Science.gov

Sample records for additional topics include

  1. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  2. Additional EIPC Study Analysis: Interim Report on High Priority Topics

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W

    2013-11-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 13 topics was developed for further analysis; this paper discusses the first five.

  3. Innovations in Teaching: How Novice Teaching Assistants Include LGBTQ Topics in the Writing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaekel, Kathryn S.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how three novice graduate teaching assistants included lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer topics in their first-year writing classrooms. Findings suggest that inclusion of these topics can be successfully done through attention to identity in the classroom, including current-day events, and structuring classroom…

  4. 78 FR 14957 - Wireline Competition Bureau Releases Further Discussion Topics and Seeks Additional Comment in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Comment in Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... added virtual workshop discussion topics and further comment on two existing topics. DATES: Comments are.../ecfs2/ . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Virtual Workshop: In addition to the...

  5. Constant-Pressure Combustion Charts Including Effects of Diluent Addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, L Richard; Bogart, Donald

    1949-01-01

    Charts are presented for the calculation of (a) the final temperatures and the temperature changes involved in constant-pressure combustion processes of air and in products of combustion of air and hydrocarbon fuels, and (b) the quantity of hydrocarbon fuels required in order to attain a specified combustion temperature when water, alcohol, water-alcohol mixtures, liquid ammonia, liquid carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, or their mixtures are added to air as diluents or refrigerants. The ideal combustion process and combustion with incomplete heat release from the primary fuel and from combustible diluents are considered. The effect of preheating the mixture of air and diluents and the effect of an initial water-vapor content in the combustion air on the required fuel quantity are also included. The charts are applicable only to processes in which the final mixture is leaner than stoichiometric and at temperatures where dissociation is unimportant. A chart is also included to permit the calculation of the stoichiometric ratio of hydrocarbon fuel to air with diluent addition. The use of the charts is illustrated by numerical examples.

  6. Comprehensive review on additives of topical dosage forms for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K

    2015-12-01

    Skin is the largest organ of the human body and plays the most important role in protecting against pathogen and foreign matter. Three important modes such as topical, regional and transdermal are widely used for delivery of various dosage forms. Among these modes, the topical dosage forms are preferred because it provides local therapeutic activity when applied to the skin or mucous membranes. Additives or pharmaceutical excipients (non-drug component of dosage form) are used as inactive ingredients in dosage form or tools for structuring dosage forms. The main use of topical dosage form additives are controling the extent of absorption, maintaining the viscosity, improving the stability as well as organoleptic property and increasing the bulk of the formulation. The overall goal of this article is to provide the clinician with information related to the topical dosage form additives and their current major applications against various diseases.

  7. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Includes short discussion of perimeters of regular polygons having fixed areas, Fibonacci numbers, triangle transformations, transformational matrices, round-off errors, and a mathematical model for musical keys. (RS)

  8. Modelling topical photodynamic therapy treatment including the continuous production of Protoporphyrin IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, C. L.; Brown, C. T. A.; Wood, K.; Moseley, H.

    2016-11-01

    Most existing theoretical models of photodynamic therapy (PDT) assume a uniform initial distribution of the photosensitive molecule, Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). This is an adequate assumption when the prodrug is systematically administered; however for topical PDT this is no longer a valid assumption. Topical application and subsequent diffusion of the prodrug results in an inhomogeneous distribution of PpIX, especially after short incubation times, prior to light illumination. In this work a theoretical simulation of PDT where the PpIX distribution depends on the incubation time and the treatment modality is described. Three steps of the PpIX production are considered. The first is the distribution of the topically applied prodrug, the second in the conversion from the prodrug to PpIX and the third is the light distribution which affects the PpIX distribution through photobleaching. The light distribution is modelled using a Monte Carlo radiation transfer model and indicates treatment depths of around 2 mm during daylight PDT and approximately 3 mm during conventional PDT. The results suggest that treatment depths are not only limited by the light penetration but also by the PpIX distribution.

  9. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  10. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  11. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  12. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  13. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  14. Synergistic effect of additives including multifunctional acrylates in wood plastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mubarak A.; Idriss Ali, K. M.; Garnett, John L.

    1993-07-01

    Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) was prepared with simul (soft wood, density = 0.4g/cc) and butylmethacrylate (BMA) monomer using 10% methanol as the swelling agent. Effect of additives including (i) multifunctional acrylates such as tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA), trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) (ii) oligomer acrylates like the urethane (UA), epoxy (EA) and polyester (PEA) acrylates and (iii) N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) was investigated using 1 to 3 Mrad dose at 0.8 Mrad/h. Synergistic increases in polymer loading yields was achieved in presence of the additives, particularly with the trifunctional acrylate (TMPTA). In addition, acid as well as urea were also used as co-additives and synergistic enhancement in yields of polymer loading were obtained. The synergistic polymer loading by acid addition causes substantial decrease in tensile strength of the composite; but other additives and co-additives increase both the polymer loading and the tensile strength in these systems.

  15. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Objects Including Amorphous Metal Using Techniques Akin to Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention fabricate objects including amorphous metals using techniques akin to additive manufacturing. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes an amorphous metal includes: applying a first layer of molten metallic alloy to a surface; cooling the first layer of molten metallic alloy such that it solidifies and thereby forms a first layer including amorphous metal; subsequently applying at least one layer of molten metallic alloy onto a layer including amorphous metal; cooling each subsequently applied layer of molten metallic alloy such that it solidifies and thereby forms a layer including amorphous metal prior to the application of any adjacent layer of molten metallic alloy; where the aggregate of the solidified layers including amorphous metal forms a desired shape in the object to be fabricated; and removing at least the first layer including amorphous metal from the surface.

  16. Additive enhancement of wound healing in diabetic mice by low level light and topical CoQ10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Zhigang; Wu, Jeffrey H.; Dong, Tingting; Wu, Mei X.

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes, a highly prevalent disease that affects 9.3% of Americans, often leads to severe complications and slow wound healing. Preclinical studies have suggested that low level light therapy (LLLT) can accelerate wound healing in diabetic subjects, but significant improvements must be made to overcome the absence of persuasive evidence for its clinical use. We demonstrate here that LLLT can be combined with topical Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) to heal wounds in diabetic mice significantly faster than LLLT alone, CoQ10 alone, or controls. LLLT followed by topical CoQ10 enhanced wound healing by 68~103% in diabetic mice in the first week and more than 24% in the second week compared with untreated controls. All wounds were fully healed in two weeks following the dual treatment, in contrast to only 50% wounds or a fewer being fully healed for single or sham treatment. The accelerated healing was corroborated by at least 50% higher hydroxyproline levels, and tripling cell proliferation rates in LLLT and CoQ10 treated wounds over controls. The beneficial effects on wound healing were probably attributed to additive enhancement of ATP production by LLLT and CoQ10 treatment. The combination of LLLT and topical CoQ10 is safe and convenient, and merits further clinical study.

  17. Additive enhancement of wound healing in diabetic mice by low level light and topical CoQ10

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Zhigang; Wu, Jeffrey H.; Dong, Tingting; Wu, Mei X.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes, a highly prevalent disease that affects 9.3% of Americans, often leads to severe complications and slow wound healing. Preclinical studies have suggested that low level light therapy (LLLT) can accelerate wound healing in diabetic subjects, but significant improvements must be made to overcome the absence of persuasive evidence for its clinical use. We demonstrate here that LLLT can be combined with topical Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) to heal wounds in diabetic mice significantly faster than LLLT alone, CoQ10 alone, or controls. LLLT followed by topical CoQ10 enhanced wound healing by 68~103% in diabetic mice in the first week and more than 24% in the second week compared with untreated controls. All wounds were fully healed in two weeks following the dual treatment, in contrast to only 50% wounds or a fewer being fully healed for single or sham treatment. The accelerated healing was corroborated by at least 50% higher hydroxyproline levels, and tripling cell proliferation rates in LLLT and CoQ10 treated wounds over controls. The beneficial effects on wound healing were probably attributed to additive enhancement of ATP production by LLLT and CoQ10 treatment. The combination of LLLT and topical CoQ10 is safe and convenient, and merits further clinical study. PMID:26830658

  18. Combinatorial Synthesis of Linearly Condensed Polycyclic Compounds, Including Anthracyclinones, Through Tandem Diels-Alder Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Pierre

    Double exocyclic 1,3-dienes such as 2,3,5,6-tetramethylidene-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane and its 1-substituted derivatives undergo two successive Diels-Alder additions with large reactivity difference between the addition of the first equivalent (k 1) and the second equivalent (k 2) of dienophile. This allows one to prepare, through parallel synthesis, a large number of linearly condensed polycyclic systems containing three annulated six-membered rings, including naphthacenyl systems and anthracyclinones. The large k 1/k 2 rate constant ratio is a consequence of the Dimroth principle, the first cycloaddition being significantly more exothermic then the second one. Control of regio- and stereoselectivity of the two successive cycloadditions is possible by 1-substitution of the 2,3,5,6-tetramethylidene-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane, for instance by a 1-(dimethoxymethyl) group, or by stereoselective disubstitution of the double diene by arenesulfenyl substituents. Enantiomerically pure anthracyclinones and analogues are obtained using enantiomerically pure dienophiles such as 3-oxo-but-2-en-2-yl esters. The chemistry so-developed has allowed the preparation of enantiomerically pure 6-((aminoalkoxy)oxy)methyl-6,7-dideoxyidarubicinones that are DNA intercalators and inhibitors of topoisomerase II-induced DNA strained religation.

  19. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  20. Novel alginate-based nanocarriers as a strategy to include high concentrations of hydrophobic compounds in hydrogels for topical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, H. T. P.; Munnier, E.; Souce, M.; Perse, X.; David, S.; Bonnier, F.; Vial, F.; Yvergnaux, F.; Perrier, T.; Cohen-Jonathan, S.; Chourpa, I.

    2015-06-01

    The cutaneous penetration of hydrophobic active molecules is of foremost concern in the dermatology and cosmetic formulation fields. The poor solubility in water of those molecules limits their use in hydrophilic forms such as gels, which are favored by patients with chronic skin disease. The aim of this work is to design a novel nanocarrier of hydrophobic active molecules and to determine its potential as an ingredient of a topical form. The nanocarrier consists of an oily core surrounded by a protective shell of alginate, a natural polysaccharide isolated from brown algae. These calcium alginate-based nanocarriers (CaANCs) were prepared at room temperature and without the use of organic solvent by an accelerated nanoemulsification-polymer crosslinking method. The size (hydrodynamic diameter ˜200 nm) and surface charge (zeta potential ˜ - 30 mV) of the CaANCs are both compatible with their application on skin. CaANCs loaded with a fluorescent label were stable in model hydrophilic galenic forms under different storage conditions. Curcumin was encapsulated in CaANCs with an efficiency of ˜95%, fully retaining its antioxidant activity. The application of the curcumin-loaded CaANCs on excised human skin led to a significant accumulation of the active molecules in the upper layers of the skin, asserting the potential of these nanocarriers in active pharmaceutical and cosmetic ingredients topical delivery.

  1. SORBENT DEVELOPMENT FOR MERCURY CONTROL. Final topical report including semiannual for January 1, 1998 through June 30, 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Hassett; Edwin S. Olson; Grant E. Dunham; Ramesh K. Sharma; Ronald C. Timpe; Stanley J. Miller

    1998-10-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) draft Mercury Study Report to Congress (1) estimated anthropogenic mercury emissions to be 253 tons/yr in the US, with the majority (216 tons/yr) from combustion sources. The three main combustion sources listed were coal (72 tons/yr), medical waste incinerators (65 tons/yr), and municipal waste combustors (64 tons/yr). The emissions from both medical waste incinerators and municipal waste combustors were recently regulated, which, together with the reduction of mercury in consumer products such as batteries and fluorescent lights, has already reduced the emissions from these sources, as stated in the final EPA Mercury Report to Congress (2). EPA now estimates total point-source mercury emissions to be 158 tons/yr, with coal remaining at 72 tons/yr, while medical waste incinerators are down to 16 tons/yr and municipal waste combustors are at 30 tons/yr. Coal is now the primary source of anthropogenic mercury emissions in the US, accounting for 46%. In addition, the use of coal in the US has been increasing every year and passed the 1-billion-ton-per-year mark for the first time in 1997 (3). At the current rate of increase, coal consumption would reach 1.4 billion tons annually by the year 2020. On a worldwide basis, the projected increase in coal usage over the next two decades in China, India, and Indonesia will dwarf the current US coal consumption level. Therefore, in the US coal will be the dominant source of mercury emissions and worldwide coal may be the cause of significantly increased mercury emissions unless an effective control strategy is implemented. However, much uncertainty remains over the most technically sound and cost-effective approach for reducing mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers, and a number of critical research needs will have to be met to develop better control (2).

  2. 78 FR 67369 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Addition to the Vaccine Injury Table to Include All...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Addition to the Vaccine Injury Table to Include All Vaccines Against Seasonal Influenza AGENCY: Health... vaccines against seasonal influenza are covered under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation...

  3. Topical report: Natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) evaluation for generating additional reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) data.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Tzanos, C.P.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R.W.; Pointer, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2005-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Generation IV roadmapping activity, the Very High Temperature gas cooled Reactor (VHTR) has been selected as the principal concept for hydrogen production and other process-heat applications such as district heating and potable water production. On this basis, the DOE has selected the VHTR for additional R&D with the ultimate goal of demonstrating emission-free electricity and hydrogen production with this advanced reactor concept. One of the key passive safety features of the VHTR is the potential for decay heat removal by natural circulation of air in a Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS). The air-cooled RCCS concept is notably similar to the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) that was developed for the General Electric PRISM sodium-cooled fast reactor. As part of the DOE R&D program that supported the development of this fast reactor concept, the Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) was developed at ANL to provide proof-of-concept data for the RVACS under prototypic natural convection flow, temperature, and heat flux conditions. Due to the similarity between RVACS and the RCCS, current VHTR R&D plans call for the utilization of the NSTF to provide RCCS model development and validation data, in addition to supporting design validation and optimization activities. Both air-cooled and water-cooled RCCS designs are to be included. In support of this effort, ANL has been tasked with the development of an engineering plan for mechanical and instrumentation modifications to NSTF to ensure that sufficiently detailed temperature, heat flux, velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained to adequately qualify the codes under the expected range of air-cooled RCCS flow conditions. Next year, similar work will be carried out for the alternative option of a water-cooled RCCS design. Analysis activities carried out in support of this experiment planning task have shown that: (a) in the RCCS, strong

  4. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. First topical report, Results of laboratory screening of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-04-16

    Several tasks have been completed in a program to evaluate additives to improve fine particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Screening tests and laboratory evaluations of additives are summarized in this report. Over 20 additives were evaluated; four were found to improve flyash precipitation rates. The Insitec particle analyzer was also evaluated; test results show that the analyzer will provide accurate sizing and counting information for particles in the size range of {le} 10 {mu}m dia.

  5. Skin penetration and metabolism of topically applied chemicals in six mammalian species, including man: an in vitro study with benzo(a)pyrene and testosterone

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, J.; Patterson, F.K.; Hall, J.

    1985-12-01

    Because viable skin possesses enzyme activities, including those involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, the extent to which cutaneous metabolism may influence the percutaneous fate of topically applied chemicals in the skin was examined in mammalian skin maintained as short-term organ cultures. Skin samples from mouse, rat, rabbit, guinea pig, marmoset, and man were examined. The results from studies with benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and testosterone showed that, in all species, metabolic viability was a major factor involved in the in vitro skin permeation of surface-applied chemicals. Permeation was accompanied by extensive cutaneous first pass metabolism; both parent compounds and a full spectrum of metabolites were found in the receptor fluid from viable skin preparations. However, in previously frozen nonviable skin preparations, essentially only unchanged parent compounds were detected in the receptor fluid. Permeation of BP and testosterone was highest in mouse skin, and significant species variations in the metabolite profiles were observed. Studies with mouse skin also demonstrated that induction of cutaneous drug-metabolizing enzymes can result in a two- to threefold increase in the in vitro permeation of topical BP, and a significant reduction in permeation was observed when KCN was added to the perfusion medium. These results indicate that diffusional and metabolic processes are intimately involved in the percutaneous fate of surface-applied chemicals. The relative importance of these processes is dependent upon the physicochemical properties of the compounds and the metabolic capabilities of the skin toward the compounds in question. Furthermore, these findings suggest that meaningful in vitro studies on skin absorption should consider both diffusion and cutaneous biotransformation of the applied compound.

  6. Comparison of efficacy of silicone gel, silicone gel sheeting, and topical onion extract including heparin and allantoin for the treatment of postburn hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Karagoz, Huseyin; Yuksel, Fuat; Ulkur, Ersin; Evinc, Rahmi

    2009-12-01

    We compared the efficacy of silicone gel (Scarfade), silicone gel sheet (Epi-Derm), and topical onion extract including heparin and allantoin (Contractubex) for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Forty-five postburn scars were included in the study. Patients with scars less than 6 months from injury were assigned at random to three groups each containing 15 scars, and their treatment was continued for 6 months. Scars were treated with Scarfade, Epiderm and Contractubex. Scar assessment was performed at the beginning of the treatment, and at the end of the sixth month when the treatment was completed by using the Vancouver scar scale. The difference between before and after treatment scores for each three groups was statistically significant. The difference between Scarfade group and Epi-Derm group was not significant; however, the differences of the other groups (Scarfade-Contractubex, Epiderm-Contractubex) were significant. Silicone products, either in gel or sheet, are superior to Contractubex in the treatment of the hypertrophic scar. The therapist should select the most appropriate agent according to the patient's need and guidelines of these signs.

  7. Apology in the criminal justice setting: evidence for including apology as an additional component in the legal system.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Carrie J

    2002-01-01

    The criminal justice system has reached unprecedented scope in the United States, with over 6.4 million people under some type of supervision. Remedies that have the potential to reduce this number are continually being sought. This article analyzes an innovative strategy currently being reconsidered in criminal justice: the apology. Despite a legal system that only sporadically acknowledges it, evidence for the use of apology is supported by social science research, current criminal justice theories, case law, and empirical studies. Social psychological, sociological and socio-legal studies pinpoint the elements and function of apology, what makes apologies effective, and concerns about apology if it were implemented in the criminal justice system. Theoretical evidence is examined (including restorative justice, therapeutic jurisprudence, crime, shame, and reintegration) to explore the process of apology in the criminal justice context. Attribution theory and social conduct theory are used to explain the apology process specifically for victims and offenders. A brief examination of case law reveals that though apology has no formal place in criminal law, it has surfaced recently under the federal sentencing guidelines. Finally, empirical evidence in criminal justice settings reveals that offenders want to apologize and victims desire an apology. Moreover, by directly addressing the harmful act, apology may be the link to reduced recidivism for offenders, as well as empowerment for victims. This evidence combined suggests that apology is worthy of further study as a potentially valuable addition to the criminal justice process.

  8. TOPICAL TREATMENT OF MELASMA

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma. PMID:20101327

  9. Major histocompatibility complex harbors widespread genotypic variability of non-additive risk of rheumatoid arthritis including epistasis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Bowes, John; Plant, Darren; Viatte, Sebastien; Yarwood, Annie; Massey, Jonathan; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variability based genome-wide association studies (vGWASs) can identify potentially interacting loci without prior knowledge of the interacting factors. We report a two-stage approach to make vGWAS applicable to diseases: firstly using a mixed model approach to partition dichotomous phenotypes into additive risk and non-additive environmental residuals on the liability scale and secondly using the Levene’s (Brown-Forsythe) test to assess equality of the residual variances across genotype groups per marker. We found widespread significant (P < 2.5e-05) vGWAS signals within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) across all three study cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis. We further identified 10 epistatic interactions between the vGWAS signals independent of the MHC additive effects, each with a weak effect but jointly explained 1.9% of phenotypic variance. PTPN22 was also identified in the discovery cohort but replicated in only one independent cohort. Combining the three cohorts boosted power of vGWAS and additionally identified TYK2 and ANKRD55. Both PTPN22 and TYK2 had evidence of interactions reported elsewhere. We conclude that vGWAS can help discover interacting loci for complex diseases but require large samples to find additional signals. PMID:27109064

  10. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of materials included..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... documentary material; (b) Photographs; (c) Motion pictures; (d) Sound and video recordings; (e)...

  11. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Types of materials included..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... documentary material; (b) Photographs; (c) Motion pictures; (d) Sound and video recordings; (e)...

  12. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Types of materials included..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... documentary material; (b) Photographs; (c) Motion pictures; (d) Sound and video recordings; (e)...

  13. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  14. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  15. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  16. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  17. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  18. Benchmarking spliced alignment programs including Spaln2, an extended version of Spaln that incorporates additional species-specific features

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hiroaki; Gotoh, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Spliced alignment plays a central role in the precise identification of eukaryotic gene structures. Even though many spliced alignment programs have been developed, recent rapid progress in DNA sequencing technologies demands further improvements in software tools. Benchmarking algorithms under various conditions is an indispensable task for the development of better software; however, there is a dire lack of appropriate datasets usable for benchmarking spliced alignment programs. In this study, we have constructed two types of datasets: simulated sequence datasets and actual cross-species datasets. The datasets are designed to correspond to various real situations, i.e. divergent eukaryotic species, different types of reference sequences, and the wide divergence between query and target sequences. In addition, we have developed an extended version of our program Spaln, which incorporates two additional features to the scoring scheme of the original version, and examined this extended version, Spaln2, together with the original Spaln and other representative aligners based on our benchmark datasets. Although the effects of the modifications are not individually striking, Spaln2 is consistently most accurate and reasonably fast in most practical cases, especially for plants and fungi and for increasingly divergent pairs of target and query sequences. PMID:22848105

  19. Regulatory Information By Topic

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA develops and enforces regulations that span many environmental topics, from acid rain reduction to wetlands restoration. Each topic listed below may include related laws and regulations, compliance enforcement information, policies guidance

  20. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Newcastle NTMS quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Sandoval, W.F.; Gallimore, D.L.; Talcott, C.L.; Martinez, R.G.; Minor, M.E.; Mills, C.F.

    1980-06-01

    During the summer and fall of 1977, 533 water and 1226 sediment samples were collected from 1740 locations within the 18,000 km/sup 2/ area of the Newcastle quadrangle, Wyoming. Water samples were collected from wells and springs; sediment samples were collected from stream channels and from springs. Each water sample was analyzed for uranium, and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including uranium and thorium. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 ppB to 702.26 ppB and have a median of 1.73 ppB and a mean of 11.76 ppB. Water samples containing high uranium concentrations (>20 ppB) generally are associated with known uranium mining activity or units known to be uranium bearing. About one-third of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations within the Pumpkin Buttes and Turnercrest-Ross Districts. Nearly half of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations just west of the Monument Hill and Highland Flats-Box Creek Districts. Similar anomalous uranium concentrations in this region have been reported updip from Exxon's Highland uranium deposits. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek-Old Woman Anticline District.

  1. Performance of portland limestone cements: Cements designed to be more sustainable that include up to 15% limestone addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Timothy J.

    In 2009, ASTM and AASHTO permitted the use of up to 5% interground limestone in ordinary portland cement (OPC) as a part of a change to ASTM C150/AASHTO M85. When this work was initiated a new proposal was being discussed that would enable up to 15% interground limestone cement to be considered in ASTM C595/AASHTO M234. This work served to provide rapid feedback to the state department of transportation and concrete industry for use in discussions regarding these specifications. Since the time this work was initiated, ASTM C595/AASHTO M234 was passed (2012c) and PLCs are now able to be specified, however they are still not widely used. The proposal for increasing the volume of limestone that would be permitted to be interground in cement is designed to enable more sustainable construction, which may significantly reduce the CO2 that is embodied in the built infrastructure while also extending the life of cement quarries. Research regarding the performance of cements with interground limestone has been conducted by the cement industry since these cements became widely used in Europe over three decades ago, however this work focuses on North American Portland Limestone Cements (PLCs) which are specifically designed to achieve similar performance as the OPCs they replace.This thesis presents a two-phase study in which the potential for application of cements containing limestone was assessed. The first phase of this study utilized a fundamental approach to determine whether cement with up to 15% of interground or blended limestone can be used as a direct substitute to ordinary portland cement. The second phase of the study assessed the concern of early age shrinkage and cracking potential when using PLCs, as these cements are typically ground finer than their OPC counterparts. For the first phase of the study, three commercially produced PLCs were obtained and compared to three commercially produced OPCs made from the same clinker. An additional cement was tested

  2. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Newcastle NTMS Quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Sandoval, W.F.; Gallimore, D.L.; Talcott, C.L.; Martinez, R.G.; Minor, M.E.; Mills, C.F.

    1980-06-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected and each water sample was analyzed for U, and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including U and Th. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 ppB to 702.26 ppB and have a median of 1.73 ppB and a mean of 11.76 ppB. Water samples containing high uranium concentrations generally are associated with known uranium mining activity or units known to be uranium bearing. About one-third of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations within the Pumpkin Buttes and Turnercrest-Ross Districts. Nearly half of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations just west of the Monument Hill and Highland Flats-Box Creek Districts. Similar anomalous uranium concentrations in this region have been reported updip from Exxon's Highland uranium deposits. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek-Old Woman Anticline District. Uranium concentrations in sediment samples range from 1.14 to 220.70 ppM and have a median of 3.37 ppM and a mean of 4.03 ppM. Throughout the major uranium mining districts of the Powder River Basin, sediment samples with high uranium concentrations were collected from dry streams located near wells producing water samples with high uranium concentrations. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek oil field where uranium mineralization is known in the White River formation. High uranium concentrations were also found in sediment samples in areas where uranium mineralization is not known. These samples are from dry streams in areas underlain by the White River formation, the Niobrara formation, and the Pierre, Carlisle, Belle Fourche, and Mowry shales.

  3. Freshman Health Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovde, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.…

  4. Development of an Eastern Shale Oil Residue as an Asphalt Additive - Subtask 2.5: Topical report, February 1, 1994-February 1, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    An evaluation of eastern shale oil as an asphalt additive to reduce oxidative age hardening and moisture susceptibility is being conducted. An eastern shale oil residue having a viscosity of 1.30 Pa`s at 60{degrees}C (140{degrees}F) was blended with three different petroleum-derived asphalts that are known to be very susceptible to oxidative aging. In addition, blends of the eastern shale oil residue and the petroleum-derived asphalts are being coated onto three different aggregates that are known to be susceptible to water stripping. The oxidative age hardening portion of this study is not complete at this time. To date, information has been obtained on the unaged samples and two of the aged petroleum-derived asphalts (AAD-1 and AAK-1). When complete, this data will include rheological data on the unaged, RTFO-aged, and the RTFO/PAV-aged samples and infrared data on the unaged and RTFO/PAV-aged samples. With respect to the rheological data, asphalt AAD-1 meets the specifications of a PG 58 asphalt while asphalt AAK-1 does not. In the latter case this indicates that AAK-1 is more appropriately evaluated at a higher temperature range. The infrared spectroscopic data obtained for the eastern shale oil residue show that it contains appreciable amounts of carbonyl and sulfoxide compound types, 0.22 absorbance units and 0. 27 moles/L, respectively. Thus, upon the addition of this residue to the three petroleum-derived asphalts the blends contain increased amounts of these functional groups relative to the petroleum-derived asphalts. This has been observed with other additives and is not considered detrimental. In addition, the data that has been collected to date indicate that the moisture susceptibility of blends of eastern shale oil residue and asphalt AAK-1 are somewhat improved when coated onto Lithonia granite.

  5. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 3.4 -- Hot-gas cleaning. Topical report (includes semiannual report for January--June 1995)

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G.F.; Swanson, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of three subtasks completed in support of the current and future hot-gas cleanup activities at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). The overall objective of the EERC hot-gas cleanup task is to develop reliable methods to remove particulate matter from high-temperature, high-pressure gas streams produced from coal combustion and/or gasification. Near-term task objectives include (1) design, fabrication, and assembly of a high-temperature, high-pressure bench-scale filter vessel; (2) design, fabrication, and assembly of a high-temperature, high-pressure sampling train; and (3) the preliminary design of a pilot-scale high-temperature, high-pressure filter vessel and support systems. Bench-scale hot-gas filter research will be performed with the pressurized fluid-bed reactor (PFBR) or the continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) and a hot-gas filter vessel. The objectives of future work with the bench-scale system will be to determine particulate and vapor-phase alkali degradation of candidate ceramic filter structures as well as filter performance relative to particulate collection efficiency, differential pressure, and filter cleanability. Construction of the high-temperature, high-pressure sampling system was intended to support bench- and pilot-scale activities with respect to conventional particulate sampling (total mass and particle-size distribution) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) sampling. Finally, pilot-scale tests will be performed to evaluate filter performance and determine alkali corrosion of ceramic materials with a hot-gas filter vessel attached to the EERC Transport Reactor Development Unit (TRDU).

  6. Efinaconazole Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... may catch fire. Stay away from heat and flames while you are applying this medication.Do not get a pedicure or apply nail polish or other cosmetic nail products to your toenails during your treatment with efinaconazole topical solution.To apply the topical ...

  7. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer... is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer, ultralight vehicle), am I responsible...

  8. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer... the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer, ultralight vehicle), am I responsible for payment? (a) No,...

  9. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer... Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY...

  10. Fluorouracil Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by years of too much exposure to sunlight). Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are also used ... plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to sunlight and UV light (such as tanning booths) and ...

  11. Estradiol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Estradiol topical gel and emulsion (lotion type mixture) are used to treat and prevent hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) in women who are experiencing menopause ( ...

  12. Testosterone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... eyes, wash them right away with warm, clean water. Call a doctor if your eyes become irritated.Testosterone topical comes in single use tubes and packets and a multiple use pump. The pump releases a specific amount of testosterone ...

  13. Tardigrada of Ireland: a review of records and an updated checklist of species including a new addition to the Irish fauna

    PubMed Central

    DeMilio, Erica; Lawton, Colin; Marley, Nigel J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The phylum Tardigrada was not recorded in Ireland until the Clare Island Survey of 1909–1911, with only rare subsequent reports on Irish tardigrade species. In recent decades, significant taxonomic revision has occurred within Tardigrada. This has resulted in the need for a review of all known historical records from Ireland and Northern Ireland in order to produce an updated checklist of valid taxa. The new checklist includes fifty-one tardigrade species and subspecies including a new addition to the Irish fauna reported herein, Echiniscus quadrispinosus quadrispinosus Richters, 1902 from Newtown, Ballyvaughan, Co. Clare. PMID:27667947

  14. Tardigrada of Ireland: a review of records and an updated checklist of species including a new addition to the Irish fauna.

    PubMed

    DeMilio, Erica; Lawton, Colin; Marley, Nigel J

    2016-01-01

    The phylum Tardigrada was not recorded in Ireland until the Clare Island Survey of 1909-1911, with only rare subsequent reports on Irish tardigrade species. In recent decades, significant taxonomic revision has occurred within Tardigrada. This has resulted in the need for a review of all known historical records from Ireland and Northern Ireland in order to produce an updated checklist of valid taxa. The new checklist includes fifty-one tardigrade species and subspecies including a new addition to the Irish fauna reported herein, Echiniscus quadrispinosus quadrispinosus Richters, 1902 from Newtown, Ballyvaughan, Co. Clare.

  15. Spotlight Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A Spotlight Topic consists of a set of two or more review articles focused on a specific subject in surface science. The topics are recommended by the Board of Editors. A topic may be chosen because it is particularly new or fast-breaking, thus deserving introduction to the general readership. Or, it may be because a topic is especially controversial or confusing, requiring clarification by experts. Each review will give a critical assessment rather than an encyclopedic report. While our editors always will insist on fairness and accuracy, any review which forwards an opinion is bound to be somewhat subjective. Therefore, it is the editors' wish that the set of reviews written by different authors on the same subject matter will provide a broad and balanced viewpoint. It is often the case that an author who is an expert in a technique or method may be especially enthusiastic or critical about this technique or method. A companion review in the set may provide a different viewpoint. We are hopeful that the reader, after studying these reviews and checking some of the key references, will obtain an informed opinion of the subject. We think the set of reviews in a spotlight area will considerably shorten the ``learning time'' that a nonexpert would otherwise need to become knowledgeable about a subject. In this issue, we feature a spotlight topic on oxide surfaces. The set contains an overview article by Jacques Jupille, and four articles written by G. Pacchioni, F. Cosandey and T. E. Madey, B. G. Daniels, R. Lindsay and G. Thornton, and C. Noguera respectively. Of these, the article by Pacchioni has already appeared in SRL 7, 277 (2000). The other three articles appear in this issue. A reader who wishes to suggest a spotlight topic or recommend authors to write such reviews should contact the Editor-in-Chief. We would like to hear from you.

  16. Spinosad Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Spinosad suspension is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults and ... Topical spinosad comes as a suspension (liquid) to apply to the scalp and hair. It is usually applied to the scalp and hair in one or sometimes ...

  17. Ciclopirox Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... use this medication near heat or an open flame, such as a cigarette.To use ciclopirox topical solution, follow these steps: Be sure that you have trimmed your nails properly before your first treatment. Use the applicator brush attached to the bottle ...

  18. Acyclovir Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Zovirax® Cream ... Acyclovir cream is used to treat cold sores (fever blisters; blisters that are caused by a virus called herpes ... Topical acyclovir comes as a cream and an ointment to apply to the skin. Acyclovir cream is usually applied five times a day for 4 days. Acyclovir ...

  19. Clindamycin Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had asthma, eczema (sensitive skin that often becomes itchy or irritated) or allergies.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while using topical clindamycin, ...

  20. Hot topics for leadership development.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-02-01

    Three areas stand out from a health systems perspective that should be on the development agenda for all leaders. These topics include population health, predictive analytics, and supply chain management. Together, these topics address access, quality, and cost management.

  1. Topical anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mritunjay; Chawla, Rajiv; Goyal, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects.

  2. Topical anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mritunjay; Chawla, Rajiv; Goyal, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects. PMID:26702198

  3. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Topical report - results of sodium formate additive tests at New York State Electric & Gas Corporation`s Kintigh Station

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.

    1997-02-14

    Tests were conducted at New York State Gas & Electric`s (NYSEG`s) Kintigh Station to evaluate options for achieving high sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal efficiency in the wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This test program was one of six conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate low-capital-cost upgrades to existing FGD systems as a means for utilities to comply with the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. The upgrade option tested at Kintigh was sodium formate additive. Results from the tests were used to calibrate the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) FGD PRocess Integration and Simulation Model (FGDPRISM) to the Kintigh scrubber configuration. FGDPRISM was then used to predict system performance for evaluating conditions other than those tested. An economic evaluation was then done to determine the cost effectiveness of various high-efficiency upgrade options. These costs can be compared with the estimated market value of SO{sub 2} allowance or the expected costs of allowances generated by other means, such as fuel switching or new scrubbers, to arrive at the most cost-effective strategy for Clean Air Act compliance.

