Science.gov

Sample records for additional topics discussed

  1. 78 FR 14957 - Wireline Competition Bureau Releases Further Discussion Topics and Seeks Additional Comment in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Comment in Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... added virtual workshop discussion topics and further comment on two existing topics. DATES: Comments are.../ecfs2/ . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Virtual Workshop: In addition to the...

  2. PDII- Additional discussion of the dynamic aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Norman M. Gelfand

    2002-07-23

    This note is in the nature of an addition to the dynamic aperture calculations found in the report on the Proton Driver, FERMILAB-TM-2169. A extensive discussion of the Proton Driver lattice, as well as the nomenclature used to describe it can be found in TM-2169. Basically the proposed lattice is a racetrack design with the two arcs joined by two long straight sections. The straight sections are dispersion free. Tracking studies were undertaken with the objective of computing the dynamic aperture for the lattice and some of the results have been incorporated into TM-2169. This note is a more extensive report of those calculations.

  3. Ontology-based topic clustering for online discussion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongheng; Cao, Kening; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2013-03-01

    With the rapid development of online communities, mining and extracting quality knowledge from online discussions becomes very important for the industrial and marketing sector, as well as for e-commerce applications and government. Most of the existing techniques model a discussion as a social network of users represented by a user-based graph without considering the content of the discussion. In this paper we propose a new multilayered mode to analysis online discussions. The user-based and message-based representation is combined in this model. A novel frequent concept sets based clustering method is used to cluster the original online discussion network into topic space. Domain ontology is used to improve the clustering accuracy. Parallel methods are also used to make the algorithms scalable to very large data sets. Our experimental study shows that the model and algorithms are effective when analyzing large scale online discussion data.

  4. Exploring and Contrasting EFL Learners' Perceptions of Textbook-Assigned and Self-Selected Discussion Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, James P.

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to explore the significance of a "willingness to communicate" (WTC) variable in second language (L2) acquisition, this article reports on a survey study that investigated 101 Japanese university English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' perceptions of textbook-assigned and self-selected discussion topics. Additionally, the study…

  5. 75 FR 9452 - Solicitation of Topics for Discussion at a Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Licensing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Solicitation of Topics for Discussion at a Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Licensing Conference AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Solicitation of Topics for Discussion at a... Commission (NRC) is soliciting input on topics for discussion at a proposed June 23-24, 2010, public...

  6. Additional EIPC Study Analysis: Interim Report on High Priority Topics

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W

    2013-11-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 13 topics was developed for further analysis; this paper discusses the first five.

  7. 78 FR 38265 - Wireline Competition Bureau Adds Two New Discussion Topics to Connect America Cost Model Virtual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Model Virtual Workshop AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Wireline Competition Bureau adds two new virtual workshop discussion topics.../ecfs2/ . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Virtual Workshop: In addition to the...

  8. 78 FR 23192 - Wireline Competition Bureau Adds New Discussion Topic to Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... Virtual Workshop AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Wireline Competition Bureau adds a new virtual workshop discussion topic, entitled... for submitting comments. Virtual Workshop: In addition to the usual methods for filing...

  9. How Do Personality, Synchronous Media, and Discussion Topic Affect Participation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Ina; Barak, Azy

    2012-01-01

    The development of digital technologies increases the use of distance synchronous (real-time) interactions among people. The study explores whether the "readiness to participate", the degree of "actual participation", and the "quality of contribution" to synchronous online group discussions is affected by participant personality, media…

  10. Discussion topic and observed behavior in couples' problem-solving conversations: do problem severity and topic choice matter?

    PubMed

    Williamson, Hannah C; Hanna, Mariam A; Lavner, Justin A; Bradbury, Thomas N; Karney, Benjamin R

    2013-04-01

    Communication behavior is an integral part of relationship functioning and, therefore, a common target of relationship interventions. Between-couple variability in observed behaviors is commonly interpreted as reflecting their underlying skill in communication, but other factors, including perceived difficulty of the problem and the topic being discussed, may also covary with communication behavior. The current study examined this possibility by testing whether these two aspects of discussion topics were associated with communication behavior. Ethnically diverse newlywed couples (N = 402 couples) were observed in their homes as they engaged in conflict resolution tasks. Resulting behavioral codes were examined in relation to perceived difficulty of the problem and the topic of the discussion. Higher levels of husband-reported problem difficulty were associated with higher levels of husband and wife negativity, independent of relationship satisfaction. After controlling for problem difficulty and relationship satisfaction, the topic of the discussion was associated with husband and wife positivity, husband and wife negativity, and wife effectiveness, indicating that some topics elicited better or worse communication than others. The substantive focus of couples' conflicts may play an important role in how they communicate, suggesting that the topic of discussion merits close attention in studies of couples and in relationship interventions.

  11. Book discussion course: timely topics for medical students.

    PubMed

    Timm, Donna F; Woodson, Deidra; Jones, Dee

    2014-01-01

    Several library faculty members at the Louisiana State University Health Shreveport Health Sciences Library offered a book discussion course as an elective for first-year medical students. This article provides details on how the librarians developed, taught, and evaluated this elective. The librarians took a team-teaching approach, required the students to read two books, and outlined the criteria for participation. At the end of the course, the students completed an evaluation, commenting on positive and negative aspects of the course. The elective proved to be successful, and the librarians look forward to offering the course again in the spring of 2014.

  12. Overview and Implications of the Surgeon General's Report on Mental Health. Topical Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz-Leavy, Judy; Bornemann, Thomas; Burns, Barbara J.; Friedman, Robert; Jenson, Peter; Osher, Trina

    This brief paper on a topical discussion session held at a conference on children's mental health about implications of the 1999 report, "Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General," for children. The discussion focuses primarily on the chapter in the report specifically about children and mental health with comments by four individuals who…

  13. A Controlled Evaluation of Reminiscence and Current Topics Discussion Groups in a Nursing Home Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattenbury, Christine; Stones, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    Compared psychological well-being of elderly nursing home residents who participated in reminiscence and current topics group discussions with control group of residents. Rated participants' happiness/depression, activity, mood, and functional levels before and after intervention. Intervention had significant effect only on happiness/depression…

  14. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Problems involving divisibility, the ten coin triangle, five times a week with 4 D, a nomogram for the lens formula, the box and ladder problem, chains of circles, tessellating hexagons, topological woggles, and numbers of triangles are discussed. (CT)

  15. The New APS Topical Group on the Physics of Climate: History, Objectives and Panel Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasseur, James; Behringer, Robert

    2013-03-01

    The GPC Chair will introduce the new APS Topical Group on the Physics of Climate (GPC), describe its history and objectives, and introduce the current GPC leadership before opening the floor to a panel discussion. The GPC resulted from two petitions that emerged from the controversy that followed the APS Statement on Climate Change (see APS website). The two proposals were merged and an organization committee formed by the APS leadership. After a long organizational period in 2011, the GPC bylaws were finalized with the following key objective: The objective of the GPC shall be to promote the advancement and diffusion of knowledge concerning the physics, measurement, and modeling of climate processes, within the domain of natural science and outside the domains of societal impact and policy, legislation and broader societal issues. The objective includes the integration of scientific knowledge and analysis methods across disciplines to address the dynamical complexities and uncertainties of climate physics. The GPC Invited and Focus Sessions at this March meeting are the inaugural GPC events. The Program Committee Chair will moderate a panel between the attending GPC leadership and audience to solicit suggestions for potential future GPC events that advance the GPC objectives.

  16. Characterizing Twitter Discussions About HPV Vaccines Using Topic Modeling and Community Detection

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Dat Quoc; Kennedy, Georgina; Johnson, Mark; Coiera, Enrico; Dunn, Adam G

    2016-01-01

    Background In public health surveillance, measuring how information enters and spreads through online communities may help us understand geographical variation in decision making associated with poor health outcomes. Objective Our aim was to evaluate the use of community structure and topic modeling methods as a process for characterizing the clustering of opinions about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines on Twitter. Methods The study examined Twitter posts (tweets) collected between October 2013 and October 2015 about HPV vaccines. We tested Latent Dirichlet Allocation and Dirichlet Multinomial Mixture (DMM) models for inferring topics associated with tweets, and community agglomeration (Louvain) and the encoding of random walks (Infomap) methods to detect community structure of the users from their social connections. We examined the alignment between community structure and topics using several common clustering alignment measures and introduced a statistical measure of alignment based on the concentration of specific topics within a small number of communities. Visualizations of the topics and the alignment between topics and communities are presented to support the interpretation of the results in context of public health communication and identification of communities at risk of rejecting the safety and efficacy of HPV vaccines. Results We analyzed 285,417 Twitter posts (tweets) about HPV vaccines from 101,519 users connected by 4,387,524 social connections. Examining the alignment between the community structure and the topics of tweets, the results indicated that the Louvain community detection algorithm together with DMM produced consistently higher alignment values and that alignments were generally higher when the number of topics was lower. After applying the Louvain method and DMM with 30 topics and grouping semantically similar topics in a hierarchy, we characterized 163,148 (57.16%) tweets as evidence and advocacy, and 6244 (2.19%) tweets describing

  17. Ethics and Environment: Topics for Enquiry and Discussion by Older Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schools Council, London (England).

    The objective of this set of investigations is to start with the problems that beset us in our use of the environment and, through these, to move towards a better understanding of the principles which regulate life on this planet. The packs, or units, are concerned with a number of topics of environmental importance, each of which deals with some…

  18. Using Technology to Support Discussions on Sensitive Topics in the Study of Business Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of research into teaching strategies and learning approaches for units involving sensitive topics that can provoke an emotional response in students. In a business ethics unit, attempts to strike a balance between conceptual knowledge and theory and skills training can be challenging because the unit can involve personal,…

  19. 76 FR 37808 - PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Discussion Topics for Staff Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Discussion Topics for Staff Technical... suspended proposed tariff changes submitted by PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. (PJM), subject to refund and...

  20. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  1. Additive enhancement of wound healing in diabetic mice by low level light and topical CoQ10

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Zhigang; Wu, Jeffrey H.; Dong, Tingting; Wu, Mei X.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes, a highly prevalent disease that affects 9.3% of Americans, often leads to severe complications and slow wound healing. Preclinical studies have suggested that low level light therapy (LLLT) can accelerate wound healing in diabetic subjects, but significant improvements must be made to overcome the absence of persuasive evidence for its clinical use. We demonstrate here that LLLT can be combined with topical Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) to heal wounds in diabetic mice significantly faster than LLLT alone, CoQ10 alone, or controls. LLLT followed by topical CoQ10 enhanced wound healing by 68~103% in diabetic mice in the first week and more than 24% in the second week compared with untreated controls. All wounds were fully healed in two weeks following the dual treatment, in contrast to only 50% wounds or a fewer being fully healed for single or sham treatment. The accelerated healing was corroborated by at least 50% higher hydroxyproline levels, and tripling cell proliferation rates in LLLT and CoQ10 treated wounds over controls. The beneficial effects on wound healing were probably attributed to additive enhancement of ATP production by LLLT and CoQ10 treatment. The combination of LLLT and topical CoQ10 is safe and convenient, and merits further clinical study. PMID:26830658

  2. [Urea plus ceramides and vitamins: improving the efficacy of a topical urea preparation by addition of ceramides and vitamins].

    PubMed

    Grether-Beck, S; Mühlberg, K; Brenden, H; Krutmann, J

    2008-09-01

    Topical urea preparations containing urea have been used successfully to improve the barrier function of the skin. We investigated whether the efficacy of an urea-containing topical preparation could be improved by the addition of vitamins and ceramides. For this an intra-individual comparative study was conducted on 10 subjects with healthy skin. The application of the combination preparation containing urea, vitamins and ceramides for 2 weeks was significantly superior to the urea-only preparation in respect to reduction of transepidermal water loss and skin hydration levels. This improved efficacy was associated with a stronger up-regulation of the transcriptional expression of differentiation genes in keratinocytes in the treated skin areas. While both preparations caused an increased expression of the genes encoding transglutaminase-1, involucrin, loricrin and filaggrin, this increase was significantly greater in those skin areas treated with the combination preparation. This study indicates that the efficacy of topical preparations containing urea can be enhanced by the incorporation of ceramides and vitamins.

  3. Additional evidence that rosacea pathogenesis may involve demodex: new information from the topical efficacy of ivermectin and praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Abokwidir, Manal; Fleischer, Alan B

    2015-09-01

    Additional evidence that Demodex folliculorum may contribute to the pathogenesis of papulopustular rosacea are new studies of two topical antiparasitic agents. Ivermectin and praziquantel have recently been shown to be effective in decreasing the severity of papulopustular rosacea. These two agents significantly differ in molecular structure, but yield similar antiparasitic mechanisms of action. Higher numbers of Demodex mites are found in the skin of patients with rosacea than in people with normal skin. If Demodex play a role in pathogenesis, then hypersensitivity to the mites, their flora, or their products could explain the observed efficacy of antidemodectic therapy. PMID:26437294

  4. User-Centered Design of a Tablet Waiting Room Tool for Complex Patients to Prioritize Discussion Topics for Primary Care Visits

    PubMed Central

    Altschuler, Andrea; Chawla, Neetu; Kowalski, Christine; McQuillan, Deanna; Bayliss, Elizabeth; Heisler, Michele; Grant, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    Background Complex patients with multiple chronic conditions often face significant challenges communicating and coordinating with their primary care physicians. These challenges are exacerbated by the limited time allotted to primary care visits. Objective Our aim was to employ a user-centered design process to create a tablet tool for use by patients for visit discussion prioritization. Methods We employed user-centered design methods to create a tablet-based waiting room tool that enables complex patients to identify and set discussion topic priorities for their primary care visit. In an iterative design process, we completed one-on-one interviews with 40 patients and their 17 primary care providers, followed by three design sessions with a 12-patient group. We audiorecorded and transcribed all discussions and categorized major themes. In addition, we met with 15 key health communication, education, and technology leaders within our health system to further review the design and plan for broader implementation of the tool. In this paper, we present the significant changes made to the tablet tool at each phase of this design work. Results Patient feedback emphasized the need to make the tablet tool accessible for patients who lacked technical proficiency and to reduce the quantity and complexity of text presentation. Both patients and their providers identified specific content choices based on their personal experiences (eg, the ability to raise private or sensitive concerns) and recommended targeting new patients. Stakeholder groups provided essential input on the need to augment text with video and to create different versions of the videos to match sex and race/ethnicity of the actors with patients. Conclusions User-centered design in collaboration with patients, providers, and key health stakeholders led to marked evolution in the initial content, layout, and target audience for a tablet waiting room tool intended to assist complex patients with setting

  5. Topicality and the Structure of Interactive Talk in Face-to-Face Seminar Discussions: Implications for Research in Distributed Learning Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Will; Hall, Andy; Callery, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the structure of topic movement within face-to-face postgraduate university seminar discussion forums through a conversation analytic approach. The analysis of 12 audio recordings of seminars showed that in spite of clear differences in the management style of sessions by seminar leaders there were important consistencies in…

  6. Reneging: A Topic to Promote Engaging Discussions about Law and Ethics in a Business Law or Legal Environment Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Tonia Hap

    2009-01-01

    This article is intended for business law and legal environment instructors who want to help students understand how they might react when presented with an ethical conflict, no matter how big or how small. The article discusses not only the compelling ethical issues that may arise in reneging cases, but also legal issues. The article provides…

  7. Church Attendance as a Predictor of Number of Sexual Health Topics Discussed Among High-Risk HIV-Negative Black Women.

    PubMed

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Pichon, Latrice C; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa; Latkin, Carl A

    2016-02-01

    Research suggests that sexual health communication is associated with safer sex practices. In this study, we examined the relationship between church attendance and sexual health topics discussed with both friends and sexual partners among a sample of urban Black women. Participants were 434 HIV-negative Black women who were at high risk for contracting HIV through heterosexual sex. They were recruited from Baltimore, Maryland using a network-based sampling approach. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and Audio-Computer-Assisted Self-Interviews. Fifty-four percent of the participants attended church once a month or more (regular attendees). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that regular church attendance among high-risk HIV-negative Black women was a significant predictor of the number of sexual health topics discussed with both friends (AOR = 1.85, p = .003) and sexual partners (AOR = 1.68, p = .014). Future efforts to reduce HIV incidence among high-risk Black women may benefit from partnerships with churches that equip faith leaders and congregants with the tools to discuss sexual health topics with both their sexual partners and friends.

  8. Calcitriol 3 microg/g ointment: an effective and safe addition to the armamentarium in topical psoriasis therapy.

    PubMed

    Abramovits, William

    2009-08-01

    High-potency topical corticosteroids are very effective for the treatment of psoriasis, but are associated with a number of cutaneous adverse effects. Vitamin D modulators have emerged as an important alternative to corticosteroids for the long-term topical treatment of psoriasis. Calcitriol 3 microg/g ointment has long been used to treat psoriasis in Europe and is now the only vitamin D3 ointment available for use in the United States (U.S.). Several randomized clinical trials have compared the safety, efficacy, and cosmetic acceptability of calcitriol ointment with other topical psoriasis therapies. In a three-week investigator-blinded study of 25 healthy subjects, calcitriol 3microg/g ointment was associated with markedly less cumulative skin irritation than was calcipotriene ointment. A multicenter, investigator-blinded study of patients with psoriasis found that investigator-rated global improvement of psoriasis symptoms with calcitriol ointment was statistically noninferior to calcipotriene ointment and that calcitriol use produced significantly fewer patients with cutaneous reactions or discomfort. A multicenter clinical trial of patients with psoriasis who had lesions affecting sensitive skin areas found that calcitriol use produced less skin irritation than did calcipotriene and was generally preferred to calcipotriene ointment by patients. Calcitriol was also significantly more effective for the treatment of psoriasis lesions affecting flexural areas. In another study, patients who received calcitriol ointment exhibited improvement in psoriasis symptoms that was similar to the corticosteroid betamethasone propionate, but were much less likely to have relapsed eight weeks after treatment discontinuation. Two clinical studies also suggested that calcitriol is similar in efficacy to short-contact dithranol, but with a lower incidence of skin irritation and staining. Together, the results of these studies demonstrate that calcitriol 3 microg/g ointment is a

  9. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. First topical report, Results of laboratory screening of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-04-16

    Several tasks have been completed in a program to evaluate additives to improve fine particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Screening tests and laboratory evaluations of additives are summarized in this report. Over 20 additives were evaluated; four were found to improve flyash precipitation rates. The Insitec particle analyzer was also evaluated; test results show that the analyzer will provide accurate sizing and counting information for particles in the size range of {le} 10 {mu}m dia.

  10. Online Focus Group Discussion is a Valid and Feasible Mode When Investigating Sensitive Topics Among Young Persons With a Cancer Experience

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Lars E; Nilsson, Jenny; Jervaeus, Anna; Lampic, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical research often lacks participants of young age. Adding to the small amount of scientific studies that focus on the population entering adulthood, there are also difficulties to recruit them. To overcome this, there is a need to develop and scientifically evaluate modes for data collection that are suitable for adolescents and young adults. With this in mind we performed 39 online focus group discussions among young survivors of childhood cancer to explore thoughts and experiences around dating, being intimate with someone, and having children. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate online focus group discussions as a mode for data collection on sensitive issues among young persons with a cancer experience. Methods One hundred thirty-three young persons (16-25 years) previously diagnosed with cancer, participated in 39 synchronous online focus group discussions (response rate 134/369, 36%). The mode of administration was evaluated by analyzing participant characteristics and interactions during discussions, as well as group members’ evaluations of the discussions. Results Persons diagnosed with central nervous tumors (n=30, 27%) participated to a lower extent than those with other cancer types (n=103, 39%; χ 2= 4.89, P=.03). The participants described various health impairments that correspond to what would be expected among cancer survivors including neuropsychiatric conditions and writing disabilities. Even though participants were interested in others’ experiences, sexual issues needed more probing by the moderators than did fertility-related issues. Group evaluations revealed that participants appreciated communicating on the suggested topics and thought that it was easier to discuss sex when it was possible to be anonymous toward other group members. Conclusions Online focus group discussions, with anonymous participation, are suggested to be a feasible and valid mode for collecting sensitive data among young persons with a

  11. JGME-ALiEM Hot Topics in Medical Education Online Journal Club: An Analysis of a Virtual Discussion About Resident Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Sherbino, Jonathan; Joshi, Nikita; Lin, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background  In health professionals' education, senior learners play a key role in the teaching of junior colleagues. Objective  We describe an online discussion about residents as teachers to highlight the topic and the online journal club medium. Methods  In January 2015, the Journal of Graduate Medical Education (JGME) and the Academic Life in Emergency Medicine blog facilitated an open-access, online, weeklong journal club on the JGME article “What Makes a Great Resident Teacher? A Multicenter Survey of Medical Students Attending an Internal Medicine Conference.” Social media platforms used to promote asynchronous discussions included a blog, a video discussion via Google Hangouts on Air, and Twitter. We performed a thematic analysis of the discussion. Web analytics were captured as a measure of impact. Results  The blog post garnered 1324 page views from 372 cities in 42 countries. Twitter was used to endorse discussion points, while blog comments provided opinions or responded to an issue. The discussion focused on why resident feedback was devalued by medical students. Proposed explanations included feedback not being labeled as such, the process of giving delivery, the source of feedback, discrepancies with self-assessment, and threats to medical student self-image. The blog post resulted in a crowd-sourced repository of resident teacher resources. Conclusions  An online journal club provides a novel discussion forum across multiple social media platforms to engage authors, content experts, and the education community. Crowd-sourced analysis of the resident teacher role suggests that resident feedback to medical students is important, and barriers to student acceptance of feedback can be overcome. PMID:26457152

  12. Discovering Health Topics in Social Media Using Topic Models

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Michael J.; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r = .534) and obesity (r = −.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media. PMID:25084530

  13. Topical Steroids.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Gretchen M; Harvey, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is an inflammatory condition with heterogeneous pathophysiology. A cornerstone of the management of this condition is the use of anti-inflammatory agents. Corticosteroids are very effective and the most commonly used, but other drugs with immunodulatory activity such as anti-IL5, doxycycline (Th2), and macrolides (anti-neutrophilic/IL8) have been shown to have efficacy. Although systemic corticosteroids have shown benefit in managing this condition, the frequency of use often required in this condition is associated with significant adverse effects. Topical corticosteroids, particularly when utilized after endoscopic sinus surgery and delivered in a high volume, high pressure manner, provide the desired anti-inflammatory effects with nearly negligible systemic absorption. Studies assessing the long-term use of second generation topical corticosteroids have demonstrated no significant effects on cortisol levels, growth rate, intraocular pressures or lens opacification, or local mucosal atrophy. Patients who often respond most favorably to corticosteroid treatment are those with a Th2-mediated, highly eosinophilic CRSwNP. However, there is a subset of patients who are steroid resistant. In the case of a predominantly neutrophilic CRSwNP, it is important to be aware that patients may respond well to the use of macrolide therapy. Additionally, the use of verapamil has shown promise in increasing steroid responsiveness in a difficult to treat group of patients with steroid resistance. Topical corticosteroids play a key role in the long term management of this complicated inflammatory condition by providing the much needed pharmacologic local control with minimal systemic adverse effects. PMID:27466854

  14. Topical treatments for hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Zurada, Joanna M; Kriegel, David; Davis, Ira C

    2006-12-01

    Hypertrophic scars represent an abnormal, exaggerated healing response after skin injury. In addition to cosmetic concern, scars may cause pain, pruritus, contractures, and other functional impairments. Therapeutic modalities include topical medications, intralesional corticosteroids, laser therapy, and cryosurgery. Topical therapies, in particular, have become increasingly popular because of their ease of use, comfort, noninvasiveness, and relatively low cost. This review will discuss the properties and effectiveness of these agents, including pressure therapy, silicone gel sheeting and ointment, polyurethane dressing, onion extract, imiquimod 5% cream, and vitamins A and E in the prevention and treatment of hypertrophic scars. PMID:17097399

  15. Bexarotene Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may bathe, shower, or swim during your treatment with topical bexarotene, but you should use only a mild, ... your treatment. If you become pregnant during your treatment with topical bexarotene, call your doctor immediately.tell your doctor ...

  16. Efinaconazole Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat fungal toenail infections (infections that may cause nail discoloration, splitting, or pain). Efinaconazole topical solution is ... antifungals. It works by stopping the growth of nail fungus.

  17. Discussion series on PURPA related topics: metering

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgeon, J I

    1980-08-01

    Time-differentiated metering of electricity consumption and demand is required in both rate-structure experimentation and the implementation of most time-of-use rate designs. Time-differentiated metering takes three major forms: multi-register watthour meters, magnetic-tape recording meters, and remote automatic meter-reading systems. The majority of projects selected magnetic-tape meters for their flexibility with respect to rate structure, load-survey capabilities, and ready availability. The small-scale, experimental nature of the projects reduced the significance of the large difference in per-unit cost and operational/maintenance complexity between this form of metering and the multi-register form. Magnetic-tape meters are not likely candidates for system-wide implementation of time-differentiated metering. Automatic remote-meter-reading systems were not adequately available during the project years; those projects attempting to use these were unable to bring them to full operational status before project termination, due to the many problems of design, quality control, and equipment acquisition encountered. Delays in acquisition and problems of quality control also followed the selection of magnetic-tape meters and multi-register meters by a number of the projects. Though less complex than automatic remote-reading systems, these technologies are still new and more complex than standard watthour metering. Thus, both equipment vendors and utilities encountered numerous problems in getting properly functioning meters to the service entrances on time. A variety of factors contributed to installation delays, including unforeseen space limitations, incompatible wiring, problems of task organization, and customer reluctance.

  18. Discussion series on PURPA related topics

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgeon, J I

    1980-08-01

    The master metering of electricity was investigated in nine of the Pilot Implementation Projects. These studies showed that master metering increased the level of energy consumption by as much as 40% in some areas and 11% in others. One study of housing units before and after conversion to individual metering showed consumption reductions of 17 and 20%. Two costs of eliminating master metering other than the cost of meters were: the loss of centralized space conditioning and hot water systems and increased building costs. It was found that centralized space heating systems used 10 to 15% less energy than individual systems. In one Project it was estimated that construction costs in high rise buildings could increase by around $3,000 per apartment if master metering was eliminated. Five alternatives to eliminating master metering were examined or considered. Submetering was reviewed but the lack of reliable and economical submeters prevented its testing. Another alternative was to bill master metered customers on multiple block rates. This was used in one Project and it eliminated the cost advantage of master metering. Although alternatives to the elimination of master metering were examined most commission actions were directed at its elimination. Most commissions exempted specific uses such as centralized hot water and central heating and cooling systems. Typically the ban on master metering was for new construction.

  19. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Second topical report, Results of bench-scale screening of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-08-13

    ADA Technologies, Inc. (ADA) has completed the bench-scale testing phase of a program to evaluate additives that will improve the collection of fine particles in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A bench-scale ESP was installed at the Consolidation Coal Company (CONSOL) combustion research and development facility in Library, PA in order to conduct the evaluation. During a two-week test, four candidate additives were injected into the flue gas ahead of a 100 acfm ESP to determine the effect on fly ash collectability. Two additives were found to reduce the emissions from the ESP. Additives ``C`` and ``D`` performed better than initially anticipated -- reducing emissions initially by 17%. Emissions were reduced by 27% after the ESP was modified by the installation of baffles to minimize sneakage. In addition to the measured improvements in performance, no detrimental effects (i.e., electrode fouling) were observed in the operation of the ESP during the testing. The measures of success identified for the bench-scale phase of the program have been surpassed. Since the additives will affect only non-rapping reentrainment particle losses, it is expected that an even greater improvement in particle collection will be observed in larger-scale ESPs. Therefore, positive results are anticipated during the pilot-scale phase of the program and during a future full-scale demonstration test. A preliminary economic analysis was performed to evaluate the cost of the additive process and to compare its costs against alternative means for reducing emissions from ESPs. The results show that conditioning with additive C at a rate of 0.05% (wt. additive to wt. fly ash) is much less expensive than adding new ESP capacity, and more cost competitive than existing chemical conditioning processes. Preliminary chemical analysis of conditioned fly ash shows that it passes the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure criteria.

  20. Topic- and Time-Oriented Visual Text Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dou, Wenwen; Liu, Shixia

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate the process of converting textual data into actionable knowledge, visual text analysis has become a popular topic with active research efforts contributed by researchers worldwide. Here the authors present the benefits of combing text analysis (topic models in particular) with interactive visualization. They then highlight examples from prior work on topic- and time-oriented visual text analysis and discuss challenges that warrant additional future research. PMID:27514029

  1. Development of an Eastern Shale Oil Residue as an Asphalt Additive - Subtask 2.5: Topical report, February 1, 1994-February 1, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    An evaluation of eastern shale oil as an asphalt additive to reduce oxidative age hardening and moisture susceptibility is being conducted. An eastern shale oil residue having a viscosity of 1.30 Pa`s at 60{degrees}C (140{degrees}F) was blended with three different petroleum-derived asphalts that are known to be very susceptible to oxidative aging. In addition, blends of the eastern shale oil residue and the petroleum-derived asphalts are being coated onto three different aggregates that are known to be susceptible to water stripping. The oxidative age hardening portion of this study is not complete at this time. To date, information has been obtained on the unaged samples and two of the aged petroleum-derived asphalts (AAD-1 and AAK-1). When complete, this data will include rheological data on the unaged, RTFO-aged, and the RTFO/PAV-aged samples and infrared data on the unaged and RTFO/PAV-aged samples. With respect to the rheological data, asphalt AAD-1 meets the specifications of a PG 58 asphalt while asphalt AAK-1 does not. In the latter case this indicates that AAK-1 is more appropriately evaluated at a higher temperature range. The infrared spectroscopic data obtained for the eastern shale oil residue show that it contains appreciable amounts of carbonyl and sulfoxide compound types, 0.22 absorbance units and 0. 27 moles/L, respectively. Thus, upon the addition of this residue to the three petroleum-derived asphalts the blends contain increased amounts of these functional groups relative to the petroleum-derived asphalts. This has been observed with other additives and is not considered detrimental. In addition, the data that has been collected to date indicate that the moisture susceptibility of blends of eastern shale oil residue and asphalt AAK-1 are somewhat improved when coated onto Lithonia granite.

  2. Clindamycin Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... topical clindamycin.you should know that abrasive or medicated soaps and skin products that contain alcohol may ... in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from ...

  3. Fluorouracil Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by years of too much exposure to sunlight). Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are also used ... plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to sunlight and UV light (such as tanning booths) and ...

  4. Mometasone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Mometasone comes as a topical cream, ointment, and lotion. It usually is applied externally once a day. ... affected skin areas once daily.To apply the lotion, place a few drops on the affected areas ...

  5. Dapsone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Dapsone topical is used to treat acne. Dapsone is in a class of medications called sulfone antibiotics. It works ... taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  6. Bimatoprost Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... much medication. Talk to your doctor about using topical bimatoprost if you are also using the eyedrops.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  7. Spotlight Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A Spotlight Topic consists of a set of two or more review articles focused on a specific subject in surface science. The topics are recommended by the Board of Editors. A topic may be chosen because it is particularly new or fast-breaking, thus deserving introduction to the general readership. Or, it may be because a topic is especially controversial or confusing, requiring clarification by experts. Each review will give a critical assessment rather than an encyclopedic report. While our editors always will insist on fairness and accuracy, any review which forwards an opinion is bound to be somewhat subjective. Therefore, it is the editors' wish that the set of reviews written by different authors on the same subject matter will provide a broad and balanced viewpoint. It is often the case that an author who is an expert in a technique or method may be especially enthusiastic or critical about this technique or method. A companion review in the set may provide a different viewpoint. We are hopeful that the reader, after studying these reviews and checking some of the key references, will obtain an informed opinion of the subject. We think the set of reviews in a spotlight area will considerably shorten the ``learning time'' that a nonexpert would otherwise need to become knowledgeable about a subject. In this issue, we feature a spotlight topic on oxide surfaces. The set contains an overview article by Jacques Jupille, and four articles written by G. Pacchioni, F. Cosandey and T. E. Madey, B. G. Daniels, R. Lindsay and G. Thornton, and C. Noguera respectively. Of these, the article by Pacchioni has already appeared in SRL 7, 277 (2000). The other three articles appear in this issue. A reader who wishes to suggest a spotlight topic or recommend authors to write such reviews should contact the Editor-in-Chief. We would like to hear from you.

  8. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Topical report - results of sodium formate additive tests at New York State Electric & Gas Corporation`s Kintigh Station

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.

    1997-02-14

    Tests were conducted at New York State Gas & Electric`s (NYSEG`s) Kintigh Station to evaluate options for achieving high sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal efficiency in the wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This test program was one of six conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate low-capital-cost upgrades to existing FGD systems as a means for utilities to comply with the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. The upgrade option tested at Kintigh was sodium formate additive. Results from the tests were used to calibrate the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) FGD PRocess Integration and Simulation Model (FGDPRISM) to the Kintigh scrubber configuration. FGDPRISM was then used to predict system performance for evaluating conditions other than those tested. An economic evaluation was then done to determine the cost effectiveness of various high-efficiency upgrade options. These costs can be compared with the estimated market value of SO{sub 2} allowance or the expected costs of allowances generated by other means, such as fuel switching or new scrubbers, to arrive at the most cost-effective strategy for Clean Air Act compliance.

  9. Topical anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mritunjay; Chawla, Rajiv; Goyal, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects.

  10. Topical anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mritunjay; Chawla, Rajiv; Goyal, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects. PMID:26702198

  11. Topical Therapy Primer for Nondermatologists.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Jolene R; Myers, Sarah A

    2015-11-01

    A representative assortment of topical therapies is discussed here with the goal of emphasizing the most commonly encountered diagnoses and treatments for nondermatologists. When using topical therapies, carefully consider the proper active ingredient, potency, vehicle, and quantity of medication. If topical therapy is ineffective, question whether the medication is being used properly, whether the diagnosis is correct, and whether the topical may be contributing to the problem. Examples of the topical contributing to the problem include tinea incognito exacerbated by topical steroid use and allergic contact dermatitis to topical steroid excipients. For some patients, even maximum topical therapy is insufficient and systemic treatment is required. At this point, consultation with a dermatologist may be helpful.

  12. Topics for Mathematics Clubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, LeRoy C., Ed.; Snyder, Henry D., Ed.

    The ten chapters in this booklet cover topics not ordinarily discussed in the classroom: Fibonacci sequences, projective geometry, groups, infinity and transfinite numbers, Pascal's Triangle, topology, experiments with natural numbers, non-Euclidean geometries, Boolean algebras, and the imaginary and the infinite in geometry. Each chapter is…

  13. Housing: Topic Paper F.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    This paper, one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, addresses the issue of housing. Major federal responsibilities are to develop additional housing opportunities for persons with disabilities and to assure that currently available housing is equally open to individuals with…

  14. Topical Therapies for Pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Elmariah, Sarina B.; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2011-01-01

    Itch, or pruritus, is the predominant symptom associated with acute and chronic cutaneous disease and in some cases, may be debilitating. To date, there is no single universally effective anti-itch treatment. As the pathophysiology of itch in most cutaneous or systemic disorders remains unclear, anti-pruritic therapy is often directed against a variety of targets, including the epidermal barrier, immune system, or the nervous system. Topical therapy is the mainstay of dermatologic management of acute or localized itch or in patients with contraindications to systemic therapies. This review will summarize current topical therapies to treat pruritus and discuss potential future therapies. PMID:21767774

  15. Topical ketoprofen patch.

    PubMed

    Mazières, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Although oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in the treatment of a variety of acute and chronic pain conditions, their use may be associated with serious systemic adverse effects, particularly gastrointestinal disorders. In order to minimise the incidence of systemic events related to such agents, topical NSAIDs have been developed. Topical NSAIDs, applied as gels, creams or sprays, penetrate the skin, subcutaneous fatty tissue and muscle in amounts that are sufficient to exert a therapeutic effect on peripheral and central mechanisms in the absence of high plasma concentrations. Data indicate that topical NSAIDs are effective at relieving pain in a number of acute and chronic pain indications. This review article discusses the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and tolerability of a new formulation of ketoprofen available as a topical patch. The topical patch containing ketoprofen 100mg as the active principle has been developed using a novel delivery system that dispenses therapeutic doses of the drug directly to the site of injury. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that although plasma levels of ketoprofen are higher when the drug is administered as a patch versus a gel, the total systemic bioavailability of ketoprofen 100 mg administered via a patch is no more than 10% of that reported for ketoprofen 100 mg administered orally. Because the patch facilitates ketoprofen delivery over a 24-hour period, the drug remains continually present in the tissue subjacent to the site of application. High tissue but low plasma ketoprofen concentrations mean that while tissue concentrations are high enough to exert a therapeutic effect, plasma concentrations remain low enough to not result in systemic adverse events caused by elevated serum NSAID levels. Phase III clinical trials in patients with non-articular rheumatism and traumatic painful soft tissue injuries showed that the topical ketoprofen patch was significantly more effective than placebo at

  16. Topical vitamins.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Cheryl

    2008-07-01

    Vitamins are a natural constituent of human skin and are part of a system of antioxidants that protect the skin from oxidative stress. There has been an increased interest in the use of natural antioxidants such as vitamins to help restore dermal antioxidant activity. Vitamins A, C, E, and B3 have been shown to have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but to achieve optimal effectiveness, products must be delivered in appropriate formulations. Products containing alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), retinol (vitamin A), and niacinamide (vitamin B3), are effective for the treatment of photoaging. These compounds have also shown effectiveness in the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, acne, and pigmentation disorders and wound healing. There is emerging evidence that combinations of vitamins have additive effects that provide enhanced efficacy compared with individual compounds.

  17. Topical diphenhydramine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, D T

    1991-08-01

    This paper will review an acute onset of mental confusion associated with hallucinations secondary to vigorous administration of topical Caladryl lotion and Benadryl spray in an 8-year-old boy with chickenpox. The article discusses the toxicity of both oral and topical diphenhydramine use, along with the differentiation of varicella encephalitis from diphenhydramine toxicity. Delirium can be described as an acute clouding of consciousness associated with visual and tactile hallucinations, disorientation, and misperceptions. In a child who is already suffering from an infectious illness, encephalitis must be high on the list of the physician's differential diagnosis. The physician, however, must never overlook ingestions, even from topical, over-the-counter medications. The case described illustrates this point. Although this appears to be the fourth case report on this subject, the diagnosis was partially obscured by the fact that the local pharmacist could not find any documented cases despite a computer search of diphenhydramine toxicity at the time of admission and the report of only one or two cases by the Parke-Davis pharmacist.

  18. Viral vaccines: selected topics.

    PubMed

    Kańtoch, M

    1996-01-01

    Significant role of viruses in pathology, their dominating position in etiology of infectious diseases point at the special position of active prophylactic procedures based on vaccination. The real role and value of viral vaccines of classic and modern generations, the limitation of immune potency in suppression of defence mechanisms, some problems of immunization against virus vertical transmission are presented in the paper. The reader may find tables which cumulate selected but significant patterns of viral vaccines and vaccinations, and selected papers devoted to topics discussed. PMID:9017153

  19. Novel topical therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Bleier, Benjamin S

    2010-06-01

    Intranasal drug delivery is a rapidly growing field that offers the potential for enhanced treatment of local and systemic disease. Novel preclinical screening tools such as in vitro assays and 3-dimensional imaging are currently being used to improve drug design and delivery. In addition, new evidence has emerged underlining the importance of surgical marsupialization of the sinuses to allow for improved topical delivery. Although multiple barriers to administration and absorption exist, implantable therapeutics using new classes of drug-eluting polymers allow for prolonged, site-specific drug delivery and hold great promise in overcoming these obstacles.

  20. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  1. Discussion Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, William T.

    1984-01-01

    Discussion done right is a marvelous tool for teaching and learning. Suggestions to help teachers improve classroom discussions are presented. Many of the suggestions are based on William S. Howell's and Donald K. Smith's book "Discussion." (RM)

  2. Application of Nail Polish During Topical Management of Onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Del Rosso, James Q.

    2016-01-01

    Topical antifungal management of toenail onychomycosis has been fraught with several therapeutic challenges including difficulty gaining access to the site of infection and the need for prolonged durations of therapy. In addition, there has been a marked lack of information on the impact of toenail polish application on drug penetration after application. This article reviews available data from studies evaluating the effect of nail polish on antifungal drag penetration using ex vivo laboratory models with cadaver fingernail plates with both tavaborole 5% solution and efinaconazole 10% solution. In addition, changes in nail polish appearance and color transfer to applicators are also discussed, with changes noted with topical efinaconazole. Importantly, there are no data on whether or not nail polish application alters the efficacy of these topical agents.

  3. Application of Nail Polish During Topical Management of Onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Del Rosso, James Q.

