on the critical diameter, front structure, detonation parameters, and reaction time of porous explosives is exerted through processes of energy absorption in the reaction region and factors leading to energy losses may lead to ambiguity of the detonation conditions in a system with specified chemical potential energy. The state of the additive in the reaction region must be taken into account for reliable theoretical description of the detonation conditions of porous explosives with a large content of inert additives.

  4. Combined action of time-delay and colored cross-associated multiplicative and additive noises on stability and stochastic resonance for a stochastic metapopulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kang-Kang; Zong, De-Cai; Wang, Ya-Jun; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the transition between the stable state of a big density and the extinction state and stochastic resonance (SR) for a time-delayed metapopulation system disturbed by colored cross-correlated noises are investigated. By applying the fast descent method, the small time-delay approximation and McNamara and Wiesenfeld's SR theory, we investigate the impacts of time-delay, the multiplicative, additive noises and colored cross-correlated noise on the SNR and the shift between the two states of the system. Numerical results show that the multiplicative, additive noises and time-delay can all speed up the transition from the stable state to the extinction state, while the correlation noise and its correlation time can slow down the extinction process of the population system. With respect to SNR, the multiplicative noise always weakens the SR effect, while noise correlation time plays a dual role in motivating the SR phenomenon. Meanwhile, time-delay mainly plays a negative role in stimulating the SR phenomenon. Conversely, it could motivate the SR effect to increase the strength of the cross-correlation noise in the SNR-β plot, while the increase of additive noise intensity will firstly excite SR, and then suppress the SR effect.

  5. Effects of Varying Epoch Lengths, Wear Time Algorithms, and Activity Cut-Points on Estimates of Child Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity from Accelerometer Data

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Jorge A.; Haydel, K. Farish; Davila, Tania; Desai, Manisha; Haskell, William L.; Matheson, Donna; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of accelerometer epoch lengths, wear time (WT) algorithms, and activity cut-points on estimates of WT, sedentary behavior (SB), and physical activity (PA). Methods 268 7–11 year-olds with BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age and sex wore accelerometers on their right hips for 4–7 days. Data were processed and analyzed at epoch lengths of 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 30-, and 60-seconds. For each epoch length, WT minutes/day was determined using three common WT algorithms, and minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, light (LPA), moderate (MPA), and vigorous (VPA) PA were determined using five common activity cut-points. ANOVA tested differences in WT, SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA when using the different epoch lengths, WT algorithms, and activity cut-points. Results WT minutes/day varied significantly by epoch length when using the NHANES WT algorithm (p < .0001), but did not vary significantly by epoch length when using the ≥ 20 minute consecutive zero or Choi WT algorithms. Minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA varied significantly by epoch length for all sets of activity cut-points tested with all three WT algorithms (all p < .0001). Across all epoch lengths, minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA also varied significantly across all sets of activity cut-points with all three WT algorithms (all p < .0001). Conclusions The common practice of converting WT algorithms and activity cut-point definitions to match different epoch lengths may introduce significant errors. Estimates of SB and PA from studies that process and analyze data using different epoch lengths, WT algorithms, and/or activity cut-points are not comparable, potentially leading to very different results, interpretations, and conclusions, misleading research and public policy. PMID:26938240

  6. Assessing direct analysis in real-time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for the rapid identification of additives in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, L K; Noonan, G O; Begley, T H

    2009-12-01

    The ambient ionization technique direct analysis in real time (DART) was characterized and evaluated for the screening of food packaging for the presence of packaging additives using a benchtop mass spectrometer (MS). Approximate optimum conditions were determined for 13 common food-packaging additives, including plasticizers, anti-oxidants, colorants, grease-proofers, and ultraviolet light stabilizers. Method sensitivity and linearity were evaluated using solutions and characterized polymer samples. Additionally, the response of a model additive (di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate) was examined across a range of sample positions, DART, and MS conditions (temperature, voltage and helium flow). Under optimal conditions, molecular ion (M+H+) was the major ion for most additives. Additive responses were highly sensitive to sample and DART source orientation, as well as to DART flow rates, temperatures, and MS inlet voltages, respectively. DART-MS response was neither consistently linear nor quantitative in this setting, and sensitivity varied by additive. All additives studied were rapidly identified in multiple food-packaging materials by DART-MS/MS, suggesting this technique can be used to screen food packaging rapidly. However, method sensitivity and quantitation requires further study and improvement. PMID:19753496

  7. Generalized additive models with interval-censored data and time-varying covariates: application to human immunodeficiency virus infection in hemophiliacs.

    PubMed

    Bacchetti, Peter; Quale, Christopher

    2002-06-01

    We describe a method for extending smooth nonparametric modeling methods to time-to-event data where the event may be known only to lie within a window of time. Maximum penalized likelihood is used to fit a discrete proportional hazards model that also models the baseline hazard, and left-truncation and time-varying covariates are accommodated. The implementation follows generalized additive modeling conventions, allowing both parametric and smooth terms and specifying the amount of smoothness in terms of the effective degrees of freedom. We illustrate the method on a well-known interval-censored data set on time of human immunodeficiency virus infection in a multicenter study of hemophiliacs. The ability to examine time-varying covariates, not available with previous methods, allows detection and modeling of nonproportional hazards and use of a time-varying covariate that fits the data better and is more plausible than a fixed alternative. PMID:12071419

  8. Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of dry-cured Halal goat meat. Effect of salting time and addition of olive oil and paprika covering.

    PubMed

    Cherroud, Sanâa; Cachaldora, Aida; Fonseca, Sonia; Laglaoui, Amin; Carballo, Javier; Franco, Inmaculada

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this work was to define a simple technological process for dry-cured Halal goat meat elaboration. The aims of this study were to analyze physicochemical parameters and to enumerate the microbial population at the end of the different manufacturing processes (two salting times and the addition of olive oil and paprika covering) on 36 units of meat product. A total of 532 strains were isolated from several selective culture media and then identified using classical and molecular methods. In general, salt effect and the addition of olive oil and paprika were significant for all the studied microbial groups as well as on NaCl content and water activity. Molecular analysis proves that staphylococci, especially Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus equorum, were the most common naturally occurring microbiota. The best manufacturing process would be obtained with a longer salting time and the addition of the olive oil and paprika covering. PMID:24950081

  9. Three-point compact finite difference scheme on non-uniform meshes for the time-fractional Black-Scholes equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, Yuri M.; Vulkov, Lubin G.

    2015-11-01

    We construct a three-point compact finite difference scheme on a non-uniform mesh for the time-fractional Black-Scholes equation. We show that for special graded meshes used in finance, the Tavella-Randall and the quadratic meshes the numerical solution has a fourth-order accuracy in space. Numerical experiments are discussed.

  10. Analysis of biological time-lapse microscopic experiment from the point of view of the information theory.

    PubMed

    Štys, Dalibor; Urban, Jan; Vaněk, Jan; Císař, Petr

    2011-06-01

    We report objective analysis of information in the microscopic image of the cell monolayer. The process of transfer of information about the cell by the microscope is analyzed in terms of the classical Shannon information transfer scheme. The information source is the biological object, the information transfer channel is the whole microscope including the camera chip. The destination is the model of biological system. The information contribution is analyzed as information carried by a point to overall information in the image. Subsequently we obtain information reflection of the biological object. This is transformed in the biological model which, in information terminology, is the destination. This, we propose, should be constructed as state transitions in individual cells modulated by information bonds between the cells. We show examples of detected cell states in multidimensional state space. This space is reflected as colour channel intensity phenomenological state space. We have also observed information bonds and show examples of them. PMID:25478628

  11. Analysis of biological time-lapse microscopic experiment from the point of view of the information theory.

    PubMed

    Stys, Dalibor; Urban, Jan; Vanek, Jan; Císar, Petr

    2010-07-01

    We report objective analysis of information in the microscopic image of the cell monolayer. The process of transfer of information about the cell by the microscope is analyzed in terms of the classical Shannon information transfer scheme. The information source is the biological object, the information transfer channel is the whole microscope including the camera chip. The destination is the model of biological system. The information contribution is analyzed as information carried by a point to overall information in the image. Subsequently we obtain information reflection of the biological object. This is transformed in the biological model which, in information terminology, is the destination. This, we propose, should be constructed as state transitions in individual cells modulated by information bonds between the cells. We show examples of detected cell states in multidimensional state space reflected in space an colour channel intensity phenomenological state space. We have also observed information bonds and show examples of them. PMID:20194026

  12. Crystallization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in a flowing system: Influence of Cu2+ additives on induction time and crystalline phase transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usmany, Y.; Putranto, W. A.; Bayuseno, A. P.; Muryanto, S.

    2016-04-01

    Scaling of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is commonly found in piping systems in oil, gas, desalination and other chemical processes. The scale may create technical problems, leading to the reduction of heat transfer, increase of energy consumption and unscheduled equipment shutdown. This paper presents crystallization scaling experiments and evaluation of the effect of Cu2+ additives on the induction time and calcium carbonate transformation. The crystals precursors were prepared using equimolar of CaCl2 and Na2CO3 resulted in concentrations of 3000 ppm Ca2+ in the solution. The Cu2+ in amounts of 0, 1 and 10 ppm was separately added in the solution. The flow rates (20, 35, and 60 mL/min) and elevated temperatures (27, 35 and 45°C) were selected in the study. The induction time for crystallization of CaCO3 was observed by measuring the solution conductivity over time, while the phase transformation of calcium carbonate was examined by XRD method and SEM/EDX. It was found that the conductivity remained steady for a certain period reflecting to the induction time of crystal formation, and then decreased sharply afterwards,. The induction time was increased from 34 and 48 minutes in the presence of Cu additives (1 and 10 ppm), depending on the flow rates and temperature observed. In all the experiments, the Cu2+ addition leads to the reduction of mass of crystals. Apparently, the presence of Cu2+ could inhibit the CaCO3 crystallization. In the absence of Cu2+ and at elevated temperature, the crystals obtained were a mixture of vaterite and calcite. In the presence of Cu2+ and at elevated temperature, the crystals formed were aragonite and calcite. Here, the presence of Cu2+ additives might have controlled the crystal transformation of CaCO3.

  13. Comparison of Affective Credit Attitude Scores and Credit Use of College Students at Two Points in Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayhoe, Celia Ray

    2002-01-01

    A study of 120 college students' use of credit in 1997 and 1999 showed that, during that time, 60 students graduated; 41 had more credit cards in 1999 than 1997; 62 had fewer; and 32 were repaying student loans. Affective credit attitude scores for those with four or more credit cards and for students who had graduated were lower in 1999 than in…

  14. Points of Transition: Understanding the Constructed Identities of L2 Learners/Users across Time and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adawu, Anthony; Martin-Beltran, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Using sociocultural and poststructuralist theoretical lenses, this study examines the narrative construction of language-learner identity across time and space. We applied cross-narrative methodologies to analyze language-learning autobiographies and interview data from three English users who had recently transitioned to a U.S. context for…

  15. Theory of point-defects, non-stoichiometry, and solute additions in SmCo{sub 5+x}-Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17{minus}y} and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, D.O.

    1998-08-01

    There is considerable interest in the possibility of producing Sm-Co-based nanocomposite magnets by rapid solidification and other far-from-equilibrium processing methods. Thermodynamic and kinetic models are quite valuable in understanding and optimizing such methods. This paper describes a method of estimation, utilizing tight-binding-based bond-order interatomic interaction potentials, of the thermodynamic properties of point defects such as vacancies, interstitials, antisite defects, and solute additions in the SmCo{sub 5+x} and Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17{minus}y} phases and related rare-earth-transition metal compounds. Illustrative calculations for point defects in SmCo{sub 5} will be presented. The results suggest a unified model of the thermodynamic properties of the SmCo{sub 5+x}-Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17{minus}y} region of the phase diagram, based on the 1-5 structure and the replacement of Sm by interacting dumb-bell interstitials to form the 2-17 structure; the model is similar in nature to theories of the thermodynamics of metal hydrides.

  16. Theory of point-defects, non-stoichiometry, and solute additions in SmCo{sub 5+x}-Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17{minus}y} and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    WELCH,D.O.

    1998-09-03

    There is considerable interest in the possibility of producing Sm-Co-based nanocomposite magnets by rapid solidification and other far-from-equilibrium processing methods. Thermodynamic and kinetic models are quite valuable in understanding and optimizing such methods. This paper describes a method of estimation, utilizing tight-binding-based bond-order interatomic interaction potentials, of the thermodynamic properties of point defects such as vacancies, interstitials, antisite defects, and solute additions in the SmCo{sub 5+x} and Sm{sub 2}Co {sub 17}-y phases and related rare-earth-transition metal compounds. Illustrative calculations for point defects in SmCo{sub 5} will be presented. The results suggest a unified model of the thermodynamic properties of the SmCo{sub 5+x} -- Sm{sub 2} Co{sub 17{minus}y} region of the phase diagram, based on the 1-5 structure and the replacement of Sm by interacting dumb-bell interstitials to form the 2-17 structure; the model is similar in nature to theories of the thermodynamics of metal hydrides.

  17. Decreased Antibiotic Prescription in an Italian Pediatric Population With Nonspecific and Persistent Upper Respiratory Tract Infections by Use of a Point-of-Care White Blood Cell Count, in Addition to Antibiotic Delayed Prescription Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Cioffi, Luigi; Limauro, Raffaele; Sassi, Roberto; Boccazzi, Antonio; del Gaizo, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test, in delayed antibiotic strategy, if the usages of a point-of-care leukocyte count would significantly decrease the prescription rate of antibiotics for children with nonspecific upper respiratory tract infections. A prospective clinical trial was performed in 23 primary care pediatric doctors’ offices on children with nonspecific upper respiratory tract infection with fever for at least 48 hours. The children were randomized into 2 groups: one using a point-of-care white blood cell (WBC) count as guidance and the other prescribing antibiotics to all children, according to delayed antibiotics prescription strategy. A total of 792 patients participated. In the WBC group (n = 437), 56 patients had WBC >15 000/mm3 and received antibiotics. At follow-up, an additional 44 children received antibiotics. In the control group (n = 355), antibiotics were prescribed to all children. The reduction of antibiotic usage was 77% between the groups. The decrease in antibiotic usage gave no influence on recovery, complications, or other medical outcome. PMID:27335990

  18. Growth behavior of additional offspring with a beneficial reversal allele in the asymmetric sharply-peaked landscape in the coupled discrete-time mutation-selection model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Wonpyong

    2013-01-01

    The probability of additional offspring with a beneficial reversal allele for growing to a size NC for a range of population sizes N, sequence lengths L, selective advantages s, and measuring parameters C was calculated for a haploid, asexual population in the coupled discrete-time mutation-selection model in an asymmetric sharply-peaked landscape with a positive selective advantage of the reversal allele over the optimal allele. The growing probability in the stochastic region was inversely proportional to the measuring parameter when C < 1 /Ns, bent when C ≈ 1/ Ns and saturated when C > 1/ Ns. The crossing time and the time dependence of the increase in relative density of the reversal allele in the coupled discrete-time mutation-selection model was approximated using the Wright-Fisher two-allele model with the same selective advantage and corresponding effective mutation rate. The growth behavior of additional offspring with the reversal allele in the asymmetric sharply-peaked landscape in the coupled discrete-time mutation-selection model was controlled by the selective advantage of the reversal allele compared to the optimal allele and could be described by using the Wright-Fisher two-allele model, in spite of there being many other alleles with lower fitness, and in spite of there being two alleles, the optimal and reversal allele, separated by a low-fitness valley with a tunable depth and width.

  19. A test of the additivity of acute toxicity of binary-metal mixtures of ni with Cd, Cu, and Zn to Daphnia magna, using the inflection point of the concentration-response curves.

    PubMed

    Traudt, Elizabeth M; Ranville, James F; Smith, Samantha A; Meyer, Joseph S

    2016-07-01

    Mixtures of metals are often present in surface waters, leading to toxicity that is difficult to predict. To provide data for development of multimetal toxicity models, Daphnia magna neonates were exposed to individual metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn) and to binary combinations of those metals in standard 48-h lethality tests conducted in US Environmental Protection Agency moderately hard reconstituted water with 3 mg dissolved organic carbon (DOC)/L added as Suwannee River fulvic acid. Toxicity tests were performed with mixtures of Ni and 1) Cd, which is considerably more toxic than Ni; 2) Cu, which is less toxic than Cd but more toxic than Ni; and 3) Zn, which has a toxicity threshold similar to Ni. For each combination of metals in the binary mixtures, the concentration of 1 metal was held constant while the second metal was varied through a series that ranged from nonlethal to lethal concentrations; then the roles of the metals were reversed. Inflection points of the concentration-response curves were compared to test for additivity of toxicity. Sublethal concentrations of Ni caused less-than-additive toxicity with Cd, slightly less-than-additive toxicity with Zn, and greater-than-additive toxicity with Cu. One explanation of these results might be competition among the metals for binding to biological ligands and/or dissolved organic matter. Therefore, models might have to incorporate sometimes competing chemical interactions to accurately predict metal-mixture toxicity. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1843-1851. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26681657

  20. The Evolution of Children's Mental Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcraft, Mark H.; Hamann, Mary Sue

    Students in grades 1, 4, 7, and 10 were tested in a two-part investigation of simple and complex mental addition (with college students as a reference point). One session involved a normal reaction time task in which children made true/false judgments about a series of addition examples. The other session involved a verbal protocol interview, the…

  1. Higher-order time-symmetry-breaking phase transition due to meeting of an exceptional point and a Fano resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Garmon, Savannah; Kanki, Kazuki; Petrosky, Tomio

    2016-08-01

    We have theoretically investigated the time-symmetry-breaking phase-transition process for two discrete states coupled with a one-dimensional continuum by solving the nonlinear eigenvalue problem for the effective Hamiltonian associated with the discrete spectrum. We obtain the effective Hamiltonian with use of the Feshbach-Brillouin-Wigner projection method. Strong energy dependence of the self-energy appearing in the effective Hamiltonian plays a key role in the time-symmetry-breaking phase transition: As a result of competition in the decay process between the Van Hove singularity and the Fano resonance, the phase transition becomes a higher-order transition when both the two discrete states are located near the continuum threshold.

  2. Pure Point Spectrum of the Floquet Hamiltonian for the Quantum Harmonic Oscillator Under Time Quasi-Periodic Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.-M.

    2008-01-01

    We prove that the 1- d quantum harmonic oscillator is stable under spatially localized, time quasi-periodic perturbations on a set of Diophantine frequencies of positive measure. This proves a conjecture raised by Enss-Veselic in their 1983 paper [EV] in the general quasi-periodic setting. The motivation of the present paper also comes from construction of quasi-periodic solutions for the corresponding nonlinear equation.

  3. Real-time adaptive optics testbed to investigate point-ahead angle in pre-compensation of Earth-to-GEO optical communication.

    PubMed

    Leonhard, Nina; Berlich, René; Minardi, Stefano; Barth, Alexander; Mauch, Steffen; Mocci, Jacopo; Goy, Matthias; Appelfelder, Michael; Beckert, Erik; Reinlein, Claudia

    2016-06-13

    We explore adaptive optics (AO) pre-compensation for optical communication between Earth and geostationary (GEO) satellites in a laboratory experiment. Thus, we built a rapid control prototyping breadboard with an adjustable point-ahead angle where downlink and uplink can operate both at 1064 nm and 1550 nm wavelength. With our real-time system, beam wander resulting from artificial turbulence was reduced such that the beam hits the satellite at least 66% of the time as compared to merely 3% without correction. A seven-fold increase of the average Strehl ratio to (28 ± 15)% at 18 μrad point-ahead angle leads to a considerable reduction of the calculated fading probability. These results make AO pre-compensation a viable technique to enhance Earth-to-GEO optical communication. PMID:27410333

  4. A Remark on the Heat Equation with a Point Perturbation, the Feynman-Kac Formula with Local Time and Derivative Pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albeverio, Sergio; Fassari, Silvestro; Rinaldi, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    We discuss the probabilistic representation of the solutions of the heat equation perturbed by a repulsive point interaction in terms of a perturbation of Brownian motion, via a Feynman-Kac formula involving a local time functional. An application to option pricing is given, interpolating between the extreme cases of classical Black-Scholes options and knockouts having the barrier situated exactly at the exercise price.

  5. Impacts of warming and elevated CO2 on a semi-arid grassland are non-additive, shift with precipitation, and reverse over time.

    PubMed

    Mueller, K E; Blumenthal, D M; Pendall, E; Carrillo, Y; Dijkstra, F A; Williams, D G; Follett, R F; Morgan, J A

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear how elevated CO2 (eCO2 ) and the corresponding shifts in temperature and precipitation will interact to impact ecosystems over time. During a 7-year experiment in a semi-arid grassland, the response of plant biomass to eCO2 and warming was largely regulated by interannual precipitation, while the response of plant community composition was more sensitive to experiment duration. The combined effects of eCO2 and warming on aboveground plant biomass were less positive in 'wet' growing seasons, but total plant biomass was consistently stimulated by ~ 25% due to unique, supra-additive responses of roots. Independent of precipitation, the combined effects of eCO2 and warming on C3 graminoids became increasingly positive and supra-additive over time, reversing an initial shift toward C4 grasses. Soil resources also responded dynamically and non-additively to eCO2 and warming, shaping the plant responses. Our results suggest grasslands are poised for drastic changes in function and highlight the need for long-term, factorial experiments. PMID:27339693

  6. Pb enamel biomarker: Deposition of pre- and postnatal Pb isotope injection in reconstructed time points along rat enamel transect

    SciTech Connect

    Rinderknecht, A.L.; Kleinman, M.T.; Ericson, J.E. . E-mail: jeericso@uci.edu

    2005-10-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) as well as other heavy metals in the environment is still a matter of public health concern. The development of the enamel biomarker for heavy metal exposure assessment is designed to improve studies of dose-effect relationships to developmental anomalies, particularly embryonic dysfunctions, and to provide a time-specific recount of past exposures. The work presented in this paper demonstrates maternal transfer across the placental barrier of the enriched isotope {sup 206}Pb tracer to the enamel of the rat pup. Likewise, injections of {sup 204}Pb-enriched tracer in the neonate rat resulted in deposition of the tracer in the enamel histology as measured by secondary ion microprobe spectrometry. Through enamel, we were able to observe biological removal and assimilation of prenatal and postnatal tracers, respectively. This research demonstrates that enamel can be used as a biomarker of exposure to Pb and may illustrate the toxicokinetics of incorporating Pb into fetal and neonatal steady-state system processes. The biomarker technique, when completely developed, may be applied to cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological research.

  7. Dynamical systems techniques for designing libration point orbits in proximity of highly-inhomogeneous planetary satellites: Application to the Mars-Phobos elliptic three-body problem with additional gravity harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamaro, Mattia; Biggs, James D.