  4. Topical therapies for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Altman, Roy D; Barthel, H Richard

    2011-07-09

    This review discusses the pharmacology, analgesic efficacy, safety and tolerability of topical NSAIDs, salicylates and capsaicin for the management of osteoarthritis (OA) pain. Topical therapies present a valuable therapeutic option for OA pain management, with substantial evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of topical NSAIDs, but less robust support for capsaicin and salicylates. We define topical therapies as those intended to act locally, in contrast to transdermal therapies intended to act systemically. Oral therapies for patients with mild to moderate OA pain include paracetamol (acetaminophen) and NSAIDs. Paracetamol has only weak efficacy at therapeutic doses and is hepatotoxic at doses >3.25 g/day. NSAIDs have demonstrated efficacy in patients with OA, but are associated with dose-, duration- and age-dependent risks of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, haematological and hepatic adverse events (AEs), as well as clinically meaningful drug interactions. To minimize AE risks, treatment guidelines for OA suggest minimizing NSAID exposure by prescribing the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration of time. Systemic NSAID exposure may also be limited by prescribing topical NSAIDs, particularly in patients with OA pain limited to a few superficial joints. Topical NSAIDs have been available in Europe for decades and were introduced to provide localized analgesia with minimal systemic NSAID exposure. Guidelines of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), Osteoarthritis Research Society International, and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) state that topical NSAIDs may be considered for patients with mild to moderate OA of the knee or hand, particularly in patients with few affected joints and/or a history of sensitivity to oral NSAIDs. In fact, the EULAR and NICE guidelines state that topical NSAIDs should be considered before oral therapies. Clinical trials of topical

  5. [Topical contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Alipov, V I; Korkhov, V V

    1982-02-01

    Recently there has been little interest in topical contraceptives. The most popular are the cervical cap and the diaphragm. Other types of mechanical contraceptive devices are being investigated. Standley and Kessler have developed a device for introduction into the cervical canal with a reservoir of spermatocide, it does not block the flow of blood during menstruation. New models of vaginal rings are also being developed which are simple enough for self-insertion and also contain a reservoir of spermatocide. Work is being done on spermatocide-containing sponges in many countries. Another project being investigated is the possibility of using natural proteins, collagens, and other substances which absorb spermatozoids. The ancients used various vaginal suppositories to kill spermatozoids; in the late 19th century quinine sulfate was used for this, and a variety of substances have been used recently. These spermicidal creams also have the advantage of acting as anti-infectious agents in many cases. But they do have some negative effects. They are about 85% effective, are local irritants, and some cause discomfort during intercourse. And it is possible that some are resorbed by the body and act on the liver and other organs. Vaginal globules and suppositories are also popular. The "Kontraceptin-T" brand contains quinosol, boric acid, and tannin. There are also foaming tablets which are mixed with water and then introduced. New locally-active chemical substances are being developed in Japan, West Germany, and the USSR. Kontraceptin-E contains paranonyl-phenoxypolyethylene glycol and sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate. The "Norforks" and other preparations contain mercurial compounds which may turn out to be harmful. The future promises the development of products which will act to prevent fertilization by acting on the hyaluronidase and the acrosine of the spermatozoid, thus preventing it from penetrating the ovum. It would be best to find enzyme inhibitors which are

  6. Measurement of [Formula: see text] production with additional jet activity, including [Formula: see text] quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Knünz, V; König, A; Krammer, M; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Treberer-Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Alderweireldt, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Knutsson, A; Lauwers, J; Luyckx, S; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Heracleous, N; Keaveney, J; Lowette, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Strom, D; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Van Parijs, I; Barria, P; Brun, H; Caillol, C; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Perniè, L; Randle-Conde, A; Reis, T; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Yonamine, R; Vanlaer, P; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Adler, V; Beernaert, K; Benucci, L; Cimmino, A; Crucy, S; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Garcia, G; Gul, M; Mccartin, J; Ocampo Rios, A A; Poyraz, D; Ryckbosch, D; Salva, S; Sigamani, M; Strobbe, N; Tytgat, M; Van Driessche, W; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Beluffi, C; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; Ceard, L; Da Silveira, G G; Delaere, C; Favart, D; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Hollar, J; Jafari, A; Jez, P; Komm, M; Lemaitre, V; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Nuttens, C; Perrini, L; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Popov, A; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Beliy, N; Hammad, G H; Júnior, W L Aldá; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Correa Martins Junior, M; Hamer, M; Hensel, C; Mora Herrera, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, L M; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; De Souza Santos, A; Dogra, S; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Moon, C S; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Cheng, T; Du, R; Jiang, C H; Plestina, R; Romeo, F; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Zhang, H; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Ban, Y; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; Gomez Moreno, B; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; 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Petrakou, E; Tsai, J F; Tzeng, Y M; Asavapibhop, B; Kovitanggoon, K; Singh, G; Srimanobhas, N; Suwonjandee, N; Adiguzel, A; Cerci, S; Demiroglu, Z S; Dozen, C; Dumanoglu, I; Girgis, S; Gokbulut, G; Guler, Y; Guler, Y; Gurpinar, E; Hos, I; Kangal, E E; Kayis Topaksu, A; Onengut, G; Ozdemir, K; Ozturk, S; Tali, B; Topakli, H; Vergili, M; Zorbilmez, C; Akin, I V; Bilin, B; Bilmis, S; Isildak, B; Karapinar, G; Yalvac, M; Zeyrek, M; Gülmez, E; Kaya, M; Kaya, O; Yetkin, E A; Yetkin, T; Cakir, A; Cankocak, K; Sen, S; Vardarlı, F I; Grynyov, B; Levchuk, L; Sorokin, P; Aggleton, R; Ball, F; Beck, L; Brooke, J J; Clement, E; Cussans, D; Flacher, H; Goldstein, J; Grimes, M; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Jacob, J; Kreczko, L; Lucas, C; Meng, Z; Newbold, D M; Paramesvaran, S; Poll, A; Sakuma, T; Seif El Nasr-Storey, S; Senkin, S; Smith, D; Smith, V J; Bell, K W; Belyaev, A; Brew, C; Brown, R M; Calligaris, L; Cieri, D; Cockerill, D J A; Coughlan, J A; Harder, K; Harper, S; Olaiya, E; Petyt, D; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Thea, A; Tomalin, I R; Williams, T; Womersley, W J; Worm, S D; Baber, M; Bainbridge, R; Buchmuller, O; Bundock, A; Burton, D; Casasso, S; Citron, M; Colling, D; Corpe, L; Cripps, N; Dauncey, P; Davies, G; De Wit, A; Della Negra, M; Dunne, P; Elwood, A; Elwood, A; Ferguson, W; Fulcher, J; Futyan, D; Hall, G; Iles, G; Kenzie, M; Lane, R; Lucas, R; Lyons, L; Magnan, A-M; Malik, S; Nash, J; Nikitenko, A; Pela, J; Pesaresi, M; Petridis, K; Raymond, D M; Richards, A; Rose, A; Seez, C; Tapper, A; Uchida, K; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Zenz, S C; Cole, J E; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Leggat, D; Leslie, D; Reid, I D; Symonds, P; Teodorescu, L; Turner, M; Borzou, A; Call, K; Dittmann, J; Hatakeyama, K; Liu, H; Pastika, N; Scarborough, T; Wu, Z; Charaf, O; Cooper, S I; Henderson, C; Rumerio, P; Arcaro, D; Avetisyan, A; Bose, T; Fantasia, C; Gastler, D; Lawson, P; Rankin, D; Richardson, C; Rohlf, J; St John, J; Sulak, L; Zou, D; Alimena, J; Berry, E; Bhattacharya, S; Cutts, D; Dhingra, N; Ferapontov, A; Garabedian, A; Hakala, J; Heintz, U; Laird, E; Landsberg, G; Mao, Z; Narain, M; Piperov, S; Sagir, S; Syarif, R; Breedon, R; Breto, G; De La Barca Sanchez, M Calderon; Chauhan, S; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Conway, R; Cox, P T; Erbacher, R; Gardner, M; Ko, W; Lander, R; Mulhearn, M; Pellett, D; Pilot, J; Ricci-Tam, F; Shalhout, S; Smith, J; Squires, M; Stolp, D; Tripathi, M; Wilbur, S; Yohay, R; Cousins, R; Everaerts, P; Farrell, C; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Saltzberg, D; Valuev, V; Weber, M; Burt, K; Clare, R; Ellison, J; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Heilman, J; Ivova Paneva, M; Jandir, P; Kennedy, E; Lacroix, F; Long, O R; Luthra, A; Malberti, M; Negrete, M Olmedo; Shrinivas, A; Wei, H; Wimpenny, S; Yates, B R; Branson, J G; Cerati, G B; Cittolin, S; D'Agnolo, R T; Derdzinski, M; Holzner, A; Kelley, R; Klein, D; Letts, J; Macneill, I; Olivito, D; Padhi, S; Pieri, M; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Tadel, M; Tu, Y; Vartak, A; Wasserbaech, S; Welke, C; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Zevi Della Porta, G; Bradmiller-Feld, J; Campagnari, C; Dishaw, A; Dutta, V; Flowers, K; Franco Sevilla, M; Geffert, P; George, C; Golf, F; Gouskos, L; Gran, J; Incandela, J; Mccoll, N; Mullin, S D; Mullin, S D; Richman, J; Stuart, D; Suarez, I; West, C; Yoo, J; Anderson, D; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chen, Y; Duarte, J; Mott, A; Newman, H B; Pena, C; Pierini, M; Spiropulu, M; Vlimant, J R; Xie, S; Zhu, R Y; Andrews, M B; Azzolini, V; Calamba, A; Carlson, B; Ferguson, T; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Sun, M; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Jensen, F; Johnson, A; Krohn, M; Mulholland, T; Nauenberg, U; Stenson, K; Wagner, S R; Alexander, J; Chatterjee, A; Chaves, J; Chu, J; Dittmer, S; Eggert, N; Mirman, N; Nicolas Kaufman, G; Patterson, J R; Rinkevicius, A; Ryd, A; Skinnari, L; Soffi, L; Sun, W; Tan, S M; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Thompson, J; Tucker, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Abdullin, S; Albrow, M; Anderson, J; Apollinari, G; Banerjee, S; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Bolla, G; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Cihangir, S; Elvira, V D; Fisk, I; Freeman, J; Gottschalk, E; Gray, L; Green, D; Grünendahl, S; Gutsche, O; Hanlon, J; Hare, D; Harris, R M; Hasegawa, S; Hirschauer, J; Hu, Z; Jindariani, S; Johnson, M; Joshi, U; Jung, A W; Klima, B; Kreis, B; Kwan, S; Lammel, S; Linacre, J; Lincoln, D; Lipton, R; Liu, T; Lopes De Sá, R; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Martinez Outschoorn, V I; Maruyama, S; Mason, D; McBride, P; Merkel, P; Mishra, K; Mrenna, S; Nahn, S; Newman-Holmes, C; O'Dell, V; Pedro, K; Prokofyev, O; Rakness, G; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S; Tran, N V; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vernieri, C; Verzocchi, M; Vidal, R; Weber, H A; Whitbeck, A; Yang, F; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Bortignon, P; Bourilkov, D; Carnes, A; Carver, M; Curry, D; Das, S; Di Giovanni, G P; Field, R D; Furic, I K; Gleyzer, S V; Hugon, J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Low, J F; Ma, P; Matchev, K; Mei, H; Milenovic, P; Mitselmakher, G; Rank, D; Rossin, R; Shchutska, L; Snowball, M; Sperka, D; Terentyev, N; Thomas, L; Wang, J; Wang, S; Yelton, J; Hewamanage, S; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, J R; Ackert, A; Adams, T; Askew, A; Bochenek, J; Diamond, B; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Johnson, K F; Khatiwada, A; Prosper, H; Weinberg, M; Baarmand, M M; Bhopatkar, V; Colafranceschi, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Noonan, D; Roy, T; Yumiceva, F; Adams, M R; Apanasevich, L; Berry, D; Betts, R R; Bucinskaite, I; Cavanaugh, R; Evdokimov, O; Gauthier, L; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Kurt, P; O'Brien, C; Sandoval Gonzalez, L D; Silkworth, C; Turner, P; Varelas, N; Wu, Z; Zakaria, M; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Dilsiz, K; Durgut, S; Gandrajula, R P; Haytmyradov, M; Khristenko, V; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Ogul, H; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Penzo, A; Snyder, C; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yi, K; Anderson, I; Anderson, I; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Eminizer, N; Fehling, D; Feng, L; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Martin, C; Osherson, M; Roskes, J; Sady, A; Sarica, U; Swartz, M; Xiao, M; Xin, Y; You, C; Xiao, M; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Benelli, G; Bruner, C; Kenny, R P; Majumder, D; Majumder, D; Malek, M; Murray, M; Sanders, S; Stringer, R; Wang, Q; Ivanov, A; Kaadze, K; Khalil, S; Makouski, M; Maravin, Y; Mohammadi, A; Saini, L K; Skhirtladze, N; Toda, S; Lange, D; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Anelli, C; Baden, A; Baron, O; Belloni, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Ferraioli, C; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Jabeen, S; Jabeen, S; Kellogg, R G; Kolberg, T; Kunkle, J; Lu, Y; Mignerey, A C; Shin, Y H; Skuja, A; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Apyan, A; Barbieri, R; Baty, A; Bierwagen, K; Brandt, S; Bierwagen, K; Busza, W; Cali, I A; Demiragli, Z; Di Matteo, L; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Gulhan, D; Iiyama, Y; Innocenti, G M; Klute, M; Kovalskyi, D; Lai, Y S; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Marini, A C; Mcginn, C; Mironov, C; Narayanan, S; Niu, X; Paus, C; Ralph, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Salfeld-Nebgen, J; Stephans, G S F; Sumorok, K; Varma, M; Velicanu, D; Veverka, J; Wang, J; Wang, T W; Wyslouch, B; Yang, M; Zhukova, V; Dahmes, B; Evans, A; Finkel, A; Gude, A; Hansen, P; Kalafut, S; Kao, S C; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Lesko, Z; Mans, J; Nourbakhsh, S; Ruckstuhl, N; Rusack, R; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Acosta, J G; Oliveros, S; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Bose, S; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Fangmeier, C; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kamalieddin, R; Keller, J; Knowlton, D; Kravchenko, I; Meier, F; Monroy, J; Ratnikov, F; Siado, J E; Snow, G R; Alyari, M; Dolen, J; George, J; Godshalk, A; Harrington, C; Iashvili, I; Kaisen, J; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Rappoccio, S; Roozbahani, B; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Baumgartel, D; Chasco, M; Hortiangtham, A; Massironi, A; Morse, D M; Nash, D; Orimoto, T; Teixeira De Lima, R; Trocino, D; Wang, R-J; Wood, D; Zhang, J; Hahn, K A; Kubik, A; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Pollack, B; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Sung, K; Trovato, M; Velasco, M; Brinkerhoff, A; Dev, N; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kellams, N; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Meng, F; Mueller, C; Musienko, Y; Pearson, T; Planer, M; Reinsvold, A; Ruchti, R; Smith, G; Taroni, S; Valls, N; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Antonelli, L; Brinson, J; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Hart, A; Hill, C; Hughes, R; Ji, W; Kotov, K; Ling, T Y; Liu, B; Luo, W; Puigh, D; Rodenburg, M; Winer, B L; Wulsin, H W; Driga, O; Elmer, P; Hardenbrook, J; Hebda, P; Koay, S A; Lujan, P; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Palmer, C; Piroué, P; Saka, H; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Zuranski, A; Malik, S; Barnes, V E; Benedetti, D; Bortoletto, D; Gutay, L; Jha, M K; Jones, M; Jung, K; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Primavera, F; Radburn-Smith, B C; Shi, X; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Sun, J; Svyatkovskiy, A; Wang, F; Xie, W; Xu, L; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Chen, Z; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Guilbaud, M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Northup, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Rorie, J; Tu, Z; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Ferbel, T; Galanti, M; Galanti, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Han, J; Harel, A; Hindrichs, O; Hindrichs, O; Khukhunaishvili, A; Petrillo, G; Tan, P; Verzetti, M; Arora, S; Barker, A; Chou, J P; Contreras-Campana, C; Contreras-Campana, E; Duggan, D; Ferencek, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Hughes, E; Kaplan, S; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R; Lath, A; Nash, K; Panwalkar, S; Park, M; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Sheffield, D; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Foerster, M; Riley, G; Rose, K; Spanier, S; York, A; Bouhali, O; Castaneda Hernandez, A; Dalchenko, M; De Mattia, M; Delgado, A; Dildick, S; Dildick, S; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Kamon, T; Krutelyov, V; Krutelyov, V; Mueller, R; Osipenkov, I; Pakhotin, Y; Patel, R; Patel, R; Perloff, A; Rose, A; Safonov, A; Tatarinov, A; Ulmer, K A; Akchurin, N; Cowden, C; Damgov, J; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Appelt, E; Delannoy, A G; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Mao, Y; Melo, A; Ni, H; Sheldon, P; Snook, B; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, M W; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Lin, C; Neu, C; Sinthuprasith, T; Sun, X; Wang, Y; Wolfe, E; Wood, J; Xia, F; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Lamichhane, P; Sturdy, J; Belknap, D A; Carlsmith, D; Cepeda, M; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Gomber, B; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ruggles, T; Sarangi, T; Savin, A; Sharma, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Woods, N; Collaboration, Authorinst The Cms

    2016-01-01

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair ([Formula: see text]) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7[Formula: see text]. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]). The absolute and normalized differential cross sections for [Formula: see text] production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional [Formula: see text] jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. The data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading order calculation.

  7. Teacher Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Includes articles and classroom activities about chemicals in the body entitled: "Your Body's Chemical Factory,""Testing for Catalase Activity,""How Sweet It IS...,""Milking Calcium for All It's Worth," and "Testing for Starch in Plant Products." (MKR)

  8. Including xpc® feed additive in the diet of inoculated broilers during grow-out helps control salmonella associated with their carcasses after processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to test XPC® feed additive for control of Salmonella in poultry meat products. Day of hatch broiler chicks were gavaged with 106 cells of a nalidixic acid resistant marker strain of Salmonella Typhimurium and placed on clean pine shavings in 9 separate floor pens (25 ...

  9. Topical Therapies for Pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Elmariah, Sarina B.; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2011-01-01

    Itch, or pruritus, is the predominant symptom associated with acute and chronic cutaneous disease and in some cases, may be debilitating. To date, there is no single universally effective anti-itch treatment. As the pathophysiology of itch in most cutaneous or systemic disorders remains unclear, anti-pruritic therapy is often directed against a variety of targets, including the epidermal barrier, immune system, or the nervous system. Topical therapy is the mainstay of dermatologic management of acute or localized itch or in patients with contraindications to systemic therapies. This review will summarize current topical therapies to treat pruritus and discuss potential future therapies. PMID:21767774

  10. Novel Topic Authorship Attribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    include area code ) NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8–98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 25-03-2011 Master’s Thesis 2010-01-01—2011-03-25...your writer’s voice. St. Martin’s Press, 1994. 43 [35] S. Roman, Introduction to Coding and Information Theory. Springer-Verlag New York, New York...0 0 0 0 T50077 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TOTALS 1582 3293 1493 1858 1182 1129 1160 1107 Table B.2: Topic/Author Data Tabulation 48 AUTHORS TOPICS A100512

  11. Topical Search: AIDS and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Inst. of Justice.

    This topical search includes 30 of the most representative citations on the subject of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and youth selected from the National Institute of Justice/NCJRS (National Criminal Justice Reference Service) database. Topics covered in this package include education programs for in-school youth, policies and…

  12. Quantum ring-polymer contraction method: Including nuclear quantum effects at no additional computational cost in comparison to ab initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Christopher; Spura, Thomas; Habershon, Scott; Kühne, Thomas D.

    2016-04-01

    We present a simple and accurate computational method which facilitates ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, where the quantum-mechanical nature of the nuclei is explicitly taken into account, at essentially no additional computational cost in comparison to the corresponding calculation using classical nuclei. The predictive power of the proposed quantum ring-polymer contraction method is demonstrated by computing various static and dynamic properties of liquid water at ambient conditions using density functional theory. This development will enable routine inclusion of nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of condensed-phase systems.

  13. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 1 and 2: Dimensions and Vector Addition; Rectilinear Motion; plus a Trigonometry and Calculus Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  14. Concluding remarks: Emerging topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perret-Gallix, D.

    2006-04-01

    In summing up this workshop, we would like to open a broad discussion on additional emerging topics that may contribute to shape the future of physics research computing activities. To initiate this global discussion let me address in this short contribution some of these issues: distributed public computing, social or collaborative software, web computing, high precision numerical computation, common development platforms and languages issues. We welcome contributions to this discussion on the ACAT Twiki web site.

  15. Localization of eight additional genes in the human major histocompatibility complex, including the gene encoding the casein kinase II {beta} subunit (CSNK2B)

    SciTech Connect

    Albertella, M.R.; Jones, H.; Thomson, W.

    1996-09-01

    A wide range of autoimmune and other diseases are known to be associated with the major histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility antigens in the class I and class II regions, but some appear to be more strongly associated with genes in the central 1100-kb class III region, making it important to characterize this region fully for the presence of novel genes. An {approximately}220-kb segment of DNA in the class III region separating the Hsp70 (HSPA1L) and BAT1 (D6S8IE) genes, which was previously known to contain 14 genes. Genomic DNA fragments spanning the gaps between the known genes were used as probes to isolate cDNAs corresponding to five new genes within this region. Evidence from Northern blot analysis and exon trapping experiments that suggested the presence of at least two more new genes was also obtained. Partial cDNA and complete exonic genomic sequencing of one of the new genes has identified it as the casein kinase II{beta} subunit (CSNK2B). Two of the other novel genes lie within a region syntenic to that implicated in susceptibility to experimental allergic orchitis in the mouse, an autoimmune disease of the testis, and represent additional candidates for the Orch-1 locus associated with this disease. In addition, characterization of the 13-kb intergenic gap separating the RD (D6545) and G11 (D6S60E) genes has revealed the presence of a gene encoding a 1246-amino-acid polypeptide that shows significant sequence similarity to the yeast anti-viral Ski2p gene product. 49 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Petrographic and Geochemical Characterization of Ore-Bearing Intrusions of the Noril'sk type, Siberia; With Discussion of Their Origin, Including Additional Datasets and Core Logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czamanske, Gerald K.

    2002-01-01

    The Noril'sk I, Talnakh, and Kharaelakh intrusions of the Noril'sk district host one of the outstanding metal concentrations in the world; contained Cu-Ni resources are comparable to the deposits at Sudbury, Ontario and the platinum group element (PGE) resource is second only to that of the Bushveld Complex. Our opportunity to cooperatively sample and study this district in Siberian Russia arose in 1990 through a memorandum of understanding between the U.S. Geological Survey and the former Ministry of Geology of the U.S.S.R. The world-class significance of these deposits and the possibility that understanding their geologic context, including construction of a credible 'ore-deposit model,' will lead to discovery of similar deposits elsewhere, inspired extensive studies of the ores, the mafic-intrusions which host them, and associated flood basalts.

  17. Discovering Health Topics in Social Media Using Topic Models

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Michael J.; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r = .534) and obesity (r = −.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media. PMID:25084530

  18. Discovering health topics in social media using topic models.

    PubMed

    Paul, Michael J; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r =  .534) and obesity (r =  -.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media.

  19. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Dalhart NTMS quadrangle, New Mexico/Texas/Oklahoma, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.L.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 1583 water samples and 503 sediment samples were collected from 2028 locations within the 20 000-km/sup 2/ area of the quadrangle at an average density of one location per 9.86 km/sup 2/. Water samples were collected from wells, springs, and streams and were analyzed for uranium. Sediment samples were collected from streams and springs and were analyzed for uranium, thorium, and 41 additional elements. All field and analytical data are listed in the appendixes of this report. Discussion is limited to anomalous samples, which are considered to be those containing over 20 ppB uranium for waters and over 5 ppM uranium for sediments. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.2 ppB to 1457.65 ppB and average 7.41 ppB. Most of the seventy anomalous water samples (4.4% of all water samples) are grouped spatially into five clusters or areas of interest. Samples in three of the clusters were collected along the north edge of the quadrangle where Mesozoic strata are exposed. The other two clusters are from the central and southern portions where the Quaternary Ogallala formation is exposed. Sediment samples from the quadrangle have uranium concentrations that range from 0.90 ppM to 27.20 ppM and average 3.27 ppM. Fourteen samples (2.8% of all sediment samples) contain over 5 ppM uranium and are considered anomalous. The five samples with the highest concentrations occur where downcutting streams expose Cretaceous units beneath the Quaternary surficial deposits. The remaining anomalous sediment samples were collected from scattered locations and do not indicate any single formation or unit as a potential source for the anomalous concentrations.

  20. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Elk City NTMS Quadrangle, Idaho/Montana, including concentrations of forty-five additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Broxton, D.E.; Beyth, M.

    1980-07-01

    Totals of 1580 water and 1720 sediment samples were collected from 1754 locations in the quadrangle. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters in Appendix I-A and for sediments in Appendix I-B. Uranium/thorium ratios for sediment samples are also included in Appendix I-B. All elemental analyses were performed at the LASL. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 parts per billion (ppB) uranium were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting (DNC). A supplemental report containing the multielement analyses of water samples will be open filed in the near future. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, niobium, potassium, rubidium, samarium, selenium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, zinc, and zirconium. Basic statistics for 40 of these elements are presented. All sediments were analyzed for uranium by delayed-neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron-activation analysis for 30 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 12 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results for sediments are reported as parts per million.

  1. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Lewistown NTMS Quadrangle, Montana, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 758 water and 1170 sediment samples were collected from 1649 locations in the Levistown quadrangle. Water samples were collected at streams, springs, wells, ponds, and marshes; sediment samples were obtained from streams, springs, and ponds. Histograms and statistical data for uranium concentrations in water and sediment samples and thorium concentrations in sediment samples are given. All samples were collected at the nominal reconnaissance density of one sample location per 10 km/sup 2/. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters and for sediments. Uranium to thorium (U/Th) ratios for sediment samples are included. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 ppB U were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting. Sediments were analyzed for U and Th as well as Al, Sb, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ca, Ce, Cs, Cl, Cr, Co, Cu, Dy, Eu, Au, Hf, Fe, La, Pb, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Nb, K, Rb, Sa, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, Ta, Tb, Sn, Ti, W, V, Yb, and Zn. All sediments were analyzed for U by delayed neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron activation analysis for 31 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 9 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results are reported as parts per million. Descriptions of procedures used for analysis of water and sediments samples as well as analytical precisions and detection limits are given.

  2. PA Discussion Topics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-04

    Vehicle Power & Mobility PA Discussion Topics UNCLASSIFIED: Dist A. Approved for public releas Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions...Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports , 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302

  3. Topical delivery of hexamidine.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Nicola; Paz-Alvarez, Miguel; Matts, Paul J; Lever, Rebecca; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

    2016-06-15

    Hexamidine diisethionate (HEX D) has been used for its biocidal actions in topical preparations since the 1950s. Recent data also suggest that it plays a beneficial role in skin homeostasis. To date, the extent to which this compound penetrates the epidermis has not been reported nor how its topical delivery may be modulated. In the present work we set out to characterise the interaction of HEX D with the skin and to develop a range of simple formulations for topical targeting of the active. A further objective was to compare the skin penetration of HEX D with its corresponding dihydrochloride salt (HEX H) as the latter has more favourable physicochemical properties for skin uptake. Candidate vehicles were evaluated by in vitro Franz cell permeation studies using porcine skin. Initially, neat solvents were investigated and subsequently binary systems were examined. The solvents and chemical penetration enhancers investigated included glycerol, dimethyl isosorbide (DMI), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), 1,2-pentanol (1,2-PENT), polyethylene glycol (PEG) 200, propylene glycol (PG), propylene glycol monolaurate (PGML) and Transcutol(®)P (TC). Of a total of 30 binary solvent systems evaluated only 10 delivered higher amounts of active into the skin compared with the neat solvents. In terms of topical efficacy, formulations containing PGML far surpassed all other solvents or binary combinations. More than 70% of HEX H was extracted from the skin following application in PG:PGML (50:50). Interestingly, the same vehicle effectively promoted skin penetration of HEX D but demonstrated significantly lower uptake into and through the skin (30%). The findings confirm the unpredictable nature of excipients on delivery of actives with reference to skin even where there are minor differences in molecular structures. We also believe that they underline the ongoing necessity for fundamental studies on the interaction of topical excipients with the skin.

  4. Bed Bug Clearinghouse by Topic

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This information is intended to help states, communities, and consumers prevent and control bed bug infestations. Topics include bed bug biology and behavior, detection and monitoring, non-chemical techniques such as heat treatment, and pesticides.

  5. Integrating ethical topics in a traditional computer science course

    SciTech Connect

    Winrich, L.B.

    1994-12-31

    It is never hard to find additional, often unconventional, topics which seem to beg inclusion in standard courses. A dynamic discipline like computer science usually provides a steady stream of new technical ideas to vie for time and attention with more traditional material. As difficult as it may be to keep standard CS courses up-to-date with technical innovations, it often seems even more difficult to include non-technical topics even when there is universal agreement on their importance, Inevitably the question of whether or not such inclusion will compromise the technical content of the course arises. This paper describes an attempt to include two such topics in a traditional course in data structures. The two topics are writing and ethics and, although the effort concentrates on the inclusion of ethical questions in a standard CS course, writing is the vehicle for accomplishing this goal. Furthermore, the inclusion writing in the CS curriculum is certainly recognized as a desirable outcome.

  6. New approaches to topical therapy.

    PubMed

    Smith, C H

    2000-10-01

    Despite the rapid and proven efficacy of topical corticosteroids, side-effects can limit their clinical usefulness. Topically active macrolide immunosuppressants such as ascomycin and tacrolimus appear to provide comparable therapeutic potency without significant local or adverse effects. Data from ongoing studies will be crucial in determining the safety of these agents in the long term, and also their place within the current therapeutic armamentarium available for patients with atopic dermatitis. Enzyme inhibitors of PLA(2) and PDE 4 currently in the very early stages of clinical development also show potential promise as additional alternative strategies to topical treatment and may perhaps act as steroid sparing agents. Having been in the therapeutic doldrums for years, topical management of atopic dermatitis is likely to show great changes in the very near future.

  7. Topics and Terms in Environmental Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holum, John R.

    This reference is an expanded glossary of topics and terms currently related to environmental problems. These topics and terms are associated with energy, air pollution, water pollution, wastes, and pesticides. Included are 239 main entries ranging from acaricide to weathering. Each entry briefly describes the topic or term and often presents a…

  8. Women's Health Topics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women's Health Topics Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... Print Take Time to Care about Your Health . Women often spend so much time helping others that ...

  9. Application of Nail Polish During Topical Management of Onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Del Rosso, James Q.

    2016-01-01

    Topical antifungal management of toenail onychomycosis has been fraught with several therapeutic challenges including difficulty gaining access to the site of infection and the need for prolonged durations of therapy. In addition, there has been a marked lack of information on the impact of toenail polish application on drug penetration after application. This article reviews available data from studies evaluating the effect of nail polish on antifungal drag penetration using ex vivo laboratory models with cadaver fingernail plates with both tavaborole 5% solution and efinaconazole 10% solution. In addition, changes in nail polish appearance and color transfer to applicators are also discussed, with changes noted with topical efinaconazole. Importantly, there are no data on whether or not nail polish application alters the efficacy of these topical agents. PMID:27672416

  10. TopicPanorama: A Full Picture of Relevant Topics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiting; Liu, Shixia; Liu, Junlin; Chen, Jianfei; Zhu, Jun; Guo, Baining

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a visual analytics approach to analyzing a full picture of relevant topics discussed in multiple sources, such as news, blogs, or micro-blogs. The full picture consists of a number of common topics covered by multiple sources, as well as distinctive topics from each source. Our approach models each textual corpus as a topic graph. These graphs are then matched using a consistent graph matching method. Next, we develop a level-of-detail (LOD) visualization that balances both readability and stability. Accordingly, the resulting visualization enhances the ability of users to understand and analyze the matched graph from multiple perspectives. By incorporating metric learning and feature selection into the graph matching algorithm, we allow users to interactively modify the graph matching result based on their information needs. We have applied our approach to various types of data, including news articles, tweets, and blog data. Quantitative evaluation and real-world case studies demonstrate the promise of our approach, especially in support of examining a topic-graph-based full picture at different levels of detail.

  11. Vocational Education Today: Topical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane, Ed.; Tregenza, Karen, Ed.; Watkins, Peter, Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers examining topical issues in vocational education and training (VET) in Victoria, Australia. The following papers are included: "Vocational Education and Schooling: The Changing Scene" (Jane Kenway, Sue Willis, Peter Watkins, Karen Tregenza); "The Enterprise Approach" (James Mulraney); "VET…

  12. Topical hemostatic agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Palm, Melanie D; Altman, Jeffrey S

    2008-04-01

    Topical hemostatic agents play an important role in both common and specialized dermatologic procedures. These agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action and include physical or mechanical agents, caustic agents, biologic physical agents, and physiologic agents. Some agents induce protein coagulation and precipitation resulting in occlusion of small cutaneous vessels, while others take advantage of latter stages in the coagulation cascade, activating biologic responses to bleeding. Traditional and newer topical hemostatic agents are discussed in this review, and the benefits and costs of each agent will be provided.

  13. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Propa pH® Peel-Off Acne Mask ... pimples and skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat ... medications called keratolytic agents. Topical salicylic acid treats acne by reducing swelling and redness and unplugging blocked ...

  14. Preface to Topical Issue: Recalibration of the Sunspot Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clette, F.; Cliver, E. W.; Lefèvre, L.; Svalgaard, L.; Vaquero, J. M.; Leibacher, J. W.

    2016-11-01

    This topical issue contains articles on the effort to recalibrat e the sunspot number (SN) that was initiated by the Sunspot Number Workshops. These workshops led to a revision of the Wolf sunspot number (WSN) and a new construction of the group sunspot number (GSN), both published herein. In addition, this topical issue includes three independently proposed alternative SN time series (two Wolf and one group), as well as articles providing historical context, critical assessments, correlative analyses, and observational data, both historical and modern, pertaining to the sunspot-number time series. The ongoing effort to understand and reconcile the differences between the various new sunspot number series is briefly discussed.

  15. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  16. Traditional Persian topical medications for gastrointestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tafti, Laleh Dehghani; Shariatpanahi, Seyyed Mahyar; Damghani, Mahmoud Mahdavi; Javadi, Behjat

    2017-01-01

    Drug delivery across the skin is used for several millennia to ease gastrointestinal (GI) ailments in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM). TPM topical remedies are generally being applied on the stomach, lower abdomen, lower back and liver to alleviate GI illnesses such as dyspepsia, gastritis, GI ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal worms and infections. The aim of the present study is to survey the topical GI remedies and plant species used as ingredients for these remedies in TPM. In addition, pharmacological activities of the mentioned plants have been discussed. For this, we searched major TPM textbooks to find plants used to cure GI problems in topical use. Additionally, scientific databases were searched to obtain pharmacological data supporting the use of TPM plants in GI diseases. Rosa × damascena, Pistacia lentiscus, Malus domestica, Olea europaea and Artemisia absinthium are among the most frequently mentioned ingredients of TPM remedies. β-asarone, amygdalin, boswellic acids, guggulsterone, crocin, crocetin, isomasticadienolic acid, and cyclotides are the most important phytochemicals present in TPM plants with GI-protective activities. Pharmacological studies demonstrated GI activities for TPM plants supporting their extensive traditional use. These plants play pivotal role in alleviating GI disorders through exhibiting numerous activities including antispasmodic, anti-ulcer, anti-secretory, anti-colitis, anti-diarrheal, antibacterial and anthelmintic properties. Several mechanisms underlie these activities including the alleviation of oxidative stress, exhibiting cytoprotective activity, down-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines, suppression of the cellular signaling pathways of inflammatory responses, improving re-epithelialization and angiogenesis, down-regulation of anti-angiogenic factors, blocking activity of acetylcholine, etc. PMID:28392893

  17. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    This topical issue of Physica Scripta collects selected peer-reviewed contributions based on invited and contributed talks and posters presented at the 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) which took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu, cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community of the workshop, we thank the referees for their careful reading and useful suggestions which helped to improve all of the submitted papers. A brief description of CEWQO The Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics is a series of conferences started informally in Budapest in 1992. Sometimes small events transform into important conferences, as in the case of CEWQO. Professor Jozsef Janszky, from the Research Institute of Solid State Physics and Optics, is the founder of this series. Margarita Man'ko obtained the following information from Jozsef Janszky during her visit to Budapest, within the framework of cooperation between the Russian and Hungarian Academies of Sciences in 2005. He organized a small workshop on quantum optics in Budapest in 1992 with John Klauder as a main speaker. Then, bearing in mind that a year before Janszky himself was invited by Vladimir Buzek to give a seminar on the same topic in Bratislava, he decided to assign the name 'Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics', considering the seminar in Bratislava to be the first workshop and the one in Budapest the second. The third formal workshop took place in Bratislava in 1993 organized by Vladimir Buzek, then in 1994 (Budapest, by Jozsef Janszky), 1995 and 1996 (Budmerice, Slovakia, by Vladimir Buzek), 1997 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 1999 (Olomouc, Czech Republic, by Zdenek Hradil), 2000 (Balatonfüred, Hungary, by Jozsef Janszky ), 2001 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 2002 (Szeged, Hungary, by Mihaly Benedict), 2003 (Rostock,Germany, by Werner Vogel and

  18. 'Hot Topics' in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    Three current topics in astrophysics are described here on the occasion of the joint meeting of the American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Astronomical Society (Jan. 7-11, 2001, San Diego, Calif.). Many equally exciting topics--ranging from the dozens of newly discovered planets of sunlike stars to evidence suggesting that the expansion of the universe is accelerating--could have been chosen. The topics discussed are: (1) the habitability of Mars, (2) black holes, galaxy bulges, and the X-ray background, and (3) the greatest explosions since the Big Bang.

  19. Hot topics in noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinson, Michael R.

    2003-10-01

    Our world continues to be a noisy place and the challenge to ``increase and diffuse knowledge of noise propagation, passive and active noise control, and the effects of noise'' remains. In the last several years, noise in the classroom has emerged as one of the hotter topics: Considerable progress has been made in the underpinning research, the formulation of recommendations, and the process of educating society on the social and personal impact of inadequate acoustical conditions in classrooms. The establishment of the ANSI S12.60-2002 standard for classroom acoustics was a milestone event. Noise in cities and the understanding of our soundscapes are subjects of ongoing significance. The development of standards and regulations is a continuing process, with urban community noise regulations, aviation noise, and the preservation of natural quiet in national parks being of current concern. New methods to reduce noise are under development and include passive and active methods of noise control, techniques for modeling the performance of noise barriers, and approaches for designing product sound quality.

  20. Topical agents for idiopathic distal colitis and proctitis.

    PubMed

    Lawrance, Ian Craig

    2011-01-01

    Rectally administered topical agents have demonstrated efficacy in the maintenance of distal colitis (DC) and proctitis and as they are rarely associated with significant blood drug levels, side effects are infrequent. The topical 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) suppositories and enemas target different regions of the distal colon and are effective for proctitis and DC, respectively. They demonstrate clinical results that are better than oral 5-ASAs and are preferred to topical steroids with better clinical, endoscopic and histological outcomes, without the risk of adrenal suppression. Disease resistant to topical agents, however, can be extremely difficult to manage. The addition of oral 5ASAs, steroids, immunosuppressants and the anti-tumor necrosis factor-α agents may be effective, but can result in significant side effects and not all patients will respond to the therapies. It is for these patients that new and novel therapies are required. Novel topical agents have been proposed for the management of resistant DC. These agents included butyrate, cyclosporine, and nicotine enemas, as well as tacrolimus suppositories, and tacrolimus, ecabet sodium, arsenic, lidocaine, bismuth, rebamipide and thromboxane enemas. While some of these agents appear to demonstrate impressive outcomes, the majority have only been examined in small open-labeled studies. There is thus a desperate need for more randomized double-blinded placebo controlled studies to investigate the clinical utility of these topical therapies. This review summarizes the efficacy of the established topical therapies, and explores the available data on the new and novel topical agents for the management of DC and proctitis.

  1. Refraction, including prisms.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, R L

    1991-02-01

    The literature in the past year on refraction is replete with several isolated but very important topics that have been of interest to strabismologists and refractionists for many decades. The refractive changes in scleral buckling procedures include an increase in axial length as well as an increase in myopia, as would be expected. Tinted lenses in dyslexia show little positive effect in the nonasthmatic patients in one study. The use of spectacles or bifocals as a way to control increase in myopia is refuted in another report. It has been shown that in accommodative esotropia not all patients will be able to escape the use of bifocals in the teenage years, even though surgery might be performed. The hope that disposable contact lenses would cut down on the instance of giant papillary conjunctivitis and keratitis has been given some credence, and the conventional theory that sclerosis alone is the cause of presbyopia is attacked. Also, gas permeable bifocal contact lenses are reviewed and the difficulties of correcting presbyopia by this method outlined. The practice of giving an aphakic less bifocal addition instead of a nonaphakic, based on the presumption of increased effective power, is challenged. In the review of prisms, the majority of articles concern prism adaption. The most significant report is that of the Prism Adaptation Study Research Group (Arch Ophthalmol 1990, 108:1248-1256), showing that acquired esotropia in particular has an increased incidence of stable and full corrections surgically in the prism adaptation group versus the control group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Poetry for Teaching Elementary Mathematics Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C., Ed.; Kagan, Jennifer, Ed.

    Sixty poems focusing on elementary mathematics topics such as matching, classification, sequencing, counting, addition, subtraction, place value, decimals, multiplication, division, fractions, estimation, probability, patterns, shapes, symmetry, triangles, circles, polygons, angles, Venn diagrams, bar graphs, money, time, and measurement, are…

  3. Topicalization: A Psycholinguistic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ruilin

    2001-01-01

    Explores topicalization in the Chinese-English translation classroom. Examines translation in language teaching, Advocates translation as a useful skill and discusses it as a means of mastering a foreign language--in this case, English. (Author/VWL)

  4. Topical hemostatic agents in otolaryngologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Acar, Baran; Babademez, Mehmet Ali; Karabulut, Hayriye

    2010-01-01

    Topical hemostatic agents are largely used to reduce blood loss during otolaryngologic surgery. These agents play an important role in both keeping the patient's hemodynamic equilibrium and allowing for a better view of the surgical field. These agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, and include physical or mechanical agents. Most complications of topical hemostatic agents are sustained because of the antigenic reaction of those products. This paper reviews traditional and newer topical hemostatic agents with regard to their chemical properties, their mechanisms of action, and the benefits and complications of topical agents.

  5. The treatment of rosacea with topical ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Ali, S T; Alinia, H; Feldman, S R

    2015-04-01

    The treatment of rosacea is challenging because several pathophysiologic processes may be involved, including neurovascular dysregulation and alterations in innate immune status. Demodex mites may play a role in the latter mechanism. Topical ivermectin is a new therapeutic modality which demonstrates antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory properties. This article reviews published evidence related to the efficacy and safety of topical ivermectin. PubMed was utilized to search for key words "topical ivermectin", "ivermectin cream" and "rosacea". Three clinical trials were found that studied topical ivermectin as a treatment option for rosacea. Ivermectin was effective, safe and well tolerated.

  6. Topical hemostatic agents for dermatologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Larson, P O

    1988-06-01

    Topical hemostatic agents are very helpful in attaining capillary and small vessel hemostasis in dermatologic surgery. The commonly used topical hemostatic agents, including oxidized cellulose, absorbable gelatin, and thrombin are reviewed, along with newer agents such as microfibrillar collagen, fibrin sealants, and acrylates. Agents best suited for certain situations are recommended.

  7. Some Teaching Topics from Space Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balding, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    Short notes on a variety of science topics provide information derived from space sciences that can be used to add interest and up-to-date data to science lessons. Topics are arranged alphabetically from Alpha particles to X-rays, and include some from each of the physical, earth, and biological sciences. (AL)

  8. The pharmacology of topical analgesics.

    PubMed

    Barkin, Robert L

    2013-07-01

    Pain management of patients continues to pose challenges to clinicians. Given the multiple dimensions of pain--whether acute or chronic, mild, moderate, or severe, nociceptive or neuropathic--a multimodal approach may be needed. Fortunately, clinicians have an array of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment choices; however, each modality must be chosen carefully, because some often used oral agents are associated with safety and tolerability issues that restrict their use in certain patients. In particular, orally administered nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, opioids, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants are known to cause systemic adverse effects in some patients. To address this problem, a number of topical therapies in various therapeutic classes have been developed to reduce systemic exposure and minimize the risks of patients developing adverse events. For example, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug formulations produce a site-specific effect (ie, cyclo-oxygenase inhibition) while decreasing the systemic exposure that may lead to undesired effects in patients. Similarly, derivatives of acetylsalicylic acid (ie, salicylates) are used in topical analgesic formulations that do not significantly enter the patient's systemic circulation. Salicylates, along with capsaicin, menthol, and camphor, compose the counterirritant class of topical analgesics, which produce analgesia by activating and then desensitizing epidermal nociceptors. Additionally, patches and creams that contain the local anesthetic lidocaine, alone or co-formulated with other local anesthetics, are also used to manage patients with select acute and chronic pain states. Perhaps the most common topical analgesic modality is the cautious application of cutaneous cold and heat. Such treatments may decrease pain not by reaching the target tissue through systemic distribution, but by acting more directly on the affected tissue. Despite the tolerability benefits associated with avoiding

  9. Topical analgesics for neuropathic pain: preclinical exploration, clinical validation, future development.

    PubMed

    Sawynok, J

    2014-04-01

    Topical analgesics applied locally to skin or to specialized compartments modify pain by actions on sensory nerve endings and/or adjacent cellular elements. With this approach, there are low systemic drug levels, good tolerability and few drug interactions, and combination with oral formulations is feasible. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the potential for topical analgesics to contribute to improved management of neuropathic pain. Mechanistic and preclinical studies indicate much potential for development of novel topical analgesics for neuropathic pain. In humans, two topical analgesics are approved for use in post-herpetic neuralgia (lidocaine 5% medicated plaster, capsaicin 8% patch), and there is evidence for efficacy in other neuropathic pain conditions. Comparative trials indicate similar efficacy between topical and oral analgesics. Not all individuals respond to topical analgesics, and there is interest in determining factors (patient factors, sensory characteristics) which might predict responsiveness to topical analgesics. There is a growing number of controlled trials and case reports of investigational agents (vasodilators, glutamate receptor antagonists, α2-adrenoreceptor agonists, antidepressants, centrally acting drugs), including combinations of several agents, indicating these produce pain relief in neuropathic pain. There is interest in compounding topical analgesics for neuropathic pain, but several challenges remain for this approach. Topical analgesics have the potential to be a valuable additional approach for the management of neuropathic pain.