    2016-01-01

    Topical antifungal management of toenail onychomycosis has been fraught with several therapeutic challenges including difficulty gaining access to the site of infection and the need for prolonged durations of therapy. In addition, there has been a marked lack of information on the impact of toenail polish application on drug penetration after application. This article reviews available data from studies evaluating the effect of nail polish on antifungal drag penetration using ex vivo laboratory models with cadaver fingernail plates with both tavaborole 5% solution and efinaconazole 10% solution. In addition, changes in nail polish appearance and color transfer to applicators are also discussed, with changes noted with topical efinaconazole. Importantly, there are no data on whether or not nail polish application alters the efficacy of these topical agents. PMID:27672416

  4. Current Topics in Epilepsy Surgery

    PubMed Central

    USUI, Naotaka

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the current topics in the field of epilepsy surgery. Each type of epilepsy is associated with a different set of questions and goals. In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with hippocampal sclerosis (HS), postoperative seizure outcome is satisfactory. A recent meta-analysis revealed superior seizure outcome after anterior temporal lobectomy compared with selective amygdalohippocampectomy; in terms of cognitive outcome; however, amygdalohippocampectomy may be beneficial. In temporal lobe epilepsy with normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), postoperative seizure outcome is not as favorable as it is in MTLE with HS; further improvement of seizure outcome in these cases is necessary. Focal cortical dysplasia is the most common substrate in intractable neocortical epilepsy, especially in children, as well as in MRI-invisible neocortical epilepsy. Postoperative seizure-free outcome is approximately 60–70%; further diagnostic and therapeutic improvement is required. Regarding diagnostic methodology, an important topic currently under discussion is wideband electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis. Although high-frequency oscillations and ictal direct current shifts are considered important markers of epileptogenic zones, the clinical significance of these findings should be clarified further. Regarding alternatives to surgery, neuromodulation therapy can be an option for patients who are not amenable to resective surgery. In addition to vagus nerve stimulation, intracranial stimulation such as responsive neurostimulation or anterior thalamic stimulation is reported to have a modest seizure suppression effect. Postoperative management such as rehabilitation and antiepileptic drug (AED) management is important. It has been reported that postoperative rehabilitation improves postoperative employment status. Pre- and post-operative comprehensive care is mandatory for postoperative improvement of quality of life. PMID:26984452

  5. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    Sascha Wallentowitz), 2004 (Trieste, Italy, by Naseem Rahman and Sascha Wallentowitz), 2005 (Bilkent, Ankara, by Alexander Shumovsky), 2006 (Vienna, by Helmut Rauch), 2007 (Palermo, Italy, by Antonino Messina) and 2008 (Belgrade, by Mirjana Bozic). The CEWQO series developed in two directions following the rapid development of quantum optics and the transitional development of the scientific collaboration of Central European researchers with researchers from old and new emerging Central European countries, and from all over the world. The topics discussed at CEWQO 08 were divided into ten groups that aimed to cover the broad scope of modern quantum optics: Fundamental aspects of quantum optics and quantum mechanics Single photons and photon pairs Cavity and circuit QED Atoms in intense fields Neutron, atom and molecular quantum optics Quantum gases and fluids Coherence, entanglement and decoherence Optical properties of condensed matter and nanostructures Open quantum systems and chaos Quantum information processing Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics realize and are consistent with a wider idea, and a social, economical, cultural and political program promoted since 1989 by the Central European Initiative (CEI), the main goal of which was to help transition countries in Central Europe to become closer to the EU. The resulting support of the CEI, first obtained thanks to the scientific reputation, organizing activities, and efforts of Helmut Rauch, has been very important for the organization of the CEWQO in recent years, particularly in 2008. The support of the Sixth and Seventh Framework Programs of the European Commission was also very important. A short review of papers in this topical issue A principal role in this topical issue is played by the photon. Vuletic et al describe the mapping of the photon-polarization state onto a single collective-spin excitation (magnon) shared between two atomic ensembles. A heralded quantum memory based on this mapping is

  6. Scored Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, John

    1992-01-01

    Suggests a classroom strategy to help students learn to analyze and discuss significant issues from history and current policy debates. Describes scored discussions in which small groups of students receive points for participation. Provides an example of a discussion on gold mining. Includes an agenda. Explores uses of scored discussions and…

  7. Topics in Biomedical Optics: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebden, Jeremy C.; Boas, David A.; George, John S.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2003-06-01

    The field of biomedical optics is experiencing tremendous growth. Biomedical technologies contribute in the creation of devices used in healthcare of various specialties (ophthalmology, cardiology, anesthesiology, and immunology, etc.). Recent research in biomedical optics is discussed. Overviews of meetings held at the 2002 Optical Society of America Biomedical Topical Meetings are presented.

  8. Seven topics in perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Buras, A.J.

    1980-09-01

    The following topics of perturbative QCD are discussed: (1) deep inelastic scattering; (2) higher order corrections to e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, to photon structure functions and to quarkonia decays; (3) higher order corrections to fragmentation functions and to various semi-inclusive processes; (4) higher twist contributions; (5) exclusive processes; (6) transverse momentum effects; (7) jet and photon physics.

  9. Freshman Health Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovde, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.…

  10. Topics in cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Olin, S S; Neumann, D A; Foran, J A; Scarano, G J

    1997-01-01

    The estimation of carcinogenic risks from exposure to chemicals has become an integral part of the regulatory process in the United States within the past decade. With it have come considerable controversy and debate over the scientific merits and shortcomings of the methods and their impact on risk management decisions. In this paper we highlight selected topics of current interest in the debate. As an indication of the level of public concern, we note the major recent reports on risk assessment from the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S Environmental Protection Agency's proposed substantial revisions to its Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. We identify and briefly frame several key scientific issues in cancer risk assessment, including the growing recognition of the importance of understanding the mode of action of carcinogenesis in experimental animals and in humans, the methodologies and challenges in quantitative extrapolation of cancer risks, and the question of how to assess and account for human variability in susceptibility to carcinogens. In addition, we discuss initiatives in progress that may fundamentally alter the carcinogenesis testing paradigm. PMID:9114281

  11. Public understanding of geoscientific topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, Ute; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2014-05-01

    Geoscientific topics and their consequences for the society are becoming more and more important for our daily life. Natural hazards such as flood and storm or the consequences of the climate change are urgent tasks and great challenges we have to tackle. Cascading natural hazards or environmental risks, can't be evaluated as single events by one scientific discipline, they rather need the expertise of different experts. The same applies for slowly progressive processes such as the climate change and its different aftereffects. More than ever politicians, decision makers, but also the public are asking for comprehensive background information and data to discuss activity options and to develop sustainable solutions. The improvement of public knowledge about science, their assets and drawbacks, chances and risks is getting crucial. To paint a comprehensive picture of different factors, correlations and dependencies the pooling of expertise is required. Thus eight research centres of the research field "Earth and Environment" of the Helmholtz-Association, Germany's largest scientific research organisation are currently building up a knowledge platform. Scientists of different disciplines will provide background information and explain their latest findings in an understandable way. Infographics, maps and animations will be applied to simplify and interpret complicated facts and findings. In addition to the web presence target group-specific products and activities will be organized. To meet the expectations of the different stakeholders an intensive dialog is aspired: round table discussions, exhibitions in museums and public places, tweeds are envisaged. In the beginning the partners will concentrate on the topics "consequences of the climate change", "pollutant dispersion" and "natural hazards/meteorological extreme events". The project is called Earth System Knowledge Platform (ESKP) coordinated by the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) and the Helmholtz

  12. Critical review of topical management of oral hairy leukoplakia.

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, Cláudia B; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Ng; Mesquita, Ricardo A

    2014-07-16

    Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is a disease associated with Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus infections. OHL is usually an asymptomatic lesion, but in some cases treatment is recommended to reestablish the normal characteristics of the tongue, to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms, to improve patient comfort and for cosmetic reasons. Proposed treatments for this condition include surgery, systemic antiviral treatment and topical management. Topical treatment is an inexpensive and safe therapy that is easy to apply, noninvasive, free of systemic adverse effects and effective over a long period of time. The aim of this study was to present a review of the literature for topical therapy for OHL. Gentian violet, retinoids, podophyllin, acyclovir and podophyllin associated with topical antiviral drugs were used to treat OHL. Reports with this focus are limited, and since 2010, no new studies have been published that discuss the efficacy of topical treatments for OHL. Podophyllin with acyclovir cream was found to be effective, causing regression of lesions with no recurrences. Additional searches are necessary to provide clinical evidence of topical management effectiveness. PMID:25032199

  13. Major research topics in combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hussaini, M.Y.; Kumar, A.; Voigt, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) and NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) hosted a workshop on October 2--4, 1989 to discuss some combustion problems of technological interest to LaRC and to foster interaction with the academic community in these research areas. The topics chosen for this purpose were flame structure, flame holding/extinction, chemical kinetics, turbulence-kinetics interaction, transition to detonation, and reacting free shear layers. This document contains the papers and edited versions of general discussions on these topics. The lead paper set the stage for the meeting by discussing the status and issues of supersonic combustion relevant to the scramjet engine. Experts were then called upon to review the current knowledge in the aforementioned areas, to focus on how this knowledge can be extended and applied to high-speed combustion, and to suggest future directions of research in these areas.

  14. Reframing Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Recitations and discussions are two types of interactions which have long been of interest to researchers who study classroom discourse in secondary English and Social Studies. According to research, teachers control the discourse during recitations through "inauthentic" questions requiring pre-specified answers. In contrast, discussions involve…

  15. Haloprogin: a Topical Antifungal Agent

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, E. F.; Zwadyk, P.; Bequette, R. J.; Hamlow, E. E.; Tavormina, P. A.; Zygmunt, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Haloprogin was shown to be a highly effective agent for the treatment of experimentally induced topical mycotic infections in guinea pigs. Its in vitro spectrum of activity also includes yeasts, yeastlike fungi (Candida species), and certain gram-positive bacteria. The in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of haloprogin against dermatophytes was equal to that observed with tolnaftate. The striking differences between the two agents were the marked antimonilial and selective antibacterial activities shown by haloprogin, contrasted with the negligible activities found with tolnaftate. Addition of serum decreased the in vitro antifungal activity of haloprogin to a greater extent than that of tolnaftate; however, diminished antifungal activity was not observed when haloprogin was applied topically to experimental dermatophytic infections. Based on its broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, haloprogin may prove to be a superior topical agent in the treatment of dermatophytic and monilial infections in man. PMID:5422306

  16. Discussion series on PURPA related topics: information to customers

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgeon, J I

    1980-08-01

    This volume relates primarily to Time-of-Day rates standard, PURPA IB(d)3, and deals with the content and methods of providing rate and conservation information to customers when Time-of-Day rates are used. Information to customers in the Demonstration and Pilot Projects fell mainly into four categories: administrative communications; explanations of new rate structures; information and advice on load management; and facts, recommendations and encouragements about energy conservation and end-use improvement. Administrative communications were about such matters as the existence of Projects, their funding, their periods of performance, the selection of their test customers, conditions of participation, procedural changes during the tests, and the time and conditions of ending the tests. These communications were important to good customer cooperation. All Demonstration Projects devoted considerable effort to the crucial task of clearly explaining the rationale of Time-of-Use (TOU) pricing and the test rate structures. The Projects then presented the concept of TOU pricing as a means of (a) fairly charging customers the true cost of their electricity and (b) rewarding them for shifting consumption to times when costs are less. For the most part, Demonstration Projects gave specific information on the individual customer's own rate structure and none on any others that were under test. The information was presented in face-to-face interviews, group presentations, television, radio, and print media, and traveling exhibits. The results are evaluated. (LCL)

  17. The Beginning of Life. A Topic Worthy of Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Delineates four compelling reasons for placing bioethical issues, including abortion, in a curricular context. These include linking ethics and civics, preparing informed decision makers, public debate, and studying the future today. Includes activities and questions designed to provide students with a conceptual focus. (MJP)

  18. Laboratory and field evaluation of formulated Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis as a feed additive and using topical applications for control of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae in caged-poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Mwamburi, L A; Laing, M D; Miller, R

    2011-02-01

    Infestations of house flies, Musca domestica L., are a continual problem around poultry establishments. Acute toxicity of two commercial Bacillus thuringiensis variety israelensis (Bti) formulations (water-dispersible granules and bran formulation) was evaluated against larvae in the laboratory and against natural populations of M. domestica larvae in the field applied in feed to chickens and as topical applications in the poultry houses. Bioassay data showed that susceptibility of M. domestica larvae increased to a given concentration of Bti as the duration of exposure increased. In the laboratory studies, the LC(50) values of Bti for the larvae ranged between 65 and 77.4 μg/ml. In the field, a concentration of 10 g Bti/kg of feed resulted in 90% reduction of larvae at 4 wk after treatment. A higher concentration (2 g/liter) of Bti in spray applications was not significantly more effective than the lower concentration of 1 g/liter. Adding Bti to chicken feed is potentially an efficient measure for the management and control of house flies in caged-poultry facilities. PMID:22182611

  19. Laboratory and field evaluation of formulated Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis as a feed additive and using topical applications for control of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae in caged-poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Mwamburi, L A; Laing, M D; Miller, R

    2011-02-01

    Infestations of house flies, Musca domestica L., are a continual problem around poultry establishments. Acute toxicity of two commercial Bacillus thuringiensis variety israelensis (Bti) formulations (water-dispersible granules and bran formulation) was evaluated against larvae in the laboratory and against natural populations of M. domestica larvae in the field applied in feed to chickens and as topical applications in the poultry houses. Bioassay data showed that susceptibility of M. domestica larvae increased to a given concentration of Bti as the duration of exposure increased. In the laboratory studies, the LC(50) values of Bti for the larvae ranged between 65 and 77.4 μg/ml. In the field, a concentration of 10 g Bti/kg of feed resulted in 90% reduction of larvae at 4 wk after treatment. A higher concentration (2 g/liter) of Bti in spray applications was not significantly more effective than the lower concentration of 1 g/liter. Adding Bti to chicken feed is potentially an efficient measure for the management and control of house flies in caged-poultry facilities.

  20. Ubiquitous Discussion Forum: Introducing Mobile Phones and Voice Discussion into a Web Discussion Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Fu-Hsiang; Chen, Gwo-Dong; Wang, Chin-Yeh; Li, Liang-Yi

    2007-01-01

    Web-based discussion forums enable users to share knowledge in straightforward and popular platforms. However, discussion forums have several problems, such as the lack of immediate delivery and response, the heavily text-based medium, inability to hear expressions of voice and the heuristically created discussion topics which can impede the…

  1. Topical pharmacology of imidazole antifungals.

    PubMed

    Holt, R J

    1976-01-01

    Four imidazole derivatives have now undergone extensive open and comparative trials as topical agents in dermatomycoses and vaginal candidosis. They are chlormidazole (Chemie Grünenthal), clotrimazole (Bayer), miconazole (Janssen) and econazole (Janssen, Cilag-Chemie); all also have some antibacterial activity. Many other imidazoles have been marketed, usually as antiprotozoal or anthelminthic agents, and some of these have some antimycotic activity as well as other miscellaneous therapeutic properties. The mode of action of imidazole antimycotic agents is discussed; after prolonged topical application to animals and human subjects, systemic absorption is negligible. All four agents which are available as cream, powder, lotion or vaginal tablets have many sucessful studies to their credit, often with clinical and mycological cure rates of over 80% in a variety of dermatomycoses and in vaginal candidosis. The relative value of these topical agents is discussed, and it is suggested that in severe and extensive dermatomycoses consideration should be given to the systemic use of miconazole in support of topical therapy.

  2. Individualized additional instruction for calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Ken

    2010-10-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the student's performance. Our study compares two calculus classes, one taught with mandatory remedial IAI and the other without. The class with mandatory remedial IAI did significantly better on comprehensive multiple-choice exams, participated more frequently in classroom discussion and showed greater interest in theorem-proving and other advanced topics.

  3. [Topical therapy of rosacea].

    PubMed

    Schöfer, H

    2013-07-01

    Metronidazole and azelaic acid are the only topical medications approved for rosacea. All other topical treatments for rosacea and its special forms are used off-label. Topical steroids are not indicated in rosacea, because of their side effects (induction of steroid rosacea, high risk of facial skin atrophy, and high risk of rebound after cessation of therapy). Topical as well as systemic steroids are allowed only as initial and short term therapy for acute forms of rosacea (e.g. rosacea fulminans). Papular and pustular rosacea is the major indication for topical therapy. Sebaceous gland and connective tissue hyperplasia in glandular-hypertrophic rosacea as well as erythema in erythematous rosacea do not respond well to topical measures. A new active substance, the alpha-2-adrenoreceptor agonist brimonidine, will be approved soon for the topical treatment of erythema in rosacea. All severe forms of rosacea should initially be treated with a combination of topical and systemic agents. After improvement of the clinical symptoms, topical treatment alone is usually adequate to maintain the control.

  4. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail. PMID:26991442

  5. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail. PMID:26991442

  6. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail.

  7. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    Sascha Wallentowitz), 2004 (Trieste, Italy, by Naseem Rahman and Sascha Wallentowitz), 2005 (Bilkent, Ankara, by Alexander Shumovsky), 2006 (Vienna, by Helmut Rauch), 2007 (Palermo, Italy, by Antonino Messina) and 2008 (Belgrade, by Mirjana Bozic). The CEWQO series developed in two directions following the rapid development of quantum optics and the transitional development of the scientific collaboration of Central European researchers with researchers from old and new emerging Central European countries, and from all over the world. The topics discussed at CEWQO 08 were divided into ten groups that aimed to cover the broad scope of modern quantum optics: Fundamental aspects of quantum optics and quantum mechanics Single photons and photon pairs Cavity and circuit QED Atoms in intense fields Neutron, atom and molecular quantum optics Quantum gases and fluids Coherence, entanglement and decoherence Optical properties of condensed matter and nanostructures Open quantum systems and chaos Quantum information processing Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics realize and are consistent with a wider idea, and a social, economical, cultural and political program promoted since 1989 by the Central European Initiative (CEI), the main goal of which was to help transition countries in Central Europe to become closer to the EU. The resulting support of the CEI, first obtained thanks to the scientific reputation, organizing activities, and efforts of Helmut Rauch, has been very important for the organization of the CEWQO in recent years, particularly in 2008. The support of the Sixth and Seventh Framework Programs of the European Commission was also very important. A short review of papers in this topical issue A principal role in this topical issue is played by the photon. Vuletic et al describe the mapping of the photon-polarization state onto a single collective-spin excitation (magnon) shared between two atomic ensembles. A heralded quantum memory based on this mapping is

  8. Developing Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloch, Beth; Bomer, Randy

    2012-01-01

    Researchers and educators have long argued for the importance of providing time and space for rich conversations around literature. This column draws on research to consider how teachers make room for these discussions inside their classrooms. Particularly, the authors consider different dimensions along which teachers might examine and grow…

  9. Instructional Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyquist, Jody

    Instructional discussion is a classroom teaching method by which students move through material to a predetermined, new understanding by building on each other's contributions and by utilizing the more experienced learner's (the teacher's) past experiences with the material. This article describes both the characteristics and the planning of…

  10. Risky Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Julian; Jacobs, Neil

    2006-01-01

    This article considers a hypothetical decision by a hypothetical learner about whether or not to participate in an online "discussion", viewed through the lens of risk analysis. It begins with the premise that participation online is desirable but that it involves the participant in risk, a fact that needs to be acknowledged and taken into account…

  11. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat skin conditions that involve scaling or overgrowth of skin ... water for 15 minutes.Do not apply topical salicylic acid to skin that is broken, red, swollen, irritated, or infected. ...

  12. Itch Management: Topical Agents.

    PubMed

    Metz, Martin; Staubach, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pruritus is a common problem in patients with inflammatory skin diseases as well as in subjects with dry or sensitive skin. Regardless of the underlying cause of the pruritus, a topical therapy is not only useful but most often necessary to achieve symptom control. A good topical therapy should fulfill different functions. An optimal basic therapy based on the condition of the skin is important to repair epithelial barrier defects and to rehydrate the skin. An adequate disease-specific topical therapy is crucial for inflamed skin, e.g. anti-inflammatory topical therapy is an important part in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Finally, the use of specific antipruritic substances can help to improve pruritus in patients irrespective of the underlying disease. Here, we summarize topical agents used in the treatment of chronic pruritus. PMID:27578070

  13. Topical diclofenac solution.

    PubMed

    Moen, Marit D

    2009-01-01

    Topical diclofenac solution (Pennsaid) is a liquid formulation containing the NSAID diclofenac sodium (1.5% w/w). The solution base contains 45% w/w dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to enhance the absorption of diclofenac through the skin. Topical diclofenac solution is applied directly to the knee for treatment of symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. In well designed 4- to 12-week trials in patients with primary osteoarthritis of the knee, topical diclofenac solution (40 drops four times daily) was significantly more effective than placebo or vehicle control (carrier solution without diclofenac) for improving Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index pain and physical function, and improving patient global assessment (PGA) and/or patient overall health assessment scores from baseline to the final assessments. Topical diclofenac solution (50 drops three times daily) was as effective as oral diclofenac 150 mg/day for improving WOMAC pain and physical function and PGA scores in a 12-week double-blind study in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Topical diclofenac solution was generally well tolerated. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event experienced by topical diclofenac solution recipients was dry skin at the application site. Gastrointestinal adverse events and abnormal laboratory parameters were less common with topical diclofenac solution than with oral diclofenac. PMID:19943711

  14. Topical diclofenac solution.

    PubMed

    Moen, Marit D

    2009-01-01

    Topical diclofenac solution (Pennsaid) is a liquid formulation containing the NSAID diclofenac sodium (1.5% w/w). The solution base contains 45% w/w dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to enhance the absorption of diclofenac through the skin. Topical diclofenac solution is applied directly to the knee for treatment of symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. In well designed 4- to 12-week trials in patients with primary osteoarthritis of the knee, topical diclofenac solution (40 drops four times daily) was significantly more effective than placebo or vehicle control (carrier solution without diclofenac) for improving Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index pain and physical function, and improving patient global assessment (PGA) and/or patient overall health assessment scores from baseline to the final assessments. Topical diclofenac solution (50 drops three times daily) was as effective as oral diclofenac 150 mg/day for improving WOMAC pain and physical function and PGA scores in a 12-week double-blind study in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Topical diclofenac solution was generally well tolerated. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event experienced by topical diclofenac solution recipients was dry skin at the application site. Gastrointestinal adverse events and abnormal laboratory parameters were less common with topical diclofenac solution than with oral diclofenac.

  15. Topics in b-physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1988-09-01

    We discuss a few issues in the burgeoning field of physics of hadrons containing the b-quark. These include: A simple parameterization of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix featuring a triangle in the complex plane, a review of B/sub s/ and B/sub d/ mixing with special attention given to width-mixing and the CP-violating same-sign dilepton asymmetry, a discussion of the CP-violating decay B/sub d/ ..-->.. /psi/..pi../sup +/..pi../sup /minus//, and a discussion of Cp-violating rate asymmetries in the two-body decays ..lambda../sub b/ ..-->.. p..pi../sup /minus// and ..lambda../sub b/ ..-->.. pK/sup /minus//. The concluding discussion concerns generalizations beyond these specific topics. 22 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Orlando 2006: plastic surgeons rate the "Hot Topics".

    PubMed

    Gryskiewicz, Joe M; Adams, William P

    2006-01-01

    During the "Hot Topics" seminar at The Aesthetic Meeting 2006, authors polled participants to gain insight into how plastic surgeons evaluate current hot topics. Here are the results as well as the authors' notes on additional presentations.

  17. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  18. Women's Health Topics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Women's Health 10903 New Hampshire Avenue WO32-2333 Silver Spring, MD 20993 More in Women's Health Topics ... Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1- ...

  19. The pharmacology of topical analgesics.

    PubMed

    Barkin, Robert L

    2013-07-01

    Pain management of patients continues to pose challenges to clinicians. Given the multiple dimensions of pain--whether acute or chronic, mild, moderate, or severe, nociceptive or neuropathic--a multimodal approach may be needed. Fortunately, clinicians have an array of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment choices; however, each modality must be chosen carefully, because some often used oral agents are associated with safety and tolerability issues that restrict their use in certain patients. In particular, orally administered nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, opioids, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants are known to cause systemic adverse effects in some patients. To address this problem, a number of topical therapies in various therapeutic classes have been developed to reduce systemic exposure and minimize the risks of patients developing adverse events. For example, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug formulations produce a site-specific effect (ie, cyclo-oxygenase inhibition) while decreasing the systemic exposure that may lead to undesired effects in patients. Similarly, derivatives of acetylsalicylic acid (ie, salicylates) are used in topical analgesic formulations that do not significantly enter the patient's systemic circulation. Salicylates, along with capsaicin, menthol, and camphor, compose the counterirritant class of topical analgesics, which produce analgesia by activating and then desensitizing epidermal nociceptors. Additionally, patches and creams that contain the local anesthetic lidocaine, alone or co-formulated with other local anesthetics, are also used to manage patients with select acute and chronic pain states. Perhaps the most common topical analgesic modality is the cautious application of cutaneous cold and heat. Such treatments may decrease pain not by reaching the target tissue through systemic distribution, but by acting more directly on the affected tissue. Despite the tolerability benefits associated with avoiding

  20. IP Internal Movement and Topicalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Pei-Jung

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate the phenomenon of internal topicalization cross-linguistically, using Chinese as a starting point. Internal topicalization refers to constructions in which a topic phrase is placed between the subject and the verb (in contrast to external topicalization, which involves a topic in the CP domain). I argue that…

  1. Topics for Mathematics Clubs. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, LeRoy C., Ed.; Snyder, Henry D., Ed.

    One of the main purposes of a mathematics club is to provide the opportunity for students to study exciting topics in mathematics not ordinarily discussed in the classroom. Each of the 10 chapters in this booklet is a collection of related subtopics. Each idea is presented and discussed; bibliographies then suggest in-depth reading. The chapters…

  2. Topics in landing gear dynamics research at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomb, H. G., Jr.; Tanner, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Four topics in landing gear dynamics are discussed. Three of these topics are subjects of recent research: tilt steering phenomenon, water spray ingestion on flooded runways, and actively controlled landing gear. The fourth topic is a description of a major facility recently enhanced in capability.

  3. Additional applications and related topics, chapter 4, part B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Satellite mounted microwave instruments and their use to measure surface pressure are investigated. Data cover instrument accuracy, atmospheric transmission, and meteorological parameter determinations.

  4. Selected topics of fluid mechanics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindsvater, Carl E.

    1958-01-01

    the Euler, Froude, Reynolds, Weber, and Cauchy numbers are defined as essential tools for interpreting and using experimental data. The derivations of the energy and momentum equations are treated in detail. One-dimensional equations for steady nonuniform flow are developed, and the restrictions applicable to the equations are emphasized. Conditions of uniform and gradually varied flow are discussed, and the origin of the Chezy equation is examined in relation to both the energy and the momentum equations. The inadequacy of all uniform-flow equations as a means of describing gradually varied flow is explained. Thus, one of the definitive problems of river hydraulics is analyzed in the light of present knowledge. This report is the outgrowth of a series of short schools conducted during the spring and summer of 1953 for engineers of the Surface Water Branch, Water Resources Division, U. S. Geological Survey. The topics considered are essentially the same as the topics selected for inclusion in the schools. However, in order that they might serve better as a guide and outline for informal study, the arrangement of the writer's original lecture notes has been considerably altered. The purpose of the report, like the purpose of the schools which inspired it, is to build a simple but strong framework of the fundamentals of fluid mechanics. It is believed that this framework is capable of supporting a detailed analysis of most of the practical problems met by the engineers of the Geological Survey. It is hoped that the least accomplishment of this work will be to inspire the reader with the confidence and desire to read more of the recent and current technical literature of modern fluid mechanics.

  5. Transportation: Topic Paper E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    As one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, this paper reviews the issue of transportation services. In the area of urban mass transit, four relevant pieces of legislation and public transportation accessibility regulations are cited, and cost issues are explored. Paratransit systems,…

  6. Topical Research: Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  7. Differential Topic Models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changyou; Buntine, Wray; Ding, Nan; Xie, Lexing; Du, Lan

    2015-02-01

    In applications we may want to compare different document collections: they could have shared content but also different and unique aspects in particular collections. This task has been called comparative text mining or cross-collection modeling. We present a differential topic model for this application that models both topic differences and similarities. For this we use hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric models. Moreover, we found it was important to properly model power-law phenomena in topic-word distributions and thus we used the full Pitman-Yor process rather than just a Dirichlet process. Furthermore, we propose the transformed Pitman-Yor process (TPYP) to incorporate prior knowledge such as vocabulary variations in different collections into the model. To deal with the non-conjugate issue between model prior and likelihood in the TPYP, we thus propose an efficient sampling algorithm using a data augmentation technique based on the multinomial theorem. Experimental results show the model discovers interesting aspects of different collections. We also show the proposed MCMC based algorithm achieves a dramatically reduced test perplexity compared to some existing topic models. Finally, we show our model outperforms the state-of-the-art for document classification/ideology prediction on a number of text collections. PMID:26353238

  8. Five Discussions on Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobe, E. R., Ed.

    Topics discussed are: (1) student aid and access to postsecondary education (Jack L. Woodward); (2) values in athletics (Grant Dungee); (3) some considerations in planning for postsecondary education (Paul G. Orr); (4) the open university as a challenge for postsecondary education in Mississippi (Cleopatra D. Thompson); and (5) comprehensive…

  9. The Effects of Self-Confrontation via TV and of Additional Training Components: Group Discussion, Discrimination Training, and Practice in a Scaled-Down Situation on the Indirectness of Teacher Trainees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinzing, Hans Gerhard; Klinzing-Eurich, Gisela

    Four experimental studies were conducted to assess the differences in effectiveness of self-confrontation via TV when used exclusively and in combination with group discussion, discrimination training (training in the use of interaction analysis), and practice in a scaled-down situation (peerteaching) on "the indirectness" of future secondary…

  10. Chaos: a topic for interdisciplinary education in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Saebyok

    2009-07-01

    Since society and science need interdisciplinary works, the interesting topic of chaos is chosen for interdisciplinary education in physics. The educational programme contains various university-level activities such as computer simulations, chaos experiment and team projects besides ordinary teaching. According to the participants, the programme seems useful and good. In addition, we discuss some issues which can be important to interdisciplinary education in physics: for example the possible difficulties in programme design, the expertise barriers of non-major fields, the role of non-theoretical education in understanding and the project-type team activities.

  11. EMLA-induced methemoglobinemia and systemic topical anesthetic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hahn, In-Hei; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S

    2004-01-01

    This case report illustrates an adult presenting with the simultaneous occurrence of both methemoglobinemia (MetHb) and systemic toxicity from the topical application of local anesthetics while undergoing laser epilation therapy of the legs. The concurrent development of both is considered uncommon in this setting and may have been related to several factors, including her recent previous treatment, increased absorption secondary to abraded skin with the addition of occlusive dressing, and possible alteration of protein binding and drug metabolism due to the use of medications. The clinical manifestations and mechanisms of MetHb and systemic local anesthetic toxicity are discussed.

  12. Discussion Forum for Technical Codes Users

    SciTech Connect

    Kaspar, Bryce P.; Dillon, Heather E.

    2006-03-30

    One goal of the Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) is to provide useful, easy to understand information about the national energy codes. A forum where users could ask for, and receive clarification on these codes and software from other users would allow the Energy codes project to reach and instruct a broader audience for a modest resource cost. The forum proposed would be a staff moderated discussion board where staff would post topics, and users would post discussion of those topics, with staff joining in to the discussions. The forum would be moderated by staff members, to remove objectionable and irrelevant postings, and to answer any technical questions that arise. The topics and discussions would be archived and searchable to allow users to answer their own questions, if they pertain to a previously discussed topic.

  13. Topical urea in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, P K; Choudhury, A K; Panja, S K

    1990-03-01

    For years research has been conducted to find a cutaneous moisturizer that is effective, easily available and relatively inexpensive urea, as a atopical agent, is all of this and is also a mild keratolytic. A trial was conducted over 200 patients suffering from a variety of disorders that were selected and using urea topically as urea 10 (10%), urea-20 lotion (20%), Urea-HC (with hydrocartisanl). The agent was applied twice daily for a maximum period of 8 weeks. Results indicate that urea is an effective moisturizer and in promotes the penetration of hydrocelisone into the skin.

  14. Topically induced diphenhydramine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Reilly, J F; Weisse, M E

    1990-01-01

    We report the case of a 2 1/2-year-old child who manifested acute anticholinergic toxicity after the applications of a topical calamine-antihistamine lotion. This mechanism of diphenhydramine toxicity is uncommon, with only a few other case reports noted in the literature. This case is also intriguing in that this child had an underlying varicella illness with fever that tended to obscure the picture. This report describes the characteristic history and physical examination pertinent to anticholinergic toxicity, varicella complication considerations, and case management.

  15. Recent topics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Y

    1996-08-01

    In Japan, the concern about ethical issues in preventive medicine, especially in epidemiological investigation, has been gradually increasing in recent years. In this paper I introduce the following four topics: 1. privacy protection and the computer, 2. informed consent and publication, 3. the attitudes toward ethics among epidemiologists, 4. the attitudes toward epidemiological investigation among examinees. In my opinion, Japanese epidemiologists should give more attention to general ethical principles (Respect for persons, Beneficence) and to the practical methods to apply them in their research works.

  16. Topical chlormethine hydrochloride causing bullous reaction.

    PubMed

    Ngai, Ka Yan; Chan, Ho Yin; Ng, Fu

    2009-09-01

    We describe a woman misusing chlormethine hydrochloride lotion for vitiligo with dermatological complications of local urticarial and bullous reactions. Presentations, complications, and management of topical chlormethine hydrochloride overdose are discussed. Surface decontamination and follow-up for potential complications are major treatments.

  17. Space Perception: A Topic of Interdisciplinary Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramm, Kenneth R.; Kramm, Deborah A.

    1977-01-01

    Presents space perception as an important interdisciplinary topic. A unit on space perception in a senior-level animal behavior course is described. The unit is introduced with a survey of how the students describe areas around them. The survey is followed by a discussion on personal space. (HM)

  18. Topics in physico-chemical hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Sivashinsky, G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: theory of turbulent flame speed; flame extinction by periodic flow-field; influence of swirl on the structure and extinction of premixed flames; propagation and extinction of nonsteady spherical flame fronts; geometrically invariant formulation of intrinsic dynamics of premixed flames; nonlinear dynamics of oscillatory regime of premixed combustion; and pattern formation in premixed flames. (LSP)

  19. Continuing the Discussion: A Commentary on "Wilderness Therapy--Ethical Considerations for Mental Health Professionals"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David A.; Duerson, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    Wilderness therapy programs continue to be a possible treatment modality for at-risk youth who require out-of-home care. Issues associated with wilderness therapy also continue to be a spirited topic with professionals in the field and the general public. This commentary will add additional considerations, and continue the discussion concerning…

  20. Acid-base titrations by stepwise additions of equal volumes of titrant with special reference to automatic titrations-I Theory, discussion of the gran functions, the hofstee method and two proposed methods for calculating equivalence volumes.

    PubMed

    Pehrsson, L; Ingman, F; Johansson, A

    The range of acid stability constants over which the Gran functions are applicable in evaluating acid-base titrations at normal concentrations is studied and found to be quite narrow. Alternatively, the titrations can be evaluated by using non-approximative methods based upon an equation that is derived without making the simplifying assumptions leading to the Gran functions. One such method, introduced by Hofstee, is discussed and the results of a study of the effects of a systematic error in the pH-determinations upon the determination of the equivalence volume are given. Two other non-approximative methods for evaluating acid-base titrations that are particularly suitable for use in automatic titrations of many similar samples are also described. These methods yield correct values of the equivalence volume regardless of a possible systematic error in the pH-values and are particularly useful for titrations of moderately strong and very weak acids (stability constants up to 10(10)-10(11) at 0.01M concentration) where the Gran functions cannot be used.

  1. Topics in strongly correlated electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdnikov, Ilya

    The thesis is a collection of three topics connected together by the common themes of strong interactions, magnetism and quantum phases, such as the Aharonov-Bohm or Berry phase. The first part of the present dissertation discusses the possibility of examining microscopic origins of magnetism in strongly interacting systems by exploiting the setting of ultra-cold atomic gases in optical lattices. We discuss signatures of correlation in the trap, and propose an experiment to measure the phase diagram of itinerant magnetism directly. The second part focuses on the exotic phase of matter exhibiting the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect, which emerges when interacting particles are placed in a very strong magnetic field. We propose a trial ground state wave-function and prove that it is the unique highest density ground state of a well-motivated pseudo-potential Hamiltonian. The exchange statistics of quasiparticles are shown to be exotic, and overlaps with results of exact diagonalization are also discussed. The final part of the thesis studies frustrated magnetic systems, in which competing forces cannot not be satisfied simultaneously, doped with electrons. The interplay of frustration and itinerant behavior generates Berry phases associated with charge transport. We study the effects of these phases on electronic behavior, as well as the effect electrons have on the underlying magnetic textures. In the quasi-classical limit, we conjecture a field-driven metal-insulator transition, and discuss persistent currents arising in ground states selected by the presence of charge. In the quantum regime we derive the full Hamiltonian and discuss small fluctuations about the classical results.

  2. Topical Immunotherapy in Alopecia Areata

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurcharan; Lavanya, MS

    2010-01-01

    Alopecia Areata (AA) is a common non-scarring alopecia directed against the anagenic hair follicle. Various treatment modalities have been used for the treatment of severe AA. Topical immunotherapy is the best documented treatment so far for severe and refractory AA. Dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE), and diphencyprone (DPCP) are the contact allergens used for this purpose. DNCB has been found to be mutagenic by the Ames test and is largely replaced by DPCP and SADBE. DPCP and SADBE are both known to be non-mutagenic compounds and have comparable efficacy results and relapse rates. SADBE requires special solvents and additives to maintain its potency and is more expensive than the rest. DPCP has a response rate varying from 60% in severe Alopecia Areata to 17% in patients with alopecia totalis or universalis, and shows about 88 to 100% high response rate in patients with patchy Alopecia Areata. PMID:21188022

  3. Summary of SMIRT20 Preconference Topical Workshop – Identifying Structural Issues in Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    William Richins; Stephen Novascone; Cheryl O'Brien

    2009-08-01

    Summary of SMIRT20 Preconference Topical Workshop – Identifying Structural Issues in Advanced Reactors William Richins1, Stephen Novascone1, and Cheryl O’Brien1 1Idaho National Laboratory, US Dept. of Energy, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA, e-mail: William.Richins@inl.gov The Idaho National Laboratory (INL, USA) and IASMiRT sponsored an international forum Nov 5-6, 2008 in Porvoo, Finland for nuclear industry, academic, and regulatory representatives to identify structural issues in current and future advanced reactor design, especially for extreme conditions and external threats. The purpose of this Topical Workshop was to articulate research, engineering, and regulatory Code development needs. The topics addressed by the Workshop were selected to address critical industry needs specific to advanced reactor structures that have long lead times and can be the subject of future SMiRT technical sessions. The topics were; 1) structural/materials needs for extreme conditions and external threats in contemporary (Gen. III) and future (Gen. IV and NGNP) advanced reactors and 2) calibrating simulation software and methods that address topic 1 The workshop discussions and research needs identified are presented. The Workshop successfully produced interactive discussion on the two topics resulting in a list of research and technology needs. It is recommended that IASMiRT communicate the results of the discussion to industry and researchers to encourage new ideas and projects. In addition, opportunities exist to retrieve research reports and information that currently exists, and encourage more international cooperation and collaboration. It is recommended that IASMiRT continue with an off-year workshop series on select topics.

  4. USENET Discussion Groups in Political Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Martha

    1995-01-01

    Considers the applications and limitations of supplementing political science instruction with USENET discussion groups. Maintains that the engaging and topical nature of the discussion groups can enhance traditional course materials. Notes, however, that USENET comments often are not indicative of the general public. Briefly discusses reference…

  5. Leading Discussions: Opening up the Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, John E.

    2005-01-01

    Leading a productive discussion, one that both engages students and enhances their understanding, may be the most complex and challenging task in teaching. This article explores three approaches to increasing the productivity of discussions. They include framing discussions in a way that allows students easier access to the topic, making the kind…

  6. Topic-Prominence in Interlanguage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Judith W.; Gundel, Jeannette K.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the role of topic-comment structure and the frequency of topic-prominence in the oral interlanguage of Chinese- Japanese-, Korean-, Arabic-, Farsi-, and Spanish-speaking adult students of English as a second language. Results indicate that second language learning is generally characterized by an early topic-comment stage, independent…

  7. Systemic and topical drugs for aging skin.

    PubMed

    Kockaert, Michael; Neumann, Martino

    2003-08-01

    The rejuvenation of aging skin is a common desire for our patients, and several options are available. Although there are some systemic methods, the most commonly used treatments for rejuvenation of the skin are applied topically. The most frequently used topical drugs include retinoids, alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), vitamin C, beta hydroxy acids, anti-oxidants, and tocopherol. Combination therapy is frequently used; particularly common is the combination of retinoids and AHAs. Systemic therapies available include oral retinoids and vitamin C. Other available therapies such as chemical peels, face-lifts, collagen, and botulinum toxin injections are not discussed in this article. PMID:12884471

  8. Seven topics in functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Bandettini, Peter A

    2009-09-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is a non-invasive brain imaging methodology that started in 1991 and allows human brain activation to be imaged at high resolution within only a few minutes. Because it has extremely high sensitivity, is relatively easy to implement, and can be performed on most standard clinical MRI scanners. It continues to grow at an explosive rate throughout the world. Over the years, at any given time, fMRI has been defined by only a handful of major topics that have been the focus of researchers using and developing the methodology. In this review, I attempt to take a snapshot of the field of fMRI as it is in mid-2009 by discussing the seven topics that I feel are most on the minds of fMRI researchers. The topics are, in no particular order or grouping: (1) Clinical impact, (2) Utilization of individual functional maps, (3) fMRI signal interpretation, (4) Pattern effect mapping and decoding, (5) Endogenous oscillations, (6) MRI technology, and (7) Alternative functional contrast mechanisms. Most of these topics are highly interdependent, each advancing as the others advance. While most fMRI involves applications towards clinical or neuroscience questions, all applications are fundamentally dependent on advances in basic methodology as well as advances in our understanding of the relationship between neuronal activity and fMRI signal changes. This review neglects almost completely an in-depth discussion of applications. Rather the discussions are on the methods and interpretation.