    2014-12-01

    The orbital dynamics around the Libration points of the classical circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP) have been investigated in detail: in the last few decades, dynamical systems theory has provided invaluable analytical and numerical tools for understanding the dynamics of Libration Point Orbits (LPOs). The aim of this paper is to extend the model of the CR3BP to derive the LPOs in the vicinity of the Martian moon Phobos, which is becoming an appealing destination for scientific missions. The case of Phobos is particularly extreme, since the combination of both small mass-ratio and length-scale moves the collinear Libration manifold close to the moon's surface. Thus, a model of this system must consider additional dynamical perturbations, in particular the complete gravity field of Phobos, which is highly-inhomogeneous. This is accomplished using a spherical harmonics series expansion, deriving an enhanced elliptic three-body model. In this paper, we show how methodologies from dynamical systems theory are applied in differential correction continuation schemes to this proposed nonlinear model of the dynamics near Phobos, to derive the structure of the dynamical substitutes of the LPOs in this new system. Results obtained show that the structure of the LPOs differs substantially from the classical case without harmonics. The proposed methodology allows us to identify natural periodic and quasi-periodic orbits that would provide unique low-cost opportunities for close-range observations around Phobos and high-performance landing/take-off pathways to and from Phobos' surface, which could be exploited in upcoming missions targeting the exploration of this Martian moon.

  8. GLAS Spacecraft Pointing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Born, George H.; Gold, Kenn; Ondrey, Michael; Kubitschek, Dan; Axelrad, Penina; Komjathy, Attila

    1998-01-01

    Science requirements for the GLAS mission demand that the laser altimeter be pointed to within 50 m of the location of the previous repeat ground track. The satellite will be flown in a repeat orbit of 182 days. Operationally, the required pointing information will be determined on the ground using the nominal ground track, to which pointing is desired, and the current propagated orbit of the satellite as inputs to the roll computation algorithm developed by CCAR. The roll profile will be used to generate a set of fit coefficients which can be uploaded on a daily basis and used by the on-board attitude control system. In addition, an algorithm has been developed for computation of the associated command quaternions which will be necessary when pointing at targets of opportunity. It may be desirable in the future to perform the roll calculation in an autonomous real-time mode on-board the spacecraft. GPS can provide near real-time tracking of the satellite, and the nominal ground track can be stored in the on-board computer. It will be necessary to choose the spacing of this nominal ground track to meet storage requirements in the on-board environment. Several methods for generating the roll profile from a sparse reference ground track are presented.

  9. Stochastic sampled-data control for synchronization of complex dynamical networks with control packet loss and additive time-varying delays.

    PubMed

    Rakkiyappan, R; Sakthivel, N; Cao, Jinde

    2015-06-01

    This study examines the exponential synchronization of complex dynamical networks with control packet loss and additive time-varying delays. Additionally, sampled-data controller with time-varying sampling period is considered and is assumed to switch between m different values in a random way with given probability. Then, a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) with triple integral terms is constructed and by using Jensen's inequality and reciprocally convex approach, sufficient conditions under which the dynamical network is exponentially mean-square stable are derived. When applying Jensen's inequality to partition double integral terms in the derivation of linear matrix inequality (LMI) conditions, a new kind of linear combination of positive functions weighted by the inverses of squared convex parameters appears. In order to handle such a combination, an effective method is introduced by extending the lower bound lemma. To design the sampled-data controller, the synchronization error system is represented as a switched system. Based on the derived LMI conditions and average dwell-time method, sufficient conditions for the synchronization of switched error system are derived in terms of LMIs. Finally, numerical example is employed to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods. PMID:25797504

  10. Suitability of live yeast addition to alleviate the adverse effects due to the restriction of the time of access to feed in sheep fed only pasture.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruchel, A; Repetto, J L; Cajarville, C

    2013-12-01

    The effect of yeast addition on intake and digestive utilization of pasture was studied in ovines under restricted time of access to forage. Eighteen wethers housed in metabolic cages and fed fresh forage (predominantly Lotus corniculatus) were randomly assigned to three treatments: forage available all day (AD); forage available only 6 h/day (R) and forage available only 6 h/day plus live Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (RY). Feed intake and digestibility, feeding behaviour, kinetics of passage, ruminal pH and ammonia concentration, nitrogen balance and microbial nitrogen synthesis (MNS) were determined in vivo, and ruminal liquor activity of animals was evaluated in vitro. Restricted animals consumed less than those fed all day but achieved more than 75% of the intake and spent less time ruminating (p = 0.014). Although animals without restriction consumed more feed, they had a lower rate of passage (p = 0.030). The addition of yeast did affect neither intake nor feeding behaviour, but increased digestibility. Organic matter digestibility tended to increase 11% by yeast addition (p = 0.051), mainly by a rise in NDF (27%, p = 0.032) and ADF digestibility (37%, p = 0.051). Ingested and retained N was lower in restricted animals, as MNS (p ≤ 0.045). The use of yeasts did not significantly change the N balance or MNS, but retained N tended to be higher in supplemented animals (p = 0.090). Neither ruminal pH nor ammonia concentrations were affected by the restriction, but restricted animals had a lower ruminal activity evidenced by a lower volume of gas (p = 0.020). The addition of yeast overcame this limitation, noted by a higher volume of gas of inocula from supplemented animals (p = 0.015). Yeast addition emerged as a useful tool to improve digestibility of forage cell walls in ovines under restricted time of access to forage. PMID:23020124

  11. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  12. Computer simulation for the growing probability of additional offspring with an advantageous reversal allele in the decoupled continuous-time mutation-selection model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Wonpyong

    2016-01-01

    This study calculated the growing probability of additional offspring with the advantageous reversal allele in an asymmetric sharply-peaked landscape using the decoupled continuous-time mutation-selection model. The growing probability was calculated for various population sizes, N, sequence lengths, L, selective advantages, s, fitness parameters, k and measuring parameters, C. The saturated growing probability in the stochastic region was approximately the effective selective advantage, s*, when C≫1/Ns* and s*≪1. The present study suggests that the growing probability in the stochastic region in the decoupled continuous-time mutation-selection model can be described using the theoretical formula for the growing probability in the Moran two-allele model. The selective advantage ratio, which represents the ratio of the effective selective advantage to the selective advantage, does not depend on the population size, selective advantage, measuring parameter and fitness parameter; instead the selective advantage ratio decreases with the increasing sequence length.

  13. A Four-Point Screening Method for Assessing Molecular Mechanism of Action (MMOA) Identifies Tideglusib as a Time-Dependent Inhibitor of Trypanosoma brucei GSK3β

    PubMed Central

    Swinney, Zachary T.; Haubrich, Brad A.; Xia, Shuangluo; Ramesha, Chakk; Gomez, Stephen R.; Guyett, Paul; Mensa-Wilmot, Kojo; Swinney, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background New therapeutics are needed for neglected tropical diseases including Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), a progressive and fatal disease caused by the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense. There is a need for simple, efficient, cost effective methods to identify new molecules with unique molecular mechanisms of action (MMOAs). The mechanistic features of a binding mode, such as competition with endogenous substrates and time-dependence can affect the observed inhibitory IC50, and differentiate molecules and their therapeutic usefulness. Simple screening methods to determine time-dependence and competition can be used to differentiate compounds with different MMOAs in order to identify new therapeutic opportunities. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work we report a four point screening methodology to evaluate the time-dependence and competition for inhibition of GSK3β protein kinase isolated from T. brucei. Using this method, we identified tideglusib as a time-dependent inhibitor whose mechanism of action is time-dependent, ATP competitive upon initial binding, which transitions to ATP non-competitive with time. The enzyme activity was not recovered following 100-fold dilution of the buffer consistent with an irreversible mechanism of action. This is in contrast to the T. brucei GSK3β inhibitor GW8510, whose inhibition was competitive with ATP, not time-dependent at all measured time points and reversible in dilution experiments. The activity of tideglusib against T. brucei parasites was confirmed by inhibition of parasite proliferation (GI50 of 2.3 μM). Conclusions/Significance Altogether this work demonstrates a straightforward method for determining molecular mechanisms of action and its application for mechanistic differentiation of two potent TbGSK3β inhibitors. The four point MMOA method identified tideglusib as a mechanistically differentiated TbGSK3β inhibitor. Tideglusib was shown to inhibit parasite

  14. Precise survival time and physical activity after fatal left ventricle injury from sharp pointed weapon: a case report and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Angélique; Kolopp, Martin; Coudane, Henry; Martrille, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    Survival time and physical activity following fatal injury are especially important during investigation of homicide cases and the estimation of a victim's survival time and physical activity following a fatal injury from a sharp weapon is a commonly raised issue, particularly at trial. According to the literature, survival time and physical activity after cardiac damage are short-term estimates without high accuracy. We report the homicide case of a young man who died as a result of a left ventricle injury caused by a sharp pointed weapon. This case is based on evidence from a video surveillance camera that recorded the whole scene after the fatal injury: The victim showed an adapted physical activity for 38 s, although the left ventricle incision measured 2 cm. Despite several cases in the literature, it is not possible to correlate precisely the size of the wounds and the acting capability. PMID:26914799

  15. Point of no return in diving emperor penguins: is the timing of the decision to return limited by the number of strokes?

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Kozue; Sato, Katsufumi; Ponganis, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    At some point in a dive, breath-hold divers must decide to return to the surface to breathe. The issue of when to end a dive has been discussed intensively in terms of foraging ecology and behavioral physiology, using dive duration as a temporal parameter. Inevitably, however, a time lag exists between the decision of animals to start returning to the surface and the end of the dive, especially in deep dives. In the present study, we examined the decision time in emperor penguins under two different conditions: during foraging trips at sea and during dives at an artificial isolated dive hole. It was found that there was an upper limit for the decision-to-return time irrespective of dive depth in birds diving at sea. However, in a large proportion of dives at the isolated dive hole, the decision-to-return time exceeded the upper limit at sea. This difference between the decision times in dives at sea versus the isolated dive hole was accounted for by a difference in stroke rate. The stroke rates were much lower in dives at the isolated hole and were inversely correlated with the upper limit of decision times in individual birds. Unlike the decision time to start returning, the cumulative number of strokes at the decision time fell within a similar range in the two experiments. This finding suggests that the number of strokes, but not elapsed time, constrained the decision of emperor penguins to return to the surface. While the decision to return and to end a dive may be determined by a variety of ecological, behavioral and physiological factors, the upper limit to that decision time may be related to cumulative muscle workload. PMID:22162861

  16. An algorithm for approximating the L * invariant coordinate from the real-time tracing of one magnetic field line between mirror points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejosne, Solène

    2014-08-01

    The L * invariant coordinate depends on the global electromagnetic field topology at a given instance, and the standard method for its determination requires a computationally expensive drift contour tracing. This fact makes L * a cumbersome parameter to handle. In this paper, we provide new insights on the L * parameter, and we introduce an algorithm for an L * approximation that only requires the real-time tracing of one magnetic field line between mirrors points. This approximation is based on the description of the variation of the magnetic field mirror intensity after an adiabatic dipolarization, i.e., after the nondipolar components of a magnetic field have been turned off with a characteristic time very long in comparison with the particles' drift periods. The corresponding magnetic field topological variations are deduced, assuming that the field line foot points remain rooted in the Earth's surface, and the drift average operator is replaced with a computationally cheaper circular average operator. The algorithm results in a relative difference of a maximum of 12% between the approximate L * and the output obtained using the International Radiation Belt Environment Modeling library, in the case of the Tsyganenko 89 model for the external magnetic field (T89). This margin of error is similar to the margin of error due to small deviations between different magnetic field models at geostationary orbit. This approximate L * algorithm represents therefore a reasonable compromise between computational speed and accuracy of particular interest for real-time space weather forecast purposes.

  17. Using the Guttman Scale to Define and Estimate Measurement Error in Items over Time: The Case of Cognitive Decline and the Meaning of “Points Lost”

    PubMed Central

    Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Yumoto, Futoshi; Aisen, Paul S.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Mislevy, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    We used a Guttman model to represent responses to test items over time as an approximation of what is often referred to as “points lost” in studies of cognitive decline or interventions. To capture this meaning of “point loss”, over four successive assessments, we assumed that once an item is incorrect, it cannot be correct at a later visit. If the loss of a point represents actual decline, then failure of an item to fit the Guttman model over time can be considered measurement error. This representation and definition of measurement error also permits testing the hypotheses that measurement error is constant for items in a test, and that error is independent of “true score”, which are two key consequences of the definition of “measurement error” –and thereby, reliability- under Classical Test Theory. We tested the hypotheses by fitting our model to, and comparing our results from, four consecutive annual evaluations in three groups of elderly persons: a) cognitively normal (NC, N = 149); b) diagnosed with possible or probable AD (N = 78); and c) cognitively normal initially and a later diagnosis of AD (converters, N = 133). Of 16 items that converged, error-free measurement of “cognitive loss” was observed for 10 items in NC, eight in converters, and two in AD. We found that measurement error, as we defined it, was inconsistent over time and across cognitive functioning levels, violating the theory underlying reliability and other psychometric characteristics, and key regression assumptions. PMID:22363411

  18. A physical model study of the travel times and reflection points of SH-waves reflected from transversely isotropic media with tilted symmetry axes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Li-Chung; Chang, Young-Fo; Chang, Chih-Hsiung; Chung, Chia-Lung

    2012-05-01

    In reflection seismology, detailed knowledge of how seismic waves propagate in anisotropic media is important for locating reservoirs accurately. The SH-wave possesses a pure mode polarization which does not convert to P- and SV-waves when reflecting from a horizontal interface, and vice versa. The simplicity of the SH-wave thus provides an easy way to view the details of SH-wave propagation in anisotropic media. In this study, we attempt to inspect the theoretical reflection moveouts of SH-waves reflected from transversely isotropic (TI) layers with tilted symmetry axes and to verify the reflection point, which could be shifted away from the common midpoint (CMP), by numerical calculations and physical modelling. In travel time-offset analyses, the moveout curves of SH-waves reflected from horizontal TI media (TIM) with different tilted angles of symmetry axes are computed by the TI modified hyperbolic equation and Fermat's principle, respectively. It turns out that both the computed moveout curves are similar and fit well to the observed physical data. The reflection points of SH-waves for a CMP gather computed by Fermat's principle show that they are close to the CMP for TIM with the vertical and horizontal symmetry axes, but they shift away from the CMP for the other tilted angles of symmetry axes. The shifts of the reflection points of the SH-waves from the CMP were verified by physical modelling.

  19. A physical model study of the travel times and conversion point locations of P-SV converted waves in vertical transversely isotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, C.

    2013-12-01

    In exploration seismology, subsurface medium commonly exhibits anisotropy, characterized by a vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) model. Due to the need of exploring small reservoirs in complex structures, the seismic exploration is extended to deal with anisotropic media. The P-S converted wave seismic exploration is a relatively inexpensive, broadly applicable, and effective way to obtain the S-wave information of the medium. In anisotropic traveltime analysis, the moveout curve of horizontal P-SV event can help to determine the ratio of the P- and SV-wave vertical velocities, the normal moveout (NMO) velocity of SV-waves, and the anisotropy parameters. The P-SV conversion point (CP) location is of great importance to P-SV data binning, NMO corrections and common conversion point (CCP) stacking, and the anisotropy has a more significant effect on the conversion point location than on the moveout. In this study, we attempt to inspect the theoretical non-hyperbolic moveout and CP equations for the P-SV waves reflected from a VTI layer by numerical calculations and physical modeling. We are also interested in visualizing the variations of the conversion point locations from a designed VTI medium. In traveltime analysis, the theoretical moveout curve is accurate up to offsets about one and a half times the reflector depth (x/z=1.5). However, the moveout curve computed by Fermat's principle fits well to the physical data. The CP locations of P-SV waves are similar to those calculated by Fermat's principle and theoretical CP equation, which are verified by the physical modeling.

  20. Control of the Crystalline Morphology of Poly(l-lactide) by Addition of High-Melting-Point Poly(l-lactide) and Its Effect on the Distribution of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Peng, Ji-Kun; Shi, Yu-Dong; Chen, Yi-Fu; Zeng, Jian-Bing; Wang, Ming

    2016-08-01

    The key to fabricating conductive polymer/carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposites is controlling the distribution of CNTs in the polymer matrix. Here, an effective and simple approach for controlling the distribution of multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) is reported to largely improve the electrical conductivity of biodegradable poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) through crystalline morphology development by addition of high-melting-point PLLA (hPLLA) crystallites. hPLLA crystallites are efficient nucleating agents, increasing the crystallinity and crystallization rate of PLLA/MWCNT nanocomposites. Furthermore, the diameter of spherulites decreases from 9.7 to 1.0 μm with an increase in the concentration of hPLLA from 0.03 to 3.0 wt %. The electrical conductivity of PLLA/MWCNT nanocomposites with 0.3 wt % MWCNTs greatly increases from 1.89 × 10(-15) to 1.56 × 10(-8) S/cm with an increase in the matrix crystallinity from 2.4 to 46.8% on introducing trace amounts of hPLLA (0.07 wt %). The percolation threshold of PLLA/MWCNT nanocomposites is reduced from 0.51 to 0.21 wt % on addition of 0.07 wt % hPLLA. The high electrical conductivity and low percolation threshold of PLLA/MWCNT nanocomposites incorporated with hPLLA are related to the high crystallinity and crystalline morphologies of the PLLA matrix. Big spherulites lock a lot of MWCNTs at the intervals in the spherulites, which is harmful to the electrical conductivity. Small spherulites, with large surface areas, also need more MWCNTs to form conductive networks in the amorphous regions. Most MWCNTs that are bundled together to form conductive paths are found in samples with mid-sized spherulites of ∼6.7 μm. More interestingly, the high crystallinity and reconstructed MWCNT network also enhanced the Young modulus, elongation at break, and elastic modulus at high temperature of PLLA/MWCNT nanocomposites with small amounts of hPLLA. PMID:27379385

  1. Simultaneous determination of nickel and copper by H-point standard addition method-first-order derivative spectrophotometry in plant samples after separation and preconcentration on modified natural clinoptilolite as a new sorbent.

    PubMed

    Roohparvar, Rasool; Taher, Mohammad Ali; Mohadesi, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    For the simultaneous determination of nickel(ll) and copper(ll) in plant samples, a rapid and accurate method was developed. In this method, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and first-order derivative spectrophotometry (FDS) are combined, and the result is coupled with the H-point standard addition method (HPSAM). Compared with normal spectrophotometry, derivative spectrophotometry offers the advantages of increased selectivity and sensitivity. As there is no need for carrying out any pretreatment of the sample, the spectrophotometry method is easy, but because of a high detection limit, it is not so practical. In order to decrease the detection limit, it is suggested to combine spectrophotometry with a preconcentration method such as SPE. In the present work, after separation and preconcentration of Ni(ll) and Cu(ll) on modified clinoptilolite zeolite that is loaded with 2-[1-(2-hydroxy-5-sulforphenyl)-3-phenyl-5-formaza-no]-benzoic acid monosodium salt (zincon) as a selective chromogenic reagent, FDS-HPSAM, which is a simple and selective spectrophotometric method, has been applied for simultaneous determination of these ions. With optimum conditions, the detection limit in original solutions is 0.7 and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively, for nickel and copper. The linear concentration ranges in the proposed method for nickel and copper ions in original solutions are 1.1 to 3.0 x 10(3) and 0.9 to 2.0 x 10(3) ng/mL, respectively. The recommended procedure is applied to successful determination of Cu(ll) and Ni(ll) in standard and real samples. PMID:18567311

  2. Investigating flow patterns and related dynamics in multi-instability turbulent plasmas using a three-point cross-phase time delay estimation velocimetry scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, C.; Thakur, S. C.; Tynan, G. R.

    2016-04-01

    Complexities of flow patterns in the azimuthal cross-section of a cylindrical magnetized helicon plasma and the corresponding plasma dynamics are investigated by means of a novel scheme for time delay estimation velocimetry. The advantage of this introduced method is the capability of calculating the time-averaged 2D velocity fields of propagating wave-like structures and patterns in complex spatiotemporal data. It is able to distinguish and visualize the details of simultaneously present superimposed entangled dynamics and it can be applied to fluid-like systems exhibiting frequently repeating patterns (e.g., waves in plasmas, waves in fluids, dynamics in planetary atmospheres, etc.). The velocity calculations are based on time delay estimation obtained from cross-phase analysis of time series. Each velocity vector is unambiguously calculated from three time series measured at three different non-collinear spatial points. This method, when applied to fast imaging, has been crucial to understand the rich plasma dynamics in the azimuthal cross-section of a cylindrical linear magnetized helicon plasma. The capabilities and the limitations of this velocimetry method are discussed and demonstrated for two completely different plasma regimes, i.e., for quasi-coherent wave dynamics and for complex broadband wave dynamics involving simultaneously present multiple instabilities.

  3. The drug efficacy and adverse reactions in a mouse model of oral squamous cell carcinoma treated with oxaliplatin at different time points during a day

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Zhao, Ningbo; Zhao, Dan; Chen, Dan; Li, Yadong

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that the growth and proliferation of cancer cells in vivo exhibit circadian rhythm, and the efficacy and adverse reactions of platinum-based anticancer drugs administered at different times of the day vary significantly on colon cancer. However, since the circadian rhythms of growth and proliferation of various cancer cells often differ, the question of whether the administration of platinum anticancer drugs at different times of the day exerts significantly different efficacy and adverse effects on oral cancers remains to be elucidated. This study has compared the efficacy and adverse effects of oxaliplatin (L-OHP) administration at different times during a day on oral squamous cell carcinoma in mice and has analyzed cellular circadian rhythms. Methods The mouse model for oral squamous cell carcinoma was established in 75 nude mice, housed in a 12 hour light/12 hour dark cycle environment. The mice were randomly divided into five groups; four experimental groups were intravenously injected with L-OHP at four time points within a 24-hour period (4, 10, 16, and 22 hours after lights on [HALO]). The control group was intravenously injected with the same volume of saline. Treatment efficacy and adverse reactions were compared on the seventh day after the injection, at 22 HALO. The existence of circadian rhythms was determined by cosine analysis. Results Only injections of L-OHP at 16 and 22 HALO significantly prolonged animal survival time. The adverse reactions in mice injected with L-OHP at 16 and 22 HALO were significantly less than those observed in mice administered L-OHP at 4 and 10 HALO. The cosine fitting curve showed that the survival time and adverse reactions exhibited circadian rhythm. Conclusion The time factor should be considered when treating patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma with L-OHP in order to achieve better efficacy, reduce the adverse reactions, and improve the patients’ survival time and quality

  4. Cr stable isotopes as indicators of Cr(VI) reduction in groundwater: a detailed time-series study of a point-source plume.