  10. Social Media Sentiment Analysis and Topic Detection for Singapore English

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    sessions. Through these public discussions and dialogue sessions, a total of seven topics where categorized, and they include  Marriage and Parenthood ...Environment, Land Planning In order to prepare for our dataset and supervised topic detection, we identified six topics from the above topics...TOPIC DETECTION 1. Pre-processing of Data We first annotated the Facebook messages into these categories:  Marriage and Parenthood

  11. Assessment of topical versus oral ivermectin as a treatment for head lice.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hesham M; Abdel-Azim, Eman S; Abdel-Aziz, Rasha T

    2014-01-01

    Many medications are available for treatment of pediculosis capitis including ivermectin. Our aim is to compare the efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin in treatment of pediculosis capitis. Sixty-two patients with proved head lice infestation were included and divided into group I (31 patients; received single topical application of 1% ivermectin) and group II (31 patients; received single dose of oral ivermectin). Treatment was repeated after 1 week for nonresponders. At 1 week after treatment, the eradication rates and improvement of pruritus were significantly higher among patients who received topical than oral ivermectin. When a second treatment, topical or oral, was given to nonresponders, the cure rates of infestation and pruritus was 100% and 97% among patients treated with topical and oral ivermectin, respectively with no significant difference between the two groups. This study suggests that both topical and oral ivermectin demonstrate high efficacy and tolerability in treatment of pediculosis capitis. However, a single treatment with topical ivermectin provides significantly higher cure of infestation and faster relief of pruritus than oral ivermectin. In addition, whether topical or oral ivermectin is used to treat head lice, a second dose is required in some cases to ensure complete eradication.

  12. NAS Forums Focus on National Science Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A series of public meetings designed to focus on complex and persistent problems of national importance involving science has been launched. Topics such as drugs, energy, and natural disasters are included. (DF)

  13. Topics for Mathematics Clubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, LeRoy C., Ed.; Snyder, Henry D., Ed.

    The ten chapters in this booklet cover topics not ordinarily discussed in the classroom: Fibonacci sequences, projective geometry, groups, infinity and transfinite numbers, Pascal's Triangle, topology, experiments with natural numbers, non-Euclidean geometries, Boolean algebras, and the imaginary and the infinite in geometry. Each chapter is…

  14. Topical Research: Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  15. Transportation: Topic Paper E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    As one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, this paper reviews the issue of transportation services. In the area of urban mass transit, four relevant pieces of legislation and public transportation accessibility regulations are cited, and cost issues are explored. Paratransit systems,…

  16. Practical Topical Therapy in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Enta, Tom

    1982-01-01

    Topical therapy in dermatology is often perplexing to nondermatologists. They have been taught by several clinicians how to treat a dermatologic case and in addition have been besieged by drug company personnel and by colorful journal advertisements on the virtues of preparations which should readily clear any rash. All these approaches usually lead to a hit or miss result. This presentation discusses a simple approach to skin eruptions, basing the treatment on the stage of the disorder rather than on the cause. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:21286146

  17. Topical antioxidants in radiodermatitis: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Kodiyan, Joyson; Amber, Kyle T

    2015-09-01

    Radiation-induced skin toxicity is the most prevalent side effect of radiation therapy. Not only does it have a significant effect on patients' quality of life, but it also results in poor follow-up and early termination of radiotherapy treatment. Several skin care practices and topical applications have been studied in the field of radiodermatitis, including skin washing, topical steroids, and mechanical skin barriers. Aside from these methods, many patients turn to complementary and alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. Many of these alternative therapies are topically applied antioxidants. While the rationale behind the use of antioxidants in treating radiodermatitis is strong, clinical studies have been far less consistent. Even in large scale randomised controlled trials, findings have been limited by the inconsistent use of topical vehicles and placebos. In this article, the authors review the role of topical antioxidants to better help the practitioner navigate through different available skin directed antioxidants.

  18. Additional applications and related topics, chapter 4, part B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Satellite mounted microwave instruments and their use to measure surface pressure are investigated. Data cover instrument accuracy, atmospheric transmission, and meteorological parameter determinations.

  19. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Barthel, H Richard; Axford-Gatley, Robert A

    2010-11-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are mainstays of the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) but have dose- and age-related risks of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and renal adverse events (AEs). As a result, US and international guidelines recommend caution when prescribing oral NSAIDs, particularly in older patients and those with significant comorbidities. For OA of the hands and knees, topical NSAIDs provide efficacy similar to oral NSAIDs, with far less systemic distribution. Treatment-related cardiovascular, renal, and other serious AEs with topical NSAIDs have not been reported. At present, only 2 topical NSAIDs are approved in the United States for the treatment of OA: diclofenac sodium 1% gel for hand or knee OA and diclofenac sodium 1.5% in 45.5% dimethylsulfoxide solution for knee OA. Clinical trial data for these products have demonstrated efficacy superior to placebo or similar to oral diclofenac with AE profiles similar to placebo, except for application site reactions. In large double-blind trials, gastrointestinal AEs were infrequent and did not include ulcers, perforations, or bleeding. The purpose of this brief review is to examine the data from controlled double-blind trials evaluating the use of topical NSAIDs in patients with OA. Articles included were identified via a search of PubMed covering the period from January 1, 2005 through March 31, 2010. Reference lists from OA treatment guidelines and meta-analyses were reviewed for additional citations of importance.

  20. Acquisition Research Topics Catalog.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    expected to increase; if the weapon is models depend upon various types of being phased out, demand for the computational techniques to reach related EOQ...being able to identify these assets, we could Topic: Inventory Model Simulation establish inventory levels based upon Requirements specific product ...eseloresorce reuird fo th prducion management approaches and techniques to resources required for the production minimize loss and damage to Government and

  1. Measurement of $\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-07-07

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair (tt-bar) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e+e-+μ- and e±μ). Furthermore, the absolute and normalized differential cross sections for tt-bar production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential tt-barb and tt-barbb-bar cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. Finally, the data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading ordercalculation.

  2. Measurement of $$\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $$ production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at $$\\sqrt{s} =$$ 8 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-07-07

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair (tt-bar) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e+e-,μ+μ- and e±μ∓). Furthermore, the absolute and normalized differential cross sections for tt-bar production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential tt-barb and tt-barbb-bar cross sections are presented formore » the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. Finally, the data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading ordercalculation.« less

  3. Measurement of toverline{t} production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at √{s} = 8 {TeV}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Yonamine, R.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Júnior, W. L. Aldá; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; El Sawy, M.; El-Khateeb, E.; Elkafrawy, T.; Mohamed, A.; Salama, E.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.

    2016-07-01

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair ({t}{overline{t}}) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 {fb}^ {-1}. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e^+e^-, μ^+ μ^-, and e^{±} μ^{∓}). The absolute and normalized differential cross sections for {t}overline{t} production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential {t overline{t} b} and {t overline{t} b overline{b}} cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. The data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading order calculation.

  4. Drugs and related topics.

    PubMed

    Cereijo, Ines

    2006-01-01

    Drugs is a topic that was certainly an issue of discussion at this year's annual meeting. This Committee had the responsibility of organizing a half day symposium on "Pharmaceutical Authenticity and Safety" that took place September 12, 2005. This symposium aims at improving the critical points in the analytical pharmaceutical field related to traceability assessment, use of certified reference materials (CRMs), and proficiency testing implementation to get the highest quality of the obtained results. Recognized experts presented these topics. Also, other complementary subjects, such as the application of advanced analytical technologies to reach the authenticity and safety of the pharmaceutical drugs and drug products, their microbiological quality assessment, without disregarding an important topic such as sampling, was presented and discussed. The talks that were presented are the following: "Proficiency Testing as a Need in the Pharmaceutical Field," Arlene Fox (AOAC INTERNATIONAL, Gaithersburg, MD); "Implementation of Traceability in the Pharmaceutical Laboratory," Thomas Layloff, (Management Sciences for Health, Arlington, VA); "Harmonized Characteristics of Certified Reference Materials According to ISO Guides-Attractive also for Pharmaceutical Analysis," Hendrik Emons (Reference Materials, Unit Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Joint Research Centre European Commission, (Geel, Belgium); "Importance of LC/MS/MS for the Fingerprinting of Pharmaceutical Drugs," Paul A. Steinberg, (Thermo Electron Corp., Woodstock, GA); "Process Analytical Technology (PAT) as a Way for Better Manufacturing and Quality Assurance," John F. Kauffman (Division of Pharmaceutical Analysis, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (St. Louis, MO); "Stability Testing for the Safety Assessment of Pharmaceuticals," Marta Vidal (Boeringher Ingelheim Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina); "Validation of Microbiological Methods for Sterile and Nonsterile Pharmaceutical

  5. Health-related hot topic detection in online communities using text clustering.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingjie; Zhang, Pengzhu; Liu, Jingfang; Li, Jia; Deng, Shasha

    2013-01-01

    Recently, health-related social media services, especially online health communities, have rapidly emerged. Patients with various health conditions participate in online health communities to share their experiences and exchange healthcare knowledge. Exploring hot topics in online health communities helps us better understand patients' needs and interest in health-related knowledge. However, the statistical topic analysis employed in previous studies is becoming impractical for processing the rapidly increasing amount of online data. Automatic topic detection based on document clustering is an alternative approach for extracting health-related hot topics in online communities. In addition to the keyword-based features used in traditional text clustering, we integrate medical domain-specific features to represent the messages posted in online health communities. Three disease discussion boards, including boards devoted to lung cancer, breast cancer and diabetes, from an online health community are used to test the effectiveness of topic detection. Experiment results demonstrate that health-related hot topics primarily include symptoms, examinations, drugs, procedures and complications. Further analysis reveals that there also exist some significant differences among the hot topics discussed on different types of disease discussion boards.

  6. Topical Knowledge and Topical Interest Predictors of Listening Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Victoria Chou; Devine, Denise A.

    1983-01-01

    A study investigated whether preassessments of general and specific knowledge can predict children's listening comprehension. Topical knowledge, assessed by multiple-choice questions, did predict story comprehension; topical interest, however, did not correlate either with topical knowledge or comprehension. (Authors/PP)

  7. Chemistry {ampersand} Materials Science progress report summary of selected research and development topics, FY97

    SciTech Connect

    Newkirk, L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains summaries of research performed in the Chemistry and Materials Science division. Topics include Metals and Ceramics, High Explosives, Organic Synthesis, Instrument Development, and other topics.

  8. Topical Immunotherapy in Alopecia Areata

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurcharan; Lavanya, MS

    2010-01-01

    Alopecia Areata (AA) is a common non-scarring alopecia directed against the anagenic hair follicle. Various treatment modalities have been used for the treatment of severe AA. Topical immunotherapy is the best documented treatment so far for severe and refractory AA. Dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE), and diphencyprone (DPCP) are the contact allergens used for this purpose. DNCB has been found to be mutagenic by the Ames test and is largely replaced by DPCP and SADBE. DPCP and SADBE are both known to be non-mutagenic compounds and have comparable efficacy results and relapse rates. SADBE requires special solvents and additives to maintain its potency and is more expensive than the rest. DPCP has a response rate varying from 60% in severe Alopecia Areata to 17% in patients with alopecia totalis or universalis, and shows about 88 to 100% high response rate in patients with patchy Alopecia Areata. PMID:21188022

  9. Topical Index to Elementary Social Studies Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Roger, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography provides elementary and junior high teachers with a list of up-to-date social studies textbook materials. The texts are arranged topically according to 95 social studies categories and include works published from 1962 through 1974. Each annotation includes the text title, source of publication, subject matter…

  10. Hot Topics/New Initiatives | Drinking Water in New England ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    Information on Drinking Water in New England. Major Topics covered include: Conservation, Private Wells, Preventing Contamination, Drinking Water Sources, Consumer Confidence Reports, and Drinking Water Awards.

  11. Topics in statistical mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Elser, V.

    1984-05-01

    This thesis deals with four independent topics in statistical mechanics: (1) the dimer problem is solved exactly for a hexagonal lattice with general boundary using a known generating function from the theory of partitions. It is shown that the leading term in the entropy depends on the shape of the boundary; (2) continuum models of percolation and self-avoiding walks are introduced with the property that their series expansions are sums over linear graphs with intrinsic combinatorial weights and explicit dimension dependence; (3) a constrained SOS model is used to describe the edge of a simple cubic crystal. Low and high temperature results are derived as well as the detailed behavior near the crystal facet; (4) the microscopic model of the lambda-transition involving atomic permutation cycles is reexamined. In particular, a new derivation of the two-component field theory model of the critical behavior is presented. Results for a lattice model originally proposed by Kikuchi are extended with a high temperature series expansion and Monte Carlo simulation. 30 references.

  12. Safety of topical vancomycin powder in neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Kalil G.; Chen, H. Isaac; Lucas, Timothy H.

    2016-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) remain an important cause of morbidity following neurosurgical procedures despite the best medical practices. In addition, hospital infection rates are proposed as a metric for ranking hospitals safety profiles to guide medical consumerism. Recently, the use of topical vancomycin, defined as the application of vancomycin powder directly into the surgical wound, has been described in both cranial and spinal surgeries as a method to reduce SSIs. Early results are promising. Here, we provide a concise primer on the pharmacology, bacterial spectrum, history, and clinical indications of topical vancomycin for the practicing surgeon. PMID:28031984

  13. Nuclear Chemistry: Include It in Your Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwood, Charles H.; Sheline, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the topics that might be included in a nuclear chemistry section are explored. Offers radioactivity, closed shells in nuclei, energy of nuclear processes, nuclear reactions, and fission and fusion as topics of interest. Provided are ideas and examples for each. (MVL)

  14. Neutron transport simulation (selected topics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, P.

    2009-10-01

    Neutron transport simulation is usually performed for criticality, power distribution, activation, scattering, dosimetry and shielding problems, among others. During the last fifteen years, innovative technological applications have been proposed (Accelerator Driven Systems, Energy Amplifiers, Spallation Neutron Sources, etc.), involving the utilization of intermediate energies (hundreds of MeV) and high-intensity (tens of mA) proton accelerators impinging in targets of high Z elements. Additionally, the use of protons, neutrons and light ions for medical applications (hadrontherapy) impose requirements on neutron dosimetry-related quantities (such as kerma factors) for biologically relevant materials, in the energy range starting at several tens of MeV. Shielding and activation related problems associated to the operation of high-energy proton accelerators, emerging space-related applications and aircrew dosimetry-related topics are also fields of intense activity requiring as accurate as possible medium- and high-energy neutron (and other hadrons) transport simulation. These applications impose specific requirements on cross-section data for structural materials, targets, actinides and biologically relevant materials. Emerging nuclear energy systems and next generation nuclear reactors also impose requirements on accurate neutron transport calculations and on cross-section data needs for structural materials, coolants and nuclear fuel materials, aiming at improved safety and detailed thermal-hydraulics and radiation damage studies. In this review paper, the state-of-the-art in the computational tools and methodologies available to perform neutron transport simulation is presented. Proton- and neutron-induced cross-section data needs and requirements are discussed. Hot topics are pinpointed, prospective views are provided and future trends identified.

  15. {sup 13}C chemical shift anisotropies for carbonate ions in cement minerals and the use of {sup 13}C, {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR in studies of Portland cement including limestone additions

    SciTech Connect

    Sevelsted, Tine F.; Herfort, Duncan

    2013-10-15

    {sup 13}C isotropic chemical shifts and chemical shift anisotropy parameters have been determined for a number of inorganic carbonates relevant in cement chemistry from slow-speed {sup 13}C MAS or {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR spectra (9.4 T or 14.1 T) for {sup 13}C in natural abundance. The variation in the {sup 13}C chemical shift parameters is relatively small, raising some doubts that different carbonate species in Portland cement-based materials may not be sufficiently resolved in {sup 13}C MAS NMR spectra. However, it is shown that by combining {sup 13}C MAS and {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR carbonate anions in anhydrous and hydrated phases can be distinguished, thereby providing valuable information about the reactivity of limestone in cement blends. This is illustrated for three cement pastes prepared from an ordinary Portland cement, including 0, 16, and 25 wt.% limestone, and following the hydration for up to one year. For these blends {sup 29}Si MAS NMR reveals that the limestone filler accelerates the hydration for alite and also results in a smaller fraction of tetrahedrally coordinated Al incorporated in the C-S-H phase. The latter result is more clearly observed in {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra of the cement–limestone blends and suggests that dissolved aluminate species in the cement–limestone blends readily react with carbonate ions from the limestone filler, forming calcium monocarboaluminate hydrate. -- Highlights: •{sup 13}C chemical shift anisotropies for inorganic carbonates from {sup 13}C MAS NMR. •Narrow {sup 13}C NMR chemical shift range (163–171 ppm) for inorganic carbonates. •Anhydrous and hydrated carbonate species by {sup 13}C MAS and {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR. •Limestone accelerates the hydration for alite in Portland – limestone cements. •Limestone reduces the amount of aluminium incorporated in the C-S-H phase.

  16. Evaluating supervised topic models in the presence of OCR errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Daniel; Ringger, Eric; Seppi, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Supervised topic models are promising tools for text analytics that simultaneously model topical patterns in document collections and relationships between those topics and document metadata, such as timestamps. We examine empirically the effect of OCR noise on the ability of supervised topic models to produce high quality output through a series of experiments in which we evaluate three supervised topic models and a naive baseline on synthetic OCR data having various levels of degradation and on real OCR data from two different decades. The evaluation includes experiments with and without feature selection. Our results suggest that supervised topic models are no better, or at least not much better in terms of their robustness to OCR errors, than unsupervised topic models and that feature selection has the mixed result of improving topic quality while harming metadata prediction quality. For users of topic modeling methods on OCR data, supervised topic models do not yet solve the problem of finding better topics than the original unsupervised topic models.

  17. Ocular Safety of Topical Naltrexone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-09-1-0312 TITLE: Ocular Safety of Topical Naltrexone ...Topical Naltrexone 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0312 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Joseph W. Sassani, M.D.; Ian...associates have been funded to perform a Phase I Clinical Trial of Naltrexone dissolved in Vigamox® and applied topically as eye drops preliminary to a

  18. Special Operations Research Topics 2016

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    religious and cultural conflict? A6. Preventing, countering, and disrupting foreign fighter flow The steady state of foreign fighter flow ( FFF ) across...militants from the Middle East, North Africa, and Europe can access this region. The same is true of FFF across Southeast Asia and 5 A. Priority...Topics Previous years’ topics lists are available online at https://jsou.socom.mil. the relationship of VEOs with the FFF phenomenon. This research topic

  19. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Surveys the range of electronic calculators currently available and their capabilities. Prices range from $20.00 to $800.00, and functions performed range from the four arithmetic operations to complex operations such as the computation of standard deviation, vector addition, and programs with up to 100 steps. (MLH)

  20. A Study of Topic and Topic Change in Conversational Threads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    4 and = 6 (LDA Topics = 50). Vertical lines show identified topic transitions. Personally identifying terms are grayed out for privacy purposes...50). Personally identifying terms are grayed out for privacy purposes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 5.4...Matt, thank you for being a generous mentor and wonderful friend. To Marco Draeger, Jenny Tam , Jon Durham, and the rest of the NLP lab, thanks for

  1. Topicality 1 and Topicality 2: A Quest for True Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Clark D.; Vasilius, Janet M.

    The actual nature of topicality as it is presented in intercollegiate debate rounds has become so split that there are two different types of topicality. The first type (T1) is a "real" argument that is subjective, intentional, absolute, jurisdictional, pragmatic, and focuses on content and product. The second type (T2) is strategic,…

  2. Topics in Theoretical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Andrew; Schmaltz, Martin; Katz, Emmanuel; Rebbi, Claudio; Glashow, Sheldon; Brower, Richard; Pi, So-Young

    2016-09-30

    near Geneva, for a new particle sometimes called a W'. This evidence included certain unexpected by-products in collisions of protons at very high energy. While the evidence was not significant enough to claim a discovery, it was sufficiently intriguing that many particle theorists worked to construct explanations for this signal. Cohen and Schmaltz were able to determine that such explanations are highly constrained by previous experiments involving collisions of very energetic particles. Nevertheless they were able to construct a theory that adequately explains the LHC data and remain consistent with prior experiments. Their explanation predicts the existence of yet another new particle, called a Z', with a mass slightly greater than that of the W'. This additional particle, if it exists, should be seen as more data is collected from the LHC. Amusingly, there is one collision by-product that has already been seen by the CMS experiment at the LHC that supports the existence of this new particle; however, it is not unlikely that this single event is a so-called "background" event, that is a somewhat atypical by-product of a conventional Standard Model process. This theory for the anomalous LHC data will either be confirmed or excluded with further data-taking at the LHC. The ratio of the number of electrons produced in bottom quark decays over the number of muons produced has been measured at the LHC. This ratio is interesting because it can be predicted very precisely from a basic property of the Standard Model: lepton universality. If lepton universality is correct, the ratio of electrons to muons is predicted to be equal to 1. The first measurements of this ratio find a value different from 1 with a statistical significance of about 3 standard deviations. Schmaltz and collaborator proposed a new extension of the Standard Model which can explain the new data. In addition, Schmaltz and collaborators proposed several new measurements of ratios of decay rates which can

  3. Albanian Area Studies: Bibliography Arranged by Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This bibliography on Albanian area studies is a guide of reference material for the student of Albanian language and culture. The first section on area background includes topics on history, physical and economic geography, natural resources, communication, transportation, demography, public utilities, industry, and agriculture. The next sections…

  4. Selected topics from classical bacterial genetics.

    PubMed

    Raleigh, Elisabeth A; Elbing, Karen; Brent, Roger

    2002-08-01

    Current cloning technology exploits many facts learned from classical bacterial genetics. This unit covers those that are critical to understanding the techniques described in this book. Topics include antibiotics, the LAC operon, the F factor, nonsense suppressors, genetic markers, genotype and phenotype, DNA restriction, modification and methylation and recombination.

  5. Topics in millimeter wave technology. Volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Button, Kenneth John

    Topics dicussed include fin-line characteristics and circuits, millimeter-wave planar integrated-circuit filters, and H-plane millimeter-wave planar transmission lines and circuits. Attention is also given to modal power dynamics in multimode optical fibers and to a miniaturized monopulse assembly constructed in planar waveguide with multimode scalar horn feeds.

  6. Prevention of Disabilities: Topic Paper D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    As one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, this paper describes the major components of a comprehensive program to prevent disabilities, including programs to maximize health care, programs to maximize educational growth and sound psychological development, and programs for public…

  7. Sea Changes. Topics in Marine Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations designed to impart ocean science understanding to high school students. The principal theme of Changes in the Sea is presented in this particular…

  8. Teaching Difficult Topics with Primary Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2011-01-01

    "Difficult" or "challenging" topics to teach include racism, violence, genocide, bullying, gangs, abuse (physical, emotional, and substance), slavery, suffering, hatred, terrorism, war, disease, loss, addiction, and more. But by confronting them with students, in the safety of a classroom through thoughtfully constructed lessons (ones that take…

  9. Environmental Topics for Introductory Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Laurent

    1974-01-01

    Presents selected environmental references with comparatively detailed descriptions for the purpose of helping high school and college physics teachers in selecting materials for their course. The topics include thermal pollution, space heating and cooling, atmospheric temperature distribution, radiation balance of the earth, sound and noises, and…

  10. Erythema Dyschromicum Perstans: Response to Topical Tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Vikram K; Chauhan, Pushpinder S; Mehta, Karaninder S; Sharma, Anju Lath

    2015-01-01

    Background: Erythema dyschromicum perstans, a rare dermatosis of obscure etiopathogenesis and significant cosmetic morbidity, have no satisfactory treatment. Observations: Two patients with having characteristic asymptomatic and slowly progressive, slate-grey macular lesions with distinct red borders involving the face, neck, upper trunk and limbs were diagnosed clinicopathologically as erythema dyschromicum perstans. Both were treated successfully with topical tacrolimus 0.1% ointment. Conclusions: Overall, response to several therapeutic modalities including clofazimine and dapsone therapy is said to vary from complete failure to variable or inconsistent. Topical tarolimus provides an effective and safe alternative therapeutic option in erythema dyschromicum perstans. PMID:26538750

  11. Topical hemostatic agents in surgical practice.

    PubMed

    Emilia, Masci; Luca, Santoleri; Francesca, Belloni; Luca, Bottero; Paolo, Stefanini; Giuseppe, Faillace; Gianbattista, Bertani; Carmela, Montinaro; Luigi, Mancini; Mauro, Longoni

    2011-12-01

    Hemostasis is of critical importance in achieving a positive outcome in any surgical intervention. Different hemostatic methods can be employed and topical hemostatic agents are used in a wide variety of surgical settings. Procoagulation agents have different hemostatic properties and the choice of a specific one is determined by the type of surgical procedure and bleeding. Hemostatic treatments include fibrin sealants, microfibrillar collagen, gelatin hemostatic agents, oxidized regenerated cellulose and cyanoacrylates adhesives. Surgeons should be familiar with topical hemostatics to ensure an appropriate use. Our purpose is to illustrate the currently available agents, their mechanism of action and their effective applications, in order to ensure an optimal use in operating room.

  12. Topically applied vitamins and their cutaneous effects.

    PubMed

    Grammaticopoulos, George T; Furtunopoulos, Demetrios G; Zisova, Lilia G

    2004-01-01

    The number of cosmetic products which include vitamins as a constituent has increased three-fold since 1991. Vitamins are commonly used as ingredients of products designed to improve the appearance and health of the skin; for this reason the cutaneous benefits of such products are actively researched by dermatologists and chemists. The present study does a review of the action of topically applied vitamins for local use which improves the function of the skin. We specifically consider the biologic activity of topically applied vitamins, their stability and usefulness. Ways of stabilizing different kinds of vitamins, as well as their stability to oxygen, light, temperature, acids, and bases, are shown. The conclusion suggested by the review is that the efficiency of topically applied vitamins is dependent not only on their good stabilization and concentration but also on the clinical individual tests that can determine the best product for each particular patient.

  13. Topical Drug Delivery for Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jonathan; Lane, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis is a multifactorial disorder that may be heterogeneous in presentation and clinical course. While the introduction of endoscopic sinus surgery revolutionized surgical management and has led to significantly improved patient outcomes, medical therapy remains the foundation of long-term care of chronic rhinosinusitis, particularly in surgically recalcitrant cases. A variety of devices and pharmaceutical agents have been developed to apply topical medical therapy to the sinuses, taking advantage of the access provided by endoscopic surgery. The goal of topical therapy is to address the inflammation, infection, and mucociliary dysfunction that underlies the disease. Major factors that impact success include the patient’s sinus anatomy and the dynamics of the delivery device. Despite a growing number of topical treatment options, the evidence-based literature to support their use is limited. In this article, we comprehensively review current delivery methods and the available topical agents. We also discuss biotechnological advances that promise enhanced delivery in the future, and evolving pharmacotherapeutical compounds that may be added to rhinologist’s armamentarium. A complete understand of topical drug delivery is increasingly essential to the management of chronic rhinosinusitis when traditional forms of medical therapy and surgery have failed. PMID:23525506

  14. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Topic models like latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) provide a framework for analyzing large datasets where observations are collected into groups. Although topic modeling has been fruitfully applied to problems social science, biology, and computer vision, it has been most widely used to model datasets where documents are modeled as exchangeable…

  15. [Violence Prevention: A Topical Newsletter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourland, Eric

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue addresses the issue of violence prevention in American schools and is based on presentations and discussions at the Workgroup To Improve the Quality of Technical Assistance around the Topic of Violence Prevention held in Washington, D.C. on June 12-14, 1995. The newsletter reports on the following presentation topics:…

  16. Resources for Topics in Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This guide for conducting library research on topics in architecture or on the work of a particular architect presents suggestions for utilizing four categories of resources: books, dictionaries and encyclopedias, indexes, and a periodicals and series list (PASL). Two topics are researched as examples: the contemporary architect Richard Meier, and…

  17. Resources for Topics in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This guide for conducting library research on topics in art or the work of a particular artist presents suggestions for utilizing four categories of resources: books, dictionaries and encyclopedias, indexes, and a periodicals and serials list (PASL). Three topics are researched as examples: the contemporary artist and author Frank Stella, the…

  18. Working Topics for Students' Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marting, Janet

    Students enrolled in composition classes may provide the answer to the dilemma of coming up with a writing topic: work--the "four letter word." Most, if not all, students have already become part of the labor force. The theme of "work" is naturally successful because it centers around a topic students know well, something that…

  19. Topical Proparacaine and Episcleral Venous Pressure in the Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, David O.; Kiel, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of proparacaine-induced topical anesthesia on episcleral venous pressure (EVP). Methods In anesthetized rabbits (n = 11), EVP was measured with a servonull micropressure system, with glass pipettes with 2- to 3-μm tips used to cannulate episcleral veins. Additional measurements included arterial, intraocular, and orbital venous pressures obtained by direct cannulation, to assess the ocular pressure gradients, and carotid blood flow and heart rate, to verify preparation stability. The protocol entailed 5 to 10 minutes of stable baseline recording followed by topical application of proparacaine (0.5%, 10 μL) with continued measurements for another 5 to 15 minutes. Results Baseline EVP without topical anesthesia was 12.3 ± 1.1 mm Hg. EVP decreased significantly to 8.7 ± 0.9 mm Hg within minutes after application of proparacaine. A small decrease also occurred in intraocular pressure. All other measured variables were unchanged. Conclusions These results suggest that the episcleral circulation is under tonic neural control and that either an upstream resistance site is under tonic vasodilatory control or a downstream site is under vasoconstrictor control. PMID:19151377

  20. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  1. Language Arts Topics Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jane M.; And Others

    This document brings together six papers on language skills and language arts teaching of gifted students. "The State of the Art Issues in Language Study for High Ability Learners: Thinking about Language with Gifted Children" (Michael Clay Thompson) considers two areas traditionally included in discussions of language study--grammar and…

  2. Organic solvent topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  3. Topical Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    Topical medications have dramatically changed the treatment of rhinitis. While systemic treatment is often more potent, topical treatment has fewer side effects. However, topical preparations also have side effects which should be considered when treating rhinitis. Topical steroids are potent anti-inflammatories but may cause nasal bleeding; sodium cromoglycate improves allergic and general inflammation but is less potent than steroids. Topical decongestants are beneficial for short-term use when there is nasal obstruction or copious discharge, but can cause damage to nasal epithelium or atrophy and dryness of the nasal mucous membrane after years of use. Anticholinergic spray is effective when watery discharge predominates, and saline is helpful when there is nasal dryness. Treatment of associated conjunctivitis is also discussed. PMID:21286563

  4. The Topical Evolution: Free Ions, Orthomolecular Agents, Phytochemicals, and Insect-Produced Substances

    PubMed Central

    Conner-Kerr, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Significance: A variety of topical antiseptic substances have been used historically to treat open wounds with suspected tissue infection or that are slow to heal. However, the effectiveness of these substances in treating infected or recalcitrant wounds remains controversial. Recent Advances: Newly formulated topical antiseptics delivered through differing dressing technologies, such as ionic substances, hold the potential to limit the development of and treat antibiotic-resistant microbes in open wounds. Other topically delivered substances, such as insect-derived substances, orthomolecular agents, and phytochemicals, also present opportunities to optimize wound healing by decreasing tissue bioburden and facilitating the wound healing process. Critical Issues: Limited systemic perfusion of open wounds in individuals with certain diagnoses, such as peripheral arterial disease or necrotizing infection and the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant wound pathogens, suggests a continued role for topically applied antiseptic agents. Likewise, the failure of wounds to heal when treated with standard of care therapy opens the door to innovative treatment approaches that include the natural substances described in this article. Future Directions: Evidence for the use of select topical antiseptic agents from each of the aforementioned categories will be discussed in this article. Additional well-controlled clinical studies are needed to provide definitive recommendations for many of these topical agents. PMID:25126473

  5. Topics in Leptogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nardi, Enrico

    2007-06-19

    Baryogenesis via leptogenesis provides an appealing mechanism to explain the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe. Recent refinements in the understanding of the dynamics of leptogenesis include detailed studies of the effects of lepton flavor and of the role possibly played by the lepton asymmetries generated in the decays of the heavier singlet neutrinos N2,3. In this talk I present short a review of these recent developments in the theory of leptogenesis.

  6. Public understanding of geoscientific topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, Ute; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2014-05-01

    Geoscientific topics and their consequences for the society are becoming more and more important for our daily life. Natural hazards such as flood and storm or the consequences of the climate change are urgent tasks and great challenges we have to tackle. Cascading natural hazards or environmental risks, can't be evaluated as single events by one scientific discipline, they rather need the expertise of different experts. The same applies for slowly progressive processes such as the climate change and its different aftereffects. More than ever politicians, decision makers, but also the public are asking for comprehensive background information and data to discuss activity options and to develop sustainable solutions. The improvement of public knowledge about science, their assets and drawbacks, chances and risks is getting crucial. To paint a comprehensive picture of different factors, correlations and dependencies the pooling of expertise is required. Thus eight research centres of the research field "Earth and Environment" of the Helmholtz-Association, Germany's largest scientific research organisation are currently building up a knowledge platform. Scientists of different disciplines will provide background information and explain their latest findings in an understandable way. Infographics, maps and animations will be applied to simplify and interpret complicated facts and findings. In addition to the web presence target group-specific products and activities will be organized. To meet the expectations of the different stakeholders an intensive dialog is aspired: round table discussions, exhibitions in museums and public places, tweeds are envisaged. In the beginning the partners will concentrate on the topics "consequences of the climate change", "pollutant dispersion" and "natural hazards/meteorological extreme events". The project is called Earth System Knowledge Platform (ESKP) coordinated by the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) and the Helmholtz

  7. A heuristic approach to determine an appropriate number of topics in topic modeling

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Topic modelling is an active research field in machine learning. While mainly used to build models from unstructured textual data, it offers an effective means of data mining where samples represent documents, and different biological endpoints or omics data represent words. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) is the most commonly used topic modelling method across a wide number of technical fields. However, model development can be arduous and tedious, and requires burdensome and systematic sensitivity studies in order to find the best set of model parameters. Often, time-consuming subjective evaluations are needed to compare models. Currently, research has yielded no easy way to choose the proper number of topics in a model beyond a major iterative approach. Methods and results Based on analysis of variation of statistical perplexity during topic modelling, a heuristic approach is proposed in this study to estimate the most appropriate number of topics. Specifically, the rate of perplexity change (RPC) as a function of numbers of topics is proposed as a suitable selector. We test the stability and effectiveness of the proposed method for three markedly different types of grounded-truth datasets: Salmonella next generation sequencing, pharmacological side effects, and textual abstracts on computational biology and bioinformatics (TCBB) from PubMed. Conclusion The proposed RPC-based method is demonstrated to choose the best number of topics in three numerical experiments of widely different data types, and for databases of very different sizes. The work required was markedly less arduous than if full systematic sensitivity studies had been carried out with number of topics as a parameter. We understand that additional investigation is needed to substantiate the method's theoretical basis, and to establish its generalizability in terms of dataset characteristics. PMID:26424364

  8. Topics in pediatric dermatology.

    PubMed

    Nagle, Terry

    2006-05-01

    Skin conditions of puppies and kittens are often infectious, such as ectoparasites or dermatophytosis. Hereditary and congenital skin problems are often detected at an early age. Young animals may be more prone to toxicity from medications, and labels should be read carefully for age limits. Husbandry factors, including nutrition, ectoparasites,temperature and humidity, cleaning products, and bedding, should be considered. Fleas are still a common problem despite recent improvements in flea control and can be debilitating in young animals because of blood loss.

  9. Overlapping meta-analyses on the same topic: survey of published studies

    PubMed Central

    Siontis, Konstantinos C; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess how common it is to have multiple overlapping meta-analyses of randomized trials published on the same topic. Design Survey of published meta-analyses. Data sources PubMed. Study selection and methods Meta-analyses published in 2010 were identified, and 5% of them were randomly selected. We further selected those that included randomized trials and examined effectiveness of any medical intervention. For eligible meta-analyses, we searched for other meta-analyses on the same topic (covering the same comparisons, indications/settings, and outcomes or overlapping subsets of them) published until February 2013. Results Of 73 eligible meta-analyses published in 2010, 49 (67%) had at least one other overlapping meta-analysis (median two meta-analyses per topic, interquartile range 1-4, maximum 13). In 17 topics at least one author was involved in at least two of the overlapping meta-analyses. No characteristics of the index meta-analyses were associated with the potential for overlapping meta-analyses. Among pairs of overlapping meta-analyses in 20 randomly selected topics, 13 of the more recent meta-analyses did not include any additional outcomes. In three of the four topics with eight or more published meta-analyses, many meta-analyses examined only a subset of the eligible interventions or indications/settings covered by the index meta-analysis. Conversely, for statins in the prevention of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery, 11 meta-analyses were published with similar eligibility criteria for interventions and setting: there was still variability on which studies were included, but the results were always similar or even identical across meta-analyses. Conclusions While some independent replication of meta-analyses by different teams is possibly useful, the overall picture suggests that there is a waste of efforts with many topics covered by multiple overlapping meta-analyses. PMID:23873947

  10. Mental mechanisms for topics identification.

    PubMed

    Massey, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Topics identification (TI) is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM). We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM) to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly.

  11. Topic Model for Graph Mining.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Junyu; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan; Luo, Xiangfeng

    2015-12-01

    Graph mining has been a popular research area because of its numerous application scenarios. Many unstructured and structured data can be represented as graphs, such as, documents, chemical molecular structures, and images. However, an issue in relation to current research on graphs is that they cannot adequately discover the topics hidden in graph-structured data which can be beneficial for both the unsupervised learning and supervised learning of the graphs. Although topic models have proved to be very successful in discovering latent topics, the standard topic models cannot be directly applied to graph-structured data due to the "bag-of-word" assumption. In this paper, an innovative graph topic model (GTM) is proposed to address this issue, which uses Bernoulli distributions to model the edges between nodes in a graph. It can, therefore, make the edges in a graph contribute to latent topic discovery and further improve the accuracy of the supervised and unsupervised learning of graphs. The experimental results on two different types of graph datasets show that the proposed GTM outperforms the latent Dirichlet allocation on classification by using the unveiled topics of these two models to represent graphs.

  12. The future of topical analgesics.

    PubMed

    Arnstein, Paul M

    2013-07-01

    Topically applied analgesic therapies have been used throughout history to treat a variety of patient conditions that present with pain. Before modem pharmaceuticals became readily available, mud-based emollients, salves, cold therapies, and other natural remedies were often used. Now we have effective therapies and are developing advanced topical analgesics as we learn more about the physiology and pathophysiology of pain. The use of topical analgesics may be associated with fewer patient systemic side effects than are seen with oral, parenteral, or transdermally administered agents, making the topical route of administration attractive to prescribers and patients. With further refinement of existing drugs and the development of novel agents, topical analgesics may offer relief for treating patient pain conditions that are currently challenging to treat, such as pain resulting from burns, wound debridement, and pressure ulcers. Recognizing the value of a multimodal approach, topical analgesics may offer a therapeutic option that can become part of a comprehensive treatment plan for the patient. With continued advancements in targeted drug-delivery systems, topical analgesics may be able to provide a method to prevent or reverse the phenomena of peripheral and central sensitization, or the neuroplastic changes believed to be responsible for the transition from acute to chronic pain states in patients. For those patients at risk for developing chronic pain states, such as complex regional pain syndrome, the combination of cutaneous stimulation (achieved through rubbing during application) and analgesic effects produced by the drug itself may prevent the disabling pain that often emerges during the subacute phase of disease. In summary, better utilization of currently available topical analgesics and continued research promise to ensure that topical analgesics are, and will continue to be, important tools in the treatment of patients with resistant pain.

  13. CDF hot topics

    SciTech Connect

    Tonelli, Diego

    2006-05-01

    After an introduction on the peculiarities of flavor-physics measurements at a hadron collider, and on the upgraded Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF II), I show recent results on two-body B{sup 0} and B{sub s}{sup 0} decays into charged, pseudo-scalar, charmless mesons or into muons, to illustrate how the .avor physics program at CDF is competitive with (in B{sup 0} decays) and complementary (in B{sub s}{sup 0} decays) to B-factories. Results shown include the new measurement of the CP-violating asymmetry in B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays, the first measurement of the time-evolution of B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} decays, and the world best limits on the decay rates of rare B{sub (s)}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} modes.