  9. SEVEN TOPICS IN FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    BANDETTINI, PETER A.

    2010-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is a non-invasive brain imaging methodology that started in 1991 and allows human brain activation to be imaged at high resolution within only a few minutes. Because it has extremely high sensitivity, is relatively easy to implement, and can be performed on most standard clinical MRI scanners. It continues to grow at an explosive rate throughout the world. Over the years, at any given time, fMRI has been defined by only a handful of major topics that have been the focus of researchers using and developing the methodology. In this review, I attempt to take a snapshot of the field of fMRI as it is in mid-2009 by discussing the seven topics that I feel are most on the minds of fMRI researchers. The topics are, in no particular order or grouping: (1) Clinical impact, (2) Utilization of individual functional maps, (3) fMRI signal interpretation, (4) Pattern effect mapping and decoding, (5) Endogenous oscillations, (6) MRI technology, and (7) Alternative functional contrast mechanisms. Most of these topics are highly interdependent, each advancing as the others advance. While most fMRI involves applications towards clinical or neuroscience questions, all applications are fundamentally dependent on advances in basic methodology as well as advances in our understanding of the relationship between neuronal activity and fMRI signal changes. This review neglects almost completely an in-depth discussion of applications. Rather the discussions are on the methods and interpretation. PMID:19938211

  10. The Topical Evolution: Free Ions, Orthomolecular Agents, Phytochemicals, and Insect-Produced Substances

    PubMed Central

    Conner-Kerr, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Significance: A variety of topical antiseptic substances have been used historically to treat open wounds with suspected tissue infection or that are slow to heal. However, the effectiveness of these substances in treating infected or recalcitrant wounds remains controversial. Recent Advances: Newly formulated topical antiseptics delivered through differing dressing technologies, such as ionic substances, hold the potential to limit the development of and treat antibiotic-resistant microbes in open wounds. Other topically delivered substances, such as insect-derived substances, orthomolecular agents, and phytochemicals, also present opportunities to optimize wound healing by decreasing tissue bioburden and facilitating the wound healing process. Critical Issues: Limited systemic perfusion of open wounds in individuals with certain diagnoses, such as peripheral arterial disease or necrotizing infection and the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant wound pathogens, suggests a continued role for topically applied antiseptic agents. Likewise, the failure of wounds to heal when treated with standard of care therapy opens the door to innovative treatment approaches that include the natural substances described in this article. Future Directions: Evidence for the use of select topical antiseptic agents from each of the aforementioned categories will be discussed in this article. Additional well-controlled clinical studies are needed to provide definitive recommendations for many of these topical agents. PMID:25126473

  11. The Topical Evolution: Free Ions, Orthomolecular Agents, Phytochemicals, and Insect-Produced Substances.

    PubMed

    Conner-Kerr, Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Significance: A variety of topical antiseptic substances have been used historically to treat open wounds with suspected tissue infection or that are slow to heal. However, the effectiveness of these substances in treating infected or recalcitrant wounds remains controversial. Recent Advances: Newly formulated topical antiseptics delivered through differing dressing technologies, such as ionic substances, hold the potential to limit the development of and treat antibiotic-resistant microbes in open wounds. Other topically delivered substances, such as insect-derived substances, orthomolecular agents, and phytochemicals, also present opportunities to optimize wound healing by decreasing tissue bioburden and facilitating the wound healing process. Critical Issues: Limited systemic perfusion of open wounds in individuals with certain diagnoses, such as peripheral arterial disease or necrotizing infection and the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant wound pathogens, suggests a continued role for topically applied antiseptic agents. Likewise, the failure of wounds to heal when treated with standard of care therapy opens the door to innovative treatment approaches that include the natural substances described in this article. Future Directions: Evidence for the use of select topical antiseptic agents from each of the aforementioned categories will be discussed in this article. Additional well-controlled clinical studies are needed to provide definitive recommendations for many of these topical agents. PMID:25126473

  12. The Topical Evolution: Free Ions, Orthomolecular Agents, Phytochemicals, and Insect-Produced Substances.

    PubMed

    Conner-Kerr, Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Significance: A variety of topical antiseptic substances have been used historically to treat open wounds with suspected tissue infection or that are slow to heal. However, the effectiveness of these substances in treating infected or recalcitrant wounds remains controversial. Recent Advances: Newly formulated topical antiseptics delivered through differing dressing technologies, such as ionic substances, hold the potential to limit the development of and treat antibiotic-resistant microbes in open wounds. Other topically delivered substances, such as insect-derived substances, orthomolecular agents, and phytochemicals, also present opportunities to optimize wound healing by decreasing tissue bioburden and facilitating the wound healing process. Critical Issues: Limited systemic perfusion of open wounds in individuals with certain diagnoses, such as peripheral arterial disease or necrotizing infection and the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant wound pathogens, suggests a continued role for topically applied antiseptic agents. Likewise, the failure of wounds to heal when treated with standard of care therapy opens the door to innovative treatment approaches that include the natural substances described in this article. Future Directions: Evidence for the use of select topical antiseptic agents from each of the aforementioned categories will be discussed in this article. Additional well-controlled clinical studies are needed to provide definitive recommendations for many of these topical agents.

  13. Identification of topical photosensitizing agents in humans.

    PubMed

    Kaidbey, K H; Kligman, A M

    1978-03-01

    A method is described for the detection of topical photosensitizers in humans. Test agents were applied to the untanned midback under an occlusive dressing for 6 hr and then exposed to broad-spectrum radiation containing UV-A and visible wavelengths from a Xenon arc source. Well-known topical photosensitizers were readily identified. It was found that with certain poorly-penetrating substances, such as water-soluble dyes, applications to scarified skin were necessary to reveal phototoxic activity. In addition, these dyes were activated by wavelengths in the visible region of the spectrum.

  14. Summaries of group discussions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    Group discussions following the presentations of reports on the remote sensing of Chesapeake Bay resources are presented. The parameters to be investigated by the remote sensors and the specifications of the sensors are described. Specific sensors for obtaining data on various aspects of the ecology are identified. Recommendations for establishing a data bank and additional efforts to obtain increased understanding of the ecology are submitted.

  15. Topics in complex nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Linghang

    In the dissertation, I include two topics of my research in nonlinear dynamic systems. In the first topic, we use numerical optimization techniques to investigate the behavior of the success rates for two- and three-qubit entangling gates, first for perfect fidelity, and then extended to imperfect gates. We find that as the perfect fidelity condition is relaxed, the maximum attainable success rates increase in a predictable fashion depending on the size of the system, and we compare that rate of increase for several gates. Finally, we propose an experiment to test our imperfect LOQC gates using number-resolving photon detectors. We suggest a relatively simple physical apparatus capable of producing CZ gates with controllable fidelity less than 1 and success rates higher than the current theoretical maximum (S=2/27) for perfect fidelity. These experimental setups are within the reach of many experimental groups and would provide an interesting experiment in photonic quantum computing. In the second topic, we quantitatively study nonlinear effects on the evolution of surface gravity waves on the ocean, to explore systematically the effects of various input parameters on the probability of rogue wave formation. The fourth-order current-modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation (CNLS4) is employed to describe the wave evolution. First, we show that when the average wave steepness is small and nonlinear wave effects are subleading, the wave height distribution is well explained by a single "freak index" parameter, which describes the strength of (linear) wave scattering by random currents relative to the angular spread of the incoming random sea. When the average steepness is large, the wave height distribution takes a very similar functional form, but the key variables determining the probability distribution are the steepness, and the angular and frequency spread of the incoming waves. Then, we obtain quantitative predictions for the wave height distribution as a

  16. Topics in statistical mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Elser, V.

    1984-05-01

    This thesis deals with four independent topics in statistical mechanics: (1) the dimer problem is solved exactly for a hexagonal lattice with general boundary using a known generating function from the theory of partitions. It is shown that the leading term in the entropy depends on the shape of the boundary; (2) continuum models of percolation and self-avoiding walks are introduced with the property that their series expansions are sums over linear graphs with intrinsic combinatorial weights and explicit dimension dependence; (3) a constrained SOS model is used to describe the edge of a simple cubic crystal. Low and high temperature results are derived as well as the detailed behavior near the crystal facet; (4) the microscopic model of the lambda-transition involving atomic permutation cycles is reexamined. In particular, a new derivation of the two-component field theory model of the critical behavior is presented. Results for a lattice model originally proposed by Kikuchi are extended with a high temperature series expansion and Monte Carlo simulation. 30 references.

  17. Parents' Plans to Discuss Sexuality with Their Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Shaieb, Muna; Wurtele, Sandy K.

    2009-01-01

    Two hundred and fourteen (214) parents of young children (M age = 6.75 years) were surveyed about their plans for sexuality discussions with their children. Parents were asked to indicate when they would first discuss sex education with their children for 15 specific topics, how effective they perceived themselves to be at discussing each topic,…

  18. Topical Drug Delivery for Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jonathan; Lane, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis is a multifactorial disorder that may be heterogeneous in presentation and clinical course. While the introduction of endoscopic sinus surgery revolutionized surgical management and has led to significantly improved patient outcomes, medical therapy remains the foundation of long-term care of chronic rhinosinusitis, particularly in surgically recalcitrant cases. A variety of devices and pharmaceutical agents have been developed to apply topical medical therapy to the sinuses, taking advantage of the access provided by endoscopic surgery. The goal of topical therapy is to address the inflammation, infection, and mucociliary dysfunction that underlies the disease. Major factors that impact success include the patient’s sinus anatomy and the dynamics of the delivery device. Despite a growing number of topical treatment options, the evidence-based literature to support their use is limited. In this article, we comprehensively review current delivery methods and the available topical agents. We also discuss biotechnological advances that promise enhanced delivery in the future, and evolving pharmacotherapeutical compounds that may be added to rhinologist’s armamentarium. A complete understand of topical drug delivery is increasingly essential to the management of chronic rhinosinusitis when traditional forms of medical therapy and surgery have failed. PMID:23525506

  19. Convergence of Influential Bloggers for Topic Discovery in the Blogosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Shamanth; Zafarani, Reza; Abbasi, Mohammad Ali; Barbier, Geoffrey; Liu, Huan

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach to automatically detect "hot" or important topics of discussion in the blogosphere. The proposed approach is based on analyzing the activity of influential bloggers to determine specific points in time when there is a convergence amongst the influential bloggers in terms of their topic of discussion. The tool BlogTrackers, is used to identify influential bloggers and the Normalized Google Distance is used to define the similarity amongst the topics of discussion of influential bloggers. The key advantage of the proposed approach is its ability to automatically detect events which are important in the blogger community.

  20. Language Arts Topics Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jane M.; And Others

    This document brings together six papers on language skills and language arts teaching of gifted students. "The State of the Art Issues in Language Study for High Ability Learners: Thinking about Language with Gifted Children" (Michael Clay Thompson) considers two areas traditionally included in discussions of language study--grammar and…

  1. Reports - Current Topics - Queries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short notes describe the use of articles concerning the creationist/evolutionist controversy in teacher education, a simple demonstration of digestion and absorption, and the use of a planetarium in biology motivation. A short report discusses the social need for living with conflict." (AL)

  2. Topical fat reduction.

    PubMed

    Greenway, F L; Bray, G A; Heber, D

    1995-11-01

    The fat on women's thighs is more difficult to mobilize due to increased alpha-2 adrenergic receptor activity induced by estrogen. Lipolysis can be initiated through adipocyte receptor stimulation (beta adrenergic) or inhibition (adenosine or alpha-2 adrenergic) or by inhibition of phosphodiesterase. Since many women desire regional thigh fat loss, a series of clinical trials were initiated using one thigh as a double-blinded control. Trial #1: Five overweight women had injections of isoproterenol at intervals around the thigh three times a week for 4 weeks with diet and walking. Trial #2: Five overweight woman had ointment containing forskolin, yohimbine and aminophylline applied to the thigh five times a week for 4 weeks after hypertonic warm soaks with a diet and walking. Trial #3: Eighteen overweight women were divided into three groups of six and trial #2 was repeated with each agent alone vs. placebo using forskolin, yohimbine or aminophylline in separate ointments. Trial #4: Thirty overweight women had 10% aminophylline ointment applied to the thigh five times a week for 6 weeks with diet and walking. Chemistry panel, theophylline level and patch testing were performed. Trial #5: Twelve women had trial #4 repeated with 2% aminophylline cream without a diet or walking. Trial #6: Trial #5 was repeated with 0.5% aminophylline cream. All trials except yohimbine ointment gave significantly more girth loss from the treated thigh (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Chemistry panel showed no toxicity. Theophylline was undetectable and patch testing was negative. We conclude that topical fat reduction for women's thighs can be achieved without diet or exercise. PMID:8697059

  3. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Surveys the range of electronic calculators currently available and their capabilities. Prices range from $20.00 to $800.00, and functions performed range from the four arithmetic operations to complex operations such as the computation of standard deviation, vector addition, and programs with up to 100 steps. (MLH)

  4. Topics in inflationary cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, S.

    1986-04-01

    Several aspects of inflationary cosmologies are discussed. An introduction to the standard hot big bang cosmological model is reviewed, and some of the problems associated with it are presented. A short review of the proposals for solving the cosmological conundrums of the big bang model is presented. Old and the new inflationary scenarios are discussed and shown to be unacceptable. Some alternative scenarios especially those using supersymmetry are reviewed briefly. A study is given of inflationary models where the same set of fields that breaks supersymmetry is also responsible for inflation. In these models, the scale of supersymmetry breaking is related to the slope of the potential near the origin and can thus be kept low. It is found that a supersymmetry breaking scale of the order of the weak breaking scale. The cosmology obtained from the simplest of such models is discussed in detail and it is shown that there are no particular problems except a low reheating temperature and a violation of the thermal constraint. A possible solution to the thermal constraint problem is given by introducing a second field, and the role played by this second field in the scenario is discussed. An alternative mechanism for the generation of baryon number within the framework of supergravity inflationary models is studied using the gravitational couplings of the heavy fields with the hidden sector (the sector which breaks supersymmetry). This mechanism is applied to two specific models - one with and one without supersymmetry breaking. The baryon to entropy ratio is found to be dependent on parameters which are model dependent. Finally, the effect of direct coupling between the two sectors on results is related, 88 refs., 6 figs.

  5. 78 FR 32224 - Availability of Version 3.1.2 of the Connect America Fund Phase II Cost Model; Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ...; Additional Discussion Topics in Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop AGENCY: Federal Communications... issues in the ongoing virtual workshop. DATES: Comments are due on or before June 18, 2013. If you... comments. Virtual Workshop: In addition to the usual methods for filing electronic comments, the...

  6. Public Energy Education: Issues for Discussion. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Energy Education Task Force.

    This paper was intended to stimulate discussion of energy education issues at a conference on energy issues. The discussion ranges through numerous topics at issue in energy education including public energy awareness, definition of public education, the distinction between public education and public relations, and the presentation of a model…

  7. Electronic Mail as an Academic Discussion Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Paul F.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the use of electronic mail to facilitate discussion of a range of related topics. Principal features of computer-mediated communication are reviewed, and a case study of a discussion that lasted two months is presented. The ethics of using material contained in electronic mail messages for further study and research is considered.…

  8. Channelopathies: Summary of the hot topic keynotes session

    EPA Science Inventory

    The "Hot Topic Keynotes: Channelopathies" session of the 26th International Neurotoxicology Conference brought together toxicologists studying interactions of environmental toxicants with ion channels, to review the state of the science of channelopathies and to discuss the poten...

  9. Trio of Topics: Questions of Mass, Electricity, and Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quantum, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Discusses three topics related to physics: (1) the center of mass of a long stick thrown horizontally; (2) how electric current flows in metals; and (3) the theory of relativity in relationship with fictionalized time machines. (MDH)

  10. Advanced Topics in Wet-Weather Discharge Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses four related but generally independent wet-weather flow (WWF) topic areas, namely: i) opportunities for advanced practices in WWF control technology, particularly as it applies to sewered systems; ii) tradeoffs between storage facilities (tanks) and enlarged...

  11. TOPICAL REVIEW: Biopolymeric nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundar, Sushmitha; Kundu, Joydip; Kundu, Subhas C.

    2010-02-01

    This review on nanoparticles highlights the various biopolymers (proteins and polysaccharides) which have recently revolutionized the world of biocompatible and degradable natural biological materials. The methods of their fabrication, including emulsification, desolvation, coacervation and electrospray drying are described. The characterization of different parameters for a given nanoparticle, such as particle size, surface charge, morphology, stability, structure, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, drug loading and drug release, is outlined together with the relevant measurement techniques. Applications in the fields of medicine and biotechnology are discussed along with a promising future scope.

  12. Intelligent topical sentiment analysis for the classification of e-learners and their topics of interest.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, M; Kulanthaivel, G; Chellatamilan, T

    2015-01-01

    Every day, huge numbers of instant tweets (messages) are published on Twitter as it is one of the massive social media for e-learners interactions. The options regarding various interesting topics to be studied are discussed among the learners and teachers through the capture of ideal sources in Twitter. The common sentiment behavior towards these topics is received through the massive number of instant messages about them. In this paper, rather than using the opinion polarity of each message relevant to the topic, authors focus on sentence level opinion classification upon using the unsupervised algorithm named bigram item response theory (BIRT). It differs from the traditional classification and document level classification algorithm. The investigation illustrated in this paper is of threefold which are listed as follows: (1) lexicon based sentiment polarity of tweet messages; (2) the bigram cooccurrence relationship using naïve Bayesian; (3) the bigram item response theory (BIRT) on various topics. It has been proposed that a model using item response theory is constructed for topical classification inference. The performance has been improved remarkably using this bigram item response theory when compared with other supervised algorithms. The experiment has been conducted on a real life dataset containing different set of tweets and topics.

  13. Intelligent Topical Sentiment Analysis for the Classification of E-Learners and Their Topics of Interest

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, M.; Kulanthaivel, G.; Chellatamilan, T.

    2015-01-01

    Every day, huge numbers of instant tweets (messages) are published on Twitter as it is one of the massive social media for e-learners interactions. The options regarding various interesting topics to be studied are discussed among the learners and teachers through the capture of ideal sources in Twitter. The common sentiment behavior towards these topics is received through the massive number of instant messages about them. In this paper, rather than using the opinion polarity of each message relevant to the topic, authors focus on sentence level opinion classification upon using the unsupervised algorithm named bigram item response theory (BIRT). It differs from the traditional classification and document level classification algorithm. The investigation illustrated in this paper is of threefold which are listed as follows: (1) lexicon based sentiment polarity of tweet messages; (2) the bigram cooccurrence relationship using naïve Bayesian; (3) the bigram item response theory (BIRT) on various topics. It has been proposed that a model using item response theory is constructed for topical classification inference. The performance has been improved remarkably using this bigram item response theory when compared with other supervised algorithms. The experiment has been conducted on a real life dataset containing different set of tweets and topics. PMID:25866841

  14. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  15. Hot topics for leadership development.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-02-01

    Three areas stand out from a health systems perspective that should be on the development agenda for all leaders. These topics include population health, predictive analytics, and supply chain management. Together, these topics address access, quality, and cost management. PMID:25633301

  16. Resources for Topics in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This guide for conducting library research on topics in art or the work of a particular artist presents suggestions for utilizing four categories of resources: books, dictionaries and encyclopedias, indexes, and a periodicals and serials list (PASL). Three topics are researched as examples: the contemporary artist and author Frank Stella, the…

  17. Working Topics for Students' Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marting, Janet

    Students enrolled in composition classes may provide the answer to the dilemma of coming up with a writing topic: work--the "four letter word." Most, if not all, students have already become part of the labor force. The theme of "work" is naturally successful because it centers around a topic students know well, something that is within their…

  18. Discourse Structure, Topicality, and Questioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Kuppevelt, Jan

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative approach to discourse structure according to which topicality is the general organizing principle in discourse. This approach accounts for the fact that the segmentation structure of discourse is in correspondence with the hierarchy of topics defined for the discourse units. (52 references) (JL)

  19. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Topic models like latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) provide a framework for analyzing large datasets where observations are collected into groups. Although topic modeling has been fruitfully applied to problems social science, biology, and computer vision, it has been most widely used to model datasets where documents are modeled as exchangeable…

  20. Topical metronidazole combination therapy in the clinical management of rosacea.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q; Bikowski, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Metronidazole was the first topical agent approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of rosacea. Several controlled studies have confirmed the efficacy and safety of topical metronidazole 0.75% gel, lotion and cream and 1% cream for rosacea. At present, little data exists regarding the use of combination topical therapy in rosacea management, although anecdotal evidence and preliminary studies suggest at least some additive benefit when topical metronidazole is used in combination with sulfacetamide 10% /sulfur 5%. In this paper, the results of observational experience evaluating topical metronidazole 0.75% gel used in combination with other topical rosacea therapies and/or subantimicrobial dose doxycycline are reported.

  1. Biologic therapy with or without topical treatment in psoriasis: what does the current evidence say?

    PubMed

    Jensen, J Daniel; Delcambre, Macey Renault; Nguyen, Gloria; Sami, Naveed

    2014-10-01

    Biologic therapy represents a relatively new class of drugs which have revolutionized the treatment of psoriasis and are used with increasing frequency in order to control this chronic, systemic inflammatory disease. However, it is unclear what role there is for combination therapy of biologics with traditional topical agents. The purpose of this article is to assess the literature on the role of topical agents as adjuvants to biological treatments in the treatment of psoriasis and identify areas for further research. A MEDLINE search was performed in order to identify English-language publications from 1996 to 2014 examining combination biologic therapy with topical medications in the treatment of psoriasis. Data from these clinical studies are summarized and the outcomes are discussed. In general, the addition of adjuvant topical therapy to systemic biologic therapy allowed for a reduction in dosage and side effects of both agents, maintenance of initial response to biologics, treatment of recalcitrant lesions in partial responders, and potential acceleration of response to biologic therapies. The current data, though limited, suggest that using topical therapies as adjunct treatment to biologics is a well tolerated and effective means of controlling psoriasis and improving quality of life for patients. However, the treating physician should remain attentive to signs of adverse events and seek opportunities to reduce the dose or treatment frequency during chronic use.

  2. Topical Antimicrobials for Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Hashmi, Javad T.; Kurup, Divya B.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout most of history, serious burns occupying a large percentage of body surface area were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the burn milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the burned skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make burns particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to burns, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat burn infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating burn infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active area of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for burns that will battle against growing multi-drug resistance. PMID:20429870

  3. Scientists Shaping the Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, J. A.; Weymann, R.; Mandia, S. A.; Ashley, M.

    2011-12-01

    Scientific studies which directly impact the larger society require an engagement between the scientists and the larger public. With respect to research on climate change, many third-party groups report on scientific findings and thereby serve as an intermediary between the scientist and the public. In many cases, the third-party reporting misinterprets the findings and conveys inaccurate information to the media and the public. To remedy this, many scientists are now taking a more active role in conveying their work directly to interested parties. In addition, some scientists are taking the further step of engaging with the general public to answer basic questions related to climate change - even on sub-topics which are unrelated to scientists' own research. Nevertheless, many scientists are reluctant to engage the general public or the media. The reasons for scientific reticence are varied but most commonly are related to fear of public engagement, concern about the time required to properly engage the public, or concerns about the impact to their professional reputations. However, for those scientists who are successful, these engagement activities provide many benefits. Scientists can increase the impact of their work, and they can help society make informed choices on significant issues, such as mitigating global warming. Here we provide some concrete steps that scientists can take to ensure that their public engagement is successful. These steps include: (1) cultivating relationships with reporters, (2) crafting clear, easy to understand messages that summarize their work, (3) relating science to everyday experiences, and (4) constructing arguments which appeal to a wide-ranging audience. With these steps, we show that scientists can efficiently deal with concerns that would otherwise inhibit their public engagement. Various resources will be provided that allow scientists to continue work on these key steps.

  4. Additive manufacturing in production: challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Karg, Michael; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, characterized by its inherent layer by layer fabrication methodology has been coined by many as the latest revolution in the manufacturing industry. Due to its diversification of Materials, processes, system technology and applications, Additive Manufacturing has been synonymized with terminology such as Rapid prototyping, 3D printing, free-form fabrication, Additive Layer Manufacturing, etc. A huge media and public interest in the technology has led to an innovative attempt of exploring the technology for applications beyond the scope of the traditional engineering industry. Nevertheless, it is believed that a critical factor for the long-term success of Additive Manufacturing would be its ability to fulfill the requirements defined by the traditional manufacturing industry. A parallel development in market trends and product requirements has also lead to a wider scope of opportunities for Additive Manufacturing. The presented paper discusses some of the key challenges which are critical to ensure that Additive Manufacturing is truly accepted as a mainstream production technology in the industry. These challenges would highlight on various aspects of production such as product requirements, process management, data management, intellectual property, work flow management, quality assurance, resource planning, etc. In Addition, changing market trends such as product life cycle, mass customization, sustainability, environmental impact and localized production will form the foundation for the follow up discussion on the current limitations and the corresponding research opportunities. A discussion on ongoing research to address these challenges would include topics like process monitoring, design complexity, process standardization, multi-material and hybrid fabrication, new material development, etc.

  5. Topics in string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.

    1988-01-01

    The author discusses several aspects of string theory. First, he calculates the vacuum amplitude of un-oriented open and closed string theory using Polyakov formalism. He argues that the volume of the Mobius Group should be renormalized, and solve a minor paradox. Second, he gives an example of a membrane whose effective action is the generalization of Green-Schwarz covariant superstring action. As a by-product, he shows that is also provides an example of partially broken global supersymmetry. The rest of the dissertation is devoted to the study of string field theory in terms of the renormalization group approach. He emphasizes the pivotal role of the conformal invariance in string theory. He proposes the generalized Wilsonian conformal renormalization group equation of 2-dimensional quantum field theory as the field equation for string field theory following Banks and Martinec. He then finds general solutions to the linearized equation on the flat back-ground and its correspondence to all the physical vertex operators. He also makes detailed study of massless modes and offer some remarks about how gauge invariance arise in this approach. Finally, he solves the full nonlinear equation iteratively in terms of the solutions to the linearized equation and extract the Virasoro-Shapiro amplitudes from them.

  6. Mental mechanisms for topics identification.

    PubMed

    Massey, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Topics identification (TI) is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM). We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM) to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly. PMID:24744775

  7. Mental mechanisms for topics identification.

    PubMed

    Massey, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Topics identification (TI) is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM). We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM) to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly.

  8. Topic Model for Graph Mining.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Junyu; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan; Luo, Xiangfeng

    2015-12-01

    Graph mining has been a popular research area because of its numerous application scenarios. Many unstructured and structured data can be represented as graphs, such as, documents, chemical molecular structures, and images. However, an issue in relation to current research on graphs is that they cannot adequately discover the topics hidden in graph-structured data which can be beneficial for both the unsupervised learning and supervised learning of the graphs. Although topic models have proved to be very successful in discovering latent topics, the standard topic models cannot be directly applied to graph-structured data due to the "bag-of-word" assumption. In this paper, an innovative graph topic model (GTM) is proposed to address this issue, which uses Bernoulli distributions to model the edges between nodes in a graph. It can, therefore, make the edges in a graph contribute to latent topic discovery and further improve the accuracy of the supervised and unsupervised learning of graphs. The experimental results on two different types of graph datasets show that the proposed GTM outperforms the latent Dirichlet allocation on classification by using the unveiled topics of these two models to represent graphs.

  9. The future of topical analgesics.

    PubMed

    Arnstein, Paul M

    2013-07-01

    Topically applied analgesic therapies have been used throughout history to treat a variety of patient conditions that present with pain. Before modem pharmaceuticals became readily available, mud-based emollients, salves, cold therapies, and other natural remedies were often used. Now we have effective therapies and are developing advanced topical analgesics as we learn more about the physiology and pathophysiology of pain. The use of topical analgesics may be associated with fewer patient systemic side effects than are seen with oral, parenteral, or transdermally administered agents, making the topical route of administration attractive to prescribers and patients. With further refinement of existing drugs and the development of novel agents, topical analgesics may offer relief for treating patient pain conditions that are currently challenging to treat, such as pain resulting from burns, wound debridement, and pressure ulcers. Recognizing the value of a multimodal approach, topical analgesics may offer a therapeutic option that can become part of a comprehensive treatment plan for the patient. With continued advancements in targeted drug-delivery systems, topical analgesics may be able to provide a method to prevent or reverse the phenomena of peripheral and central sensitization, or the neuroplastic changes believed to be responsible for the transition from acute to chronic pain states in patients. For those patients at risk for developing chronic pain states, such as complex regional pain syndrome, the combination of cutaneous stimulation (achieved through rubbing during application) and analgesic effects produced by the drug itself may prevent the disabling pain that often emerges during the subacute phase of disease. In summary, better utilization of currently available topical analgesics and continued research promise to ensure that topical analgesics are, and will continue to be, important tools in the treatment of patients with resistant pain. PMID

  10. Spatially varying index of refraction: An open ended undergraduate topic

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, D.A.

    1980-03-01

    There are many commonplace examples of waves moving along a curved path in an inhomogeneous media. There are reports of a simple lecture demonstration of light bending in a sugar solution being used to motivate students in physics, geophysics, and acoustics courses. For those students who wish to pursue this topic we discuss many avenues of additional research. With relatively simple equipment one can measure the index of refraction n (y,t) and its first and second spatial derivatives as well as the time dependence. The analysis can be approached from a generalization of Snell's law, the equations for the eikonal, Fermat's principle, and the classical approximation and analogies with trajectories of particles.

  11. Topical Steroid-Damaged Skin

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Anil; Roga, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder. PMID:25284849

  12. Topical antimicrobial toolkit for wound infection.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kevin Y; Alam, Tarik; Marin, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    Increased bacterial burden and formation of biofilm has been recognized as one of the key factors contributing to delayed wound healing. There is a toolbox of topical antimicrobial wound dressings that incorporate silver, iodine, polyhexamethylene biguanide, methylene blue/gentian violet, and honey. This article reviews a diverse range of evidence to discuss the advantages and disadvantage of topical antimicrobial dressings. Discussion will provide guidance on when and how to use topical antimicrobial dressings to achieve optimal outcomes and cost-effective wound care. Chronic wounds do not follow a predictable and expected healing trajectory, and they may persist for months or years due to underlying disease processes, recurrent injury, and comorbidities.1 With an aging population and increased prevalence of chronic diseases, the majority of wounds are refractory to healing, placing a significant burden on the health system and individual patients. Bacterial burden and biofilm have been recognized as key factors contributing to persistent inflammation, tissue destruction, delayed wound healing, and other serious complications (especially in individuals who are frail and immune-compromised).2 It has been demonstrated that when bacterial growth reaches a critical threshold of 105 bacteria per gram of tissue, bacterial toxins can cause tissue damage in the superficial wound compartment, delaying healing.2 In the literature, this phenomenon is referred to as critical colonization, increased bacterial burden, superficial infection, or localized infection. According to a recent review, over 50% of chronic wounds exhibit signs and symptoms that are consistent with localized infection.3.

  13. Barriers and facilitators to maternal communication with preadolescents about age-relevant sexual topics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kim S; Fasula, Amy M; Dittus, Patricia; Wiegand, Ryan E; Wyckoff, Sarah C; McNair, Lily

    2009-04-01

    The present study examined factors that promote parent-child discussions about sex topics. A sample of 1,066 dyads of African American mothers and their 9-12-year-old children participated completing computer-administered surveys. After controlling for all other covariates, mother's sexual communication responsiveness (i.e., knowledge, comfort, skills, and confidence) was the most consistent predictor of discussions. Mothers with higher responsiveness had significantly increased odds of discussions about abstinence, puberty, and reproduction, based on both mother and child reports. In addition, child's age, pubertal development, readiness to learn about sex, and being female were positively associated with an increase in the odds of discussions in most models. Findings indicate that encouraging parents to talk with their children early may not be sufficient to promote parent-child sex discussions. Parents also need the knowledge, comfort, skills, and confidence to communicate effectively and keep them from avoiding these often difficult and emotional conversations with their children.

  14. Conversational topics in transsexual persons.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Cayzeele, Miet; Heirman, Eva; T'sjoen, Guy

    2014-06-01

    Abstract In general, speech language therapy for transsexual persons focuses on pitch and pitch variation and more recently also on resonance. Other communicative aspects are dealt with far less often, especially language. This study investigated to what extent conversational topics might need attention in therapy for transsexual persons. A total of 111 males, 116 females, 28 male-to-female and 18 female-to-male transsexuals were asked to indicate on a list with 34 topics how often they speak about each topic (never, sometimes, often) in conversations with males, with females and in a gender mixed group. Results showed that transsexual persons behave in accordance with the desired gender. However, they also tend to adopt a position depending on the gender of their conversational partner. It can be concluded that in general it is not necessary to pay attention to conversational topics in therapy for transsexual persons.

  15. Erythromycin and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking. Be sure to mention other topical medications for acne. Your doctor may need to ...

  16. Topics in Randomized Algorithms for Numerical Linear Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holodnak, John T.

    In this dissertation, we present results for three topics in randomized algorithms. Each topic is related to random sampling. We begin by studying a randomized algorithm for matrix multiplication that randomly samples outer products. We show that if a set of deterministic conditions is satisfied, then the algorithm can compute the exact product. In addition, we show probabilistic bounds on the two norm relative error of the algorithm. two norm relative error of the algorithm. In the second part, we discuss the sensitivity of leverage scores to perturbations. Leverage scores are scalar quantities that give a notion of importance to the rows of a matrix. They are used as sampling probabilities in many randomized algorithms. We show bounds on the difference between the leverage scores of a matrix and a perturbation of the matrix. In the last part, we approximate functions over an active subspace of parameters. To identify the active subspace, we apply an algorithm that relies on a random sampling scheme. We show bounds on the accuracy of the active subspace identification algorithm and construct an approximation to a function with 3556 parameters using a ten-dimensional active subspace.

  17. Efinaconazole topical solution, 10%: formulation development program of a new topical treatment of toenail onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, V; Pillai, R

    2015-07-01

    Transungual drug delivery of antifungals is considered highly desirable to treat common nail disorders such as onychomycosis, due to localized effects, and improved adherence resulting from minimal systemic adverse events. However, the development of effective topical therapies has been hampered by poor nail penetration. An effective topical antifungal must permeate through, and under the dense keratinized nail plate to the site of infection in the nail bed and nail matrix. We present here the formulation development program to provide effective transungual and subungual delivery of efinaconazole, the first topical broad spectrum triazole specifically developed for onychomycosis treatment. We discuss the important aspects encompassing the formulation development program for efinaconazole topical solution, 10%, focusing on its solubility in a number of solvents, in vitro penetration through the nail, and in vivo efficacy. Efinaconazole topical solution, 10% is a stable, non-lacquer, antifungal with a unique combination of ingredients added to an alcohol-based formulation to provide low surface tension and good wetting properties. This low surface tension is believed to affect effective transungual delivery of efinaconazole and believed to provide a dual mode of delivery by accessing the nail bed by wicking into the space between the nail and nail plate. PMID:25940933

  18. Efinaconazole topical solution, 10%: formulation development program of a new topical treatment of toenail onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, V; Pillai, R

    2015-07-01

    Transungual drug delivery of antifungals is considered highly desirable to treat common nail disorders such as onychomycosis, due to localized effects, and improved adherence resulting from minimal systemic adverse events. However, the development of effective topical therapies has been hampered by poor nail penetration. An effective topical antifungal must permeate through, and under the dense keratinized nail plate to the site of infection in the nail bed and nail matrix. We present here the formulation development program to provide effective transungual and subungual delivery of efinaconazole, the first topical broad spectrum triazole specifically developed for onychomycosis treatment. We discuss the important aspects encompassing the formulation development program for efinaconazole topical solution, 10%, focusing on its solubility in a number of solvents, in vitro penetration through the nail, and in vivo efficacy. Efinaconazole topical solution, 10% is a stable, non-lacquer, antifungal with a unique combination of ingredients added to an alcohol-based formulation to provide low surface tension and good wetting properties. This low surface tension is believed to affect effective transungual delivery of efinaconazole and believed to provide a dual mode of delivery by accessing the nail bed by wicking into the space between the nail and nail plate.

  19. Otoacoustic Emissions (Part I) and central auditory effects: A moderated discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wei; Verhulst, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    The following is an edited transcript of a recorded discussion session on the topics of "Otoacoustic Emissions" and "Central Auditory Effects". The discussion, moderated by the authors, took place at the 12th International Workshop on the Mechanics of Hearing held at Cape Sounio, Greece, in June 2014. All participants knew that the session was being recorded. In view of both the spontaneous nature of the discussion and the editing, however, this transcript may not represent the considered or final views of the participants, and may not represent a consensus of experts in the field. The reader is advised to consult additional independent publications.

  20. Optical coherence tomography and low-frequency mechanics: A moderated discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Dennis M.; Ruggero, Mario A.

    2015-12-31

    The following is an edited transcript of a recorded discussion session on the topics of “Optical Coherence Tomography” and “Low-Frequency Mechanics”. The discussion, moderated by the authors, took place at the 12{sup th} International Workshop on the Mechanics of Hearing held at Cape Sounio, Greece, in June 2014. All participants knew that the session was being recorded. In view of both the spontaneous nature of the discussion and the editing, however, this transcript may not represent the considered or final views of the participants, and may not represent a consensus of experts in the field. The reader is advised to consult additional independent publications.

  1. What shapes the stimulus to the inner hair cell?: A moderated discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridberger, Anders; Guinan, John J.

    2015-12-01

    The following is an edited transcript of a recorded discussion session on the topic of "What Shapes the Stimulus to the Inner Hair Cell?". The discussion, moderated by the authors, took place at the 12th International Workshop on the Mechanics of Hearing held at Cape Sounio, Greece, in June 2014. All participants knew that the session was being recorded. In view of both the spontaneous nature of the discussion and the editing, however, this transcript may not represent the considered or final views of the participants, and may not represent a consensus of experts in the field. The reader is advised to consult additional independent publications.

  2. Chemical Kinetics Laboratory Discussion Worksheet.

    PubMed

    Demoin, Dustin Wayne; Jurisson, Silvia S

    2013-09-10

    A laboratory discussion worksheet and its answer key provide instructors and students a discussion model to further the students' understanding of chemical kinetics. This discussion worksheet includes a section for students to augment their previous knowledge about chemical kinetics measurements, an initial check on students' understanding of basic concepts, a group participation model where students work on solving complex-conceptual problems, and a conclusion to help students connect this discussion to their laboratory or lecture class. Additionally, the worksheet has a detailed solution to a more advanced problem to help students understand how the concepts they have put together relate to problems they will encounter during later formal assessments.

  3. Probability workshop to be better in probability topic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmat, Aszila; Ujang, Suriyati; Wahid, Sharifah Norhuda Syed

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether statistics anxiety and attitudes towards probability topic among students in higher education level have an effect on their performance. 62 fourth semester science students were given statistics anxiety questionnaires about their perception towards probability topic. Result indicated that students' performance in probability topic is not related to anxiety level, which means that the higher level in statistics anxiety will not cause lower score in probability topic performance. The study also revealed that motivated students gained from probability workshop ensure that their performance in probability topic shows a positive improvement compared before the workshop. In addition there exists a significance difference in students' performance between genders with better achievement among female students compared to male students. Thus, more initiatives in learning programs with different teaching approaches is needed to provide useful information in improving student learning outcome in higher learning institution.

  4. Notes and Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Physics, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Includes eleven short notes, comments and responses to comments on a variety of topics such as uncertainty in a least-squares fit, display of diffraction patterns, the dark night sky paradox, error in the dynamics of deformable bodies and relative velocities and the runner. (GA)

  5. Notes and Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Physics, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Presents eight short articles on the following topics: demonstration of possible excitations in liquids; Mohr's circle and the determination of moments of inertia; braking distance versus mass for automobiles; a constant gravity model of the earth's interior; diffraction pattern of a hair; hyperbolic mirrors; sulfation plates; and principles of…

  6. Engineering a Classroom Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes physical science activities that civil/mechanical engineers (serving as resource persons) can use with students during units on force, work, center of gravity, simple machines, and other basic mechanics concepts. Activities are adapted from Career Oriented Modules to Explore Topics in Science for grades 5-9 (COMETS). (Author/JN)

  7. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Notes on De Morgan's rules; a perpetual calendar; the use of coloured rods; a balance problem; a graphical approach to natural logarithms; a problem in geometric probability; and the parallelogram law of forces. (MM)

  8. Current Topics In STEM Education Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glembo, Tyler

    2015-04-01

    The role of the federal government in education is a hotly debated topic in Congress, causing education to become deeply embedded in politics. Federal funding of education, although covering only about ten percent of total cost, has large impact in the classroom, from testing standards to low interest student loans. This talk will examine the current landscape in physics education including issues facing the community at a national/federal level and also legislation such as the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. We will also examine how stakeholders can develop effective messages and participate in discussions with policy makers.

  9. 1st meeting on topical drug delivery to the nail.

    PubMed

    Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2007-07-01

    The first ever symposium dedicated solely to drug delivery to the nail following topical application was held on the 2nd April 2007, in London, UK, organised by Dr Clive Roper (Charles River Laboratories, Scotland) and Dr Sudaxshina Murdan (School of Pharmacy, University of London, UK), under the auspices of Skin Forum. The 1-day meeting was attended by approximately 35 delegates from industry, academia and hospitals, and provided a much-needed forum for the presentation and discussion of research and problems in this emerging field. Topical drug delivery is especially suitable for onychomycosis (fungal infections of the nail plate and/or nail bed) and nail psoriasis, which affect 2 - 13 and 1 - 3% of the general population, respectively, and make up the bulk of nail disorders. Topical therapy would avoid the adverse events and drug interactions of systemic antifungal agents and the pain of injection when antipsoriatic agents are injected into affected nail folds. However, successful topical therapy is extremely challenging due to the very low permeability of the nail plate. Five speakers spoke about various aspects of topical drug delivery to the nail, including review of the nail plate structure, function, diseases, their existing therapies (systemic and topical), limitations and global sales. The need for effective topical drug delivery to the nail to overcome the problems associated with present treatment, and the fact that there are few topical formulations available for the treatment of nail fungal infections and psoriasis, and the even fewer effective formulations, was highlighted. PMID:17683257

  10. 1st meeting on topical drug delivery to the nail.