    PubMed

    Berna, Emily C; Johnson, Thomas M; Makdisi, Richard S; Basu, Anirban

    2010-02-01

    Chromium stable isotope ratios show promise as indicators of Cr(VI) reduction in groundwater, but no published study has yet demonstrated that expected relationships between (53)Cr/(52)Cr and Cr(VI) concentration, position, and time occur in an actual groundwater plume. We present an extensive data set from a point-source plume in Berkeley, CA; data extend over 5 years and 14 locations covering the entire plume. We interpret the data using a Rayleigh distillation model with an effective fractionation factor that incorporates an intrinsic fractionation factor determined from incubations of site sediments and accounts for reservoir effects in the restricted subsurface zones where Cr(VI) reduction is thought to occur. The groundwater (53)Cr/(52)Cr and Cr(VI) concentration data are consistent with a scenario where the system has reached a steady state: Cr(VI) reduction continues, the extent of reduction at any point is constant over time, reduction proceeds to completion at the downgradient edge of the plume, and the plume is no longer advancing. The overall consistency of the results with a reasonable model for the site supports the use of Cr isotope-based estimates of reduction, but we discuss current uncertainties and limitations of the approach as well. PMID:20039722

  5. Effect of addition of lycopene to calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine as intracanal medicament on fracture resistance of radicular dentin at two different time intervals: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudhana, Koppolu; Archanagupta, Kasamsetty; Suneelkumar, Chinni; Lavanya, Anumula; Deepthi, Mandava

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long-term use of intracanal medicaments such as calcium hydroxide (CH) reduces the fracture resistance of dentin. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the fracture resistance of radicular dentin on long-term use of CH, chlorhexidine (CHX) with lycopene (LP). Aim: To compare the fracture resistance of radicular dentin when intracanal medicaments such as CH, CHX with LP were used for 1-week and 1-month time interval. Settings and Design: Sixty single-rooted extracted human permanent premolars were collected, and complete instrumentation was done. Samples were divided into three groups based on intracanal medicament used. Materials and Methods: Group 1 - no medicament was placed (CON), group 2 - mixture of 1.5 g of CH and 1 ml of 2% CHX (CHCHX), group 3 - mixture of 1.5 g of CH, 1 ml of CHX and 1 ml of 5% LP solution (CHCHXLP). After storage period of each group for 1-week and 1-month, middle 8 mm root cylinder was sectioned and tested for fracture resistance. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed using paired t-test. Results: At 1-month time interval, there was a statistically significant difference in fracture resistance between CHCHX and CHCHXLP groups. Conclusion: Addition of LP has not decreased the fracture resistance of radicular dentin after 1-month. PMID:26069405

  6. Effect of ensiling time and exogenous protease addition to whole-plant corn silage of various hybrids, maturities, and chop lengths on nitrogen fractions and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Crump, P M; Shaver, R D

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ensiling time and exogenous protease addition on soluble CP (% of CP), ammonia-N (% of N), and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility (ivSD) of whole-plant corn silage (WPCS) from 3 hybrids, 2 maturities, and 2 chop lengths. Samples from 3 nonisogenic hybrids [brown midrib containing the bm3 gene mutation (BM3), dual-purpose (DP), or floury-leafy (LFY)] at 2 harvest maturities [2/3 kernel milk line (early) or 7d later (late)] with 2 theoretical lengths of cut settings (0.64 or 1.95cm) on a forage harvester were collected at harvest, treated with or without exogenous protease, and ensiled in triplicate in vacuum heat-sealed plastic bags for 0, 30, 60, 120, and 240d. Thus, the experiment consisted of 120 treatments (3 hybrids × 2 maturities × 2 chop lengths × 2 protease treatments × 5 time points) and 360 mini-silos (3 replications per treatment). Vitreousness, measured by dissection on unfermented kernels on the day of harvest, averaged 66.8, 65.0, and 59.0% for BM3, DP, and LFY, respectively. A protease × maturity interaction was observed with protease increasing ivSD in late but not early maturity. Ensiling time × hybrid interactions were observed for ammonia-N and soluble CP concentrations with greater values for FLY than other hybrids only after 120d of ensiling. Ensiling time × hybrid or protease × hybrid interactions were not observed for ivSD. Measurements of ivSD were greatest for FLY and lowest for BM3. Length of the ensiling period did not attenuate negative effects of kernel vitreousness or maturity on ivSD in WPCS. Results suggest that the dosage of exogenous protease addition used in the present study may reduce but not overcome the negative effects of maturity on ivSD in WPCS. No interactions between chop length and ensiling time or exogenous protease addition were observed for ivSD. PMID:26433421

  7. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  8. Radiative transfer theory with time delay for the effect of pulse entrapping in a resonant random medium: general transfer equation and point-like scatterer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabanenkov, Yu N.; Barabanenkov, M. Yu

    1997-10-01

    A pulse propagation of a vector electromagnetic wave field in a discrete random medium under the condition of Mie resonant scattering is considered on the basis of the Bethe - Salpeter equation in the two-frequency domain in the form of an exact kinetic equation which takes into account the energy accumulation inside scatterers. The kinetic equation is simplified using the transverse field and far wave zone approximations which give a new general tensor radiative transfer equation with strong time delay by resonant scattering. This new general radiative transfer equation, being specified in terms of the low-density limit and the resonant point-like scatterer model, takes the form of a new tensor radiative transfer equation with three Lorentzian time-delay kernels by resonant scattering. In contrast to the known phenomenological scalar Sobolev equation with one Lorentzian time-delay kernel, the derived radiative transfer equation does take into account effects of (i) the radiation polarization, (ii) the energy accumulation inside scatterers, (iii) the time delay in three terms, namely in terms with the Rayleigh phase tensor, the extinction coefficient and a coefficient of the energy accumulation inside scatterers, respectively (i.e. not only in a term with the Rayleigh phase tensor). It is worth noting that the derived radiative transfer equation is coordinated with Poynting's theorem for non-stationary radiation, unlike the Sobolev equation. The derived radiative transfer equation is applied to study the Compton - Milne effect of a pulse entrapping by its diffuse reflection from the semi-infinite random medium when the pulse, while propagating in the medium, spends most of its time inside scatterers. This specific albedo problem for the derived radiative transfer equation is resolved in scalar approximation using a version of the time-dependent invariance principle. In fact, the scattering function of the diffusely reflected pulse is expressed in terms of a

  9. Time evolution of phase composition and microstructure in the Ag/Bi-2223 composite superconductor heat-treated at specific pO2/temperature set points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baurceanu, R. M.; Maroni, V. A.; Merchant, N. N.; Fischer, A. K.; McNallan, M. J.; Parrella, R. D.

    2002-07-01

    The time evolution of the phases present in the ceramic cores of silver-sheathed (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Ag/Bi-2223) multifilament superconducting tapes heat-treated at selected oxygen partial pressure/temperature (pO2/T) set points was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy coupled with computer-based image processing methods. The numerical values for individual phase contents and non-superconducting second phase (NSP) size distributions generated in this way were used to quantify the temporal evolution of composition in the variably treated Ag/Bi-2223 tapes. Results for the three pO2/T set points investigated (21.0% O2/835 °C, 7.5% O2/825 °C and 4.0% O2/815 °C) revealed characteristic patterns of recurring maxima and minima in the time evolution of the NSPs. (Ca, Sr)14Cu24O41 was found to be the stable phase at 21.0% O2/835 °C, possibly evolving as a co-product of the Bi-2223 formation reaction, while (Ca, Sr)2CuO3 and CuO were stable at 4.0% O2/815 °C, presumably as a consequence of competitive secondary reactions proceeding in parallel with Bi-2223 formation. The best-aligned grains were formed in Ag/Bi-2223 tapes treated at 21.0% O2/835 °C, while the best conversion to Bi-2223, together with the least amount of NSP particles >0.5 μm in major dimension, was produced by the 7.5% O2/825 °C treatment. A forward-looking conclusion of the study is that it appears possible to minimize the amount and size of NSP particles during Ag/Bi-2223 heat treatment by using a combinatorial sequence of appropriately timed pO2/T set points.

  10. Dynamics of pulsed laser ablation plasmas in high-density CO2 near the critical point investigated by time-resolved shadowgraph imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urabe, Keiichiro; Kato, Toru; Himeno, Shohei; Kato, Satoshi; Stauss, Sven; Baba, Motoyoshi; Suemoto, Tohru; Terashima, Kazuo

    2013-09-01

    Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) plasmas generated in high-density gases and liquids are promising for the synthesis of nanomaterials. However, the characteristics of such plasmas are still not well understood. In order to improve the understandings of PLA plasmas in high-density fluids including gases, liquids, and supercritical fluids (SCFs), we have investigated the dynamics of PLA plasmas in high-density carbon dioxide (CO2) . We report on experimental results of time-resolved shadowgraph imaging, from the generation of plasma plume to the extinction of cavitation bubbles. Shadowgraph images revealed that the PLA plasma dynamics showed two distinct behaviors. These are divided by gas-liquid coexistence curve and the so-called Widom line, which separates gas-like and liquid-like SCF domains. Furthermore, cavitation bubble observed in liquid CO2 near the critical point showed peculiar characteristics, the formation of an inner bubble and an outer shell structure, which so far has never been reported. The experiments indicate that thermophysical properties of PLA plasmas can be tuned by controlling solvent temperature and pressure around the critical point, which may be useful for materials processing. This work was supported financially in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (No. 21110002) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan.

  11. An Estimation of the Likelihood of Significant Eruptions During 2000-2009 Using Poisson Statistics on Two-Point Moving Averages of the Volcanic Time Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1750, the number of cataclysmic volcanic eruptions (volcanic explosivity index (VEI)>=4) per decade spans 2-11, with 96 percent located in the tropics and extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere. A two-point moving average of the volcanic time series has higher values since the 1860's than before, being 8.00 in the 1910's (the highest value) and 6.50 in the 1980's, the highest since the 1910's peak. Because of the usual behavior of the first difference of the two-point moving averages, one infers that its value for the 1990's will measure approximately 6.50 +/- 1, implying that approximately 7 +/- 4 cataclysmic volcanic eruptions should be expected during the present decade (2000-2009). Because cataclysmic volcanic eruptions (especially those having VEI>=5) nearly always have been associated with short-term episodes of global cooling, the occurrence of even one might confuse our ability to assess the effects of global warming. Poisson probability distributions reveal that the probability of one or more events with a VEI>=4 within the next ten years is >99 percent. It is approximately 49 percent for an event with a VEI>=5, and 18 percent for an event with a VEI>=6. Hence, the likelihood that a climatically significant volcanic eruption will occur within the next ten years appears reasonably high.

  12. Real-time predictions of drug release and end point detection of a coating operation by in-line near infrared measurements.

    PubMed

    Gendre, Claire; Boiret, Mathieu; Genty, Muriel; Chaminade, Pierre; Pean, Jean Manuel

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this work was to carry out real-time near infrared (NIR) predictions of drug release from sustained release coated tablets and to determine end point of coating operation. In-line measurements were ensured by implementation of a NIR probe inside a pan coater. Tablets were coated using a functional aqueous dispersion of ethylcellulose blended with PVA-PEG graft copolymer to obtain a controlled drug release dosage form over 16h. Samples were collected at regular intervals and subjected to a standardized curing step. Percentages of released drug at 4h, 8h and 12h were selected to describe the controlled drug release of cured tablets. These dissolution criteria were used as reference values to calibrate NIR spectral information and to develop three partial least squares regressions. Low predictive errors of 1.7%, 1.9% and 1.5%, respectively, were obtained. The coating operation was stopped while desired dissolution criteria were achieved, corresponding to a coating level around 10%. The present study demonstrated that real-time NIR measurements could be performed on non-finished drug products to predict dissolution properties of cured coated tablets. This novel and innovative approach fulfils the expectations of ICH Q8 guideline on pharmaceutical development, in terms of process understanding and process analytical technology (PAT) control strategy. This approach should be however adapted to curing operation to allow a real-time release testing. PMID:21983094

  13. Self-Organizing Hierarchical Particle Swarm Optimization with Time-Varying Acceleration Coefficients for Economic Dispatch with Valve Point Effects and Multifuel Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polprasert, Jirawadee; Ongsakul, Weerakorn; Dieu, Vo Ngoc

    2011-06-01

    This paper proposes a self-organizing hierarchical particle swarm optimization (SPSO) with time-varying acceleration coefficients (TVAC) for solving economic dispatch (ED) problem with non-smooth functions including multiple fuel options (MFO) and valve-point loading effects (VPLE). The proposed SPSO with TVAC is the new approach optimizer and good performance for solving ED problems. It can handle the premature convergence of the problem by re-initialization of velocity whenever particles are stagnated in the search space. To properly control both local and global explorations of the swarm during the optimization process, the performance of TVAC is included. The proposed method is tested in different ED problems with non-smooth cost functions and the obtained results are compared to those from many other methods in the literature. The results have revealed that the proposed SPSO with TVAC is effective in finding higher quality solutions for non-smooth ED problems than many other methods.

  14. Processing time-series point clouds to reveal strain conditions of the Helheim Glacier terminus and its adjacent mélange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, L. C.; Stearns, L. A.; Finnegan, D. C.; LeWinter, A. L.; Gadomski, P. J.; Hamilton, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    Flow near the termini of tidewater glaciers varies over short time-scales due to mechanisms that are poorly understood. Repeat observations with high temporal and spatial resolution, recorded around the terminus, are required to better understand the processes that control flow variability. Progress in light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology permit such observations of the near-terminus and the pro-glacial ice mélange, though standard workflows for quantifying deformation from point clouds currently do not exist. Here, we test and develop methods for processing displacements from LiDAR data of complexly deforming bodies. We use data collected at 30-minute intervals over three-days in August 2013 at Helheim Glacier, Greenland by a long-range (6-10 km), 1064 nm wavelength Terrestrial LiDAR Scanner (TLS). The total area of coverage was ~25 km2. Distributed shear in glaciers prevents a simple transformation for aligning repeat point clouds, but within small regions (~100 m2) strain is assumed to be minor between scans. Registering a large number of these individual regions, subset from the full point-cloud, results in reduced alignment errors. By subsetting in a regular grid, rasters of velocities between scans are created. However, using data-dependent properties such as point density causes the generation of unevenly spaced velocity estimations, which can locally improve resolution or decrease registration errors. The choice of subsets therefore controls the output product's resolution and accuracy. We test how the spatial segmentation scheme affects the displacement results and alignment errors, finding that displacements can be quantified with limited assumption of the true value of displacement for the subset, barring great morphological changes. By identifying areas that do not deform over the temporal domain of the dataset, and using these as the subsets to align, it should be possible to deduce which structures are accommodating strain. This allows for

  15. Assessing the Influence of Land Use and Land Cover Datasets with Different Points in Time and Levels of Detail on Watershed Modeling in the North River Watershed, China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinliang; Zhou, Pei; Zhou, Zengrong; Huang, Yaling

    2012-01-01

    Land use and land cover (LULC) information is an important component influencing watershed modeling with regards to hydrology and water quality in the river basin. In this study, the sensitivity of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to LULC datasets with three points in time and three levels of detail was assessed in a coastal subtropical watershed located in Southeast China. The results showed good agreement between observed and simulated values for both monthly and daily streamflow and monthly NH4+-N and TP loads. Three LULC datasets in 2002, 2007 and 2010 had relatively little influence on simulated monthly and daily streamflow, whereas they exhibited greater effects on simulated monthly NH4+-N and TP loads. When using the two LULC datasets in 2007 and 2010 compared with that in 2002, the relative differences in predicted monthly NH4+-N and TP loads were −11.0 to −7.8% and −4.8 to −9.0%, respectively. There were no significant differences in simulated monthly and daily streamflow when using the three LULC datasets with ten, five and three categories. When using LULC datasets from ten categories compared to five and three categories, the relative differences in predicted monthly NH4+-N and TP loads were −6.6 to −6.5% and −13.3 to −7.3%, respectively. Overall, the sensitivity of the SWAT model to LULC datasets with different points in time and levels of detail was lower in monthly and daily streamflow simulation than in monthly NH4+-N and TP loads prediction. This research provided helpful insights into the influence of LULC datasets on watershed modeling. PMID:23271303

  16. Association of a multibiomarker disease activity score at multiple time-points with radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis: results from the SWEFOT trial

    PubMed Central

    Hambardzumyan, Karen; Bolce, Rebecca J; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Forslind, Kristina; Wallman, Johan K; Cruickshank, Scott E; Sasso, Eric H; Chernoff, David; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), predictive biomarkers for subsequent radiographic progression (RP) could improve therapeutic choices for individual patients. We previously showed that the multibiomarker disease activity (MBDA) score in patients with newly diagnosed RA identified patients at risk for RP. We evaluated the MBDA score at multiple time-points as a predictor of RP during 2 years of follow-up. Methods A subset of patients with RA (N=220) from the Swedish Farmacotherapy (SWEFOT) trial were analysed for MBDA score, disease activity score of 28 joints (DAS28), C reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at baseline (BL), month 3 and year 1, for predicting RP based on modified Sharp/van der Heijde scores at BL, year 1 and year 2. Results Patients with persistently low MBDA (<30) scores or those with a decrease from moderate (30–44) to low MBDA scores, did not develop RP during 2 years of follow-up. The highest risk for RP during 2 years of follow-up (42%) was observed among patients with persistently high (>44) MBDA scores. Among methotrexate non-responders with a high MBDA score at BL or month 3, significantly more of those who received triple therapy had RP at year 2 compared with those who received antitumour necrosis factor therapy. Conclusions Measuring the MBDA score both before and during treatment in RA was useful for the assessment of individual patient risk for RP during 2 years of follow-up. In comparison with low CRP, ESR or DAS28, a low MBDA score at any time-point was associated with numerically lower proportions of RP. Trial registration number NCT00764725. PMID:26958364

  17. Impact of Different Initial Epinephrine Treatment Time Points on the Early Postresuscitative Hemodynamic Status of Children With Traumatic Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yan-Ren; Syue, Yuan-Jhen; Buddhakosai, Waradee; Lu, Huai-En; Chang, Chin-Fu; Chang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Cheng Hsu; Chen, Wen-Liang; Li, Chao-Jui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The postresuscitative hemodynamic status of children with traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) might be impacted by the early administration of epinephrine, but this topic has not been well addressed. The aim of this study was to analyze the early postresuscitative hemodynamics, survival, and neurologic outcome according to different time points of first epinephrine treatment among children with traumatic OHCA. Information on 388 children who presented to the emergency departments of 3 medical centers and who were treated with epinephrine for traumatic OHCA during the study period (2003–2012) was retrospectively collected. The early postresuscitative hemodynamic features (cardiac functions, end-organ perfusion, and consciousness), survival, and neurologic outcome according to different time points of first epinephrine treatment (early: <15, intermediate: 15–30, and late: >30 minutes after collapse) were analyzed. Among 165 children who achieved sustained return of spontaneous circulation, 38 children (9.8%) survived to discharge and 12 children (3.1%) had good neurologic outcomes. Early epinephrine increased the postresuscitative heart rate and blood pressure in the first 30 minutes, but ultimately impaired end-organ perfusion (decreased urine output and initial creatinine clearance) (all P < 0.05). Early epinephrine treatment increased the chance of achieving sustained return of spontaneous circulation, but did not increase the rates of survival and good neurologic outcome. Early epinephrine temporarily increased heart rate and blood pressure in the first 30 minutes of the postresuscitative period, but impaired end-organ perfusion. Most importantly, the rates of survival and good neurologic outcome were not significantly increased by early epinephrine administration. PMID:27015217

  18. Green technology effect of injection pressure, timing and compression ratio in constant pressure heat addition cycle by an eco-friendly material.

    PubMed

    Karthikayan, S; Sankaranarayanan, G; Karthikeyan, R

    2015-11-01

    Present energy strategies focus on environmental issues, especially environmental pollution prevention and control by eco-friendly green technologies. This includes, increase in the energy supplies, encouraging cleaner and more efficient energy management, addressing air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. Biofuels provide the panorama of new fiscal opportunities for people in rural area for meeting their need and also the demand of the local market. Biofuels concern protection of the environment and job creation. Renewable energy sources are self-reliance resources, have the potential in energy management with less emissions of air pollutants. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependability on imported crude oil with connected economic susceptibility, reduce greenhouse gases, other pollutants and invigorate the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. The use of neat paradise tree oil and induction of eco-friendly material Hydrogen through inlet manifold in a constant pressure heat addition cycle engine (diesel engine) with optimized engine operating parameters such as injection timing, injection pressure and compression ratio. The results shows the heat utilization efficiency for neat vegetable oil is 29% and neat oil with 15% Hydrogen as 33%. The exhaust gas temperature (EGT) for 15% of H2 share as 450°C at full load and the heat release of 80J/deg. crank angle for 15% Hydrogen energy share. PMID:26025643

  19. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  20. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  1. Real-time estimation of prostate tumor rotation and translation with a kV imaging system based on an iterative closest point algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasehi Tehrani, Joubin; O'Brien, Ricky T.; Rugaard Poulsen, Per; Keall, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that during cancer radiotherapy a small translation or rotation of the tumor can lead to errors in dose delivery. Current best practice in radiotherapy accounts for tumor translations, but is unable to address rotation due to a lack of a reliable real-time estimate. We have developed a method based on the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm that can compute rotation from kilovoltage x-ray images acquired during radiation treatment delivery. A total of 11 748 kilovoltage (kV) images acquired from ten patients (one fraction for each patient) were used to evaluate our tumor rotation algorithm. For each kV image, the three dimensional coordinates of three fiducial markers inside the prostate were calculated. The three dimensional coordinates were used as input to the ICP algorithm to calculate the real-time tumor rotation and translation around three axes. The results show that the root mean square error was improved for real-time calculation of tumor displacement from a mean of 0.97 mm with the stand alone translation to a mean of 0.16 mm by adding real-time rotation and translation displacement with the ICP algorithm. The standard deviation (SD) of rotation for the ten patients was 2.3°, 0.89° and 0.72° for rotation around the right-left (RL), anterior-posterior (AP) and superior-inferior (SI) directions respectively. The correlation between all six degrees of freedom showed that the highest correlation belonged to the AP and SI translation with a correlation of 0.67. The second highest correlation in our study was between the rotation around RL and rotation around AP, with a correlation of -0.33. Our real-time algorithm for calculation of rotation also confirms previous studies that have shown the maximum SD belongs to AP translation and rotation around RL. ICP is a reliable and fast algorithm for estimating real-time tumor rotation which could create a pathway to investigational clinical treatment studies requiring real-time

  2. Real-time estimation of prostate tumor rotation and translation with a kV imaging system based on an iterative closest point algorithm.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Joubin Nasehi; O'Brien, Ricky T; Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Keall, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that during cancer radiotherapy a small translation or rotation of the tumor can lead to errors in dose delivery. Current best practice in radiotherapy accounts for tumor translations, but is unable to address rotation due to a lack of a reliable real-time estimate. We have developed a method based on the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm that can compute rotation from kilovoltage x-ray images acquired during radiation treatment delivery. A total of 11 748 kilovoltage (kV) images acquired from ten patients (one fraction for each patient) were used to evaluate our tumor rotation algorithm. For each kV image, the three dimensional coordinates of three fiducial markers inside the prostate were calculated. The three dimensional coordinates were used as input to the ICP algorithm to calculate the real-time tumor rotation and translation around three axes. The results show that the root mean square error was improved for real-time calculation of tumor displacement from a mean of 0.97 mm with the stand alone translation to a mean of 0.16 mm by adding real-time rotation and translation displacement with the ICP algorithm. The standard deviation (SD) of rotation for the ten patients was 2.3°, 0.89° and 0.72° for rotation around the right-left (RL), anterior-posterior (AP) and superior-inferior (SI) directions respectively. The correlation between all six degrees of freedom showed that the highest correlation belonged to the AP and SI translation with a correlation of 0.67. The second highest correlation in our study was between the rotation around RL and rotation around AP, with a correlation of -0.33. Our real-time algorithm for calculation of rotation also confirms previous studies that have shown the maximum SD belongs to AP translation and rotation around RL. ICP is a reliable and fast algorithm for estimating real-time tumor rotation which could create a pathway to investigational clinical treatment studies requiring real-time

  3. Model-based testing for space-time interaction using point processes: An application to psychiatric hospital admissions in an urban area.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sebastian; Warnke, Ingeborg; Rössler, Wulf; Held, Leonhard

    2016-05-01

    Spatio-temporal interaction is inherent to cases of infectious diseases and occurrences of earthquakes, whereas the spread of other events, such as cancer or crime, is less evident. Statistical significance tests of space-time clustering usually assess the correlation between the spatial and temporal (transformed) distances of the events. Although appealing through simplicity, these classical tests do not adjust for the underlying population nor can they account for a distance decay of interaction. We propose to use the framework of an endemic-epidemic point process model to jointly estimate a background event rate explained by seasonal and areal characteristics, as well as a superposed epidemic component representing the hypothesis of interest. We illustrate this new model-based test for space-time interaction by analysing psychiatric inpatient admissions in Zurich, Switzerland (2007-2012). Several socio-economic factors were found to be associated with the admission rate, but there was no evidence of general clustering of the cases. PMID:27246269

  4. Survival of time-evolved quantum correlations depending on whether quenching is across a critical point in an X Y spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Utkarsh; Rakshit, Debraj; Prabhu, R.