  14. Safety and Health Topics: Asbestos

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Asbestos Asbestos This page requires that javascript be enabled for ... Hazards and Toxic Substances Hazardous Waste What is asbestos? Asbestos is the name given to a group ...

  15. Conversational topics in transsexual persons.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Cayzeele, Miet; Heirman, Eva; T'sjoen, Guy

    2014-06-01

    Abstract In general, speech language therapy for transsexual persons focuses on pitch and pitch variation and more recently also on resonance. Other communicative aspects are dealt with far less often, especially language. This study investigated to what extent conversational topics might need attention in therapy for transsexual persons. A total of 111 males, 116 females, 28 male-to-female and 18 female-to-male transsexuals were asked to indicate on a list with 34 topics how often they speak about each topic (never, sometimes, often) in conversations with males, with females and in a gender mixed group. Results showed that transsexual persons behave in accordance with the desired gender. However, they also tend to adopt a position depending on the gender of their conversational partner. It can be concluded that in general it is not necessary to pay attention to conversational topics in therapy for transsexual persons.

  16. Hierarchical Theme and Topic Modeling.

    PubMed

    Chien, Jen-Tzung

    2016-03-01

    Considering the hierarchical data groupings in text corpus, e.g., words, sentences, and documents, we conduct the structural learning and infer the latent themes and topics for sentences and words from a collection of documents, respectively. The relation between themes and topics under different data groupings is explored through an unsupervised procedure without limiting the number of clusters. A tree stick-breaking process is presented to draw theme proportions for different sentences. We build a hierarchical theme and topic model, which flexibly represents the heterogeneous documents using Bayesian nonparametrics. Thematic sentences and topical words are extracted. In the experiments, the proposed method is evaluated to be effective to build semantic tree structure for sentences and the corresponding words. The superiority of using tree model for selection of expressive sentences for document summarization is illustrated.

  17. ADHD Diet: Do Food Additives Cause Hyperactivity?

    MedlinePlus

    ... There's no solid evidence that food additives cause attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the topic of food additives and their possible effects is controversial. Some studies indicate that certain food ...

  18. Special Operations Research Topics 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    overcome the crisis culture? Is the USSOCOM crisis management style driven by the direct action door kickers at the expense of thinkers? Could Sun...themselves lecturing in JSOU classrooms . This gives our students the unique opportunity to experience first-hand the author’s perspectives on their...Priority Topics Topic Titles A1. No time to think: Crisis management culture in SOF is inhibiting strategic thought A2. SOF in under-governed spaces

  19. Continuous Time Dynamic Topic Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-20

    called topics, can be used to explain the observed collection. LDA is a probabilistic extension of latent semantic indexing (LSI) [5] and probabilistic... latent semantic indexing (pLSI) [11]. Owing to its formal generative semantics, LDA has been extended and applied to authorship [19], email [15...Steyvers. Probabilistic topic models. In Latent Semantic Analysis: A Road to Meaning. 2006. [9] T. L. Griffiths and M. Steyvers. Finding scientific

  20. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    analyzing large datasets where observations are collected into groups. Although topic modeling has been fruitfully applied to problems social science...topic modeling has been fruitfully applied to problems social science, biology, and computer vision, it has been most widely used to model datasets... socialization , and I’m glad that it was a conduit for me to meet and get to know such great people as Leonard Kostovetsky, Guy David, Kunle Demuren

  1. The topical treatment of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    van de Kerkhof, P C M; Vissers, W H P M

    2003-01-01

    According to the patients, improvement of efficacy, long-term safety and improvement of compliance are needed. The topical treatment has been innovated during the last decade. Most important are the introduction of two new classes of treatments: topical vitamin D(3) analogues and the retinoid tazarotene. To what extent, however, have we achieved developments which are in line with the needs as expressed by the patients? Improved efficacy has been realized by successful combinations of topical treatments. In particular, the combinations of dithranol, vitamin D(3) and tazarotene with a topical corticosteroid proved to be very effective with a reduced profile of side-effects. The efficacy of vitamin D(3) analogues and tazarotene is such that the efficacy of a potent corticosteroid (betamethasone-17-valerate) is approached; calcipotriol even showed an efficacy which is at least as good as this corticosteroid. The long-term safety of new compounds has been evaluated for at least 12 months in large studies. Remarkably for corticosteroids such information is available for only 12 weeks. However, intermittent applications of a topical corticosteroid in combination with another topical treatment provide an effective and safe long-term control of psoriasis. Compliance is a conditio sine qua non for an effective topical treatment. Important progress has been made to increase compliance. Short-contact dithranol has been popularized as an ambulatory treatment which is a highly effective approach as a care instruction programme. Formulations which are better from a cosmetical point of view have been developed for various topical treatments. Reduction of the frequency of applications proved to be possible for most treatments. Once daily applications for corticosteroids, vitamin D(3) analogues and retinoids have been developed, and intermittent applications, a few times per week, are possible for corticosteroids, which proved to be very effective with a reduced profile of side

  2. Topics in theoretical astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao

    This thesis presents a study of various interesting problems in theoretical astrophysics, including gravitational wave astronomy, gamma ray bursts and cosmology. Chapters 2, 3 and 4 explore prospects for detecting gravitational waves from stellar-mass compact objects spiraling into intermediate-mass black holes with ground-based observatories. It is shown in chapter 2 that if the central body is not a BH but its metric is stationary, axisymmetric, reflection symmetric and asymptotically flat, then the waves will likely be triperiodic, as for a BH. Chapters 3 and 4 show that the evolutions of the waves' three fundamental frequencies and of the complex amplitudes of their spectral components encode (in principle) details of the central body's metric, the energy and angular momentum exchange between the central body and the orbit, and the time-evolving orbital elements. Chapter 5 studies a local readout method to enhance the low frequency sensitivity of detuned signal-recycling interferometers. We provide both the results of improvement in quantum noise and the implementation details in Advanced LIGO. Chapter 6 applies and generalizes causal Wiener filter to data analysis in macroscopic quantum mechanical experiments. With the causal Wiener filter method, we demonstrate that in theory we can put the test masses in the interferometer to its quantum mechanical ground states. Chapter 7 presents some analytical solutions for expanding fireballs, the common theoretical model for gamma ray bursts and soft gamma ray repeaters. We apply our results to SGR 1806-20 and rediscover the mismatch between the model and the afterglow observations. Chapter 8 discusses the reconstruction of the scalar-field potential of the dark energy. We advocate direct reconstruction of the scalar field potential as a way to minimize prior assumptions on the shape, and thus minimize the introduction of bias in the derived potential. Chapter 9 discusses gravitational lensing modifications to cosmic

  3. Topics in brane cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasanen, Syksy

    The thesis consists of three research papers and an introduction which provides background and also contains some new observations not included in the papers. In the thesis I consider certain questions in the new field of brane cosmology. The basic idea of brane cosmology is that the visible universe is a four- dimensional slice in higher-dimensional spacetime. I give a self-contained introduction to the field, starting from the Randall-Sundrum model and proceeding to the general case of brane gravity and cosmology in the case of one extra dimension. I emphasise the main result of studies of brane gravity: it is possible to obtain approximately four-dimensional gravity independent of the size of the extra dimension, in contrast to set-ups where the observers are not localised in the extra dimension. I proceed to examine a new and promising brave cosmology set-up, the ekpyrotic scenario, in detail. The ekpyrotic scenario aims to be a comprehensive model of the primordial universe and has been presented as an alternative to the prominent scenarios, inflation and pre-big bang. I give an overview of these three scenarios of the primordial universe. I then present the starting point of the ekpyrotic scenario and the construction of the four-dimensional effective theory. After briefly discussing the internal problems of the four-dimensional effective theory, I proceed to the far more serious problems of the four- dimensional construction itself. I conclude that the four-dimensional effective theory does not give a correct description even at a qualitative level. I then discuss some problems faced by the five-dimensional approach, and comment on the spin-off known as the “cyclic model of the universe”. I conclude that the ekpyrotic scenario is a welcome new idea but that most work done thus far is not solid. Careful analysis in the five-dimensional setting is needed to promote the scenario from an interesting concept to a working model with testable predictions.

  4. Comparative cost-effectiveness of ivermectin versus topical organophosphate in feedlot calves

    PubMed Central

    Bauck, Stewart W.; Jim, G. Kee; Guichon, P. Tim; Newcomb, Kathleen M.; Cox, James L.; Barrick, Ruth-Ann

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted in a commercial feedlot in western Canada to evaluate the impact of treatment with ivermectin versus a topical organophosphate on growth rate and feed efficiency in calves entering a feedlot at an average 275 kg liveweight. A total of 9527 head of cattle was used. Variables measured included average daily gain, average days occupation, and feed conversion. Ivermectin treated animals gained an average 0.08 kg per day more than those treated with topical organophosphate. In addition, they required an average 0.23 kg less feed/kg gain. Based on an average 227 kg of gain, this would result in 11 fewer days occupation and 52.3 kg less feed for ivermectin treated animals. This equaled a net benefit of $7.04 per head over treatment costs for ivermectin treatment versus topical organophosphate. PMID:17423237

  5. Topical Pimecrolimus 1% Cream in the Treatment of Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a multifactorial skin disease characterized by a chronic course with periods of exacerbation and remission. Although topical corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment, alternative therapies are often needed to avoid protracted use of topical corticosteroid therapy in order to avert side effects and to sustain control of the disorder. Topical pimecrolimus, a calcinuerin inhibitor, is a safe alternative for seborrheic dermatitis and is more ideal for long-term use. More specifically, topical pimecrolimus not only has an attractive safety profile with no risk of many of the potential side effects seen with topical corticosteroids, but also has favorable efficacy data, including more data on long-term use. This is a review of literature evaluating the efficacy and safety profile of topical pimecrolimus 1% cream for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. PMID:23441238

  6. Hot Topics on the Web: Strategies for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Karen R.; O'Hanlon, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    Presents strategies for researching topics on the Web that are controversial or current in nature. Discusses topic selection and overviews, including the use of online encyclopedias; search engines; finding laws and pending legislation; advocacy groups; proprietary databases; Web site evaluation; and the continuing usefulness of print materials.…

  7. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Thomas; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of topical NSAIDs to treat acute musculoskeletal conditions is widely accepted in some parts of the world, but not in others. Their main attraction is their potential to provide pain relief without associated systemic adverse events. Objectives To review the evidence from randomised, double-blind, controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of topically applied NSAIDs in acute pain. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and our own in-house database to December 2009. We sought unpublished studies by asking personal contacts and searching on-line clinical trial registers and manufacturers web sites. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, active or placebo (inert carrier)-controlled trials in which treatments were administered to adult patients with acute pain resulting from strains, sprains or sports or overuse-type injuries (twisted ankle, for instance). There had to be at least 10 participants in each treatment arm, with application of treatment at least once daily. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and validity, and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk and numbers needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Forty-seven studies were included; most compared topical NSAIDs in the form of a gel, spray, or cream with a similar placebo, with 3455 participants in the overall analysis of efficacy. For all topical NSAIDs combined, compared with placebo, the number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) for clinical success, equivalent to 50% pain relief, was 4.5 (3.9 to 5.3) for treatment periods of 6 to 14 days. Topical diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and piroxicam were of similar efficacy, but indomethacin and benzydamine were not significantly better than placebo. Local skin reactions were generally mild and transient, and did not differ from

  8. A European Perspective on Topical Ophthalmic Antibiotics: Current and Evolving Options

    PubMed Central

    Bremond-Gignac, D.; Chiambaretta, F.; Milazzo, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Eye infections can be vision-threatening and must be treated effectively by appropriate and safe use of topical ophthalmic anti-infectives. This review will essentially consider the current and evolving treatment options for the various types of bacterial eye infections. Ocular surface bacterial infections affect subjects of all ages with a high frequency in newborns and children. Methods This article presents a review of the peer-reviewed published scientific literature in order to define the well-established uses of anti-infective eye drops in the field of ocular infections. A comprehensive search of the recent published literature including topical ophthalmic anti-infectives effective in bacterial ocular infections was performed. Clinical studies provide relevant data concerning the characteristics and clinical efficacy of antibacterial eye drops in ocular anterior segment infections or for perioperative prophylaxis. Publications were included to cover the current options of antibacterial eye drops available in Europe. Results Several recent publications identified effective topical ocular antibacterials requiring a reduced dose regimen and a short treatment course. Additional literature reviewed included data on novel perioperative prophylaxis, indications for topical fortified antibiotics and innovative research including the risk of resistance. Conclusions Safe and effective topical antibiotic eye drops for the treatment and prevention of ocular infections must be adapted to the type of bacteria suspected. Usual topical antimicrobials should be replaced by more recent and more effective treatments. The use of highly effective fluoroquinolones should be reserved for the most severe cases to avoid resistance. Short treatment courses, such as azithromycin, can be easily used in children, thereby improving quality of life. PMID:23861622

  9. Some hot topics in animal bioacoustics.

    PubMed

    Au, W W

    1997-05-01

    This paper is derived from a "Hot Topics in Animal Bioacoustics" presentation at the 130th meeting of the Acoustical Society of America in St. Louis, Missouri. Six bioacoustics studies on a wide variety of species are discussed. Two of the studies are concerned with insects, the parasitoid fly, and cotton bollworms. The remaining bioacoustics studies are on aquatic animals including the West Indian manatee, elephant seals, and dolphins.

  10. Additional EIPC Study Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W; Gotham, Douglas J.; Luciani, Ralph L.

    2014-12-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 14 topics was developed for further analysis. This paper brings together the earlier interim reports of the first 13 topics plus one additional topic into a single final report.

  11. Selected topics of fluid mechanics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindsvater, Carl E.

    1958-01-01

    The fundamental equations of fluid mechanics are specific expressions of the principles of motion which are ascribed to Isaac Newton. Thus, the equations which form the framework of applied fluid mechanics or hydraulics are, in addition to the equation of continuity, the Newtonian equations of energy and momentum. These basic relationships are also the foundations of river hydraulics. The fundamental equations are developed in this report with sufficient rigor to support critical examinations of their applicability to most problems met by hydraulic engineers of the Water Resources Division of the United States Geological Survey. Physical concepts are emphasized, and mathematical procedures are the simplest consistent with the specific requirements of the derivations. In lieu of numerical examples, analogies, and alternative procedures, this treatment stresses a brief methodical exposition of the essential principles. An important objective of this report is to prepare the user to read the literature of the science. Thus, it begins With a basic vocabulary of technical symbols, terms, and concepts. Throughout, emphasis is placed on the language of modern fluid mechanics as it pertains to hydraulic engineering. The basic differential and integral equations of simple fluid motion are derived, and these equations are, in turn, used to describe the essential characteristics of hydrostatics and piezometry. The one-dimensional equations of continuity and motion are defined and are used to derive the general discharge equation. The flow net is described as a means of demonstrating significant characteristics of two-dimensional irrotational flow patterns. A typical flow net is examined in detail. The influence of fluid viscosity is described as an obstacle to the derivation of general, integral equations of motion. It is observed that the part played by viscosity is one which is usually dependent on experimental evaluation. It follows that the dimensionless ratios known as

  12. Proceedings of a Topical Meeting On Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects

    SciTech Connect

    1986-02-12

    These proceedings describe the workshop of the Topical Meeting on Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects. The projects covered include binary power plants, rotary separator, screw expander power plants, modular wellhead power plants, inflow turbines, and the EPRI hybrid power system. Active projects versus geothermal power projects were described. In addition, a simple approach to estimating effects of fluid deliverability on geothermal power cost is described starting on page 119. (DJE-2005)

  13. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  14. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  15. Interpretable Topic Features for Post-ICU Mortality Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yen-Fu; Rumshisky, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Electronic health records provide valuable resources for understanding the correlation between various diseases and mortality. The analysis of post-discharge mortality is critical for healthcare professionals to follow up potential causes of death after a patient is discharged from the hospital and give prompt treatment. Moreover, it may reduce the cost derived from readmissions and improve the quality of healthcare. Our work focused on post-discharge ICU mortality prediction. In addition to features derived from physiological measurements, we incorporated ICD-9-CM hierarchy into Bayesian topic model learning and extracted topic features from medical notes. We achieved highest AUCs of 0.835 and 0.829 for 30-day and 6-month post-discharge mortality prediction using baseline and topic proportions derived from Labeled-LDA. Moreover, our work emphasized the interpretability of topic features derived from topic model which may facilitates the understanding and investigation of the complexity between mortality and diseases. PMID:28269879

  16. Probability workshop to be better in probability topic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmat, Aszila; Ujang, Suriyati; Wahid, Sharifah Norhuda Syed

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether statistics anxiety and attitudes towards probability topic among students in higher education level have an effect on their performance. 62 fourth semester science students were given statistics anxiety questionnaires about their perception towards probability topic. Result indicated that students' performance in probability topic is not related to anxiety level, which means that the higher level in statistics anxiety will not cause lower score in probability topic performance. The study also revealed that motivated students gained from probability workshop ensure that their performance in probability topic shows a positive improvement compared before the workshop. In addition there exists a significance difference in students' performance between genders with better achievement among female students compared to male students. Thus, more initiatives in learning programs with different teaching approaches is needed to provide useful information in improving student learning outcome in higher learning institution.

  17. Topical therapies in hyperhidrosis care.

    PubMed

    Pariser, David M; Ballard, Angela

    2014-10-01

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis affects 3% of the US population; about the same number as psoriasis. More than half of these patients have primary focal axillary hyperhidrosis: sweating that is beyond what is anticipated or necessary for thermoregulation. Most topical therapies are based on aluminum salts, which work by a chemical reaction that forms plugs in the eccrine sweat ducts. Topical anticholinergics may also be used. Instruction on proper methods and timing of antiperspirants enhances effect and may be effective alone or in combination with other treatments in patients with hyperhidrosis.

  18. Topics in elementary particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiang

    The author of this thesis discusses two topics in elementary particle physics: n-ary algebras and their applications to M-theory (Part I), and functional evolution and Renormalization Group flows (Part II). In part I, Lie algebra is extended to four different n-ary algebraic structure: generalized Lie algebra, Filippov algebra, Nambu algebra and Nambu-Poisson tensor; though there are still many other n-ary algebras. A natural property of Generalized Lie algebras — the Bremner identity, is studied, and proved with a totally different method from its original version. We extend Bremner identity to n-bracket cases, where n is an arbitrary odd integer. Filippov algebras do not focus on associativity, and are defined by the Fundamental identity. We add associativity to Filippov algebras, and give examples of how to construct Filippov algebras from su(2), bosonic oscillator, Virasoro algebra. We try to include fermionic charges into the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebra, but the attempt fails because fermionic charges keep generating new charges that make the algebra not closed. We also study the Bremner identity restriction on Nambu algebras and Nambu-Poisson tensors. So far, the only example 3-algebra being used in physics is the BLG model with 3-algebra A4, describing two M2-branes interactions. Its extension with Nambu algebra, BLG-NB model, is believed to describe infinite M2-branes condensation. Also, there is another propose for M2-brane interactions, the ABJM model, which is constructed by ordinary Lie algebra. We compare the symmetry properties between them, and discuss the possible approaches to include these three models into a grand unification theory. In Part II, we give an approximate solution for Schroeder's equations, based on series and conjugation methods. We use the logistic map as an example, and demonstrate that this approximate

  19. Topical Atropine in the Control of Myopia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Donald; Tay, Su Ann; Loh, Kai-Lyn; Chia, Audrey

    Efforts to reduce myopia progression in childhood are driven by the increasing incidence of high myopia and its attendant health risks. Interventional approaches to reduce myopia progression in childhood have included the use of spectacles, contact lens, and pharmacological methods, of which the latter appear to be most promising. We review the use of topical atropine eye drops in the retardation of myopia progression in children and discuss the efficacy and safety profiles when used at different concentrations (1.0%, 0.5%, 0.1%, and 0.01%). Topical atropine reduces myopia progression and axial elongation in children in a dose-related manner, but a rebound phenomenon occurs with higher doses. Its use has been shown to be safe, but higher doses cause pupil dilation, loss of accommodation and near vision. Atropine 0.01% has the best therapeutic index, with clinically insignificant amounts of pupil dilation, near vision, and accommodation loss but remains as effective as higher doses.

  20. Conference on the topic: {open_quotes}Exploration and production of petroleum and gas from chalk reservoirs worldwide{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, V.G.

    1995-07-01

    More than 170 delegates from 14 countries in Europe, North America, Africa, and Asia took part in a conference on the topic: Exploration and Production of Petroleum and Gas from Chalk Reservoirs Worldwide. The conference was held in Copenhagen, Denmark in September,1994, and was a joint meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the European Association of Petroleum Geoscientists and Engineers (EAPG). In addition to the opening remarks, 25 oral and nine poster reports were presented. The topics included chalk deposits as reservoir rocks, the occurrence of chalk deposits worldwide, the North Sea oil and gas fields, and other related topics.

  1. Topics in Biomedical Optics: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebden, Jeremy C.; Boas, David A.; George, John S.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2003-06-01

    The field of biomedical optics is experiencing tremendous growth. Biomedical technologies contribute in the creation of devices used in healthcare of various specialties (ophthalmology, cardiology, anesthesiology, and immunology, etc.). Recent research in biomedical optics is discussed. Overviews of meetings held at the 2002 Optical Society of America Biomedical Topical Meetings are presented.

  2. Resources for Topics in Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riordan, Dale B.

    This guide is intended to help the user become familiar with a selected group of reference tools and resources which are useful in nursing education and practice. It is important for students to use the correct medical or scientific terminology, understand the scope of a topic, and then utilize the tools necessary to research subjects of interest.…

  3. INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES ON CONTROVERSIAL TOPICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUTTON, THOMAS B.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES WITH REGARD TO SELECTED CONTROVERSIAL TOPICS WHICH ARE FREQUENTLY THE FOCUS OF ADMINISTRATIVE CONCERN AND ACTION. THE STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO GAIN INFORMATION ABOUT THE NATURE AND PURPOSES OF THE POLICIES, THE FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES, AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ISSUES ON…

  4. Subject, Topic and Sesotho Passive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of Sesotho-speaking children's spontaneous language showed that the acquisition of passives was closely linked to the fact that Sesotho subjects must be discourse topics. It is suggested that a detailed analysis of how passive constructions interact with other components of a given linguistic system is critical for developing coherent and…

  5. Topical Knowledge and ESL Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Ling; Shi, Ling

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of topical knowledge on ESL (English as a Second Language) writing performance in the English Language Proficiency Index (LPI), a standardized English proficiency test used by many post-secondary institutions in western Canada. The participants were 50 students with different levels of English proficiency…

  6. The Health Curriculum: 500 Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Oliver E.

    2001-01-01

    This 1958 paper divides 500 health topics into 20 categories: health as a social accomplishment/social problem; nutrition; physical fitness; mental health and disease; heredity/eugenics; infection/immunity; chronic and degenerative disease; substance abuse; skin care; vision, hearing, and speech; dental health; safety; physical environment; health…

  7. Topics in optics and music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Andrew W.

    2012-10-01

    While the use of optics in the playback of music has been a tremendously successful technology and laser light shows are a common occurrence, other intersections of optics and music tend to be less well known. Topics such as optics-based instruments, performance tools and effects, instrument characterization and manufacturing, recording, playback, and signal processing are explored.

  8. Topical therapy for drug-resistant pyoderma in small animals.

    PubMed

    Jeffers, James G

    2013-01-01

    The appearance and increasing prevalence of methicillin-resistant and multidrug-resistant staphylococcal skin infections has necessitated a change in how those infections are treated. Topical antibacterial treatments have evolved from elective adjunctive therapy to a more essential part of the treatment plan. This article reviews the ingredients and vehicles available for aggressive topical antibacterial treatment and prevention of Staphylococcus skin infections. Additionally, the basic tenets of improving client compliance and product efficacy are outlined.

  9. Topical alprostadil cream for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Becher, Edgardo

    2004-03-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) has serious negative consequences on both sexual experience and emotional well being and affects a broad range of age groups. The prevalence of ED is associated with increasing age and has been reported to be as high as 70%. Although the disorder is common and underdiagnosed, its treatment can significantly improve patients' quality of life. Systemic treatment with oral phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors is the current standard of care for patients with ED. Some patients, however, have absolute contraindications for PDE-5 inhibitors. In addition, these agents can be associated with adverse effects. Furthermore, because PDE-5 inhibitors are not as effective in patients who have undergone radical prostatectomy or who have severe vascular disease, a substantial unmet medical need exists among patients who have ED as a result of these conditions. Consequently, PDE-5 inhibitor therapy is associated with a high rate of discontinuation, as are intracavernosal or transurethral therapies, which are inconvenient and invasive. Several studies, including four double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase II trials, show that alprostadil topical cream is efficacious and well-tolerated in ED in patients with mild-to-severe symptoms, in those undergoing treatment for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes and in otherwise healthy ED patients. Thus, alprostadil topical cream is a potential first-choice alternative for ED in patients who do not respond or who cannot tolerate or do not accept PDE-5 inhibitor therapy.

  10. Content patterns in topic-based overlapping communities.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Sebastián A; Muñoz, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the underlying community structure is an important challenge in social network analysis. Most state-of-the-art algorithms only consider structural properties to detect disjoint subcommunities and do not include the fact that people can belong to more than one community and also ignore the information contained in posts that users have made. To tackle this problem, we developed a novel methodology to detect overlapping subcommunities in online social networks and a method to analyze the content patterns for each subcommunities using topic models. This paper presents our main contribution, a hybrid algorithm which combines two different overlapping sub-community detection approaches: the first one considers the graph structure of the network (topology-based subcommunities detection approach) and the second one takes the textual information of the network nodes into consideration (topic-based subcommunities detection approach). Additionally we provide a method to analyze and compare the content generated. Tests on real-world virtual communities show that our algorithm outperforms other methods.

  11. Combining Chemistry and Music to Engage Student Interest: Using Songs to Accompany Selected Chemical Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Last, Arthur M.

    2009-01-01

    The use of recorded music to add interest to a variety of lecture topics is described. Topics include the periodic table, the formation of ionic compounds, thermodynamics, carbohydrates, nuclear chemistry, and qualitative analysis. (Contains 1 note.)

  12. Development of a topically active imiquimod formulation.

    PubMed

    Chollet, J L; Jozwiakowski, M J; Phares, K R; Reiter, M J; Roddy, P J; Schultz, H J; Ta, Q V; Tomai, M A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a topical formulation of imiquimod, a novel immune response modifier, to induce local cytokine production for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts. A pH-solubility profile and titration data were used to calculate a pKa of 7.3, indicative of a weak base. Solubility experiments were conducted to identify a solvent that dissolves imiquimod to achieve a 5% formulation concentration. Studies to select surfactants, preservatives, and viscosity-enhancing excipients to formulate an oil-in-water cream indicated that fatty acids were the preferred solvent for topical imiquimod formulations, and isostearic acid (ISA) was selected. A relationship existed between the fatty acid composition of four commercially available ISA sources and the solubility of imiquimod. A combination of polysorbate 60, sorbitan monostearate, and xanthan gum was used to produce a physically stable cream. The preservative system included parabens and benzyl alcohol to meet the USP criteria for preservative activity. An in vitro method was developed to demonstrate that imiquimod was released from the formulation. Topical application of the formulation induced local cytokine activity in mice.

  13. Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe O; Verbeek, Jos H; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Ojo, Olumuyiwa A; Bakhoya, Victor Nyange

    2015-01-01

    Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is distributed worldwide. It commonly affects the scalp, face and flexures of the body. Treatment options include antifungal drugs, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, keratolytic agents and phototherapy. Objectives To assess the effects of antifungal agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and scalp in adolescents and adults. A secondary objective is to assess whether the same interventions are effective in the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Search methods We searched the following databases up to December 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (from 1982). We also searched trials registries and checked the bibliographies of published studies for further trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of topical antifungals used for treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis in adolescents and adults, with primary outcome measures of complete clearance of symptoms and improved quality of life. Data collection and analysis Review author pairs independently assessed eligibility for inclusion, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We performed fixed-effect meta-analysis for studies with low statistical heterogeneity and used a random-effects model when heterogeneity was high. Main results We included 51 studies with 9052 participants. Of these, 45 trials assessed treatment outcomes at five weeks or less after commencement of treatment, and six trials assessed outcomes over a longer time frame. We believe that 24 trials had some form of conflict of interest, such as funding by pharmaceutical companies. Among the included studies were 12 ketoconazole trials (N = 3253), 11 ciclopirox trials (N = 3029), two lithium trials (N = 141

  14. 1st meeting on topical drug delivery to the nail.

    PubMed

    Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2007-07-01

    The first ever symposium dedicated solely to drug delivery to the nail following topical application was held on the 2nd April 2007, in London, UK, organised by Dr Clive Roper (Charles River Laboratories, Scotland) and Dr Sudaxshina Murdan (School of Pharmacy, University of London, UK), under the auspices of Skin Forum. The 1-day meeting was attended by approximately 35 delegates from industry, academia and hospitals, and provided a much-needed forum for the presentation and discussion of research and problems in this emerging field. Topical drug delivery is especially suitable for onychomycosis (fungal infections of the nail plate and/or nail bed) and nail psoriasis, which affect 2 - 13 and 1 - 3% of the general population, respectively, and make up the bulk of nail disorders. Topical therapy would avoid the adverse events and drug interactions of systemic antifungal agents and the pain of injection when antipsoriatic agents are injected into affected nail folds. However, successful topical therapy is extremely challenging due to the very low permeability of the nail plate. Five speakers spoke about various aspects of topical drug delivery to the nail, including review of the nail plate structure, function, diseases, their existing therapies (systemic and topical), limitations and global sales. The need for effective topical drug delivery to the nail to overcome the problems associated with present treatment, and the fact that there are few topical formulations available for the treatment of nail fungal infections and psoriasis, and the even fewer effective formulations, was highlighted.

  15. Topic Analysis Using a Finite Mixture Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hang; Yamanishi, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    Presents a single framework for conducting topic analysis that performs both topic identification and text segmentation. Key characteristics of the framework are: representing a topic by means of a cluster of words closely related to the topic; and employing a stochastic model, called a finite mixture model, to represent a word distribution within…

  16. Topical 0.005% tacrolimus eye drop for refractory vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Kheirkhah, A; Zavareh, M K; Farzbod, F; Mahbod, M; Behrouz, M J

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical 0.005% tacrolimus eye drop for treatment of refractory vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). Methods This prospective study included 20 eyes of 10 patients with refractory VKC, who had active symptomatic disease despite conventional medications including topical steroids. After discontinuing all other medications, patients were treated with topical 0.005% tacrolimus eye drop four times a day. Changes in subjective symptoms and objective signs after treatment were evaluated, and development of possible complications was assessed. Results Mean age of patients was 21.3±7.4 years and mean duration of VKC was 12.1±5.8 years. After starting tacrolimus eye drop, patients were followed for a mean duration of 10.7±3.7 months (range, 6–15 months). All symptoms including itching, redness, photosensitivity, foreign body sensation, and mucus discharge improved after the treatment; itching was the first symptom to show dramatic relief. In addition, there was improvement in objective signs including conjunctival hyperaemia, conjunctival papillary hypertrophy, giant papillae, limbal hypertrophy, corneal punctate epithelial erosions, and corneal pannus; conjunctival hyperaemia was the first sign to show improvement. No patient required addition of other medications including steroids for further relief. Any attempt to discontinue tacrolimus eye drop was associated with recurrence of patients' symptoms and signs, necessitating continued use of the medication during the entire follow-up time. No ocular complication related to tacrolimus was noted. Conclusion Topical 0.005% tacrolimus eye drop seemed to be a safe and effective treatment for steroid-resistant refractory VKC; however, long-term use was needed to control the disease. PMID:21475312

  17. Major research topics in combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hussaini, M.Y.; Kumar, A.; Voigt, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) and NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) hosted a workshop on October 2--4, 1989 to discuss some combustion problems of technological interest to LaRC and to foster interaction with the academic community in these research areas. The topics chosen for this purpose were flame structure, flame holding/extinction, chemical kinetics, turbulence-kinetics interaction, transition to detonation, and reacting free shear layers. This document contains the papers and edited versions of general discussions on these topics. The lead paper set the stage for the meeting by discussing the status and issues of supersonic combustion relevant to the scramjet engine. Experts were then called upon to review the current knowledge in the aforementioned areas, to focus on how this knowledge can be extended and applied to high-speed combustion, and to suggest future directions of research in these areas.

  18. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-07-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

  19. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects. PMID:23856680

  20. Special topics in infrared interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanel, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Topics in IR interferometry related to the development of a Michelson interferometer are treated. The selection and reading of the signal from the detector to the analog to digital converter is explained. The requirements for the Michelson interferometer advance speed are deduced. The effects of intensity modulation on the interferogram are discussed. Wavelength and intensity calibration of the interferometer are explained. Noise sources (Nyquist or Johnson noise, phonon noise), definitions of measuring methods of noise, and noise measurements are presented.

  1. Some Topics in Linear Estimation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    outstanding symposium. Iz SOME TOPICS IN LINEAR ESTIMATION 309 TABILE OF CONTENTS 1. The Integral Equations of Smoothing and Filtering la. The Smoothing ... Smoothing and Filtering 2. Some Examples - Stationary Processes 2a. Scalar Stationary Processes over Infinite Intervals 2b. Finite Intervals - The...Stationary 4. A Concluding Remark 310 T. KAILATH 1. The Integral Equations of Smoothing and Filtering Our estimation problems will be discussed in the context

  2. Topic Detection in Online Chat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    CMC Computer Mediated Communication SMS Short Message Service SNS Social Networking Service ASR Automatic Speech Recognition ASU Automatic...Mediated Communication (CMC). Forms of CMC such as chat, blogs, email, and Short Message Service (SMS) all permeate the daily lives of people nearly...Processing (NPL) techniques. Then, we explore how to leverage another mode of human communication to determine the topic in chat. We use a

  3. Hot topics from the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The Tevatron Run-II began in March 2001. To date, both the CDF and D0 experiments have collected 1 fb{sup -1} of data each. The results obtained from this data set were summarized at this conference in 39 parallel session presentations covering a wide range of topics. The author summarizes the most important of those results here and comments on some of the prospects for the future.

  4. TOPTRAC: Topical Trajectory Pattern Mining

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Younghoon; Han, Jiawei; Yuan, Cangzhou

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing use of GPS-enabled mobile phones, geo-tagging, which refers to adding GPS information to media such as micro-blogging messages or photos, has seen a surge in popularity recently. This enables us to not only browse information based on locations, but also discover patterns in the location-based behaviors of users. Many techniques have been developed to find the patterns of people's movements using GPS data, but latent topics in text messages posted with local contexts have not been utilized effectively. In this paper, we present a latent topic-based clustering algorithm to discover patterns in the trajectories of geo-tagged text messages. We propose a novel probabilistic model to capture the semantic regions where people post messages with a coherent topic as well as the patterns of movement between the semantic regions. Based on the model, we develop an efficient inference algorithm to calculate model parameters. By exploiting the estimated model, we next devise a clustering algorithm to find the significant movement patterns that appear frequently in data. Our experiments on real-life data sets show that the proposed algorithm finds diverse and interesting trajectory patterns and identifies the semantic regions in a finer granularity than the traditional geographical clustering methods. PMID:26709365

  5. Current topical and systemic therapies for itch.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Tabi Anika; Greaves, Malcolm W; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2015-01-01

    Itch is a common distressing symptom which may be caused by multifactorial aetiologies including inflammatory skin diseases, systemic diseases, neuropathic conditions and psychogenic disorders. Itch is a term used synonymously with pruritus and is defined as acute if it lasts less than 6 weeks or chronic if it persists for more than 6 weeks. It can have the same impact on the quality of life as chronic pain and shares many of the same pathophysiological pathways. Depending on the aetiology of the itch, different pathogenic mechanisms have been postulated with a number of mediators identified. These include histamine, leukotrienes, proteases, neuropeptides, cytokines and opioids, which may activate peripheral itch-mediating C-fibres via receptors on the nerve terminals and central neuronal pathways. Therefore, there is no single universally effective anti-itch treatment available. First-line treatments for itch include topical therapies, such as emollients, mild cleansers (low pH), topical anaesthetics, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors and coolants (menthol). Treatment with systemic therapies can vary according to the aetiology of the chronic itch. Non-sedating antihistamines are helpful in conditions such as urticaria where the itch is primarily histamine mediated. Although the itch of eczema is not mediated by histamine, sedating antihistamines at night are helpful to break the itch-scratch cycle. Chronic itch may also be treated with other systemic therapies, such as anticonvulsants, antidepressants as well as mu-opioid antagonists, kappa-opioid agonists and phototherapy, depending on the cause of the itch. This article summarises the topical and systemic therapies available with our current understanding of the pathophysiology of itch.

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW: Nucleosynthesis in classical nova explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José, Jordi; Hernanz, Margarita

    2007-12-01

    Classical novae are fascinating stellar explosions at the crossroads of stellar astrophysics, nuclear physics, and cosmochemistry. In this review, we briefly summarize 30 years of nucleosynthesis studies, with special emphasis on recent advances in nova theory (including multidimensional models) as well as on experimental efforts to reduce nuclear uncertainties affecting critical reaction rates. Among the topics that are covered, we outline the interplay between nova outbursts and the galactic chemical abundances, the synthesis of radioactive nuclei of interest for γ-ray astronomy, such as 7Li, 22Na or 26Al, and the potential discovery of presolar meteoritic grains likely condensed in nova shells.

  7. Selected topics in robotics for space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Raymond C. (Editor); Kaufman, Howard (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Papers and abstracts included represent both formal presentations and experimental demonstrations at the Workshop on Selected Topics in Robotics for Space Exploration which took place at NASA Langley Research Center, 17-18 March 1993. The workshop was cosponsored by the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Technical Committee of the NASA Langley Research Center and the Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration (CIRSSE) at RPI, Troy, NY. Participation was from industry, government, and other universities with close ties to either Langley Research Center or to CIRSSE. The presentations were very broad in scope with attention given to space assembly, space exploration, flexible structure control, and telerobotics.

  8. Preface to Special Topic: Marine Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, F. T.; Iglesias, G.; Santos, P. R.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2015-12-30

    Marine renewable energy (MRE) is generates from waves, currents, tides, and thermal resources in the ocean. MRE has been identified as a potential commercial-scale source of renewable energy. This special topic presents a compilation of works selected from the 3rd IAHR Europe Congress, held in Porto, Portugal, in 2014. It covers different subjects relevant to MRE, including resource assessment, marine energy sector policies, energy source comparisons based on levelized cost, proof-of-concept and new-technology development for wave and tidal energy exploitation, and assessment of possible inference between wave energy converters (WEC).

  9. Current Topics In STEM Education Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glembo, Tyler

    2015-04-01

    The role of the federal government in education is a hotly debated topic in Congress, causing education to become deeply embedded in politics. Federal funding of education, although covering only about ten percent of total cost, has large impact in the classroom, from testing standards to low interest student loans. This talk will examine the current landscape in physics education including issues facing the community at a national/federal level and also legislation such as the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. We will also examine how stakeholders can develop effective messages and participate in discussions with policy makers.

  10. A Review of Topical Diclofenac Use in Musculoskeletal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Bindu; Taylor-Gjevre, Regina

    2010-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly prescribed medications for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in humans and its prevalence rises with age. Oral NSAIDs have potential associated toxicities that must be monitored for and can limit the use of these drugs in certain populations including people of older age. Topical NSAIDs are now being recognized as an option for the treatment strategy of osteoarthritis. We review the efficacy and safety of one of the most common topical NSAIDS, topical diclofenac, for the treatment of osteoarthritis. PMID:27713334

  11. Role of topical peptides in preventing or treating aged skin.

    PubMed

    Gorouhi, F; Maibach, H I

    2009-10-01

    Ageing, a basic biological process seen in all living creatures, is not preventable. Surgical and topical modalities have been invented and substances were applied topically to alter the ageing process. Peptides and proteins, frequently used for this purpose, were categorized into four groups: signal peptides, enzyme-inhibitor peptides, neurotransmitter-inhibitor peptides and carrier peptides. We comprehensively review eligible studies -including controlled ex vivo or in vivo efficacy studies on any topical peptide or protein that has been administered to treat signs and symptoms of ageing.

  12. [Transducer hygiene -- an underrated topic?].