    PubMed

    Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2007-07-01

    The first ever symposium dedicated solely to drug delivery to the nail following topical application was held on the 2nd April 2007, in London, UK, organised by Dr Clive Roper (Charles River Laboratories, Scotland) and Dr Sudaxshina Murdan (School of Pharmacy, University of London, UK), under the auspices of Skin Forum. The 1-day meeting was attended by approximately 35 delegates from industry, academia and hospitals, and provided a much-needed forum for the presentation and discussion of research and problems in this emerging field. Topical drug delivery is especially suitable for onychomycosis (fungal infections of the nail plate and/or nail bed) and nail psoriasis, which affect 2 - 13 and 1 - 3% of the general population, respectively, and make up the bulk of nail disorders. Topical therapy would avoid the adverse events and drug interactions of systemic antifungal agents and the pain of injection when antipsoriatic agents are injected into affected nail folds. However, successful topical therapy is extremely challenging due to the very low permeability of the nail plate. Five speakers spoke about various aspects of topical drug delivery to the nail, including review of the nail plate structure, function, diseases, their existing therapies (systemic and topical), limitations and global sales. The need for effective topical drug delivery to the nail to overcome the problems associated with present treatment, and the fact that there are few topical formulations available for the treatment of nail fungal infections and psoriasis, and the even fewer effective formulations, was highlighted.

  11. Helicopter aeroelastic stability and response - Current topics and future trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, Peretz P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents several current topics in rotary wing aeroelasticity and concludes by attempting to anticipate future trends and developments. These topics are: (1) the role of geometric nonlinearities; (2) structural modeling, and aeroelastic analysis of composite rotor blades; (3) aeroelastic stability and response in forward flight; (4) modeling of coupled rotor/fuselage aeromechanical problems and their active control; and (5) the coupled rotor-fuselage vibration problem and its alleviation by higher harmonic control. Selected results illustrating the fundamental aspects of these topics are presented. Future developments are briefly discussed.

  12. Mining nonterrestrial resources: Information needs and research topics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daemen, Jaak J. K.

    1992-01-01

    An outline of topics we need to understand better in order to apply mining technology to a nonterrestrial environment is presented. The proposed list is not intended to be complete. It aims to identify representative topics that suggest productive research. Such research will reduce the uncertainties associated with extrapolating from conventional earthbound practice to nonterrestrial applications. One objective is to propose projects that should put future discussions of nonterrestrial mining on a firmer, less speculative basis.

  13. Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch--A Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utting, Ian; Cooper, Stephen; Kolling, Michael; Maloney, John; Resnick, Mitchel

    2010-01-01

    This article distills a discussion about the goals, mechanisms, and effects of three environments which aim to support the acquisition and development of computing concepts (problem solving and programming) in pre-University and non-technical students: Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch. The conversation started in a special session on the topic at the…

  14. A Discussion of Population Invariance of Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Nancy S.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the five studies included in this issue. Each article addressed the same topic, population invariance of equating. They all used data from major standardized testing programs, and they all used essentially the same statistics to evaluate their results, namely, the root mean square difference and root expected mean square…

  15. Topical therapies in hyperhidrosis care.

    PubMed

    Pariser, David M; Ballard, Angela

    2014-10-01

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis affects 3% of the US population; about the same number as psoriasis. More than half of these patients have primary focal axillary hyperhidrosis: sweating that is beyond what is anticipated or necessary for thermoregulation. Most topical therapies are based on aluminum salts, which work by a chemical reaction that forms plugs in the eccrine sweat ducts. Topical anticholinergics may also be used. Instruction on proper methods and timing of antiperspirants enhances effect and may be effective alone or in combination with other treatments in patients with hyperhidrosis.

  16. Topical therapies in hyperhidrosis care.

    PubMed

    Pariser, David M; Ballard, Angela

    2014-10-01

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis affects 3% of the US population; about the same number as psoriasis. More than half of these patients have primary focal axillary hyperhidrosis: sweating that is beyond what is anticipated or necessary for thermoregulation. Most topical therapies are based on aluminum salts, which work by a chemical reaction that forms plugs in the eccrine sweat ducts. Topical anticholinergics may also be used. Instruction on proper methods and timing of antiperspirants enhances effect and may be effective alone or in combination with other treatments in patients with hyperhidrosis. PMID:25152341

  17. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  18. Panel discussion on rock mechanics issues in repository design

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniawski, Z.T.; Kim, K.S.; Nataraja, M.

    1996-04-01

    The panel discussion was introduced by Mr. Z.T.(Richard) Bieniawski and then continued with five additional speakers. The topics covered in the discussion included rock mechanics pertaining to the design of underground facilities for the disposal of radioactive wastes and the safety of such facilities. The speakers included: Mr. Kun-Soo Kim who is a specialist in the area of rock mechanics testing during the Basalt Waste Isolation Project; Dr. Mysore Nataraja who is the senior project manager with the NRC; Dr. Michael Voegele who is the project manager for Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) on the Yucca Mountain Project; Dr. Edward Cording who is a member of the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board; and Dr. Hemendra Kalia who is employed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and coordinates various activities of testing programs at the Yucca Mountain Site.

  19. Internet Discussion Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen; Bull, Gina; Sigmon, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Discusses newsgroups, listservs, and Web-based discussion groups. Highlights include major categories of international USENET discussion groups; newsgroups versus mailing lists; newsreaders; news servers; newsgroup subscriptions; newsgroups versus Web discussion groups; linking newsgroups, mailing lists, and the Web; and setting up a news host. A…

  20. [How I treat... onychomycosis by topical therapy].

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C

    2015-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a frequent and challenging disease to treat. Well conducted oral therapies are commonly quite effective for a short term period. However, recurrences are frequent. Topical therapies appear globally less active. Studies in this field are rare, although the promotional advertisements to the general public abound nowadays. Various microscopic fungi (dermatophytes, yeasts, molds) should be targeted by the treatment, In addition, the distinct activity conditions of both growth and quiescence of the pathogen fungi should be influenced by the treatments. This is not frequently considered by drug companies and encountered in practice. The antifungal drug penetration inside all the nail layers is important to be performed. PMID:25902599

  1. [How I treat... onychomycosis by topical therapy].

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C

    2015-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a frequent and challenging disease to treat. Well conducted oral therapies are commonly quite effective for a short term period. However, recurrences are frequent. Topical therapies appear globally less active. Studies in this field are rare, although the promotional advertisements to the general public abound nowadays. Various microscopic fungi (dermatophytes, yeasts, molds) should be targeted by the treatment, In addition, the distinct activity conditions of both growth and quiescence of the pathogen fungi should be influenced by the treatments. This is not frequently considered by drug companies and encountered in practice. The antifungal drug penetration inside all the nail layers is important to be performed.

  2. Framing Classroom Discussion of Same-Sex Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Assuming that the issue of same-sex marriage should be discussed in schools, how should the discussion be framed? Michael Hand first distinguishes this question from the related but distinct question of whether discussion on this topic should be steered. He then examines three possible frames for discussion of same-sex marriage: the perfectionist…

  3. Empirical Analysis and Modeling of Users' Topic Interests in Online Forums

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Fei; Liu, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Bulletin Board Systems (BBSs) have demonstrated their usefulness in spreading information. In BBS forums, a few posts that address currently popular social topics attract a lot of attention, and different users are interested in many different discussion topics. We investigate topic cluster features and user interests of an actual BBS forum, analyzing user posting and replying behavior. According to the growing process of BBS, we suggest a network model in which each agent only replies to the posts that belong to its specific topics of interest. A post that is replied to will be immediately assigned the highest priority on the post list. Simulation results show that characteristics of our model are similar to those of the real BBS. The model with heterogeneous user interests promotes the occurrence of popular posts, and the user relationship network possesses a large clustering coefficient. Bursts and long waiting time exist in user replying behavior, leading to non-Poisson user activity pattern. In addition, the model produces an analogous evolving trend of Gini coefficients for posts' and clusters' participants as BBS forums. PMID:23251401

  4. Topical Knowledge and ESL Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Ling; Shi, Ling

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of topical knowledge on ESL (English as a Second Language) writing performance in the English Language Proficiency Index (LPI), a standardized English proficiency test used by many post-secondary institutions in western Canada. The participants were 50 students with different levels of English proficiency…

  5. Conducting Surveys on Sensitive Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Many institutions are surveying students about sensitive topics such as alcohol and drug use, sexual behavior, and academic dishonesty. Yet these can be some of the most difficult surveys to administer successfully, given reluctance on the part of respondents both to participate and to provide truthful answers. (Contains 1 table.)

  6. Topic Development in USENET Newsgroups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Larry N.

    1998-01-01

    USENET newsgroup topics are created, and they evolve, mutate, and become extinct in ways fundamentally different from spoken dialog. These differences can be explained partially by the asynchronous nature of electronic communication, as well as by other factors unique to such wide-scale multi-user media. (Author)

  7. Vocational Education Today: Topical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane, Ed.; Tregenza, Karen, Ed.; Watkins, Peter, Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers examining topical issues in vocational education and training (VET) in Victoria, Australia. The following papers are included: "Vocational Education and Schooling: The Changing Scene" (Jane Kenway, Sue Willis, Peter Watkins, Karen Tregenza); "The Enterprise Approach" (James Mulraney); "VET Programs at James Harrison…

  8. The Health Curriculum: 500 Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Oliver E.

    2001-01-01

    This 1958 paper divides 500 health topics into 20 categories: health as a social accomplishment/social problem; nutrition; physical fitness; mental health and disease; heredity/eugenics; infection/immunity; chronic and degenerative disease; substance abuse; skin care; vision, hearing, and speech; dental health; safety; physical environment; health…

  9. Topics in optics and music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Andrew W.

    2012-10-01

    While the use of optics in the playback of music has been a tremendously successful technology and laser light shows are a common occurrence, other intersections of optics and music tend to be less well known. Topics such as optics-based instruments, performance tools and effects, instrument characterization and manufacturing, recording, playback, and signal processing are explored.

  10. Case-Based Teacher Preparation for Teaching Controversial Topics in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muth, K. Denise; Polizzi, Nicholas C.; Glynn, Shawn M.

    2007-01-01

    Many middle school teachers are not prepared to develop units and lesson plans on controversial topics. In addition, many are not prepared to respond effectively when controversial topics arise unexpectedly during routine lessons. This is a significant problem because controversial topics are arising with increasing frequency in middle school…

  11. 76 FR 72619 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Eprinomectin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 524 Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New... supplemental NADA provides for addition of a warning statement against the use of eprinomectin topical solution... supplement to NADA 141-079 for EPRINEX (eprinomectin) Pour-On for Beef and Dairy Cattle, a topical...

  12. Topic Analysis Using a Finite Mixture Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hang; Yamanishi, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    Presents a single framework for conducting topic analysis that performs both topic identification and text segmentation. Key characteristics of the framework are: representing a topic by means of a cluster of words closely related to the topic; and employing a stochastic model, called a finite mixture model, to represent a word distribution within…

  13. Topical Melatonin for Treatment of Androgenetic Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Tobias W; Trüeb, Ralph M; Hänggi, Gabriella; Innocenti, Marcello; Elsner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the search for alternative agents to oral finasteride and topical minoxidil for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA), melatonin, a potent antioxidant and growth modulator, was identified as a promising candidate based on in vitro and in vivo studies. Materials and Methods: One pharmacodynamic study on topical application of melatonin and four clinical pre-post studies were performed in patients with androgenetic alopecia or general hair loss and evaluated by standardised questionnaires, TrichoScan, 60-second hair count test and hair pull test. Results: Five clinical studies showed positive effects of a topical melatonin solution in the treatment of AGA in men and women while showing good tolerability: (1) Pharmacodynamics under once-daily topical application in the evening showed no significant influence on endogenous serum melatonin levels. (2) An observational study involving 30 men and women showed a significant reduction in the degree of severity of alopecia after 30 and 90 days (P < 0.001) based on questionnaires completed by investigators and patients. (3) Using a digital software-supported epiluminescence technique (TrichoScan) in 35 men with AGA, after 3 and 6 months in 54.8% to 58.1% of the patients a significant increase of hair density of 29% and 41%, respectively was measured (M0: 123/cm2; M3: 159/cm2; M6: 173/cm2;) (P < 0,001). (4) In 60 men and women with hair loss, a significant reduction in hair loss was observed in women, while hair loss in men remained constant (P < 0.001). (5) In a large, 3-month, multi-center study with more than 1800 volunteers at 200 centers, the percentage of patients with a 2- to 3-fold positive hair-pull test decreased from 61.6% to 7.8%, while the percentage of patients with a negative hair-pull test increased from 12.2.% to 61.5% (P < 0.001). In addition, a decrease in seborrhea and seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp was observed. Conclusions: Since safety and tolerability in all of the studies was

  14. Retapamulin: a newer topical antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, D; Parakh, A; Ramachandran, S

    2013-01-01

    Impetigo is a common childhood skin infection. There are reports of increasing drug resistance to the currently used topical antibiotics including fusidic acid and mupirocin. Retapamulin is a newer topical agent of pleuromutilin class approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of impetigo in children and has been recently made available in the Indian market. It has been demonstrated to have low potential for the development of antibacterial resistance and a high degree of potency against poly drug resistant Gram-positive bacteria found in skin infections including Staphylococcus aureus strains. The drug is safe owing to low systemic absorption and has only minimal side-effect of local irritation at the site of application. PMID:23793314

  15. [Topical cimetidine treatment of acne].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J B; Spona, J

    1986-08-01

    We present first results of topically applied cimetidine in acne. Ten patients suffering from papulopustular and comedone acne administered 2% cimetidine in indifferent lotion on their face twice a day. Clinical controls were performed every two weeks; sebum was monthly determined. After treatment of 13 weeks on the average, the clinical success was generally good. Comedones responded best, followed by papules. Pustules were hardly reduced. There was no significant reduction of SER and the lipid fractions at the end of treatment. Low concentration or insufficient penetration might be possible explanations. The efficient reduction of comedones might be an antiandrogenic effect due to modulation of the keratinization in the follicle excretory duct. Immune-modulatory effects of cimetidine and effects on the skin vessels are other possible explanations for the clinical efficacy of topical application of cimetidine in acne.

  16. Hot topics from the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The Tevatron Run-II began in March 2001. To date, both the CDF and D0 experiments have collected 1 fb{sup -1} of data each. The results obtained from this data set were summarized at this conference in 39 parallel session presentations covering a wide range of topics. The author summarizes the most important of those results here and comments on some of the prospects for the future.

  17. TOPTRAC: Topical Trajectory Pattern Mining

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Younghoon; Han, Jiawei; Yuan, Cangzhou

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing use of GPS-enabled mobile phones, geo-tagging, which refers to adding GPS information to media such as micro-blogging messages or photos, has seen a surge in popularity recently. This enables us to not only browse information based on locations, but also discover patterns in the location-based behaviors of users. Many techniques have been developed to find the patterns of people's movements using GPS data, but latent topics in text messages posted with local contexts have not been utilized effectively. In this paper, we present a latent topic-based clustering algorithm to discover patterns in the trajectories of geo-tagged text messages. We propose a novel probabilistic model to capture the semantic regions where people post messages with a coherent topic as well as the patterns of movement between the semantic regions. Based on the model, we develop an efficient inference algorithm to calculate model parameters. By exploiting the estimated model, we next devise a clustering algorithm to find the significant movement patterns that appear frequently in data. Our experiments on real-life data sets show that the proposed algorithm finds diverse and interesting trajectory patterns and identifies the semantic regions in a finer granularity than the traditional geographical clustering methods. PMID:26709365

  18. Generic development of topical dermatologic products, Part II: quality by design for topical semisolid products.

    PubMed

    Chang, Rong-Kun; Raw, Andre; Lionberger, Robert; Yu, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    The emergence of quality by design as a relatively new systematic science and risk-based approach has added a new dimension to pharmaceutical development and manufacturing. This review attempts to discuss the quality by design elements and concepts applied for topical semisolid products. Quality by design begins with defining a quality target product profile as well as critical quality attributes. Subsequently, this is followed by risk identification/risk analysis/risk evaluation to recognize critical material attributes and critical process parameters, in conjunction with design of experiments or other appropriate methods to establish control strategies for the drug product. Several design-of-experiment examples are included as practical strategies for the development and optimization of formulation and process for topical drug products.

  19. Cochlear Macro- and Micromechanics—A Moderated Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wei; Ruggero, Mario A.

    2011-11-01

    A discussion moderated by the authors on the topic "Cochlear Macro- and Micromechanics" was held on 19 July 2011 at the 11th International Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Williamstown, Massachusetts. The paper provides an edited transcript of the session.

  20. Integrating ethical topics in a traditional computer science course

    SciTech Connect

    Winrich, L.B.

    1994-12-31

    It is never hard to find additional, often unconventional, topics which seem to beg inclusion in standard courses. A dynamic discipline like computer science usually provides a steady stream of new technical ideas to vie for time and attention with more traditional material. As difficult as it may be to keep standard CS courses up-to-date with technical innovations, it often seems even more difficult to include non-technical topics even when there is universal agreement on their importance, Inevitably the question of whether or not such inclusion will compromise the technical content of the course arises. This paper describes an attempt to include two such topics in a traditional course in data structures. The two topics are writing and ethics and, although the effort concentrates on the inclusion of ethical questions in a standard CS course, writing is the vehicle for accomplishing this goal. Furthermore, the inclusion writing in the CS curriculum is certainly recognized as a desirable outcome.

  1. Application of Nail Polish During Topical Management of Onychomycosis: Are Data Available to Guide the Clinician About What to Tell Their Patients?

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2016-08-01

    Topical antifungal management of toenail onychomycosis has been fraught with several therapeutic challenges including difficulty gaining access to the site of infection and the need for prolonged durations of therapy. In addition, there has been a marked lack of information on the impact of toenail polish application on drug penetration after application. This article reviews available data from studies evaluating the effect of nail polish on antifungal drag penetration using ex vivo laboratory models with cadaver fingernail plates with both tavaborole 5% solution and efinaconazole 10% solution. In addition, changes in nail polish appearance and color transfer to applicators are also discussed, with changes noted with topical efinaconazole. Importantly, there are no data on whether or not nail polish application alters the efficacy of these topical agents. PMID:27672416

  2. Science leaders discuss budget crunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Although funding for research fared relatively well in the budget proposed by the Reagan Administration for fiscal year (FY) 1987, leaders of the science community should expect lean times ahead for federal funding and should plan accordingly. This was the message delivered February 26-27, 1986, to nearly 400 participants in a conference at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, D.C.Leaders and policymakers from all segments of the research establishment were invited to attend the 2-day conference, which was sponsored by the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable, an independent group associated with NAS, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Discussions at the conference revolved around the question “What research strategies best serve the national interest in a period of budgetary stress?” After hearing perspectives from representatives from the Administration, industry, federal agencies, universities, and a federal laboratory, participants were divided into seven working groups. Each group was assigned a topic of discussion, such as “Management at the Campus Level,” “The Relative Roles of Federal Laboratories and Outside Research Institutions,” and “Possible Non-Federal Sources of Support: States, Industry, and Foundations.” On the second day of the conference, the working group chairmen reported back to the conference at large.

  3. Understanding topics and sentiment in an online cancer survivor community.

    PubMed

    Portier, Kenneth; Greer, Greta E; Rokach, Lior; Ofek, Nir; Wang, Yafei; Biyani, Prakhar; Yu, Mo; Banerjee, Siddhartha; Zhao, Kang; Mitra, Prasenjit; Yen, John

    2013-12-01

    Online cancer communities help members support one another, provide new perspectives about living with cancer, normalize experiences, and reduce isolation. The American Cancer Society's 166000-member Cancer Survivors Network (CSN) is the largest online peer support community for cancer patients, survivors, and caregivers. Sentiment analysis and topic modeling were applied to CSN breast and colorectal cancer discussion posts from 2005 to 2010 to examine how sentiment change of thread initiators, a measure of social support, varies by discussion topic. The support provided in CSN is highest for medical, lifestyle, and treatment issues. Threads related to 1) treatments and side effects, surgery, mastectomy and reconstruction, and decision making for breast cancer, 2) lung scans, and 3) treatment drugs in colon cancer initiate with high negative sentiment and produce high average sentiment change. Using text mining tools to assess sentiment, sentiment change, and thread topics provides new insights that community managers can use to facilitate member interactions and enhance support outcomes.

  4. Corneal Neurotoxicity Due to Topical Benzalkonium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Namavari, Abed; Ozturk, Okan; Chang, Jin-Hong; Yco, Lisette; Sonawane, Snehal; Khanolkar, Vishakha; Hallak, Joelle; Jain, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize the effect of topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on corneal nerves in vivo and in vitro. Methods. Thy1-YFP+ neurofluorescent mouse eyes were treated topically with vehicle or BAK (0.01% or 0.1%). Wide-field stereofluorescence microscopy was performed to sequentially image the treated corneas in vivo every week for 4 weeks, and changes in stromal nerve fiber density (NFD) and aqueous tear production were determined. Whole-mount immunofluorescence staining of corneas was performed with antibodies to axonopathy marker SMI-32. Western immunoblot analyses were performed on trigeminal ganglion and corneal lysates to determine abundance of proteins associated with neurotoxicity and regeneration. Compartmental culture of trigeminal ganglion neurons was performed in Campenot devices to determine whether BAK affects neurite outgrowth. Results. BAK-treated corneas exhibited significantly reduced NFD and aqueous tear production, and increased inflammatory cell infiltration and fluorescein staining at 1 week (P < 0.05). These changes were most significant after 0.1% BAK treatment. The extent of inflammatory cell infiltration in the cornea showed a significant negative correlation with NFD. Sequential in vivo imaging of corneas showed two forms of BAK-induced neurotoxicity: reversible neurotoxicity characterized by axonopathy and recovery, and irreversible neurotoxicity characterized by nerve degeneration and regeneration. Increased abundance of beta III tubulin in corneal lysates confirmed regeneration. A dose-related significant reduction in neurites occurred after BAK addition to compartmental cultures of dissociated trigeminal ganglion cells. Although both BAK doses (0.0001% and 0.001%) reduced nerve fiber length, the reduction was significantly more with the higher dose (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Topical application of BAK to the eye causes corneal neurotoxicity, inflammation, and reduced aqueous

  5. Generic development of topical dermatologic products: formulation development, process development, and testing of topical dermatologic products.

    PubMed

    Chang, Rong-Kun; Raw, Andre; Lionberger, Robert; Yu, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    This review presents considerations which can be employed during the development of a semi-solid topical generic product. This includes a discussion on the implementation of quality by design concepts during development to ensure the generic drug product has similar desired quality attributes to the reference-listed drug (RLD) and ensure batch to batch consistency through commercial production. This encompasses the concept of reverse-engineering to copy the RLD as a strategy during product development to ensure qualitative (Q1) and quantitative (Q2) formulation similarity, as well as similarity in formulation microstructure (Q3). The concept of utilizing in vitro skin permeation studies as a tool to justify formulation differences between the test generic product and the RLD to ensure a successful pharmacodynamic or clinical endpoint bioequivalence study is discussed. The review concludes with a discussion on drug product evaluation and quality tests as well as in vivo bioequivalence studies.

  6. Clinical effects of sulphite additives.

    PubMed

    Vally, H; Misso, N L A; Madan, V

    2009-11-01

    Sulphites are widely used as preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Topical, oral or parenteral exposure to sulphites has been reported to induce a range of adverse clinical effects in sensitive individuals, ranging from dermatitis, urticaria, flushing, hypotension, abdominal pain and diarrhoea to life-threatening anaphylactic and asthmatic reactions. Exposure to the sulphites arises mainly from the consumption of foods and drinks that contain these additives; however, exposure may also occur through the use of pharmaceutical products, as well as in occupational settings. While contact sensitivity to sulphite additives in topical medications is increasingly being recognized, skin reactions also occur after ingestion of or parenteral exposure to sulphites. Most studies report a 3-10% prevalence of sulphite sensitivity among asthmatic subjects following ingestion of these additives. However, the severity of these reactions varies, and steroid-dependent asthmatics, those with marked airway hyperresponsiveness, and children with chronic asthma, appear to be at greater risk. In addition to episodic and acute symptoms, sulphites may also contribute to chronic skin and respiratory symptoms. To date, the mechanisms underlying sulphite sensitivity remain unclear, although a number of potential mechanisms have been proposed. Physicians should be aware of the range of clinical manifestations of sulphite sensitivity, as well as the potential sources of exposure. Minor modifications to diet or behaviour lead to excellent clinical outcomes for sulphite-sensitive individuals.

  7. New patents on topical anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Carmen; Macaluso, Laura; Frascani, Federica; Paolino, Giovanni; D'Andrea, Vito; Richetta, Antonio G; Calvieri, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia is defined as a total or partial loss of sensation and it may be general, local or topical, depending on the method of drug administration and area of the body affected. General anesthesia is a reversible state of unconsciousness produced by anesthetic agents, characterized by amnesia, muscle relaxation and loss of sensitivity to pain of the whole body. General anesthetic drugs can be classified into two main groups according to their predominant molecular pharmacological effects: volatile and intravenous agents. Local anesthesia produce a reversible loss of sensation in a portion of the body and it reversibly block impulse conduction along nerve axons and other excitable membrane. All local anesthetics (LA) are membrane stabilizing drugs; they reversibly decrease the rate of depolarization and repolarization of excitable membranes. They act mainly by inhibiting sodium influx through sodium-specific ion channels in the neuronal cell membrane, in particular the voltage-gated sodium channels. When the influx of sodium is interrupted, an action potential cannot arise and signal conduction is inhibited. The main local anesthetic (LA) agents for skin anesthesia are benzocaine (aminoester), prilocaine and lidocaine (aminoamides) which are commercially available as gels, ointments and creams (benzocaine and eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine) or as a bioadhesive (lidocaine) with different compositions (vehicles and excipients) for adults or pediatric use. Topical anesthetics decrease anxiety, pain and discomfort during cutaneous procedures and provide effective analgesia with rapid onset, prolonged duration and minimal side effects. This article outlines the different classes of topical anesthetics available and gives an overview of the mechanism of action, metabolism of each different class, of the possible complications that can occur because of their use and their possible treatment options and new patents.

  8. Learning through Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Robert A.; Calvo, Rafael; Levy, David; Tan, Kelvin

    2004-01-01

    Students studying a third-year e-commerce subject experienced face-to-face and online discussions as an important part of their learning experience. The quality of the students' experiences of learning through those discussions is investigated in this study. This study uses qualitative approaches to investigate the variation in the students'…

  9. The Use of Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Edmund deS.; And Others

    Research on the use of discussion in adult education has been largely concerned with comparing it with the use of other instructional techniques and with measuring opinion change. Many studies, such as Kurt Lewin's study of food habits, have compared the effectiveness of group discussion as contrasted with lecture in changing opinions and…

  10. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  11. Leading Classroom Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gloriana; DeJarnette, Anna F.

    2013-01-01

    Classroom discourse is a valuable teaching and learning tool. Discussions allow students to improve their communication and reasoning skills in mathematics and help teachers assess students' understanding of mathematical ideas. To get the greatest benefit from discussion, teachers must elicit student thinking, listen carefully to their ideas,…

  12. Timely topics in pediatric psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Dineen Wagner, Karen

    2014-11-01

    This section of Focus on Childhood and Adolescent Mental Health presents findings on an array of topics including inflammation and child and adolescent depression, glutamatergic dysregulation and pediatric psychiatric disorders, predictors of bipolar disorder in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the continuum between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). There is increased interest in the role of inflammation in psychiatric disorders. Kim and colleagues conducted a systematic literature review to examine the relationships between inflammatory processes, inflammation, medical conditions, and depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. PMID:25470084

  13. Topical and oral antibiotics for acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics, both oral and topical, have been an integral component of the management of acne vulgaris (AV) for approximately 6 decades. Originally thought to be effective for AV due to their ability to inhibit proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, it is now believed that at least some antibiotics also exert anti-inflammatory effects that provide additional therapeutic benefit. To add, an increase in strains of P acnes and other exposed bacteria that are less sensitive to antibiotics used to treat AV have emerged, with resistance directly correlated geographically with the magnitude of antibiotic use. Although antibiotics still remain part of the therapeutic armamentarium for AV treatment, current recommendations support the following when used to treat AV: 1) monotherapy use should be avoided; 2) use benzoyl peroxide concomitantly to reduce emergence of resistant P acnes strains; 3) oral antibiotics should be used in combination with a topical regimen for moderate-to-severe inflammatory AV; and 4) use oral antibiotics over a limited duration to achieve control of inflammatory AV with an exit plan in place to discontinue their use as soon as possible. When selecting an oral antibiotic to treat AV, potential adverse effects are important to consider.

  14. Precession electron diffraction – a topical review

    PubMed Central

    Midgley, Paul A.; Eggeman, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20 years since precession electron diffraction (PED) was introduced, it has grown from a little-known niche technique to one that is seen as a cornerstone of electron crystallography. It is now used primarily in two ways. The first is to determine crystal structures, to identify lattice parameters and symmetry, and ultimately to solve the atomic structure ab initio. The second is, through connection with the microscope scanning system, to map the local orientation of the specimen to investigate crystal texture, rotation and strain at the nanometre scale. This topical review brings the reader up to date, highlighting recent successes using PED and providing some pointers to the future in terms of method development and how the technique can meet some of the needs of the X-ray crystallography community. Complementary electron techniques are also discussed, together with how a synergy of methods may provide the best approach to electron-based structure analysis. PMID:25610633

  15. Supervisory Conferences: An Exploration of Some Difficult Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Real, Francis; Stimpson, Philip; Bunton, David

    2001-01-01

    Investigated student teachers' and university supervisors' views regarding difficult areas to discuss in conferences and how to tackle the problem. Students and supervisors had many similar perceptions. Difficult topics included possible failure, general attitude, and lack of presence, commitment, and enthusiasm. Solutions included identifying the…

  16. Ready Reference Tools: EBSCO Topic Search and SIRS Researcher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, Sharon; Dayment, Lu

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of ready reference and current events collections in high school libraries focuses on a comparison of two CD-ROM services, EBSCO Topic Search and the SIRS Researcher. Considers licensing; access; search strategies; viewing articles; currency; printing; added value features; and advantages of CD-ROMs. (LRW)

  17. "Two Cultures" Topics for General Studies Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, James H.

    1982-01-01

    Theses proposed in C. P. Snow's book "The Two Cultures," including uncommunicative scientific and literary groups, gap between rich and poor, overpopulation, and nuclear war remain viable topics. Discusses the scientific and literary cultural gap and what can be done in general studies science courses to ameliorate the condition. (Author/JN)

  18. For Your Citations Only? Hot Topics in Bibliometric Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Raan, Anthony F. J.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a rejoinder on the commentaries regarding the author's focus article titled, "Measurement of Central Aspects of Scientific Research: Performance, Interdisciplinarity, Structure," structuring comments around a number of main topics discussed by the authors of the commentaries. The author presents technical issues that…

  19. Preface: Special Topic on Interfacial and Confined Water

    SciTech Connect

    Molinero, Valeria; Kay, Bruce D.

    2014-11-14

    This Special Topic on the Chemical Physics of Interfacial and Confined Water contains a collection of original research papers that showcase recent theoretical and experimental advances in the field. These papers provide a timely discussion of fundamental aspects of interfacial and confined water that are important in both natural environments and engineered applications.

  20. Culture, Diet, and Nutrition: Selected Themes and Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grivetti, Louis Evan

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: How do nutritious diets develop? What is the antiquity of nutritional disease? Why do humans consume nonfood items? What impact do religious prohibitions and practices have on nutritional status? And why are some toxic plants and animals consumed and desired by man? (Author/BB)

  1. Mead and Dewey: Thematic Connections on Educational Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Lawrence J.; Stickel, George W.

    1981-01-01

    Common themes emerge from the writings of John Dewey and George Herbert Mead on four educational topics discussed here: (1) play; (2) science teaching; (3) history teaching; and (4) industrial education. Both men deplored the fragmentation of education and believed moral insight could be furthered through social understanding, science, and…

  2. Two emerging topics regarding long-range physical signaling in neurosystems: Membrane nanotubes and electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Scholkmann, Felix

    2015-06-01

    In this review paper, an overview is given of two emerging research topics that address the importance of long-range physical signaling in living biosystems. The first topic concerns the biophysical principles and the physiological significance of long-range cell-to-cell signaling through electrical signals facilitated by membrane nanotubes (MNTs) (also called "tunneling nanotubes"), namely long membrane extensions that connect cells, discovered about 10 years ago. This review paper looks at experimental results that showed electrical signals being propagated through MNTs, and that MNT-mediated electrical coupling between brain cells involves activation of low-voltage-gated calcium channels. The significance of electrical cell-to-cell coupling through MNT for neuronal communication is discussed. The second topic deals with endogenous electromagnetic fields generated by nerve cells. The review concludes that these fields are not just an "epiphenomenon" but play a fundamental role in neuronal processes. For example, electromagnetic fields from brain cells feed back to their generating cells and to other cells (ephaptic coupling) and, for example, modulate the spiking timing of them. It is also discussed that cell membranes of neurons have specific resonance properties which possibly determine the impact of endogenous electric field fluctuations with respect to field strength and frequency. In addition, it is reviewed how traveling and standing waves of the endogenous electromagnetic field produced by neuronal and non-neuronal cells may play an integral part in global neuronal network dynamics. Finally, an outlook is given on which research questions should be addressed in the future regarding these two topics.

  3. Developing Multiplicative Thinking from Additive Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Jennifer M.; Andreasen, Janet B.

    2013-01-01

    As students progress through elementary school, they encounter mathematics concepts that shift from additive to multiplicative situations (NCTM 2000). When they encounter fraction problems that require multiplicative thinking, they tend to incorrectly extend additive properties from whole numbers (Post et al. 1985). As a result, topics such as …

  4. Selected Antimicrobial Activity of Topical Ophthalmic Anesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Margaret M.; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Patel, Robin; Pulido, Jose S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Endophthalmitis is a rare complication of intravitreal injection (IVI). It is recommended that povidone-iodine be the last agent applied before IVI. Patients have reported povidone-iodine application to be the most bothersome part of IVIs. Topical anesthetics have been demonstrated to have antibacterial effects. This study compared the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of topical anesthetic eye drops (proparacaine 0.5%, tetracaine 0.5%, lidocaine 2.0%) and the antiseptic, 5.0% povidone-iodine, against two organisms causing endophthalmitis after IVI. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentration values of topical anesthetics, povidone-iodine, preservative benzalkonium chloride (0.01%), and saline control were determined using five isolates of each Staphylococcus epidermidis and viridans group Streptococcus species (VGS). A broth microdilution technique was used with serial dilutions. Results Lidocaine (8.53 × 10−5mol/mL) had MICs of 4.27 to 8.53 × 10−5 mol/mL, and tetracaine (1.89 × 10−5 mol/mL) had MICs of 9.45 × 10−6 mol/mL for all isolates. Proparacaine (1.7 × 10−5 mol/mL) had MICs of 1.32 to 5.3 × 10−7 and 4.25 × 10−6 mol/mL for S. epidermidis and VGS, respectively). Benzalkonium chloride (3.52 × 10−7 mol/mL) had MICs of 1.86 × 10−9 to 1.1 × 10−8 and 4.40 × 10−8 mol/mL for S. epidermidis and VGS, respectively. Povidone-iodine (1.37 × 10−4 mol/mL) had MICs of 2.14 to 4.28 × 10−6 and 8.56 × 10−6 mol/mL for S. epidermidis and VGS, respectively. Conclusion Proparacaine was the anesthetic with the lowest MICs, lower than that of povidone-iodine. Benzalkonium chloride had lower MICs than proparacaine. All tested anesthetics and povidone-iodine inhibited growth of S. epidermidis and VGS at commercially available concentrations. Translational Relevance For certain patients, it could be possible to use topical anesthetic after povidone-iodine for comfort without inhibiting and perhaps contributing additional antimicrobial

  5. Career Opportunities for Physicists: Panel Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-03-01

    We live in a world full of opportunity for physics graduates. Join us for a unique opportunity to learn about some of these opportunities from our diverse panel of working physicists from industrial, national lab, and academic sectors. Topics of discussion will include panelists' daily experiences, how physics serves them in their career, and advice to students interested in following a similar path. Light refreshments will be served.

  6. Melanoma Prevention Using Topical PBISe

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chin-Ying; Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V.; Desai, Dhimant; Amin, Shantu; Robertson, Gavin P.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer, known for its drug resistance and high metastatic potential. Deregulated PI3 and MAP kinase pathways promote early melanocytic lesion development and confer drug resistance. No agent exists to target these deregulated pathways to prevent cutaneous non-invasive melanocytic cells or invasive melanomas from developing into more aggressive widely disseminated metastatic disease. In this study, a selenium containing isosteric analogue of PBIT [S,S′-1,4-phenylenebis(1,2-ethanediyl)bis-isothiourea] called PBISe [Se,Se′-1,4-phenylenebis(1,2-ethanediyl)bis-isoselenourea] is shown to moderate these two major signaling pathways to prevent cutaneous melanocytic lesion or melanoma development. Topical application of PBISe retarded melanocytic lesion development in laboratory-generated skin by 70-80% and in animal skin by ∼50%. Mechanistically, prevention of lesion development occurred due to decreased Akt3 signaling, which increased MAP kinase pathway activity to inhibitory levels. The combined effect of targeting these pathways led to decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptotic cell death thereby preventing melanoma development. Thus, topically applied PBISe treatment has potential to prevent non-invasive melanocytic lesion and invasive metastatic melanoma development in skin. PMID:21367959

  7. Topics in quantum transport of charge and heat in solid state systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yunjin

    In the thesis, we present a series of investigations for quantum transport of charge and heat in solid state systems. The first topic of the thesis focuses on the fundamental quantum problems which can be studied with electron transport along with the correlations of detectors to measure physical properties. We theoretically describe a generalized ``which-path'' measurement using a pair of coupled electronic Mach-Zehnder Interferometers. In the second topic of thesis, we investigate an operational approach to measure the tunneling time based on the Larmor clock. To handle the cases of indirect measurement from the first and second topics, we introduce the contextual values formalism. The form of the contextual values provides direct physical insight into the measurement being performed, providing information about the correlation strength between system and detector, the measurement inefficiency, the proper background removal, and the conditioned average value of the system operator. Additionally, the weak interaction limit of these conditioned averages produces weak values of the system operator and an additional detector dependent disturbance term for both cases. In our treatment of the third topic of the thesis, we propose a three terminal heat engine based on semiconductor superlattices for energy harvesting. The periodicity of the superlattice structure creates an energy miniband, giving an energy window to allow electron transport. We find that this device delivers a large amount of power, nearly twice that produced by the heat engine based on quantum wells, with a small reduction of efficiency. This engine also works as a refrigerator in a different regime of the system's parameters. The thermoelectric performance of the refrigerator is analyzed, including the cooling power and coefficient of performance in the optimized condition. We also calculate phonon heat current through the system and explore the reduction of phonon heat current compared to the bulk

  8. Welfare's Children. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Michael

    States with family cap public assistance policies deny or reduce additional welfare benefits to mothers who conceive and give birth to additional children while they are receiving aid. By 1999, 22 states had family cap policies in place. This paper reports estimates of the number and cost implications of infants conceived by mothers receiving…

  9. Basic poster discussion: summary.

    PubMed

    Widdicombe, John

    2011-06-01

    Twelve posters were presented in the section on Basic Research. They were discussed in a session chaired by Paul Davenport (Gainesville, US) and Marian Kollarik (Boston, US), with each poster presenter first briefly describing his/her poster.

  10. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Workplace Safety and Health Topics Industries & Occupations Hazards & Exposures Diseases & ... Pinterest Twitter YouTube NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A-Z Workplace Safety & Health Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH ...

  11. Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... ts If you've ever rubbed a topical pain reliever—a cream, gel or other product applied to ...

  12. The role of topical vitamin D modulators in psoriasis therapy.

    PubMed

    Tanghetti, Emil A

    2009-08-01

    Psoriasis affects more than 5 million adults in the United States (U.S.), causing significant impairments in quality of life and incurring substantial costs in treatment. The disease is characterized by hyperproliferation and abnormal differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes resulting from a disordered immune response. Topical therapies, such as corticosteroids, are the most common treatment for psoriasis. However, long-term use of more potent topical corticosteroids is associated with potential risk for side effects. Topical vitamin D agents have been developed as a newer therapeutic option for use in place of, or in addition to, topical corticosteroids. These agents act to inhibit keratinocyte proliferation, normalize differentiation and modulate the activity of immune cells with minimal effect on serum calcium hemostasis. Calcipotriene is the most widely used member of this class, and is one of the most frequently prescribed topical agents for psoriasis. Although evidence suggests that it is approximately as effective as low-to-medium potency corticosteroids, it is associated with cutaneous irritation, especially when used in sensitive areas. Calcitriol ointment is a new option for topical therapy and is the only vitamin D3 ointment available for use in the U.S. and contains the naturally occurring active form of vitamin D3 that is associated with a relatively low rate of side effects.