    2016-04-01

    The time dynamics of quantum correlations in the quantum transverse anisotropic X Y spin chain of infinite length is studied at zero and finite temperatures. The evolution occurs due to the instantaneous quenching of the coupling constant between the nearest-neighbor spins of the model, which is performed either within the same phase or across the quantum phase-transition point connecting the order-disorder phases of the model. We characterize the time-evolved quantum correlations, viz., entanglement and quantum discord, which exhibit varying behavior depending on the initial state and the quenching scheme. We show that the system is endowed with enhanced nearest-neighbor bipartite quantum correlations compared to that of the initial state, when quenched from the ordered to the deep disordered phase. However, nearest-neighbor quantum correlations are almost washed out when the system is quenched from the disordered to the ordered phase with the initial state being at the zero temperature. We also identify the condition for the occurrence of enhanced bipartite correlations when the system is quenched within the same phase. Moreover, we investigate the bipartite quantum correlations when the initial state is a thermal equilibrium state with finite temperature, which reveals the effects of thermal fluctuation on the phenomena observed at zero temperature. Finally, an analogous analysis is carried out for zero-temperature next-nearest-neighbor quantum correlations.

  5. The relation between doses or post-plasma time points and apoptosis of leukemia cells induced by dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Haixia; Xue, Zhixiao; Yin, Huijuan; Niu, Qing; Chen, Hongli

    2015-12-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was applied to induce apoptosis of LT-12 leukemia cells. Plasma effects on cell death was evaluated by MTT assay and FCM apoptosis assay with Annexin V/PI double staining, suggesting that plasma killing cells rate and inducing cell apoptosis rate both positively were related to the plasma doses or the post-plasma time points. The cell death rates increased from 15.2% to 33.1% and the apoptosis rate raise from 23.8% to 28% when the dose raise from 60s to 120 s at 8 h post-plasma, while they increased from 15.4% to 34.9% and from 48% to 55.3% respectively at the same doses at 12 h post-plasma. Furthermore, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), gene and protein expression for Caspases and Bcl-2 family members were measured for exploring the related apoptotic mechanisms phenomenon. We found ROS immediately increased to 1.24 times of the original amount, then increasing to 5.39-fold at 20 h after treatment. The gene and protein expression for Caspases and Bcl-2 family members are very active at 8-12 h post-plasma. Our results demonstrate that DBD plasma can effectively induce tumor cell death through primarily related apoptotic mechanisms.

  6. A Seamless Handoff Scheme with Access Point Load Balance for Real-Time Services Support in 802.11 Wireless LANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manodham, Thavisak; Loyola, Luis; Miki, Tetsuya

    IEEE 802.11 wirelesses LANs (WLANs) have been rapidly deployed in enterprises, public areas, and households. Voice-over-IP (VoIP) and similar applications are now commonly used in mobile devices over wireless networks. Recent works have improved the quality of service (QoS) offering higher data rates to support various kinds of real-time applications. However, besides the need for higher data rates, seamless handoff and load balancing among APs are key issues that must be addressed in order to continue supporting real-time services across wireless LANs and providing fair services to all users. In this paper, we introduce a novel access point (AP) with two transceivers that improves network efficiency by supporting seamless handoff and traffic load balancing in a wireless network. In our proposed scheme, the novel AP uses the second transceiver to scan and find neighboring STAs in the transmission range and then sends the results to neighboring APs, which compare and analyze whether or not the STA should perform a handoff. The initial results from our simulations show that the novel AP module is more effective than the conventional scheme and a related work in terms of providing a handoff process with low latency and sharing traffic load with neighbor APs.

  7. The effect of additional noradrenergic and serotonergic depletion on a lateralised choice reaction time task in rats with nigral 6-OHDA lesions.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Hanna S; Demirbugen, Merve; Bergqvist, Filip; Lane, Emma L; Dunnett, Stephen B

    2014-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients often suffer from visuospatial deficits, which have been considered a disruption of the representation of external space. The lateralised choice reaction time (CRT) task is an operant task for rodents in which similar deficits can be assessed. It has been demonstrated that specific parameters in this task is disrupted after unilateral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), which have been associated with the dopamine (DA) depletion that inevitably follows this type of lesion. However, studies have demonstrated that this type of lesion also affects the serotonergic (5HT) and noradrenergic (NA) systems. However, the impact of these systems on parameters in the CRT task had not yet been investigated. To this end, rats were pretrained on the CRT task before receiving selective lesions of the DAergic system, either alone or in combination with depletion of the NA or 5HT system. All rats with a 6-OHDA lesion displayed a gradual decline in the selection, initiation and execution of lateralised movements compared to sham-lesion controls on the side contralateral to the lesion. They also displayed a reduced number of useable trials as well as an increased number of procedural errors. Interestingly, the group with an additional noradrenergic lesion was significantly slower in reacting to lateralised stimuli throughout the testing period compared to the other two groups with a 6-OHDA lesion. There was however no difference between the three different lesion groups in the other parameters assessed in the task. These data confirm previous findings demonstrating that the majority of the parameters assessed in the lateralised CRT task are strongly dependent on DA. However, this study has also shown that the NAergic system may play an important role in contributing to the attentive performance influencing the capacity to react to the presented lateralised stimuli. PMID:24333808

  8. Time-integrated passive sampling as a complement to conventional point-in-time sampling for investigating drinking-water quality, McKenzie River Basin, Oregon, 2007 and 2010-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Alvarez, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The Eugene Water & Electric Board (EWEB) supplies drinking water to approximately 200,000 people in Eugene, Oregon. The sole source of this water is the McKenzie River, which has consistently excellent water quality relative to established drinking-water standards. To ensure that this quality is maintained as land use in the source basin changes and water demands increase, EWEB has developed a proactive management strategy that includes a combination of conventional point-in-time discrete water sampling and time‑integrated passive sampling with a combination of chemical analyses and bioassays to explore water quality and identify where vulnerabilities may lie. In this report, we present the results from six passive‑sampling deployments at six sites in the basin, including the intake and outflow from the EWEB drinking‑water treatment plant (DWTP). This is the first known use of passive samplers to investigate both the source and finished water of a municipal DWTP. Results indicate that low concentrations of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organohalogen compounds are consistently present in source waters, and that many of these compounds are also present in finished drinking water. The nature and patterns of compounds detected suggest that land-surface runoff and atmospheric deposition act as ongoing sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, some currently used pesticides, and several legacy organochlorine pesticides. Comparison of results from point-in-time and time-integrated sampling indicate that these two methods are complementary and, when used together, provide a clearer understanding of contaminant sources than either method alone.

  9. Magnitude, Timing, and Geometry of Extension in the Southern Sevier Desert Basin From Piercing Points, Seismic-Stratigraphic Reconstruction, and Deep well Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coogan, J. C.; Decelles, P. G.

    2007-12-01

    Palinspastic reconstruction of Mesozoic thrust sheets provides the main constraint for an estimated 47 km of Cenozoic extensional displacement along the Sevier Desert detachment (SDD) in the central Sevier Desert Basin. Hanging wall and footwall piercing points indicate that the SDD accommodated a minimum of 35 km of extensional displacement in the narrower southern part of the basin. The piercing points for the SDD are defined by the intersection of the SDD, the Canyon Range thrust (CRT), and a regional early Cenozoic erosion surface (ES). The hanging wall piercing point lies immediately northeast of the Cricket Mountains, where the SDD-CRT- ES intersection is narrowly defined by intersecting structure maps derived from published seismic reflection data. The footwall piercing point lies in the southern foothills of the Canyon Range, where the SDD breakaway plane is well constrained by an industry seismic line that lies within 2 km of the exposed intersection of the CRT with the base of the Oligocene Oak City Formation. Timing of extension in the southern Sevier Desert basin is constrained by a kinematic reconstruction of detachment and imbricate fault displacement, footwall uplift, and supradetachment sedimentation for Oligocene, Miocene, and Plio-Pleistocene seismic sequences. The reconstruction is centered on a seismic reflection and gravity interpretation along the published Pan Canadian profiles 2 and 3 that is tied to dated intervals in six industry wells. Fault restoration indicates that Oligocene and Miocene phases of slip each accounted for about 40 percent of the total displacement. Simultaneous backstripping of the Oligocene, Miocene, and Plio-Pleistocene supradetachment sequences records hanging wall subsidence simultaneous with footwall uplift, with a footwall burial history that is consistent with published Miocene apatite and zircon fission-track ages of footwall samples. The geometric evolution of the southern SDD extensional system is consistent

  10. Time-Resolved XAFS Spectroscopic Studies of B-H and N-H Oxidative Addition to Transition Metal Catalysts Relevant to Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bitterwolf, Thomas E.

    2014-12-09

    Successful catalytic dehydrogenation of aminoborane, H3NBH3, prompted questions as to the potential role of N-H oxidative addition in the mechanisms of these processes. N-H oxidative addition reactions are rare, and in all cases appear to involve initial dative bonding to the metal by the amine lone pairs followed by transfer of a proton to the basic metal. Aminoborane and its trimethylborane derivative block this mechanism and, in principle, should permit authentic N-H oxidative attrition to occur. Extensive experimental work failed to confirm this hypothesis. In all cases either B-H complexation or oxidative addition of solvent C-H bonds dominate the chemistry.

  11. Real-time PCR array chip with capillary-driven sample loading and reactor sealing for point-of-care applications.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Naveen; Liu, Hao-Bing; Dai, Chang-Chun; Jiang, Yu; Wang, Hui; Wang, Qinghui; M Hui, Kam; Gong, Hai-Qing

    2009-10-01

    A major challenge for the lab-on-a-chip (LOC) community is to develop point-of-care diagnostic chips that do not use instruments. Such instruments include pumping or liquid handling devices for distribution of patient's nucleic-acid test sample among an array of reactors and microvalves or mechanical parts to seal these reactors. In this paper, we report the development of a primer pair pre-loaded PCR array chip, in which the loading of the PCR mixture into an array of reactors and subsequent sealing of the reactors were realized by a novel capillary-based microfluidics with a manual two-step pipetting operations. The chip is capable of performing simultaneous (parallel) analyses of multiple gene targets and its performance was tested by amplifying twelve different gene targets against cDNA template from human hepatocellular carcinoma using SYBR Green I fluorescent dye. The versatility and reproducibility of the PCR-array chip are demonstrated by real-time PCR amplification of the BNI-1 fragment of SARS cDNA cloned in a plasmid vector. The reactor-to-reactor diffusion of the pre-loaded primer pairs in the chip is investigated to eliminate the possibility of primer cross-contamination. Key technical issues such as PCR mixture loss in gas-permeable PDMS chip layer and bubble generation due to different PDMS-glass bonding methods are investigated. PMID:19421862

  12. Added Value of Dual-Time-Point 18F-FDG PET/CT With Delayed Imaging for Detecting Aortic Graft Infection: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Yung; Chang, Cheng-Pei; Shih, Chun-Che; Yang, Bang-Hung; Cheng, Cheng-Yi; Chang, Chi-Wei; Chu, Lee-Shing; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Liu, Ren-Shyan

    2015-07-01

    F-FDG PET/CT is a promising tool in detecting aortic graft infection. Present study investigated the value of dual-time-point F-FDG PET/CT imaging (DTPI) with delayed imaging in assessing aortic graft infection.Twenty-nine patients with suspected aortic graft infection were prospectively enrolled in this DTPI study. Two nuclear medicine physicians read all the images and achieved consensus about the measurement of maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and grading of image quality. The percentages of SUVmax change between initial and delayed images were recorded as retention index (RI); sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated based on reference standard.All the 5 infected aortic grafts had positive RIs, which were generally higher than that of noninfected grafts. Those noninfected grafts had variable RIs. Seven patients had improved image quality in delayed imaging. DTPI with delayed image detected all the infected grafts with improved specificity (88%) and accuracy (90%), providing conspicuous delineation of the infected graft extent.In conclusion, noninfected aortic grafts had more variable RIs than infected ones. DTPI might be useful for detecting aortic graft infection, improving image quality, and enhancing delineation of the infected aortic grafts. PMID:26166113

  13. Multi-point, multi-scale observation of the near-Earth current sheet reconfiguration during storm-time multi-onset substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Plaschke, F.; Narita, Y.; Schmid, D.; Panov, E. V.; Andriopoulou, M.; Voros, Z.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Steller, M.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Leinweber, H. K.; Le, G.; Bromund, K. R.; Anderson, B. J.; Chutter, M.; Slavin, J. A.; Kepko, L.; Vaith, H.; Le Contel, O.; Argall, M. R.; Ergun, R. E.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Marklund, G. T.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Pollock, C. J.; Dorelli, J.; Gershman, D. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Mauk, B.; Baker, D. N.; Giles, B. L.; Moore, T. E.; Singer, H. J.; Sergeev, V. A.; Escoubet, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    On June 23, 2015 between 03 and 06 UT, during the recovery phase of a storm, signatures of two major substorms with multiple-onsets are detected by a fleet of spacecraft in the near-Earth region providing an unique opportunity to study the evolution of the near-Earth current sheet reconfiguration from sub-ion scale to larger scale across the inner magnetosphere. The two onsets around 0315 and 0505 are observed by MMS near the boundary of the premidnight-plasma sheet as a thinning of the current sheet and as dipolarization at GOES 13 and 15 in the dusk to premidnight region, then followed by crossing of an active separatrix region. By using high-resolution magnetic field data onboard MMS, we investigate the detailed propagation properties of the disturbances and structures based on different multi-point analysis techniques (timing, gradient, and wave telescope analysis). By also comparing with current wedge model from ground-based data we identify the 3D evolution of the near-Earth current sheet.

  14. Time point-based integrative analyses of deep-transcriptome identify four signal pathways in blastemal regeneration of zebrafish lower jaw.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xuelong; Lyu, Kailun; Gao, Siqi; Wang, Guan; Fan, Chunxin; Zhang, Xin A; Yan, Jizhou

    2015-03-01

    There has been growing interest in applying tissue engineering to stem cell-based regeneration therapies. We have previously reported that zebrafish can faithfully regenerate complicated tissue structures through blastemal cell type conversions and tissue reorganization. To unveil the regenerative factors and engineering arts of blastemal regeneration, we conducted transcriptomal analyses at four time points corresponding to preamputation, re-epitheliation, blastemal formation, and respecification. By combining the hierarchical gene ontology term network, the DAVID annotation system, and Euclidean distance clustering, we identified four signaling pathways: foxi1-foxo1b-pou3f1, pax3a-mant3a-col11/col2, pou5f1-cdx4-kdrl, and isl1-wnt11 PCP-sox9a. Results from immunohistochemical staining and promoter-driven transgenic fish suggest that these pathways, respectively, define wound epidermis reconstitution, cell type conversions, blastemal angiogenesis/vasculogenesis, and cartilage matrix-orientation. Foxi1 morpholino-knockdown caused expansions of Foxo1b- and Pax3a-expression in the basal layer-blastemal junction region. Moreover, foxi1 morphants displayed increased sox9a and hoxa2b transcripts in the embryonic pharyngeal arches. Thus, a Foxi1 signal switch is required to establish correct tissue patterns, including re-epitheliation and blastema formation. This study provides novel insight into a blastema regeneration strategy devised by epithelial cell transdifferentiation, blood vessel engineering, and cartilage matrix deposition. PMID:25420467

  15. Using digital image correlation and three dimensional point tracking in conjunction with real time operating data expansion techniques to predict full-field dynamic strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avitabile, Peter; Baqersad, Javad; Niezrecki, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Large structures pose unique difficulties in the acquisition of measured dynamic data with conventional techniques that are further complicated when the structure also has rotating members such as wind turbine blades and helicopter blades. Optical techniques (digital image correlation and dynamic point tracking) are used to measure line of sight data without the need to contact the structure, eliminating cumbersome cabling issues. The data acquired from these optical approaches are used in conjunction with a unique real time operating data expansion process to obtain full-field dynamic displacement and dynamic strain. The measurement approaches are described in this paper along with the expansion procedures. The data is collected for a single blade from a wind turbine and also for a three bladed assembled wind turbine configuration. Measured strains are compared to results from a limited set of optical measurements used to perform the expansion to obtain full-field strain results including locations that are not available from the line of sight measurements acquired. The success of the approach clearly shows that there are some very extraordinary possibilities that exist to provide very desperately needed full field displacement and strain information that can be used to help identify the structural health of structures.

  16. Exploratory space-time analysis of dengue incidence in Trinidad: a retrospective study using travel hubs as dispersal points, 1998–2004

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue is an acute arboviral disease responsible for most of the illness and death in tropical and subtropical regions. Over the last 25 years there has been increase epidemic activity of the disease in the Caribbean, with the co-circulation of multiple serotypes. An understanding of the space and time dynamics of dengue could provide health agencies with important clues for reducing its impact. Methods Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) cases observed for the period 1998–2004 were georeferenced using Geographic Information System software. Spatial clustering was calculated for individual years and for the entire study period using the Nearest Neighbor Index. Space and time interaction between DHF cases was determined using the Knox Test while the Nearest Neighbor Hierarchical method was used to extract DHF hot spots. All space and time distances calculated were validated using the Pearson r significance test. Results Results shows that (1) a decrease in mean distance between DHF cases correlates with activity leading up to an outbreak, (2) a decrease in temporal distance between DHF cases leads to increased geographic spread of the disease, with an outbreak occurrence about every 2 years, and (3) a general pattern in the movement of dengue incidents from more rural to urban settings leading up to an outbreak with hotspot areas associated with transportation hubs in Trinidad. Conclusion Considering only the spatial dimension of the disease, results suggest that DHF cases become more concentrated leading up to an outbreak. However, with the additional consideration of time, results suggest that when an outbreak occurs incidents occur more rapidly in time leading to a parallel increase in the rate of distribution of the disease across space. The results of this study can be used by public health officers to help visualize and understand the spatial and temporal patterns of dengue, and to prepare warnings for the public. Dengue space-time patterns and

  17. Critical points of DNA quantification by real-time PCR – effects of DNA extraction method and sample matrix on quantification of genetically modified organisms

    PubMed Central

    Cankar, Katarina; Štebih, Dejan; Dreo, Tanja; Žel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    Background Real-time PCR is the technique of choice for nucleic acid quantification. In the field of detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) quantification of biotech products may be required to fulfil legislative requirements. However, successful quantification depends crucially on the quality of the sample DNA analyzed. Methods for GMO detection are generally validated on certified reference materials that are in the form of powdered grain material, while detection in routine laboratories must be performed on a wide variety of sample matrixes. Due to food processing, the DNA in sample matrixes can be present in low amounts and also degraded. In addition, molecules of plant origin or from other sources that affect PCR amplification of samples will influence the reliability of the quantification. Further, the wide variety of sample matrixes presents a challenge for detection laboratories. The extraction method must ensure high yield and quality of the DNA obtained and must be carefully selected, since even components of DNA extraction solutions can influence PCR reactions. GMO quantification is based on a standard curve, therefore similarity of PCR efficiency for the sample and standard reference material is a prerequisite for exact quantification. Little information on the performance of real-time PCR on samples of different matrixes is available. Results Five commonly used DNA extraction techniques were compared and their suitability for quantitative analysis was assessed. The effect of sample matrix on nucleic acid quantification was assessed by comparing 4 maize and 4 soybean matrixes. In addition 205 maize and soybean samples from routine analysis were analyzed for PCR efficiency to assess variability of PCR performance within each sample matrix. Together with the amount of DNA needed for reliable quantification, PCR efficiency is the crucial parameter determining the reliability of quantitative results, therefore it was chosen as the primary

  18. Splitting the Cartesian point

    SciTech Connect

    Blodwell, J.F.

    1987-10-01

    It is argued that the point structure of space and time must be constructed from the primitive extensional character of space and time. A procedure for doing this is laid down and applied to one-dimensional and two-dimensional systems of abstract extensions. Topological and metrical properties of the constructed point systems, which differ nontrivially from the usual R and R/sup 2/ models, are examined. Briefly, constructed points are associated with directions and the Cartesian point is split. In one-dimension each point splits into a point pair compatible with the linear ordering. An application to one-dimensional particle motion is given, with the result that natural topological assumptions force the number of left point, right point transitions to remain locally finite in a continuous motion. In general, Cartesian points are seen to correspond to certain filters on a suitable Boolean algebra. Constructed points correspond to ultrafilters. Thus, point construction gives a natural refinement of the Cartesian systems.

  19. Differential Diagnosis of Malaria on Truelab Uno®, a Portable, Real-Time, MicroPCR Device for Point-Of-Care Applications

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Chandrasekhar Bhaskaran; Manjula, Jagannath; Subramani, Pradeep Annamalai; Nagendrappa, Prakash B.; Manoj, Mulakkapurath Narayanan; Malpani, Sukriti; Pullela, Phani Kumar; Subbarao, Pillarisetti Venkata; Ramamoorthy, Siva; Ghosh, Susanta K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sensitive and specific detection of malarial parasites is crucial in controlling the significant malaria burden in the developing world. Also important is being able to identify life threatening Plasmodium falciparum malaria quickly and accurately to reduce malaria related mortality. Existing methods such as microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have major shortcomings. Here, we describe a new real-time PCR-based diagnostic test device at point-of-care service for resource-limited settings. Methods Truenat® Malaria, a chip-based microPCR test, was developed by bigtec Labs, Bangalore, India, for differential identification of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasites. The Truenat Malaria tests runs on bigtec’s Truelab Uno® microPCR device, a handheld, battery operated, and easy-to-use real-time microPCR device. The performance of Truenat® Malaria was evaluated versus the WHO nested PCR protocol. The Truenat® Malaria was further evaluated in a triple-blinded study design using a sample panel of 281 specimens created from the clinical samples characterized by expert microscopy and a rapid diagnostic test kit by the National Institute of Malaria Research (NIMR). A comparative evaluation was done on the Truelab Uno® and a commercial real-time PCR system. Results The limit of detection of the Truenat Malaria assay was found to be <5 parasites/μl for both P. falciparum and P. vivax. The Truenat® Malaria test was found to have sensitivity and specificity of 100% each, compared to the WHO nested PCR protocol based on the evaluation of 100 samples. The sensitivity using expert microscopy as the reference standard was determined to be around 99.3% (95% CI: 95.5–99.9) at the species level. Mixed infections were identified more accurately by Truenat Malaria (32 samples identified as mixed) versus expert microscopy and RDTs which detected 4 and 5 mixed samples, respectively. Conclusion The Truenat® Malaria microPCR test is a valuable

  20. Tipping Point

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... TV falls with about the same force as child falling from the third story of a building. ...