    PubMed

    Merz, E

    2005-02-01

    , whereby ample contact time must be allowed for the disinfecting agent. Coarse contamination of the transducer should be removed with disposable tissue. Above all, dried blood spots should be avoided. Intraoperatively used transducers (= critical medical products), which, for instance, come in contact with abdominal organs, are subject to applicable rules and regulation for cleaning and disinfection. Before each use, an adequately long sterile cover must be placed over the transducer and connecting cable. When the examination is completed, the cover is removed and discarded, and the transducer cleaned and disinfected. The applicability of a reusable medical product implies that each manufacturer is obligated to provide care instruction, including formulated instructions for cleaning and disinfection. This entails that each manufacturer of sonographic equipment must make available a detailed summary of the appropriate disinfectants suitable for the respective transducers. Customarily, recommendations for care and cleaning of the transducers can be found in the manual that comes with the sonographic unit. In the absence of such a manual, a written request should be sent to the manufacturer of the sonographic equipment. Sonographic equipment manufacturers and disinfectant producers prefer disinfecting agents for instruments that are based on glutaraldehyde, aldehydes and quaternary agents, mostly for reason of material compatibility rather than their anti-infective effectiveness. Most recommended disinfectants are not tested for antiviral properties, but this is obligatory when applied to transducers that enter a body cavity potentially harboring a virus load - regardless whether the work is done with protective cover . Further information about the topic "medical products" can be found in the guidelines for hospital hygiene and infection prevention published by the Robert Koch Institute (Section: Required Hygienic Standards for Medical Products ), the website of the Robert

  13. Miscellaneous Topics in Computer-Aided Drug Design: Synthetic Accessibility and GPU Computing, and Other Topics

    PubMed Central

    Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Mashimo, Tadaaki; Misoo, Kiyotaka; Wakabayashi, Yoshinori; Miyaki, Toshiaki; Ohta, Seiji; Nakamura, Mayu; Ikeda, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background Computer-aided drug design is still a state-of-the-art process in medicinal chemistry, and the main topics in this field have been extensively studied and well reviewed. These topics include compound databases, ligand-binding pocket prediction, protein-compound docking, virtual screening, target/off-target prediction, physical property prediction, molecular simulation and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) prediction. Message and Conclusion: However, there are also a number of secondary or miscellaneous topics that have been less well covered. For example, methods for synthesizing and predicting the synthetic accessibility (SA) of designed compounds are important in practical drug development, and hardware/software resources for performing the computations in computer-aided drug design are crucial. Cloud computing and general purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU) computing have been used in virtual screening and molecular dynamics simulations. Not surprisingly, there is a growing demand for computer systems which combine these resources. In the present review, we summarize and discuss these various topics of drug design. PMID:27075578

  14. Topical Resiquimod Protects against Visceral Infection with Leishmania infantum chagasi in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Craft, Noah; Birnbaum, Ron; Quanquin, Natalie; Erfe, Marie Crisel B.; Quant, Cara; Haskell, Jacquelyn

    2014-01-01

    New prevention and treatment strategies are needed for visceral leishmaniasis, particularly ones that can be deployed simply and inexpensively in areas where leishmaniasis is endemic. Synthetic molecules that activate Toll-like receptor 7 and 8 (TLR7/8) pathways have previously been demonstrated to enhance protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis. We initially sought to determine whether the TLR7/8-activating molecule resiquimod might serve as an effective vaccine adjuvant targeting visceral leishmaniasis caused by infection with Leishmania infantum chagasi. Resiquimod was topically applied to the skin of mice either prior to or after systemic infection with L. infantum chagasi, and parasite burdens were assessed. Surprisingly, topical resiquimod application alone, in the absence of vaccination, conferred robust resistance to mice against future intravenous challenge with virulent L. infantum chagasi. This protection against L. infantum chagasi infection persisted as long as 8 weeks after the final topical resiquimod treatment. In addition, in mice with existing infections, therapeutic treatment with topical resiquimod led to significantly lower visceral parasite loads. Resiquimod increased trafficking of leukocytes, including B cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, and granulocytes, in livers and spleens, which are the key target organs of visceralizing infection. We conclude that topical resiquimod leads to systemic immune modulation and confers durable protection against visceralizing L. infantum chagasi infection, in both prophylactic and therapeutic settings. These studies support continued studies of TLR-modulating agents to determine mechanisms of protection and also provide a rationale for translational development of a critically needed, novel class of topical, preventative, and therapeutic agents for these lethal infections. PMID:25030052

  15. Additional aspects of elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    An up-to-date review of the varying aspects of elastohydrodynamic lubrication is presented.. Some recent work on elastohydrodynamic lubrication of materials of low elastic modulus as well as on hydrodynamic lubrication is included. Both these topics are applicable for contacts with any ellipticity parameter (ranging from a circular contact to a line contact).

  16. Paleopalynology, 2nd edition; Topics in Geobiology Series, Volume 28

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajewski, Konrad

    2008-03-01

    Palynology, the study of pollen and spores, is a field of study pursued by at least three groups of people, who, as the author of this book notes, tend to have little contact among them. The first group consists of botanists interested in topics such as plant biology, evolution, or allergens (palynology in the strict sense). The other two groups include Quaternary paleoecologists interested in paleoecology and climate change, among other topics, and geologists interested in subjects such as stratigraphic correlation and evolution.

  17. Corneal Neurotoxicity Due to Topical Benzalkonium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Namavari, Abed; Ozturk, Okan; Chang, Jin-Hong; Yco, Lisette; Sonawane, Snehal; Khanolkar, Vishakha; Hallak, Joelle; Jain, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize the effect of topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on corneal nerves in vivo and in vitro. Methods. Thy1-YFP+ neurofluorescent mouse eyes were treated topically with vehicle or BAK (0.01% or 0.1%). Wide-field stereofluorescence microscopy was performed to sequentially image the treated corneas in vivo every week for 4 weeks, and changes in stromal nerve fiber density (NFD) and aqueous tear production were determined. Whole-mount immunofluorescence staining of corneas was performed with antibodies to axonopathy marker SMI-32. Western immunoblot analyses were performed on trigeminal ganglion and corneal lysates to determine abundance of proteins associated with neurotoxicity and regeneration. Compartmental culture of trigeminal ganglion neurons was performed in Campenot devices to determine whether BAK affects neurite outgrowth. Results. BAK-treated corneas exhibited significantly reduced NFD and aqueous tear production, and increased inflammatory cell infiltration and fluorescein staining at 1 week (P < 0.05). These changes were most significant after 0.1% BAK treatment. The extent of inflammatory cell infiltration in the cornea showed a significant negative correlation with NFD. Sequential in vivo imaging of corneas showed two forms of BAK-induced neurotoxicity: reversible neurotoxicity characterized by axonopathy and recovery, and irreversible neurotoxicity characterized by nerve degeneration and regeneration. Increased abundance of beta III tubulin in corneal lysates confirmed regeneration. A dose-related significant reduction in neurites occurred after BAK addition to compartmental cultures of dissociated trigeminal ganglion cells. Although both BAK doses (0.0001% and 0.001%) reduced nerve fiber length, the reduction was significantly more with the higher dose (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Topical application of BAK to the eye causes corneal neurotoxicity, inflammation, and reduced aqueous

  18. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  19. Earth Science Supplement to the Syllabus, Part 2, Topics 5-8, 1970 Edition. 1974 Reprint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This document contains investigation topics 5-8 in the earth science course developed by the University of the State of New York for secondary schools. Topics include energy in earth processes, insulation and the earth's surface, energy exchanges in the atmosphere, moisture and energy budgets, and environmental change. Each topic is preceded by…

  20. Incorporating Women and Crime Topics into Criminology Classes: Assignments, Exercises, and Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    Recommends a variety of books, assignments, exercises, and projects which can be incorporated into introductory criminology classes to compensate for the omission of topics on women and crime in textbooks and curricula. Includes a list of potential topics for writing assignments and a selection of films covering such topics as sexual harassment,…

  1. A Content Analysis Exploring Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Topics in Foundations of Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macgillivray, Ian K.; Jennings, Todd

    2008-01-01

    This research analyzed the most widely used foundations of education textbooks for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) content. Because foundations of education coursework routinely introduces other diversity topics in education, the authors hold it is a good place to introduce LGBT topics. The ways in which LGBT topics are included in…

  2. A Content Analysis of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Topics in Multicultural Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Todd; Macgillivray, Ian K.

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the treatment of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) topics in 12 popular multicultural education textbooks. Following a line-by-line analysis of each textbook, the findings report the extent to which LGBT topics were included in each text and the themes that became apparent in how LGBT topics were treated. The…

  3. Topical cidofovir for plantar warts.

    PubMed

    Padilla España, Laura; Del Boz, Javier; Fernández Morano, Teresa; Arenas Villafranca, Javier; de Troya Martín, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Plantar warts are a common reason for dermatological consultations and their treatment can occasionally be a challenge. Plantar warts are benign lesions produced by the human papillomavirus (HPV) that often fail to respond to habitual treatment. Cidofovir is a potent antiviral drug that acts competitively, inhibiting viral DNA polymerase. Our aim was to assess the efficacy and safety of cidofovir cream for the treatment of viral plantar warts. We undertook a retrospective observational study of patients with plantar warts who received treatment with topical cidofovir between July 2008 and July 2011 at the Dermatology Service of the Hospital Costa del Sol, Marbella, Spain. Data about the rate of treatment response, the adverse effects, and recurrences, as well as the characteristics of the patient cohort, were recorded. We identified 35 patients who had received some previous treatment. The usual concentration was 3% (in 33 of 35 cases), applied twice a day (in 31 of 35 cases). A greater or lesser response was noted in 28 cases. There were two recurrences. Topical cidofovir seems to be a useful alternative for the therapeutic management of recalcitrant plantar common warts that fail to respond to usual treatment.

  4. Classical Integrable Systems: Selected Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, A. M.

    In this paper two topics are considered: • Poisson structures and Hamiltonian systems. • Explicit integration of equations of motion for the Calogero-Sutherland and Toda systems. It must be said that a part of the material is well known to specialists in this field for a long time (see for example the book57). Even so, it may not always be easily accessible to nonspecialists. Within the limited space it was not possible to give a completely systematic exposition of these topics. Rather I tried to illustrate the main ideas on simple examples and in an as elementary and explicit way as possible. The examples considered here are therefore restricted to the systems related to the algebras An sun+1. For the case of arbitrary simple Lie algebra, we have only mentioned the results at best. Due to insufficient space many important results are omitted here. Nevertheless I hope that this paper may be useful and may serve as a guide, so that the interested reader may proceed to read original articles.

  5. Guidelines for topical photodynamic therapy: update.

    PubMed

    Morton, C A; McKenna, K E; Rhodes, L E

    2008-12-01

    Multicentre randomized controlled studies now demonstrate high efficacy of topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) for actinic keratoses, Bowen's disease (BD) and superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and efficacy in thin nodular BCC, while confirming the superiority of cosmetic outcome over standard therapies. Long-term follow-up studies are also now available, indicating that PDT has recurrence rates equivalent to other standard therapies in BD and superficial BCC, but with lower sustained efficacy than surgery in nodular BCC. In contrast, current evidence does not support the use of topical PDT for squamous cell carcinoma. PDT can reduce the number of new lesions developing in patients at high risk of skin cancer and may have a role as a preventive therapy. Case reports and small series attest to the potential of PDT in a wide range of inflammatory/infective dermatoses, although recent studies indicate insufficient evidence to support its use in psoriasis. There is an accumulating evidence base for the use of PDT in acne, while detailed study of an optimized protocol is still required. In addition to high-quality treatment site cosmesis, several studies observe improvements in aspects of photoageing. Management of treatment-related pain/discomfort is a challenge in a minority of patients, and the modality is otherwise well tolerated. Long-term studies provide reassurance over the safety of repeated use of PDT.

  6. The Modern U.S. High School Astronomy Course, Its Status and Makeup II: Additional Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumenaker, Larry

    2009-01-01

    A postal survey of high school astronomy teachers strongly confirms many results of an earlier electronic survey. Additional and new results include a measure of the level of inquiry (more structured inquiry and teacher-led) in the classroom as well as data showing that more emphasis is given to traditional topics than to contemporary astronomy…

  7. Selected Antimicrobial Activity of Topical Ophthalmic Anesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Margaret M.; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Patel, Robin; Pulido, Jose S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Endophthalmitis is a rare complication of intravitreal injection (IVI). It is recommended that povidone-iodine be the last agent applied before IVI. Patients have reported povidone-iodine application to be the most bothersome part of IVIs. Topical anesthetics have been demonstrated to have antibacterial effects. This study compared the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of topical anesthetic eye drops (proparacaine 0.5%, tetracaine 0.5%, lidocaine 2.0%) and the antiseptic, 5.0% povidone-iodine, against two organisms causing endophthalmitis after IVI. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentration values of topical anesthetics, povidone-iodine, preservative benzalkonium chloride (0.01%), and saline control were determined using five isolates of each Staphylococcus epidermidis and viridans group Streptococcus species (VGS). A broth microdilution technique was used with serial dilutions. Results Lidocaine (8.53 × 10−5mol/mL) had MICs of 4.27 to 8.53 × 10−5 mol/mL, and tetracaine (1.89 × 10−5 mol/mL) had MICs of 9.45 × 10−6 mol/mL for all isolates. Proparacaine (1.7 × 10−5 mol/mL) had MICs of 1.32 to 5.3 × 10−7 and 4.25 × 10−6 mol/mL for S. epidermidis and VGS, respectively). Benzalkonium chloride (3.52 × 10−7 mol/mL) had MICs of 1.86 × 10−9 to 1.1 × 10−8 and 4.40 × 10−8 mol/mL for S. epidermidis and VGS, respectively. Povidone-iodine (1.37 × 10−4 mol/mL) had MICs of 2.14 to 4.28 × 10−6 and 8.56 × 10−6 mol/mL for S. epidermidis and VGS, respectively. Conclusion Proparacaine was the anesthetic with the lowest MICs, lower than that of povidone-iodine. Benzalkonium chloride had lower MICs than proparacaine. All tested anesthetics and povidone-iodine inhibited growth of S. epidermidis and VGS at commercially available concentrations. Translational Relevance For certain patients, it could be possible to use topical anesthetic after povidone-iodine for comfort without inhibiting and perhaps contributing additional antimicrobial

  8. Statins: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... to take statins (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Statins updates by ... drug treatment How to take statins Related Health Topics Cholesterol Disclaimers MedlinePlus links to health information from ...

  9. Genetic Counseling: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Handouts Genetic counseling (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Genetic Counseling updates ... GO GO MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA Genetic counseling Related Health Topics Birth Defects Family History Genetic Disorders Genetic Testing ...

  10. Liver Transplantation: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Handouts Liver transplant (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Liver Transplantation updates ... ENCYCLOPEDIA Liver transplant Liver transplant - slideshow Related Health Topics Cirrhosis Hepatitis Liver Diseases Organ Transplantation National Institutes ...

  11. Pneumococcal Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Control and Prevention) - PDF Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Pneumococcal Infections updates ... ray Meningitis - pneumococcal Sputum gram stain Related Health Topics Meningitis Pneumonia Sepsis Sinusitis Streptococcal Infections National Institutes ...

  12. Toilet Training: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toilet training tips (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Toilet Training updates ... GO MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA Toilet training tips Related Health Topics Bedwetting Disclaimers MedlinePlus links to health information from ...

  13. Erectile Dysfunction: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Erection problems - aftercare (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Erectile Dysfunction updates ... Erection problems - aftercare Prolactin blood test Related Health Topics Penis Disorders National Institutes of Health The primary ...

  14. CPR: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... CPR/AED Ready Reference (American Red Cross) - PDF Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get CPR updates by ... infant CPR - infant - slideshow Myocardial contusion Related Health Topics Cardiac Arrest First Aid National Institutes of Health ...

  15. Heroin: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) - PDF Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Heroin updates by ... Opiate and opioid withdrawal Opioid intoxication Related Health Topics Drug Abuse Opioid Abuse and Addiction National Institutes ...

  16. Topical therapy for fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Amber A; Dahl, Mark V

    2004-01-01

    Fungi often infect the skin surface and subsequently invade the stratum corneum to avoid being shed from the skin surface by desquamation. Pharmacologic agents applied to the surface of the skin in the form of creams, lotions, or sprays, readily penetrate into the stratum corneum to kill the fungi (fungicidal agents), or at least render them unable to grow or divide (fungistatic agents). Thus, topical therapies work well to rid the skin of topical fungi and yeasts. Azole drugs such as miconazole, clotrimazole, and ketoconazole are fungistatic, limiting fungal growth but depending on epidermal turnover to shed the still-living fungus from the skin surface. Allylamines and benzylamines such as terbinafine, naftifine, and butenafine are fungicidal, actually killing the fungal organisms. Fungicidal drugs are often preferred over fungistatic drugs for treatment of dermatophytic fungal infections, since treatment times as short as one application daily for 1 week are associated with high cure rates. Furthermore, patients often stop treatments when the skin appears healed, usually after about a week of treatment. If this short-term treatment is stopped, fungi recur more often when fungistatic, rather than fungicidal, drugs have been used. Yeast infections such as those caused by Candida albicans respond less well to allylamine drugs. The azole drugs are often preferred for these types of infections. Nail infections are difficult to cure with topical therapies because the infections usually occur under the nail instead of on top of it and products penetrate poorly, if at all, through the nail plate. Infections of hair follicles, nails, and widespread infections often require systemic treatments. Antifungal agents are compounded into many different types of vehicles. Patients often prefer to treat weeping infections with spray formulations. Most physicians prescribe branded products in cream or lotion bases. Cost is a factor dictating prescription choice, especially since

  17. Management of Periocular Granuloma Annulare Using Topical Dapsone

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mayha; Shitabata, Paul; Horowitz, David

    2015-01-01

    Granuloma annulare is a disease characterized by granulomatous inflammation of the dermis. Localized granuloma annulare may resolve spontaneously, while generalized granuloma annulare may persist for decades. The authors present the case of a 41-year-old Hispanic man with a two-week history of periocular granuloma annulare. Due to previously reported success in the use of systemic dapsone for the treatment of granuloma annulare, and the periocular proximity of the patient’s lesion, topical dapsone was used for treatment. Various additional therapies for the management of granuloma annulare have been reported, such as topical and systemic steroids, isotretinoin, pentoxifylline, cyclosporine, Interferon gamma, potassium iodide, nicotinamide, niacinamide, salicylic acid, fumaric acid ester, etanercept, infliximab, and hydroxychloroquine. Additional clinical trials are necessary to further evaluate the effectiveness of topical dapsone in the management of granuloma annulare. PMID:26203321

  18. Opportunities in the Fusion Energy Sciences Program [Includes Appendix C: Topical Areas Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    Recent years have brought dramatic advances in the scientific understanding of fusion plasmas and in the generation of fusion power in the laboratory. Today, there is little doubt that fusion energy production is feasible. The challenge is to make fusion energy practical. As a result of the advances of the last few years, there are now exciting opportunities to optimize fusion systems so that an attractive new energy source will be available when it may be needed in the middle of the next century. The risk of conflicts arising from energy shortages and supply cutoffs, as well as the risk of severe environmental impacts from existing methods of energy production, are among the reasons to pursue these opportunities.

  19. Generic development of topical dermatologic products, Part II: quality by design for topical semisolid products.

    PubMed

    Chang, Rong-Kun; Raw, Andre; Lionberger, Robert; Yu, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    The emergence of quality by design as a relatively new systematic science and risk-based approach has added a new dimension to pharmaceutical development and manufacturing. This review attempts to discuss the quality by design elements and concepts applied for topical semisolid products. Quality by design begins with defining a quality target product profile as well as critical quality attributes. Subsequently, this is followed by risk identification/risk analysis/risk evaluation to recognize critical material attributes and critical process parameters, in conjunction with design of experiments or other appropriate methods to establish control strategies for the drug product. Several design-of-experiment examples are included as practical strategies for the development and optimization of formulation and process for topical drug products.

  20. UHMS position statement: topical oxygen for chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Feldmeier, J J; Hopf, H W; Warriner, R A; Fife, C E; Gesell, L B; Bennett, M

    2005-01-01

    A small body of literature has been published reporting the application of topical oxygen for chronic non-healing wounds . Frequently, and erroneously, this form of oxygen administration has been referred to as "topical hyperbaric oxygen therapy" or even more erroneously "hyperbaric oxygen therapy." The advocates of topical oxygen claim several advantages over systemic hyperbaric oxygen including decreased cost, increased safety, decreased complications and putative physiologic effects including decreased free radical formation and more efficient delivery of oxygen to the wound surface. With topical oxygen an airtight chamber or polyethylene bag is sealed around a limb or the trunk by either a constriction/tourniquet device or by tape and high flow (usually 10 liters per minute) oxygen is introduced into the bag and over the wound. Pressures just over 1.0 atmospheres absolute (atm abs) (typically 1.004 to 1.013 atm abs) are recommended because higher pressures could decrease arterial/capillary inflow. The premise for topical oxygen, the diffusion of oxygen into the wound adequate to enhance healing, is attractive (though not proven) and its delivery is certainly less complex and expensive than hyperbaric oxygen. When discussing the physiology of topical oxygen, its proponents frequently reference studies of systemic hyperbaric oxygen suggesting that mechanisms are equally applicable to both topical and systemic high pressure oxygen delivery. In fact, however, the two are very different. To date, mechanisms of action whereby topical oxygen might be effective have not been defined or substantiated. Conversely, cellular toxicities due to extended courses of topical oxygen have been reported, although, again these data are not conclusive, and no mechanism for toxicity has been examined scientifically. Generally, collagen production and fibroblast proliferation are considered evidence of improved healing, and these are both enhanced by hyperbaric oxygen therapy

  1. Topic Management in Discourse: Assessment and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentis, Michelle

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the parameters of discourse topic management in terms of a multidimensional model of topic coherence; interaction between these parameters and linguistic and cognitive knowledge; effects of discourse, linguistic, and cognitive level difficulties on topic parameters; a method of assessment across all parameters and knowledge…

  2. Good and Bad Topics for Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidman, Patricia; And Others

    This paper reports the opinions about moral topics expressed by 140 elementary and secondary student teachers, 49 in Indiana and 91 in California. Teachers' judgments of the suitability of topics were collected via a questionnaire containing 20 topics in two versions. The presentation consists of: (1) a description of the opinionnaire teachers…

  3. User Participation and Participatory Design: Topics in Computing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kautz, Karlheinz

    1996-01-01

    Discusses user participation and participatory design in the context of formal education for computing professionals. Topics include the current curriculum debate; mathematical- and engineering-based education; traditional system-development training; and an example of a course program that includes computers and society, and prototyping. (53…

  4. Novel topical therapies for distal colitis.

    PubMed

    Lawrance, Ian Craig

    2010-10-06

    Distal colitis (DC) can be effectively treated with topical 5ASA agents. Suppositories target the rectum while enemas can reliably reach the splenic flexure. Used in combination with oral 5ASAs, the control of the inflammation is even more effective. Unfortunately, resistant DC does occur and can be extremely challenging to manage. In these patients, the use of steroids, immunosuppressants and the anti-tumor necrosis factor α agents are often required. These, however, can be associated with systemic side effects and are not always effective. The investigation of new topical therapeutic agents is thus required as they are rarely associated with significant blood drug levels and side effects are infrequent. Some of the agents that have been proposed for use in resistant distal colitis include butyrate, cyclosporine and nicotine enemas as well as tacrolimus suppositories and tacrolimus, ecabet sodium, arsenic, lidocaine, rebamipide and Ridogrel(®) enemas. Some of these agents have demonstrated impressive results but the majority of the agents have only been assessed in small open-labelled patient cohorts. Further work is thus required with the investigation of promising agents in the context of randomized double-blinded placebo controlled trials. This review aims to highlight those potentially effective therapies in the management of resistant distal colitis and to promote interest in furthering their investigation.

  5. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  6. Poverty-Related Topics Found in Dissertations: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Mara, Comp.; And Others

    Arranged alphabetically by main topic, this bibliography cites 322 doctoral dissertations, written between 1970 and 1974, pertaining to various aspects of poverty. Where possible, annotations have been written to present the kernel idea of the work. Im many instances, additional subject headings which reflect important secondary thrusts are also…

  7. Repurposing celecoxib as a topical antimicrobial agent

    PubMed Central

    Thangamani, Shankar; Younis, Waleed; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new antibiotics and alternative strategies to combat multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens, which are a growing clinical issue. Repurposing existing approved drugs with known pharmacology and toxicology is an alternative strategy to accelerate antimicrobial research and development. In this study, we show that celecoxib, a marketed inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive pathogens from a variety of genera, including Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Listeria, Bacillus, and Mycobacterium, but not against Gram-negative pathogens. However, celecoxib is active against all of the Gram-negative bacteria tested, including strains of, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas, when their intrinsic resistance is artificially compromised by outer membrane permeabilizing agents such as colistin. The effect of celecoxib on incorporation of radioactive precursors into macromolecules in Staphylococcus aureus was examined. The primary antimicrobial mechanism of action of celecoxib was the dose-dependent inhibition of RNA, DNA, and protein synthesis. Further, we demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of celecoxib in a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infected Caenorhabditis elegans whole animal model. Topical application of celecoxib (1 and 2%) significantly reduced the mean bacterial count in a mouse model of MRSA skin infection. Further, celecoxib decreased the levels of all inflammatory cytokines tested, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-1 beta, and monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 in wounds caused by MRSA infection. Celecoxib also exhibited synergy with many conventional antimicrobials when tested against four clinical isolates of S. aureus. Collectively, these results demonstrate that celecoxib alone, or in combination with traditional antimicrobials, has a potential to use as a topical drug for the treatment of bacterial skin infections. PMID:26284040

  8. Melasma Associated with Topical Estrogen Cream

    PubMed Central

    Schiechert, Rachel A.; Zaiac, Martin N.

    2017-01-01

    A 47-year-old woman presented with hyperpigmented patches on her upper extremities. The patient had begun using a topical estrogen cream in the affected areas prior to noticing the hyperpigmentation. A diagnosis of melasma secondary to topical estrogen cream was made. While systemic hormones are a well-documented trigger for the development of melasma, this case represents the first report of melasma associated with topical estrogens. Topical estrogens are frequently prescribed to postmenopausal women for skin rejuvenation. Melasma should be discussed as a potential side effect of systemic as well as topical estrogen preparations. PMID:28367263

  9. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  10. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail.

  11. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail. PMID:26991442

  12. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Bseiso, Eman Ahmed; Nasr, Maha; Sammour, Omaima; Abd El Gawad, Nabaweya A

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal infections. Examples of these newer carriers include micelles, lipidic systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, microemulsions and vesicular systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, and penetration enhancer vesicles.

  13. Biomedical applications reviewed: Hot topic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, D. A.; Wells, K.

    2013-04-01

    Making reference to the British Journal of Radiology and competitor journal titles, we look at the general area of biomedical physics, reviewing some of the associated topics in ionising radiation research attracting interest over the past 2 years. We also reflect on early developments that have paved the way for these endeavours. The talk is illustrated by referring to a number of biomedical physics areas in which this group has been directly involved, including novel imaging techniques that address compositional and structural makeup as well as use of elastically scattered X-ray phase contrast, radiation damage linking to possible pericardial effects in radiotherapy, simulation of microvascularity and oxygenation with a focus of radiation resistant hypoxic tumours, issues of high spatial resolution dosimetry and tissue interface radiotherapy with doses enhanced through use of high atomic number photoelectron conversion media.

  14. Organic Optoelectronic Materials: A Topical Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The topics covered include the following: Introduction to Nonlinear Optics of Organics and the Use of Second Harmonic Generation as a Polymer Probe; Experimental Characterization of Second Order Nonlinear Optical Chromophores; Chi(2) Structure-Property Relationship on the Colligative Scale; The Stability of the Poled Order in Crosslinked Systems; Corona Electric Filed Poling of Nonlinear Polymers and Femtosecond Optical Applications; Synthesis and Characterization of Photosensitive Polymers for Optical Waveguide Definition; Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Conjugated Polymers; The Relationship Between Chemical Structure and Second-Order Optical Nonlinearities or Organic Molecules; Theory and Structure/Property of chi(3) Materials; Synthesis of Well-Defined Thiophene Oligomers and Planar Conjugated Polymers for chi(3) Studies; and Spectroscopy as a Probe of chi(3) in Conjugated Materials.

  15. Decision Point 1 Topical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Yablonsky, Al; Barsoumian, Shant; Legere, David

    2013-05-01

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2a of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to elaborate proven SkyMine® process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of the current Phase (2a) is to complete the detailed design of the pilot plant to be built in Phase 2b.

  16. Automating Telephone Surveys: Using T-ACASI to Obtain Data on Sensitive Topics

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Philip C.; Miller, Heather G.; Gribble, James N.; Turner, Charles F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new interview data collection system that uses a personal computer equipped with a telephone interface card. This system, telephone audio computer-assisted self-interviewing or T-ACASI, offers the economy of telephone interviews while providing the privacy of self-administered questionnaires. We describe T-ACASI design considerations and operational characteristics. In addition, we present data from recent studies indicating that the T-ACASI system is stable, robust, and suitable for administering relatively long and complex questionnaires on sensitive topics, including drug use and sexual behaviors associated with HIV and other STDs. PMID:22081742

  17. Automating Telephone Surveys: Using T-ACASI to Obtain Data on Sensitive Topics.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Philip C; Miller, Heather G; Gribble, James N; Turner, Charles F

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a new interview data collection system that uses a personal computer equipped with a telephone interface card. This system, telephone audio computer-assisted self-interviewing or T-ACASI, offers the economy of telephone interviews while providing the privacy of self-administered questionnaires. We describe T-ACASI design considerations and operational characteristics. In addition, we present data from recent studies indicating that the T-ACASI system is stable, robust, and suitable for administering relatively long and complex questionnaires on sensitive topics, including drug use and sexual behaviors associated with HIV and other STDs.

  18. SciFinder Scholar 2006: an empirical analysis of research topic query processing.

    PubMed

    Wagner, A Ben

    2006-01-01

    Topical search queries in SciFinder Scholar are processed through an extensive set of natural language processing algorithms that greatly enhance the relevance and comprehensiveness of the search results. Little detailed documentation on these algorithms has been published. However, a careful examination of the highlighted hit terms coupled with a comparison of results from small variations in query language reveal much additional, useful information about these algorithms. An understanding of how these algorithms work can lead to better search results and explain many unexpected results, including differing hit counts for singular versus plural query words and phrases.

  19. Including Jews in Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langman, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses reasons for the lack of attention to Jews as an ethnic minority within multiculturalism both by Jews and non-Jews; why Jews and Jewish issues need to be included; and addresses some of the issues involved in the ethical treatment of Jewish clients. (Author)

  20. HierarchicalTopics: visually exploring large text collections using topic hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Dou, Wenwen; Yu, Li; Wang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Zhiqiang; Ribarsky, William

    2013-12-01

    Analyzing large textual collections has become increasingly challenging given the size of the data available and the rate that more data is being generated. Topic-based text summarization methods coupled with interactive visualizations have presented promising approaches to address the challenge of analyzing large text corpora. As the text corpora and vocabulary grow larger, more topics need to be generated in order to capture the meaningful latent themes and nuances in the corpora. However, it is difficult for most of current topic-based visualizations to represent large number of topics without being cluttered or illegible. To facilitate the representation and navigation of a large number of topics, we propose a visual analytics system--HierarchicalTopic (HT). HT integrates a computational algorithm, Topic Rose Tree, with an interactive visual interface. The Topic Rose Tree constructs a topic hierarchy based on a list of topics. The interactive visual interface is designed to present the topic content as well as temporal evolution of topics in a hierarchical fashion. User interactions are provided for users to make changes to the topic hierarchy based on their mental model of the topic space. To qualitatively evaluate HT, we present a case study that showcases how HierarchicalTopics aid expert users in making sense of a large number of topics and discovering interesting patterns of topic groups. We have also conducted a user study to quantitatively evaluate the effect of hierarchical topic structure. The study results reveal that the HT leads to faster identification of large number of relevant topics. We have also solicited user feedback during the experiments and incorporated some suggestions into the current version of HierarchicalTopics.

  1. Developing Multiplicative Thinking from Additive Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Jennifer M.; Andreasen, Janet B.

    2013-01-01

    As students progress through elementary school, they encounter mathematics concepts that shift from additive to multiplicative situations (NCTM 2000). When they encounter fraction problems that require multiplicative thinking, they tend to incorrectly extend additive properties from whole numbers (Post et al. 1985). As a result, topics such as …

  2. Newer approaches in topical combination therapy for acne.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lisa W; Vender, Ronald B

    2011-10-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory cutaneous disease involving the pilosebaceous unit. Its pathophysiology is multifactorial and complex, including obstruction of the pilosebaceous unit due to increased sebum production, abnormal keratinization, proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), and inflammation. Topical agents are the most commonly used therapy for acne. First generation topicals mainly consist of single agent retinoids, benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and antibacterials that target comedones, P. acnes, and inflammation. Novel topical therapies include combination products with advanced vehicle formulations that target multiple acne pathophysiologies and offer simplified treatment regimes. For example, the combination of clindamycin and tretinoin in a unique vehicle formulation allows for progressive follicle penetration and decreased irritation, resulting in increased efficacy. Furthermore, adapalene or clindamycin with BPO combinations target comedones, inflammation, and P. acnes synergistically. These newer combination products have the potential to increase both efficacy and patient adherence when compared with single agent treatment.

  3. Topical tamoxifen in the therapy of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Trinconi, Cristiana T; Reimão, Juliana Q; Bonano, Vivian I; Espada, Caroline R; Miguel, Danilo C; Yokoyama-Yasunaka, Jenicer K U; Uliana, Silvia R B

    2017-03-09

    The aims of the present work were to test the effect of tamoxifen administered topically and the therapeutic efficacy of tamoxifen and pentavalent antimonial combinations in an experimental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis. BALB/c mice infected with a luciferase expressing line of Leishmania amazonensis were treated with topical tamoxifen in two different formulations (ethanol or oil-free cream) as monotherapy or in co-administration with pentavalent antimonial. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by lesion size and parasite burden, quantified through luminescence, at the end of treatment and 4 weeks later. Topical tamoxifen, formulated in ethanol or as a cream, was shown to be effective. The interaction between tamoxifen and pentavalent antimonial was additive in vitro. Treatment with combined schemes containing tamoxifen and pentavalent antimonial was effective in reducing lesion size and parasite burden. Co-administration of tamoxifen and pentavalent antimonial was superior to monotherapy with antimonial.

  4. Medicare Payment: Surgical Dressings and Topical Wound Care Products.

    PubMed

    Schaum, Kathleen D

    2014-08-01

    Medicare patients' access to surgical dressings and topical wound care products is greatly influenced by the Medicare payment system that exists in each site of care. Qualified healthcare professionals should consider these payment systems, as well as the medical necessity for surgical dressings and topical wound care products. Scientists and manufacturers should also consider these payment systems, in addition to the Food and Drug Administration requirements for clearance or approval, when they are developing new surgical dressings and topical wound care products. Due to the importance of the Medicare payment systems, this article reviews the Medicare payment systems in acute care hospitals, long-term acute care hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, home health agencies, durable medical equipment suppliers, hospital-based outpatient wound care departments, and qualified healthcare professional offices.

  5. Medicare Payment: Surgical Dressings and Topical Wound Care Products

    PubMed Central

    Schaum, Kathleen D.

    2014-01-01

    Medicare patients' access to surgical dressings and topical wound care products is greatly influenced by the Medicare payment system that exists in each site of care. Qualified healthcare professionals should consider these payment systems, as well as the medical necessity for surgical dressings and topical wound care products. Scientists and manufacturers should also consider these payment systems, in addition to the Food and Drug Administration requirements for clearance or approval, when they are developing new surgical dressings and topical wound care products. Due to the importance of the Medicare payment systems, this article reviews the Medicare payment systems in acute care hospitals, long-term acute care hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, home health agencies, durable medical equipment suppliers, hospital-based outpatient wound care departments, and qualified healthcare professional offices. PMID:25126477

  6. Topical herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    Background Before extraction and synthetic chemistry were invented, musculoskeletal complaints were treated with preparations from medicinal plants. They were either administered orally or topically. In contrast to the oral medicinal plant products, topicals act in part as counterirritants or are toxic when given orally. Objectives To update the previous Cochrane review of herbal therapy for osteoarthritis from 2000 by evaluating the evidence on effectiveness for topical medicinal plant products. Search methods Databases for mainstream and complementary medicine were searched using terms to include all forms of arthritis combined with medicinal plant products. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to February 2013, unrestricted by language. We also searched the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal interventions used topically, compared with inert (placebo) or active controls, in people with osteoarthritis were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. Main results Seven studies (seven different medicinal plant interventions; 785 participants) were included. Single studies (five studies, six interventions) and non-comparable studies (two studies, one intervention) precluded pooling of results. Moderate evidence from a single study of 174 people with hand osteoarthritis indicated that treatment with Arnica extract gel probably results in similar benefits as treatment with ibuprofen (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) with a similar number of adverse events. Mean pain in the ibuprofen group was 44.2 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Arnica gel reduced the pain by 4 points after three weeks: mean difference (MD

  7. Topical ocular delivery of NSAIDs.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Munish; Dhake, Avinash S; Sharma, Surendra K; Majumdar, Dipak K

    2008-06-01

    In ocular tissue, arachidonic acid is metabolized by cyclooxygenase to prostaglandins which are the most important lipid derived mediators of inflammation. Presently nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which are cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors are being used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. NSAIDs used in ophthalmology, topically, are salicylic-, indole acetic-, aryl acetic-, aryl propionic- and enolic acid derivatives. NSAIDs are weak acids with pKa mostly between 3.5 and 4.5, and are poorly soluble in water. Aqueous ophthalmic solutions of NSAIDs have been made using sodium, potassium, tromethamine and lysine salts or complexing with cyclodextrins/solubilizer. Ocular penetration of NSAID demands an acidic ophthalmic solution where cyclodextrin could prevent precipitation of drug and minimize its ocular irritation potential. The incompatibility of NSAID with benzalkonium chloride is avoided by using polysorbate 80, cyclodextrins or tromethamine. Lysine salts and alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate disrupt corneal integrity, and their use requires caution. Thus a nonirritating ophthalmic solution of NSAID could be formulated by dissolving an appropriate water-soluble salt, in the presence of cyclodextrin or tromethamine (if needed) in mildly acidified purified water (if stability permits) with or without benzalkonium chloride and polyvinyl alcohol. Amide prodrugs met with mixed success due to incomplete intraocular hydrolysis. Suspension and ocular inserts appear irritating to the inflamed eye. Oil drop may be a suitable option for insoluble drugs and ointment may be used for sustained effect. Recent studies showed that the use of colloidal nanoparticle formulations and the potent COX 2 inhibitor bromfenac may enhance NSAID efficacy in eye preparations.

  8. Topics in Extrasolar Planet Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Alex Ryan

    I present four papers exploring different topics in the area of characterizing the atmospheric and bulk properties of extrasolar planets. In these papers, I present two new codes, in various forms, for modeling these objects. A code to generate theoretical models of transit spectra of exoplanets is featured in the first paper and is refined and expanded into the APOLLO code for spectral modeling and parameter retrieval in the fourth paper. Another code to model the internal structure and evolution of planets is featured in the second and third papers. The first paper presents transit spectra models of GJ 1214b and other super-Earth and mini-Neptune type planets--planets with a "solid", terrestrial composition and relatively small planets with a thick hydrogen-helium atmosphere, respectively--and fit them to observational data to estimate the atmospheric compositions and cloud properties of these planets. The second paper presents structural models of super-Earth and mini-Neptune type planets and estimates their bulk compositions from mass and radius estimates. The third paper refines these models with evolutionary calculations of thermal contraction and ultraviolet-driven mass loss. Here, we estimate the boundaries of the parameter space in which planets lose their initial hydrogen-helium atmospheres completely, and we also present formation and evolution scenarios for the planets in the Kepler-11 system. The fourth paper uses more refined transit spectra models, this time for hot jupiter type planets, to explore the methods to design optimal observing programs for the James Webb Space Telescope to quantitatively measure the atmospheric compositions and other properties of these planets.