  13. Topical therapy for fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Amber A; Dahl, Mark V

    2004-01-01

    Fungi often infect the skin surface and subsequently invade the stratum corneum to avoid being shed from the skin surface by desquamation. Pharmacologic agents applied to the surface of the skin in the form of creams, lotions, or sprays, readily penetrate into the stratum corneum to kill the fungi (fungicidal agents), or at least render them unable to grow or divide (fungistatic agents). Thus, topical therapies work well to rid the skin of topical fungi and yeasts. Azole drugs such as miconazole, clotrimazole, and ketoconazole are fungistatic, limiting fungal growth but depending on epidermal turnover to shed the still-living fungus from the skin surface. Allylamines and benzylamines such as terbinafine, naftifine, and butenafine are fungicidal, actually killing the fungal organisms. Fungicidal drugs are often preferred over fungistatic drugs for treatment of dermatophytic fungal infections, since treatment times as short as one application daily for 1 week are associated with high cure rates. Furthermore, patients often stop treatments when the skin appears healed, usually after about a week of treatment. If this short-term treatment is stopped, fungi recur more often when fungistatic, rather than fungicidal, drugs have been used. Yeast infections such as those caused by Candida albicans respond less well to allylamine drugs. The azole drugs are often preferred for these types of infections. Nail infections are difficult to cure with topical therapies because the infections usually occur under the nail instead of on top of it and products penetrate poorly, if at all, through the nail plate. Infections of hair follicles, nails, and widespread infections often require systemic treatments. Antifungal agents are compounded into many different types of vehicles. Patients often prefer to treat weeping infections with spray formulations. Most physicians prescribe branded products in cream or lotion bases. Cost is a factor dictating prescription choice, especially since

  14. Topics and Terms in Environmental Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holum, John R.

    This reference is an expanded glossary of topics and terms currently related to environmental problems. These topics and terms are associated with energy, air pollution, water pollution, wastes, and pesticides. Included are 239 main entries ranging from acaricide to weathering. Each entry briefly describes the topic or term and often presents a…

  15. Good and Bad Topics for Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidman, Patricia; And Others

    This paper reports the opinions about moral topics expressed by 140 elementary and secondary student teachers, 49 in Indiana and 91 in California. Teachers' judgments of the suitability of topics were collected via a questionnaire containing 20 topics in two versions. The presentation consists of: (1) a description of the opinionnaire teachers…

  16. [Topical therapy in erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Floth, A

    2000-01-01

    All forms of pharmacological therapy result in a relaxation of the corporeal smooth muscle. Intracorporeal injection of vasoactive drugs was introduced around 15 years ago and still is the most effective therapy in erectile dysfunction. Resulting in a consistent success rate of 70-80% this form of therapy will find numerous applications, even after the introduction of effective oral agents such as sildenafil. Prostaglandin E1 and--less frequently used--the combination of papaverine and phentolamine are the mainstay of intracorporeal injection therapy. Intraurethral prostaglandin (MUSE) has recently become available and is somewhat less effective than injection therapy. Externally applied drugs (nitroglycerin paste on the penile shaft and minoxidil solution on the glans penis) have not succeeded in the long run. Vacuum erection devices represent a form of physical topical therapy that is very versatile and also effective but rather infrequently applied. PMID:10746290

  17. Poverty-Related Topics Found in Dissertations: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Mara, Comp.; And Others

    Arranged alphabetically by main topic, this bibliography cites 322 doctoral dissertations, written between 1970 and 1974, pertaining to various aspects of poverty. Where possible, annotations have been written to present the kernel idea of the work. Im many instances, additional subject headings which reflect important secondary thrusts are also…

  18. Unique topics and issues in rheumatology and clinical immunology.

    PubMed

    Selmi, Carlo

    2014-08-01

    Clinicians are facing unexpected issues in everyday practice, and these may become counterintuitive or challenging. Illustrative examples are provided by the hypersensitivity to universally used immunosuppressants such as corticosteroids or antibiotics such as beta-lactam. Secondly, additional issues are represented by the discovery of new pathogenetic mechanisms involved in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis or other chronic inflammatory diseases, genomic susceptibility to enigmatic diseases such as giant cell arteritis, or the shared role of specific mediators such as semaphorins. Third, the therapeutic armamentarium has dramatically changed over the past decade following the introduction of biotechnological drugs, and new mechanisms are being proposed to reduce adverse events or increase the drug effectiveness, particularly on cardiovascular comorbidities. Finally, rare diseases continue to represent difficult cases, as for Cogan's syndrome, with limited literature available for clinical recommendations. For these reason, the present issue of Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology is timely and dedicated to these and other unique topics in clinical immunology and allergy. The aim of this issue is thus to help clinicians involved in internal medicine as well as allergists and clinical immunologists while discussing new pathways that will prove important in the near future.

  19. TOPICAL REVIEW: Progress in cold roll bonding of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Long; Nagai, Kotobu; Yin, Fuxing

    2008-04-01

    Layered composite materials have become an increasingly interesting topic in industrial development. Cold roll bonding (CRB), as a solid phase method of bonding same or different metals by rolling at room temperature, has been widely used in manufacturing large layered composite sheets and foils. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of a technology using layered composite materials produced by CRB and discuss the suitability of this technology in the fabrication of layered composite materials. The effects of process parameters on bonding, mainly including process and surface preparation conditions, have been analyzed. Bonding between two sheets can be realized when deformation reduction reaches a threshold value. However, it is essential to remove surface contamination layers to produce a satisfactory bond in CRB. It has been suggested that the degreasing and then scratch brushing of surfaces create a strong bonding between the layers. Bonding mechanisms, in which the film theory is expressed as the major mechanism in CRB, as well as bonding theoretical models, have also been reviewed. It has also been showed that it is easy for fcc structure metals to bond compared with bcc and hcp structure metals. In addition, hardness on bonding same metals plays an important part in CRB. Applications of composites produced by CRB in industrial fields are briefly reviewed and possible developments of CRB in the future are also described. Corrections were made to the abstract and conclusion of this article on 18 June 2008. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version.

  20. Eye movements during reading and topic scanning: effects of word frequency.

    PubMed

    White, Sarah J; Warrington, Kayleigh L; McGowan, Victoria A; Paterson, Kevin B

    2015-02-01

    The study examined the nature of eye movement control and word recognition during scanning for a specific topic, compared with reading for comprehension. Experimental trials included a manipulation of word frequency: the critical word was frequent (and orthographically familiar) or infrequent (2 conditions: orthographically familiar and orthographically unfamiliar). First-pass reading times showed effects of word frequency for both reading and scanning, with no interactions between word characteristics and task. Therefore, in contrast to the task of searching for a single specific word (Rayner & Fischer, 1996), there were immediate and localized influences of lexical processing when scanning for a specific topic, indicating that early word recognition processes are similar during reading and topic scanning. In contrast, there were interactions for later measures, with larger effects of word frequency during reading than scanning, indicating that reading goals can modulate later processes such as the integration of words into sentence context. Additional analyses of the distribution of first-pass single fixation durations indicated that first-pass fixations of all durations were shortened during scanning compared with reading, and reading for comprehension produced a larger subset of longer first-pass fixations compared with scanning. The implications for the nature of word recognition and eye movement control are discussed.

  1. [The amygdaloid body of the brain: some topics for discussion and little-studied problems].

    PubMed

    Akmaev, I G; Kalimullina, L B

    1995-01-01

    Features of functional morphology of the amygdaloid brain complex (ABC) are analyzed in a new light presenting the notion of the ABC as a nucleo-paleocortical structure. The analysis of the structural organization of ABC could imply the presence of phylogenetically differentiated parts: the ancient, the old and the new amygdala. The presentation carries original data on the morphometric and histophysiological studies under various experimental alterations of the endocrine system. A concept is developed of the existence of a rostrocaudal gradient in the expression of sex-dependent structural and functional features of the amygdaloid complex as a neuroendocrine brain centre. Provided is technical recommendation for use in biological studies of amygdaloid brain complex mathematical models based on the theory of image identification. An original technique has also been recommended for selective dissection of the ABC with its eventual removal from nonfixed brain, which allows studies to be made of the ABC neurophysiological and neurochemical properties on surviving slices. Evidence is adduced indicating involvement of the ABC in the process of the brain sex differentiation.

  2. Who's asking the important questions? Sexual topics discussed among young pregnant couples.

    PubMed

    Albritton, Tashuna; Fletcher, Kyla Day; Divney, Anna; Gordon, Derrick; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S

    2014-12-01

    The aim was to examine gender differences in sexual risk communication among young couples and factors influencing communication. Sample consisted of 296 young pregnant couples. We assessed individual, interpersonal, and community factors on sexual risk communication. The Actor-Partner Independence Model was used to assess actor and partner effects on sexual risk communication. For actor effects, being female, older, not being Hispanic, and higher condom use self-efficacy was associated with sexual risk communication. The significant partner effect was avoidant romantic attachment. Gender interactions were significant for high risk behaviors and family functioning. High risk behaviors and family functioning were associated with sexual risk communication for females but not for males. The study emphasizes the need to promote sexual risk communication among young high risk couples, particularly for males. Family support could serve as a catalyst for sexual risk communication and other sexual protective behaviors among young couples.

  3. Who’s Asking the Important Questions? Sexual Topics Discussed among Young Pregnant Couples

    PubMed Central

    Albritton, Tashuna; Day, Kyla M.; Divney, Anna; Gordon, Derrick; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim was to examine gender differences in sexual risk communication among young couples and factors influencing communication. Methods Sample consisted of 296 young pregnant couples. We assessed individual, interpersonal, and community factors on sexual risk communication. The Actor-Partner Independence Model was used to assess actor and partner effects on sexual risk communication. Results For actor effects, being female, older, not being Hispanic, and higher condom use self-efficacy was associated with sexual risk communication. The significant partner effect was avoidant romantic attachment. Gender interactions were significant for high risk behaviors and family functioning. High risk behaviors and family functioning were associated with sexual risk communication for females but not for males. Conclusion The study emphasizes the need to promote sexual risk communication among young high risk couples, particularly for males. Family support could serve as a catalyst for sexual risk communication and other sexual protective behaviors among young couples. PMID:24043405

  4. Selected topics in gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, M.A.G.; Hernandez Galeana, A.

    1986-06-20

    Developments in gauge field theory in the past fourteen years are discussed. The canonical description of electroweak and strong interactions is described including the role played by QCD and QFD. The Salam-Weinberg theory of electroweak interactions is reviewed with emphasis on Higgs mass and renormalization group analysis. Implications of hyper-color theories are discussed. Composite models of quarks and leptons are considered including hyperfermions as part of a subquark multiplet. (AIP)

  5. Promoting Lively Literature Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritter, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    When students create personal connections with literature during whole-class discussion, they make sense both of text and of their life experiences. In this article, the author shares tips that help students make text-to-self, text-to-world, and text-to-text connections. She offers classroom examples to illustrate how conversations that encourage…

  6. Writing a Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sue; And Others

    A unit used in an Australian school to teach English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students how to write a discussion is described. The 3-week unit was planned and implemented jointly by an ESL resource teacher, class teacher, and teacher librarian. The class was divided into three heterogeneous groups, two of which were observed for this study and…

  7. Framing Discussions about Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Danielson's Framework for Teaching has provided a common language for discussions of teaching practice for almost 20 years. Many educators love the Framework's comprehensiveness; they find the specific language to be useful as they strive to improve their practice. For other educators, however, the Framework's 22 components and 76 smaller elements…

  8. Discussions That Drive Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Adults in the United States have been migrating to ideologically homogenous communities, a phenomenon that researchers have called "the big sort." Thus, the need for young Americans to engage in civil discussion of controversial issues has never been greater. Public schools are an ideal place to undo the big sort because controversial issues fit…

  9. Clinical Effects of Topical Tacrolimus on Fox-Fordyce Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaya Erdoğan, Hilal; Bulur, Işıl; Kaya, Zeliha

    2015-01-01

    Fox-Fordyce Disease (FFD) is a rare, chronic, pruritic, inflammatory disorder of apocrine glands. It is characterized by dome-shaped, firm, discrete, skin-colored, and monomorphic perifollicular papules. The most common sites of involvement are axillae and anogenital and periareolar regions which are rich in apocrine sweat glands. Treatment is difficult. Topical, intralesional steroids, topical tretinoin, adapalene, clindamycin, benzoyl peroxide, oral contraceptives, isotretinoin, phototherapy, electrocauterisation, excision-liposuction and curettage, and fractional carbon dioxide laser are among the treatment options. In the literature, there are articles reporting beneficial effects of pimecrolimus in FFD. Nevertheless, there have not been any reports about the use of tacrolimus in FFD. We report two patients diagnosed with FFD by clinical and histopathologic examination and discussed therapeutic effects of topical tacrolimus on FFD in the light of literature. PMID:26171257

  10. Topics in bioethics: a development of student perspectives.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Keith A

    2014-12-01

    Exposing students to current biotechnological and medical issues is eye-opening for many students in a way that is not always achieved through lecture-based learning. Lecture or investigative teaching styles provide a tremendous knowledge base for the students, but sometimes these teaching styles do not allow the student to fully develop, especially personal attitudes to issues in bioethics. Through online videos, Hollywood movies, guided readings and classroom discussions, students in this course are informed of some bioethical topics, encouraged to learn about other topics, and use this gained knowledge to develop personal positions regarding the value and/or risk of the issues. This course has been well-received by previous students as a favorite in terms of both topics covered and style.

  11. Tender Topics: Exploring Sensitive Issues with Pre-K through First Grade Children through Read-Alouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mankiw, Sue; Strasser, Janis

    2013-01-01

    The topics including bullying, family diversity, homelessness, disabilities, and incarceration are often referred to as "tender topics." They can be difficult for teachers to explain to or discuss with children. In their work with children, families, and teachers, the authors have seen that it is not necessarily the topic that makes conversations…

  12. Identification of key research needs for topical therapy treatment of psoriasis - a consensus paper by the International Psoriasis Council.

    PubMed

    Wu, J J; Lynde, C W; Kleyn, C E; Iversen, L; van der Walt, J M; Carvalho, A; Kirby, B; Bissonnette, R

    2016-07-01

    In this age of expanding choices of therapy for psoriasis, topical therapies still play an important part in the management of patients. There are many knowledge gaps in topical therapy for psoriasis with regard to efficacy and safety as well as various combinations including topical therapy with phototherapy or with systemic agents. Councillors of the International Psoriasis Council comprised a topical therapy working group to describe these gaps in order to help direct future research endeavours. Herein, we present the results of this analysis, discuss topical agents in clinical development and the attributes of the ideal topical treatment for psoriasis.

  13. Clinicians Discuss Diaper Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Mary; McGuire, Stephanie; Merrill, Lisa; Rossing, Francine; Sayaseng, Kammi

    2015-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis in infants is commonly seen by clinicians in both primary care and acute care settings. The condition can cause significant discomfort for infants and distress for their parents and caregivers. Nursing for Women's Health convened a group of nursing clinicians who work in a variety of settings to discuss the issues and challenges related to preventing and treating diaper dermatitis in both healthy term newborns and premature newborns.

  14. DISCUSSION ON MENINGITIS

    PubMed Central

    1929-01-01

    (1) Meningitis: two groups of cases. (2) A method of washing out the subarachnoid space in cases of septic meningitis secondary to infection of the ear. (3) Discussion on the value of maintaining a positive pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid when operating on a septic region communicating with the subarachnoid space. (4) Leaking cerebrospinal fluid from the region of the ear: operative treatment. PMID:19986899

  15. Topics in theoretical surface science

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, R.

    1991-10-25

    The energetics and structures of clean and adsorbate covered surfaces are investigated in this dissertation. First, the formalism, within the Corrected Effective Medium (CEM) method, for calculating the surface energy of a clean surface is derived. The surface energies for many different metals and their low index surfaces are presented. The minimization of the surface energy is then used to predict the multilayer relaxation of the Al(111), (100), Ni(100), (110) and Fe(100) surfaces. Extensions of the surface CEM formalism to calculate the binding energies of ordered adsorbates on metals surfaces are also derived. The minimization of the binding energy allowed determination of the binding heights, sites and the extent of induced multilayer relaxation for H and N atoms on the Fe(110), (100) and W(110) surfaces. The last topic deals with the dynamics of the epitaxial growth of metals on metal surfaces. The CEM method was first modified by making approximations to enable faster evaluations of the potential and its corresponding forces for molecular dynamics simulations. The goal of these simulations was to identify the important steps in the formation of equilibrium epitaxial structures. 180 refs., 31 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. Selected topics of hypoglycemia care

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review 4 topics in hypoglycemia (HoG) care: diagnosis, circumstances predisposing to HoG, risk of adverse effects, and prevention. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE was searched using the words hypoglycemia and diabetes mellitus. Other relevant sources were hand searched. Evidence was mostly level III and IV from consensus, from observation, and from the author’s clinical experience. MAIN MESSAGES Hypoglycemia can be diagnosed using clinical criteria or using a glucometer; it cannot be diagnosed after death. Capillary blood glucose testing for HoG is required only for patients taking insulin and insulin secretagogues. With intensified treatment of diabetes, a greater incidence of HoG is inevitable. Chronic morbidity and mortality resulting from HoG are believed to be rare. There are no reliable data on HoG-related mortality for idiopathic or accidental sudden death. Interventions by friends, family, colleagues, and teachers can prevent HoG. CONCLUSION Clinical diagnosis of HoG deserves greater emphasis; when patients are unaware of having HoG, physicians must rely on blood glucose testing. Patients not taking insulin or insulin secretagogues need neither fear nor test for HoG. The risk of HoG should not preclude efforts to achieve best possible control of blood sugar. Patients with unstable cardiac arrhythmias, drivers of motor vehicles, and those in high-risk industrial occupations require special vigilance for HoG. PMID:16639972

  17. Decision Point 1 Topical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Yablonsky, Al; Barsoumian, Shant; Legere, David

    2013-05-01

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2a of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to elaborate proven SkyMine® process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of the current Phase (2a) is to complete the detailed design of the pilot plant to be built in Phase 2b.

  18. [Acute tonsillopharyngitis: the effectiveness of topical therapy].

    PubMed

    Nosulya, E V; Kim, I A; Chernykh, N M; Karnoukhova, O A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a furasol sore throat gargle solution for the treatment of acute tonsillopharyngitis. Forty patients presenting with acute tonsillopharyngitis were allocated to two groups, 20 subjects in each, by means of independent sequential randomization. Prior to the onset of the treatment, all the patients were examined for determining the species composition of pharyngeal microflora with the use of an «AutoScan4 System» analyzer («Siemens», USA) and estimating the resistance to antibacterial preparations (by the disk diffusion method). All the participants of the study were prescribed antibacterial therapy. In the patients of group 1 (study group), the antibacterial treatment of acute tonsillopharyngitis was supplemented by a furasol sore throat gargle solution whereas those of group 2 (controls) were treated without topical therapy. The quantitative evaluation of the severity of manifestations of the disease before and after the treatment was based on a 5-point visual-analog scale. It was shown that systemic antibacterial therapy resulted in the consistent decrease of the frequency of occurrence of pathogenic and potentially pathogenic microflora in the patients comprising both groups. Treatment with a furasol sore throat gargle solution did not lead to the appearance of bacterial species alien to the oropharynx, nor was it accompanied by the impairment of resistance of its mucous membrane to the colonization by microorganisms. The results of the study give evidence of the well apparent regression of the subjective signs of tonsillopharyngitis and the inflammatory changes in the mucous membrane of the pharynx in the patients given the topical treatment in the form of a furasol sore throat gargle solution in addition to antibacterial therapy. It is concluded that a furasol sore throat gargle solution can be recommended for the introduction into the combined treatment of the patients

  19. Markers of topical discourse in child-directed speech.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Hannah; Frank, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Although the language we encounter is typically embedded in rich discourse contexts, many existing models of processing focus largely on phenomena that occur sentence-internally. Similarly, most work on children's language learning does not consider how information can accumulate as a discourse progresses. Research in pragmatics, however, points to ways in which each subsequent utterance provides new opportunities for listeners to infer speaker meaning. Such inferences allow the listener to build up a representation of the speakers' intended topic and more generally to identify relationships, structures, and messages that extend across multiple utterances. We address this issue by analyzing a video corpus of child-caregiver interactions. We use topic continuity as an index of discourse structure, examining how caregivers introduce and discuss objects across utterances. For the analysis, utterances are grouped into topical discourse sequences using three annotation strategies: raw annotations of speakers' referents, the output of a model that groups utterances based on those annotations, and the judgments of human coders. We analyze how the lexical, syntactic, and social properties of caregiver-child interaction change over the course of a sequence of topically related utterances. Our findings suggest that many cues used to signal topicality in adult discourse are also available in child-directed speech. PMID:24731080

  20. Markers of topical discourse in child-directed speech.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Hannah; Frank, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Although the language we encounter is typically embedded in rich discourse contexts, many existing models of processing focus largely on phenomena that occur sentence-internally. Similarly, most work on children's language learning does not consider how information can accumulate as a discourse progresses. Research in pragmatics, however, points to ways in which each subsequent utterance provides new opportunities for listeners to infer speaker meaning. Such inferences allow the listener to build up a representation of the speakers' intended topic and more generally to identify relationships, structures, and messages that extend across multiple utterances. We address this issue by analyzing a video corpus of child-caregiver interactions. We use topic continuity as an index of discourse structure, examining how caregivers introduce and discuss objects across utterances. For the analysis, utterances are grouped into topical discourse sequences using three annotation strategies: raw annotations of speakers' referents, the output of a model that groups utterances based on those annotations, and the judgments of human coders. We analyze how the lexical, syntactic, and social properties of caregiver-child interaction change over the course of a sequence of topically related utterances. Our findings suggest that many cues used to signal topicality in adult discourse are also available in child-directed speech.

  1. Polymeric vehicles for topical delivery and related analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Cho, Heui Kyoung; Cho, Jin Hun; Jeong, Seong Hoon; Cho, Dong Chul; Yeum, Jeong Hyun; Cheong, In Woo

    2014-04-01

    Recently a variety of polymeric vehicles, such as micelles, nanoparticles, and polymersomes, have been explored and some of them are clinically used to deliver therapeutic drugs through skin. In topical delivery, the polymeric vehicles as drug carrier should guarantee non-toxicity, long-term stability, and permeation efficacy for drugs, etc. For the development of the successful topical delivery system, it is of importance to develop the polymeric vehicles of well-defined intrinsic properties, such as molecular weights, HLB, chemical composition, topology, specific ligand conjugation and to investigate the effects of the properties on drug permeation behavior. In addition, the role of polymeric vehicles must be elucidated in in vitro and in vivo analyses. This article describes some important features of polymeric vehicles and corresponding analytical methods in topical delivery even though the application span of polymers has been truly broad in the pharmaceutical fields.

  2. HierarchicalTopics: visually exploring large text collections using topic hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Dou, Wenwen; Yu, Li; Wang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Zhiqiang; Ribarsky, William

    2013-12-01

    Analyzing large textual collections has become increasingly challenging given the size of the data available and the rate that more data is being generated. Topic-based text summarization methods coupled with interactive visualizations have presented promising approaches to address the challenge of analyzing large text corpora. As the text corpora and vocabulary grow larger, more topics need to be generated in order to capture the meaningful latent themes and nuances in the corpora. However, it is difficult for most of current topic-based visualizations to represent large number of topics without being cluttered or illegible. To facilitate the representation and navigation of a large number of topics, we propose a visual analytics system--HierarchicalTopic (HT). HT integrates a computational algorithm, Topic Rose Tree, with an interactive visual interface. The Topic Rose Tree constructs a topic hierarchy based on a list of topics. The interactive visual interface is designed to present the topic content as well as temporal evolution of topics in a hierarchical fashion. User interactions are provided for users to make changes to the topic hierarchy based on their mental model of the topic space. To qualitatively evaluate HT, we present a case study that showcases how HierarchicalTopics aid expert users in making sense of a large number of topics and discovering interesting patterns of topic groups. We have also conducted a user study to quantitatively evaluate the effect of hierarchical topic structure. The study results reveal that the HT leads to faster identification of large number of relevant topics. We have also solicited user feedback during the experiments and incorporated some suggestions into the current version of HierarchicalTopics.

  3. Increasing Educational Efficiency Through Technology (Commission Discussion and Background Materials).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Commission for Higher Education, Indianapolis.

    A program schedule and background information for Indiana Commission for Higher Education-sponsored discussion of the use of educational technology to increase educational effeciency are presented. The four major topics of discussion to illustrate the uses and advantages/disadvantages of audio, video, and computing technologies are as follows:…

  4. Workforce Intermediation for Vulnerable Youth: Workforce Initiatives Discussion Paper #4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper's intention is to spur discussion about the roles of "workforce intermediation" as it relates to youth development and employability. It is certainly not meant to be an exhaustive discussion about either topic. It does, however, intend to further the dialogue on international workforce initiatives and the requisite workforce…

  5. How to Create Successful Discussions in Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Neena

    2007-01-01

    Professors often expect students to have the skills that are necessary to participate in discussions. Students, on the other hand, have been trained to glean information from the lecture format; their prior experiences in discussions are likely to be limited to personal opinions on topics such as stem-cell research or evolution. Sudden changes in…

  6. Enabling Easier Information Access in Online Discussion Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Sumit

    2013-01-01

    Online discussion forums have become popular in recent times. They provide a platform for people from different parts of the world sharing a common interest to come together and topics of mutual interest and seek solutions to their problems. There are hundreds of thousands of internet forums containing tens of millions of discussion threads and…

  7. Assessment of Online Discussion Forums for Law Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Judith; Burton, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    This paper goes beyond the existing literature and explores the innovative topic of designing criterion-referenced assessment for online discussion forums. There are several benefits of embedding online discussion forums into subjects including engaging students in collaborative learning, and encouraging deeper analysis, critical thinking and…

  8. Using NASA Space Imaging Technology to Teach Earth and Sun Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verner, E.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Long, T.

    2011-12-01

    We teach an experimental college-level course, directed toward elementary education majors, emphasizing "hands-on" activities that can be easily applied to the elementary classroom. This course, Physics 240: "The Sun-Earth Connection" includes various ways to study selected topics in physics, earth science, and basic astronomy. Our lesson plans and EPO materials make extensive use of NASA imagery and cover topics about magnetism, the solar photospheric, chromospheric, coronal spectra, as well as earth science and climate. In addition we are developing and will cover topics on ecosystem structure, biomass and water on Earth. We strive to free the non-science undergraduate from the "fear of science" and replace it with the excitement of science such that these future teachers will carry this excitement to their future students. Hands-on experiments, computer simulations, analysis of real NASA data, and vigorous seminar discussions are blended in an inquiry-driven curriculum to instill confident understanding of basic physical science and modern, effective methods for teaching it. The course also demonstrates ways how scientific thinking and hands-on activities could be implemented in the classroom. We have designed this course to provide the non-science student a confident basic understanding of physical science and modern, effective methods for teaching it. Most of topics were selected using National Science Standards and National Mathematics Standards that are addressed in grades K-8. The course focuses on helping education majors: 1) Build knowledge of scientific concepts and processes; 2) Understand the measurable attributes of objects and the units and methods of measurements; 3) Conduct data analysis (collecting, organizing, presenting scientific data, and to predict the result); 4) Use hands-on approaches to teach science; 5) Be familiar with Internet science teaching resources. Here we share our experiences and challenges we face while teaching this course.

  9. Multimedia. TAM Topical Guide #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Randall, Ed.; Higgins, Kyle, Ed.

    Educational multimedia and hypermedia systems, which integrate computer-generated text and graphics with full-motion video and stereo sound, dominate much discussion about the future of computer use in education. This guide brings together the thoughts, ideas, and experience of elementary school students, classroom teachers, administrators,…

  10. Selected topics in nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Pinedo, Gabriel

    2013-06-10

    In this lectures after a brief introduction to stellar reaction rates and its implementation in nuclear networks, I discuss the nuclear physics aspects of core collapse supernova and explosive nucleosynthesis and their significance for the production of heavy elements by the rapid neutron capture process and potentially also by the recently discovered {nu}p process.

  11. Using NASA Space Imaging to Teach Earth and Sun Topics in Professional Development Courses for In-Service Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verner, E.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Long, T.; Edwards, S.; Ofman, L.; Brosius, J. W.; Holman, G.; St Cyr, O. C.; Krotkov, N. A.; Fatoyinbo Agueh, T.

    2012-12-01

    several PD courses using NASA imaging technology. It includes various ways to study selected topics in physics and astronomy. We use NASA Images to develop lesson plans and EPO materials for PreK-8 grades. Topics are Space based and they vary from measurements, magnetism on Earth to that for our Sun. In addition we cover topics on ecosystem structure, biomass and water on Earth. Hands-on experiments, computer simulations, analysis of real-time NASA data, and vigorous seminar discussions are blended in an inquiry-driven curriculum to instill confident understanding of basic physical science and modern, effective methods for teaching it. Course also demonstrates ways how scientific thinking and hands-on activities could be implemented in the classroom. This course is designed to provide the non-science student a confident understanding of basic physical science and modern, effective methods for teaching it. Most of topics were selected using National Science Standards and National Mathematics Standards to be addressed in grades PreK-8. The course focuses on helping in several areas of teaching: 1) Build knowledge of scientific concepts and processes; 2) Understand the measurable attributes of objects and the units and methods of measurements; 3) Conducting data analysis (collecting, organizing, presenting scientific data, and to predict the result); 4) Use hands-on approaches to teach science; 5) Be familiar with Internet science teaching resources. Here we share our experiences and challenges we faced teaching this course.

  12. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Composition of Accelerator Radiation Fields; Shielding of Electrons and Photons at Accelerators; Shielding of Hadrons at Accelerators; Low Energy Prompt Radiation Phenomena; Induced Radioactivity at Accelerators; Topics in Radiation Protection Instrumentation at Accelerators; and Accelerator Radiation Protection Program Elements.

  13. Humankind's Three Major Language Topics Today and the State of China's Linguistic Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuming, Li

    2008-01-01

    In the domain of language planning, humankind has since ancient times discussed three main topics: language problems, linguistic resources, and language rights. On the basis of the state of linguistic life in the world and China today, this article expounds on these three major topics and raises issues about China conducting a general survey of…

  14. Organizing Learning Materials through Hierarchical Topic Maps: An Illustration through Chinese Herb Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, B.-J.; Shih, J.-L.; Chen, R.-L.

    2007-01-01

    This research aims to use hierarchical topic maps to compile digital learning material and to discuss its design and application possibilities. The system renders tremendous original assets and then embeds a self-organizing map (SOM) in the material database to produce topical learning materials, as in this case, an illustration through Chinese…

  15. War and Peace: Deconstructing the Topic of Genocide and Other Crimes against Humanity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovde, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the topic of genocide and other world conflicts as they are addressed by reference works. Topics of human aggression are treated by multidisciplinary research, and an awareness of the multiple angles of approach aids the process of directing students to sources. The article discusses definitions and standard organizational…

  16. Theme, Rheme, Topic, and Comment in the Syntax of American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Robert M.

    1978-01-01

    The syntax of lexical units, or signs, of American Sign Language (ASL) is analyzed. Previous areas of study concerning pauses, functional sentence perspective, theme and rheme, and topic and comment are discussed. A model is offered to depict topic-comment relationships in ASL using space, vectors, and relationship rules. (SW)

  17. Reporter-Source Orientation, South Attraction, Topic Importance, and Reporter Information-Seeking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einsiedel, Edna Flores

    Behavioral research suggests that communication between two individuals is affected by such factors as their orientation toward a topic, the importance of the topic, and interpersonal attraction. Seven hypotheses were formulated to determine if these factors--originally discovered in a discussion setting--were operative in an information-seeking…

  18. Microcirculatory effect of topical vapocoolants

    PubMed Central

    Galdyn, Izabela; Swanson, Edward; Gordon, Chad; Kwiecien, Grzegorz; Bena, James; Siemionow, Maria; Zins, James

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vapocoolant sprays are commonly used to minimize pain following minor interventions such as venipuncture, shave biopsy or needle insertion. Although these sprays have been widely used in clinical practice, little is known about their effect on microcirculation or cutaneous blood flow. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the real-time effect of a topical vapocoolant using a well-established, rat cremaster muscle microcirculatory model, allowing direct measurement of changes in vessel diameter, capillary density and leukocyte behaviour. METHODS: Fifty rats were divided into a control and four experimental groups: group 1: 4 s spray with vapocoolant at 18 cm distance; group 2: 10 s spray at 18 cm distance; group 3: 4 s spray at 8 cm distance; and group 4: 10 s spray at 8 cm distance. Vessel diameters, capillary density and leukocyte behaviour were monitored for 1 h thereafter. Muscle was harvested for immunohistochemistry analysis of proangiogenic markers (vascular endothelial growth factor and von Willebrand factor), leukocyte behaviour markers (E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule, intercellular adhesion molecule), pimonidazole-hypoxia staining and ApopTag (Millipore, USA) staining for apoptosis. Gene expression for inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma) was evaluated using polymerase chain reaction and myeloperoxidase assay for inflammation was performed. RESULTS: The use of refrigerant spray decreased vessel diameter and capillary density initially, although none of these decreases were statistically significant. Polymerase chain reaction showed no significant changes. The myeloperoxidase assay showed statistically significant increase in myeloperoxidase activity in groups 2, 3 and 4. Immunohistochemistry was negative for angiogenic and proinflammatory markers. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of statistically significant changes in vessel diameter and inflammatory markers corroborated the

  19. Topics in topological band systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhoushen

    The discovery of integer quantum Hall effect and its subsequent theoretical formulation heralded a new paradigm of thinking in condensed matter physics, which has by now blossomed into the rapidly growing field of topological phases. In this work we investigate several mutually related topics in the framework of topological band theory. In Chapter 2, we study solutions to boundary states on a lattice and see how they are related to the bulk topology. To elicit a real space manifestation of the non-trivial topology, the presence of a physical edge is not strictly necessary. We study two other possibilities, namely the entanglement spectrum associated with an imaginary spatial boundary, and the localization centers of Wannier functions, in Chapters 3,4, and 5. Topological classification through discrete indices is so far possible only for systems described by pure quantum states---in the existing scheme, quantization is lost for systems in mixed states. In Chapter 6, we present a program through which discrete topological indices can be defined for topological band systems at finite temperature, based on Uhlmann's parallel transport of density matrices. The potential of topologocal insulators in realistic applications lies in the existence of Dirac nodes on its surface spectrum. Dirac physics, however, is not exclusive to TI surfaces. In a recently discovered class of materials known as Weyl semimetals, energy nodes which emit linear dispersions also occur in the bulk material. In Chapter 7, we study the possibility of resonance states induced by localized impurities near the nodal energy in Weyl semimetals, which will help us in understanding the stability of density-of-state suppression at the energy nodes. Finally, in Chapter 8, we apply the topological characterization developed for noninteracting particles to a class of interacting spin models in 3D, which are generalizations of Kitaev's honeycomb model, and identify several exotic quantum phases such as spin

  20. Usage-Oriented Topic Maps Building Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellouze, Nebrasse; Lammari, Nadira; Métais, Elisabeth; Ben Ahmed, Mohamed

    In this paper, we present a collaborative and incremental construction approach of multilingual Topic Maps based on enrichment and merging techniques. In recent years, several Topic Map building approaches have been proposed endowed with different characteristics. Generally, they are dedicated to particular data types like text, semi-structured data, relational data, etc. We note also that most of these approaches take as input monolingual documents to build the Topic Map. The problem is that the large majority of resources available today are written in various languages, and these resources could be relevant even to non-native speakers. Thus, our work is driven towards a collaborative and incremental method for Topic Map construction from textual documents available in different languages. To enrich the Topic Map, we take as input a domain thesaurus and we propose also to explore the Topic Map usage which means available potential questions related to the source documents.

  1. Empowerment: a conceptual discussion.

    PubMed

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2008-06-01

    The concept of 'empowerment' is used frequently in a number of professional areas, from psychotherapy to social work. But even if the same term is used, it is not always clear if the concept denotes the same goals or the same practice in these various fields. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the discussion and to find a plausible and useful definition of the concept that is suitable for work in various professions. Several suggestions are discussed in the paper, for example control over life or health, autonomy, ability, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and freedom, and it is concluded that there are two plausible complementary uses, one as a goal and one as a process or approach. Empowerment as a goal is to have control over the determinants of one's quality of life, and empowerment as a process is to create a professional relation where the client or community takes control over the change process, determining both the goals of this process and the means to use.

  2. Tracking topic birth and death in LDA.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Andrew T.; Robinson, David Gerald

    2011-09-01

    Most topic modeling algorithms that address the evolution of documents over time use the same number of topics at all times. This obscures the common occurrence in the data where new subjects arise and old ones diminish or disappear entirely. We propose an algorithm to model the birth and death of topics within an LDA-like framework. The user selects an initial number of topics, after which new topics are created and retired without further supervision. Our approach also accommodates many of the acceleration and parallelization schemes developed in recent years for standard LDA. In recent years, topic modeling algorithms such as latent semantic analysis (LSA)[17], latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)[10] and their descendants have offered a powerful way to explore and interrogate corpora far too large for any human to grasp without assistance. Using such algorithms we are able to search for similar documents, model and track the volume of topics over time, search for correlated topics or model them with a hierarchy. Most of these algorithms are intended for use with static corpora where the number of documents and the size of the vocabulary are known in advance. Moreover, almost all current topic modeling algorithms fix the number of topics as one of the input parameters and keep it fixed across the entire corpus. While this is appropriate for static corpora, it becomes a serious handicap when analyzing time-varying data sets where topics come and go as a matter of course. This is doubly true for online algorithms that may not have the option of revising earlier results in light of new data. To be sure, these algorithms will account for changing data one way or another, but without the ability to adapt to structural changes such as entirely new topics they may do so in counterintuitive ways.

  3. Topics for Lehigh County Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Community Coll., Schnecksville, PA.

    Lehigh County Community College (Pennsylvania) and the Lehigh County Senior Citizens' Center collaborated on a project to assess the learning needs of the senior center's 1,600 members. A needs assessment completed by 68 center members and interviews of an additional 38 center members established that senior citizens preferred short-term workshops…

  4. Flammable gas program topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1996-10-30

    The major emphasis of this report is to describe what has been learned about the generation, retention, and release of flammable gas mixtures in high-level waste tanks. A brief overview of efforts to characterize the gas composition will be provided. The report also discusses what needs to be learned about the phenomena, how the Unreviewed Safety Question will be closed, and the approach for removing tanks from the Watch List.

  5. The treatment of rosacea with topical ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Ali, S T; Alinia, H; Feldman, S R

    2015-04-01

    The treatment of rosacea is challenging because several pathophysiologic processes may be involved, including neurovascular dysregulation and alterations in innate immune status. Demodex mites may play a role in the latter mechanism. Topical ivermectin is a new therapeutic modality which demonstrates antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory properties. This article reviews published evidence related to the efficacy and safety of topical ivermectin. PubMed was utilized to search for key words "topical ivermectin", "ivermectin cream" and "rosacea". Three clinical trials were found that studied topical ivermectin as a treatment option for rosacea. Ivermectin was effective, safe and well tolerated. PMID:26020066

  6. The treatment of rosacea with topical ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Ali, S T; Alinia, H; Feldman, S R

    2015-04-01

    The treatment of rosacea is challenging because several pathophysiologic processes may be involved, including neurovascular dysregulation and alterations in innate immune status. Demodex mites may play a role in the latter mechanism. Topical ivermectin is a new therapeutic modality which demonstrates antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory properties. This article reviews published evidence related to the efficacy and safety of topical ivermectin. PubMed was utilized to search for key words "topical ivermectin", "ivermectin cream" and "rosacea". Three clinical trials were found that studied topical ivermectin as a treatment option for rosacea. Ivermectin was effective, safe and well tolerated.

  7. Topical Products for the Aging Face.

    PubMed

    McCook, John P

    2016-07-01

    This article focuses on nonprescription home-use topical treatment technologies for the aging face and is intended to serve as a guide for the core cosmeceutical technologies currently used and to help educate and assist the selection of topical antiaging products by the professional staff and their patients. Antiaging topical treatments for patient home use should be nonirritating, compatible with the patient skin type, effective, and complementary to surgical and minimally invasive office procedures, and aesthetically elegant. New topical antiaging technologies, formulated as monotherapy or as combinations with well-known cosmeceuticals, should present adequate clinical studies to support their selection for use. PMID:27363774

  8. Medical Physics Panel Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guèye, Paul; Avery, Steven; Baird, Richard; Soares, Christopher; Amols, Howard; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Drew

    2006-03-01

    The panel discussion will explore opportunities and vistas in medical physics research and practice, medical imaging, teaching medical physics to undergraduates, and medical physics curricula as a recruiting tool for physics departments. Panel members consist of representatives from NSBP (Paul Guèye and Steven Avery), NIH/NIBIB (Richard Baird), NIST (Christopher Soares), AAPM (Howard Amols), ASTRO (Prabhakar Tripuraneni), and Jefferson Lab (Stan Majewski and Drew Weisenberger). Medical Physicists are part of Departments of Radiation Oncology at hospitals and medical centers. The field of medical physics includes radiation therapy physics, medical diagnostic and imaging physics, nuclear medicine physics, and medical radiation safety. It also ranges from basic researcher (at college institutions, industries, and laboratories) to applications in clinical environments.