  1. In situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction of tobermorite formation in autoclaved aerated concrete: Influence of silica source reactivity and Al addition

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Kunio; Kikuma, Jun; Tsunashima, Masamichi; Ishikawa, Tetsuji; Matsuno, Shin-ya; Ogawa, Akihiro; Sato, Masugu

    2011-05-15

    The hydrothermal formation of tobermorite during the processing of autoclaved aerated concrete was investigated by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. High-energy X-rays from a synchrotron radiation source in combination with a newly developed autoclave cell and a photon-counting pixel array detector were used. To investigate the effects of the silica source, reactive quartz from chert and less-reactive quartz from quartz sand were used as starting materials. The effect of Al addition on tobermorite formation was also studied. In all cases, C-S-H, hydroxylellestadite and katoite were clearly observed as intermediates. Acceleration of tobermorite formation by Al addition was clearly observed. However, Al addition did not affect the dissolution rate of quartz. Two pathways, via C-S-H and katoite, were also observed in the Al-containing system. These results suggest that the structure of initially formed C-S-H is important for the subsequent tobermorite formation reactions.

  2. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  3. 5 CFR 2429.22 - Additional time for filing with the FLRA if you are filing in response to a document that has...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... effected. (c) Exception for applications for review filed under 5 CFR 2422.31. You do not get an additional 5 days to file an application for review of a Regional Director's Decision and Order under 5 CFR... rules that apply to filing exceptions to arbitration awards, see 5 CFR 2425.2(c)....

  4. 5 CFR 2429.22 - Additional time for filing with the FLRA if you are filing in response to a document that has...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... effected. (c) Exception for applications for review filed under 5 CFR 2422.31. You do not get an additional 5 days to file an application for review of a Regional Director's Decision and Order under 5 CFR... rules that apply to filing exceptions to arbitration awards, see 5 CFR 2425.2(c)....

  5. Point-of-care detection and real-time monitoring of intravenously delivered drugs via tubing with an integrated SERS sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hsin-Yu; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate an approach for detection, identification, and kinetic monitoring of drugs flowing within tubing, through the use of a plasmonic nanodome array (PNA) surface. The PNA structures are fabricated using a low-cost nanoreplica molding process upon a flexible plastic substrate that is subsequently integrated with a flow cell that connects in series with ordinary intravenous (IV) drug delivery tubing. To investigate the potential clinical applications for point-of-care detection and real-time monitoring, we perform SERS detection of ten pharmaceutical compounds (hydrocodone, levorphanol, morphine, oxycodone, methadone, phenobarbital, dopamine, diltiazem, promethazine, and mitoxantrone). We demonstrate dose-dependent SERS signal magnitude, resulting in detection limits (ng ml-1) well below typical administered dosages (mg ml-1). Further, we show that the detected drugs are not permanently attached to the PNA surface, and thus our approach is capable of performing continuous monitoring of drug delivery as materials flow through IV tubing that is connected in series with the sensor. Finally, we demonstrate the potential co-detection of multiple drugs when they are mixed together, and show excellent reproducibility and stability of SERS measurements for periods extending at least five days. The capabilities reported here demonstrate the potential to use PNA SERS surfaces for enhancing the safety of IV drug delivery.We demonstrate an approach for detection, identification, and kinetic monitoring of drugs flowing within tubing, through the use of a plasmonic nanodome array (PNA) surface. The PNA structures are fabricated using a low-cost nanoreplica molding process upon a flexible plastic substrate that is subsequently integrated with a flow cell that connects in series with ordinary intravenous (IV) drug delivery tubing. To investigate the potential clinical applications for point-of-care detection and real-time monitoring, we perform SERS detection of ten

  6. Estimated times to exhaustion and power outputs at the gas exchange threshold, physical working capacity at the rating of perceived exertion threshold, and respiratory compensation point.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, Haley C; Housh, Terry J; Zuniga, Jorge M; Camic, Clayton L; Traylor, Daniel A; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O

    2012-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the power outputs and estimated times to exhaustion (T(lim)) at the gas exchange threshold (GET), physical working capacity at the rating of perceived exertion threshold (PWC(RPE)), and respiratory compensation point (RCP). Three male and 5 female subjects (mean ± SD: age, 22.4 ± 2.8 years) performed an incremental test to exhaustion on an electronically braked cycle ergometer to determine peak oxygen consumption rate, GET, and RCP. The PWC(RPE) was determined from ratings of perceived exertion data recorded during 3 continuous workbouts to exhaustion. The estimated T(lim) values for each subject at GET, PWC(RPE), and RCP were determined from power curve analyses (T(lim) = ax(b)). The results indicated that the PWC(RPE) (176 ± 55 W) was not significantly different from RCP (181 ± 54 W); however, GET (155 ± 42 W) was significantly less than PWC(RPE) and RCP. The estimated T(lim) for the GET (26.1 ± 9.8 min) was significantly greater than PWC(RPE) (14.6 ± 5.6 min) and RCP (11.2 ± 3.1 min). The PWC(RPE) occurred at a mean power output that was 13.5% greater than the GET and, therefore, it is likely that the perception of effort is not driven by the same mechanism that underlies the GET (i.e., lactate buffering). Furthermore, the PWC(RPE) and RCP were not significantly different and, therefore, these thresholds may be associated with the same mechanisms of fatigue, such as increased levels of interstitial and (or) arterial [K⁺]. PMID:22716291

  7. Point-of-Care Autofluorescence Imaging for Real-Time Sampling and Treatment Guidance of Bioburden in Chronic Wounds: First-in-Human Results

    PubMed Central

    DaCosta, Ralph S.; Kulbatski, Iris; Lindvere-Teene, Liis; Starr, Danielle; Blackmore, Kristina; Silver, Jason I.; Opoku, Julie; Wu, Yichao Charlie; Medeiros, Philip J.; Xu, Wei; Xu, Lizhen; Wilson, Brian C.; Rosen, Cheryl; Linden, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditionally, chronic wound infection is diagnosed by visual inspection under white light and microbiological sampling, which are subjective and suboptimal, respectively, thereby delaying diagnosis and treatment. To address this, we developed a novel handheld, fluorescence imaging device (PRODIGI) that enables non-contact, real-time, high-resolution visualization and differentiation of key pathogenic bacteria through their endogenous autofluorescence, as well as connective tissues in wounds. Methods and Findings This was a two-part Phase I, single center, non-randomized trial of chronic wound patients (male and female, ≥18 years; UHN REB #09-0015-A for part 1; UHN REB #12-5003 for part 2; clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01378728 for part 1 and NCT01651845 for part 2). Part 1 (28 patients; 54% diabetic foot ulcers, 46% non-diabetic wounds) established the feasibility of autofluorescence imaging to accurately guide wound sampling, validated against blinded, gold standard swab-based microbiology. Part 2 (12 patients; 83.3% diabetic foot ulcers, 16.7% non-diabetic wounds) established the feasibility of autofluorescence imaging to guide wound treatment and quantitatively assess treatment response. We showed that PRODIGI can be used to guide and improve microbiological sampling and debridement of wounds in situ, enabling diagnosis, treatment guidance and response assessment in patients with chronic wounds. PRODIGI is safe, easy to use and integrates into the clinical workflow. Clinically significant bacterial burden can be detected in seconds, quantitatively tracked over days-to-months and their biodistribution mapped within the wound bed, periphery, and other remote areas. Conclusions PRODIGI represents a technological advancement in wound sampling and treatment guidance for clinical wound care at the point-of-care. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01651845; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01378728 PMID:25790480

  8. Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2013-09-01

    The concept of time in the `clockwork' Newtonian world was irrelevant; and has generally been ignored until recently by several generations of physicists since the implementation of quantum mechanics. We will set aside the utility of time as a property relating to physical calculations of events relating to a metrics line element or as an aspect of the transformation of a particles motion/interaction in a coordinate system or in relation to thermodynamics etc., i.e. we will discard all the usual uses of time as a concept used to circularly define physical parameters in terms of other physical parameters; concentrating instead on time as an aspect of the fundamental cosmic topology of our virtual reality especially as it inseparably relates to the nature and role of the observer in natural science.

  9. Addition of a UL5 helicase-primase subunit point mutation eliminates bursal-thymic atrophy of Marek's disease virus ∆Meq recombinant virus but reduces vaccinal protection.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Evin; Dunn, John R; Cheng, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus and the causative agent of Marek's disease (MD), characterized by immunosuppression, paralysis, nerve enlargement and induction of T-cell lymphomas in chickens. Despite widespread usage of vaccines since the 1970s to control MD, more virulent field strains of MDV have emerged that overcome vaccinal protection, necessitating the development of new and more protective MD vaccines. The ∆Meq virus, a recombinant Md5 strain MDV lacking the viral oncogene Meq, is one candidate MD vaccine with great potential but unfortunately it also causes bursal-thymic atrophy (BTA) in maternal antibody negative chickens, raising concerns that impede commercial use as a vaccine. Previously, we identified a point mutation within UL5 that reduced in vivo replication in attenuated viruses. We proposed that introduction of the UL5 point mutation into the ∆Meq virus would reduce in vivo replication and eliminate BTA yet potentially retain high protective abilities. In birds, the ∆Meq+UL5 recombinant MDV had reduced replication compared to the original ∆Meq virus, while weights of lymphoid organs indicated that ∆Meq+UL5 did not induce BTA, supporting the hypothesis that reduction of in vivo replication would also abolish BTA. Vaccine trials of the ∆Meq+UL5 virus compared to other ∆Meq-based viruses and commercial vaccines show that, while the ∆Meq+UL5 does provide vaccinal protection, this protection was also reduced compared to the original ∆Meq virus. Therefore, it appears that a very delicate balance is required between levels of replication able to induce high vaccinal protection, yet not so high as to induce BTA. PMID:25968878

  10. One-Time Addition of Nano-TiO2 Triggers Short-Term Responses in Benthic Bacterial Communities in Artificial Streams.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Alexandra; Adams, Erin; Binh, Chu Thi Thanh; Tong, Tiezheng; Gaillard, Jean-François; Gray, Kimberly A; Kelly, John J

    2016-02-01

    Nano-TiO2 is an engineered nanomaterial whose production and use are increasing rapidly. Hence, aquatic habitats are at risk for nano-TiO2 contamination due to potential inputs from urban and suburban runoff and domestic wastewater. Nano-TiO2 has been shown to be toxic to a wide range of aquatic organisms, but little is known about the effects of nano-TiO2 on benthic microbial communities. This study used artificial stream mesocosms to assess the effects of a single addition of nano-TiO2 (P25 at a final concentration of 1 mg l(-1)) on the abundance, activity, and community composition of sediment-associated bacterial communities. The addition of nano-TiO2 resulted in a rapid (within 1 day) decrease in bacterial abundance in artificial stream sediments, but bacterial abundance returned to control levels within 3 weeks. Pyrosequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes did not indicate any significant changes in the relative abundance of any bacterial taxa with nano-TiO2 treatment, indicating that nano-TiO2 was toxic to a broad range of bacterial taxa and that recovery of the bacterial communities was not driven by changes in community composition. Addition of nano-TiO2 also resulted in short-term increases in respiration rates and denitrification enzyme activity, with both returning to control levels within 3 weeks. The results of this study demonstrate that single-pulse additions of nano-TiO2 to aquatic habitats have the potential to significantly affect the abundance and activity of benthic microbial communities and suggest that interactions of TiO2 nanoparticles with environmental matrices may limit the duration of their toxicity. PMID:26156053

  11. Point-to-Point Multicast Communications Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Gregory T.; Nakano, Russell; Delagi, Bruce A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a protocol to support point-to-point interprocessor communications with multicast. Dynamic, cut-through routing with local flow control is used to provide a high-throughput, low-latency communications path between processors. In addition multicast transmissions are available, in which copies of a packet are sent to multiple destinations using common resources as much as possible. Special packet terminators and selective buffering are introduced to avoid a deadlock during multicasts. A simulated implementation of the protocol is also described.

  12. Reducing Perceptions of Time Required to Complete Math Assignments by Adding Problems to Assignments: A Synthesis of the Additive Interspersal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billington, Eric J.; Skinner, Christopher H.

    2006-01-01

    Results from nine experiments were analyzed to evaluate the relationship between relative problem completion rates (RPCR) and judgments of time involving mathematics assignments. For each experiment, control assignments contained only target mathematics computation or word problems. Matched experimental assignments contained similar target…

  13. Strain distribution in thin concrete pavement panels under three-point loading to failure with pre-pulse-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis (Presentation Video)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yi; Cain, John; Chen, Yizheng; Huang, Ying; Chen, Genda; Palek, Leonard

    2015-04-01

    Thin concrete panels reinforced with alloy polymer macro-synthetic fibers have recently been introduced to rapidly and cost-effectively improve the driving condition of existing roadways by laying down a fabric sheet on the roadways, casting a thin layer of concrete, and then cutting the layer into panels. This study is aimed to understand the strain distribution and potential crack development of concrete panels under three-point loading. To this end, six full-size 6ft×6ft×3in concrete panels were tested to failure in the laboratory. They were instrumented with three types of single-mode optical fiber sensors whose performance and ability to measure the strain distribution and detect cracks were compared. Each optical fiber sensor was spliced and calibrated, and then attached to a fabric sheet using adhesive. A thin layer of mortar (0.25 ~ 0.5 in thick) was cast on the fabric sheet. The three types of distributed sensors were bare SM-28e+ fiber, SM-28e+ fiber with a tight buffer, and concrete crack cable, respectively. The concrete crack cable consisted of one SM-28e+ optical fiber with a tight buffer, one SM-28e+ optical fiber with a loose buffer for temperature compensation, and an outside protective tight sheath. Distributed strains were collected from the three optical fiber sensors with pre-pulse-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis in room temperature. Among the three sensors, the bare fiber was observed to be most fragile during construction and operation, but most sensitive to strain change or micro-cracks. The concrete crack cable was most rugged, but not as sensitive to micro-cracks and robust in micro-crack measurement as the bare fiber. The ruggedness and sensitivity of the fiber with a tight buffer were in between the bare fiber and the concrete crack cable. The strain distribution resulted from the three optical sensors are in good agreement, and can be applied to successfully locate cracks in the concrete panels. It was observed that the

  14. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-inoculation at different time points influences the outcome of C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dong-Hua; Wang, Ji-Chun; Liu, Jun; Du, Yun-Ting; Cui, Li-Wang; Cao, Ya-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine. We performed a series of co-infection experiments with BCG-Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi Landau, 1965 AS using C57BL/6 mice to analyse whether BCG can affect the development of protective immunity to infection with Plasmodium spp. and the mechanism of this protection. We divided mice into four groups: BCG-inoculation 4 weeks prior to P. c. chabaudi AS infection (B-4w-Pc); simultaneous BCG-inoculation and P. c. chabaudi AS infection (Pc+B); BCG-inoculation 3 days post P. c. chabaudi AS (Pc-3-B) infection; and mono-P. c. chabaudi AS infection as control (Pc). The parasitemia level in the B-4w-Pc group was noticeably higher than control group at 6-19 days post infection (dpi). Compared with the control group, the proportion of CD4(+)CD69(+) T cells was significantly reduced 5, 8 and 12 dpi, but the proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs was significantly increased in the B-4w-Pc group on 5 and 8 dpi. The B-4w-Pc group also demonstrated reduced levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α on 5 and 8 dpi and significantly elevated level of IL-10 on 12 dpi. There were significantly fewer mDCs (CD11c(+)CD11b(+)) and pDCs (CD11c(+)B220(+)) in the B-4w-Pc group than the control group at all the time points post infection and the expression of MHC II was noticeably reduced on day 8 pi. Our findings confirmed that BCG inoculation prior to Plasmodium infection resulted in excessive activation and proliferation of Tregs and upregulation of anti-inflammatory mediators, which inhibited establishment of a Th1-dominant immune response during the early stages of Plasmodium infection by inhibiting dendritive cells response. BCG inoculation prior to P. c. chabaudi AS infection may contribute to overgrowth of parasites as well as mortality in mice. PMID:27188912

  15. Levan as a new additive for colon-specific films: a new approach in the use of exopolysaccharides in time-dependent free films (Aminoalkyl Methacrylate Copolymer RS).

    PubMed

    dos-Santos, Leandro Freire; Gómez-Pineda, Edgardo Alfonso; Colabone-Celligoi, Maria Antonia-Pedrine; Cavalcanti, Osvaldo Albuquerque

    2013-09-01

    Time-dependent films, augmented with prebiotics, offer potential strategy for colon-specific controlled drug release. In this study, we produced films containing levan (L) and Aminoalkyl Methacrylate Copolymer RS (ER). Free films of ER combined with levan were produced by the casting process and characterized by the mobility of the polymeric matrix, hydration, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGA). The results of this study suggest that the exopolysaccharide levan can be used in combination with ER for colon specific materials. No evidence of incompatibilities between the levan and the synthetic polymer were detected, and levan improved the mobility of the polymeric matrix and the hydrophilicity of the system. Levan may have positively altered the density of the polymeric matrix, as visualized by thermal characterization. The endothermic decomposition peak was shifted with increasing amounts of levan. This new barrier polymer utilized a combination of time-dependent enzymatic mechanisms and can be considered promising for use in the coating of solid oral drugs for specific release. PMID:24035950

  16. Instrument Pointing Capabilities: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackmore, Lars; Murray, Emmanuell; Scharf, Daniel P.; Aung, Mimi; Bayard, David; Brugarolas, Paul; Hadaegh, Fred; Lee, Allan; Milman, Mark; Sirlin, Sam; Kang, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    This paper surveys the instrument pointing capabilities of past, present and future space telescopes and interferometers. As an important aspect of this survey, we present a taxonomy for "apples-to-apples" comparisons of pointing performances. First, pointing errors are defined relative to either an inertial frame or a celestial target. Pointing error can then be further sub-divided into DC, that is, steady state, and AC components. We refer to the magnitude of the DC error relative to the inertial frame as absolute pointing accuracy, and we refer to the magnitude of the DC error relative to a celestial target as relative pointing accuracy. The magnitude of the AC error is referred to as pointing stability. While an AC/DC partition is not new, we leverage previous work by some of the authors to quantitatively clarify and compare varying definitions of jitter and time window averages. With this taxonomy and for sixteen past, present, and future missions, pointing accuracies and stabilities, both required and achieved, are presented. In addition, we describe the attitude control technologies used to and, for future missions, planned to achieve these pointing performances.

  17. The grade is: 66 out of 100. Commonwealth gives U.S. healthcare a sickly ranking, but some say it's time to offer solutions, not point out problems.

    PubMed

    Evans, Melanie

    2006-09-25

    When the Commonwealth Fund issued its first scorecard on the U.S. healthcare system, the news wasn't so great. But the project's authors said the score of 66 points out of 100 shouldn't be interpreted as a failing grade, but a sign the nation can do much better. The U.S. spends 16% of its GDP on healthcare, said Karen Davis, president of the Commonwealth Fund. "We are not getting good value for that investment." PMID:17037270

  18. On Pfaffian Random Point Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargin, V.

    2014-02-01

    We study Pfaffian random point fields by using the Moore-Dyson quaternion determinants. First, we give sufficient conditions that ensure that a self-dual quaternion kernel defines a valid random point field, and then we prove a CLT for Pfaffian point fields. The proofs are based on a new quaternion extension of the Cauchy-Binet determinantal identity. In addition, we derive the Fredholm determinantal formulas for the Pfaffian point fields which use the quaternion determinant.

  19. Detection of the A2058G and A2059G 23S rRNA Gene Point Mutations Associated with Azithromycin Resistance in Treponema pallidum by Use of a TaqMan Real-Time Multiplex PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Kai-Hua; Pillay, Allan; Nachamkin, Eli; Su, John R.; Ballard, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Macrolide treatment failure in syphilis patients is associated with a single point mutation (either A2058G or A2059G) in both copies of the 23S rRNA gene in Treponema pallidum strains. The conventional method for the detection of both point mutations uses nested PCR combined with restriction enzyme digestions, which is laborious and time-consuming. We initially developed a TaqMan-based real-time duplex PCR assay for detection of the A2058G mutation, and upon discovery of the A2059G mutation, we modified the assay into a triplex format to simultaneously detect both mutations. The point mutations detected by the real-time triplex PCR were confirmed by pyrosequencing. A total of 129 specimens PCR positive for T. pallidum that were obtained from an azithromycin resistance surveillance study conducted in the United States were analyzed. Sixty-six (51.2%) of the 129 samples with the A2058G mutation were identified by both real-time PCR assays. Of the remaining 63 samples that were identified as having a macrolide-susceptible genotype by the duplex PCR assay, 17 (27%) were found to contain the A2059G mutation by the triplex PCR. The proportions of macrolide-susceptible versus -resistant genotypes harboring either the A2058G or the A2059G mutation among the T. pallidum strains were 35.6, 51.2, and 13.2%, respectively. None of the T. pallidum strains examined had both point mutations. The TaqMan-based real-time triplex PCR assay offers an alternative to conventional nested PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses for the rapid detection of both point mutations associated with macrolide resistance in T. pallidum. PMID:23284026

  20. The time-space relationship of the data point (Pixels) of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner or the myth of simultaneity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A simplified explanation of the time space relationships among scanner pixels is presented. The examples of the multispectral scanner (MSS) on Landsats 1, 2, and 3 and the thematic mapper (TM) of Landsat D are used to describe the concept and degree of nonsimultaneity of scanning system data. The time aspects of scanner data acquisition and those parts of the MSS and TM systems related to that phenomena are addressed.

  1. A biospectroscopic analysis of human prostate tissue obtained from different time periods points to a trans-generational alteration in spectral phenotype.

    PubMed

    Theophilou, Georgios; Lima, Kássio M G; Briggs, Matthew; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Stringfellow, Helen F; Martin, Francis L

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly-diagnosed malignancy in males worldwide; however, there is marked geographic variation in incidence that may be associated with a Westernised lifestyle. We set out to determine whether attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) or Raman spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis-linear discriminant analysis or variable selection techniques employing genetic algorithm or successive projection algorithm could be utilised to explore differences between prostate tissues from differing years. In total, 156 prostate tissues from transurethral resection of the prostate procedures for benign prostatic hyperplasia from 1983 to 2013 were collected. These were distributed to form seven categories: 1983-1984 (n = 20), 1988-1989 (n = 25), 1993-1994 (n = 21), 1998-1999 (n = 21), 2003-2004 (n = 21), 2008-2009 (n = 20) and 2012-2013 (n = 21). Ten-μm-thick tissue sections were floated onto Low-E (IR-reflective) slides for ATR-FTIR or Raman spectroscopy. The prostate tissue spectral phenotype altered in a temporal fashion. Examination of the two categories that are at least one generation (30 years) apart indicated highly-significant segregation, especially in spectral regions containing DNA and RNA bands (≈1,000-1,490 cm(-1)). This may point towards alterations that have occurred through genotoxicity or through epigenetic modifications. Immunohistochemical studies for global DNA methylation supported this. This study points to a trans-generational phenotypic change in human prostate. PMID:26310632

  2. A biospectroscopic analysis of human prostate tissue obtained from different time periods points to a trans-generational alteration in spectral phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Theophilou, Georgios; Lima, Kássio M. G.; Briggs, Matthew; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L.; Stringfellow, Helen F.; Martin, Francis L.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly-diagnosed malignancy in males worldwide; however, there is marked geographic variation in incidence that may be associated with a Westernised lifestyle. We set out to determine whether attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) or Raman spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis-linear discriminant analysis or variable selection techniques employing genetic algorithm or successive projection algorithm could be utilised to explore differences between prostate tissues from differing years. In total, 156 prostate tissues from transurethral resection of the prostate procedures for benign prostatic hyperplasia from 1983 to 2013 were collected. These were distributed to form seven categories: 1983–1984 (n = 20), 1988–1989 (n = 25), 1993–1994 (n = 21), 1998–1999 (n = 21), 2003–2004 (n = 21), 2008–2009 (n = 20) and 2012–2013 (n = 21). Ten-μm-thick tissue sections were floated onto Low-E (IR-reflective) slides for ATR-FTIR or Raman spectroscopy. The prostate tissue spectral phenotype altered in a temporal fashion. Examination of the two categories that are at least one generation (30 years) apart indicated highly-significant segregation, especially in spectral regions containing DNA and RNA bands (≈1,000–1,490 cm−1). This may point towards alterations that have occurred through genotoxicity or through epigenetic modifications. Immunohistochemical studies for global DNA methylation supported this. This study points to a trans-generational phenotypic change in human prostate. PMID:26310632

  3. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  4. Pointing to others: How the target gender influences pointing performance.