  9. Microcirculatory effect of topical vapocoolants

    PubMed Central

    Galdyn, Izabela; Swanson, Edward; Gordon, Chad; Kwiecien, Grzegorz; Bena, James; Siemionow, Maria; Zins, James

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vapocoolant sprays are commonly used to minimize pain following minor interventions such as venipuncture, shave biopsy or needle insertion. Although these sprays have been widely used in clinical practice, little is known about their effect on microcirculation or cutaneous blood flow. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the real-time effect of a topical vapocoolant using a well-established, rat cremaster muscle microcirculatory model, allowing direct measurement of changes in vessel diameter, capillary density and leukocyte behaviour. METHODS: Fifty rats were divided into a control and four experimental groups: group 1: 4 s spray with vapocoolant at 18 cm distance; group 2: 10 s spray at 18 cm distance; group 3: 4 s spray at 8 cm distance; and group 4: 10 s spray at 8 cm distance. Vessel diameters, capillary density and leukocyte behaviour were monitored for 1 h thereafter. Muscle was harvested for immunohistochemistry analysis of proangiogenic markers (vascular endothelial growth factor and von Willebrand factor), leukocyte behaviour markers (E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule, intercellular adhesion molecule), pimonidazole-hypoxia staining and ApopTag (Millipore, USA) staining for apoptosis. Gene expression for inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma) was evaluated using polymerase chain reaction and myeloperoxidase assay for inflammation was performed. RESULTS: The use of refrigerant spray decreased vessel diameter and capillary density initially, although none of these decreases were statistically significant. Polymerase chain reaction showed no significant changes. The myeloperoxidase assay showed statistically significant increase in myeloperoxidase activity in groups 2, 3 and 4. Immunohistochemistry was negative for angiogenic and proinflammatory markers. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of statistically significant changes in vessel diameter and inflammatory markers corroborated the

  10. Topical Microbicides and HIV Prevention in the Female Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Mackenzie L; Kashuba, Angela D. M.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, HIV disproportionately affects women who are often unable to negotiate traditional HIV preventive strategies such as condoms. In the absence of an effective vaccine or cure, chemoprophylaxis may be a valuable self-initiated alternative. Topical microbicides have been investigated as one such option. The first generation topical microbicides were non-specific, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, including surfactants, polyanions, and acid buffering gels, that generally exhibited contraceptive properties. After extensive clinical study, none prevented HIV infection, and their development was abandoned. Second generation topical microbicides include agents with selective mechanisms of antiviral activity. Most are currently being used for, or have previously been explored as, drugs for treatment of HIV. The most advanced of these is tenofovir 1% gel: the first topical agent shown to significantly reduce HIV infection by 39% compared to placebo. This review summarizes the evolution of topical microbicides for HIV chemoprophylaxis, highlights important concepts learned, and offers current and future considerations for this area of research. PMID:24664786

  11. Usage-Oriented Topic Maps Building Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellouze, Nebrasse; Lammari, Nadira; Métais, Elisabeth; Ben Ahmed, Mohamed

    In this paper, we present a collaborative and incremental construction approach of multilingual Topic Maps based on enrichment and merging techniques. In recent years, several Topic Map building approaches have been proposed endowed with different characteristics. Generally, they are dedicated to particular data types like text, semi-structured data, relational data, etc. We note also that most of these approaches take as input monolingual documents to build the Topic Map. The problem is that the large majority of resources available today are written in various languages, and these resources could be relevant even to non-native speakers. Thus, our work is driven towards a collaborative and incremental method for Topic Map construction from textual documents available in different languages. To enrich the Topic Map, we take as input a domain thesaurus and we propose also to explore the Topic Map usage which means available potential questions related to the source documents.

  12. Identifying Health-Related Topics on Twitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prier, Kyle W.; Smith, Matthew S.; Giraud-Carrier, Christophe; Hanson, Carl L.

    Public health-related topics are difficult to identify in large conversational datasets like Twitter. This study examines how to model and discover public health topics and themes in tweets. Tobacco use is chosen as a test case to demonstrate the effectiveness of topic modeling via LDA across a large, representational dataset from the United States, as well as across a smaller subset that was seeded by tobacco-related queries. Topic modeling across the large dataset uncovers several public health-related topics, although tobacco is not detected by this method. However, topic modeling across the tobacco subset provides valuable insight about tobacco use in the United States. The methods used in this paper provide a possible toolset for public health researchers and practitioners to better understand public health problems through large datasets of conversational data.

  13. Topics in quantum transport of charge and heat in solid state systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yunjin

    In the thesis, we present a series of investigations for quantum transport of charge and heat in solid state systems. The first topic of the thesis focuses on the fundamental quantum problems which can be studied with electron transport along with the correlations of detectors to measure physical properties. We theoretically describe a generalized ``which-path'' measurement using a pair of coupled electronic Mach-Zehnder Interferometers. In the second topic of thesis, we investigate an operational approach to measure the tunneling time based on the Larmor clock. To handle the cases of indirect measurement from the first and second topics, we introduce the contextual values formalism. The form of the contextual values provides direct physical insight into the measurement being performed, providing information about the correlation strength between system and detector, the measurement inefficiency, the proper background removal, and the conditioned average value of the system operator. Additionally, the weak interaction limit of these conditioned averages produces weak values of the system operator and an additional detector dependent disturbance term for both cases. In our treatment of the third topic of the thesis, we propose a three terminal heat engine based on semiconductor superlattices for energy harvesting. The periodicity of the superlattice structure creates an energy miniband, giving an energy window to allow electron transport. We find that this device delivers a large amount of power, nearly twice that produced by the heat engine based on quantum wells, with a small reduction of efficiency. This engine also works as a refrigerator in a different regime of the system's parameters. The thermoelectric performance of the refrigerator is analyzed, including the cooling power and coefficient of performance in the optimized condition. We also calculate phonon heat current through the system and explore the reduction of phonon heat current compared to the bulk

  14. Additive manufacturing in production: challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Karg, Michael; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, characterized by its inherent layer by layer fabrication methodology has been coined by many as the latest revolution in the manufacturing industry. Due to its diversification of Materials, processes, system technology and applications, Additive Manufacturing has been synonymized with terminology such as Rapid prototyping, 3D printing, free-form fabrication, Additive Layer Manufacturing, etc. A huge media and public interest in the technology has led to an innovative attempt of exploring the technology for applications beyond the scope of the traditional engineering industry. Nevertheless, it is believed that a critical factor for the long-term success of Additive Manufacturing would be its ability to fulfill the requirements defined by the traditional manufacturing industry. A parallel development in market trends and product requirements has also lead to a wider scope of opportunities for Additive Manufacturing. The presented paper discusses some of the key challenges which are critical to ensure that Additive Manufacturing is truly accepted as a mainstream production technology in the industry. These challenges would highlight on various aspects of production such as product requirements, process management, data management, intellectual property, work flow management, quality assurance, resource planning, etc. In Addition, changing market trends such as product life cycle, mass customization, sustainability, environmental impact and localized production will form the foundation for the follow up discussion on the current limitations and the corresponding research opportunities. A discussion on ongoing research to address these challenges would include topics like process monitoring, design complexity, process standardization, multi-material and hybrid fabrication, new material development, etc.

  15. Analysis of Smart Composite Structures Including Debonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Seeley, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    Smart composite structures with distributed sensors and actuators have the capability to actively respond to a changing environment while offering significant weight savings and additional passive controllability through ply tailoring. Piezoelectric sensing and actuation of composite laminates is the most promising concept due to the static and dynamic control capabilities. Essential to the implementation of these smart composites are the development of accurate and efficient modeling techniques and experimental validation. This research addresses each of these important topics. A refined higher order theory is developed to model composite structures with surface bonded or embedded piezoelectric transducers. These transducers are used as both sensors and actuators for closed loop control. The theory accurately captures the transverse shear deformation through the thickness of the smart composite laminate while satisfying stress free boundary conditions on the free surfaces. The theory is extended to include the effect of debonding at the actuator-laminate interface. The developed analytical model is implemented using the finite element method utilizing an induced strain approach for computational efficiency. This allows general laminate geometries and boundary conditions to be analyzed. The state space control equations are developed to allow flexibility in the design of the control system. Circuit concepts are also discussed. Static and dynamic results of smart composite structures, obtained using the higher order theory, are correlated with available analytical data. Comparisons, including debonded laminates, are also made with a general purpose finite element code and available experimental data. Overall, very good agreement is observed. Convergence of the finite element implementation of the higher order theory is shown with exact solutions. Additional results demonstrate the utility of the developed theory to study piezoelectric actuation of composite

  16. Application of Nail Polish During Topical Management of Onychomycosis: Are Data Available to Guide the Clinician About What to Tell Their Patients?

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2016-08-01

    Topical antifungal management of toenail onychomycosis has been fraught with several therapeutic challenges including difficulty gaining access to the site of infection and the need for prolonged durations of therapy. In addition, there has been a marked lack of information on the impact of toenail polish application on drug penetration after application. This article reviews available data from studies evaluating the effect of nail polish on antifungal drag penetration using ex vivo laboratory models with cadaver fingernail plates with both tavaborole 5% solution and efinaconazole 10% solution. In addition, changes in nail polish appearance and color transfer to applicators are also discussed, with changes noted with topical efinaconazole. Importantly, there are no data on whether or not nail polish application alters the efficacy of these topical agents.

  17. Tracking topic birth and death in LDA.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Andrew T.; Robinson, David Gerald

    2011-09-01

    Most topic modeling algorithms that address the evolution of documents over time use the same number of topics at all times. This obscures the common occurrence in the data where new subjects arise and old ones diminish or disappear entirely. We propose an algorithm to model the birth and death of topics within an LDA-like framework. The user selects an initial number of topics, after which new topics are created and retired without further supervision. Our approach also accommodates many of the acceleration and parallelization schemes developed in recent years for standard LDA. In recent years, topic modeling algorithms such as latent semantic analysis (LSA)[17], latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)[10] and their descendants have offered a powerful way to explore and interrogate corpora far too large for any human to grasp without assistance. Using such algorithms we are able to search for similar documents, model and track the volume of topics over time, search for correlated topics or model them with a hierarchy. Most of these algorithms are intended for use with static corpora where the number of documents and the size of the vocabulary are known in advance. Moreover, almost all current topic modeling algorithms fix the number of topics as one of the input parameters and keep it fixed across the entire corpus. While this is appropriate for static corpora, it becomes a serious handicap when analyzing time-varying data sets where topics come and go as a matter of course. This is doubly true for online algorithms that may not have the option of revising earlier results in light of new data. To be sure, these algorithms will account for changing data one way or another, but without the ability to adapt to structural changes such as entirely new topics they may do so in counterintuitive ways.

  18. Topics in little Higgs physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Spencer

    The Standard Model is the currently accepted model of elementary particle interactions as determined by many years of particle physics experiments. It is both highly predictive and successful in its predictions, which is one of the great achievements of the last half century of science. However, there are indications that the Standard Model is incomplete with the main evidence being the so called hierarchy problem. In general terms, the hierarchy problem suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model have to be severely fine tuned in order to describe the real world. Motivated by the naturalness issues the hierarchy problem provokes, many theories of beyond the Standard Model physics have been proposed that alleviate the fine tuning. Continuing this approach, recently a new scenario called "Little Higgs" theories has been suggested as a viable alternative to the Standard Model, which has some novel features compared to the other competitive theories. The fact that these Little Higgs models may describe the real world is interesting and motivates their study. In the first chapter, an introduction describing in elementary terms what the hierarchy problem is and how Little Higgs theories are a solution to this problem is presented. After this short introduction, two topics in Little Higgs theories are analyzed. The first subject is determining if Little Higgs theories are consistent with the precision experiments performed to date. This is covered in chapters two and three, where two different Little Higgs models with approximate custodial SU(2) symmetry are presented. This symmetry increases the range of parameter space where these Little Higgs theories are both consistent with precision tests and are natural under the sense of the hierarchy problem. Thus, these theories are viable candidates for beyond the Standard Model physics. The fourth chapter is on the second subject, which is analyzing the constraints that unitarity places upon the Little Higgs theories

  19. Safety and Health Topics: Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Spanish version is also available. Lead Battery Manufacturing eTool . OSHA. Management Guidelines for Blood Lead Levels ... exposure occurs in most industry sectors including construction, manufacturing, wholesale trade, transportation, remediation and even recreation. Construction ...

  20. Topics in Finance: Part II--Financial Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The second article in a series designed to supplement the introductory financial management course, this essay addresses financial statement analysis, including its impact on stock valuation, disclosure, and managerial behavior. [For "Topics in Finance Part I--Introduction and Stockholder Wealth Maximization," see EJ1060345.

  1. "Two Cultures" Topics for General Studies Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, James H.

    1982-01-01

    Theses proposed in C. P. Snow's book "The Two Cultures," including uncommunicative scientific and literary groups, gap between rich and poor, overpopulation, and nuclear war remain viable topics. Discusses the scientific and literary cultural gap and what can be done in general studies science courses to ameliorate the condition.…

  2. Nutritional therapies (including fosteum).

    PubMed

    Nieves, Jeri W

    2009-03-01

    Nutrition is important in promoting bone health and in managing an individual with low bone mass or osteoporosis. In adult women and men, known losses of bone mass and microarchitecture occur, and nutrition can help minimize these losses. In every patient, a healthy diet with adequate protein, fruits, vegetables, calcium, and vitamin D is required to maintain bone health. Recent reports on nutritional remedies for osteoporosis have highlighted the importance of calcium in youth and continued importance in conjunction with vitamin D as the population ages. It is likely that a calcium intake of 1200 mg/d is ideal, and there are some concerns about excessive calcium intakes. However, vitamin D intake needs to be increased in most populations. The ability of soy products, particularly genistein aglycone, to provide skeletal benefit has been recently studied, including some data that support a new medical food marketed as Fosteum (Primus Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, AZ).

  3. Microparticulate based topical delivery system of clobetasol propionate.

    PubMed

    Badıllı, Ulya; Sen, Tangül; Tarımcı, Nilüfer

    2011-09-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, autoimmune skin disease affecting approximately 2% of the world's population. Clobetasol propionate which is a superpotent topical corticosteroid is widely used for topical treatment of psoriasis. Conventional dosage forms like creams and ointments are commonly prefered for the therapy. The purpose of this study was to develop a new topical delivery system in order to provide the prolonged release of clobetasol propionate and to reduce systemic absorption and side effects of the drug. Clobetasol propionate loaded-poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were prepared by oil-in-water emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. Particle size analysis, morphological characterization, DSC and XRD analyses and in vitro drug release studies were performed on the microparticle formulations. Emulgel formulations were prepared as an alternative for topical delivery of clobetasol propionate. In vitro drug release studies were carried out from the emulgel formulations containing pure drug and drug-loaded microspheres. In addition, the same studies were performed to determine the drug release from the commercial cream product of clobetasol propionate. The release of clobetasol propionate from the emulgel formulations was significantly higher than the commercial product. In addition, the encapsulation of clobetasol propionate in the PLGA microspheres significantly delayed the drug release from the emulgel formulation. As a result, the decrease in the side effects of clobetasol propionate by the formulation containing PLGA microspheres is expected.

  4. Plantar fibromatosis--topical review.

    PubMed

    Veith, Nils T; Tschernig, Thomas; Histing, Tina; Madry, Henning

    2013-12-01

    Morbus Ledderhose is a rare hyperproliferative disease of the plantar fascia, leading to the formation of nodules. Its origin is unknown. No causal therapy is available, and treatment remains symptomatic. Various therapeutic strategies to alleviate symptoms are available and are adapted to the severity of the disease. In early stages, conservative therapy including nonpharmacological, physical, and pharmacological treatments is applied. If the disease progresses, irradiation of the plantar surface, injections of steroids, shock wave therapy, and partial or complete fasciectomy as an ultimate therapy may be indicated. Novel experimental treatment options including application of fibrinolytic agents are currently being tested, but no controlled, randomized long-term studies are available. This review aims to provide a systematic overview of current established procedures and outlines novel experimental strategies for the treatment of morbus Ledderhose, including future avenues to treat this rare disease.

  5. Topics in recent studies with high-voltage electron microscopes.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hirotaro

    2011-01-01

    In this article, topics in recent studies with high-voltage electron microscopes (HVEMs) are reviewed. High-voltage electron microscopy possesses a number of advantages that cannot be afforded by conventional electron microscopy, thus providing a unique microscopy technique in both materials science and biological science. One of these advantages is the capability of continuously observing phenomena using a variety of electron microscopy techniques simultaneously with the introduction of the displacement of atoms from lattice points. This has enabled in-depth studies on such fundamental subjects as the crystalline-to-amorphous-to-crystalline transition, the motion properties of point defects and the one-dimensional diffusion of dislocation loops. Electron tomography studies using HVEMs take advantage of the large observable thickness of a specimen. In addition, by combining different advantages, a number of advanced applications in materials science have been carried out, including analyses of the atomic structure of a reduction-induced reconstructed surface and the atomic mechanism behind the self-catalytic vapor-liquid-solid growth of an oxide nanowire. As long as excellent and invaluable studies that cannot be carried out without HVEMs appear in succession, it is necessary to make the utmost efforts to improve these microscopes.

  6. Environmental Justice Research: Contemporary Issues and Emerging Topics.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E

    2016-11-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research seeks to document and redress the disproportionate environmental burdens and benefits associated with social inequalities. Although its initial focus was on disparities in exposure to anthropogenic pollution, the scope of EJ research has expanded. In the context of intensifying social inequalities and environmental problems, there is a need to further strengthen the EJ research framework and diversify its application. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) incorporates 19 articles that broaden EJ research by considering emerging topics such as energy, food, drinking water, flooding, sustainability, and gender dynamics, including issues in Canada, the UK, and Eastern Europe. Additionally, the articles contribute to three research themes: (1) documenting connections between unjust environmental exposures and health impacts by examining unsafe infrastructure, substance use, and children's obesity and academic performance; (2) promoting and achieving EJ by implementing interventions to improve environmental knowledge and health, identifying avenues for sustainable community change, and incorporating EJ metrics in government programs; and (3) clarifying stakeholder perceptions of EJ issues to extend research beyond the documentation of unjust conditions and processes. Collectively, the articles highlight potentially compounding injustices and an array of approaches being employed to achieve EJ.

  7. Topical application of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum).

    PubMed

    Wölfle, Ute; Seelinger, Günter; Schempp, Christoph M

    2014-02-01

    St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) has been intensively investigated for its antidepressive activity, but dermatological applications also have a long tradition. Topical St. John's wort preparations such as oils or tinctures are used for the treatment of minor wounds and burns, sunburns, abrasions, bruises, contusions, ulcers, myalgia, and many others. Pharmacological research supports the use in these fields. Of the constituents, naphthodianthrones (e.g., hypericin) and phloroglucinols (e.g., hyperforin) have interesting pharmacological profiles, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial activities. In addition, hyperforin stimulates growth and differentiation of keratinocytes, and hypericin is a photosensitizer which can be used for selective treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. However, clinical research in this field is still scarce. Recently, sporadic trials have been conducted in wound healing, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and herpes simplex infections, partly with purified single constituents and modern dermatological formulations. St. John's wort also has a potential for use in medical skin care. Composition and stability of pharmaceutical formulations vary greatly depending on origin of the plant material, production method, lipophilicity of solvents, and storage conditions, and this must be regarded with respect to practical as well as scientific purposes.

  8. TOPICAL REVIEW: Progress in cold roll bonding of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Long; Nagai, Kotobu; Yin, Fuxing

    2008-04-01

    Layered composite materials have become an increasingly interesting topic in industrial development. Cold roll bonding (CRB), as a solid phase method of bonding same or different metals by rolling at room temperature, has been widely used in manufacturing large layered composite sheets and foils. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of a technology using layered composite materials produced by CRB and discuss the suitability of this technology in the fabrication of layered composite materials. The effects of process parameters on bonding, mainly including process and surface preparation conditions, have been analyzed. Bonding between two sheets can be realized when deformation reduction reaches a threshold value. However, it is essential to remove surface contamination layers to produce a satisfactory bond in CRB. It has been suggested that the degreasing and then scratch brushing of surfaces create a strong bonding between the layers. Bonding mechanisms, in which the film theory is expressed as the major mechanism in CRB, as well as bonding theoretical models, have also been reviewed. It has also been showed that it is easy for fcc structure metals to bond compared with bcc and hcp structure metals. In addition, hardness on bonding same metals plays an important part in CRB. Applications of composites produced by CRB in industrial fields are briefly reviewed and possible developments of CRB in the future are also described. Corrections were made to the abstract and conclusion of this article on 18 June 2008. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version.

  9. Environmental Justice Research: Contemporary Issues and Emerging Topics

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Collins, Timothy W.; Grineski, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research seeks to document and redress the disproportionate environmental burdens and benefits associated with social inequalities. Although its initial focus was on disparities in exposure to anthropogenic pollution, the scope of EJ research has expanded. In the context of intensifying social inequalities and environmental problems, there is a need to further strengthen the EJ research framework and diversify its application. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) incorporates 19 articles that broaden EJ research by considering emerging topics such as energy, food, drinking water, flooding, sustainability, and gender dynamics, including issues in Canada, the UK, and Eastern Europe. Additionally, the articles contribute to three research themes: (1) documenting connections between unjust environmental exposures and health impacts by examining unsafe infrastructure, substance use, and children’s obesity and academic performance; (2) promoting and achieving EJ by implementing interventions to improve environmental knowledge and health, identifying avenues for sustainable community change, and incorporating EJ metrics in government programs; and (3) clarifying stakeholder perceptions of EJ issues to extend research beyond the documentation of unjust conditions and processes. Collectively, the articles highlight potentially compounding injustices and an array of approaches being employed to achieve EJ. PMID:27809294

  10. Advances in the topical treatment of acne and rosacea.

    PubMed

    Ceilley, Roger I

    2004-01-01

    Acne and rosacea are common skin diseases which may present similarly and both involve inflammation. Both can result in significant cosmetic impairment and lead to quality of life decrements if not optimally treated. The conventional approach for both diseases involves the use of topical therapy to treat inflammatory lesions in combination, when needed, with a systemic or topical antibiotic. An important issue in the management of both diseases at present is the need to reduce antibiotic usage due to the increasing problem of bacterial resistance. One of the emerging treatment paradigms that is becoming increasingly useful as an antibiotic-sparing strategy is the use of procedural therapies in combination with medical management. Such procedural modalities include lasers, intense pulsed light (IPL), and photodynamic therapies (PDT). Topical regimens are used pre-treatment and following physical modalities for maintenance of remission.

  11. Common Topics and Commonplaces of Environmental Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Derek G.

    2013-01-01

    Common topics are words or phrases used to develop argument, and commonplaces aid memory or catalyze frames of understanding. When used in argumentation, each may help interested parties more effectively communicate valuable scientific and environment-related information. This article describes 12 modern topics of environmental rhetoric,…

  12. Fostering Topic Knowledge: Essential for Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proske, Antje; Kapp, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers emphasize the role of the writer's topic knowledge for writing. In academic writing topic knowledge is often constructed by studying source texts. One possibility to support that essential phase of the writing process is to provide interactive learning questions which facilitate the construction of an adequate situation…

  13. Torpedo: topic periodicity discovery from text data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingjing; Deng, Hongbo; Han, Jiawei

    2015-05-01

    Although history may not repeat itself, many human activities are inherently periodic, recurring daily, weekly, monthly, yearly or following some other periods. Such recurring activities may not repeat the same set of keywords, but they do share similar topics. Thus it is interesting to mine topic periodicity from text data instead of just looking at the temporal behavior of a single keyword/phrase. Some previous preliminary studies in this direction prespecify a periodic temporal template for each topic. In this paper, we remove this restriction and propose a simple yet effective framework Torpedo to mine periodic/recurrent patterns from text, such as news articles, search query logs, research papers, and web blogs. We first transform text data into topic-specific time series by a time dependent topic modeling module, where each of the time series characterizes the temporal behavior of a topic. Then we use time series techniques to detect periodicity. Hence we both obtain a clear view of how topics distribute over time and enable the automatic discovery of periods that are inherent in each topic. Theoretical and experimental analyses demonstrate the advantage of Torpedo over existing work.

  14. Descriptive Discourse: Topic Familiarity and Disfluencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merlo, Sandra; Mansur, Leticia Lessa

    2004-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to address questions about topic familiarity and disfluencies during oral descriptive discourse of adult speakers. Participants expressed more attributes when the topic was familiar than when it was unfamiliar. Fillers and lexical pauses were the most frequent disfluencies. The mean duration of each hesitation…

  15. Value of Topics in Consumer Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garman, E. Thomas; Gummerson, Ronald R.

    1977-01-01

    Reports preliminary findings from students who have completed a course in consumer education which address this question: What value do you now place on selected topics in consumer education? Topics with the greatest value were budgeting, dishonest and deceptive sales schemes, automobile insurance, principles of wise buying, and value comparison.…

  16. Topic Maps e-Learning Portal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsevicova, Kamila

    2006-01-01

    Topic Maps, ISO/IEC 13250 standard, are designed to facilitate the organization and navigation of large collections of information objects by creating meta-level perspectives of their underlying concepts and relationships. The underlying structure of concepts and relations is expressed by domain ontologies. The Topics Maps technology can become…

  17. Infantile generalized hypertrichosis caused by topical minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Rampon, Greice; Henkin, Caroline; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Almeida, Hiram Larangeira de

    2016-01-01

    Rare cases of hypertrichosis have been associated with topically applied minoxidil. We present the first reported case in the Brazilian literature of generalized hypertrichosis affecting a 5-year-old child, following use of minoxidil 5%, 20 drops a day, for hair loss. The laboratory investigation excluded hyperandrogenism and thyroid dysfunction. Topical minoxidil should be used with caution in children.

  18. Anesthesia: A Topic for Interdisciplinary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labianca, Dominick A.; Reeves, William J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary approach for teaching the topic of anesthesia as one aspect of a chemistry-oriented course for nonscience majors which focuses on timely topics such as the energy crisis and drugs. Historical treatment with the examination of literature is emphasized in teaching. (HM)

  19. Topical pine tar: History, properties and use as a treatment for common skin conditions.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A

    2016-01-20

    Pine tar is the end product of pine wood carbonisation following distillation using extreme heat. An extensive literature search was conducted back to the 1950s for this review. Pine tar has been used in medicine for more than 2000 years to treat a range of skin conditions because of its soothing and antiseptic properties. Pine tar should not be confused with coal tar, which has been produced from coal for approximately a hundred years. Pine tar is thought to exert its effect by reducing DNA synthesis and mitotic activity, which promotes a return to normal keratinisation. In addition, pine tar has been shown to be antipruritic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal. These properties make pine tar suitable for the topical treatment of eczema, psoriasis, seborrhoeic dermatitis and other dry, itchy, flaky or inflamed skin conditions. Topical products available over-the-counter in Australia today contain up to 2.3% pine tar, and come in several different formulations that can be used on the entire body, including the face. Modern day pine tar is manufactured with increased purity to eliminate toxic phenol and carcinogenic components, which have been of concern in the past. Primary irritation is uncommon. In conclusion, the long experience with topical pine tar therapy and its worldwide usage, together with the evidence presented in this review, suggests that pine tar is an effective treatment with minimal safety risk.

  20. Photocarcinogenicity of selected topically applied dermatological drugs: calcineurin inhibitors, corticosteroids, and vitamin D analogs

    PubMed Central

    Lerche, Catharina M.; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2010-01-01

    Topical therapies constitute the mainstay of dermatological treatments for skin disorders, such as atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, psoriasis, or acne. Since some of these diseases are often chronic, treatment duration may last for years and may even last the patient's entire lifetime. Obviously, such long-term therapy may raise safety concerns, which also include the potential photocarcinogenic effect. Most patients are exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) during leisure, work, vacations, or in tanning beds. Additionally, the patients may receive UVR via UVB phototherapy or psoralens plus UVA radiation (PUVA). The use of immunosuppressant's, such as corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors, has markedly increased. Patients with skin diseases have benefited from both systemic and topical treatment of both new and established drugs. The issue of a black box warning by the US Food and Drug Administration has increased concerns about photocarcinogenesis, which raises the question: “Are these drugs safe?” This review focuses on the mechanism of action and photocarcinogenic potential of commonly used topical treatments, such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and vitamin D analogs. PMID:25386250

  1. Examining the Utility of Topic Models for Linguistic Analysis of Couple Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeden, Michelle A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the basic utility of topic models, a computational linguistics model for text-based data, to the investigation of the process of couple therapy. Linguistic analysis offers an additional lens through which to examine clinical data, and the topic model is presented as a novel methodology within couple and family psychology that…

  2. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch

    PubMed Central

    Lionberger, David R; Brennan, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diclofenac, and DETP in patients with acute soft tissue injuries was included. Relevant literature was identified on MEDLINE using the search terms topical NSAIDs, diclofenac, diclofenac epolamine, acute pain, sports injury, soft tissue injury, strain, sprain, and contusion, and from citations in retrieved articles covering the years 1978–2008. Review of published, randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses shows that topical NSAIDs are significantly more effective than placebo in relieving acute pain; the pooled average relative benefit was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.5–1.9). In a limited number of comparisons, topical and oral NSAIDs provided comparable pain relief, but the use of topical agents produced lower plasma drug concentrations and fewer systemic adverse events (AEs). The physical–chemical properties of diclofenac epolamine make it well suited for topical use. In patients with acute soft tissue injuries treated with DETP, clinical data report an analgesic benefit within hours of the first application, and significant pain relief relative to placebo within 3 days. Moreover, DETP displayed tolerability comparable with placebo; the most common AEs were pruritus and other application site reactions. Review of published literature suggests that DETP is generally safe and well tolerated, clinically efficacious, and a rational treatment option for patients experiencing acute pain associated with strains, sprains, and contusions, and other localized painful conditions. PMID:21197326

  3. Topical use of fluorides for caries control.

    PubMed

    Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Toumba, Kyriacos Jack; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2011-01-01

    Since the early findings on the protective effects of fluoride present in drinking water upon caries incidence and prevalence, intensive research has been conducted in order to determine the benefits, safety, as well as the cost-effectiveness of other modalities of fluoride delivery. The present chapter reviews the various forms of topical fluoride use - professionally and self-applied - with special emphasis on clinical efficacy and possible side effects. The most widely used forms of fluoride delivery have been subject of several systematic reviews, providing strong evidence supporting the use of dentifrices, gels, varnishes and mouth rinses for the control of caries progression. Dentifrices with fluoride concentrations of 1,000 ppm and above have been shown to be clinically effective in caries prevention when compared to a placebo treatment, but the evidence regarding formulations with 450-550 ppm is still subject of debate. Therefore, the recommendation for low-fluoride dentifrice use must take into account both risks and benefits. The evidence for the combined use of two modalities of fluoride application in comparison to a single modality is still inconsistent, implying that more studies with adequate methodology are needed to determine the real benefits of each method. Considering the currently available evidence and risk-benefit aspects, it seems justifiable to recommend the use of fluoridated dentifrices to individuals of all ages, and additional fluoride therapy should also be targeted towards individuals at high caries risk.

  4. Applying Additive Manufacturing to a New Liquid Oxygen Turbopump Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neal, Derek

    2016-01-01

    A liquid oxygen turbopump has been designed at Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the in-house, Advanced Manufacturing Demonstrator Engine (AMDE) project. Additive manufacturing, specifically direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) of Inconel 718, is used for 77% of the parts by mass. These parts include the impeller, turbine components, and housings. The near-net shape DMLS parts have been delivered and final machining is underway. Fabrication of the traditionally manufactured hardware is also proceeding. Testing in liquid oxygen is planned for Q2 of FY2017. This topic explores the design of the turbopump along with fabrication and material testing of the DMLS hardware.

  5. Topics in Multivariate Approximation Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    include tensor products, multivariate polynomial interpolation , esp. Kergin Interpolation , and the recent developments of multivariate B-splines. t1...AMS (MOS) Subject Classifications: 41-02, 41A05, 41A10, 41A15, 41A63, 41A65 Key Words: multivariate, B-splines, Kergin interpolation , linear projectors...splines and in multivariate polynomial interpolation . These developments may well provide the theoretical foundation for efficient methods of

  6. Hot topics from the Assemblies.

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    Syncope is a transient loss of consciousness typically due to cerebral hypoperfusion with many causes, including pulmonary embolism. The prevalence of pulmonary embolism in patients with syncope is unknown; hence, in a prospective study, Prandoni et al. and the PESIT investigators report in the New England Journal of Medicine the prevalence of pulmonary embolism in 560 patients admitted for a first episode of syncope at 11 medical centres in Italy.

  7. Special topics in plasma confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. B.; Newton, S. L.

    2015-10-01

    > These notes are based on lectures given by one of us (J.B.T.) at the University of Texas in Austin in 1991. Part I concerns some basic features of plasma confinement by magnetic fields as an introduction to an account of plasma relaxation in Part II. Part III discusses confinement by magnetic mirrors, especially minimum- systems. It also includes a general discussion of adiabatic invariants and of the principle of maximal ordering in perturbation theory. Part IV is devoted to the analysis of perturbations in toroidal plasmas and the stability of ballooning modes.

  8. Literature survey results: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Willson, W.G.; Ness, R.O.; Hendrikson, J.G.; Entzminger, J.A.; Jha, M.; Sinor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This report reviews mild gasification processes with respect to processing conditions and configurations. Special emphasis was placed on processes which could be commercialized within five years. Detailed market information was provided by J.E. Sinor concerning markets and economic considerations of the various processing steps. Processing areas studied include coal cleaning; mild gasification; and upgrading of the char, condensables, and hydrocarbon gases. Pros and cons in the different processing areas as well as ''gaps'' in pertinent data were identified and integrated into a detailed process development program. The report begins with a summary of the market assessment and an evaluation of the co-product. The impacts of feed materials and operating parameters--including coal rank, heating rate, pressure, agglomeration, temperature, and feed gas composition--on the co- products and processes were evaluated through a literature survey. Recommendations were made as to the preferred product specifications and operating parameters for a commercial plant. A literature review of mild gasification processes was conducted and evaluated with regard to product specification and operating parameters. Two candidate processes were chosen and discussed in detail with respect to scale-up feasibility. Recommendations were then made to process development needs to further consideration of the two processes. 129 refs., 33 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. Current topics in therapeutic plasmapheresis.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Naoki; Kuragano, Takahiro; Nagasawa, Yasuyuki; Hasuike, Yukiko

    2014-02-01

    Therapeutic plasmapheresis has been used for intractable diseases that cannot be cured by conventional drug therapy. Currently, the use of therapeutic plasmapheresis has been approved for 27 diseases by Japan's National Health Insurance system and is mainly categorized into three modalities: plasma exchange (PE), double-filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP), and plasma adsorption (PA). Plasma separators and/or fractionators are essential for the therapy. PE is performed for two purposes: removal of pathogenic antigens or substances in the plasma fraction and supplementation of essential factors, such as albumin and coagulation factors. PE can be used for thrombotic microangiopathy and acute hepatic failure. DFPP can be performed for selective removal of macromolecules while avoiding the use of substitution fluid (i.e., albumin or fresh frozen plasma). DFPP has now been used for conditions involving relatively larger plasma molecules, including hyperviscosity syndrome and ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. PA can specifically remove pathogenic agents, such as low-density lipoprotein or autoantibodies, in the IgG fractions by the adsorption column and does not require substitution fluids. PA has now been used for a wide variety of neurological diseases, including chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. This review describes the characteristics of each modality, seeking to improve the efficacy and specificity of removal of the target substance.

  10. Effect of topical microbicides on infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 binding to epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Roth, Susan; Monsour, Michael; Dowland, Amanda; Guenthner, Patricia C; Hancock, Kelly; Ou, Chin-Yi; Dezzutti, Charlene S

    2007-06-01

    Topical microbicides (cellulose acetate 1,2 benzene dicarboxylate [CAP], PRO 2000, SPL7013, and UC781) are being investigated to reduce the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). These products were shown to prevent the transfer of infectious HIV-1 from urogenital and colorectal epithelial cell lines to peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, it was unclear if the topical microbicides rendered the virus noninfectious and/or reduced the binding to the epithelial cells. To test this, epithelial cells were cultured with HIV-1 in the presence or absence of topical microbicides or their placebos. The cells were washed, RNA lysates were made, and real-time PCR was performed for HIV-1. PRO 2000 and SPL7013 significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced the amount of bound HIV-1 to the colorectal epithelial cell line across clades A, B, C, and CRF01-AE. While none of the products reduced the binding of HIV-1 clades A and C to the urogenital cell line, CAP, PRO 2000, and SPL7013 significantly (P addition to measuring viral RNA should be included when clinically evaluating topical microbicide use by infected persons.

  11. Effect of Topical Microbicides on Infectious Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Binding to Epithelial Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Susan; Monsour, Michael; Dowland, Amanda; Guenthner, Patricia C.; Hancock, Kelly; Ou, Chin-Yi; Dezzutti, Charlene S.

    2007-01-01

    Topical microbicides (cellulose acetate 1,2 benzene dicarboxylate [CAP], PRO 2000, SPL7013, and UC781) are being investigated to reduce the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). These products were shown to prevent the transfer of infectious HIV-1 from urogenital and colorectal epithelial cell lines to peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, it was unclear if the topical microbicides rendered the virus noninfectious and/or reduced the binding to the epithelial cells. To test this, epithelial cells were cultured with HIV-1 in the presence or absence of topical microbicides or their placebos. The cells were washed, RNA lysates were made, and real-time PCR was performed for HIV-1. PRO 2000 and SPL7013 significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced the amount of bound HIV-1 to the colorectal epithelial cell line across clades A, B, C, and CRF01-AE. While none of the products reduced the binding of HIV-1 clades A and C to the urogenital cell line, CAP, PRO 2000, and SPL7013 significantly (P ≤ 0.002) reduced the binding of clades B and CRF01-AE. In general, PRO 2000 and SPL7013 placebos significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced the amount of bound HIV-1 but were less than the active products. UC781, its placebo, and hydroxyethyl cellulose (placebo for CAP) minimally affected the amount of bound HIV-1. These results suggest that rendering HIV-1 noninfectious may not correlate to the amount of HIV-1 bound to epithelial cells and possible shedding into mucosal secretions. Therefore, functional virological assays in addition to measuring viral RNA should be included when clinically evaluating topical microbicide use by infected persons. PMID:17404008

  12. Effect of topical ofloxacin on bacterial biofilms in refractory post-sinus surgery rhino-sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Ezzat, W F; Fawaz, S A; Rabie, H; Hamdy, T A; Shokry, Y A

    2015-09-01

    Bacterial biofilms have been shown to play a major role in many chronic infections, in addition, there is growing evidence that bacterial biofilms may play a role in some forms of refractory CRS that persists despite proper surgery and culture directed antibiotic therapy. The objective is to determine the effect of application of topical ofloxacin on nasal and sinus mucosa in patients with proven existence of bacterial biofilms and persistent chronic sinusitis after FESS. The study design is a prospective controlled study. The study included a total of 12 patients who had refractory CRS in spite of undergoing FESS for that specific reason (study group), and control group (involved 25 patients), for whom FESS was done, with complete improvement postoperatively in 15 of them, and persistence of symptoms in the other ten. Topical ofloxacin eye drops (0.3 %) tds for 12 weeks were prescribed for (study group), culture and sensitivity and scanning electron microscopy were done for middle meatal mucosal specimens for all patients and controls, all of them were followed up for a minimum of 9 months (range 9-18 months). Of the study group, 80 % showed marked improvement in the structure of the mucosa, with the regaining of normal respiratory epithelium, with complete disappearance of the biofilm surface, and the remaining 20 % showed only reduction in the number of inflammatory cells and regaining cilia with scattered patches of very thin biofilm. Biofilms formation plays an active role in perpetuating inflammation in CRS patients and enhanced the recurrence and resistance in those patients, we found a statistically significant improvement in patients' group (P < 0.001), after 12 weeks of topical ofloxacin (without any evidence of any side effects). So, we concluded that topical ofloxacin seems to be an effective, tolerable, convenient, cheap and even safe mode of treatment of refractory CRS after FESS due to biofilms' formation. Thus, we recommend such modality of

  13. Digital Social Network Mining for Topic Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradianzadeh, Pooya; Mohi, Maryam; Sadighi Moshkenani, Mohsen

    Networked computers are expanding more and more around the world, and digital social networks becoming of great importance for many people's work and leisure. This paper mainly focused on discovering the topic of exchanging information in digital social network. In brief, our method is to use a hierarchical dictionary of related topics and words that mapped to a graph. Then, with comparing the extracted keywords from the context of social network with graph nodes, probability of relation between context and desired topics will be computed. This model can be used in many applications such as advertising, viral marketing and high-risk group detection.