  9. Microparticulate based topical delivery system of clobetasol propionate.

    PubMed

    Badıllı, Ulya; Sen, Tangül; Tarımcı, Nilüfer

    2011-09-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, autoimmune skin disease affecting approximately 2% of the world's population. Clobetasol propionate which is a superpotent topical corticosteroid is widely used for topical treatment of psoriasis. Conventional dosage forms like creams and ointments are commonly prefered for the therapy. The purpose of this study was to develop a new topical delivery system in order to provide the prolonged release of clobetasol propionate and to reduce systemic absorption and side effects of the drug. Clobetasol propionate loaded-poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were prepared by oil-in-water emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. Particle size analysis, morphological characterization, DSC and XRD analyses and in vitro drug release studies were performed on the microparticle formulations. Emulgel formulations were prepared as an alternative for topical delivery of clobetasol propionate. In vitro drug release studies were carried out from the emulgel formulations containing pure drug and drug-loaded microspheres. In addition, the same studies were performed to determine the drug release from the commercial cream product of clobetasol propionate. The release of clobetasol propionate from the emulgel formulations was significantly higher than the commercial product. In addition, the encapsulation of clobetasol propionate in the PLGA microspheres significantly delayed the drug release from the emulgel formulation. As a result, the decrease in the side effects of clobetasol propionate by the formulation containing PLGA microspheres is expected.

  10. Achieving hemostasis in dermatology-Part II: Topical hemostatic agents

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Jaimie B.; Kaur, Ravneet R.; Siegel, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Bleeding is a common occurrence during any dermatologic surgery that disrupts blood vessels. The complications of excess bleeding can include delayed wound healing, hematoma formation, infection, dehiscence, and necrosis. In part one of this review, we discussed the pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative management of patients undergoing dermatologic surgery. In Part two, we discuss traditional and new topical hemostatic agents used to achieve hemostasis in dermatological procedures and surgery. We will evaluate the caustic and non-caustic hemostatic agents as well as hemostatic dressings. The mechanisms of action, side effect profile, and advantages and disadvantages of the topical hemostatic agents are provided. Sources for this article were found searching the English literature in PubMed for the time period 1940 to March 2012. A thorough bibliography search was also performed and key references examined. PMID:23984226

  11. US Support Program Topical Meetings 1999 to 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper,S.

    2008-06-10

    In 1999, the International Safeguards Project Office began organizing topical workshops to explore technical issues facing the International Atomic Energy Agency's Department of Safeguards. Representatives from IAEA member states including the United States, national laboratories and companies were invited to the workshops to discuss the technical issues. In some cases professional facilitators were hired to lead the discussions and in some cases business gaming techniques were employed. Since 1999, the following topics have been addressed Data Communication Technologies (1999), Information Security (2000), Design and Testing for High Reliability (2001), Standardization and Integration of Unattended and Remote Monitoring Systems (2002), Roadmapping: Surveillance (2003), IAEA Seals Technology Roadmapping Workshop (2004), Turning Information Into Knowledge (2004), Safeguards Tools of the Future (2005), and Advanced Sensors for Safeguards (2007). This paper will review the scope of the workshops and summarize their results.

  12. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  13. Interactive Workshop Discusses Nonlinear Waves and Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Morales, George; Passot, Thierry

    2010-07-01

    Eighth International Nonlinear Wave Workshop; La Jolla, California, 1-5 March 2010; Nonlinear waves and chaos were the focus of a weeklong series of informal and interactive discussions at the Eighth International Nonlinear Wave Workshop (NWW8), held in California. The workshop gathered nonlinear plasma and water wave experts from the United States, France, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Holland, India, and Japan. Attendees were from the fields of space, laboratory, and fusion plasma physics, astrophysics, and applied mathematics. Special focus was placed on nonlinear waves and turbulence in the terrestrial environment as well as in the interstellar medium from observational, laboratory, and theoretical perspectives. Discussions covered temperature anisotropies and related instabilities, the properties and origin of the so-called dissipation range, and various coherent structures of electromagnetic as well as electrostatic nature. Reconnection and shocks were also topics of discussion, as were properties of magnetospheric whistler and chorus waves. Examples and analysis techniques for superdiffusion and subdiffusion were identified. On this last topic, a good exchange of ideas and results occurred between a water wave expert and a plasma expert, with the rest of the audience listening intently.

  14. Preface: Special Topic on Advances in Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Weitao

    2014-05-14

    This Special Topic Issue on the Advances in Density Functional Theory, published as a celebration of the fifty years of density functional theory, contains a retrospective article, a perspective article, and a collection of original research articles that showcase recent theoretical advances in the field. It provides a timely discussion reflecting a cross section of our understanding, and the theoretical and computational developments, which have significant implications in broad areas of sciences and engineering.

  15. A hairy fall: syncope resulting from topical application of minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Dubrey, S W; VanGriethuysen, J; Edwards, C M B

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a young man who developed syncope after using a high strength formulation of topical minoxidil as a hair growth restorer. Other potential cardiovascular and endocrine causes were excluded, and his symptoms resolved on discontinuation of the product. While syncope is a recognised side effect of using this powerful systemic antihypertensive agent, few cases are documented in the literature, which we illustrate in our discussion. PMID:26347235

  16. Special topics in infrared interferometry. [Michelson interferometer development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanel, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Topics in IR interferometry related to the development of a Michelson interferometer are treated. The selection and reading of the signal from the detector to the analog to digital converter is explained. The requirements for the Michelson interferometer advance speed are deduced. The effects of intensity modulation on the interferogram are discussed. Wavelength and intensity calibration of the interferometer are explained. Noise sources (Nyquist or Johnson noise, phonon noise), definitions of measuring methods of noise, and noise measurements are presented.

  17. Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe O; Verbeek, Jos H; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Ojo, Olumuyiwa A; Bakhoya, Victor Nyange

    2015-01-01

    Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is distributed worldwide. It commonly affects the scalp, face and flexures of the body. Treatment options include antifungal drugs, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, keratolytic agents and phototherapy. Objectives To assess the effects of antifungal agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and scalp in adolescents and adults. A secondary objective is to assess whether the same interventions are effective in the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Search methods We searched the following databases up to December 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (from 1982). We also searched trials registries and checked the bibliographies of published studies for further trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of topical antifungals used for treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis in adolescents and adults, with primary outcome measures of complete clearance of symptoms and improved quality of life. Data collection and analysis Review author pairs independently assessed eligibility for inclusion, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We performed fixed-effect meta-analysis for studies with low statistical heterogeneity and used a random-effects model when heterogeneity was high. Main results We included 51 studies with 9052 participants. Of these, 45 trials assessed treatment outcomes at five weeks or less after commencement of treatment, and six trials assessed outcomes over a longer time frame. We believe that 24 trials had some form of conflict of interest, such as funding by pharmaceutical companies. Among the included studies were 12 ketoconazole trials (N = 3253), 11 ciclopirox trials (N = 3029), two lithium trials (N = 141

  18. Examining the Utility of Topic Models for Linguistic Analysis of Couple Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeden, Michelle A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the basic utility of topic models, a computational linguistics model for text-based data, to the investigation of the process of couple therapy. Linguistic analysis offers an additional lens through which to examine clinical data, and the topic model is presented as a novel methodology within couple and family psychology that…

  19. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  20. Topics in gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Observations of gamma rays from solar flares, gamma ray bursts, the Galactic center, galactic nucleosynthesis, SS433, and Cygnus X-3, and their effects on astrophysical problems are discussed. It is observed that gamma ray spectra from solar flares are applicable to the study of particle acceleration and confinement and the determination of chemical abundances in the solar atmosphere. The gamma ray lines from the compact galactic object SS433 are utilized to examine the acceleration of jets, and analysis of the gamma ray lines of Cygnus X-3 reveal that particles can be accelerated in compact sources to ultrahigh energies.

  1. Current Topics in Postnatal Behavioral Testing.

    PubMed

    Henck, Judith W; Elayan, Ikram; Vorhees, Charles; Fisher, J Edward; Morford, LaRonda L

    2016-09-01

    The study of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) continues to be an important component of safety evaluation of candidate therapeutic agents and of industrial and environmental chemicals. Developmental neurotoxicity is considered to be an adverse change in the central and/or peripheral nervous system during development of an organism and has been primarily evaluated by studying functional outcomes, such as changes in behavior, neuropathology, neurochemistry, and/or neurophysiology. Neurobehavioral evaluations are a component of a wide range of toxicology studies in laboratory animal models, whereas neurochemistry and neurophysiology are less commonly employed. Although the primary focus of this article is on neurobehavioral evaluation in pre- and postnatal development and juvenile toxicology studies used in pharmaceutical development, concepts may also apply to adult nonclinical safety studies and Environmental Protection Agency/chemical assessments. This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium held during the 2015 American College of Toxicology annual meeting and includes a discussion of the current status of DNT testing as well as potential issues and recommendations. Topics include the regulatory context for DNT testing; study design and interpretation; behavioral test selection, including a comparison of core learning and memory systems; age of testing; repeated testing of the same animals; use of alternative animal models; impact of findings; and extrapolation of animal results to humans. Integration of the regulatory experience and scientific concepts presented during this symposium, as well as from subsequent discussion and input, provides a synopsis of the current state of DNT testing in safety assessment, as well as a potential roadmap for future advancement.

  2. Panel discussion on near-field coupled processes with emphasis on performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Codell, R.B.; Baca, R.G.; Ahola, M.P.

    1996-04-01

    The presentations in this panel discussion involve the general topic of near-field coupled processes and postclosure performance assessment with an emphasis on rock mechanics. The potential impact of near-field rock mass deformation on repository performance was discussed, as well as topics including long term excavation deterioration, the performance of geologic seals, and coupled processes concerning rock mechanics in performance assessments.

  3. Topic Continuity in Japanese-English Interlanguage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Miyuki

    1997-01-01

    Examined how a new topic was introduced, maintained, and changed in the Japanese-English interlanguage data of a 45- minute interview between a native and a non-native speaker of English. Findings revealed that although the topic marking system of the interlanguage shared some features with the first and second languages, it maintained features…

  4. Some Teaching Topics from Space Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balding, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    Short notes on a variety of science topics provide information derived from space sciences that can be used to add interest and up-to-date data to science lessons. Topics are arranged alphabetically from Alpha particles to X-rays, and include some from each of the physical, earth, and biological sciences. (AL)

  5. Topic Maps e-Learning Portal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsevicova, Kamila

    2006-01-01

    Topic Maps, ISO/IEC 13250 standard, are designed to facilitate the organization and navigation of large collections of information objects by creating meta-level perspectives of their underlying concepts and relationships. The underlying structure of concepts and relations is expressed by domain ontologies. The Topics Maps technology can become…

  6. Anesthesia: A Topic for Interdisciplinary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labianca, Dominick A.; Reeves, William J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary approach for teaching the topic of anesthesia as one aspect of a chemistry-oriented course for nonscience majors which focuses on timely topics such as the energy crisis and drugs. Historical treatment with the examination of literature is emphasized in teaching. (HM)

  7. Torpedo: topic periodicity discovery from text data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingjing; Deng, Hongbo; Han, Jiawei

    2015-05-01

    Although history may not repeat itself, many human activities are inherently periodic, recurring daily, weekly, monthly, yearly or following some other periods. Such recurring activities may not repeat the same set of keywords, but they do share similar topics. Thus it is interesting to mine topic periodicity from text data instead of just looking at the temporal behavior of a single keyword/phrase. Some previous preliminary studies in this direction prespecify a periodic temporal template for each topic. In this paper, we remove this restriction and propose a simple yet effective framework Torpedo to mine periodic/recurrent patterns from text, such as news articles, search query logs, research papers, and web blogs. We first transform text data into topic-specific time series by a time dependent topic modeling module, where each of the time series characterizes the temporal behavior of a topic. Then we use time series techniques to detect periodicity. Hence we both obtain a clear view of how topics distribute over time and enable the automatic discovery of periods that are inherent in each topic. Theoretical and experimental analyses demonstrate the advantage of Torpedo over existing work.

  8. Descriptive Discourse: Topic Familiarity and Disfluencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merlo, Sandra; Mansur, Leticia Lessa

    2004-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to address questions about topic familiarity and disfluencies during oral descriptive discourse of adult speakers. Participants expressed more attributes when the topic was familiar than when it was unfamiliar. Fillers and lexical pauses were the most frequent disfluencies. The mean duration of each hesitation…

  9. Common Topics and Commonplaces of Environmental Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Derek G.

    2013-01-01

    Common topics are words or phrases used to develop argument, and commonplaces aid memory or catalyze frames of understanding. When used in argumentation, each may help interested parties more effectively communicate valuable scientific and environment-related information. This article describes 12 modern topics of environmental rhetoric,…

  10. Histiocytosis X: treatment with topical nitrogen mustard.

    PubMed

    Berman, B; Chang, D L; Shupack, J L

    1980-07-01

    The case histories of two elderly patients with cutaneous histiocytosis X treated topically with nitrogen mustard are presented. The cutaneous lesions cleared within 2 to 3 weeks, and remission was maintained with daily topical administration of nitrogen mustard. The clinical impression of improvement was substantiated by light and electron microscopic studies prior to and after therapy.

  11. Topics in Culture Learning, Volume 4, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brislin, Richard W., Ed.

    Volume 4 of an annual series, this issue focuses chiefly on a variety of perspectives relating to cross-cultural research. The major article is comprised of 15 topics encompassing cognitive and affective aspects of culture contact, language and communication, and culture exchange. The topics address Japanese perceptions of foreigners, learning of…

  12. Nuffield Advanced Chemistry Courses Topic 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents an alternative series of investigations replacing the propanone-trichloromethane system (Topic 10) in the Nuffield A-Level course. A trichloromethane-ethyl ethanoate (acetate) system presented in four experiments give good results and removed the dangers arising from the other system. Topic 10 need not be re-written, just the replacement…

  13. Infantile generalized hypertrichosis caused by topical minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Rampon, Greice; Henkin, Caroline; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Almeida, Hiram Larangeira de

    2016-01-01

    Rare cases of hypertrichosis have been associated with topically applied minoxidil. We present the first reported case in the Brazilian literature of generalized hypertrichosis affecting a 5-year-old child, following use of minoxidil 5%, 20 drops a day, for hair loss. The laboratory investigation excluded hyperandrogenism and thyroid dysfunction. Topical minoxidil should be used with caution in children. PMID:26982785

  14. Infantile generalized hypertrichosis caused by topical minoxidil*

    PubMed Central

    Rampon, Greice; Henkin, Caroline; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; de Almeida Jr, Hiram Larangeira

    2016-01-01

    Rare cases of hypertrichosis have been associated with topically applied minoxidil. We present the first reported case in the Brazilian literature of generalized hypertrichosis affecting a 5-year-old child, following use of minoxidil 5%, 20 drops a day, for hair loss. The laboratory investigation excluded hyperandrogenism and thyroid dysfunction. Topical minoxidil should be used with caution in children. PMID:26982785

  15. Fostering Topic Knowledge: Essential for Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proske, Antje; Kapp, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers emphasize the role of the writer's topic knowledge for writing. In academic writing topic knowledge is often constructed by studying source texts. One possibility to support that essential phase of the writing process is to provide interactive learning questions which facilitate the construction of an adequate situation…

  16. Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe O; Verbeek, Jos H; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Ojo, Olumuyiwa A; Bakhoya, Victor Nyange

    2015-01-01

    Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is distributed worldwide. It commonly affects the scalp, face and flexures of the body. Treatment options include antifungal drugs, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, keratolytic agents and phototherapy. Objectives To assess the effects of antifungal agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and scalp in adolescents and adults. A secondary objective is to assess whether the same interventions are effective in the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Search methods We searched the following databases up to December 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (from 1982). We also searched trials registries and checked the bibliographies of published studies for further trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of topical antifungals used for treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis in adolescents and adults, with primary outcome measures of complete clearance of symptoms and improved quality of life. Data collection and analysis Review author pairs independently assessed eligibility for inclusion, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We performed fixed-effect meta-analysis for studies with low statistical heterogeneity and used a random-effects model when heterogeneity was high. Main results We included 51 studies with 9052 participants. Of these, 45 trials assessed treatment outcomes at five weeks or less after commencement of treatment, and six trials assessed outcomes over a longer time frame. We believe that 24 trials had some form of conflict of interest, such as funding by pharmaceutical companies. Among the included studies were 12 ketoconazole trials (N = 3253), 11 ciclopirox trials (N = 3029), two lithium trials (N = 141

  17. Computer supported collaborative learning in a clerkship: an exploratory study on the relation of discussion activity and revision of critical appraisal papers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Medical students in clerkship are continuously confronted with real and relevant patient problems. To support clinical problem solving skills, students perform a Critical Appraisal of a Topic (CAT) task, often resulting in a paper. Because such a paper may contain errors, students could profit from discussion with peers, leading to paper revision. Active peer discussion by a Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) environment show positive medical students perceptions on subjective knowledge improvement. High students’ activity during discussions in a CSCL environment demonstrated higher task-focussed discussion reflecting higher levels of knowledge construction. However, it remains unclear whether high discussion activity influences students’ decisions revise their CAT paper. The aim of this research is to examine whether students who revise their critical appraisal papers after discussion in a CSCL environment show more task-focussed activity and discuss more intensively on critical appraisal topics than students who do not revise their papers. Methods Forty-seven medical students, stratified in subgroups, participated in a structured asynchronous online discussion of individual written CAT papers on self-selected clinical problems. The discussion was structured by three critical appraisal topics. After the discussion, the students could revise their paper. For analysis purposes, all students’ postings were blinded and analysed by the investigator, unaware of students characteristics and whether or not the paper was revised. Postings were counted and analysed by an independent rater, Postings were assigned into outside activity, non-task-focussed activity or task-focussed activity. Additionally, postings were assigned to one of the three critical appraisal topics. Analysis results were compared by revised and unrevised papers. Results Twenty-four papers (51.6%) were revised after the online discussion. The discussions of the revised

  18. Compounded Topical Analgesics for Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Cline, Abigail E; Turrentine, Jake E

    2016-01-01

    Analgesic medications compounded for topical use are gaining popularity for the management of chronic pain. The advantages of topical pain medications include reduction of systemic adverse effects, improved patient acceptance, few drug interactions, ease of dose determination, avoidance of first-pass metabolism, and direct access to the target site. Compounded topical medications typically use a mixture of 3 or more single medications to achieve multiple complementary effects at lower doses of each individual medication. Herein, we review the mechanisms, adverse effects, and evidence for some of the most commonly used medications in topical compounds for pain management. Because more topical medications are used for chronic pain, dermatologists can expect an increase in irritant and allergic contact dermatitis related to these medications. PMID:27649348

  19. Topical antioxidants in radiodermatitis: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Kodiyan, Joyson; Amber, Kyle T

    2015-09-01

    Radiation-induced skin toxicity is the most prevalent side effect of radiation therapy. Not only does it have a significant effect on patients' quality of life, but it also results in poor follow-up and early termination of radiotherapy treatment. Several skin care practices and topical applications have been studied in the field of radiodermatitis, including skin washing, topical steroids, and mechanical skin barriers. Aside from these methods, many patients turn to complementary and alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. Many of these alternative therapies are topically applied antioxidants. While the rationale behind the use of antioxidants in treating radiodermatitis is strong, clinical studies have been far less consistent. Even in large scale randomised controlled trials, findings have been limited by the inconsistent use of topical vehicles and placebos. In this article, the authors review the role of topical antioxidants to better help the practitioner navigate through different available skin directed antioxidants.

  20. Some Things Are Better Left Unsaid: Topic Avoidance in Family Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Laura K.; Afifi, Walid A.

    1995-01-01

    Finds that adolescents avoid discussing negative experiences and dating experiences more with parents than siblings, and avoid discussing sexual matters with opposite-sex family members. Finds that female dyads practice the least avoidance on topics involving relationship issues or friendships, while males avoid discussing relationship issues,…

  1. Topical preparations for pain relief: efficacy and patient adherence

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Liliana L; Feres, Caroline C; Teles, Vitor EP

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on development of new routes of drug administration to provide tailored treatments for patients, without decreasing efficacy of analgesia, in proportion to the progression of the knowledge of pain mechanisms. While acute pain acts as an alarm, chronic pain is a syndrome requiring meticulous selection of analgesic drugs of high bioavailability for long-term use. Such criteria are challenges that topical medications aim to overcome, allowing progressive delivery of active component, maintaining stable plasma levels, with a good safety profile. This review presents recent findings regarding topical formulations of the most widely used drugs for pain treatment, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, anesthetics, and capsaicin, and the role of physical agents as delivery enhancers (phonophoresis and iontophoresis). Although the number of topical agents is limited for use in peripheral conditions, increasing evidence supports the efficacy of these preparations in blocking nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Patient adherence to medical treatment is also a challenge, especially in chronic painful conditions. It is known that reduction of treatment complexity and pill burden are good strategies to increase patient compliance, as discussed here. However, the role of topical presentations, when compared to traditional routes, has not yet been fully explored and thus remains unclear. PMID:21386951

  2. Flammable gas project topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1997-01-29

    The flammable gas safety issue was recognized in 1990 with the declaration of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) by the U. S. Department of Energy as a result of the behavior of the Hanford Site high-level waste tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years there has been a considerable amount of knowledge gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-1 01 and other tanks associated with the flammable gas safety issue. This report was prepared to provide an overview of that knowledge and to provide a description of the key information still needed to resolve the issue. Items covered by this report include summaries of the understanding of gas generation, retention and release mechanisms, the composition and flammability behavior of the gas mixture, the amounts of stored gas, and estimated gas release fractions for spontaneous releases. `Me report also discusses methods being developed for evaluating the 177 tanks at the Hanford Site and the problems associated with these methods. Means for measuring the gases emitted from the waste are described along with laboratory experiments designed to gain more information regarding rates of generation, species of gases emitted and modes of gas storage and release. Finally, the process for closing the USQ is outlined as are the information requirements to understand and resolve the flammable gas issue.

  3. Literature survey results: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Willson, W.G.; Ness, R.O.; Hendrikson, J.G.; Entzminger, J.A.; Jha, M.; Sinor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This report reviews mild gasification processes with respect to processing conditions and configurations. Special emphasis was placed on processes which could be commercialized within five years. Detailed market information was provided by J.E. Sinor concerning markets and economic considerations of the various processing steps. Processing areas studied include coal cleaning; mild gasification; and upgrading of the char, condensables, and hydrocarbon gases. Pros and cons in the different processing areas as well as ''gaps'' in pertinent data were identified and integrated into a detailed process development program. The report begins with a summary of the market assessment and an evaluation of the co-product. The impacts of feed materials and operating parameters--including coal rank, heating rate, pressure, agglomeration, temperature, and feed gas composition--on the co- products and processes were evaluated through a literature survey. Recommendations were made as to the preferred product specifications and operating parameters for a commercial plant. A literature review of mild gasification processes was conducted and evaluated with regard to product specification and operating parameters. Two candidate processes were chosen and discussed in detail with respect to scale-up feasibility. Recommendations were then made to process development needs to further consideration of the two processes. 129 refs., 33 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW: Microplasmas and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, K. H.; Schoenbach, K. H.; Eden, J. G.

    2006-02-01

    Atmospheric-pressure, non-equilibrium plasmas are susceptible to instabilities and, in particular, to arcing (glow-to-arc transition). Spatially confining the plasma to dimensions of 1 mm or less is a promising approach to the generation and maintenance of stable, glow discharges at atmospheric-pressure. Often referred to as microdischarges or microplasmas, these weakly-ionized discharges represent a new and fascinating realm of plasma science, where issues such as the possible breakdown of 'pd scaling' and the role of boundary-dominated phenomena come to the fore. Microplasmas are generated under conditions that promote the efficient production of transient molecular species such as the rare gas excimers, which generally are formed by three-body collisions. Pulsed excitation on a sub-microsecond time scale results in microplasmas with significant shifts in both the temperatures and energy distribution functions associated with the ions and electrons. This allows for the selective production of chemically reactive species and opens the door to a wide range of new applications of microplasmas. The implementation of semiconductor and microelectronics and MEMs microfabrication techniques has resulted in the realization of microplasma arrays as large as 250,000 devices. Fabricated in silicon or ceramics with characteristic device dimensions as small as 10 µm and at packing densities up to 104 cm-2, these arrays offer optical and electrical characteristics well suited for applications in medical diagnostics, displays and environmental sensing. Several microplasma device structures, including their fundamental properties and selected applications, will be discussed.

  5. WHO guidance grounded in a comprehensive approach to sexual and reproductive health and human rights: topical pre-exposure prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Lusti-Narasimhan, Manjula; Khosla, Rajat; Baggaley, Rachel; Temmerman, Marleen; McGrory, Elizabeth; Farley, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Two new microbicide products based on topical (vaginal) application of antiretroviral drugs – 1% tenofovir gel and the dapivirine ring – are currently in late-stage clinical testing, and results on their safety and effectiveness are expected to become available in early 2015. WHO guidelines on the use of topical pre-exposure prophylaxis (topical PrEP) are important in order to ensure that these new prevention products are optimally used. Discussion Given that these new topical PrEP products are designed to be woman initiated and will likely be delivered in reproductive health settings, it is important to ensure that the guidance be framed in the context of comprehensive sexual and reproductive health and human rights. In addition to the safety and effectiveness data resulting from clinical trials, and the regulatory approval required for new products, the WHO normative guidelines on the use of topical PrEP will be essential for rapid roll-out in countries. Conclusions Human rights standards and principles provide a framework for the provision of woman-initiated HIV prevention products. These include addressing issues related to the gender inequities which are linked to the provision of HIV-prevention, treatment and care for young girls and women. Effective programming for women and girls must therefore be based on understanding the local, social and community contexts of the AIDS epidemic in the country, and adapting HIV strategies and programmes accordingly. Such a framework therefore is needed not only to ensure optimal uptake of these new products by women and girls but also to address sociocultural barriers to women's and girls’ access to these products. PMID:25224620

  6. Treatment of angiofibromas in tuberous sclerosis complex: the effect of topical rapamycin and concomitant laser therapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin; Yun, Seok-Kweon; Cho, Yong-Sun; Song, Ki-Hun; Kim, Han-Uk

    2014-01-01

    Facial angiofibromas are the most troublesome cutaneous manifestations of the tuberous sclerosis complex and are difficult to treat. Lasers are most commonly used to treat these skin lesions, but results are disappointing with frequent recurrences. Recently, treatment of facial angiofibromas with topical rapamycin has been reported to yield promising results. We observed the need of laser ablation in addition to topical rapamycin to get best results for the treatment of angiofibromas in 4 cases. The result showed that topical rapamycin ointment was enough when the papules were yet small in size, i.e. less than a few millimeters, but additional laser ablation was needed for large papules approximately larger than 4 mm. Considering the natural course of facial angiofibromas, we believe that topical rapamycin can be best used in childhood patients. In adults, topical rapamycin was useful for treating the still present small papules and for preventing recurrences after laser treatment.

  7. Elucidating pharmacodynamic interaction of silver nanoparticle - topical deliverable antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Thirumurugan, G; Seshagiri Rao, J V L N; Dhanaraju, M D

    2016-01-01

    In order to exploit the potential benefits of antimicrobial combination therapy, we need a better understanding of the circumstances under which pharmacodynamic interactions expected. In this study, Pharmacodynamic interactions between silver nanoparticle (SNP) and topical antibiotics such as Cefazolin (CEF), Mupirocin (MUP), Gentamycin (GEN), Neomycin (NEO), Tetracycline (TET), Vancomycin (VAN) were investigated using the MIC test, Combination assay followed by Fractional Inhibitory concentration Index and Agar well diffusion method. SNP + MUP, SNP + NEO, SNP + VAN combinations showed Synergism (SN) and SNP + CEF, SNP + GEN, SNP + TET showed Partial synergism (PS) against Staphylococcus aureus. Four combinations (SNP + CEF, SNP + MUP, SNP + GEN, SNP + VAN) showed SN, SNP + TET showed PS and Indifferent effect (ID) were observed for SNP + NEO against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. SN was observed for SNP + CEF, SNP + GEN, SNP + NEO, SNP + TET and SNP + MUP showed ID, SNP + VAN showed PS against Escherichia coli. In addition, we elucidated the possible mechanism involved in the pharmacodynamic interaction between SNP-topical antibiotics by increased ROS level, membrane damage following protein release, K(+) leakage and biofilm inhibition. Thus, our findings support that conjugation of the SNP with topical antibiotics have great potential in the topical formulation when treating complex resistant bacterial infections and where there is a need of more concentration to kill pathogenic bacteria. PMID:27427207

  8. Topical amitriptyline and ketamine for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    A neuropathy is a disturbance of function or pathological change in nerves. In some cases, peripheral neuropathic pain may occur due to a lesion or disease of the peripheral somatosensory nervous system. Efficacy of different agents for peripheral neuropathic pain conditions is less than optimal. The administration of topical analgesics might be an option, due to the potential of reduced adverse effects and increased patient compliance. There is major interest in compounding topical analgesics for peripheral neuropathic pain, but several challenges remain for this approach. Topical analgesics have the potential to be a valuable additional approach for the management of peripheral neuropathic pain. Topical amitriptyline-ketamine combination (AK) is a promising agent for peripheral neuropathic pain conditions. Some studies have shown its efficacy in neuropathic pain conditions. However, this data was not uniformely obtained and its role remains still controversial. Efficacy may depend on many factors, including the choice of the vehicle, the concentration, the pain site, and specific diseases. More studies are necessary to support the use of AK in clinical practice. PMID:26488799

  9. Elucidating pharmacodynamic interaction of silver nanoparticle - topical deliverable antibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirumurugan, G.; Seshagiri Rao, J. V. L. N.; Dhanaraju, M. D.

    2016-07-01

    In order to exploit the potential benefits of antimicrobial combination therapy, we need a better understanding of the circumstances under which pharmacodynamic interactions expected. In this study, Pharmacodynamic interactions between silver nanoparticle (SNP) and topical antibiotics such as Cefazolin (CEF), Mupirocin (MUP), Gentamycin (GEN), Neomycin (NEO), Tetracycline (TET), Vancomycin (VAN) were investigated using the MIC test, Combination assay followed by Fractional Inhibitory concentration Index and Agar well diffusion method. SNP + MUP, SNP + NEO, SNP + VAN combinations showed Synergism (SN) and SNP + CEF, SNP + GEN, SNP + TET showed Partial synergism (PS) against Staphylococcus aureus. Four combinations (SNP + CEF, SNP + MUP, SNP + GEN, SNP + VAN) showed SN, SNP + TET showed PS and Indifferent effect (ID) were observed for SNP + NEO against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. SN was observed for SNP + CEF, SNP + GEN, SNP + NEO, SNP + TET and SNP + MUP showed ID, SNP + VAN showed PS against Escherichia coli. In addition, we elucidated the possible mechanism involved in the pharmacodynamic interaction between SNP-topical antibiotics by increased ROS level, membrane damage following protein release, K+ leakage and biofilm inhibition. Thus, our findings support that conjugation of the SNP with topical antibiotics have great potential in the topical formulation when treating complex resistant bacterial infections and where there is a need of more concentration to kill pathogenic bacteria.

  10. Elucidating pharmacodynamic interaction of silver nanoparticle - topical deliverable antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Thirumurugan, G.; Seshagiri Rao, J. V. L. N.; Dhanaraju, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    In order to exploit the potential benefits of antimicrobial combination therapy, we need a better understanding of the circumstances under which pharmacodynamic interactions expected. In this study, Pharmacodynamic interactions between silver nanoparticle (SNP) and topical antibiotics such as Cefazolin (CEF), Mupirocin (MUP), Gentamycin (GEN), Neomycin (NEO), Tetracycline (TET), Vancomycin (VAN) were investigated using the MIC test, Combination assay followed by Fractional Inhibitory concentration Index and Agar well diffusion method. SNP + MUP, SNP + NEO, SNP + VAN combinations showed Synergism (SN) and SNP + CEF, SNP + GEN, SNP + TET showed Partial synergism (PS) against Staphylococcus aureus. Four combinations (SNP + CEF, SNP + MUP, SNP + GEN, SNP + VAN) showed SN, SNP + TET showed PS and Indifferent effect (ID) were observed for SNP + NEO against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. SN was observed for SNP + CEF, SNP + GEN, SNP + NEO, SNP + TET and SNP + MUP showed ID, SNP + VAN showed PS against Escherichia coli. In addition, we elucidated the possible mechanism involved in the pharmacodynamic interaction between SNP-topical antibiotics by increased ROS level, membrane damage following protein release, K+ leakage and biofilm inhibition. Thus, our findings support that conjugation of the SNP with topical antibiotics have great potential in the topical formulation when treating complex resistant bacterial infections and where there is a need of more concentration to kill pathogenic bacteria. PMID:27427207

  11. Some observations on the pharmacology of 'deep-heat', a topical rubifacient.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, A J; Notarianni, L J; Ring, E F; Seed, M P

    1984-01-01

    A topically applied rubifacient delivered by aerosol (Deep-Heat) was studied. After spray application to the forearms of volunteers, without massage, the erythema produced was measured by thermography and correlated with the concentration of 2 salicylate components of the mixture found in local and systemic venous blood. Maximum erythema occurred at about 30 minutes, while blood salicylate levels were maximal between 20 and 30 minutes after application. Methyl salicylate was absorbed before ethyl salicylate. Over the time period of the erythematous response oxygen levels in local venous blood were raised. Finally, platelets collected from venous blood draining from the sprayed site, when induced to clump by the addition of arachidonic acid in an aggregometer, showed increased resistance to clumping when compared with control cells. The mechanism of these observed phenomena and the mode of action of the constituents of Deep-Heat are discussed. PMID:6547585

  12. Diving medicine: contemporary topics and their controversies.

    PubMed

    Strauss, M B; Borer, R C

    2001-05-01

    SCUBA diving is a popular recreational sport. Although serious injuries occur infrequently, when they do knowledge of diving medicine and/or where to obtain appropriate consultation is essential. The emergency physician is likely to be the first physician contact the injured diver has. We discuss 8 subjects in diving medicine which are contemporary, yet may have controversies associated with them. From this information the physician dealing primarily with the injured diver will have a basis for understanding and managing, as well as where to find additional help, for his/her patients' diving injuries.

  13. TOPICAL REVIEW: DNA nanowire fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Qun; Cheng, Chuanding; Gonela, Ravikanth; Suryanarayanan, Shivashankar; Anabathula, Sathish; Dai, Kun; Haynie, Donald T.

    2006-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has been a key building block in nanotechnology since the earliest work on what is now called DNA-templated self-assembly (Alivisatos et al 1996 Nature 382 609; Mirkin et al 1996 Nature 382 607; Braun et al 1998 Nature 391 775). A range of different nanoparticles and nanoclusters have been assembled on single DNA molecules for a variety of purposes (Braun et al 1998 Nature 391 775; Richter et al 2001 Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 536; Park et al 2002 Science 295 1503; Mirkin 2000 Inorg. Chem. 39 2258; Keren et al 2003 Science 302 1380). Electrically conductive silver (Braun et al 1998 Nature 391 775) and palladium (Richter et al 2001 Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 536) nanowires, for example, have been fabricated by DNA templating for the development of interconnection of nanoelectric elements, and field effect transistors have been built by assembly of a single carbon nanotube and DNA-templated nanowires (Keren et al 2003 Science 302 1380). DNA is well suited for nanowire assembly because of its size, well organized structure, and exquisite molecular-recognition-ability-specific base pairing. This property has been used to detect nucleic acids (Park et al 2002 Science 295 1503) and anthrax (Mirkin 2000 Inorg. Chem. 39 2258) with high sensitivity and specificity. Molecular recognition can also be used to localize nanowires in electronics. Various methods, for example molecular combing, electrophoretic stretching, and hydrodynamic stretching, have been developed to orient DNA molecules on a solid support. This review focuses on methods used to manipulate and metallize DNA in nanowire fabrication. A novel approach based on a single-stranded DNA template and molecular recognition is also discussed.

  14. Digital Social Network Mining for Topic Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradianzadeh, Pooya; Mohi, Maryam; Sadighi Moshkenani, Mohsen

    Networked computers are expanding more and more around the world, and digital social networks becoming of great importance for many people's work and leisure. This paper mainly focused on discovering the topic of exchanging information in digital social network. In brief, our method is to use a hierarchical dictionary of related topics and words that mapped to a graph. Then, with comparing the extracted keywords from the context of social network with graph nodes, probability of relation between context and desired topics will be computed. This model can be used in many applications such as advertising, viral marketing and high-risk group detection.

  15. Tinkertoy Color-Addition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joe L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple home-built device, using an overhead projector, for use in demonstrations of the addition of various combinations of red, green, and blue light. Useful in connection with discussions of color, color vision, or color television. (JRH)

  16. Additional Financial Resources for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Ben C.

    This paper discusses the continuing need for additional educational funds and suggests that the only way to gain these funds is through concerted and persistent political efforts by supporters of education at both the federal and state levels. The author first points out that for many reasons declining enrollment may not decrease operating costs…

  17. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  18. Treatment of acne with topical antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Frank, S B

    1977-06-01

    The introduction of topical antibiotics for acne vulgaris has ushered in a new era in the treatment of this troublesome disorder. Tetracycline, erythromycin, and clindamycin can now be prepared in lotion form in vehicles that are capable of carrying the antibiotic into the follicular canal, where the primary lesion of acne occurs. Topical antibiotics are practically as effective as oral antibiotics in treating acne and are particularly useful for mild papular acne of puberty and early adolescence and papular-pustular acne of adult women. Use of topical antibiotics avoids the possibility of the adverse effects of systemic therapy; the side effects from the formulations reported here are negligible. Above all, antibiotic lotions do not produce the dryness and scaling that occur with most other topical acne preparations.

  19. NOVEL APPROACHES TO Topical Psoriasis Therapy.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Gregory; Liu, Jenny; Scaffidi, Alyse; Khazraee, Maryam; Epstein, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Topical corticosteroids are the cornerstone of treatment for the majority of psoriasis patients. However, potential side effects of topical corticosteroids (i.e., cutaneous atrophy, telangiectasias, hypothalamic-pituitary axis suppression), coupled with the complex pathophysiology of psoriasis and the individual needs/preferences of psoriasis patients, represent a few of the limitations associated with topical corticosteroid monotherapy. While the combination of some agents with varying mechanisms of action has proven to be an effective strategy for improving efficacy and reducing concomitant drug application, others have displayed less efficacy, harm, and/or reduced cost-effectiveness. The purpose of this article is to review novel topical therapeutic combinations for the management of psoriasis and explore the role compounding pharmacies can have in providing healthcare providers and patients with effective and affordable alternative psoriasis therapies. PMID:26775441

  20. Topical administration of adrenergic receptor pharmaceutics and nerve growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Steinle, Jena J

    2010-01-01

    Topical application of nerve growth factor (NGF) and adrenergic receptor pharmaceutics are currently in use for corneal ulcers and glaucoma. A recent interest in the neuroprotective abilities of NGF has led to a renewed interest in NGF as a therapeutic for retinal and choroidal diseases. NGF can promote cell proliferation through actions of the TrkA receptor or promote apoptosis through receptor p75NTR. This understanding has led to novel interest in the role of NGF for diseases of the posterior eye. The role of β-adrenergic receptor agonists and antagonists for treatments of glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and their potential mechanisms of action, are still under investigation. This review discusses the current knowledge and applications of topical NGF and adrenergic receptor drugs for ocular disease. PMID:20668722

  1. Topical and oral therapeutic approach to rosacea.

    PubMed

    Helfrich, Yolanda R; Maier, Lisa M

    2016-06-01

    Rosacea is an inflammatory condition of the skin, primarily affecting the central convexities of the face. Various topical and oral therapeutic approaches exist. Most have been developed to treat the papulopustular subtype of rosacea; however, other approaches can be used to treat the erythematotelangiectatic, ocular, and phymatous subtypes. This review provides a summary of available topical and oral approaches for the treatment of rosacea. PMID:27416312

  2. Facilitating Classroom Discussion on Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeng, Ling Hwey

    1997-01-01

    Considers how to address the topic of diversity in library and information science education, based on six possible scenarios that address situations dealing with proportional representation in library collections, minority recruitment, stereotypes, English-only policies, affirmative action, and immigrants. (LRW)

  3. The Developing Child: Discussion Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Year of the Child, Canberra (Australia). National Committee of Non-Government Organisations.

    The Developing Child Sub-Committee of the Australian International Year of the Child Committee of Non-Government Organizations prepared papers on the main problems facing children from birth to 12 years of age. Topics designated for attention were (1) the parenting role, including the influence of parents on children, factors influencing parental…

  4. Human Cloning: Let's Discuss It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)

  5. Let's Discuss: Teaching Students about Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brank, Eve; Wylie, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    Research consistently demonstrates the benefits of employing classroom discussions; however, there has been less attention given to teaching students about discussions. The current research compared 2 advanced social psychology courses: 1 without (control) and 1 with (experimental) a week devoted to learning about and discussing discussions.…

  6. Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Philip

    2003-01-01

    Author argues that the philosophical movement known as postmodernism seriously undermined the notion that truth can be at all objective and that truth depends entirely on democratic consensus. Addresses Davon-Galle's criticism of the author's assertions and explains that the certainty that Davon-Galle seeks is not to be found in philosophy or any…

  7. Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, K.

    Presenter, T. P. Grazulis, private consultant [Grazulis et al., this volume, advances in tornado climatology, hazards, and risk assessment since Tornado Symposium II]. (C. Anderson, North Carolina State University.) At one time, I lived in Wisconsin and used to consider tornado climatology there. I noticed some very strange reporting, also. There were a number of counties along the Lake Michigan shore that showed no reported tornadoes from 1915 to 1950. Did you find something like this as well?