    PubMed

    Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Jacquemot, Charlotte; Cruveiller, Virginie; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Pointing is a communicative gesture that allows individuals to share information about surrounding objects with other humans. Patients with heterotopagnosia are specifically impaired in pointing to other humans' body parts but not in pointing to themselves or to objects. Here, we describe a female patient with heterotopagnosia who was more accurate in pointing to men's body parts than to women's body parts. We replicated this gender effect in healthy participants with faster reaction times for pointing to men's body parts than to women's body parts. We discuss the role of gender stereotypes in explaining why it is more difficult to point to women than to men. PMID:27593456

  5. Design of a nanoscale time-of-flight sensor and an integrated multiscale module for the point-of-care diagnosis of stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrus, Matthew

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States, however, there remains no rapid diagnostic test for differentiating between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke within the three-hour treatment window. Here we describe the design of a multiscale microfluidic module with an embedded time-of-flight nanosensor for the clinical diagnosis of stroke. The nanosensor described utilizes two synthetic pores in series, relying on resistive pulse sensing (RPS) to measure the passage of molecules through the time-of-flight tube. Once the nanosensor design was completed, a multiscale module to process patient samples and house the sensors was designed in a similar iterative process. This design utilized pillar arrays, called "pixels" to immobilize oligonucleotides from patient samples for ligase detection reactions (LDR) to be carried out. COMSOL simulations were performed to understand the operation and behavior of both the nanosensor and the modular chip once the designs were completed.

  6. The evolution of ROAN 2016 - Radio surveillance of meteors and determination of reflection points through calculation of the radio path, based on times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, T.; Georgescu, A.; Lesanu, C.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the activity calendar describing the steps until the finalization of the Allsky project in December 2016. It presents also the new developed technology for detection and localization of meteors' ionic traces, which is based on information time-stamped on the radio carrier. The year 2016 is the final one for our project, during which our target is the creation of 25 integrated stations (radio and video, Allsky MK3 type) and to install the ROAN radio beacon. Its location will be the operation base initially, before being moved to an eastern spot, near the Ukrainian border. The novelty of it all is brought by the newly patented technology of time-stamping.

  7. Intratumoral spread of wild-type adenovirus is limited after local injection of human xenograft tumors: virus persists and spreads systemically at late time points.

    PubMed

    Sauthoff, Harald; Hu, Jing; Maca, Cielo; Goldman, Michael; Heitner, Sheila; Yee, Herman; Pipiya, Teona; Rom, William N; Hay, John G

    2003-03-20

    Oncolytic replicating adenoviruses are a promising new modality for the treatment of cancer. Despite the assumed biologic advantage of continued viral replication and spread from infected to uninfected cancer cells, early clinical trials demonstrate that the efficacy of current vectors is limited. In xenograft tumor models using immune-incompetent mice, wild-type adenovirus is also rarely able to eradicate established tumors. This suggests that innate immune mechanisms may clear the virus or that barriers within the tumor prevent viral spread. The aim of this study was to evaluate the kinetics of viral distribution and spread after intratumoral injection of virus in a human tumor xenograft model. After intratumoral injection of wild-type virus, high levels of titratable virus persisted within the xenograft tumors for at least 8 weeks. Virus distribution within the tumors as determined by immunohistochemistry was patchy, and virus-infected cells appeared to be flanked by tumor necrosis and connective tissue. The close proximity of virus-infected cells to the tumor-supporting structure, which is of murine origin, was clearly demonstrated using a DNA probe that specifically hybridizes to the B1 murine DNA repeat. Importantly, although virus was cleared from the circulation 6 hr after intratumoral injection, after 4 weeks systemic spread of virus was detected. In addition, vessels of infected tumors were surrounded by necrosis and an advancing rim of virus-infected tumor cells, suggesting reinfection of the xenograft tumor through the vasculature. These data suggest that human adenoviral spread within tumor xenografts is impaired by murine tumor-supporting structures. In addition, there is evidence for continued viral replication within the tumor, with subsequent systemic dissemination and reinfection of tumors via the tumor vasculature. Despite the limitations of immune-incompetent models, an understanding of the interactions between the virus and the tumor

  8. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  9. Real-time point-of-care measurement of impaired renal function in a rat acute injury model employing exogenous fluorescent tracer agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorshow, Richard B.; Fitch, Richard M.; Galen, Karen P.; Wojdyla, Jolette K.; Poreddy, Amruta R.; Freskos, John N.; Rajagopalan, Raghavan; Shieh, Jeng-Jong; Demirjian, Sevag G.

    2013-02-01

    Renal function assessment is needed for the detection of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is now widely accepted as the best indicator of renal function, and current clinical guidelines advocate its use in the staging of kidney disease. The optimum measure of GFR is by the use of exogenous tracer agents. However current clinically employed agents lack sensitivity or are cumbersome to use. An exogenous GFR fluorescent tracer agent, whose elimination rate could be monitored noninvasively through skin would provide a substantial improvement over currently available methods. We developed a series of novel aminopyrazine analogs for use as exogenous fluorescent GFR tracer agents that emit light in the visible region for monitoring GFR noninvasively over skin. In rats, these compounds are eliminated by the kidney with urine recovery greater than 90% of injected dose, are not broken down or metabolized in vivo, are not secreted by the renal tubules, and have clearance values similar to a GFR reference compound, iothalamate. In addition, biological half-life of these compounds measured in rats by noninvasive optical methods correlated with plasma derived methods. In this study, we show that this noninvasive methodology with our novel fluorescent tracer agents can detect impaired renal function. A 5/6th nephrectomy rat model is employed.

  10. SOFIA pointing history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kärcher, Hans J.; Kunz, Nans; Temi, Pasquale; Krabbe, Alfred; Wagner, Jörg; Süß, Martin

    2014-07-01

    The original pointing accuracy requirement of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy SOFIA was defined at the beginning of the program in the late 1980s as very challenging 0.2 arcsec rms. The early science flights of the observatory started in December 2010 and the observatory has reached in the mean time nearly 0.7 arcsec rms, which is sufficient for most of the SOFIA science instruments. NASA and DLR, the owners of SOFIA, are planning now a future 4 year program to bring the pointing down to the ultimate 0.2 arcsec rms. This may be the right time to recall the history of the pointing requirement and its verification and the possibility of its achievement via early computer models and wind tunnel tests, later computer aided end-to-end simulations up to the first commissioning flights some years ago. The paper recollects the tools used in the different project phases for the verification of the pointing performance, explains the achievements and may give hints for the planning of the upcoming final pointing improvement phase.

  11. Methods of a large prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point study comparing morning versus evening dosing in hypertensive patients: the Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study

    PubMed Central

    Rorie, David A; Rogers, Amy; Mackenzie, Isla S; Ford, Ian; Webb, David J; Willams, Bryan; Brown, Morris; Poulter, Neil; Findlay, Evelyn; Saywood, Wendy; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nocturnal blood pressure (BP) appears to be a better predictor of cardiovascular outcome than daytime BP. The BP lowering effects of most antihypertensive therapies are often greater in the first 12 h compared to the next 12 h. The Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study aims to establish whether evening dosing is more cardioprotective than morning dosing. Methods and analysis The TIME study uses the prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point (PROBE) design. TIME recruits participants by advertising in the community, from primary and secondary care, and from databases of consented patients in the UK. Participants must be aged over 18 years, prescribed at least one antihypertensive drug taken once a day, and have a valid email address. After the participants have self-enrolled and consented on the secure TIME website (http://www.timestudy.co.uk) they are randomised to take their antihypertensive medication in the morning or the evening. Participant follow-ups are conducted after 1 month and then every 3 months by automated email. The trial is expected to run for 5 years, randomising 10 269 participants, with average participant follow-up being 4 years. The primary end point is hospitalisation for the composite end point of non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), non-fatal stroke (cerebrovascular accident; CVA) or any vascular death determined by record-linkage. Secondary end points are: each component of the primary end point, hospitalisation for non-fatal stroke, hospitalisation for non-fatal MI, cardiovascular death, all-cause mortality, hospitalisation or death from congestive heart failure. The primary outcome will be a comparison of time to first event comparing morning versus evening dosing using an intention-to-treat analysis. The sample size is calculated for a two-sided test to detect 20% superiority at 80% power. Ethics and dissemination TIME has ethical approval in the UK, and results will be published in a

  12. Time-resolved measurement of photon emission during fast crack propagation in three-point bending fracture of silica glass and soda lime glass

    SciTech Connect

    Shiota, Tadashi Sato, Yoshitaka; Yasuda, Kouichi

    2014-03-10

    Simultaneous time-resolved measurements of photon emission (PE) and fast crack propagation upon bending fracture were conducted in silica glass and soda lime glass. Observation of fracture surfaces revealed that macroscopic crack propagation behavior was similar between the silica glass and soda lime glass when fracture loads for these specimens were comparable and cracks propagated without branching. However, a large difference in the PE characteristics was found between the two glasses. In silica glass, PE (645–655 nm) was observed during the entire crack propagation process, whereas intense PE (430–490 nm and 500–600 nm) was observed during the initial stages of propagation. In contrast, only weak PE was detected in soda lime glass. These results show that there is a large difference in the atomic processes involved in fast crack propagation between these glasses, and that PE can be used to study brittle fracture on the atomic scale.

  13. MODELING THE INTERACTION THRESHOLD: THE BREAK-POINT BETWEEN ADDITIVITY AND NON-ADDITIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose-dependent changes in toxicity mechanisms of single chemicals may take place along the full dose-response spectrum. At high doses, the possibility exists for some steps in the principle mechanism of toxicity to shift to other mechanisms. The possibility of mechanism shifts fo...

  14. Development of a real-time performance predictor and an investigation of a return to point vehicle for high altitude ballooning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, Joseph P., Jr.

    Scope and method of study. The goal of this study was twofold: First, to gain a better understanding of the governing dynamics in near-space missions and to investigate the feasibility of a low cost autonomous parafoil for control during the descent phase. A study of balloon expansion and drag was conducted to investigate the ascent phase of a flight. The next phase of the project created of a custom prediction program used in real-time to accurately predict the landing location of payloads well before they actually landed. The program was designed to detect and adjust the major dynamic parameters as seen during the flight, and then to use this information to increase the accuracy of predictions. The second goal of this project was to determine the feasibility of using a low cost autonomous parafoil to increase the control over a desired landing zone. This study was conducted in two phases: The first phase tested the autopilot on a ground vehicle to gain confidence in the system. The second phase tested autopilot on an actual parafoil. Findings and conclusions. The major findings for this project are: An increase in understanding of the balloon dynamics in the ascent phase was required in order to correctly predict the reaction of the system. In the process of gaining this understanding, two major items were found: First, near-space balloons can be modeled as zero-pressure balloons and thus their expansion is governed by the Ideal Gas Law. Second, the assumed drag model for near-space missions in the size range of 10 to 20 lbs and 600 cu ft of Helium was grossly misunderstood. While the system does transition from a high to low drag coefficient, it does so at a much slower rate than that a classical sphere. The method of detecting and correcting parameters in real-time lead to a major increase in accuracy in the predicted landing zone just after burst. Typically, the system has an accuracy of 2 miles or better, two minutes after burst has occurred. The second part

  15. Spatio-temporal statistical model for the optimal combination of precipitation measured at different time scales for estimating unobserved point values and disaggregating to finer timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bàrdossy, Andràs; Pegram, Geoffrey

    2015-04-01

    Precipitation observations are unique in space and time, so if not observed, the values can only be estimated. Many applications, such as the calculation of water balances, calibration of hydrological models or the provision of unbiased ground truth for remote sensing require full datasets. Thus a reliable estimation of the missing observations is of great importance. The problem is exacerbated by the ubiquitous decimation of gauge networks. We consider 2 problems as examples of the methodology: (i) infilling monthly data where some days are missing in the monthly records and (ii) infilling missing hourly values in daily records with the assistance of some nearby pluviometers. The key is that we need estimates of the distributions of the infilled values, not just their expectations, as we have found that the traditional 'best' values bias the spatial estimates. We first performed monthly precipitation interpolation using 311 full records, 31 stations of which were randomly decimated to artificially create incomplete records as inequality constraints. Interpolation was carried out (i) without using these 31 in any way and (ii) using them as inequality constraints, in the sense that we determine a lower limit by aggregating the surviving data in a decimated record. We compare the errors if (i) the 31 stations with incomplete records are not considered against (ii) the errors if the incomplete records are considered as inequalities, and found that the partially decimated data add considerable value, as compared to neglecting them. In a second application we performed a disaggregation in time. We take a set of complete hourly pluviometer data, then aggregate some stations to days. These then have their hourly missing data reconstructed and we evaluate the success of the procedure by cross-validation. In this application the daily sums for a location are considered as a constraint and the disaggregated daily data are compared to their observed hourly precipitation. The

  16. Early life stress disrupts social behavior and prefrontal cortex parvalbumin interneurons at an earlier time-point in females than in males

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Freedom H.; Ganguly, Prabarna; Potter, David N.; Chartoff, Elena H.; Brenhouse, Heather C.

    2014-01-01

    Early life stress exposure (ELS) yields risk for psychiatric disorders that might occur though a population-specific mechanism that impacts prefrontal cortical development. Sex differences in ELS effects are largely unknown and are also essential to understand social and cognitive development. ELS can cause dysfunction within parvalbumin (PVB)-containing inhibitory interneurons in the prefrontal cortex and in several prefrontal cortex-mediated behaviors including social interaction. Social behavior deficits are often the earliest observed changes in psychiatric disorders, therefore the time-course and causation of social interaction deficits after ELS are important to determine. PVB interneuron dysfunction can disrupt social behavior, and has been correlated in males with elevated markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, such as cyclooxygenase-2 after ELS. Here, we measured the effects of maternal separation ELS on social interaction behaviors in males and females. Prefrontal cortex PVB and cyclooxygenase-2 were also measured in juveniles and adolescents using Western blots. ELS led to social interaction alterations earlier in females than males. Sexually dimorphic behavioral changes were consistent with prefrontal cortex PVB loss after ELS. PVB levels were decreased in ELS-exposed juvenile females, while males exposed to ELS do not display parvalbumin decreases until adolescence. Early behavioral and PVB changes in females did not appear to be mediated through cyclooxygenase-2, since levels were not affected in ELS females. Therefore, these data suggest that ELS affects males and females differently and with distinct developmental profiles. PMID:24565933

  17. Space-time design of the tangled C-points and optical vortex chain and loop reactions in paraxial dynamic elliptic speckle fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soskin, Marat S.; Vasil'ev, Vasil I.

    2013-04-01

    The unique effect of ‘optical damage’ in photorefractive LiNbO3:Fe crystals produces a developing speckle field in the propagating beam of a He-Ne laser (0.63 μm). Elliptic developing speckle fields were created and investigated thoroughly by means of the Stokes polarimetry and monstardom (Dennis 2008 Opt. Lett. 33 2572). The ergodicity of elliptic speckle fields under the index (star, monstar, lemon) and contour (elliptic, hyperbolic) classifications was revealed experimentally by our measurements for developing speckle fields, measurements for static elliptic speckle fields, as well as theory (Flossmann et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 203902). Both hyperbolic (H) and elliptic (E) diabolos were fixed. All the probable topological structures for the neighbour diabolos in the developing elliptic speckle field were measured. All the measured nucleation/annihilation events occur as H(S)+H(M) reactions. The evolution of the singularities occurs separately in the speckle-field areas with fixed handedness and is realized through minimizing the changes needed for the developing speckle fields at each moment. The general regularities of the elliptic speckle-field development were revealed and confirmed. They occur through the time-limited loop and continuous chain reactions in both single and multiple speckles in 1:4 proportion. Strict morphological scenarios for their evolution were found. Applications of the methods of dynamical singular optics are discussed.

  18. Antibacterial effects on dry-fast and traditional water-based surgical scrubbing methods: a two-time points experimental study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Hwa; Chou, Chuan-Yu; Huang, Jui-Chen; Tang, Ya-Fen; Kuo, Yur-Ren; Chien, Li-Yu

    2014-06-01

    This study determined the in-use effects of dry-fast and traditional hand-washing surgical scrubs among operating room staff members. This is a static group comparison study with purposive sampling. A total of 156 staff members were recruited in an operating room in a medical center located in southern Taiwan. The participants were divided into traditional and dry-fast hand-washing groups. Microbial counts were measured right after the two groups finished surgical scrubbing and at the completion of surgery. The results showed that the use of dry-fast antisepsis has a better persistent effect (P = 0.001), more nurses chose dry-fast antisepsis than surgeons (P = 0.012), and the post-operation number of colonies for nurses was significantly higher than that for surgeons (P = 0.003). Operating room nurses are long-term and frequent users of antibacterial agents, and their requirement of skin protection is higher. The dry-fast technique has the advantage of being less irritating to the skin and less time consuming; therefore, brush-free and dry-fast antisepsis is recommended. PMID:23992610

  19. Lack of Intraclonal Diversification in Ig Heavy and Light Chain V Region Genes Expressed by CD5+IgM+ Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells: A Multiple Time Point Analysis1

    PubMed Central

    Schettino, Edward W.; Cerutti, Andrea; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Casali, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the modalities of clonal expansion of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells, we sequenced at multiple time points the V(D)J genes expressed by CD5+IgM+CLL B cells in three patients. All three V(D)J gene sequences were found to be point mutated. The mutation frequency in the Ig VH (3.96 × 10−2 and 2.41 × 10−2 change/bp) and Vκ and Vλ (6.67 × 10−2 and 1.74 × 10−2 change/bp) genes of two CLLs (1.19 and 1.32, respectively) was similar, and higher than that in the corresponding gene segments of the third CLL (1.69; 3.4 × 10−3 and 6.67 × 10−3 change/bp). In all three CLLs, there was no preferential representation of nucleotide changes yielding amino acid replacement (R mutations), nor was there any preferential segregation of R mutations within the Ig V gene complementarity-determining regions. In all three CLLs, the somatic mutations were all identical in multiple Ig VHDJH transcripts at any given time point, and were all conserved at multiple time points throughout a 2-yr period. The lack of concentration of R mutations in the complementarity-determining regions and the lack of intraclonal heterogeneity suggest that Ag may no longer be able to play a significant role in the clonal expansion of these cells. This conclusion would be strengthened further by the germline configuration of the bcl-1 and bcl-2 proto-oncogenes that are translocated in neoplastic B cells that display significant traces of intraclonal diversification and Ag-dependent selection, such as B-prolymphocytic leukemia and low grade follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma. PMID:9551917

  20. MASSACHUSETTS DEP EELGRASS VERIFIED POINTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field verified points showing presence or absence of submerged rooted vascular plants along Massachusetts coastline. In addition to the photo interpreted eelgrass coverage (EELGRASS), this point coverage (EGRASVPT) was generated based on field-verified sites as well as all field...

  1. Time-dependent current decline in cyclic GMP-gated bovine channels caused by point mutations in the pore region expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bucossi, G; Eismann, E; Sesti, F; Nizzari, M; Seri, M; Kaupp, U B; Torre, V

    1996-01-01

    1. Amino acids with a charged or a polar residue in the putative pore region, between lysine 346 and glutamate 372 of the alpha-subunit of the cGMP-gated channel from bovine rods were mutated to a different amino acid. The mRNA encoding for the wild-type, i.e. the alpha-subunit, or mutant channels was injected in Xenopus laevis oocytes. 2. When glutamate 363 was mutated to asparagine, serine or alanine, the current activated by a steady cGMP concentration declined in mutant channels. No current decline was observed when glutamate 363 was mutated to aspartate, glutamine or glycine, when theronine 359, 360 and 364 were mutated to alanine or when other charged residues in the pore region were neutralized. 3. The amount of current decline and its time course were significantly voltage dependent. In mutant E363A the current decline developed within about 1.5 s at -100 mV, but in about 6 s at +100 mV. In the same mutant, the current declined to about 55% of its initial level at +100 mV and to about 10% at -100 mV. 4. The current decline in mutants E363A, E363S and E363N was only moderately dependent on the cGMP concentration (from 10 to 1000 microM) and was not caused by a reduced affinity of the mutant channels for cGMP. Analysis of current fluctuations at a single-channel level indicated that current decline was primarily caused by a decrease of the open probability. 5. The wild-type channel was not permeable to dimethylammonium. When glutamate 363 was replaced by a smaller residue such as serine, mutant channels became permeable to dimethylammonium. 6. The current decline observed in mutant channels is reminiscent of desensitization of ligand-gated channels and of inactivation of voltage-gated channels. These results suggest also that gating and permeation through the cGMP-gated channel from bovine rods are intrinsically coupled and that glutamate 363 is part of the molecular structure controlling both the gating and the narrowest region of the pore. PMID:8782105

  2. Effects of immunological castration and distiller's dried grains with solubles on carcass cutability and commercial bacon slicing yields of barrows slaughtered at two time points.

    PubMed

    Tavárez, M A; Bohrer, B M; Asmus, M D; Schroeder, A L; Matulis, R J; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2014-07-01

    Male pigs were randomly assigned to a castration method at birth and allotted to 48 pens (28 pigs/pen). Physically castrated (PC) barrows were castrated at 2 d of age; immunologically castrated (IC) barrows were administered Improvest (GnRF analog diphtheria toxoid conjugate; Zoetis, Kalamazoo, MI) at 16 and 20 wk of age. Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) feeding strategies included either 0% DDGS (control), 30% DDGS (30% DDGS) fed from 6 wk of age to slaughter, or 30% DDGS fed from 6 wk of age to second dose of Improvest and then fed 0% DDGS until slaughter (withdrawal). Four barrows closest to the median pen weight at 4.5 wk after second dose were selected for evaluation; two were randomly selected and slaughtered at 5 wk and the other two at 7 wk after second dose. Data from each slaughter time were analyzed independently as a 2 × 3 factorial design with pen as the experimental unit. At 5 wk after second dose, bone-in lean cutting yields were 2.63% units greater (P < 0.01) in IC when compared to PC. Bellies were thicker (P < 0.01) and tended to have greater belly flop distances (P = 0.07) in PC compared to IC, however iodine values (IV) were not altered (P = 0.84). Carcass traits (P ≥ 0.10), cutting yields (P ≥ 0.43), and fresh belly characteristics (P ≥ 0.08) were minimally affected by DDGS feeding strategy. Bacon slicing yields (percentage of green weight) were 6.10% units less (P < 0.01) in IC compared with PC. At 7 wk after second dose, bone-in lean cutting yields were 1.57% units greater (P = 0.03) in IC compared with PC. Distiller's grains feeding strategy had no effect (P ≥ 0.83) on boneless carcass cutting yields in IC; while in PC, these yields were 2.32% units less (P < 0.02) in control-fed barrows when compared to other feeding strategies (castration method × feeding strategy; P = 0.03). Bellies from PC tended to be thicker (P = 0.07) and have similar flop distances (P = 0.44) and IV (P = 0.54) when compared with IC. Iodine value

  3. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  4. Imaging study on acupuncture points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, X. H.; Zhang, X. Y.; Liu, C. L.; Dang, R. S.; Ando, M.; Sugiyama, H.; Chen, H. S.; Ding, G. H.