  14. Topics in the structure of hadronic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lebed, Richard Felix

    1994-04-01

    In this dissertation the author examines a variety of different problems in the physics of strongly-bound systems. Each is elucidated by a different standard method of analysis developed to probe the properties of such systems. He begins with an examination of the properties and consequences of the current algebra of weak currents in the limit of heavy quark spin-flavor symmetry. In particular, he examines the assumptions in the proof of the Ademollo-Gatto theorem in general and for spin-flavor symmetry, and exhibit the constraints imposed upon matrix elements by this theorem. Then he utilizes the renormalization-group method to create composite fermions in a three-generation electroweak model. Such a model is found to reproduce the same low energy behavior as the top-condensate electroweak model, although in general it may have strong constraints upon its Higgs sector. Next he uncovers subtleties in the nonrelativistic quark model that drastically alter the picture of the physical origins of meson electromagnetic and hyperfine mass splittings; in particular, the explicit contributions due to (md-mu) and electrostatic potentials may be overwhelmed by other effects. Such novel effects are used to explain the anomalous pattern of mass splittings recently measured in bottom mesons. Finally, he considers the topic of baryon masses in heavy fermion chiral perturbation theory, including both tree-level and loop effects.

  15. In-cell NMR: a topical review

    PubMed Central

    Banci, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Classical structural biology approaches allow structural characterization of biological macromolecules in vitro, far from their physiological context. Nowadays, thanks to the wealth of structural data available and to technological and methodological advances, the interest of the research community is gradually shifting from pure structural determination towards the study of functional aspects of biomolecules. Therefore, a cellular structural approach is ideally needed to characterize biological molecules, such as proteins, in their native cellular environment and the functional processes that they are involved in. In-cell NMR is a new application of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy that allows structural and dynamical features of proteins and other macromolecules to be analyzed directly in living cells. Owing to its challenging nature, this methodology has shown slow, but steady, development over the past 15 years. To date, several in-cell NMR approaches have been successfully applied to both bacterial and eukaryotic cells, including several human cell lines, and important structural and functional aspects have been elucidated. In this topical review, the major advances of in-cell NMR are summarized, with a special focus on recent developments in eukaryotic and mammalian cells. PMID:28250949

  16. Elucidating pharmacodynamic interaction of silver nanoparticle - topical deliverable antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Thirumurugan, G.; Seshagiri Rao, J. V. L. N.; Dhanaraju, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    In order to exploit the potential benefits of antimicrobial combination therapy, we need a better understanding of the circumstances under which pharmacodynamic interactions expected. In this study, Pharmacodynamic interactions between silver nanoparticle (SNP) and topical antibiotics such as Cefazolin (CEF), Mupirocin (MUP), Gentamycin (GEN), Neomycin (NEO), Tetracycline (TET), Vancomycin (VAN) were investigated using the MIC test, Combination assay followed by Fractional Inhibitory concentration Index and Agar well diffusion method. SNP + MUP, SNP + NEO, SNP + VAN combinations showed Synergism (SN) and SNP + CEF, SNP + GEN, SNP + TET showed Partial synergism (PS) against Staphylococcus aureus. Four combinations (SNP + CEF, SNP + MUP, SNP + GEN, SNP + VAN) showed SN, SNP + TET showed PS and Indifferent effect (ID) were observed for SNP + NEO against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. SN was observed for SNP + CEF, SNP + GEN, SNP + NEO, SNP + TET and SNP + MUP showed ID, SNP + VAN showed PS against Escherichia coli. In addition, we elucidated the possible mechanism involved in the pharmacodynamic interaction between SNP-topical antibiotics by increased ROS level, membrane damage following protein release, K+ leakage and biofilm inhibition. Thus, our findings support that conjugation of the SNP with topical antibiotics have great potential in the topical formulation when treating complex resistant bacterial infections and where there is a need of more concentration to kill pathogenic bacteria. PMID:27427207

  17. Elucidating pharmacodynamic interaction of silver nanoparticle - topical deliverable antibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirumurugan, G.; Seshagiri Rao, J. V. L. N.; Dhanaraju, M. D.

    2016-07-01

    In order to exploit the potential benefits of antimicrobial combination therapy, we need a better understanding of the circumstances under which pharmacodynamic interactions expected. In this study, Pharmacodynamic interactions between silver nanoparticle (SNP) and topical antibiotics such as Cefazolin (CEF), Mupirocin (MUP), Gentamycin (GEN), Neomycin (NEO), Tetracycline (TET), Vancomycin (VAN) were investigated using the MIC test, Combination assay followed by Fractional Inhibitory concentration Index and Agar well diffusion method. SNP + MUP, SNP + NEO, SNP + VAN combinations showed Synergism (SN) and SNP + CEF, SNP + GEN, SNP + TET showed Partial synergism (PS) against Staphylococcus aureus. Four combinations (SNP + CEF, SNP + MUP, SNP + GEN, SNP + VAN) showed SN, SNP + TET showed PS and Indifferent effect (ID) were observed for SNP + NEO against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. SN was observed for SNP + CEF, SNP + GEN, SNP + NEO, SNP + TET and SNP + MUP showed ID, SNP + VAN showed PS against Escherichia coli. In addition, we elucidated the possible mechanism involved in the pharmacodynamic interaction between SNP-topical antibiotics by increased ROS level, membrane damage following protein release, K+ leakage and biofilm inhibition. Thus, our findings support that conjugation of the SNP with topical antibiotics have great potential in the topical formulation when treating complex resistant bacterial infections and where there is a need of more concentration to kill pathogenic bacteria.

  18. Non-adherence to topical treatments for actinic keratosis

    PubMed Central

    Shergill, Bav; Zokaie, Simon; Carr, Alison J

    2014-01-01

    Background There is limited information on the patterns of use, adherence rates, and factors that impact adherence with topical treatments for actinic keratosis (AK). Objectives To establish patterns of use and adherence with topical treatments for AK and to identify treatment-related factors that impact on adherence. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional study was performed using a standardized questionnaire completed online or via telephone interview. Patients were stratified according to the presence of AK lesions on the scalp and/or other extremities; and presence of scarring resulting from treatment. Results This study included 305 patients with AK who were currently using a patient-applied topical therapy for AK or had used one within the previous 12 months. In total, 88% (n = 268/305) of patients were either non-adherent, non-persistent or both non-adherent and non-persistent to topical therapy. Duration of treatment was associated with increasing rates of non-adherence (adjusted odds ratio [OR]; for treatment durations greater than 4 weeks, 2.2, P < 0.01): 52% of patients were non-adherent with 3–4 week treatment duration; 69% of patients with 4–8 week treatment duration; and 71% of patients with 6–12 week treatment duration. There were similar increases in non-persistence with increasing treatment duration (adjusted OR; for treatment durations greater than 4 weeks, 2.1, P < 0.05). Conclusion This study found high rates of non-adherence and non-persistence in patients with AK. Duration of treatment was a significant factor contributing to non-adherence and non-persistence to topical treatments. Patient-applied topical therapies that require less frequent application and have shorter treatment duration may be associated with improved adherence rates. PMID:24379656

  19. Recent advances and applications of probabilistic topic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Ian

    2014-12-01

    I present here an overview of recent advances in probabilistic topic modelling and related Bayesian graphical models as well as some of their more atypical applications outside of their home: text analysis. These techniques allow the modelling of high dimensional count vectors with strong correlations. With such data, simply calculating a correlation matrix is infeasible. Probabilistic topic models address this using mixtures of multinomials estimated via Bayesian inference with Dirichlet priors. The use of conjugate priors allows for efficient inference, and these techniques scale well to data sets with many millions of vectors. The first of these techniques to attract significant attention was Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) [1, 2]. Numerous extensions and adaptations of LDA have been proposed: non-parametric models; assorted models incorporating authors, sentiment and other features; models regularised through the use of extra metadata or extra priors on topic structure, and many more [3]. They have become widely used in the text analysis and population genetics communities, with a number of compelling applications. These techniques are not restricted to text analysis, however, and can be applied to other types of data which can be sensibly discretised and represented as counts of labels/properties/etc. LDA and it's variants have been used to find patterns in data from diverse areas of inquiry, including genetics, plant physiology, image analysis, social network analysis, remote sensing and astrophysics. Nonetheless, it is relatively recently that probabilistic topic models have found applications outside of text analysis, and to date few such applications have been considered. I suggest that there is substantial untapped potential for topic models and models inspired by or incorporating topic models to be fruitfully applied, and outline the characteristics of systems and data for which this may be the case.

  20. "Family Guides" to Timely Topics in Space Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, C.; McLain, B.; Wilkerson, A.; Garvin-Doxas, K.; Dyches, P.

    We have undertaken the development, field testing, and dissemination of a new series of ``Family Guides'' on timely topics of notable interest in space science and astronomy. Each Guide includes an innovative collection of puzzles, pictures, poetry, and projects, all designed to stimulate enjoyable co-learning, inquiry-based experiences between kids aged 6-12 and the caring adults in their lives. The Guides are primarily intended for use in informal educational settings, including at home, with after-school programs, in youth groups, and in programs for children, school-groups, or families that are conducted in museums, planetariums, and nature centers. We are learning that classroom teachers also express interest in the Guide's activities as a means to engage students attention toward more formal lessons. The Guides endeavor to be accessible to those who are not familiar with astronomy. They provide background on questions commonly asked by children. The interactive activities challenge common misconceptions. The Guides' also coach adults how to lead inquiry with kids instead of telling or prescribing answers. The Guides' resource sections provide leads to more information and additional products related to family learning. We released the field test version of the Family Guide to the Sun in late summer 2003. In January 2004 we released the field test version of the Family Guide to Mars in time for use with educational programs associated with the Mars Exploration Rover landings. We are in the planning stages for a Family Guide to Saturn and for a Family Guide to the Search for Life Elsewhere. These later Guides will build on the base of understanding we construct from the field testing of the earlier Guides. This paper will provide details of the Guides' contents as well as results from field testing in various educational settings. We are proposing for funds to translate the Family Guide to Mars and the Family Guide the Sun into both French and Spanish.

  1. Tender Topics: Exploring Sensitive Issues with Pre-K through First Grade Children through Read-Alouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mankiw, Sue; Strasser, Janis

    2013-01-01

    The topics including bullying, family diversity, homelessness, disabilities, and incarceration are often referred to as "tender topics." They can be difficult for teachers to explain to or discuss with children. In their work with children, families, and teachers, the authors have seen that it is not necessarily the topic that makes conversations…

  2. Flammable gas project topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1997-01-29

    The flammable gas safety issue was recognized in 1990 with the declaration of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) by the U. S. Department of Energy as a result of the behavior of the Hanford Site high-level waste tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years there has been a considerable amount of knowledge gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-1 01 and other tanks associated with the flammable gas safety issue. This report was prepared to provide an overview of that knowledge and to provide a description of the key information still needed to resolve the issue. Items covered by this report include summaries of the understanding of gas generation, retention and release mechanisms, the composition and flammability behavior of the gas mixture, the amounts of stored gas, and estimated gas release fractions for spontaneous releases. `Me report also discusses methods being developed for evaluating the 177 tanks at the Hanford Site and the problems associated with these methods. Means for measuring the gases emitted from the waste are described along with laboratory experiments designed to gain more information regarding rates of generation, species of gases emitted and modes of gas storage and release. Finally, the process for closing the USQ is outlined as are the information requirements to understand and resolve the flammable gas issue.

  3. Topical Review: Polymer gel dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Baldock, C; De Deene, Y; Doran, S; Ibbott, G; Jirasek, A; Lepage, M; McAuley, K B; Oldham, M; Schreiner, L J

    2010-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. PMID:20150687

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW: Polymer gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldock, C.; De Deene, Y.; Doran, S.; Ibbott, G.; Jirasek, A.; Lepage, M.; McAuley, K. B.; Oldham, M.; Schreiner, L. J.

    2010-03-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented.

  5. Using NASA Space Imaging to Teach Earth and Sun Topics in Professional Development Courses for In-Service Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verner, E.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Long, T.; Edwards, S.; Ofman, L.; Brosius, J. W.; Holman, G.; St Cyr, O. C.; Krotkov, N. A.; Fatoyinbo Agueh, T.

    2012-12-01

    several PD courses using NASA imaging technology. It includes various ways to study selected topics in physics and astronomy. We use NASA Images to develop lesson plans and EPO materials for PreK-8 grades. Topics are Space based and they vary from measurements, magnetism on Earth to that for our Sun. In addition we cover topics on ecosystem structure, biomass and water on Earth. Hands-on experiments, computer simulations, analysis of real-time NASA data, and vigorous seminar discussions are blended in an inquiry-driven curriculum to instill confident understanding of basic physical science and modern, effective methods for teaching it. Course also demonstrates ways how scientific thinking and hands-on activities could be implemented in the classroom. This course is designed to provide the non-science student a confident understanding of basic physical science and modern, effective methods for teaching it. Most of topics were selected using National Science Standards and National Mathematics Standards to be addressed in grades PreK-8. The course focuses on helping in several areas of teaching: 1) Build knowledge of scientific concepts and processes; 2) Understand the measurable attributes of objects and the units and methods of measurements; 3) Conducting data analysis (collecting, organizing, presenting scientific data, and to predict the result); 4) Use hands-on approaches to teach science; 5) Be familiar with Internet science teaching resources. Here we share our experiences and challenges we faced teaching this course.

  6. Effectiveness and safety of topical tacrolimus in treatment of vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Rokni, Ghasem Rahmatpour; Golpour, Massoud; Gorji, Alimorad Heidari; Khalilian, Alireza; Ghasemi, Hamta

    2017-01-01

    Vitiligo is one of the most primitive well-known dermatoid disorders with different suggested therapies. Therefore, this study investigated the efficiency and safety of topical tacrolimus in treatment of patients with vitiligo. This study was a clinical randomized designed study pre- post-test method, has been conducted on thirty cases with vitiligo who have referred to polyclinic and dermatology clinic. Participant's evaluated and demographic information recorded in designed checklist. In the next stage, the disease activity scored by vitiligo index disease activity system. Photography and depigmentation percent has recorded before treatment and further in 4th, 8th, 12th, 16th, 20th, and 24th weeks. Finally, gathered data compared through SPSS-20 software. The final sample comprised 30 persons including: 12 men (40%) and 18 women (60%). The average of patient's age in this study was 26/13 ± 18/20 (2-76-year-old). Eleven persons was ≤15 years old and rest was older than 15. Sixty-six lesions have funded in patients that maximum has accrued on face and neck (37/87%) and trunk (21/21%). In addition, minimum of lesions is related to genitalia (9/09%). In the in 4th, 8th, 12th, 16th weeks, improvement in face and neck had increased significantly, into the past weeks. In the 20th and 24th weeks, the improvement has increased although it was not significant enhancement. Also about trunk, in the 4th week the improvement does not have significant increasing in compare to the past week. In the eighth, 12th, 16th, 20th, and 24th weeks the improvement has been increased significantly in compare to the past weeks. Although in the case of limbs and genitalia, the improvement was lower. There was no significant difference between male and females and age. Although the improvement was, slow in older persons. Study results, has presented applying topical tacrolimus in vitiligo, particularly in face and neck, could be effective and does not seen any specified adverse effects

  7. Section 608 Technician Certification Test Topics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Identifies some of the topics covered on Section 608 Technician Certification tests such as ozone depletion, the Clean Air Act and Montreal Protocol, Substitute Refrigerants and oils, Refrigeration and Recovery Techniques.

  8. Female Infertility: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ovulation Pelvic laparoscopy Pelvic laparoscopy - slideshow Prolactin blood test Serum progesterone Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Assisted Reproductive Technology Infertility Male Infertility National Institutes of Health The ...

  9. Male Infertility: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Analysis Test (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Testosterone Test (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Treatments and Therapies Assisted Reproductive Technology: MedlinePlus Health Topic (National Library of Medicine) Also ...

  10. Alzheimer's Caregivers: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aging) - PDF Sleep Issues and Sundowning (Alzheimer's Association) Wandering (National Institute on Aging) - PDF Genetics Genetics Home ... Aging) - PDF Traveling Overnight (National Institute on Aging) Wandering (National Institute on Aging) - PDF Topic Image MedlinePlus ...

  11. Urinalysis: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... test (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Urine specific gravity test (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image ... bloody Urine odor Urine pH test Urine specific gravity test Show More Show Less National Institutes of ...

  12. Mastectomy: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Survivor's Perspective (American Society of Clinical Oncology) Lymphedema: What Every Woman with Breast Cancer Should Know ( ... doctor Related Health Topics Breast Cancer Breast Reconstruction Lymphedema National Institutes of Health The primary NIH organization ...

  13. Topical hemostatic agents in gynecologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Duenas-Garcia, Omar Felipe; Goldberg, Jeffrey M

    2008-06-01

    Biosurgical compounds and pharmacologic agents can serve as surgical adjuncts to prevent or curtail intraoperative bleeding. Medline, PubMed, and Cochrane electronic data bases were used to search the English literature from 1966 to March 2007 using the terms topical, hemostatic agents, and gynecologic surgery. Several effective topical hemostatic agents are available to reduce intraoperative blood loss. Data on their application in gynecologic surgery are limited, and guidelines for selecting one over another for specific indications are lacking.

  14. Porokeratosis (Mibelli): treatment with topical 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    McDonald, S G; Peterka, E S

    1983-01-01

    The case history of a patient with a solitary classic porokeratosis (Mibelli) on the hand is described. The lesion cleared without scarring with the use of topical 5-fluorouracil until a strong dermatitis was elicited, thus avoiding surgery and attendant restriction of function. No sign of recurrence developed in the following 2 years. The potential for malignant change in porokeratosis (Mibelli) and its resistance to topical treatment as documented in the literature are also reviewed.

  15. Topical reports on Louisiana salt domes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    The Institute for Environmental Studies at Louisiana State University conducted research into the potential use of Louisiana salt domes for disposal of nuclear waste material. Topical reports generated in 1981 and 1982 related to Vacherie and Rayburn's domes are compiled and presented, which address palynological studies, tiltmeter monitoring, precise releveling, saline springs, and surface hydrology. The latter two are basically a compilation of references related to these topics. Individual reports are abstracted.

  16. Anaphylactic reaction secondary to topical preoperative moxifloxacin.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Michael A; Midgley, Kirsten J; Kim, Jocelyn; Ullman, Saul

    2016-12-01

    We report a case of anaphylactic shock following topical administration of moxifloxacin for endophthalmitis prophylaxis prior to cataract surgery. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) serology and IgE skin testing confirmed the anaphylactic etiology. Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation was later performed with identical preoperative preparation except for the exclusion of moxifloxacin; no anaphylactic response occurred. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an anaphylactic response to topical moxifloxacin.

  17. Teaching Controversial Topics to Skeptical High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    Tennessee passes the "Monkey Bill" (HB 0368, SB 0893), North Carolina's state government passes a law to criminalize reference in state documents to scientific models that predict sea level rise to reach at least one meter by the next century, and public concern still lags far behind the scientific community's concern on climate change. The American public and even science teachers across the country seem to have lost faith in the ability of the scientific community to unify a strong message about several important scientific lessons, including global warming in particular. This lack of a unified message has weakened the ability of science teachers to effectively teach the lesson of global warming. For science teachers in strongly conservative areas of the country, it is much easier to omit difficult topics and avoid angering parents and school board members. Teachers who do feel strongly about scientifically proven, yet publically controversial topics CAN teach these topics in conservative areas by confirming students' belief systems by being honest and open about motivations surrounding both sides of controversial topics, and by using vocabulary that avoids triggering negative perceptions about these controversial topics. For true learning and change of preconceived opinion to take place, it is important for students to come to the understanding in their own minds in an open and safe learning environment instead of having the message "preached" to them, which only serves to make them feel unintelligent and defensive if they disagree. This presentation will include lessons learned from a practicing science teacher who works in a community that overwhelmingly disputes the validity of human impacts on climate change.

  18. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  19. Special Topics Courses - A Happy Medium between Mini-Courses and Full-Coverage Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, John R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a special topics program which allows students some choice in content to be studied. Topics include Continental Drift and Ice Ages, Geology and National Parks, the Coast of South Carolina, and Medical Geology. Student evaluations indicate positive attitudes towards the program. (MA)

  20. Earth Science Supplement to the Syllabus, Part 3, Topics 9-14, Special Edition 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The investigations for topics 9-14 in the earth science course developed by The University of the State of New York for secondary schools are contained in this supplement to the syllabus (ED 046 749). The topics in this supplement include the erosional process, the depositional process, the formation of rocks, the dynamic crust, interpreting…

  1. Parent and Preschooler Newsletter: A Monthly Exploration of Early Childhood Topics, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolkoff, Sandra, Ed.; Schwartzberg, Neala S., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This document consists of 10 monthly newsletter issues, in English- and Spanish-language versions, exploring topics related to early childhood behavior and parenting. Regularly appearing features include book recommendations, "Library Resources,""Preschoolers in the Kitchen,""Kids Crafts,""Research News," and "The Health Corner." Major topics of…

  2. Topical tranexamic acid as a promising treatment for melasma

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Bahareh; Naeini, Farahnaz Fatemi

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent times, tranexamic acid (TA) is claimed to have whitening effects especially for ultraviolet-induced hyperpigmentation including melasma. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical solution of TA and compare it with combined solution of hydroquinone and dexamethasone as the gold standard treatment of melasma in Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This was a double-blind split-face trial of 12 weeks which was conducted in Isfahan, Iran. Fifty Iranian melasma patients applied topical solution of 3% TA on one side of the face, and topical solution of 3% hydroquinone + 0.01% dexamethasone on the other side two times a day. The Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) and the side effects were evaluated at baseline and every 4 weeks before and after photographs to be compared by a dermatologist were taken. The patient satisfaction was documented at week 12. Results: A repeated measurement analysis was used to evaluate the changes in the MASI score before and after treatments. A significant decreasing trend was observed in the MASI score of both groups with no significant difference between them during the study (P < 0.05). No differences were seen in patients’ and investigator's satisfaction of melasma improvement between two groups (P < 0.05). However, the side effects of hydroquinone + dexamethasone were significantly prominent compared with TA (P = 0.01). Conclusion: This study's results introduce the topical TA as an effective and safe medication for the treatment of melasma. PMID:25422661

  3. Actinides and Rare Earths Topical Conference (Code AC)

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G

    2009-11-24

    Actinide and the Rare Earth materials exhibit many unique and diverse physical, chemical and magnetic properties, in large part because of the complexity of their f electronic structure. This Topical Conference will focus upon the chemistry, physics and materials science in Lanthanide and Actinide materials, driven by 4f and 5f electronic structure. Particular emphasis will be placed upon 4f/5f magnetic structure, surface science and thin film properties. For the actinides, fundamental actinide science and its role in resolving technical challenges posed by actinide materials will be stressed. Both basic and applied experimental approaches, including synchrotron-radiation-based investigations, as well as theoretical modeling and computational simulations, are planned to be part of the Topical Conference. Of particular importance are the issues related to the potential renaissance in Nuclear Fuels, including synthesis, oxidation, corrosion, intermixing, stability in extreme environments, prediction of properties via benchmarked simulations, separation science, environmental impact and disposal of waste products.

  4. Tavaborole topical solution, 5% for the treatment of toenail onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Zane, L T; Plattner, J; Chanda, S; Coronado, D; Merchant, T; Alley, M R K; Gupta, A K

    2015-10-01

    Tavaborole topical solution, 5% (tavaborole) is a novel, boron-based, antifungal pharmaceutical agent indicated for treatment of toenail onychomycosis due to the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum or Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In preclinical studies, tavaborole effectively penetrated through full-thickness, non-diseased cadaver fingernails, including those with up to four layers of nail polish. Limited systemic absorption was observed following topical application of tavaborole. In phase III clinical trials involving patients with distal subungual onychomycosis affecting 20-60% of a target great toenail, significantly more patients treated with tavaborole versus vehicle achieved completely clear nail with negative mycology following daily application for 48 weeks. Treatment-emergent adverse events reported by at least 1% of patients treated with tavaborole and at a greater frequency versus vehicle included ingrown toenail, exfoliation, erythema and dermatitis. Treatment discontinuations were uncommon. Results from preclinical studies and phase III clinical trials establish tavaborole as a safe and efficacious treatment for toenail onychomycosis.

  5. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  6. Sentence Topics Based Knowledge Acquisition for Question Answering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyo-Jung; Yun, Bo-Hyun

    This paper presents a knowledge acquisition method using sentence topics for question answering. We define templates for information extraction by the Korean concept network semi-automatically. Moreover, we propose the two-phase information extraction model by the hybrid machine learning such as maximum entropy and conditional random fields. In our experiments, we examined the role of sentence topics in the template-filling task for information extraction. Our experimental result shows the improvement of 18% in F-score and 434% in training speed over the plain CRF-based method for the extraction task. In addition, our result shows the improvement of 8% in F-score for the subsequent QA task.

  7. Topics in programmable automation. [for materials handling, inspection, and assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    Topics explored in the development of integrated programmable automation systems include: numerically controlled and computer controlled machining; machine intelligence and the emulation of human-like capabilities; large scale semiconductor integration technology applications; and sensor technology for asynchronous local computation without burdening the executive minicomputer which controls the whole system. The role and development of training aids, and the potential application of these aids to augmented teleoperator systems are discussed.

  8. Selection of color additives: a regulatory view.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuj; Dureja, Harish; Madan, Anil K

    2012-01-01

    Color additives have a unique place in the categories of the excipients. However, most of the color additives are complex heterogeneous organic compounds. In pharmaceuticals, colors are used in various oral (solid, liquid) and topical dosage form. Different regulatory authorities have their own specific set of regulation for registration, approval, and control of color additives. However, at this time of globalization, selection of appropriate color is not an easy task when a company wants to sale its product in many countries. In this article, the authors have explored various important factors which should be considered in the selection of color additives.

  9. Melasma treatment: A novel approach using a topical agent that contains an anti-estrogen and a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-04-01

    Melasma is an acquired disorder of pigmentation that presents with asymptomatic symmetric darkening of the face. The pathogenesis of this condition is multifactorial and influenced by several factors including female sex hormones, genetic predisposition and ultraviolet light exposure. The management of melasma is usually directed at more than one of the causative etiologic factors and often incorporates a combination of topical agents, with or without the addition of physical modalities. Estrogen and angiogenesis are significant factors in the etiology of melasma. A useful addition to the therapeutic armentarium for treating melasma would include a topical agent that could effect both of these causative factors. Specifically, a topical preparation consisting of an anti-estrogen and a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor would accomplish this goal. Suitable candidates that target estrogen receptors and vascular endothelial growth factor are currently used in medical oncology as systemic antineoplastic agents. The anti-estrogen could be either a selective estrogen receptor modulator (such as tamoxifen or raloxifene) or an aromatase inhibitor (such as anastrozole or letrozole or exemestane). The vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor would be bevacizumab. In conclusion, a novel-topically administered-therapy for melasma would combine an anti-estrogen and a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor.

  10. Topical treatment and combination approaches for vitiligo: new insights, new developments.

    PubMed

    Hossani-Madani, A R; Halder, R M

    2010-02-01

    Despite much research done involving elucidation of the pathogenesis of vitiligo, a precise cause is still not known. Prevalent hypotheses include the autoimmune, genetic, neural, self-destruction, growth factor deficiency, viral, and convergence theories, which have served as the basis for treatment formulation. Topical therapies have been a mainstay of vitiligo treatment, with or without phototherapy. Topical treatments used in the treatment of vitiligo include steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, vitamin D analogues, pseudocatalase, and depigmenting agents. Combination therapies are used to improve the success rate of repigmentation. In this article, we have examined randomized controlled trials utilizing topical treatments used as monotherapy or combination therapy. Although psoralen and khellin can be used as topical agents, used in conjunction with UV radiation, we have not included them in the review due to their inability to be used as monotherapy. We have also excluded less used or ineffective topical agents, such as melagenina, topical phenylalanine, topical L-DOPA, coal tar, anacarcin forte oil and topical minoxidil. According to current guidelines, a less than two month trial of potent or very potent topical corticosteroids or topical calcineurin inhibitors may be used for therapy of localized vitiligo (<20% skin surface area). Combinations of topical corticosteroids with excimer laser and UVA seem to be more effective than steroids alone. Pseudocatalase plus NB-UVB does not seem to be more effective than placebo with NB-UVB. Combinations of vitamin D analogues have varied efficacy based on which type is used and the type of UV light. Efficacy of calcineurin inhibitor combinations also vary based on the type used and UV light combined, with tacrolimus being more effective with excimer laser. Pimecrolimus has been effective with NB-UVB and excimer laser on facial lesions, and microdermabrasion on localized areas.

  11. TopicLens: Efficient Multi-Level Visual Topic Exploration of Large-Scale Document Collections.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjeong; Kang, Kyeongpil; Park, Deokgun; Choo, Jaegul; Elmqvist, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    Topic modeling, which reveals underlying topics of a document corpus, has been actively adopted in visual analytics for large-scale document collections. However, due to its significant processing time and non-interactive nature, topic modeling has so far not been tightly integrated into a visual analytics workflow. Instead, most such systems are limited to utilizing a fixed, initial set of topics. Motivated by this gap in the literature, we propose a novel interaction technique called TopicLens that allows a user to dynamically explore data through a lens interface where topic modeling and the corresponding 2D embedding are efficiently computed on the fly. To support this interaction in real time while maintaining view consistency, we propose a novel efficient topic modeling method and a semi-supervised 2D embedding algorithm. Our work is based on improving state-of-the-art methods such as nonnegative matrix factorization and t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding. Furthermore, we have built a web-based visual analytics system integrated with TopicLens. We use this system to measure the performance and the visualization quality of our proposed methods. We provide several scenarios showcasing the capability of TopicLens using real-world datasets.

  12. Chronic postsurgical pain: still a neglected topic?

    PubMed Central

    Kissin, Igor; Gelman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background Surgical injury can frequently lead to chronic pain. Despite the obvious importance of this problem, the first publications on chronic pain after surgery as a general topic appeared only a decade ago. This study tests the hypothesis that chronic postsurgical pain was, and still is, represented insufficiently. Methods We analyzed the presentation of this topic in journal articles covered by PubMed and in surgical textbooks. The following signs of insufficient representation in journal articles were used: (1) the lack of journal editorials on chronic pain after surgery, (2) the lack of journal articles with titles clearly indicating that they are devoted to chronic postsurgical pain, and (3) the insufficient representation of chronic postsurgical pain in the top surgical journals. Results It was demonstrated that insufficient representation of this topic existed in 1981–2000, especially in surgical journals and textbooks. Interest in this topic began to increase, however, mostly regarding one specific surgery: herniorrhaphy. It is important that the change in the attitude toward chronic postsurgical pain spreads to other groups of surgeries. Conclusion Chronic postsurgical pain is still a neglected topic, except for pain after herniorrhaphy. The change in the attitude toward chronic postsurgical pain is the important first step in the approach to this problem. PMID:23152698

  13. Exploring simvastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug, as a potential topical antibacterial agent.

    PubMed

    Thangamani, Shankar; Mohammad, Haroon; Abushahba, Mostafa F N; Hamed, Maha I; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Hedrick, Victoria E; Paul, Lake N; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2015-11-10

    The rapid rise of bacterial resistance to traditional antibiotics combined with the decline in discovery of novel antibacterial agents has created a global public health crisis. Repurposing existing drugs presents an alternative strategy to potentially expedite the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs. The present study demonstrates that simvastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against important Gram-positive (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) and Gram-negative pathogens (once the barrier imposed by the outer membrane was permeabilized). Proteomics and macromolecular synthesis analyses revealed that simvastatin inhibits multiple biosynthetic pathways and cellular processes in bacteria, including selective interference of bacterial protein synthesis. This property appears to assist in simvastatin's ability to suppress production of key MRSA toxins (α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leucocidin) that impair healing of infected skin wounds. A murine MRSA skin infection experiment confirmed that simvastatin significantly reduces the bacterial burden and inflammatory cytokines in the infected wounds. Additionally, simvastatin exhibits excellent anti-biofilm activity against established staphylococcal biofilms and demonstrates the ability to be combined with topical antimicrobials currently used to treat MRSA skin infections. Collectively the present study lays the foundation for further investigation of repurposing simvastatin as a topical antibacterial agent to treat skin infections.

  14. Exploring simvastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug, as a potential topical antibacterial agent

    PubMed Central

    Thangamani, Shankar; Mohammad, Haroon; Abushahba, Mostafa F. N.; Hamed, Maha I.; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Hedrick, Victoria E.; Paul, Lake N.; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid rise of bacterial resistance to traditional antibiotics combined with the decline in discovery of novel antibacterial agents has created a global public health crisis. Repurposing existing drugs presents an alternative strategy to potentially expedite the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs. The present study demonstrates that simvastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against important Gram-positive (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) and Gram-negative pathogens (once the barrier imposed by the outer membrane was permeabilized). Proteomics and macromolecular synthesis analyses revealed that simvastatin inhibits multiple biosynthetic pathways and cellular processes in bacteria, including selective interference of bacterial protein synthesis. This property appears to assist in simvastatin’s ability to suppress production of key MRSA toxins (α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leucocidin) that impair healing of infected skin wounds. A murine MRSA skin infection experiment confirmed that simvastatin significantly reduces the bacterial burden and inflammatory cytokines in the infected wounds. Additionally, simvastatin exhibits excellent anti-biofilm activity against established staphylococcal biofilms and demonstrates the ability to be combined with topical antimicrobials currently used to treat MRSA skin infections. Collectively the present study lays the foundation for further investigation of repurposing simvastatin as a topical antibacterial agent to treat skin infections. PMID:26553420

  15. Comparative Effectiveness Topics from a Large, Integrated Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Danforth, Kim N; Patnode, Carrie D; Kapka, Tanya J; Butler, Melissa G; Collins, Bernadette; Compton-Phillips, Amy; Baxter, Raymond J; Weissberg, Jed; McGlynn, Elizabeth A; Whitlock, Evelyn P

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify high-priority comparative effectiveness questions directly relevant to care delivery in a large, US integrated health care system. Methods: In 2010, a total of 792 clinical and operational leaders in Kaiser Permanente were sent an electronic survey requesting nominations of comparative effectiveness research questions; most recipients (83%) had direct clinical roles. Nominated questions were divided into 18 surveys of related topics that included 9 to 23 questions for prioritization. The next year, 648 recipients were electronically sent 1 of the 18 surveys to prioritize nominated questions. Surveys were assigned to recipients on the basis of their nominations or specialty. High-priority questions were identified by comparing the frequency a question was selected to an “expected” frequency, calculated to account for the varying number of questions and respondents across prioritization surveys. High-priority questions were those selected more frequently than expected. Results: More than 320 research questions were nominated from 181 individuals. Questions most frequently addressed cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease; obesity, diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolic disorders; or service delivery and systems-level questions. Ninety-five high-priority research questions were identified, encompassing a wide range of health questions that ranged from prevention and screening to treatment and quality of life. Many were complex questions from a systems perspective regarding how to deliver the best care. Conclusions: The 95 questions identified and prioritized by leaders on the front lines of health care delivery may inform the national discussion regarding comparative effectiveness research. Additionally, our experience provides insight in engaging real-world stakeholders in setting a health care research agenda. PMID:24361013

  16. Cream formulation impact on topical administration of engineered colloidal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Santini, Benedetta; Zanoni, Ivan; Marzi, Roberta; Cigni, Clara; Bedoni, Marzia; Gramatica, Furio; Palugan, Luca; Corsi, Fabio; Granucci, Francesca; Colombo, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In order to minimize the impact of systemic toxicity of drugs in the treatment of local acute and chronic inflammatory reactions, the achievement of reliable and efficient delivery of therapeutics in/through the skin is highly recommended. While the use of nanoparticles is now an established practice for drug intravenous targeted delivery, their transdermal penetration is still poorly understood and this important administration route remains almost unexplored. In the present study, we have synthesized magnetic (iron oxide) nanoparticles (MNP) coated with an amphiphilic polymer, developed a water-in-oil emulsion formulation for their topical administration and compared the skin penetration routes with the same nanoparticles deposited as a colloidal suspension. Transmission and scanning electron microscopies provided ultrastructural evidence that the amphiphilic nanoparticles (PMNP) cream formulation allowed the efficient penetration through all the skin layers with a controllable kinetics compared to suspension formulation. In addition to the preferential follicular pathway, also the intracellular and intercellular routes were involved. PMNP that crossed all skin layers were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data suggests that combining PMNP amphiphilic character with cream formulation improves the intradermal penetration of nanoparticles. While PMNP administration in living mice via aqueous suspension resulted in preferential nanoparticle capture by phagocytes and migration to draining lymph nodes, cream formulation favored uptake by all the analyzed dermis cell types, including hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic. Unlike aqueous suspension, cream formulation also favored the maintenance of nanoparticles in the dermal architecture avoiding their dispersion and migration to draining lymph nodes via afferent lymphatics.

  17. Cream Formulation Impact on Topical Administration of Engineered Colloidal Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Marzi, Roberta; Cigni, Clara; Bedoni, Marzia; Gramatica, Furio; Palugan, Luca; Corsi, Fabio; Granucci, Francesca; Colombo, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In order to minimize the impact of systemic toxicity of drugs in the treatment of local acute and chronic inflammatory reactions, the achievement of reliable and efficient delivery of therapeutics in/through the skin is highly recommended. While the use of nanoparticles is now an established practice for drug intravenous targeted delivery, their transdermal penetration is still poorly understood and this important administration route remains almost unexplored. In the present study, we have synthesized magnetic (iron oxide) nanoparticles (MNP) coated with an amphiphilic polymer, developed a water-in-oil emulsion formulation for their topical administration and compared the skin penetration routes with the same nanoparticles deposited as a colloidal suspension. Transmission and scanning electron microscopies provided ultrastructural evidence that the amphiphilic nanoparticles (PMNP) cream formulation allowed the efficient penetration through all the skin layers with a controllable kinetics compared to suspension formulation. In addition to the preferential follicular pathway, also the intracellular and intercellular routes were involved. PMNP that crossed all skin layers were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data suggests that combining PMNP amphiphilic character with cream formulation improves the intradermal penetration of nanoparticles. While PMNP administration in living mice via aqueous suspension resulted in preferential nanoparticle capture by phagocytes and migration to draining lymph nodes, cream formulation favored uptake by all the analyzed dermis cell types, including hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic. Unlike aqueous suspension, cream formulation also favored the maintenance of nanoparticles in the dermal architecture avoiding their dispersion and migration to draining lymph nodes via afferent lymphatics. PMID:25962161

  18. Topic Time Series Analysis of Microblogs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    is generated by Instagram. Topic 80, Distance: 143.2101 Top words: 1. rawr 2. ˆ0ˆ 3. kill 4. jurassic 5. dinosaur Analysis: This topic is quite...center in Commerce, CA (a subdivision of Los Angeles). Topic 80, Distance: 6.6391 Top words: 1. rawr 2. ˆ0ˆ 3. kill 4. jurassic 5. dinosaur Analysis...8.65 0.90 0.040 ‘cold’ ‘af’ ‘outside’ 7.88 0.60 0.059 ‘chico’ ‘fluff’ ‘ice’ 9.10 0.19 0.002 ‘rawr’ ‘ dinosaur ’ ‘jurassic’ ‘seen’ 0.55 0.36 4.15 6.2

  19. Topical Therapy in Atopic Dermatitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sathishkumar, Dharshini; Moss, Celia

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic childhood skin disorder caused by complex genetic, immunological, and environmental interactions. It significantly impairs quality of life for both child and family. Treatment is complex and must be tailored to the individual taking into account personal, social, and emotional factors, as well as disease severity. This review covers the management of AD in children with topical treatments, focusing on: education and empowerment of patients and caregivers, avoidance of trigger factors, repair and maintenance of the skin barrier by correct use of emollients, control of inflammation with topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors, minimizing infection, and the use of bandages and body suits. PMID:27904185

  20. Heart block following topical latanoprost treatment

    PubMed Central

    De Smit, Elisabeth; Theodorou, Maria; Hildebrand, Göran Darius; Bloom, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of second degree heart block associated with topical latanoprost treatment. The authors discuss the possibility of a causative effect as the cessation of this treatment resulted in improvement of the arrhythmia. The authors highlight previous reports and research in humans and animals which demonstrate an association of arrhythmias with prostaglandin analogues. This report draws attention to the possibility that an extremely commonly prescribed topical drug may trigger arrhythmias in susceptible individuals. It is important that prescribers are aware of this possible side-effect. PMID:22679164

  1. Topical application of ivermectin for human ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Youssef, M Y; Sadaka, H A; Eissa, M M; el-Ariny, A F

    1995-12-01

    Ivermectin is used in veterinary practice against many ectoparasites and endoparasites and is the drug of choice for treatment of human onchocerciasis. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of topical application of this drug against human ectoparasites (Sarcoptes scabiei and Pediculus humanus capitis). Ivernectin was found to have a curative effect on head lice after a single topical application. In patients with scabies, the drug was also found to be effective after a single application. However, in 50% of the cases, another application was needed five days later.