  8. Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davson-Galle, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Explains Philip Higgs' post modern pluralist thought by reaction to the monolithic rigidities of the decreed dogma of his country's (South Africa) past. Author argues that Higgs has overreacted and has become over tolerant of diversity of thought and that intellectual endeavors should be relativised to particular intellectual parochial…

  9. A Simple Experimental Setup for Teaching Additive Colors with Arduino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Paulo Simeão; Hahn, Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    The result of additive colors is always fascinating to young students. When we teach this topic to 14- to 16-year-old students, they do not usually notice we use maximum light quantities of red (R), green (G), and blue (B) to obtain yellow, magenta, and cyan colors in order to build the well-known additive color diagram of Fig. 1. But how about using different light intensities for R, G, and B? What colors do we get? This problem of color mixing has been intensively discussed for decades by several authors, as pointed out by Ruiz's "Color Addition and Subtraction Apps" work and the references included therein. An early LED demonstrator for additive color mixing dates back to 1985, and apps to illustrate color mixing are available online. In this work, we describe an experimental setup making use of a microcontroller device: the Arduino Uno. This setup is designed as a game in order to improve students' understanding of color mixing.

  10. Clinical application and assessment of Belotero: a roundtable discussion.

    PubMed

    Lorenc, Z Paul; Fagien, Steven; Flynn, Timothy C; Waldorf, Heidi A

    2013-10-01

    In this final article for the Supplement, the authors address the physical and aesthetic characteristics of the latest hyaluronic acid, Belotero Balance. Topics include unique characteristics of the hyaluronic acid, aesthetic indications, administration techniques, adverse events, and differences between Belotero and other hyaluronic acids. The article closes with a brief discussion about nomenclature of hyaluronic acid products.

  11. Research on spectroscopic imaging. Volume 1: Technical discussion. [birefringent filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A.; Rosenberg, W.

    1979-01-01

    The principals of operation and the capabilities of birefringent filters systems are examined. Topics covered include: Lyot, Solc, and partial polarizer filters; transmission profile management; tuning birefringent filters; field of view; bandpass control; engineering considerations; and recommendations. Improvements for field of view effects, and the development of birefringent filters for spaceflight are discussed in appendices.

  12. Workshop on Possibilities for Improving Information Transfer. Discussion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The following topics are discussed to show various forms for cooperative ventures in the information field which countries within a region might consider: (1) building up basic resources, collections, and stores; (2) collective retrieval tools to the combined resources of the region; (3) regional information service activities; (4) communication…

  13. Discussion - Winds and magnetic fields of active OB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouret, Jean-Claude; Cidale, Lydia

    2011-07-01

    The discussion on winds and magnetic fields of active OB stars was carried out by S. Owoki, G. Wade, M. Cantiello, O. Kochukhov, M. Smith, C. Neiner, T. Rivinius, H. Henrichs and R. Townsend. The topics were the ability to detect small and large scale magnetic fields in massive stars and the need to consider limits on photometric variability of the star surface brightness.

  14. Connecting Student and Subject Matter: The Cultural Artifact Discussion Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Sanders, Alane K.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a class activity where students work in dyads to select an artifact related to a course topic and, using this artifact, develop discussion questions to engage their classmates. This cultural artifact assignment is intended to, in part, answer John Dewey's call to cultivate connections between subject matter and life…

  15. Looking for Critical Thinking in Online Threaded Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurino, Paula San Millan

    2006-01-01

    Threaded discussion forums have been a popular topic for the past few years in distance education research and studied as a factor in student participation, satisfaction, learning outcomes, social presence and interaction. Only recently has it been considered as a potential vehicle for the development of critical thinking skills and deep learning.…

  16. Umberto Eco on Libraries: A Discussion of "De Biblioteca."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Michael F.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a scholar's reactions to libraries made by Umberto Eco in "De Biblioteca." Topics addressed include functions of libraries, including collecting; accessibility of materials; the scholar's creative use of libraries, and discovering materials not looked for or known about; North American research libraries; photocopying; and better…

  17. Hair Cells: Bundles, Tuning, Transduction—A Moderated Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavitaki, K. Domenica; Ricci, Anthony J.

    2011-11-01

    A discussion moderated by the authors on the topic "Hair Cells: Bundles, Tuning, Transduction" was held on 17 July 2011 at the 11th International Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Williamstown, Massachusetts. The paper provides an edited transcript of the session.

  18. Mechanics of Hearing Potpourri—A Moderated Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, John J.

    2011-11-01

    A summary discussion moderated by the author on the general topic "Mechanics of Hearing" was held on 21 July 2011 at the 11th International Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Williamstown, Massachusetts. The paper provides an edited transcript of the session.

  19. Outer Hair Cells and Prestin—A Moderated Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownell, William E.; Gummer, Anthony W.

    2011-11-01

    A discussion moderated by the authors on the topic "Outer Hair Cells and Prestin" was held on 18 July 2011 at the 11th International Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Williamstown, Massachusetts. The paper provides an edited transcript of the session.

  20. Focus group discussion: a tool for health and medical research.

    PubMed

    Wong, L P

    2008-03-01

    Focus group discussion is a research methodology in which a small group of participants gather to discuss a specified topic or an issue to generate data. The main characteristic of a focus group is the interaction between the moderator and the group, as well as the interaction between group members. The objective is to give the researcher an understanding of the participants' perspective on the topic in discussion. Focus groups are rapidly gaining popularity in health and medical research. This paper presents a general introduction of the use of focus groups as a research tool within the context of health research, with the intention of promoting its use among researchers in healthcare. A detailed methodology for the conduct of focus groups and analysis of focus group data are discussed. The potentials and limitations of this qualitative research technique are also highlighted.

  1. Topical vs. systemic treatments for acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Kathy; Parrish, Francie; Swords, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common condition in children that is often treated with systemic antibiotic therapy; however, research suggests that non-complicated AOM will resolve spontaneously using only eardrops. To determine best practice for the use of systematic antibiotics compared to topical treatment of AOM, a systematic review of evidence was conducted. Cochrane, Medline, CINAHL, and other databases were searched. Inclusion criteria were studies published from 1995-2010 that included children with AOM and were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Five systematic reviews and five RCTs were included in the review. Current evidence recommends using topical and other alternative approaches for treating non-complicated AOM in children 2 years of age or older; however, many practitioners are not currently following these recommendations for various reasons. Additional research to address these reasons may help determine how to improve practitioner adherence to best practice evidence and guidelines to help reduce the unnecessary use of systemic antibiotics.

  2. Skin permeation of 5-methoxypsoralen from topical dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Gaia; Artusi, Mariella; Santi, Patrizia; Colombo, Paolo; Bettini, Ruggero; Zucchi, Alfredo; Nicoli, Sara

    2003-02-01

    The topical photochemotherapy of dermatoses with psoralens (PUVA therapy) requires an adequate drug level at the target site (basal epidermis) at the time of UVA radiation. The aim of this work was to enhance 5-methoxypsoralen transport to the basal epidermis, with the goal to shorten the delay between drug application and UVA irradiation. 5-Methoxypsoralen transport through rabbit skin was studied in vitro from topical formulations (water solution, gel. and emulsion). The results obtained show that the use of the emulsion increased the flux through rabbit ear skin, even if partitioning was not favorable. Additionally, the time lag was sensibly reduced, compared with the gel and solution. Furthermore, drug accumulation in human skin in vitro was determined using the thin slicing technique. Human skin accumulation profile was significantly higher for the emulsion, compared with the gel, indicating that the delay between psoralen application and UVA irradiation can be shortened.

  3. Starship Asterisk: APOD and General Astronomy Discussion Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    A main discussion venue for the popular Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) website has been recently redesigned and upgraded. The online bulletin board is directly linked from the bottom of recent APODs served from http://apod.nasa.gov/ . Formerly known as "The Asterisk," the site's new design is called "Starship Asterisk" and now declares its forums to be places on a starship, with the current APOD considered as appearing on the main view screen on the Bridge. A central "mission" of Starship Asterisk is to support APOD in various ways. Toward this end, the Bridge forum exists primarily for the (archived) discussion of that day's APOD, the Observation Deck forum facilitates APOD image submissions, and the Library creates a forum where no student question about astronomy is considered to be too easy or too hard. Additionally, Starship Asterisk now includes an astronomy news-oriented links forum titled the Communications Center, a citizen science-oriented links collection called the Science Labs, and classrooms including a free online, textbook-free Astro 101 course, taught by the author, complete with video lectures and powerpoint slides. Typically, over 1,000 astronomy enthusiasts will browse Starship Asterisk on any given day. Although the vast majority of readers prefer to browse anonymously, the site has now garnered over 60,000 posts. A small but dedicated group of volunteer "officers" administer the bulletin board, answer questions about astronomy from curious APOD readers, and openly discuss various astronomy topics, frequently with intended humor. Perhaps surprisingly, the majority of volunteer officers tend NOT to be professional astronomers, but typically quite knowledgeable retirees exercising a lifelong interest in astronomy.

  4. Introduction to Small Group Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Dan Pyle

    To bring educational research into focus with tested classroom practice, this booklet provides an introduction to small group discussion. The theory and research section discusses the importance of small group discussion, characteristics of small group discussions, group attraction based on Maslow's hierarchy of basic human needs, group decision…

  5. Should Instructors Require Discussion in Online Courses? Effects of Online Discussion on Community of Inquiry, Learner Time, Satisfaction, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Moon-Heum; Tobias, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Online discussion is a commonly used means to promote student understanding of a topic and to facilitate social interaction among students or between students and instructor; however, its effects on student learning in online learning environments have rarely been investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of online discussion…

  6. Topical calcineurin inhibitors in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Lampropoulos, Christos E; D’Cruz, David P

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) encompasses a variety of lesions that may be refractory to systemic or topical agents. Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) are the most common lesions in clinical practice. The topical calcineurin inhibitors, tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, have been used to treat resistant cutaneous lupus since 2002 and inhibit the proliferation and activation of T-cells and suppress immune-mediated cutaneous inflammation. This article reviews the mechanism of action, efficacy, adverse effects, and the recent concern about their possible carcinogenic effect. Although the total number of patients is small and there is only one relevant randomized controlled study, the data are encouraging. Many patients, previously resistant to systemic agents or topical steroids, improved after four weeks of treatment. DLE and SCLE lesions were less responsive, reflecting the chronicity of the lesions, although more than 50% of patients still showed improvement. Topical calcineurin inhibitors may be a safe and effective alternative to topical steroids for CLE although the only approved indication is for atopic dermatitis. PMID:20421909

  7. Chronic postsurgical pain: still a neglected topic?

    PubMed Central

    Kissin, Igor; Gelman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background Surgical injury can frequently lead to chronic pain. Despite the obvious importance of this problem, the first publications on chronic pain after surgery as a general topic appeared only a decade ago. This study tests the hypothesis that chronic postsurgical pain was, and still is, represented insufficiently. Methods We analyzed the presentation of this topic in journal articles covered by PubMed and in surgical textbooks. The following signs of insufficient representation in journal articles were used: (1) the lack of journal editorials on chronic pain after surgery, (2) the lack of journal articles with titles clearly indicating that they are devoted to chronic postsurgical pain, and (3) the insufficient representation of chronic postsurgical pain in the top surgical journals. Results It was demonstrated that insufficient representation of this topic existed in 1981–2000, especially in surgical journals and textbooks. Interest in this topic began to increase, however, mostly regarding one specific surgery: herniorrhaphy. It is important that the change in the attitude toward chronic postsurgical pain spreads to other groups of surgeries. Conclusion Chronic postsurgical pain is still a neglected topic, except for pain after herniorrhaphy. The change in the attitude toward chronic postsurgical pain is the important first step in the approach to this problem. PMID:23152698

  8. Informal Discussions in Substance Abuse Treatment Sessions with Spanish-speaking Clients

    PubMed Central

    Bamatter, Wendy; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Añez, Luis M.; Paris, Manuel; Ball, Samuel A.; Nich, Charla; Frankforter, Tami L.; Suarez-Morales, Lourdes; Szapocznik, Jose; Martino, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which bilingual counselors initiated informal discussions about topics that were unrelated to the treatment of their monolingual Spanish-speaking Hispanic clients in a National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trial Network protocol examining the effectiveness of motivational enhancement therapy (MET). Session audiotapes were independently rated to assess counselor treatment fidelity and the incidence of informal discussions. Eighty-three percent of the 23 counselors participating in the trial initiated informal discussions at least once in one or more of their sessions. Counselors delivering MET in the trial initiated informal discussion significantly less often than the counselors delivering standard treatment. Counselors delivering standard treatment were likely to talk informally the most when they were ethnically non-Latin. Additionally, informal discussion was found to have significant inverse correlations with client motivation to reduce substance use and client retention in treatment. These results suggest that informal discussion may have adverse consequences on Hispanic clients’ motivation for change and substance abuse treatment outcomes and that maintaining a more formal relationship in early treatment sessions may work best with Hispanic clients. Careful counselor training and supervision in MET may suppress the tendency of counselors to talk informally in sessions. PMID:20817381

  9. Terry Quist Discusses Skylab Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    San Antonio, Texas high school student, Terry C. Quist (left), and Dr. Raymond Gause of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), discuss the student's experiment to be performed aboard the Skylab the following year. His experiment, 'Earth Orbital Neutron Analysis' required detectors such as the one he is examining in this photo. The detector was to be attached to a water tank in Skylab. Neutrons striking the detectors left traces that were brought out by a chemical etching process after the Skylab mission. Quist's experiment seeked to record neutron hits, count them, and determine their direction. This information was to help determine the source of neutrons in the solar system. Quist was among 25 winners of a contest in which some 3,500 high school students proposed experiments for the following year's Skylab mission. The nationwide scientific competition was sponsored by the National Science Teachers Association and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The winning students, along with their parents and sponsor teachers, visited MSFC two months earlier where they met with scientists and engineers, participated in design reviews for their experiments, and toured MSFC facilities. Of the 25 students, 6 did not see their experiments conducted on Skylab because the experiments were not compatible with Skylab hardware and timelines. Of the 19 remaining, 11 experiments required the manufacture of additional equipment. The equipment for the experiments was manufactured at MSFC.

  10. Topics in linear optical quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glancy, Scott Charles

    This thesis covers several topics in optical quantum computation. A quantum computer is a computational device which is able to manipulate information by performing unitary operations on some physical system whose state can be described as a vector (or mixture of vectors) in a Hilbert space. The basic unit of information, called the qubit, is considered to be a system with two orthogonal states, which are assigned logical values of 0 and 1. Photons make excellent candidates to serve as qubits. They have little interactions with the environment. Many operations can be performed using very simple linear optical devices such as beam splitters and phase shifters. Photons can easily be processed through circuit-like networks. Operations can be performed in very short times. Photons are ideally suited for the long-distance communication of quantum information. The great difficulty in constructing an optical quantum computer is that photons naturally interact weakly with one another. This thesis first gives a brief review of two early approaches to optical quantum computation. It will describe how any discrete unitary operation can be performed using a single photon and a network of beam splitters, and how the Kerr effect can be used to construct a two photon logic gate. Second, this work provides a thorough introduction to the linear optical quantum computer developed by Knill, Laflamme, and Milburn. It then presents this author's results on the reliability of this scheme when implemented using imperfect photon detectors. This author finds that quantum computers of this sort cannot be built using current technology. Third, this dissertation describes a method for constructing a linear optical quantum computer using nearly orthogonal coherent states of light as the qubits. It shows how a universal set of logic operations can be performed, including calculations of the fidelity with which these operations may be accomplished. It discusses methods for reducing and

  11. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  12. Enhancing the nail permeability of topically applied drugs.

    PubMed

    Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2008-11-01

    The topical therapy of nail diseases, especially of onychomycosis, and to a smaller extent, of nail psoriasis, is desirable to avoid the side effects associated with their systemic therapy, to increase patient compliance and reduce the cost of treatment. Systemic therapy is however the mainstay of treatment due to the poor permeability of the nail plate to topically applied drugs. For effective topical therapy, ungual drug permeation must be enhanced. This can be achieved by disrupting the nail plate using physical techniques or chemical agents. Alternatively, drug permeation into the intact nail plate may be encouraged, for example, by iontophoresis or by formulating the drug within a vehicle which enables high drug partition out of the vehicle and into the nail plate. The physical techniques (manual and electrical nail abrasion, acid etching, ablation by lasers, microporation, application of low-frequency ultrasound and electric currents) and chemicals (thiols, sulphites, hydrogen peroxide, urea, water, enzymes) that have shown ungual enhancer activity are discussed in this review. Optimal drug formulation, while crucial to ungual drug delivery, is only briefly reviewed due to the limited literature. PMID:18976136

  13. Regulatory cross-cutting topics for fuel cycle facilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Denman, Matthew R.; Brown, Jason; Goldmann, Andrew Scott; Louie, David

    2013-10-01

    This report overviews crosscutting regulatory topics for nuclear fuel cycle facilities for use in the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Screening study. In particular, the regulatory infrastructure and analysis capability is assessed for the following topical areas: Fire Regulations (i.e., how applicable are current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and/or International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) fire regulations to advance fuel cycle facilities) Consequence Assessment (i.e., how applicable are current radionuclide transportation tools to support risk-informed regulations and Level 2 and/or 3 PRA) While not addressed in detail, the following regulatory topic is also discussed: Integrated Security, Safeguard and Safety Requirement (i.e., how applicable are current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations to future fuel cycle facilities which will likely be required to balance the sometimes conflicting Material Accountability, Security, and Safety requirements.)

  14. Enhancing the nail permeability of topically applied drugs.

    PubMed

    Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2008-11-01

    The topical therapy of nail diseases, especially of onychomycosis, and to a smaller extent, of nail psoriasis, is desirable to avoid the side effects associated with their systemic therapy, to increase patient compliance and reduce the cost of treatment. Systemic therapy is however the mainstay of treatment due to the poor permeability of the nail plate to topically applied drugs. For effective topical therapy, ungual drug permeation must be enhanced. This can be achieved by disrupting the nail plate using physical techniques or chemical agents. Alternatively, drug permeation into the intact nail plate may be encouraged, for example, by iontophoresis or by formulating the drug within a vehicle which enables high drug partition out of the vehicle and into the nail plate. The physical techniques (manual and electrical nail abrasion, acid etching, ablation by lasers, microporation, application of low-frequency ultrasound and electric currents) and chemicals (thiols, sulphites, hydrogen peroxide, urea, water, enzymes) that have shown ungual enhancer activity are discussed in this review. Optimal drug formulation, while crucial to ungual drug delivery, is only briefly reviewed due to the limited literature.

  15. In Vivo Methods for the Assessment of Topical Drug Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Herkenne, Christophe; Alberti, Ingo; Naik, Aarti; Kalia, Yogeshvar N.; Mathy, François-Xavier; Préat, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews some current methods for the in vivo assessment of local cutaneous bioavailability in humans after topical drug application. After an introduction discussing the importance of local drug bioavailability assessment and the limitations of model-based predictions, the focus turns to the relevance of experimental studies. The available techniques are then reviewed in detail, with particular emphasis on the tape stripping and microdialysis methodologies. Other less developed techniques, including the skin biopsy, suction blister, follicle removal and confocal Raman spectroscopy techniques are also described. PMID:17985216

  16. Burning mouth syndrome: a discussion of a complex pathology.

    PubMed

    Zur, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a complex pathology for which there is very little information about the etiology and pathogenesis. This lack of knowledge leaves patients with suboptimal treatments. This article discusses the existing scientific evidence about this disease. Since topical oral use of clonazepam have been shown to be effective and safe to treat some patients suffering with burning mouth syndrome, formulations including clonazepam are included with this article. Compounding topical preparations of clonazepam offers opportunities for compounding pharmacists to be more involved in improving the quality of life of burning mouth syndrome patients. PMID:23050296

  17. Methemoglobinemia from topically applied anesthetic spray.

    PubMed

    Dinneen, S F; Mohr, D N; Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Topically applied anesthetic spray is commonly used as part of premedication for general anesthesia and for endoscopic procedures; it is rarely associated with side effects. In this report, we describe two cases of toxic methemoglobinemia that resulted from topically applied anesthetic spray used before endoscopy. In both cases, standard doses were used; however, methemoglobin levels of 45% and 38% developed within 1 hour of the procedure. Both patients had normal levels of erythrocyte methemoglobin reductase, an indication that this rare but potentially fatal side effect can occur in persons who have no predisposing factors. Because toxic methemoglobinemia is easily treated, our report emphasizes the need to recognize this problem when topically applied anesthetic sprays are used.

  18. Topical minoxidil: cardiac effects in bald man.

    PubMed Central

    Leenen, F H; Smith, D L; Unger, W P

    1988-01-01

    Systemic cardiovascular effects during chronic treatment with topical minoxidil vs placebo were evaluated using a double-blind, randomized design for two parallel groups (n = 20 for minoxidil, n = 15 for placebo). During 6 months of follow-up, blood pressure did not change, whereas minoxidil increased heart rate by 3-5 beats min-1. Compared with placebo, topical minoxidil caused significant increases in LV end-diastolic volume, in cardiac output (by 0.751 min-1) and in LV mass (by 5 g m-2). We conclude that in healthy subjects short-term use of topical minoxidil is likely not to be detrimental. However, safety needs to be established regarding ischaemic symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease as well as for the possible development of LV hypertrophy in healthy subjects during years of therapy. PMID:3191000

  19. Dynamic characteristics of tweeting and tweet topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyun Woong; Choi, M. Y.; Kim, Ho Sung; Lee, Keumsook

    2012-02-01

    Twitter, having more than 200 million world users and more than 4 million Korean users, is still growing fast. Because Twitter users can `tweet' about any topic within the 140-character limit, and other users who follow the users and see the tweets can `retweet' them, Twitter is regarded as a new medium of transferring and sharing information. Nevertheless, the propensities of Twitter users to tweet or to retweet still remain unclear. In order to investigate these propensities, we propose a simple model for the dynamics of the total number of tweets about specific topics. We then observe that the topics can be categorized into three kinds according to predictability and sustainability: predictable events, unpredictable events, and sustainable events. Comparing model results with real data, we infer the tweet propensities motivated by external causes as well as retweet propensities.

  20. Topical and peripheral ketamine as an analgesic.

    PubMed

    Sawynok, Jana

    2014-07-01

    Ketamine, in subanesthetic doses, produces systemic analgesia in chronic pain settings, an action largely attributed to block of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the spinal cord and inhibition of central sensitization processes. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors also are located peripherally on sensory afferent nerve endings, and this provided the initial impetus for exploring peripheral applications of ketamine. Ketamine also produces several other pharmacological actions (block of ion channels and receptors, modulation of transporters, anti-inflammatory effects), and while these may require higher concentrations, after topical (e.g., as gels, creams) and peripheral application (e.g., localized injections), local tissue concentrations are higher than those after systemic administration and can engage lower affinity mechanisms. Peripheral administration of ketamine by localized injection produced some alterations in sensory thresholds in experimental trials in volunteers and in complex regional pain syndrome subjects in experimental settings, but many variables were unaltered. There are several case reports of analgesia after topical application of ketamine given alone in neuropathic pain, but controlled trials have not confirmed such effects. A combination of topical ketamine with several other agents produced pain relief in case, and case series, reports with response rates of 40% to 75% in retrospective analyses. In controlled trials of neuropathic pain with topical ketamine combinations, there were improvements in some outcomes, but optimal dosing and drug combinations were not clear. Given orally (as a gargle, throat swab, localized peritonsillar injections), ketamine produced significant oral/throat analgesia in controlled trials in postoperative settings. Topical analgesics are likely more effective in particular conditions (patient factors, disease factors), and future trials of topical ketamine should include a consideration of factors that could predispose

  1. Safety of Topical Dermatologic Medications in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Viral M; Schwartz, Robert A; Lambert, W Clark

    2016-07-01

    Dermatologic drugs should be employed with caution in women of childbearing age who are pregnant or considering pregnancy. Topical drugs have little systemic absorption. Therefore, they are deemed safer than oral or parenteral agents and less likely to harm the fetus. However, their safety profile must be assessed cautiously, as there is limited available data. In this article, we aggregate human and animal studies and provide recommendations on using topical dermatologic medications in pregnancy.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):830-834. PMID:27391632

  2. Erythema Dyschromicum Perstans: Response to Topical Tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Vikram K; Chauhan, Pushpinder S; Mehta, Karaninder S; Sharma, Anju Lath

    2015-01-01

    Background: Erythema dyschromicum perstans, a rare dermatosis of obscure etiopathogenesis and significant cosmetic morbidity, have no satisfactory treatment. Observations: Two patients with having characteristic asymptomatic and slowly progressive, slate-grey macular lesions with distinct red borders involving the face, neck, upper trunk and limbs were diagnosed clinicopathologically as erythema dyschromicum perstans. Both were treated successfully with topical tacrolimus 0.1% ointment. Conclusions: Overall, response to several therapeutic modalities including clofazimine and dapsone therapy is said to vary from complete failure to variable or inconsistent. Topical tarolimus provides an effective and safe alternative therapeutic option in erythema dyschromicum perstans. PMID:26538750

  3. Vulvar Skin Atrophy Induced by Topical Glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Elisabeth; Groben, Pamela; Eanes, Alisa; Iyer, Priya; Ugoeke, Joseph; Zolnoun, Denniz

    2011-01-01

    Steroid induced skin atrophy is the most frequent and perhaps most important cutaneous side effect of topical glucocorticoid therapy. To date, it has not been described in vulvar skin. We describe a patient with significant vulvar skin atrophy following prolonged steroid application to treat vulvar dermatitis. The extensive atrophy in the perineum resulted in secondary ‘webbing’ and partial obstruction of genital hiatus and superimposed dyspareunia. Prolonged topical steroids may result in atrophic changes in vulvar skin. Therefore, further research in clinical correlates of steroid-induced atrophy in the vulvar region is warranted. PMID:22594868

  4. Illustrative EDOF topics in Fourier optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Nicholas; Chen, Xi; Chi, Wanli

    2011-10-01

    In this talk we present a series of illustrative topics in Fourier Optics that are proving valuable in the design of EDOF camera systems. They are at the level of final examination problems that have been made solvable by a student or professoi having studied from one of Joseph W. Goodman's books---our tribute for his 75fr year. As time permits, four illustrative topics are l) Electromagnetic waves and Fourier optics;2) The perfect lens; 3) Connection between phase delay and radially varying focal length in an asphere and 4) tailored EDOF designs.

  5. Proposals Relating to Increasing Housing Opportunities for Homeless Persons. Discussion Paper 91-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Laura; Matthias, Mary

    This paper provides a basis for discussion of housing proposals relating to increasing housing opportunities for homeless persons in Wisconsin. Six major topics relating to housing for homeless and potentially homeless persons are presented. Issues are listed under each topic. For each issue, background information is provided and alternatives for…

  6. Talk with Teens about Self and Stress: 50 Guided Discussions for School and Counseling Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde; Espeland, Pamela, Ed.

    Written to meet the affective need of adolescent students to share their feelings and concerns with supportive listeners, this document contains 50 guided discussions on various topics relating to three focus areas: the self, the self and others, and stress. Under the focus of the self topics include: personal strengths and limitations; behind the…

  7. Enhanced epidermal localization of topically applied steroids using SPACE™ peptide.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunny; Chen, Ming; Anselmo, Aaron C; Muraski, John A; Mitragotri, Samir

    2015-10-01

    The balance of efficacy and safety of topical corticosteroids (TCs) depends on their ability to penetrate into and be retained within the skin. Here, we evaluated the ability of SPACE™ peptide to enhance epidermal delivery and localization of three model TCs. In vitro and in vivo skin penetration studies were performed to evaluate penetration of TCs into and across the skin in the presence of various formulations of SPACE™ peptide. Topical formulations of corticosterone containing free SPACE™ peptide produced significantly enhanced epidermal penetration and localization. Ratio of drug deposition in the skin and receiver (efficacy/safety, indicative of ratio of local to systemic uptake) exhibited higher values for SPACE™ peptide-based formulation as compared to aqueous and hydroethanolic solutions and Cortizone™ cream. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that SPACE™ peptide associates with corticosterone, which may explain its enhanced retention effect. SPACE™ peptide also enhanced dermal retention of two more TCs (hydrocortisone and triamcinolone acetonide) compared to the vehicle control. An in vivo study in mice further established the ability of SPACE™ peptide to enhance skin retention of hydrocortisone without producing elevated blood concentrations. These results show that SPACE™ peptide is an effective additive to the formulation for enhanced skin localization of topical steroids.

  8. Assessment of topical versus oral ivermectin as a treatment for head lice.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hesham M; Abdel-Azim, Eman S; Abdel-Aziz, Rasha T

    2014-01-01

    Many medications are available for treatment of pediculosis capitis including ivermectin. Our aim is to compare the efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin in treatment of pediculosis capitis. Sixty-two patients with proved head lice infestation were included and divided into group I (31 patients; received single topical application of 1% ivermectin) and group II (31 patients; received single dose of oral ivermectin). Treatment was repeated after 1 week for nonresponders. At 1 week after treatment, the eradication rates and improvement of pruritus were significantly higher among patients who received topical than oral ivermectin. When a second treatment, topical or oral, was given to nonresponders, the cure rates of infestation and pruritus was 100% and 97% among patients treated with topical and oral ivermectin, respectively with no significant difference between the two groups. This study suggests that both topical and oral ivermectin demonstrate high efficacy and tolerability in treatment of pediculosis capitis. However, a single treatment with topical ivermectin provides significantly higher cure of infestation and faster relief of pruritus than oral ivermectin. In addition, whether topical or oral ivermectin is used to treat head lice, a second dose is required in some cases to ensure complete eradication.

  9. Topic Congruence and Topic Interest: How Do They Affect Second Language Reading Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang-Ki

    2009-01-01

    Because human memory is largely reconstructive, people tend to reorganize and reevaluate an event in a way that is coherent to the truth values held in their belief system. This study investigated the role of topic congruence (defined as whether the reading content corresponds with readers' prior beliefs towards a contentious topic) in second…

  10. A Discussion of Population Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    The discussion here covers five articles that are linked in the sense that they all treat population invariance. This discussion of population invariance is a somewhat broader treatment of the subject than simply a discussion of these five articles. In particular, occasional reference is made to publications other than those in this issue. The…

  11. Main topics in transcultural psychiatric research in the Netherlands during the past decade.

    PubMed

    Laban, Cornelis J; van Dijk, Rob

    2013-12-01

    The population of the Netherlands has become increasingly diverse in terms of ethnicity and religion, and anti-immigrant attitudes have become more apparent. At the same time, interest in issues linked to transcultural psychiatry has grown steadily. The purpose of this article is to describe the most important results in Dutch transcultural psychiatric research in the last decade and to discuss their relationship with relevant social and political developments in the Netherlands. All relevant PhD theses (N = 27) between 2000 and 2011 were selected. Screening of Dutch journals in the field of transcultural psychiatry and medical anthropology and a PubMed query yielded additional publications. Forensic and addiction psychiatry were excluded from this review. The results of the review indicate three main topics: (a) the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their relation to migration issues as social defeat and ethnic density, showing considerable intra- and interethnic differences in predictors and prevalence rates, (b) the social position of refugees and asylum seekers, and its effect on mental health, showing especially high risk among asylum seekers, and (c) the patterns of health-seeking behaviour and use of mental health services, showing a differentiated picture among various migrant groups. Anthropological research brought additional knowledge on all the above topics. The overall conclusion is that transcultural psychiatric research in the Netherlands has made a giant leap since the turn of the century. The results are of international importance and invite redefinition of the relationship between migration and mental health, and reconsideration of its underlying mechanisms in multiethnic societies.

  12. Main topics in transcultural psychiatric research in the Netherlands during the past decade.

    PubMed

    Laban, Cornelis J; van Dijk, Rob

    2013-12-01

    The population of the Netherlands has become increasingly diverse in terms of ethnicity and religion, and anti-immigrant attitudes have become more apparent. At the same time, interest in issues linked to transcultural psychiatry has grown steadily. The purpose of this article is to describe the most important results in Dutch transcultural psychiatric research in the last decade and to discuss their relationship with relevant social and political developments in the Netherlands. All relevant PhD theses (N = 27) between 2000 and 2011 were selected. Screening of Dutch journals in the field of transcultural psychiatry and medical anthropology and a PubMed query yielded additional publications. Forensic and addiction psychiatry were excluded from this review. The results of the review indicate three main topics: (a) the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their relation to migration issues as social defeat and ethnic density, showing considerable intra- and interethnic differences in predictors and prevalence rates, (b) the social position of refugees and asylum seekers, and its effect on mental health, showing especially high risk among asylum seekers, and (c) the patterns of health-seeking behaviour and use of mental health services, showing a differentiated picture among various migrant groups. Anthropological research brought additional knowledge on all the above topics. The overall conclusion is that transcultural psychiatric research in the Netherlands has made a giant leap since the turn of the century. The results are of international importance and invite redefinition of the relationship between migration and mental health, and reconsideration of its underlying mechanisms in multiethnic societies. PMID:24071745

  13. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    SciTech Connect

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2007-02-15

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. Also by relating a topic's interestingness to an article's interestingness, iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 9% to 14% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  14. Attitude Similarity, Topic Importance, and Psychotherapeutic Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Thomas

    1975-01-01

    The effect of attitude similarity and topic importance on attraction was studied by exposing 75 prison inmates, incarcerated for public intoxication, to varying attitudes of a psychotherapist. Subjects were more attracted to the therapist after receiving alcohol items regardless of degree of similarity expressed. (Author)

  15. Gender and Pragmatic Transfer in Topic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itakura, Hiroko

    2002-01-01

    Examines whether gender influences pragmatic transfer of topic development behavior in informal conversation by focusing on Japanese learners of English. Analysis of paired first language and second language mixed-gender conversations suggests learners are constrained to gender-specific modes of interaction--meaning male self-oriented and female…

  16. Current Research Topics in Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bursuck, William D.; Epstein, Michael H.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of 66 experts in learning disabilities (LD) found treatment maintenance, generalization, and assessment and remediation of academic problems ranked highest as research priorities. Analysis of two leading LD journals found current topics to include academic assessment and remediation, while ignoring generalization and maintenance of…

  17. Major Topics of School Business Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, James E., Ed.; Hertz, Karl V., Ed.

    Thirteen articles on major topics facing school business officials in the 1980s are presented in this book. The titles and their authors are (1) "The Pursuit of Equity in Financing Public Education," by R. Craig Wood, Helene B. Jones, and William L. Riley; (2) "Facilities: Major Issues Ahead," by C. William Day; (3) "Cooperative Decision Making in…

  18. Water: A Topic for All Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Malonne I.; Seimears, C. Matt

    2008-01-01

    The authors illustrate an effective lesson-planning technique known as unpacking for the broad topic of water. Interconnections among science disciplines are shown for numerous possible subtopics. Two lesson sets are included, the first dealing with properties of water and the second dealing with water as a resource. (Contains 1 table and 4…

  19. Bacterial resistance and topical antimicrobial wash products.

    PubMed

    Jones, R D

    1999-08-01

    Current scientific evidence has not shown that a link exists between the use of topical antimicrobial formulations and antiseptic or antibiotic resistance. As a result of the extensive history and varied use of antiseptic products and ingredients, any selective pressure for antibiotic resistance that may be occurring or may be uncovered in the future because of antiseptic use would be expected to be insignificant compared with the selective pressure because of antibiotic use. This review illustrates the effectiveness of topical antimicrobial wash products against antibiotic-resistant and antiseptic-resistant bacteria in use settings as well as the studies performed (antiseptic, deodorant, and oral care) demonstrating the lack of development of resistance in long-term clinical studies. Although these studies illustrate that the use of topical antimicrobial products have not been shown to play a role in the fluctuations of the specific composition or resistance of the skin flora, changes in skin flora have been shown to occur. Based on current knowledge, the benefit from use of topical antimicrobial wash products in combination with standard infection control and personal hygiene practices far outweighs the risk of increased antibiotic resistance.

  20. Faculty Perspectives on International Accounting Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, L. Murphy; Salter, Stephen B.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 63 professors specializing in international accounting identified the following topics as most important to incorporate into the curriculum: (1) foreign currency translation; (2) international accounting standards; (3) comparative standards and harmonizing of accounting standards; (4) reporting and disclosure problems of multinational…

  1. Nonsteroidal Topical Immunomodulators in Allergology and Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Jovanović, Marina; Golušin, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review currently available literature data concerning pathomechanisms of action, indications, treatment efficacy, as well as side effects of nonsteroidal immunomodulators used in dermatology, primarily for the treatment of allergic dermatoses. MEDLINE search was undertaken using the key words “Topical Immunomodulators, Dermatology and Allergy”. Full articles, and nothing but full articles, were used. PMID:27144167

  2. Sea Changes. Topics in Marine Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations designed to impart ocean science understanding to high school students. The principal theme of Changes in the Sea is presented in this particular…

  3. Topics in millimeter wave technology. Volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Button, Kenneth John

    Topics dicussed include fin-line characteristics and circuits, millimeter-wave planar integrated-circuit filters, and H-plane millimeter-wave planar transmission lines and circuits. Attention is also given to modal power dynamics in multimode optical fibers and to a miniaturized monopulse assembly constructed in planar waveguide with multimode scalar horn feeds.

  4. Albanian Area Studies: Bibliography Arranged by Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This bibliography on Albanian area studies is a guide of reference material for the student of Albanian language and culture. The first section on area background includes topics on history, physical and economic geography, natural resources, communication, transportation, demography, public utilities, industry, and agriculture. The next sections…

  5. Anaphylaxis to topically applied sodium fusidate.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Ran; Kim, Do-Soo; Kim, Jihyun; Ahn, Kangmo

    2013-03-01

    Fusidic acid is a bacteriostatic antibiotic that is effective primarily on gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium species. It is often topically applied to the skin, but is also given systemically as a tablet or injection. Allergic contact dermatitis, or urticaria, has been reported as a side effect of fusidic acid treatment, whereas anaphylaxis to topically administered fusidic acid has not been reported previously. A 16-year-old boy visited an outpatient clinic for further evaluation of anaphylaxis. He suffered abrasions on his arms during exercise, which were treated with a topical ointment containing sodium fusidate. Within 30 minutes, he developed urticaria and eyelid swelling, followed by a cough and respiratory difficulty. His symptoms were relieved by emergency treatment in a nearby hospital. To investigate the etiology, oral provocation with fusidate was performed. After 125 mg (1/2 tablet) of sodium fusidate was administered, he developed a cough and itching of the throat within 30 minutes, which was followed by chest discomfort and urticaria. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) dropped from 4.09 L at baseline to 3.50 L after challenge, although wheezing was not heard in his chest. After management with an inhaled bronchodilator using a nebulizer, chest discomfort was relieved and FEV1 rose to 3.86 L. The patient was directed not to use fusidate, especially on abrasions. Here we report the first case of anaphylaxis resulting from topical fusidic acid application to abrasions. PMID:23450038

  6. Common Core: Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karge, Belinda Dunnick; Moore, Roxane Kushner

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core has become a household term and yet many educators do not understand what it means. This article explains the historical perspectives of the Common Core and gives guidance to teachers in application of Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE) necessary for full implementation of the Common Core State Standards. An effective…

  7. Environmental Topics for Introductory Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Laurent

    1974-01-01

    Presents selected environmental references with comparatively detailed descriptions for the purpose of helping high school and college physics teachers in selecting materials for their course. The topics include thermal pollution, space heating and cooling, atmospheric temperature distribution, radiation balance of the earth, sound and noises, and…

  8. Teaching Mathematical Trade Topics for Conceptual Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Alan; Phillips, Keith

    This book is intended to assist trade and industrial education teachers in teaching mathematical trade topics in a way that will increase students' conceptual understanding of them. The first chapter provides an overview of the book's contents and suggests ways of using it. The next five chapters address the following aspects of using principles…

  9. Hot topics in flavor physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Soon Yung; /Carnegie Mellon U.

    2005-01-01

    Hot topics in flavor physics at CDF are reviewed. Selected results of top, beauty, charm physics and exotic states in about 200 pb{sup -1} data collected by the CDF II detector in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron are presented.

  10. It's Elementary: Special Topics in Elementary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia A., Ed.; Burriss, Kathleen Glascott, Ed.

    As elementary teachers work to educate and meet the needs of the students in their care, their job has become increasingly challenging and demanding. This volume addresses a variety of issues and topics related to elementary education around eight sectional themes relevant to the work of elementary teachers: celebrating diversity, classroom…

  11. Teaching Difficult Topics with Primary Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2011-01-01

    "Difficult" or "challenging" topics to teach include racism, violence, genocide, bullying, gangs, abuse (physical, emotional, and substance), slavery, suffering, hatred, terrorism, war, disease, loss, addiction, and more. But by confronting them with students, in the safety of a classroom through thoughtfully constructed lessons (ones that take…

  12. Image Search Reranking With Hierarchical Topic Awareness.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xinmei; Yang, Linjun; Lu, Yijuan; Tian, Qi; Tao, Dacheng

    2015-10-01

    With much attention from both academia and industrial communities, visual search reranking has recently been proposed to refine image search results obtained from text-based image search engines. Most of the traditional reranking methods cannot capture both relevance and diversity of the search results at the same time. Or they ignore the hierarchical topic structure of search result. Each topic is treated equally and independently. However, in real applications, images returned for certain queries are naturally in hierarchical organization, rather than simple parallel relation. In this paper, a new reranking method "topic-aware reranking (TARerank)" is proposed. TARerank describes the hierarchical topic structure of search results in one model, and seamlessly captures both relevance and diversity of the image search results simultaneously. Through a structured learning framework, relevance and diversity are modeled in TARerank by a set of carefully designed features, and then the model is learned from human-labeled training samples. The learned model is expected to predict reranking results with high relevance and diversity for testing queries. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, we collect an image search dataset and conduct comparison experiments on it. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed TARerank outperforms the existing relevance-based and diversified reranking methods.