    2009-09-01

    The topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using the synchrotron radiation based Dark Field Image (DFI) method. Four following acupuncture points were studied: Sanyinjiao, Neiguan, Zusanli and Tianshu. We have found that at acupuncture point regions there exists the accumulation of micro-vessels. The images taken in the surrounding tissue out of the acupuncture points do not show such kind of structure. It is the first time to reveal directly the specific structure of acupuncture points by X-ray imaging.

  5. Accurate pointing of tungsten welding electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegelmeier, P.

    1971-01-01

    Thoriated-tungsten is pointed accurately and quickly by using sodium nitrite. Point produced is smooth and no effort is necessary to hold the tungsten rod concentric. The chemically produced point can be used several times longer than ground points. This method reduces time and cost of preparing tungsten electrodes.

  6. Resonant frequency analysis of a Lamé-mode resonator on a quartz plate by the finite-difference time-domain method using the staggered grid with the collocated grid points of velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Takashi; Hasegawa, Koji; Hirayama, Koichi

    2016-07-01

    The finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) method using a staggered grid with the collocated grid points of velocities (SGCV) was formulated for elastic waves propagating in anisotropic solids and for a rectangular SGCV. Resonant frequency analysis of Lamé-mode resonators on a quartz plate was carried out to confirm the accuracy and validity of the proposed method. The resonant frequencies for the fundamental and higher-order Lamé-modes calculated by the proposed method agreed very well with their theoretical values.

  7. Spiraling Edge: Fast Surface Reconstruction from Partially Organized Sample Points

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, E.; Crossno, P.

    1999-01-06

    Many applications produce three-dimensional points that must be further processed to generate a surface. Surface reconstruction algorithms that start with a set of unorganized points are extremely time-consuming. Often, however, points are generated such that there is additional information available to the reconstruction algorithm. We present a specialized algorithm for surface reconstruction that is three orders of magnitude faster than algorithms for the general case. In addition to sample point locations, our algorithm starts with normal information and knowledge of each point's neighbors. Our algorithm produces a localized approximation to the surface by creating a star-shaped triangulation between a point and a subset of its nearest neighbors. This surface patch is extended by locally triangulating each of the points along the edge of the patch. As each edge point is triangulated, it is removed from the edge and new edge points along the patch's edge are inserted in its place. The updated edge spirals out over the surface until the edge encounters a surface boundary and stops growing in that direction, or until the edge reduces to a small hole that fills itself in.

  8. Spiraling Edge: Fast Surface Reconstruction from Partially Organized Sample Points

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, Edward; Crossno, Patricia

    1999-07-12

    Many applications produce three-dimensional points that must be further processed to generate a surface. Surface reconstruction algorithms that start with a set of unorganized points are extremely time-consuming. Sometimes, however, points are generated such that there is additional information available to the reconstruction algorithm. We present Spiraling Edge, a specialized algorithm for surface reconstruction that is three orders of magnitude faster than algorithms for the general case. In addition to sample point locations, our algorithm starts with normal information and knowledge of each point's neighbors. Our algorithm produces a localized approximation to the surface by creating a star-shaped triangulation between a point and a subset of its nearest neighbors. This surface patch is extended by locally triangulating each of the points along the edge of the patch. As each edge point is triangulated, it is removed from the edge and new edge points along the patch's edge are inserted in its place. The updated edge spirals out over the surface until the edge encounters a surface boundary and stops growing in that direction, or until the edge reduces to a small hole that is filled by the final triangle.

  9. Liquid chromatography coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and post-column addition of metal salt solutions as a powerful tool for the metabolic profiling of Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Cirigliano, Adriana M; Rodriguez, M Alejandra; Gagliano, M Laura; Bertinetti, Brenda V; Godeas, Alicia M; Cabrera, Gabriela M

    2016-03-25

    Fusarium oxysporum L11 is a non-pathogenic soil-borne fungal strain that yielded an extract that showed antifungal activity against phytopathogens. In this study, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (API-QTOF-MS) was applied for the comprehensive profiling of the metabolites from the extract. The employed sources were electrospray (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). Post-column addition of metal solutions of Ca, Cu and Zn(II) was also tested using ESI. A total of 137 compounds were identified or tentatively identified by matching their accurate mass signals, suggested molecular formulae and MS/MS analysis with previously reported data. Some compounds were isolated and identified by NMR. The extract was rich in cyclic peptides like cyclosporins, diketopiperazines and sansalvamides, most of which were new, and are reported here for the first time. The use of post-column addition of metals resulted in a useful strategy for the discrimination of compound classes since specific adducts were observed for the different compound families. This technique also allowed the screening for compounds with metal binding properties. Thus, the applied methodology is a useful choice for the metabolic profiling of extracts and also for the selection of metabolites with potential biological activities related to interactions with metal ions. PMID:26655791

  10. Mobile consultant: evaluation of additional services.

    PubMed

    Banitsas, Konstantinos; Georgiadis, Pantelis; Tachakra, Sapal; Cavouras, Dionisis

    2007-01-01

    As the need for mobility in the medical world increases, newer systems and applications came to light; many of them based on wireless and mobile networks. PDA based systems were presented in the past, capable of videoconferencing and transmitting high quality images between a roaming consultant and a fixed point in the hospital. These systems not only had desirable characteristics but also incorporated additional services that were found of value: paging, Voice over IP calling, Internet, email, intranet, patient record update, etc This paper presents an engineering and clinical evaluation of those additional services based on both objective and subjective criteria. It concludes that such complementary services can be desirable as they increase personnel mobility, utilize the hospital resources more efficiently while at the same time increase productivity and decrease the cost of hardware and communications. PMID:18002803

  11. Fermat's point from five perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jungeun; Flores, Alfinio

    2015-04-01

    The Fermat point of a triangle is the point such that minimizes the sum of the distances from that point to the three vertices. Five approaches to study the Fermat point of a triangle are presented in this article. First, students use a mechanical device using masses, strings and pulleys to study the Fermat point as the one that minimizes the potential energy of the system. Second, students use soap films between parallel planes connecting three pegs. The tension on the film will be minimal when the sum of distances is minimal. Third, students use an empirical approach, measuring distances in an interactive GeoGebra page. Fourth, students use Euclidean geometry arguments for two proofs based on the Torricelli configuration, and one using Viviani's Theorem. And fifth, the kinematic method is used to gain additional insight on the size of the angles between the segments joining the Fermat point with the vertices.

  12. The Point of No Return

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Gordon D.

    2015-01-01

    Bartlett (1958) described the point of no return as a point of irrevocable commitment to action, which was preceded by a period of gradually increasing commitment. As such, the point of no return reflects a fundamental limit on the ability to control thought and action. I review the literature on the point of no return, taking three perspectives. First, I consider the point of no return from the perspective of the controlled act, as a locus in the architecture and anatomy of the underlying processes. I review experiments from the stop-signal paradigm that suggest that the point of no return is located late in the response system. Then I consider the point of no return from the perspective of the act of control that tries to change the controlled act before it becomes irrevocable. From this perspective, the point of no return is a point in time that provides enough “lead time” for the act of control to take effect. I review experiments that measure the response time to the stop signal as the lead time required for response inhibition in the stop-signal paradigm. Finally, I consider the point of no return in hierarchically controlled tasks, in which there may be many points of no return at different levels of the hierarchy. I review experiments on skilled typing that suggest different points of no return for the commands that determine what is typed and the countermands that inhibit typing, with increasing commitment to action the lower the level in the hierarchy. I end by considering the point of no return in perception and thought as well as action. PMID:25633089

  13. Assessment of the usefulness of the standardized uptake values and the radioactivity levels for the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer measured by using 18F-FDG PET/CT dual-time-point imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeon-Guck; Hong, Seong-Jong; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Han, Man-Seok; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Lee, Ik-Han

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the changes in the SUV (standardized uptake value), the 18F-FDG (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose) uptake pattern, and the radioactivity level for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer via dual-time-point 18F-FDG PET/CT (positron emission tomographycomputed tomography) imaging. Moreover, the study aimed to verify the usefulness and significance of SUV values and radioactivity levels to discriminate tumor malignancy. A retrospective analysis was performed on 40 patients who received 18F-FDG PET/CT for thyroid cancer as a primary tumor. To set the background, we compared changes in values by calculating the dispersion of scattered rays in the neck area and the lung apex, and by comparing the mean and SD (standard deviation) values of the maxSUV and the radioactivity levels. According to the statistical analysis of the changes in 18F-FDG uptake for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer, a high similarity was observed with the coefficient of determination being R2 = 0.939, in the SUVs and the radioactivity levels. Moreover, similar results were observed in the assessment of tumor malignancy using dual-time-point. The quantitative analysis method for assessing tumor malignancy using radioactivity levels was neither specific nor discriminative compared to the semi-quantitative analysis method.

  14. At the Tipping Point

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2011-02-28

    There comes a time in every field of science when things suddenly change. While it might not be immediately apparent that things are different, a tipping point has occurred. Biology is now at such a point. The reason is the introduction of high-throughput genomics-based technologies. I am not talking about the consequences of the sequencing of the human genome (and every other genome within reach). The change is due to new technologies that generate an enormous amount of data about the molecular composition of cells. These include proteomics, transcriptional profiling by sequencing, and the ability to globally measure microRNAs and post-translational modifications of proteins. These mountains of digital data can be mapped to a common frame of reference: the organism’s genome. With the new high-throughput technologies, we can generate tens of thousands of data points from each sample. Data are now measured in terabytes and the time necessary to analyze data can now require years. Obviously, we can’t wait to interpret the data fully before the next experiment. In fact, we might never be able to even look at all of it, much less understand it. This volume of data requires sophisticated computational and statistical methods for its analysis and is forcing biologists to approach data interpretation as a collaborative venture.

  15. Chronic nitrogen addition causes a reduction in soil carbon dioxide efflux during the high stem-growth period in a tropical montane forest but no response from a tropical lowland forest on a decadal time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, B.; Corre, M. D.; Veldkamp, E.; Sueta, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is rapidly increasing in tropical regions. We studied the response of soil carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux to long-term experimental N addition (125 kg N ha-1 yr-1) in mature lowland and montane forests in Panama. In the lowland forest, on soils with high nutrient-supplying and buffering capacity, fine litterfall and stem-growth were neither N- nor phosphorus-limited. In the montane forest, on soils with low nutrient supplying capacity and an organic layer, fine litterfall and stem-growth were N-limited. Our objectives were to 1) explore the influence of soil temperature and moisture on the dynamics of soil CO2 efflux and 2) determine the responses of soil CO2 efflux from an N-rich and N-limited forest to elevated N input. Annual soil CO2-C efflux was larger in the lowland (15.44 ± 1.02 Mg C ha-1) than in the montane forest (9.37 ± 0.28 Mg C ha-1). In the lowland forest, soil moisture explained the largest fraction of the variance in soil CO2 efflux while soil temperature was the main explanatory variable in the montane forest. Soil CO2 efflux in the lowland forest did not differ between the control and 9-11 yr N-addition plots, suggesting that chronic N input to nutrient-rich tropical lowland forests on well-buffered soils may not change their C balance on a decadal time scale. In the montane forest, first year N addition did not affect soil CO2 efflux but annual CO2 efflux was reduced by 14% and 8% in the 2nd and 3rd year N-addition plots, respectively, compared to the control. This reduction was caused by a decrease in soil CO2 efflux during the high stem-growth period of the year, suggesting a shift in carbon partitioning from below- to aboveground in the N-addition plots in which stem diameter growth was promoted.

  16. A C++ class library for telescope pointing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrett, David L.

    2006-06-01

    tpk is a C++ class library, layered on TCSpk and slalib that implements virtual telescope objects for generating mount and rotator position (and optionally, velocity and acceleration) demands, predicting the position of guide probes etc. in the focal plane and tip and tilt for steerable optics. These objects allocate and manage storage for the kernel context in a thread safe manner enabling a pointing kernel for a specific telescope configuration to be constructed simply by creating the necessary objects and calling their "fast", "medium" and "slow" update methods at the appropriate rates. Additional facilities include: Tracking of solar system objects using orbital elements as tabulated by the Minor Planet Center, the JPL Horizons system and the Astronomical Almanac or the for the major planets, built-in ephemeredes due to Chapront and Francou - Management of pointing models including the logging of pointing test data capable of being read into TPOINT, catalogues of pointing reference stars and pointing adjustments from handsets and guiders including the necessary digital filters - Generation of world coordinate system mappings and FITS keywords for instruments. The library can be tailored for a particular operating environment by replacing the mutex and clock classes. For "off-line" or otherwise non time-critical application the existing Posix and Windows implementations can be used.

  17. Controlling superconductivity by tunable quantum critical points.

    PubMed

    Seo, S; Park, E; Bauer, E D; Ronning, F; Kim, J N; Shim, J-H; Thompson, J D; Park, Tuson

    2015-01-01

    The heavy fermion compound CeRhIn5 is a rare example where a quantum critical point, hidden by a dome of superconductivity, has been explicitly revealed and found to have a local nature. The lack of additional examples of local types of quantum critical points associated with superconductivity, however, has made it difficult to unravel the role of quantum fluctuations in forming Cooper pairs. Here, we show the precise control of superconductivity by tunable quantum critical points in CeRhIn5. Slight tin-substitution for indium in CeRhIn5 shifts its antiferromagnetic quantum critical point from 2.3 GPa to 1.3 GPa and induces a residual impurity scattering 300 times larger than that of pure CeRhIn5, which should be sufficient to preclude superconductivity. Nevertheless, superconductivity occurs at the quantum critical point of the tin-doped metal. These results underline that fluctuations from the antiferromagnetic quantum criticality promote unconventional superconductivity in CeRhIn5. PMID:25737108

  18. Screening of additives in plastics with high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry and different ionization sources: direct probe injection (DIP)-APCI, LC-APCI, and LC-ion booster ESI.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana; Jonkers, Tim; Covaci, Adrian; de Boer, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    Plastics are complex mixtures consisting of a polymer and additives with different physico-chemical properties. We developed a broad screening method to elucidate the nature of compounds present in plastics used in electrical/electronic equipment commonly found at homes (e.g., electrical adaptors, computer casings, heaters). The analysis was done by (a) solvent extraction followed by liquid chromatography coupled to high accuracy/resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) with different ionization sources or (b) direct analysis of the solid by ambient mass spectrometry high accuracy/resolution TOFMS. The different ionization methods showed different selectivity and sensitivity for the different compound classes and were complementary. A variety of antioxidants, phthalates, UV filters, and flame retardants were found in most samples. Furthermore, some recently reported impurities or degradation products derived from flame retardants were identified, such as hydroxylated triphenyl phosphate and tetrabromobisphenol A monoglycidyl ether. PMID:26758596

  19. Prognostic value of the standardized uptake value maximum change calculated by dual-time-point 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Feng; Zhu, Hui; Fu, Zheng; Kong, Li; Yu, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of the standardized uptake value maximum (SUVmax) change calculated by dual-time-point 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and methods We conducted a retrospective review of 115 patients with advanced NSCLC who underwent pretreatment dual-time-point 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET acquired at 1 and 2 hours after injection. The SUVmax from early images (SUVmax1) and SUVmax from delayed images (SUVmax2) were recorded and used to calculate the SUVmax changes, including the SUVmax increment (ΔSUVmax) and percent change of the SUVmax (%ΔSUVmax). Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined by the Kaplan–Meier method and were compared with the studied PET parameters, and the clinicopathological prognostic factors in univariate analyses and multivariate analyses were constructed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results One hundred and fifteen consecutive patients were reviewed, and the median follow-up time was 12.5 months. The estimated median PFS and OS were 3.8 and 9.6 months, respectively. In univariate analysis, SUVmax1, SUVmax2, ΔSUVmax, %ΔSUVmax, clinical stage, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) scores were significant prognostic factors for PFS. Similar results were significantly correlated with OS, except %ΔSUVmax. In multivariate analysis, ΔSUVmax and %ΔSUVmax were significant factors for PFS. On the other hand, ECOG scores were only identified as independent predictors of OS. Conclusion Our results demonstrated the prognostic value of the SUVmax change in predicting the PFS of patients with advanced NSCLC. However, SUVmax change could not predict OS. PMID:27284249

  20. Memory bias in the temporal bisection point

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Joshua M.; Namboodiri, Vijay M. K.; Hussain Shuler, Marshall G.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to time intervals confers organisms, including humans, with many remarkable capabilities. A common method for studying interval timing is classification, in which a subject must indicate whether a given probe duration is nearer a previously learned short or long reference interval. This task is designed to reveal the probe duration that is equally likely to be labeled as short or long, known as the temporal bisection point. Studies have found that this bisection point is influenced by a variety of factors including the ratio of the target intervals, the spacing of the probe durations, the modalities of the stimuli, the attentional load, and the inter-trial duration. While several of these factors are thought to be mediated by memory effects, the prototypical classification task affords no opportunity to measure these memory effects directly. Here, we present a novel bisection task, termed the “Bisection by Classification and Production” (BiCaP) task, in which classification trials are interleaved with trials in which subjects must produce either the short or long referents or their midpoint. Using this method, we found a significant correlation between the means of the remembered referents and the bisection points for both classification and production trials. We then cross-validated the bisection points for production and classification trials by showing that they were not statistically differentiable. In addition to these population-level effects, we found within-subject evidence for co-variation across a session between the production bisection points and the means of the remembered referents. Finally, by using two sets of referent durations, we showed that only memory bias-corrected measures were consistent with a previously reported effect in which the ratio of the referents affects the location of the bisection point. These results suggest that memory effects should be considered in temporal tasks. PMID:26217198

  1. Fast randomized point location without preprocessing in two- and three-dimensional Delaunay triangulations

    SciTech Connect

    Muecke, E.P.; Saias, I.; Zhu, B.

    1996-05-01

    This paper studies the point location problem in Delaunay triangulations without preprocessing and additional storage. The proposed procedure finds the query point simply by walking through the triangulation, after selecting a good starting point by random sampling. The analysis generalizes and extends a recent result of d = 2 dimensions by proving this procedure to take expected time close to O(n{sup 1/(d+1)}) for point location in Delaunay triangulations of n random points in d = 3 dimensions. Empirical results in both two and three dimensions show that this procedure is efficient in practice.

  2. Characterization of plant materials by pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry: high-resolution mass spectrometry, time-resolved high-resolution mass spectrometry, and Curie-point pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of spruce needles

    SciTech Connect

    Schulten, H.F.; Simmleit, N.; Mueller, R.

    1989-02-01

    In the course of a forest damage research project spruce needles are analyzed, without pretreatment except drying and milling, by in-source pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry. The mass signals are assigned by using high-resolution mass measurements and thermal degradation products identified by Curie-point pyrolysis-gas chromatography. It is demonstrated that the thermal degradation products characterize the main chemical constituents of spruce needs such as polysaccharides and lignin. Furthermore, thermostable constituents such as lipids, steroids, and flavons are detected. The thermal degradation process is studied by temperature-programmed microfurnace pyrolysis in combination with time-resolved high-resolution mass spectrometry. The integrated interpretation of results achieved by the presented methods can be applied for the universal characterization of complex and in particular nonsoluble, polydisperse biological and geochemical materials.

  3. Two alternative multiplex PCRs for the identification of the seven species of anglerfish (Lophius spp.) using an end-point or a melting curve analysis real-time protocol.

    PubMed

    Castigliego, Lorenzo; Armani, Andrea; Tinacci, Lara; Gianfaldoni, Daniela; Guidi, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Anglerfish (Lophius spp.) is consumed worldwide and is an important economic resource though its seven species are often fraudulently interchanged due to their different commercial value, especially when sold in the form of fillets or pieces. Molecular analysis is the only possible mean to verify traceability and counteract fraud. We developed two multiplex PCRs, one end-point and one real-time with melting curve post-amplification analysis, which can even be run with the simplest two-channel thermocyclers. The two methods were tested on seventy-five reference samples. Their specificity was checked in twenty more species of those most commonly available on the market and in other species of the Lophiidae family. Both methods, the choice of which depends on the equipment and budget of the lab, provide a rapid and easy-to-read response, improving both the simplicity and cost-effectiveness of existing methods for identifying Lophius species. PMID:25053020

  4. Software for Verifying Image-Correlation Tie Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimeck, Gerhard; Yagi, Gary

    2008-01-01

    A computer program enables assessment of the quality of tie points in the image-correlation processes of the software described in the immediately preceding article. Tie points are computed in mappings between corresponding pixels in the left and right images of a stereoscopic pair. The mappings are sometimes not perfect because image data can be noisy and parallax can cause some points to appear in one image but not the other. The present computer program relies on the availability of a left- right correlation map in addition to the usual right left correlation map. The additional map must be generated, which doubles the processing time. Such increased time can now be afforded in the data-processing pipeline, since the time for map generation is now reduced from about 60 to 3 minutes by the parallelization discussed in the previous article. Parallel cluster processing time, therefore, enabled this better science result. The first mapping is typically from a point (denoted by coordinates x,y) in the left image to a point (x',y') in the right image. The second mapping is from (x',y') in the right image to some point (x",y") in the left image. If (x,y) and(x",y") are identical, then the mapping is considered perfect. The perfect-match criterion can be relaxed by introducing an error window that admits of round-off error and a small amount of noise. The mapping procedure can be repeated until all points in each image not connected to points in the other image are eliminated, so that what remains are verified correlation data.

  5. Characterizing configurations of fire ignition points through spatiotemporal point processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comas, C.; Costafreda-Aumedes, S.; Vega-Garcia, C.

    2014-04-01

    Human-caused forest fires are usually regarded as unpredictable but often exhibit trends towards clustering in certain locations and periods. Characterizing such configurations is crucial for understanding spatiotemporal fire dynamics and implementing preventive actions. Our objectives were to analyse the spatiotemporal point configuration and to test for spatiotemporal interaction. We characterized the spatiotemporal structure of 984 fire ignition points in a study area of Galicia, Spain, during 2007-2011 by the K-Ripley's function. Our results suggest the presence of spatiotemporal structures for time lags of less than two years and ignition point distances in the range 0-12 km. Ignition centre points at time lags of less than 100 days are aggregated for any inter-event distance. This cluster structure loses strength as the time lag increases, and at time lags of more than 365 days this cluster structure is not significant for any lag distance. Our results also suggest spatiotemporal interdependencies at time lags of less than 100 days and inter-event distances of less than 10 km. At time lags of up to 365 days spatiotemporal components are independent for any point distance. These results suggest that risk conditions occur locally and are short-lived in this study area.

  6. Is It Possible to Detect Activated Brown Adipose Tissue in Humans Using Single-Time-Point Infrared Thermography under Thermoneutral Conditions? Impact of BMI and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Gatidis, Sergios; Schmidt, Holger; Pfannenberg, Christina A.; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Schick, Fritz; Schwenzer, Nina F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility to detect activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) using single-time-point infrared thermography of the supraclavicular skin region under thermoneutral conditions. To this end, infrared thermography was compared with 18-F-FDG PET, the current reference standard for the detection of activated BAT. Methods 120 patients were enrolled in this study. After exclusion of 18 patients, 102 patients (44 female, 58 male, mean age 58±17 years) were included for final analysis. All patients underwent a clinically indicated 18F-FDG-PET/CT examination. Immediately prior to tracer injection skin temperatures of the supraclavicular, presternal and jugular regions were measured using spatially resolved infrared thermography at room temperature. The presence of activated BAT was determined in PET by typical FDG uptake within the supraclavicular adipose tissue compartments. Local thickness of supraclavicular subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) was measured on CT. Measured skin temperatures were statistically correlated with the presence of activated BAT and anthropometric data. Results Activated BAT was detected in 9 of 102 patients (8.8%). Local skin temperature of the supraclavicular region was significantly higher in individuals with active BAT compared to individuals without active BAT. However, after statistical correction for the influence of BMI, no predictive value of activated BAT on skin temperature of the supraclavicular region could be observed. Supraclavicular skin temperature was significantly negatively correlated with supraclavicular SCAT thickness. Conclusion We conclude that supraclavicular SCAT thickness influences supraclavicular skin temperature and thus makes a specific detection of activated BAT using single-time-point thermography difficult. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the possibility of BAT detection using alternative thermographic methods, e.g. dynamic thermography or MR-based thermometry taking into account BMI

  7. Fat-subtracted three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography of the neck by use of fat-only images with the two-point Dixon technique.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Ishimori, Yoshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Isao; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Hirohiko; Adachi, Toshiki

    2015-07-01

    For improvement of three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (3D-TOF-MRA) image quality in the neck, fat-subtracted MRA by use of the two-point Dixon technique was compared with conventional fat-suppressed MRA techniques. Three different types of neck 3D-TOF-MRA were obtained [minimum echo time (TE) (1.9 ms), opposed-phase TE (3.4 ms), and chemical shift selective fat suppression (CHESS) (TE = 1.9 ms)] on five volunteers at 3.0 T. MRA was obtained with subtraction of fat-only images (produced by a two-point Dixon sequence) from minimum-TE MRA images, and compared with other fat-suppressed MRA images. Fat-subtracted MRA demonstrated uniform fat suppression compared with other techniques. The mean vessel-to-fat contrast in fat-subtracted MRA was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than in other MRA images (minimum-TE: 0.137 ± 0.086, opposed-phase TE: 0.268 ± 0.102, CHESS: 0.307 ± 0.052, fat-subtracted: 0.965 ± 0.101). The mean vessel-to-muscle contrast in opposed-phase TE MRA was significantly lower (p < 0.01) than in other MRA images (minimum-TE: 0.526 ± 0.036, opposed-phase TE: 0.419 ± 0.188, CHESS: 0.511 ± 0.023, fat-subtracted: 0.573 ± 0.016). Fat-subtracted MRA by use of the two-point Dixon technique improves the image quality of neck MRA. This technique would be a useful method for MRA, especially in areas with inhomogeneous magnetic fields, such as the neck. PMID:25577234

  8. Evolution of fluctuations near QCD critical point

    SciTech Connect

    Stephanov, M. A.

    2010-03-01

    We propose to describe the time evolution of quasistationary fluctuations near QCD critical point by a system of stochastic Boltzmann-Langevin-Vlasov-type equations. We derive the equations and study the system analytically in the linearized regime. Known results for equilibrium stationary fluctuations as well as the critical scaling of diffusion coefficient are reproduced. We apply the approach to the long-standing question of the fate of the critical point fluctuations during the hadronic rescattering stage of the heavy-ion collision after chemical freeze-out. We find that if conserved particle number fluctuations survive the rescattering, so do, under a certain additional condition, the fluctuations of nonconserved quantities, such as mean transverse momentum. We derive a simple analytical formula for the magnitude of this memory effect.

  9. New Observations of Subarcsecond Photospheric Bright Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, T. E.; Schrijver, C. J.; Shine, R. A.; Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.; Scharmer, G.

    1995-01-01

    We have used an interference filter centered at 4305 A within the bandhead of the CH radical (the 'G band') and real-time image selection at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope on La Palma to produce very high contrast images of subarcsecond photospheric bright points at all locations on the solar disk. During the 6 day period of 15-20 Sept. 1993 we observed active region NOAA 7581 from its appearance on the East limb to a near-disk-center position on 20 Sept. A total of 1804 bright points were selected for analysis from the disk center image using feature extraction image processing techniques. The measured FWHM distribution of the bright points in the image is lognormal with a modal value of 220 km (0.30 sec) and an average value of 250 km (0.35 sec). The smallest measured bright point diameter is 120 km (0.17 sec) and the largest is 600 km (O.69 sec). Approximately 60% of the measured bright points are circular (eccentricity approx. 1.0), the average eccentricity is 1.5, and the maximum eccentricity corresponding to filigree in the image is 6.5. The peak contrast of the measured bright points is normally distributed. The contrast distribution variance is much greater than the measurement accuracy, indicating a large spread in intrinsic bright-point contrast. When referenced to an averaged 'quiet-Sun' area in the image, the modal contrast is 29% and the maximum value is 75%; when referenced to an average intergranular lane brightness in the image, the distribution has a modal value of 61% and a maximum of 119%. The bin-averaged contrast of G-band bright points is constant across the entire measured size range. The measured area of the bright points, corrected for pixelation and selection effects, covers about 1.8% of the total image area. Large pores and micropores occupy an additional 2% of the image area, implying a total area fraction of magnetic proxy features in the image of 3.8%. We discuss the implications of this area fraction measurement in the context of

  10. New Observations of Subarcsecond Photospheric Bright Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, T. E.; Schrijver, C. J.; Shine, R. A.; Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.; Scharmer, G.

    1995-01-01

    We have used an interference filter centered at 4305 A within the bandhead of the CH radical (the 'G band') and real-time image selection at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope on La Palma to produce very high contrast images of subarcsecond photospheric bright points at all locations on the solar disk. During the 6 day period of 1993 September 15-20 we observed active region NOAA 7581 from its appearance on the East limb to a near-disk-center position on September 20. A total of 1804 bright points were selected for analysis from the disk center image using feature extraction image processing techniques. The measured Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) distribution of the bright points in the image is lognormal with a modal value of 220 km (0 sec .30) and an average value of 250 km (0 sec .35). The smallest measured bright point diameter is 120 km (0 sec .17) and the largest is 600 km (O sec .69). Approximately 60% of the measured bright points are circular (eccentricity approx. 1.0), the average eccentricity is 1.5, and the maximum eccentricity corresponding to filigree in the image is 6.5. The peak contrast of the measured bright points is normally distributed. The contrast distribution variance is much greater than the measurement accuracy, indicating a large spread in intrinsic bright-point contrast. When referenced to an averaged 'quiet-Sun' area in the image, the modal contrast is 29% and the maximum value is 75%; when referenced to an average intergranular lane brightness in the image, the distribution has a modal value of 61% and a maximum of 119%. The bin-averaged contrast of G-band bright points is constant across the entire measured size range. The measured area of the bright points, corrected for pixelation and selection effects, covers about 1.8% of the total image area. Large pores and micropores occupy an additional 2% of the image area, implying a total area fraction of magnetic proxy features in the image of 3.8%. We discuss the implications of this

  11. 77 FR 53179 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... addition to the Procurement List for production by the nonprofit agencies listed: Products NSN: 1095-01-446-4348--Knife, Combat, Drop Point, Automatic, with Sheath. NSN: 1095-01-456-4457--Knife, Combat,...

  12. 77 FR 66181 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 8/31/2012 (77 FR 53179-53180) and 9/14/2012 (77 FR 56813-56814), the... following products and services are added to the Procurement List: Products: NSN: 1095-01-446-4348--Knife, Combat, Drop Point, Automatic, with Sheath NSN: 1095-01-456-4457--Knife, Combat, Tanto Point,...

  13. Vernal Point and Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez-Campos, Teodosio; Chavez S, Nadia; Chavez-Sumarriva, Israel

    2014-05-01

    The time scale was based on the internationally recognized formal chronostratigraphical /geochronological subdivisions of time: The Phanerozoic Eonathem/Eon; the Cenozoic Erathem/Era; the Quaternary System/Period; the Pleistocene and Holocene Series/Epoch. The Quaternary was divided into: (1) The Pleistocene that was characterized by cycles of glaciations (intervals between 40,000 and 100,000 years). (2) The Holocene that was an interglacial period that began about 12,000 years ago. It was believed that the Milankovitch cycles (eccentricity, axial tilt and the precession of the equinoxes) were responsible for the glacial and interglacial Holocene periods. The magnetostratigraphic units have been widely used for global correlations valid for Quaternary. The gravitational influence of the sun and moon on the equatorial bulges of the mantle of the rotating earth causes the precession of the earth. The retrograde motion of the vernal point through the zodiacal band is 26,000 years. The Vernal point passes through each constellation in an average of 2000 years and this period of time was correlated to Bond events that were North Atlantic climate fluctuations occurring every ≡1,470 ± 500 years throughout the Holocene. The vernal point retrogrades one precessional degree approximately in 72 years (Gleissberg-cycle) and approximately enters into the Aquarius constellation on March 20, 1940. On earth this entry was verify through: a) stability of the magnetic equator in the south central zone of Peru and in the north zone of Bolivia, b) the greater intensity of equatorial electrojet (EEJ) in Peru and Bolivia since 1940. With the completion of the Holocene and the beginning of the Anthropocene (widely popularized by Paul Crutzen) it was proposed the date of March 20, 1940 as the beginning of the Anthropocene. The date proposed was correlated to the work presented in IUGG (Italy 2007) with the title "Cusco base meridian for the study of geophysical data"; Cusco was

  14. The Herschel Point Source Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marton, Gabor; Schulz, Bernhard; Altieri, Bruno; Calzoletti, Luca; Kiss, Csaba; Lim, Tanya; Lu, Nanyao; Paladini, Roberta; Papageorgiou, Andreas; Pearson, Chris; Rector, John; Shupe, David; Valtchanov, Ivan; Verebélyi, Erika; Xu, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory was the fourth cornerstone mission in the European Space Agency (ESA) science programme with excellent broad band imaging capabilities in the submillimetre and far-infrared part of the spectrum. Although the spacecraft finished its observations in 2013, it left a large legacy dataset that is far from having been fully scrutinized and still has potential for new scientific discoveries. This is specifically true for the photometric observations of the PACS and SPIRE instruments that scanned >10% of the sky at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 microns. Some source catalogs have already been produced by individual observing programs, but there are many observations that would never be analyzed for their full source content. To maximize the science return of the SPIRE and PACS data sets, our international team of instrument experts is in the process of building the Herschel Point Source Catalog (HPSC) from all scan map observations. Our homogeneous source extraction enables a systematic and unbiased comparison of sensitivity across the different Herschel fields that single programs will generally not be able to provide. The extracted point sources will contain individual YSOs of our Galaxy, unresolved YSO clusters in resolved nearby galaxies and unresolved galaxies of the local and distant Universe that are related to star formation. Such a huge dataset will help scientists better understand the evolution from interstellar clouds to individual stars. Furthermore the analysis of stellar clusters and the star formation on galactic scales will add more details to the understanding of star formation laws through time.We present our findings on comparison of different source detection and photometric tools. First results of the extractions are shown along with the description of our pipelines and catalogue entries. We also provide an additional science product, the structure noise map, that is used for the quality assessment of the catalogue in

  15. A New Look at Trigger Point Injections

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Clara S. M.; Wong, Steven H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and minimizing the complications of blind injection. PMID:21969825

  16. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  17. Floating Point Control Library

    2007-08-02

    Floating Point Control is a Library that allows for the manipulation of floating point unit exception masking funtions control exceptions in both the Streaming "Single Instruction, Multiple Data" Extension 2 (SSE2) unit and the floating point unit simultaneously. FPC also provides macros to set floating point rounding and precision control.

  18. Additive monitoring and interactions during copper electroprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Dale Wade

    The electrochemical deposition of copper has been a major focus of research for decades. Renewed interest in copper electroplating is not limited to the copper producers but is also a major concern of semiconductor manufacturers. The focus on copper electrochemistry by the semiconductor manufacturers has increased since IBM's announcement in 1997 that copper will be used for metallization in high speed/power semiconductors [1--3]. The desire to use copper instead of aluminum is simply a reflection on copper's superior conductivity (lower RC time constants) and resistance to electromigration (generally proportional to the melting point). This dissertation is the compilation of the research into analytical techniques for monitoring surface-active additives in common sulfuric acid/copper sulfate plating baths. Chronopotentiometric, DC and AC voltammetry were the major analytical techniques used in this research. Several interactions between the additives will also be presented along with their apparent decline in activity. The decline in activity is well known in the industry and is also detected by these methods as presented in chapters 4 and 5. Finally, a systemic approach for monitoring the additive Galactosal, which is commonly used in electrowinning, will be outlined. The monitoring system proposed herein would have to be adjusted for each electrowinning facility because each has a unique chemistry and cell configuration.

  19. Myofascial trigger point pain.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Myofascial trigger point pain is an extremely prevalent cause of persistent pain disorders in all parts of the body, not just the head, neck, and face. Features include deep aching pain in any structure, referred from focally tender points in taut bands of skeletal muscle (the trigger points). Diagnosis depends on accurate palpation with 2-4 kg/cm2 of pressure for 10 to 20 seconds over the suspected trigger point to allow the referred pain pattern to develop. In the head and neck region, cervical muscle trigger points (key trigger points) often incite and perpetuate trigger points (satellite trigger points) and referred pain from masticatory muscles. Management requires identification and control of as many perpetuating factors as possible (posture, body mechanics, psychological stress or depression, poor sleep or nutrition). Trigger point therapies such as spray and stretch or trigger point injections are best used as adjunctive therapy. PMID:24864393

  20. Tipping point leadership.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2003-04-01

    When William Bratton was appointed police commissioner of New York City in 1994, turf wars over jurisdiction and funding were rife and crime was out of control. Yet in less than two years, and without an increase in his budget, Bratton turned New York into the safest large city in the nation. And the NYPD was only the latest of five law-enforcement agencies Bratton had turned around. In each case, he succeeded in record time despite limited resources, a demotivated staff, opposition from powerful vested interests, and an organization wedded to the status quo. Bratton's turnarounds demonstrate what the authors call tipping point leadership. The theory of tipping points hinges on the insight that in any organization, fundamental changes can occur quickly when the beliefs and energies of a critical mass of people create an epidemic movement toward an idea. Bratton begins by overcoming the cognitive hurdles that block organizations from recognizing the need for change. He does this by putting managers face-to-face with operational problems. Next, he manages around limitations on funds, staff, or equipment by concentrating resources on the areas that are most in need of change and that have the biggest payoffs. He meanwhile solves the motivation problem by singling out key influencers--people with disproportionate power due to their connections or persuasive abilities. Finally, he closes off resistance from powerful opponents. Not every CEO has the personality to be a Bill Bratton, but his successes are due to much more than his personality. He relies on a remarkably consistent method that any manager looking to turn around an organization can use to overcome the forces of inertia and reach the tipping point. PMID:12687920

  1. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  2. 40 CFR 412.37 - Additional measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2009-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Additional measures. 412.37 Section 412.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFO) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dairy Cows and Cattle Other Than Veal Calves § 412.37 Additional...

  3. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  4. Multi-point gradient calculation with constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Keyser, Johan

    Multi-spacecraft missions resolve the space-time ambiguity inherent in single-spacecraft in situ measurements. One particularly useful technique is the computation of the gradients (spaceand time-derivatives) from multi-point observations of scalar and vector fields. Given the diffi- culties inherent in computing derivatives, we propose to improve the determination of gradients by imposing additional information in the form of constraints. We discuss geometric constraints on the orientation of the gradient vectors and physically-motivated constraints. For instance, imposing the divergence-free condition for the magnetic field leads to an improved curlometer. We describe the usefulness of such constrained least-squares gradient techniques as applied to magnetic field and plasma density observations by Cluster.

  5. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  6. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  7. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  8. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  9. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  10. Point by Point: Adding up Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchionda, Denise

    2010-01-01

    Students often view their course grades as a mysterious equation of teacher-given grades, teacher-given grace, and some other ethereal components based on luck. However, giving students the power to earn points based on numerous daily/weekly assignments and attendance makes the grading process objective and personal, freeing the instructor to…

  11. Oil point pressure of Indian almond kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aregbesola, O.; Olatunde, G.; Esuola, S.; Owolarafe, O.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of preprocessing conditions such as moisture content, heating temperature, heating time and particle size on oil point pressure of Indian almond kernel was investigated. Results showed that oil point pressure was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by above mentioned parameters. It was also observed that oil point pressure reduced with increase in heating temperature and heating time for both coarse and fine particles. Furthermore, an increase in moisture content resulted in increased oil point pressure for coarse particles while there was a reduction in oil point pressure with increase in moisture content for fine particles.

  12. High speed point derivative microseismic detector

    DOEpatents

    Uhl, James Eugene; Warpinski, Norman Raymond; Whetten, Ernest Blayne

    1998-01-01

    A high speed microseismic event detector constructed in accordance with the present invention uses a point derivative comb to quickly and accurately detect microseismic events. Compressional and shear waves impinging upon microseismic receiver stations disposed to collect waves are converted into digital data and analyzed using a point derivative comb including assurance of quiet periods prior to declaration of microseismic events. If a sufficient number of quiet periods have passed, the square of a two point derivative of the incoming digital signal is compared to a trip level threshold exceeding the determined noise level to declare a valid trial event. The squaring of the derivative emphasizes the differences between noise and signal, and the valid event is preferably declared when the trip threshold has been exceeded over a temporal comb width to realize a comb over a given time period. Once a trial event has been declared, the event is verified through a spatial comb, which applies the temporal event comb to additional stations. The detector according to the present invention quickly and accurately detects initial compressional waves indicative of a microseismic event which typically exceed the ambient cultural noise level by a small amount, and distinguishes the waves from subsequent larger amplitude shear waves.

  13. High speed point derivative microseismic detector

    DOEpatents

    Uhl, J.E.; Warpinski, N.R.; Whetten, E.B.

    1998-06-30

    A high speed microseismic event detector constructed in accordance with the present invention uses a point derivative comb to quickly and accurately detect microseismic events. Compressional and shear waves impinging upon microseismic receiver stations disposed to collect waves are converted into digital data and analyzed using a point derivative comb including assurance of quiet periods prior to declaration of microseismic events. If a sufficient number of quiet periods have passed, the square of a two point derivative of the incoming digital signal is compared to a trip level threshold exceeding the determined noise level to declare a valid trial event. The squaring of the derivative emphasizes the differences between noise and signal, and the valid event is preferably declared when the trip threshold has been exceeded over a temporal comb width to realize a comb over a given time period. Once a trial event has been declared, the event is verified through a spatial comb, which applies the temporal event comb to additional stations. The detector according to the present invention quickly and accurately detects initial compressional waves indicative of a microseismic event which typically exceed the ambient cultural noise level by a small amount, and distinguishes the waves from subsequent larger amplitude shear waves. 9 figs.

  14. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  15. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  16. Libration Point Navigation Concepts Supporting Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Folta, David C.; Moreau, Michael C.; Gramling, Cheryl J.

    2004-01-01

    Farquhar described several libration point navigation concepts that would appear to support NASA s current exploration vision. One concept is a Lunar Relay Satellite operating in the vicinity of Earth-Moon L2, providing Earth-to-lunar far-side and long- range surface-to-surface navigation and communications capability. Reference [ 1] lists several advantages of such a system in comparison to a lunar orbiting relay satellite constellation. Among these are one or two vs. many satellites for coverage, simplified acquisition and tracking due to very low relative motion, much longer contact times, and simpler antenna pointing. An obvious additional advantage of such a system is that uninterrupted links to Earth avoid performing critical maneuvers "in the blind." Another concept described is the use of Earth-Moon L1 for lunar orbit rendezvous, rather than low lunar orbit as was done for Apollo. This rendezvous technique would avoid large plane change and high fuel cost associated with high latitude landing sites and long stay times. Earth-Moon L1 also offers unconstrained launch windows from the lunar surface. Farquhar claims this technique requires only slightly higher fuel cost than low lunar orbit rendezvous for short-stay equatorial landings. Farquhar also describes an Interplanetary Transportation System that would use libration points as terminals for an interplanetary shuttle. This approach would offer increased operational flexibility in terms of launch windows, rendezvous, aborts, etc. in comparison to elliptical orbit transfers. More recently, other works including Folta[3] and Howell[4] have shown that patching together unstable trajectories departing Earth-Moon libration points with stable trajectories approaching planetary libration points may also offer lower overall fuel costs than elliptical orbit transfers. Another concept Farquhar described was a Deep Space Relay at Earth-Moon IA and/or L5 that would serve as a high data rate optical navigation and

  17. Point-Force Energy Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Tristan; Squires, Kyle

    2005-11-01

    Fully resolved simulations of particle-laden turbulent flows are computationally expensive even with a single particle. Therefore, simulations of flows with realistic numbers of particles typically treat the disperse phase as point-particles and models are used to account for the interaction between the phases. The particle trajectories are determined using a Lagrangian particle equation of motion that accounts for the fluid forces. The effect of the particulate phase on the fluid is included using point-force momentum coupling, where the opposite of the force applied to each particle by the fluid is distributed back to fluid grid points in a local region. In this work, we perform direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a particle moving at a prescribed constant or time-dependent velocity through a stationary fluid, and use the resulting force history in a corresponding point-force simulation to study point-force energy coupling. The energy input from the moving particle and the fluid dissipation in the DNS are compared to corresponding quantities in the unresolved calculation. A range of particle Reynolds numbers and ratios of the particle diameter to the unresolved grid spacing are considered to determine the conditions under which point-force momentum coupling provides accurate energy coupling.

  18. Design Methodology of an Equalizer for Unipolar Non Return to Zero Binary Signals in the Presence of Additive White Gaussian Noise Using a Time Delay Neural Network on a Field Programmable Gate Array

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Suárez, Santiago T.; Travieso González, Carlos M.; Alonso Hernández, Jesús B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a design methodology for designing an artificial neural network as an equalizer for a binary signal. Firstly, the system is modelled in floating point format using Matlab. Afterward, the design is described for a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) using fixed point format. The FPGA design is based on the System Generator from Xilinx, which is a design tool over Simulink of Matlab. System Generator allows one to design in a fast and flexible way. It uses low level details of the circuits and the functionality of the system can be fully tested. System Generator can be used to check the architecture and to analyse the effect of the number of bits on the system performance. Finally the System Generator design is compiled for the Xilinx Integrated System Environment (ISE) and the system is described using a hardware description language. In ISE the circuits are managed with high level details and physical performances are obtained. In the Conclusions section, some modifications are proposed to improve the methodology and to ensure portability across FPGA manufacturers.

  19. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  20. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.