  13. Selected Topics in International Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    This article provides information on special education topics on the international front. Information is presented on projects that evaluated early intervention programs, a life-centered career education program in the Philippines, a Peruvian vocational program for individuals with severe disabilities, and special classes for children with…

  14. Expose Mechanical Engineering Students to Biomechanics Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Hui

    2011-01-01

    To adapt the focus of engineering education to emerging new industries and technologies nationwide and in the local area, a biomechanics module has been developed and incorporated into a mechanical engineering technical elective course to expose mechanical engineering students at ONU (Ohio Northern University) to the biomedical engineering topics.…

  15. Postmarketing surveillance of food additives.

    PubMed

    Butchko, H H; Tschanz, C; Kotsonis, F N

    1994-08-01

    Postmarketing surveillance of consumption and of anecdotal reports of adverse health effects has been recognized by a number of regulatory authorities as a potentially useful method to provide further assurance of the safety of new food additives. Surveillance of consumption is used to estimate more reliably actual consumption levels relative to the acceptable daily intake of a food additive. Surveillance of anecdotal reports of adverse health effects is used to determine the presence of infrequent idiosyncratic responses that may not be predictable from premarket evaluations. The high-intensity sweetner, aspartame, is a food additive that has been the subject of extensive evaluation during the postmarketing period and is thus used as an example to discuss postmarketing surveillance.

  16. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Thomas; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of topical NSAIDs to treat acute musculoskeletal conditions is widely accepted in some parts of the world, but not in others. Their main attraction is their potential to provide pain relief without associated systemic adverse events. Objectives To review the evidence from randomised, double-blind, controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of topically applied NSAIDs in acute pain. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and our own in-house database to December 2009. We sought unpublished studies by asking personal contacts and searching on-line clinical trial registers and manufacturers web sites. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, active or placebo (inert carrier)-controlled trials in which treatments were administered to adult patients with acute pain resulting from strains, sprains or sports or overuse-type injuries (twisted ankle, for instance). There had to be at least 10 participants in each treatment arm, with application of treatment at least once daily. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and validity, and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk and numbers needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Forty-seven studies were included; most compared topical NSAIDs in the form of a gel, spray, or cream with a similar placebo, with 3455 participants in the overall analysis of efficacy. For all topical NSAIDs combined, compared with placebo, the number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) for clinical success, equivalent to 50% pain relief, was 4.5 (3.9 to 5.3) for treatment periods of 6 to 14 days. Topical diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and piroxicam were of similar efficacy, but indomethacin and benzydamine were not significantly better than placebo. Local skin reactions were generally mild and transient, and did not differ from

  17. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Galya I; Severe, William R; Wallace, Richard K

    2010-01-01

    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope smuggling

  18. Trade and the environment: Discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, E.

    1992-12-01

    The author presents a synopsis of several papers on the issue of international trade and the environment. The papers address the following topics: the complex interrelationships of international trade, environment, and poverty in developing countries; environmental aspects of economic relations between nations; and the debate between environmentalists and free trade advocates. The author also adds comments about the US embargo on Mexican yellow-fin tuna imports, concluding that this unilateral embargo action, while initially creating tentions, may have provided a useful impetus to working out a multinational environmental standard.

  19. Talking Science: The research evidence on the use of small group discussions in science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Judith; Hogarth, Sylvia; Lubben, Fred; Campbell, Bob; Robinson, Alison

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of two systematic reviews of the use and effects of small group discussions in high school science teaching. Ninety-four studies were included in an overview (systematic map) of work in the area, and 24 studies formed the basis of the in-depth reviews. The reviews indicate that there is considerable diversity in the topics used to promote small group discussions. They also demonstrate that students often struggle to formulate and express coherent arguments, and demonstrate a low level of engagement with tasks. The reviews suggest that groups function more purposefully, and understanding improves most, when specifically constituted such that differing views are represented, when some form of training is provided for students on effective group work, and when help in structuring discussions is provided in the form of "cues". Single-sex groups function more purposefully than mixed-sex groups, though improvements in understanding are independent of gender composition of groups. Finally, the reviews demonstrate very clearly that, for small group discussions to be effective, teachers and students need to be given explicit teaching in the skills associated with the development of arguments and the characteristics associated with effective group discussions. In addition to the substantive findings, the paper also reports on key features of the methods employed to gather and analyse data. Of particular note are the two contrasting approaches to data analysis, one adopting a grounded theory approach and the other drawing on established methods of discourse analysis.

  20. Phase IIB Randomized Study of Topical Difluoromethylornithine and Topical Diclofenac on Sun-Damaged Skin of the Forearm.

    PubMed

    Jeter, Joanne M; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Stratton, Steven P; Myrdal, Paul B; Warneke, James A; Einspahr, Janine G; Bartels, Hubert G; Yozwiak, Michael; Bermudez, Yira; Hu, Chengcheng; Bartels, Peter; Alberts, David S

    2016-02-01

    Prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancers remains a health priority due to high costs associated with this disease. Diclofenac and difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) have demonstrated chemopreventive efficacy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. We designed a randomized study of the combination of DFMO and diclofenac in the treatment of sun-damaged skin. Individuals with visible cutaneous sun damage were eligible. Subjects were randomized to one of the three groups: topical DFMO applied twice daily, topical diclofenac applied daily, or DFMO plus diclofenac. The treatment was limited to an area on the left forearm, and the duration of use was 90 days. We hypothesized that combination therapy would have increased efficacy compared with single-agent therapy. The primary outcome was change in karyometric average nuclear abnormality (ANA) in the treated skin. Individuals assessing the biomarkers were blinded regarding the treatment for each subject. A total of 156 subjects were randomized; 144 had baseline and end-of-study biopsies, and 136 subjects completed the study. The ANA unexpectedly increased for all groups, with higher values correlating with clinical cutaneous inflammation. Nearly all of the adverse events were local cutaneous effects. One subject had cutaneous toxicity that required treatment discontinuation. Significantly more adverse events were seen in the groups taking diclofenac. Overall, the study indicated that the addition of topical DFMO to topical diclofenac did not enhance its activity. Both agents caused inflammation on a cellular and clinical level, which may have confounded the measurement of chemopreventive effects. More significant effects may be observed in subjects with greater baseline cutaneous damage.

  1. Assessing adherence factors in patients under topical treatment: development of the Topical Therapy Adherence Questionnaire (TTAQ).

    PubMed

    Zschocke, Ina; Mrowietz, Ulrich; Lotzin, Annett; Karakasili, Eleni; Reich, Kristian

    2014-04-01

    Medication adherence rates strongly depend on favorable disease outcomes. It is known that medication adherence rates are lower for topical treatment than for systemic treatment. However, to date no validated instrument for the assessment of adherence factors in topical treatment is available. The aim of this study was to develop a new questionnaire to assess adherence risk factors in topical treatment. The development of the Topical Therapy Adherence Questionnaire (TTAQ) and Patient Preference Questionnaire (PPQ) was based on a systematic literature review, and qualitative patient focus interviews and expert focus groups' input. The psychometric properties and comprehensibility of the TTAQ and PPQ were assessed in a feasibility study with 59 psoriasis patients. Our first preliminary results indicate that the TTAQ and PPQ are psychometrically sound and reliable measures for the assessment of factors influencing topical treatment adherence. The questionnaires are currently being further developed and various parameters (e.g., time point of assessment) are currently being tested in an exploratory pilot study with ca. 2,000 psoriasis patients receiving topical treatment in a European clinical trial. The use of the final versions of TTAQ and PPQ in clinical practice may facilitate the early identification of specific non-adherence factors in patients under topical treatment, which could enable designing and applying adherence-enhancing interventions according to the patient's individual needs.

  2. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  3. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  4. Topical management of striae distensae (stretch marks): prevention and therapy of striae rubrae and albae.

    PubMed

    Ud-Din, S; McGeorge, D; Bayat, A

    2016-02-01

    Striae distensae (SD) are common dermal lesions, with significant physical and psychological impact. Many therapeutic modalities are available but none can completely eradicate SD. The most common therapy is the application of topicals used both therapeutically and prophylactically. Even though there are many commercially available topical products, not all have sufficient level of evidence to support their continued use in SD. The aim here was to assess the evidence for the use of topicals in SD and to propose a structured approach in managing SD. A systematic search of published literature and manufacturer website information for topicals in SD was carried out. The results showed that there are few studies (n = 11) which investigate the efficacy of topicals in management of SD. Trofolastin and Alphastria creams demonstrated level-2 evidence of positive results for their prophylactic use in SD. Additionally, tretinoin used therapeutically showed varying results whilst cocoa butter and olive oil did not demonstrate any effect. Overall, there is a distinct lack of evidence for each topical formulation. The majority of topicals failed to mention their effect on early vs. later stages of SD (striae rubrae compared to striae albae) and their role in both prevention and treatment. In conclusion, there is no topical formulation, which is shown to be most effective in eradicating or improving SD. A structured approach in identification and targeted management of symptoms and signs with the appropriate topical is required. Randomized controlled trials are necessary to assess the efficacy of topical products for treatment and prevention of different stages of SD. PMID:26486318

  5. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  6. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  7. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  8. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  9. Draft Science Topics for ROSES 2017 NASA Living with a Star Targeted Research and Technology Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linton, Mark; Zesta, Eftyhia

    2016-05-01

    The NASA Living with a Star Targeted Research and Technology (LWS TR&T) steering committee would like to present a draft of the TR&T science topics being developed for ROSES 2017 to the science community for comment at this conference. These topics will be drafted before this conference at the May 2016 steering committee meeting, based on community input and LWS TR&T goals. The committee is seeking community comment on these draft topics before the topics are finalized at the committee's summer meeting and sent to NASA in the committee's 2016 report. The full text of these draft topics will be presented at this poster, and we aim to hold a town hall for community discussion of these topics during this conference. Please see http://lwstrt.gsfc.nasa.gov for more information on the TR&T program, the steering committee and the draft topics.This work was supported by the NASA Living with a Star program.

  10. 21 CFR 868.5170 - Laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator. 868... topical anesthesia applicator. (a) Identification. A laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator is a device used to apply topical anesthetics to a patient's laryngotracheal area. (b) Classification....

  11. 21 CFR 868.5170 - Laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator. 868... topical anesthesia applicator. (a) Identification. A laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator is a device used to apply topical anesthetics to a patient's laryngotracheal area. (b) Classification....

  12. Discrepancies among Teachers' Priorities for and Knowledge of Freshwater Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Meyer, Richard L.

    2000-01-01

    Teachers were asked to examine a list of water topics, assign a level of priority for their students to know about each topic, then report on their own knowledge level and the amount of teaching they do on the topics. Indicates that topics such as basic water properties and wetlands that had high priorities among teachers were not accompanied by…

  13. Selecting Topics for Journals: Some Advice for Beginners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddux, Cleborne D.

    2004-01-01

    This article provides suggestions for prospective authors searching for topics for manuscripts. The article first provides examples of topics for non-data-based articles, then for research topics. Authors are invited to submit manuscripts on these, and on any other topics to this journal.

  14. Business Education Research: Identification and Prioritization of Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Martha H.; Wilhelm, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Using an affinity diagram, business educators generated 110 research topics. In a two-round modified Delphi, 15 business educators aggregated, categorized, and rank ordered the topics. Topics related to workplace soft skills, business communication, technology, and distance learning ranked highest. Topics related to traditional business education…

  15. Participant Analysis of a Multi-Class, Multi-State, On-Line, Discussion List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knupfer, Nancy Nelson; And Others

    As interest in distance education increases, many university instructors are experimenting with listserv discussion within their courses. Six educational technology professors at four universities initiated a listserv discussion group within their various classes for 52 graduate students. Discussion topics were four general themes within…

  16. An Online Discussion about the Politics of Classroom Discourse: Student Identity, Administrative Aims, and School Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapadat, Judith C.

    This study analyzed student contributions to an online interactive discussion forum. Participants included six graduate students enrolled in a graduate education course; the instructor also contributed to the online discussions. Students read articles, posted commentaries, and responded to each other on weekly discussion topics. Students also…

  17. Frey's syndrome: treatment with topical glycopyrrolate.

    PubMed

    May, J S; McGuirt, W F

    1989-01-01

    Gustatory sweating and flushing of the facial skin, or Frey's syndrome, is fairly common after parotidectomy. The most likely mechanism is aberrant reinnervation of the sweat glands of the face by the severed parotid parasympathetic nerve fibers. A survey of 61 patients having undergone parotidectomy yielded 29 (47.5%) with gustatory sweating. Twenty-three percent (14 patients) considered the symptoms severe. In a double-blind study, five of those 14 patients were alternately treated with topically applied placebo and with glycopyrrolate (an anticholinergic agent) as 0.5% lotion, 2% lotion, and 2% cream. All five patients showed some improvement with the test preparations, but had longer lasting and more effective lessening of symptoms with the 2% glycopyrrolate preparations. There were no adverse side effects. We therefore believe that the topical application of a 2% glycopyrrolate preparation is a safe and effective treatment for severe gustatory sweating following parotidectomy.

  18. Safety Evaluation of Topical Valproate Application

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun Young; Seop, Song Yi; Hyun, Moo Yeol; Yoo, Kwang Ho; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam; Cho, Jae-We

    2013-01-01

    The potential role of topical valproate (VPA) in hair regrowth has been recently suggested. However, safety reports of VPA as a topical formulation are lacking. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated whether VPA causes skin irritation in humans. We first performed a cell viability test and showed that VPA did not exhibit toxicity toward HaCaT keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and RBL-3H mast cells. We then performed clinical patch test and skin irritation test through transdermal drug delivery with the help of microneedle rollers. No significant findings were obtained in the clinical patch test. In the skin irritation test, only 1 patient showed erythema at 1 hr, but the irritation reaction faded away within a few hours. Erythema and edema were not observed at 24 hr. We concluded that VPA has minimal potential to elicit skin irritation. Therefore, we consider that VPA can safely be applied to human skin. PMID:24278633

  19. Nanoparticles and nanofibers for topical drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Ritu; Macri, Lauren K.; Kaplan, Hilton M.; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    This review provides the first comprehensive overview of the use of both nanoparticles and nanofibers for topical drug delivery. Researchers have explored the use of nanotechnology, specifically nanoparticles and nanofibers, as drug delivery systems for topical and transdermal applications. This approach employs increased drug concentration in the carrier, in order to increase drug flux into and through the skin. Both nanoparticles and nanofibers can be used to deliver hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs and are capable of controlled release for a prolonged period of time. The examples presented provide significant evidence that this area of research has—and will continue to have — a profound impact on both clinical outcomes and the development of new products. PMID:26518723

  20. Acquiring Knowledge from Asynchronous Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Yiong Hwee; Webster, Len

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a study which was designed to explore how online scaffolding can be incorporated to support knowledge acquisition in asynchronous discussion. A group of Singapore preservice teachers engaged in collaborative critiquing of videos before they embarked on their video projects to illustrate what constitutes good and bad video…

  1. Teacher Flexibility in Mathematical Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leikin, Roza; Dinur, Sariga

    2007-01-01

    The significance of discussion in mathematics classes has been prominently debated in the research literature. Different studies have stressed the importance of teacher flexibility in orchestrating the discussion. We introduce an operational definition of teacher flexibility. In a case study with one secondary-school mathematics teacher, we…

  2. Topical treatment of toxic epidermal necrolysis with Iodoplex.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, T; Shechter, H; Bar-Joseph, G; Hirshowitz, B

    1991-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is characterized by extensive exfoliation of the epidermis, mucosal ulcerations and fever, after a recent intake of a new drug. TEN developed in an 8-year-old girl after she ingested sulfonamides and sustained skin injuries of 90% total body surface area. In addition to her critical care management, local treatment consisted of Iodoplex cream (Biosearch Laboratories, Haifa, Israel), a long-acting antimicrobial agent from which iodine is slowly released over 48 hours. Healing was observed within 8 to 17 days after initial application. Iodoplex cream is an additional topical agent for the local treatment of TEN when porcine heterografts or allografts might not be feasible. PMID:1939307

  3. Topical minoxidil for extended areate alopecia.

    PubMed

    Frentz, G

    1985-01-01

    A double-blind cross over study on the effect of 3 months' treatment with 1% topical minoxidil on 23 individuals with alopecia areata was performed. Thirteen of the patients showed some increase in terminal hair growth, the difference between the number of responders to placebo and minoxidil lotion being significant (p less than 0.005). However, in one case only, the result was cosmetically satisfying. In two male patients the blood pressure increased coinciding with the withdrawal of the minoxidil lotion.

  4. Devices and topical agents for rosacea management.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Yasaman; Goldenberg, Gary

    2014-07-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disease that predominantly affects facial skin in light-skinned individuals and can be divided into 4 subtypes. Patients can display signs of more than 1 subtype. Diffuse facial erythema is a common finding in rosacea patients and can lead to persistent erythema. Although there is no cure for rosacea, reduction of signs and symptoms can be achieved via various treatment modalities. This article reviews devices and topical agents currently available for the management of rosacea. PMID:25101340

  5. Recent Topics in Instrumentation and Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Kazuo; Fukuchi, Tetsuo; Arakawa, Satoru; Sayama, Shuji

    Instrumentation and measurement play a vital role in research and development in the science and engineering fields. Recently, the goals of instrumentation and measurement have expanded to meet not only the industrial and science requirements but also the needs in all fields of social life, such as medicine and welfare, the environment, and disaster and security. In this article, recent technical topics in the instrumentation and measurement field are reported.

  6. Corneal Infection Therapy with Topical Bacteriophage Administration

    PubMed Central

    Fadlallah, Ali; Chelala, Elias; Legeais, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in bacterial keratitis, a vision-threatening disease. Although the incidence of S. aureus keratitis varies worldwide, the increasing trend of resistance to certain antibiotics makes this condition an important, global, healthcare concern. We report the case of a 65-year-old woman with nosocomial left-eye corneal abscess and interstitial keratitis.The patient then undergo topical Phage therapy with successful results. PMID:26862360

  7. Pedagogical Discipline Representations that Facilitate the Learning of Complex Modern Astrophysics Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Colin Scott; Chambers, Timothy G.; Prather, Edward E.; Kamenetzky, Julia R.; Hornstein, Seth D.

    2016-01-01

    Pedagogical discipline representations (PDRs) are representations that are especially useful for teaching and learning about a topic, even though these representations would not typically be found in a textbook or used by two experts in the discipline who are engaged in discourse with one another on the topic. In some cases PDRs are significantly simplified versions of representations experts might use in a colloquium talk when discussing a topic; in others they can be highly contextualized representations with unique features that purposefully engage novice learners' pre-existing mental models and promote critical discourse. This poster shows several of the novel PDRs we have created and used in order to help Astro 101 students reason about complex astrophysical topics, such as interferometry and gravitational microlensing.

  8. TOPICAL REVIEW: Integrated genetic analysis microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagally, Eric T.; Mathies, Richard A.

    2004-12-01

    With the completion of the Human Genome Project and the ongoing DNA sequencing of the genomes of other animals, bacteria, plants and others, a wealth of new information about the genetic composition of organisms has become available. However, as the demand for sequence information grows, so does the workload required both to generate this sequence and to use it for targeted genetic analysis. Microfabricated genetic analysis systems are well poised to assist in the collection and use of these data through increased analysis speed, lower analysis cost and higher parallelism leading to increased assay throughput. In addition, such integrated microsystems may point the way to targeted genetic experiments on single cells and in other areas that are otherwise very difficult. Concomitant with these advantages, such systems, when fully integrated, should be capable of forming portable systems for high-speed in situ analyses, enabling a new standard in disciplines such as clinical chemistry, forensics, biowarfare detection and epidemiology. This review will discuss the various technologies available for genetic analysis on the microscale, and efforts to integrate them to form fully functional robust analysis devices.

  9. Body malodours and their topical treatment agents.

    PubMed

    Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N

    2011-08-01

    Body malodour, including foot odour, suppresses social interaction by diminishing self-confidence and accelerating damage to the wearer's clothes and shoes. Most treatment agents, including aluminium anti-perspirant salts, inhibit the growth of malodourous bacteria. These metallic salts also reduce sweat by blocking the excretory ducts of sweat glands, minimizing the water source that supports bacterial growth. However, there are some drawback effects that limit the use of aluminium anti-perspirant salts. In addition, over-the-counter anti-perspirant and deodourant products may not be sufficiently effective for heavy sweaters, and strong malodour producers. Body odour treatment agents are rarely mentioned in the literature compared with other cosmetic ingredients. This review briefly summarizes the relationship among sweat, skin bacteria, and body odour; describes how odourous acids, thiols, and steroids are formed; and discusses the active ingredients, including metallic salts and herbs, that are used to treat body odour. A new class of ingredients that function by regulating the release of malodourants will also be described. These ingredients do not alter the balance of the skin flora.

  10. Body malodours and their topical treatment agents.

    PubMed

    Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N

    2011-08-01

    Body malodour, including foot odour, suppresses social interaction by diminishing self-confidence and accelerating damage to the wearer's clothes and shoes. Most treatment agents, including aluminium anti-perspirant salts, inhibit the growth of malodourous bacteria. These metallic salts also reduce sweat by blocking the excretory ducts of sweat glands, minimizing the water source that supports bacterial growth. However, there are some drawback effects that limit the use of aluminium anti-perspirant salts. In addition, over-the-counter anti-perspirant and deodourant products may not be sufficiently effective for heavy sweaters, and strong malodour producers. Body odour treatment agents are rarely mentioned in the literature compared with other cosmetic ingredients. This review briefly summarizes the relationship among sweat, skin bacteria, and body odour; describes how odourous acids, thiols, and steroids are formed; and discusses the active ingredients, including metallic salts and herbs, that are used to treat body odour. A new class of ingredients that function by regulating the release of malodourants will also be described. These ingredients do not alter the balance of the skin flora. PMID:21401651

  11. TOPICAL REVIEW: Inverse problems in elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Marc; Constantinescu, Andrei

    2005-04-01

    This review is devoted to some inverse problems arising in the context of linear elasticity, namely the identification of distributions of elastic moduli, model parameters or buried objects such as cracks. These inverse problems are considered mainly for three-dimensional elastic media under equilibrium or dynamical conditions, and also for thin elastic plates. The main goal is to overview some recent results, in an effort to bridge the gap between studies of a mathematical nature and problems defined from engineering practice. Accordingly, emphasis is given to formulations and solution techniques which are well suited to general-purpose numerical methods for solving elasticity problems on complex configurations, in particular the finite element method and the boundary element method. An underlying thread of the discussion is the fact that useful tools for the formulation, analysis and solution of inverse problems arising in linear elasticity, namely the reciprocity gap and the error in constitutive equation, stem from variational and virtual work principles, i.e., fundamental principles governing the mechanics of deformable solid continua. In addition, the virtual work principle is shown to be instrumental for establishing computationally efficient formulae for parameter or geometrical sensitivity, based on the adjoint solution method. Sensitivity formulae are presented for various situations, especially in connection with contact mechanics, cavity and crack shape perturbations, thus enriching the already extensive known repertoire of such results. Finally, the concept of topological derivative and its implementation for the identification of cavities or inclusions are expounded.

  12. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    SciTech Connect

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2008-01-03

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 25% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  13. Topical rebamipide improves lid wiper epitheliopathy

    PubMed Central

    Itakura, Hirotaka; Kashima, Tomoyuki; Itakura, Mariko; Akiyama, Hideo; Kishi, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Administration of topical rebamipide increases the mucin level of tear film and improves the ocular surface in short break-up time type of dry eye. Lid wiper epitheliopathy (LWE) is a disorder of the marginal conjunctiva of the upper eyelid with dry eye symptoms. LWE may be related to mechanical forces during blinking resulting in inflammation of the ocular surface. Rebamipide also has various anti-inflammatory effects. In this report, we tried treatment with topical rebamipide for two cases of LWE. One case had been treated with sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution and diquafosol sodium eye drops by other doctors for several weeks. The other case was not previously treated. In both cases, fluorescein staining of the cornea and lid margin was remarkably improved, ocular symptoms decreased, and tear film break-up times increased with rebamipide eye drops four times daily for 2–3 weeks. Topical rebamipide was effective for corneal and conjunctival disorders in LWE. This drug may provide a novel approach to the treatment of LWE. PMID:24204116

  14. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  15. Classification of additives for organic photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Machui, Florian; Maisch, Philipp; Burgués-Ceballos, Ignasi; Langner, Stefan; Krantz, Johannes; Ameri, Tayebeh; Brabec, Christoph J

    2015-04-27

    The use of additives to improve the performance of organic photovoltaic cells has been intensely researched in recent years. However, so far, no system has been reported for the classification of additives and their functions. In this report, a system for classifying additives according to the fundamental mechanism by which they influence microstructure formation for P3HT:PCBM is suggested. The major parameters used for their classification are solubility and drying kinetics. Both are discussed in detail and their consequences on processing are analyzed. Furthermore, a general mechanism to classify the impact of additives on structure formation is suggested and discussed for different materials relevant to organic photovoltaic devices.

  16. TOPICAL REVIEW: Single-molecule experiments in biological physics: methods and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritort, F.

    2006-08-01

    I review single-molecule experiments (SMEs) in biological physics. Recent technological developments have provided the tools to design and build scientific instruments of high enough sensitivity and precision to manipulate and visualize individual molecules and measure microscopic forces. Using SMEs it is possible to manipulate molecules one at a time and measure distributions describing molecular properties, characterize the kinetics of biomolecular reactions and detect molecular intermediates. SMEs provide additional information about thermodynamics and kinetics of biomolecular processes. This complements information obtained in traditional bulk assays. In SMEs it is also possible to measure small energies and detect large Brownian deviations in biomolecular reactions, thereby offering new methods and systems to scrutinize the basic foundations of statistical mechanics. This review is written at a very introductory level, emphasizing the importance of SMEs to scientists interested in knowing the common playground of ideas and the interdisciplinary topics accessible by these techniques. The review discusses SMEs from an experimental perspective, first exposing the most common experimental methodologies and later presenting various molecular systems where such techniques have been applied. I briefly discuss experimental techniques such as atomic-force microscopy (AFM), laser optical tweezers (LOTs), magnetic tweezers (MTs), biomembrane force probes (BFPs) and single-molecule fluorescence (SMF). I then present several applications of SME to the study of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA and DNA condensation) and proteins (protein-protein interactions, protein folding and molecular motors). Finally, I discuss applications of SMEs to the study of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of small systems and the experimental verification of fluctuation theorems. I conclude with a discussion of open questions and future perspectives.

  17. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  18. Socrates, discussion and moral education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rembert, Ron B.

    1995-01-01

    For Socrates, as he appears in Plato's dialogues, the process of discussion is essential for preparing human beings to lead a moral life. Only through discussion, Socrates maintains, can we be led to an understanding of such concepts as wisdom, courage and justice. The author of this article believes that the Socratic notion of the moral value of discussion is still valid. In support of this view, he examines two recent works: Dialogues on Moral Education by John Wilson and Barbara Cowell, and Moral Education, Secular and Religious by John L. Elias. Finally, the author suggests how the Socratic concept of dialogue might be used in moral education today.

  19. Topical use of sodium cromoglicate (cromolyn sodium) to treat atopic dermatitis and other skin allergies.

    PubMed

    Zur, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Sodium cromoglicate (cromolyn sodium) is a very well-known medicine that has been used for many years for various allergic conditions. The topical use of this medicine is less known, and there are no commercial medicines of cream, gel, or lotion in most of the world. This article summarizes the clinical data accumulated from seventeen trials that checked the topical efficacy and safety of sodium cromoglicate and analyzes the clinical implementations of this medicine in the topical treatment of atopic dermatitis and other skin allergies. In addition, this article analyzes the various formulations that have been used in the clinical trials in an attempt to find the optimal formulation. The topical use of sodium cromoglicate seemed to have a promising potential, and implementing the data of this article can allow the compounding pharmacist a very interesting professional activity in very common and widespread allergic pathologies.

  20. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  1. The Topology of a Discussion: The #Occupy Case

    PubMed Central

    Gargiulo, Floriana; Bindi, Jacopo; Apolloni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We analyse a large sample of the Twitter activity that developed around the social movement 'Occupy Wall Street', to study the complex interactions between the human communication activity and the semantic content of a debate. Methods We use a network approach based on the analysis of the bipartite graph @Users-#Hashtags and of its projections: the 'semantic network', whose nodes are hashtags, and the 'users interest network', whose nodes are users. In the first instance, we find out that discussion topics (#hashtags) present a high structural heterogeneity, with a relevant role played by the semantic hubs that are responsible to guarantee the continuity of the debate. In the users’ case, the self-organisation process of users’ activity, leads to the emergence of two classes of communicators: the 'professionals' and the 'amateurs'. Results Both the networks present a strong community structure, based on the differentiation of the semantic topics, and a high level of structural robustness when certain sets of topics are censored and/or accounts are removed. Conclusions By analysing the characteristics of the dynamical networks we can distinguish three phases of the discussion about the movement. Each phase corresponds to a specific moment of the movement: from declaration of intent, organisation and development and the final phase of political reactions. Each phase is characterised by the presence of prototypical #hashtags in the discussion. PMID:26352596

  2. Discussion-Induced Attitude Polarization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, David G.

    1975-01-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that the average of group members' responses following group discussion will generally be more extreme in the same direction as the average of individual pregroup preferences. (Author/MLF)

  3. Animating Geometry Discussions with Flexigons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClintock, Ruth

    1994-01-01

    Presents activities with 10- and 4-straw flexigons, an object created by stringing together lengths of plastic drinking straws with nylon fishing line. Discusses several geometric theorems that can be demonstrated with flexigons. (MKR)

  4. Three-phase Discussion Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karr, M. C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes the procedures, organizational pattern and design of basic soils course used by teaching assistants. Cites studies which support small-group discussion for promoting higher levels of intellectual functioning. Presents tables showing survey evaluation results of this method. (RT)

  5. Taking account of quality. Discussion.

    PubMed

    Baker, S B; Cassel, C K; Coye, M J; Denham, C R; Foley, M E; Grotting, J B; Millenson, M L; Risk, R R

    2001-01-01

    Another report from the Institute of Medicine in March 2001 has joined a large body of literature documenting serious quality and safety problems. Eight health care leaders discuss ways in which organizations can reduce medical errors and improve patient outcomes.

  6. Additional EIPC Study Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W; Gotham, Douglas J.; Luciani, Ralph L.

    2014-12-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 14 topics was developed for further analysis. This paper brings together the earlier interim reports of the first 13 topics plus one additional topic into a single final report.

  7. TOPICAL REVIEW: Nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Luo, Jin; Fang, Bin; Wanjala, Bridgid N.; Njoki, Peter N.; Loukrakpam, Rameshwori; Yin, Jun

    2010-02-01

    One of the most important challenges for the ultimate commercialization of fuel cells is the preparation of active, robust, and low-cost catalysts. This review highlights some findings of our investigations in the last few years in developing advanced approaches to nanostructured catalysts that address this challenge. Emphasis is placed on nanoengineering-based fabrication, processing, and characterization of multimetallic nanoparticles with controllable size (1-10 nm), shape, composition (e.g. MlnM2100-n, M1nM2mM3100-n-m, M1@M2, where M (1 or 2) = Pt, Co, Ni, V, Fe, Cu, Pd, W, Ag, Au etc) and morphology (e.g. alloy, core@shell etc). In addition to an overview of the fundamental issues and the recent progress in fuel cell catalysts, results from evaluations of the electrocatalytic performance of nanoengineered catalysts in fuel cell reactions are discussed. This approach differs from other traditional approaches to the preparation of supported catalysts in the ability to control the particle size, composition, phase, and surface properties. An understanding of how the nanoscale properties of the multimetallic nanoparticles differ from their bulk-scale counterparts, and how the interaction between the nanoparticles and the support materials relates to the size sintering or evolution in the thermal activation process, is also discussed. The fact that the bimetallic gold-platinum nanoparticle system displays a single-phase character different from the miscibility gap known for its bulk-scale counterpart serves as an important indication of the nanoscale manipulation of the structural properties, which is useful for refining the design and preparation of the bimetallic catalysts. The insight gained from probing how nanoparticle-nanoparticle and nanoparticle-substrate interactions relate to the size evolution in the activation process of nanoparticles on planar substrates serves as an important guiding principle in the control of nanoparticle sintering on different

  8. How to write a discussion section?

    PubMed

    Şanlı, Öner; Erdem, Selçuk; Tefik, Tzevat

    2013-09-01

    Writing manuscripts to describe study outcomes, although not easy, is the main task of an academician. The aim of the present review is to outline the main aspects of writing the discussion section of a manuscript. Additionally, we address various issues regarding manuscripts in general. It is advisable to work on a manuscript regularly to avoid losing familiarity with the article. On principle, simple, clear and effective language should be used throughout the text. In addition, a pre-peer review process is recommended to obtain feedback on the manuscript. The discussion section can be written in 3 parts: an introductory paragraph, intermediate paragraphs and a conclusion paragraph. For intermediate paragraphs, a "divide and conquer" approach, meaning a full paragraph describing each of the study endpoints, can be used. In conclusion, academic writing is similar to other skills, and practice makes perfect. PMID:26328131

  9. LGBT Roundtable Discussion: Meet-up and Mentoring Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    The LGBT+ Physicists group welcomes those who identify as gender sexual minorities, as LGBTQQIAAP+, or as allies to participate in a round-table discussion on mentoring physicists. The session will provide an opportunity to learn and discuss successful mentoring strategies at different career stages for physicists in all environments, including academia, industry, etc. Attendees are encouraged to attend a social event to follow the panel to continue to network. Allies are especially welcome at this event to learn how to support and mentor LGBT+ physicists.

  10. Language Modeling Using PLSA-Based Topic HMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, Atsushi; Takiguchi, Tetsuya; Ariki, Yasuo

    In this paper, we propose a PLSA-based language model for sports-related live speech. This model is implemented using a unigram rescaling technique that combines a topic model and an n-gram. In the conventional method, unigram rescaling is performed with a topic distribution estimated from a recognized transcription history. This method can improve the performance, but it cannot express topic transition. By incorporating the concept of topic transition, it is expected that the recognition performance will be improved. Thus, the proposed method employs a “Topic HMM” instead of a history to estimate the topic distribution. The Topic HMM is an Ergodic HMM that expresses typical topic distributions as well as topic transition probabilities. Word accuracy results from our experiments confirmed the superiority of the proposed method over a trigram and a PLSA-based conventional method that uses a recognized history.

  11. Drug delivery to the nail following topical application.

    PubMed

    Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2002-04-01

    The absorption of drugs into the nail unit, following topical application to the nail plate, is highly desirable to treat nail disorders, such as onychomycosis (fungal infections of the nail). Nail permeability is however quite low and limits topical therapy to early/mild disease states. In this paper, the recent research into ungual drug delivery is reviewed. The nail unit and the two most common diseases affecting the nail--onychomycosis and nail psoriasis--are briefly described to set the scene and to give an overview of the nature and scope of the problem. The factors, which affect drug uptake and permeation through the nail plate such as solute molecular size, hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, charge, and the nature of the vehicle, are then discussed, followed by ways of enhancing drug transport into and through the nail plate. Finally, drug-containing nail lacquers which, like cosmetic varnish, are brushed onto the nail plates to form a film, and from which drug is released and penetrates into the nail, are reviewed.

  12. Liquid crystals: a new topic in physics for undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlin, Jerneja; Vaupotič, Nataša; Čepič, Mojca

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a teaching module about liquid crystals. Since liquid crystals are linked to everyday student experiences and are also a topic of current scientific research, they are an excellent candidate for a modern topic to be introduced into education. We show that liquid crystals can provide a pathway through several fields of physics such as thermodynamics, optics and electromagnetism. We discuss what students should learn about liquid crystals and what physical concepts they should know before considering them. In the presentation of the teaching module, which consists of a lecture and experimental work in a chemistry and physics laboratory, we focus on experiments on phase transitions, polarization of light, double refraction and colours. A pilot evaluation of the module was performed among pre-service primary school teachers who have no special preference for natural sciences. The evaluation shows that the module is very efficient in transferring knowledge. A prior study showed that the informally obtained pre-knowledge on liquid crystals of the first-year students from several different fields of study was negligible. Since social science students are the least interested in natural sciences, it can be expected that students in any study programme will on average achieve at least as good qualitative knowledge of phenomena related to liquid crystals as the group involved in the pilot study.

  13. TOPICAL REVIEW: Carbon nanotubes for biological and biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenrong; Thordarson, Pall; Gooding, J. Justin; Ringer, Simon P.; Braet, Filip

    2007-10-01

    Ever since the discovery of carbon nanotubes, researchers have been exploring their potential in biological and biomedical applications. The recent expansion and availability of chemical modification and bio-functionalization methods have made it possible to generate a new class of bioactive carbon nanotubes which are conjugated with proteins, carbohydrates, or nucleic acids. The modification of a carbon nanotube on a molecular level using biological molecules is essentially an example of the 'bottom-up' fabrication principle of bionanotechnology. The availability of these biomodified carbon nanotube constructs opens up an entire new and exciting research direction in the field of chemical biology, finally aiming to target and to alter the cell's behaviour at the subcellular or molecular level. This review covers the latest advances of bio-functionalized carbon nanotubes with an emphasis on the development of functional biological nano-interfaces. Topics that are discussed herewith include methods for biomodification of carbon nanotubes, the development of hybrid systems of carbon nanotubes and biomolecules for bioelectronics, and carbon nanotubes as transporters for a specific delivery of peptides and/or genetic material to cells. All of these current research topics aim at translating these biotechnology modified nanotubes into potential novel therapeutic approaches.

  14. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  15. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  16. Topical menthol increases cutaneous blood flow.

    PubMed

    Craighead, Daniel H; Alexander, Lacy M

    2016-09-01

    Menthol, the active ingredient in several topically applied analgesics, activates transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) receptors on sensory nerves and on the vasculature inducing a cooling sensation on the skin. Ilex paraguariensis is also a common ingredient in topical analgesics that has potential vasoactive properties and may alter the mechanisms of action of menthol. We sought to characterize the microvascular effects of topical menthol and ilex application and to determine the mechanism(s) through which these compounds may independently and combined alter cutaneous blood flow. We hypothesized that menthol would induce vasoconstriction and that ilex would not alter skin blood flow (SkBF). Three separate protocols were conducted to examine menthol and ilex-mediated changes in SkBF. In protocol 1, placebo, 4% menthol, 0.7% ilex, and combination menthol+ilex gels were applied separately to the skin and red cell flux was continuously measured utilizing laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI). In protocol 2, seven concentrations of menthol gel (0.04%, 0.4%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 7%, 8%) were applied to the skin to model the dose-response curve. In protocol 3, placebo, menthol, ilex, and menthol+ilex gels were applied to skin under local thermal control (34°C) both with and without sensory nerve blockage (topical lidocaine 4%). Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) and local heating (42°C) protocols were conducted to determine the relative contribution of endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs)/sensory nerves and nitric oxide (NO), respectively. Red cell flux was normalized to mean arterial pressure expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC: flux·mmHg(-1)) in all protocols. Topical menthol application increased SkBF compared to placebo (3.41±0.33 vs 1.1±0.19CVC: p<0.001). During the dose-response, SkBF increased with increasing doses of menthol (main effect, p<0.05) with an ED50 of 1.0%. Similarly, SkBF was increased after menthol

  17. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  18. Small group discussion: Students perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Annamalai, Nachal; Manivel, Rajajeyakumar; Palanisamy, Rajendran

    2015-01-01

    Context: Various alternative methods are being used in many medical colleges to reinforce didactic lectures in physiology. Small group teaching can take on a variety of different tasks such as problem-solving, role play, discussions, brainstorming, and debate. Research has demonstrated that group discussion promotes greater synthesis and retention of materials. Aims: The aims of this study were to adopt a problem-solving approach by relating basic sciences with the clinical scenario through self-learning. To develop soft skills, to understand principles of group dynamics, and adopt a new teaching learning methodology. Subjects and Methods: Experimental study design was conducted in Phase I 1st year medical students of 2014–2015 batch (n = 120). On the day of the session, the students were grouped into small groups (15 each). The session started with the facilitator starting off the discussion. Feedback forms from five students in each group was taken (n = 40). A five point Likert scale was used ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. Results: Our results show that 70% of the students opined that small group discussion were interactive, friendly, innovative, built interaction between teacher and student. Small group discussion increased their thought process and helped them in better communication. Conclusions: The small group discussion was interactive, friendly, and bridged the gap between the teacher and student. The student's communication skills are also improved. In conclusion, small group discussion is more effective than the traditional teaching methods. PMID:26380202

  19. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  20. Topical antimicrobials for burn infections - an update.

    PubMed

    Sevgi, Mert; Toklu, Ani; Vecchio, Daniela; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-12-01

    The relentless rise in antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria and fungi, coupled with the high susceptibility of burn wounds to infection, and the difficulty of systemically administered antibiotics to reach damaged tissue, taken together have made the development of novel topical antimicrobials for burn infections a fertile area of innovation for researchers and companies. We previously covered the existing patent literature in this area in 2010, but the notable progress made since then, has highlighted the need for an update to bring the reader up to date on recent developments. New patents in the areas of topically applied antibiotics and agents that can potentiate the action of existing antibiotics may extend their useful lifetime. Developments have also been made in biofilm-disrupting agents. Antimicrobial peptides are nature's way for many life forms to defend themselves against attack by pathogens. Silver has long been known to be a highly active antimicrobial but new inorganic metal derivatives based on bismuth, copper and gallium have emerged. Halogens such as chlorine and iodine can be delivered by novel technologies. A variety of topically applied antimicrobials include chitosan preparations, usnic acid, ceragenins and XF porphyrins. Natural product derived antimicrobials such as tannins and essential oils have also been studied. Novel techniques to deliver reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in situ have been developed. Light-mediated techniques include photodynamic therapy, ultraviolet irradiation, blue light, low-level laser therapy and titania photocatalysis. Passive immunotherapy employs antibodies against pathogens and their virulence factors. Finally an interesting new area uses therapeutic microorganisms such as phages, probiotic bacteria and protozoa to combat infections.