  2. Advanced Topics in Control Systems Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorsa, Antonio; Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue, Françoise; Panteley, Elena

    Advanced Topics in Control Systems Theory contains selected contributions written by lecturers at the third (annual) Formation d'Automatique de Paris (FAP) (Graduate Control School in Paris). Following on from the lecture notes from the second FAP (Volume 311 in the same series) it is addressed to graduate students and researchers in control theory with topics touching on a variety of areas of interest to the control community such as nonlinear optimal control, observer design, stability analysis and structural properties of linear systems.

  3. Illustrative EDOF topics in Fourier optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Nicholas; Chen, Xi; Chi, Wanli

    2011-10-01

    In this talk we present a series of illustrative topics in Fourier Optics that are proving valuable in the design of EDOF camera systems. They are at the level of final examination problems that have been made solvable by a student or professoi having studied from one of Joseph W. Goodman's books---our tribute for his 75fr year. As time permits, four illustrative topics are l) Electromagnetic waves and Fourier optics;2) The perfect lens; 3) Connection between phase delay and radially varying focal length in an asphere and 4) tailored EDOF designs.

  4. Effect of topical isopropyl unoprostone on macular atrophy progression in eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Shiragami, Chieko; Miyake, Masahiro; Fujiwara, Atsushi; Morizane, Yuki; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Yamashita, Ayana; Shiraga, Fumio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical isopropyl unoprostone (IU) in treating macular atrophy in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. Methods: Fifty-two AMD patients with macular atrophy were included and randomly assigned (1:1) to the treatment (topical 0.15% IU) or placebo group. Subjects used study eye drops 3 times a day for 54 weeks. The macular atrophy was documented on fundus autofluorescence photographs and measured using RegionFinder. The enlargement rate of macular atrophy and the changes in visual acuity were examined statistically between baseline and 54 weeks. Results: Forty-eight subjects were included in the analyses because 4 subjects withdrew from the study. The differences between the IU and placebo groups in mean and median area of macular atrophy were not statistically significant at baseline. The baseline median lesion size of macular atrophy was 2.33 mm2 in the IU group and 1.63 mm2 in the placebo group (P = 0.51). The intergroup difference in the enlargement ratio of macular atrophy (21 ± 15% in the IU group and 111 ± 96% in the placebo group) was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Additionally, visual acuity tended to improve over baseline in the IU group. No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions: Topical IU therapy is safe and effective for treating macular atrophy in AMD patients. PMID:28328847

  5. Topic Congruence and Topic Interest: How Do They Affect Second Language Reading Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang-Ki

    2009-01-01

    Because human memory is largely reconstructive, people tend to reorganize and reevaluate an event in a way that is coherent to the truth values held in their belief system. This study investigated the role of topic congruence (defined as whether the reading content corresponds with readers' prior beliefs towards a contentious topic) in second…

  6. Topical imiquimod yields systemic effects due to unintended oral uptake.

    PubMed

    Grine, Lynda; Steeland, Sophie; Van Ryckeghem, Sara; Ballegeer, Marlies; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried; Sanders, Niek N; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E; Libert, Claude

    2016-01-28

    Repetitive application of topical imiquimod is used as an experimental model for the induction of psoriasiform skin lesions in mice. The model is characterized by several inflammatory processes, including cytokine production both locally and systemically, cellular infiltration, and splenomegaly. To investigate the production of type I interferons in response to imiquimod-containing Aldara cream, IFNβ-luciferase reporter mice were imaged in vivo and ex vivo. Type I interferons were found to be produced in the skin, but also in the intestinal system caused by unintended ingestion of imiquimod by the mice. Through the use of Elizabethan collars to prevent ingestion, these effects, including psoriasiform lesions were nearly completely prevented. Our findings reveal that topical treatment with Aldara induces a psoriasiform skin inflammation, but that its mode of action depends on ingestion of the chemical, which leads to systemic responses and affects local inflammation. Therefore, potential ingestion of topical treatments during experimental procedures should be taken into account during assessment of cutaneous inflammatory parameters in skin disease models.

  7. Topical imiquimod yields systemic effects due to unintended oral uptake

    PubMed Central

    Grine, Lynda; Steeland, Sophie; Van Ryckeghem, Sara; Ballegeer, Marlies; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried; Sanders, Niek N.; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E.; Libert, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive application of topical imiquimod is used as an experimental model for the induction of psoriasiform skin lesions in mice. The model is characterized by several inflammatory processes, including cytokine production both locally and systemically, cellular infiltration, and splenomegaly. To investigate the production of type I interferons in response to imiquimod-containing Aldara cream, IFNβ-luciferase reporter mice were imaged in vivo and ex vivo. Type I interferons were found to be produced in the skin, but also in the intestinal system caused by unintended ingestion of imiquimod by the mice. Through the use of Elizabethan collars to prevent ingestion, these effects, including psoriasiform lesions were nearly completely prevented. Our findings reveal that topical treatment with Aldara induces a psoriasiform skin inflammation, but that its mode of action depends on ingestion of the chemical, which leads to systemic responses and affects local inflammation. Therefore, potential ingestion of topical treatments during experimental procedures should be taken into account during assessment of cutaneous inflammatory parameters in skin disease models. PMID:26818707

  8. Topical immunomodulators--progress towards treating inflammation, infection, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Hengge, U R; Benninghoff, B; Ruzicka, T; Goos, M

    2001-10-01

    Immunomodulators include both immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive agents. Only recently have the basic mechanisms of topical immunotherapy been elucidated. Besides topical contact sensitisers (eg, diphencyprone or dinitrochlorobenzene), newer agents of the imidazoquinoline family such as imiquimod and resiquimod act by inducing cytokine secretion from monocytes or macrophages (interferon-alpha, interleukin-12, tumour-necrosis factor-alpha). The locally generated immune milieu leads to a Th1-dominance and cell-mediated immunity that have been used clinically to treat viral infections such as human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), mollusca, and cancerous lesions including initial squamous cell and basal cell carcinoma in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients. While these agents improve antigen-presentation by dendritic cells, they also act on B cells and lead to the synthesis of antibodies such as IgG2a much like the recently discovered immunostimulatory CpG-sequences that stimulate innate immunity. These sequences act as "danger signals" since they occur in bacterial and viral DNA, but are selectively methylated and inactivated in the mammalian genome. They share the induction of the same cytokines as imidazoquinolines but they show different magnitudes and kinetics of response. Topical immunotherapy with immunostimulatory agents shows potential for effective and patient-friendly treatment of inflammatory, infectious, and cancerous skin diseases. Immunoenhancers such as imdazoquinolines and CpG-sequences also have adjuvant properties that could improve conventional (protein) and DNA vaccination against cancer, atopy, and allergies.

  9. Enhanced epidermal localization of topically applied steroids using SPACE™ peptide.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunny; Chen, Ming; Anselmo, Aaron C; Muraski, John A; Mitragotri, Samir

    2015-10-01

    The balance of efficacy and safety of topical corticosteroids (TCs) depends on their ability to penetrate into and be retained within the skin. Here, we evaluated the ability of SPACE™ peptide to enhance epidermal delivery and localization of three model TCs. In vitro and in vivo skin penetration studies were performed to evaluate penetration of TCs into and across the skin in the presence of various formulations of SPACE™ peptide. Topical formulations of corticosterone containing free SPACE™ peptide produced significantly enhanced epidermal penetration and localization. Ratio of drug deposition in the skin and receiver (efficacy/safety, indicative of ratio of local to systemic uptake) exhibited higher values for SPACE™ peptide-based formulation as compared to aqueous and hydroethanolic solutions and Cortizone™ cream. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that SPACE™ peptide associates with corticosterone, which may explain its enhanced retention effect. SPACE™ peptide also enhanced dermal retention of two more TCs (hydrocortisone and triamcinolone acetonide) compared to the vehicle control. An in vivo study in mice further established the ability of SPACE™ peptide to enhance skin retention of hydrocortisone without producing elevated blood concentrations. These results show that SPACE™ peptide is an effective additive to the formulation for enhanced skin localization of topical steroids.

  10. Achieving hemostasis in dermatology-Part II: Topical hemostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Glick, Jaimie B; Kaur, Ravneet R; Siegel, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Bleeding is a common occurrence during any dermatologic surgery that disrupts blood vessels. The complications of excess bleeding can include delayed wound healing, hematoma formation, infection, dehiscence, and necrosis. In part one of this review, we discussed the pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative management of patients undergoing dermatologic surgery. In Part two, we discuss traditional and new topical hemostatic agents used to achieve hemostasis in dermatological procedures and surgery. We will evaluate the caustic and non-caustic hemostatic agents as well as hemostatic dressings. The mechanisms of action, side effect profile, and advantages and disadvantages of the topical hemostatic agents are provided. Sources for this article were found searching the English literature in PubMed for the time period 1940 to March 2012. A thorough bibliography search was also performed and key references examined.

  11. Conference report: hot topics in antibody-drug conjugate development.

    PubMed

    Thudium, Karen; Bilic, Sanela

    2013-12-01

    American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists National Biotechnology Conference Sheraton San Diego Hotel and Marina, San Diego, CA, USA, 19-23 May 2013 The National Biotechnology Conference, is a premier meeting for biotechnology professionals covering a broad range of hot topics in the biotechnology industry. Attracting participants from academia, industry and regulatory, this meeting features sessions that aim to address emerging subjects of interest and allows for open exchange between scientists. The 2013 conference featured leading researchers in the fields of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) and immunogenicity. Herein, we present a summary of the ADC hot topics, including bioanalytical and PK considerations, quantitative evaluation of the impact of immunogenicity and ADME to understand ADC drug-drug interactions, and clinical considerations for ADC development. This article aims to summarize the recommendations that were made by the speakers during various sessions throughout the conference.

  12. US Support Program Topical Meetings 1999 to 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper,S.

    2008-06-10

    In 1999, the International Safeguards Project Office began organizing topical workshops to explore technical issues facing the International Atomic Energy Agency's Department of Safeguards. Representatives from IAEA member states including the United States, national laboratories and companies were invited to the workshops to discuss the technical issues. In some cases professional facilitators were hired to lead the discussions and in some cases business gaming techniques were employed. Since 1999, the following topics have been addressed Data Communication Technologies (1999), Information Security (2000), Design and Testing for High Reliability (2001), Standardization and Integration of Unattended and Remote Monitoring Systems (2002), Roadmapping: Surveillance (2003), IAEA Seals Technology Roadmapping Workshop (2004), Turning Information Into Knowledge (2004), Safeguards Tools of the Future (2005), and Advanced Sensors for Safeguards (2007). This paper will review the scope of the workshops and summarize their results.

  13. Brian Barry: innovative contributions to transdermal and topical drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Williams, A C

    2013-01-01

    Brian Barry published over 300 research articles across topics ranging from colloid science, vasoconstriction and the importance of thermodynamics in dermal drug delivery to exploring the structure and organisation of the stratum corneum barrier lipids and numerous strategies for improving topical and transdermal drug delivery, including penetration enhancers, supersaturation, coacervation, eutectic formation and the use of varied liposomes. As research in the area blossomed in the early 1980s, Brian wrote the book that became essential reading for both new and established dermal delivery scientists, explaining the background mathematics and principles through to formulation design. Brian also worked with numerous scientists, as collaborators and students, who have themselves taken his rigorous approach to scientific investigation into their own research groups. This paper can only describe a small fraction of the many significant contributions that Brian made to the field during his 40-year academic career.

  14. Employment, Training, and Literacy Enhancement Act of 1997. Report of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, on H.R. 1385 Together with Additional and Dissenting Views [Including Cost Estimate of the Congressional Budget Office], 105th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document contains the text of the Employment, Training, and Literacy Enhancement Act of 1997, as amended by committee, including the titles that cover the following: general provisions; employment and training programs for disadvantaged youth; federally administered programs; adult education programs; miscellaneous provisions; the State Human…

  15. Some topics on scale-invariant perturbations from noninflationary universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingzhe

    In this paper, we review some topics on generations of scale-invariant primordial scalar and tensor perturbations in the early universe models different from inflation. The content includes generation of scale-invariant and Gaussian scalar perturbation in the ekpyrotic/cyclic universe, and production scale-invariant tensor perturbation in contracting universe. The main property of the models reviewed in this paper is the nonminimal couplings, include nonminimal couplings between the scalar fields and those to the gravity. By introducing these couplings, it is not difficult to achieve scale-invariances for the perturbations in the early universe models alternative to inflation.

  16. Three Activities To Assist Biology Teachers in Presenting Conceptually Difficult Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Neil; Tulip, David

    1997-01-01

    Outlines three activities for different areas of biology that can serve as motivators for students or as demonstrations. Each activity is easy to organize and uses available materials. Topics include evolution, anaerobic respiration, and heat loss. (DDR)

  17. Topics for Mathematics Clubs. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, LeRoy C., Ed.; Snyder, Henry D., Ed.

    One of the main purposes of a mathematics club is to provide the opportunity for students to study exciting topics in mathematics not ordinarily discussed in the classroom. Each of the 10 chapters in this booklet is a collection of related subtopics. Each idea is presented and discussed; bibliographies then suggest in-depth reading. The chapters…

  18. Topics in the Nez Perce Verb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Amy Rose

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates several topics in the morphology, syntax and semantics of the Nez Perce verb and verbal clause. The first part of the dissertation focuses on the morphological segmentation of the Nez Perce verb and on the semantic description of the verb and clause. Chapter 1 provides a grammar sketch. Chapter 2 discusses the…

  19. Hot topics in flavor physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Soon Yung; /Carnegie Mellon U.

    2005-01-01

    Hot topics in flavor physics at CDF are reviewed. Selected results of top, beauty, charm physics and exotic states in about 200 pb{sup -1} data collected by the CDF II detector in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron are presented.

  20. Entity Network Prediction Using Multitype Topic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozaki, Hitohiro; Eguchi, Koji; Ohkawa, Takenao

    Conveying information about who, what, when and where is a primary purpose of some genres of documents, typically news articles. Statistical models that capture dependencies between named entities and topics can play an important role. Although some relationships between who and where should be mentioned in such a document, no statistical topic models explicitly address in handling such information the textual interactions between a who-entity and a where-entity. This paper presents a statistical model that directly captures the dependencies between an arbitrary number of word types, such as who-entities, where-entities and topics, mentioned in each document. We show that this multitype topic model performs better at making predictions on entity networks, in which each vertex represents an entity and each edge weight represents how a pair of entities at the incident vertices is closely related, through our experiments on predictions of who-entities and links between them. We also demonstrate the scale-free property in the weighted networks of entities extracted from written mentions.

  1. Nonsteroidal Topical Immunomodulators in Allergology and Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Jovanović, Marina; Golušin, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review currently available literature data concerning pathomechanisms of action, indications, treatment efficacy, as well as side effects of nonsteroidal immunomodulators used in dermatology, primarily for the treatment of allergic dermatoses. MEDLINE search was undertaken using the key words “Topical Immunomodulators, Dermatology and Allergy”. Full articles, and nothing but full articles, were used. PMID:27144167

  2. Topical Antimicrobials for Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Hashmi, Javad T.; Kurup, Divya B.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout most of history, serious burns occupying a large percentage of body surface area were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the burn milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the burned skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make burns particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to burns, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat burn infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating burn infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active area of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for burns that will battle against growing multi-drug resistance. PMID:20429870

  3. Treatment of geographic tongue with topical tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Purani, Jigar M; Purani, Hiral J

    2014-01-01

    Geographic tongue is an inflammatory condition of the dorsal surface and lateral border of the tongue, which may be asymptomatic. This article presents a case of geographic tongue in a 6-year-old child. Successful management was achieved with topical application of 0.1% tacrolimus. PMID:25085945

  4. Use of Probabilistic Topic Models for Search

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    software god greek play medical computer christian zeus team acupuncture hardware chruch mythology player disease video jesus gods football pain disk...P̂ (w|T ) = KPK k=1 1 P (w| zk ) , in which K denotes the number of samples taken. The number of topics, that maximizes P̂ (w|T ) will then be accepted

  5. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    SciTech Connect

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2007-02-15

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. Also by relating a topic's interestingness to an article's interestingness, iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 9% to 14% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  6. Faculty Perspectives on International Accounting Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, L. Murphy; Salter, Stephen B.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 63 professors specializing in international accounting identified the following topics as most important to incorporate into the curriculum: (1) foreign currency translation; (2) international accounting standards; (3) comparative standards and harmonizing of accounting standards; (4) reporting and disclosure problems of multinational…

  7. Rickets: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health, Office of Dietary Supplements) Also in Spanish Vitamin D Deficiency (Beyond the Basics) (UpToDate) Vitamin D Test (American ... email What's this? GO GO Related Health Topics Vitamin D Deficiency National Institutes of Health The primary NIH organization ...

  8. Major Topics of School Business Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, James E., Ed.; Hertz, Karl V., Ed.

    Thirteen articles on major topics facing school business officials in the 1980s are presented in this book. The titles and their authors are (1) "The Pursuit of Equity in Financing Public Education," by R. Craig Wood, Helene B. Jones, and William L. Riley; (2) "Facilities: Major Issues Ahead," by C. William Day; (3)…

  9. Topics in physico-chemical hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Sivashinsky, G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: theory of turbulent flame speed; flame extinction by periodic flow-field; influence of swirl on the structure and extinction of premixed flames; propagation and extinction of nonsteady spherical flame fronts; geometrically invariant formulation of intrinsic dynamics of premixed flames; nonlinear dynamics of oscillatory regime of premixed combustion; and pattern formation in premixed flames. (LSP)

  10. Recent Topics on Electrical Discharge Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Toshiki

    Resent topics on electrical-discharge-related technologies along with the research activities of the technical committee on electrical discharges (TC-ED) of IEEJ are presented briefly. Following the introduction of the major research subjects that TC-ED is responsible to cover, a few examples of the investigating R&D committees' (IRDCs) activity are mentioned.

  11. Sports Safety: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... back injury (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Sports Safety updates by email What's this? GO GO MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA Back pain and sports How to avoid exercise injuries Returning to sports after a back injury ...

  12. Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reported Cases According to FDA chemist Reynold Tan, Ph.D., there have been 43 reported cases of burns associated with the use of OTC topical muscle and joint pain relievers containing the active ingredients menthol, methyl salicylate and capsaicin. These cases ...

  13. Interview "Problems" as Topics for Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulston, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author argues that interactional difficulties and questioning practices identified in the methodological literature on qualitative interviewing as "problems" provide topics of analysis. Methodological examinations of interview data drawing on conversation analysis also explicate how interview "problems" may be conceptualized in…

  14. Topics in sub-Riemannian geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrachev, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Sub-Riemannian geometry is the geometry of spaces with non-holonomic constraints. This paper presents an informal survey of some topics in this area, starting with the construction of geodesic curves and ending with a recent definition of curvature. Bibliography: 28 titles.

  15. It's Elementary: Special Topics in Elementary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia A., Ed.; Burriss, Kathleen Glascott, Ed.

    As elementary teachers work to educate and meet the needs of the students in their care, their job has become increasingly challenging and demanding. This volume addresses a variety of issues and topics related to elementary education around eight sectional themes relevant to the work of elementary teachers: celebrating diversity, classroom…

  16. Expose Mechanical Engineering Students to Biomechanics Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Hui

    2011-01-01

    To adapt the focus of engineering education to emerging new industries and technologies nationwide and in the local area, a biomechanics module has been developed and incorporated into a mechanical engineering technical elective course to expose mechanical engineering students at ONU (Ohio Northern University) to the biomedical engineering topics.…

  17. Common Core: Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karge, Belinda Dunnick; Moore, Roxane Kushner

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core has become a household term and yet many educators do not understand what it means. This article explains the historical perspectives of the Common Core and gives guidance to teachers in application of Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE) necessary for full implementation of the Common Core State Standards. An effective…

  18. Do topical antibiotics help corneal epithelial trauma?

    PubMed Central

    King, J. W.; Brison, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Topical antibiotics are routinely used in emergency rooms to treat corneal trauma, although no published evidence supports this treatment. In a noncomparative clinical trial, 351 patients with corneal epithelial injuries were treated without antibiotics. The infection rate was 0.7%, suggesting that such injuries can be safely and effectively managed without antibiotics. A comparative clinical trial is neither warranted nor feasible. PMID:8268742

  19. Topical Administration of Somatostatin Prevents Retinal Neurodegeneration in Experimental Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Cristina; García-Ramírez, Marta; Corraliza, Lidia; Fernández-Carneado, Jimena; Farrera-Sinfreu, Josep; Ponsati, Berta; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Valverde, Ángela M.; Simó, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Retinal neurodegeneration is an early event in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Somatostatin (SST) is an endogenous neuroprotective peptide that is downregulated in the diabetic eye. The aim of the study was to test the usefulness of topical administration of SST in preventing retinal neurodegeneration. For this purpose, rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (STZ-DM) were treated with either SST eye drops or vehicle for 15 days. Nondiabetic rats treated with vehicle served as a control group. Functional abnormalities were assessed by electroretinography (ERG), and neurodegeneration was assessed by measuring glial activation and the apoptotic rate. In addition, proapoptotic (FasL, Bid, and activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3) and survival signaling pathways (BclxL) were examined. Intraretinal concentrations of glutamate and its main transporter glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) were also determined. Treatment with SST eye drops prevented ERG abnormalities, glial activation, apoptosis, and the misbalance between proapoptotic and survival signaling detected in STZ-DM rats. In addition, SST eye drops inhibited glutamate accumulation in the retina and GLAST downregulation induced by diabetes mellitus. We conclude that topical administration of SST has a potent effect in preventing retinal neurodegeneration induced by diabetes mellitus. In addition, our findings open up a new preventive pharmacological strategy targeted to early stages of DR. PMID:23474487

  20. Exploring the Multifaceted Topic of Climate Change in Our Changing Climate and Living With Our Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. A.; Kauffman, C.; Geer, I. W.; Mills, E. W.; Nugnes, K. A.; Stimach, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    As the effects of climate change become more profound, climate literacy becomes increasingly important. The American Meteorological Society (AMS) responds to this need through the publication of Our Changing Climate and Living With Our Changing Climate. Both publications incorporate the latest scientific understandings of Earth's climate system from reports such as IPCC AR5 and the USGCRP's Third National Climate Assessment. Topic In Depth sections appear throughout each chapter and lead to more extensive, multidisciplinary information related to various topics. Additionally, each chapter closes with a For Further Exploration essay, which addresses specific topics that complement a chapter concept. Web Resources, which encourage additional exploration of chapter content, and Scientific Literature, from which chapter content was derived can also be found at the conclusion of each chapter. Our Changing Climate covers a breadth of topics, including the scientific principles that govern Earth's climate system and basic statistics and geospatial tools used to investigate the system. Released in fall 2015, Living With Our Changing Climate takes a more narrow approach and investigates human and ecosystem vulnerabilities to climate change, the role of energy choices in affecting climate, actions humans can take through adaption, mitigation, and policy to lessen vulnerabilities, and psychological and financial reasons behind climate change denial. While Living With Our Changing Climate is intended for programs looking to add a climate element into their curriculum, Our Changing Climate is part of the AMS Climate Studies course. In a 2015 survey of California University of Pennsylvania undergraduate students using Our Changing Climate, 82% found it comfortable to read and utilized its interactive components and resources. Both ebooks illuminate the multidisciplinary aspect of climate change, providing the opportunity for a more sustainable future.

  1. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Nivel 2a: Suma y Resta de Numeros Enteros (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Level 2a: Addition and Subtraction of Whole Numbers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include addition and subtraction. (MK)

  2. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 6a: Suma de Fracciones (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 6a: Addition of Fractions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include addition of fractions and mixed numbers. (MK)

  3. Inhibition of akt enhances the chemopreventive effects of topical rapamycin in mouse skin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, Sally E; Janda, Jaroslav; Criswell, Jane; Blohm-Mangone, Karen; Olson, Erik R.; Liu, Zhonglin; Barber, Christie; Rusche, Jadrian J.; Petricoin, Emmanuel; Calvert, Valerie; Einspahr, Janine G.; Dickinson, Jesse; Stratton, Steven P.; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Saboda, Kathylynn; Hu, Chengcheng; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang; Alberts, David S.; Bowden, G. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The PI3Kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway has important roles in cancer development for multiple tumor types, including UV-induced non-melanoma skin cancer. Immunosuppressed populations are at increased risk of aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Individuals who are treated with rapamycin, (sirolimus, a classical mTOR inhibitor) have significantly decreased rates of developing new cutaneous SCCs compared to those that receive traditional immunosuppression. However, systemic rapamycin use can lead to significant adverse events. Here we explored the use of topical rapamycin as a chemopreventive agent in the context of solar simulated light (SSL)-induced skin carcinogenesis. In SKH-1 mice, topical rapamycin treatment decreased tumor yields when applied after completion of 15 weeks of SSL exposure compared to controls. However, applying rapamycin during SSL exposure for 15 weeks, and continuing for 10 weeks after UV treatment, increased tumor yields. We also examined whether a combinatorial approach might result in more significant tumor suppression by rapamycin. We validated that rapamycin causes increased Akt (S473) phosphorylation in the epidermis after SSL, and show for the first time that this dysregulation can be inhibited in vivo by a selective PDK1/Akt inhibitor, PHT-427. Combining rapamycin with PHT-427 on tumor prone skin additively caused a significant reduction of tumor multiplicity compared to vehicle controls. Our findings indicate that patients taking rapamycin should avoid sun exposure, and that combining topical mTOR inhibitors and Akt inhibitors may be a viable chemoprevention option for individuals at high risk for cutaneous SCC.

  4. Inhibition of Akt Enhances the Chemopreventive Effects of Topical Rapamycin in Mouse Skin.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Sally E; Janda, Jaroslav; Criswell, Jane; Blohm-Mangone, Karen; Olson, Erik R; Liu, Zhonglin; Barber, Christy; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Calvert, Valerie S; Einspahr, Janine; Dickinson, Jesse E; Stratton, Steven P; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Saboda, Kathylynn; Hu, Chengcheng; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang; Alberts, David S; Timothy Bowden, G

    2016-03-01

    The PI3Kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway has important roles in cancer development for multiple tumor types, including UV-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer. Immunosuppressed populations are at increased risk of aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Individuals who are treated with rapamycin (sirolimus, a classical mTOR inhibitor) have significantly decreased rates of developing new cutaneous SCCs compared with those that receive traditional immunosuppression. However, systemic rapamycin use can lead to significant adverse events. Here, we explored the use of topical rapamycin as a chemopreventive agent in the context of solar-simulated light (SSL)-induced skin carcinogenesis. In SKH-1 mice, topical rapamycin treatment decreased tumor yields when applied after completion of 15 weeks of SSL exposure compared with controls. However, applying rapamycin during SSL exposure for 15 weeks, and continuing for 10 weeks after UV treatment, increased tumor yields. We also examined whether a combinatorial approach might result in more significant tumor suppression by rapamycin. We validated that rapamycin causes increased Akt (S473) phosphorylation in the epidermis after SSL, and show for the first time that this dysregulation can be inhibited in vivo by a selective PDK1/Akt inhibitor, PHT-427. Combining rapamycin with PHT-427 on tumor prone skin additively caused a significant reduction of tumor multiplicity compared with vehicle controls. Our findings indicate that patients taking rapamycin should avoid sun exposure, and that combining topical mTOR inhibitors and Akt inhibitors may be a viable chemoprevention option for individuals at high risk for cutaneous SCC.

  5. Using Touch Screen Audio-CASI to Obtain Data on Sensitive Topics

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Philip C.; Rogers, Susan M.; Turner, Charles F.; Al-Tayyib, Alia A.; Willis, Gordon; Ganapathi, Laxminarayana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new interview data collection system that uses a laptop personal computer equipped with a touch-sensitive video monitor. The touch-screen-based audio computer-assisted self-interviewing system, or touch screen audio-CASI, enhances the ease of use of conventional audio CASI systems while simultaneously providing the privacy of self-administered questionnaires. We describe touch screen audio-CASI design features and operational characteristics. In addition, we present data from a recent clinic-based experiment indicating that the touch audio-CASI system is stable, robust, and suitable for administering relatively long and complex questionnaires on sensitive topics, including drug use and sexual behaviors associated with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:22081744

  6. Using Touch Screen Audio-CASI to Obtain Data on Sensitive Topics.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Philip C; Rogers, Susan M; Turner, Charles F; Al-Tayyib, Alia A; Willis, Gordon; Ganapathi, Laxminarayana

    2001-05-01

    This paper describes a new interview data collection system that uses a laptop personal computer equipped with a touch-sensitive video monitor. The touch-screen-based audio computer-assisted self-interviewing system, or touch screen audio-CASI, enhances the ease of use of conventional audio CASI systems while simultaneously providing the privacy of self-administered questionnaires. We describe touch screen audio-CASI design features and operational characteristics. In addition, we present data from a recent clinic-based experiment indicating that the touch audio-CASI system is stable, robust, and suitable for administering relatively long and complex questionnaires on sensitive topics, including drug use and sexual behaviors associated with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.

  7. Successful treatment of plasma cell cheilitis with topical tacrolimus: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Hanami, Yuka; Motoki, Yoshikazu; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2011-02-15

    Plasma cell cheilitis is an uncommon chronic inflammatory dermatitis that presents with flat to slightly elevated erosive erythematous plaques. It is histologically characterized by plasma cell infiltrates into the mucosa. Other than the lip, genital areas are often involved, which is called plasma cell balanitis or vulvitis. Plasma cell cheilitis is sometimes resistant to conventional topical corticosteroid therapy. Other choices include oral griseofulvin, topical cyclosporine, and intralesional corticosteroid injection, all of which occasionally fail to produce satisfactory results. Recent reports show that topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective for plasma cell cheilitis, balanitis, and vulvitis. However, there are so far only 2 reports of plasma cell cheilitis successfully treated with topical pimecrolimus and tacrolimus. We present herein two cases of plasma cell cheilitis, in which topical tacrolimus showed beneficial effects, suggesting that this immunomodulatory agent is a promising option for plasma cell cheilitis.

  8. A Comprehensive Review of Topical Odor-Controlling Treatment Options for Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Akhmetova, Alma; Allan, Iain U.; Illsley, Matthew J.; Nurgozhin, Talgat; Mikhalovsky, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    The process of wound healing is often accompanied by bacterial infection or critical colonization, resulting in protracted inflammation, delayed reepithelization, and production of pungent odors. The malodor produced by these wounds may lower health-related quality of life and produce psychological discomfort and social isolation. Current management focuses on reducing bacterial activity within the wound site and absorbing malodorous gases. For example, charcoal-based materials have been incorporated into dressing for direct adsorption of the responsible gases. In addition, multiple topical agents, including silver, iodine, honey, sugar, and essential oils, have been suggested for incorporation into dressings in an attempt to control the underlying bacterial infection. This review describes options for controlling malodor in chronic wounds, the benefits and drawbacks of each topical agent, and their mode of action. We also discuss the use of subjective odor evaluation techniques to assess the efficacy of odor-controlling therapies. The perspectives of employing novel biomaterials and technologies for wound odor management are also presented. PMID:27684356

  9. Development of a Topical Treatment for Psoriasis Targeting RORγ: From Bench to Skin

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Yukimasa; Bui, Thi; Neil, Jessica; Rickard, David; Millerman, Elizabeth; Therrien, Jean-Philippe; Nicodeme, Edwige; Brusq, Jean-Marie; Birault, Veronique; Viviani, Fabrice; Hofland, Hans; Jetten, Anton M.; Cote-Sierra, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Background Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder involving marked immunological changes. IL-17-targeting biologics have been successful in reducing the disease burden of psoriasis patients with moderate-to-severe disease. Unfortunately, the stratum corneum prevents penetration of large molecule weight proteins, including monoclonal antibodies. Thus, for the majority of psoriasis patients ineligible for systemic treatments, a small molecule targeting RORγt, the master regulator of IL-17 family cytokines, may represent an alternative topical medicine with biologic-like efficacy. Methods and Findings The preclinical studies described in this manuscript bridge the gap from bench to bedside to provide the scientific foundation for a compound entering clinical trials for patients with mild to moderate psoriasis. In addition to several ex vivo reporter assays, primary T cell cultures, and the imiquimod mouse model, we demonstrate efficacy in a newly developed human ex vivo skin assay, where Th17-skewed cytokine expression is induced from skin-resident immune cells. Importantly, the skin barrier remains intact allowing for the demonstration of topical drug delivery. With the development of this novel assay, we demonstrate potent compound activity in the target tissue: human skin. Finally, target engagement by this small molecule was confirmed in ex vivo lesional psoriatic skin. Conclusions Our work describes a progressive series of assays to demonstrate the potential clinical value of a novel RORγ inverse agonist small molecule with high potency and selectivity, which will enter clinical trials in late 2015 for psoriasis patients. PMID:26870941

  10. Assessment of dermal safety of Scutellaria baicalensis aqueous extract topical application on skin hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Won; Song, In-Bae; Lee, Hong-Ki; Kim, Myoung-Seok; Ham, Seoung-Ho; Cho, Jung-Hee; Lim, Jong-Hwan; Yun, Hyo-In

    2013-07-01

    Scutellaria baicalensis has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for bronchitis, hepatitis, and allergic diseases. The root of Scutellaria baicalensis contains active flavonoid components, including baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, and wogonin, which have pharmaceutical properties. In the present study, the antiallergic properties of a standardized aqueous extract of S. baicalensis were evaluated, and the skin toxicity of its dermal application was also determined. The in vivo and in vitro assays were performed by using the β-hexosaminidase assay in rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3) and cutaneous skin reaction in BALB/c mice, respectively. In addition, the acute dermal irritation/corrosion test was carried out in New Zealand white rabbits, and the skin sensitization test was conducted by Buhler's method in Hartley guinea pigs to estimate the safety of the standardized aqueous extract of S. baicalensis for topical application. β-Hexosaminidase release in RBL-2H3 was markedly decreased following treatment with the standardized aqueous extract of S. baicalensis. It also ameliorated antigen-induced ear swelling compared with the control group in BALB/c mice. In the toxicological studies, it did not induce any dermal irritation/corrosion in rabbits or skin sensitization in guinea pigs. Although still limited, these results concerning the toxicological effects of S. baicalensis could be an initial step toward the topical application of S. baicalensis extracts on hypersensitive skin.

  11. Phase IIB Randomized Study of Topical Difluoromethylornithine and Topical Diclofenac on Sun-Damaged Skin of the Forearm.

    PubMed

    Jeter, Joanne M; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Stratton, Steven P; Myrdal, Paul B; Warneke, James A; Einspahr, Janine G; Bartels, Hubert G; Yozwiak, Michael; Bermudez, Yira; Hu, Chengcheng; Bartels, Peter; Alberts, David S

    2016-02-01

    Prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancers remains a health priority due to high costs associated with this disease. Diclofenac and difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) have demonstrated chemopreventive efficacy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. We designed a randomized study of the combination of DFMO and diclofenac in the treatment of sun-damaged skin. Individuals with visible cutaneous sun damage were eligible. Subjects were randomized to one of the three groups: topical DFMO applied twice daily, topical diclofenac applied daily, or DFMO plus diclofenac. The treatment was limited to an area on the left forearm, and the duration of use was 90 days. We hypothesized that combination therapy would have increased efficacy compared with single-agent therapy. The primary outcome was change in karyometric average nuclear abnormality (ANA) in the treated skin. Individuals assessing the biomarkers were blinded regarding the treatment for each subject. A total of 156 subjects were randomized; 144 had baseline and end-of-study biopsies, and 136 subjects completed the study. The ANA unexpectedly increased for all groups, with higher values correlating with clinical cutaneous inflammation. Nearly all of the adverse events were local cutaneous effects. One subject had cutaneous toxicity that required treatment discontinuation. Significantly more adverse events were seen in the groups taking diclofenac. Overall, the study indicated that the addition of topical DFMO to topical diclofenac did not enhance its activity. Both agents caused inflammation on a cellular and clinical level, which may have confounded the measurement of chemopreventive effects. More significant effects may be observed in subjects with greater baseline cutaneous damage.

  12. Topic segmentation via community detection in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Arruda, Henrique F.; Costa, Luciano da F.; Amancio, Diego R.

    2016-06-01

    Many real systems have been modeled in terms of network concepts, and written texts are a particular example of information networks. In recent years, the use of network methods to analyze language has allowed the discovery of several interesting effects, including the proposition of novel models to explain the emergence of fundamental universal patterns. While syntactical networks, one of the most prevalent networked models of written texts, display both scale-free and small-world properties, such a representation fails in capturing other textual features, such as the organization in topics or subjects. We propose a novel network representation whose main purpose is to capture the semantical relationships of words in a simple way. To do so, we link all words co-occurring in the same semantic context, which is defined in a threefold way. We show that the proposed representations favor the emergence of communities of semantically related words, and this feature may be used to identify relevant topics. The proposed methodology to detect topics was applied to segment selected Wikipedia articles. We found that, in general, our methods outperform traditional bag-of-words representations, which suggests that a high-level textual representation may be useful to study the semantical features of texts.

  13. Randomized clinical trial of topical tranexamic acid after reduction mammoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ausen, K; Fossmark, R; Spigset, O; Pleym, H

    2015-01-01

    Background The antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid is currently being rediscovered for both trauma and major surgery. Intravenous administration reduces the need for blood transfusion and blood loss by about one-third, but routine administration in surgery is not yet advocated owing to concerns regarding thromboembolic events. The aim of this study was to investigate whether topical application of tranexamic acid to a wound surface reduces postoperative bleeding. Methods This was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial on 30 consecutive women undergoing bilateral reduction mammoplasty. On one side the wound surfaces were moistened with 25 mg/ml tranexamic acid before closure, and placebo (saline) was used on the other side. Drain fluid production was measured for 24 h after surgery, and pain was measured after 3 and 24 h. Postoperative complications including infection, seroma, rebleeding and suture reactions were recorded. Results Topical application of tranexamic acid to the wound surface after reduction mammoplasty reduced drain fluid production by 39 per cent (median 12·5 (range 0–44) versus 20·5 (0–100) ml; P = 0·038). Adverse effects were not observed. There were no significant differences in postoperative pain scores or complications. Conclusion Topical application of dilute tranexamic acid reduced bleeding in this model. The study adds to the evidence that this simple procedure may reduce wound bleeding after surgery. Registration number: NCT01964781 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). PMID:26349843

  14. Dramatic Response of Topical Doxycycline in Umbilical Granuloma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huaijie; Gao, Ya; Duan, Yitao; Zheng, Baijun; Guo, Xinkui

    2015-01-01

    We previously observed that topical doxycycline powder was effective in the treatment of umbilical granuloma. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of this agent. The patients were randomly assigned into inpatient group and outpatient group. Doxycycline powder was administered topically once daily for 5 days. The protocol was restarted if no response observed. Eighty-four patients were included in this study. With one course of therapy, the overall cure rate was 82.14% (69/84), and the statistical difference in response rate was not significant between the 2 groups (P > .05). With 2 courses of therapy, the overall cure rate was 94.05% (79/84). No complication was observed during treatment. No recurrence was observed during follow-up. The treatment of umbilical granuloma using topical doxycycline is safe and efficacious. The administration of the agent can be performed conveniently by parents at home. This protocol could be considered to be the first treatment option for this disorder in neonates and infants. PMID:27335979

  15. Topical Treatment of Nonhealing Venous Leg Ulcer with Propolis Ointment

    PubMed Central

    Kucharzewski, M.; Kózka, M.; Urbanek, T.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of effectiveness of topical treatment of nonhealing chronic venous leg ulcers with propolis ointment was conducted. 56 patients were included in the study and randomized into two groups. In group 1, there were 28 patients (ulceration area: 6.9–9.78 cm2) treated by means of topical propolis ointment application and short stretch bandage compression. In group 2, there were 29 patients (ulceration area: 7.2–9.4 cm2) treated by means of Unna boot leg compression without topical propolis treatment. In the study, the efficacy of both treatment methods in patients with resistive venous leg ulcers was compared. The ulceration of patients from group 1 healed completely after 6 weeks of therapy in all cases. In all patients from group 2, the process of healing was longer but successfully completed after 16 weeks of the therapy. We found that an adjunctive propolis ointment treatment increases the efficacy of the short stretch bandage compression stocking, and this combined treatment is more effective than Unna's boot compression alone. PMID:23662121

  16. Liposomal delivery system for topical anaesthesia of the palatal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Franz-Montan, M; de Paula, E; Groppo, F C; Silva, A L R; Ranali, J; Volpato, M C

    2012-01-01

    An effective topical agent to reduce pain during local anaesthesia of the palate is not yet available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of liposome-encapsulated ropivacaine in different concentrations for topical anaesthesia of the palatal mucosa. In this single-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study 40 (20 male) healthy volunteers were randomised to be given: liposome-encapsulated 2% ropivacaine, liposome-encapsulated 1% ropivacaine, a eutectic mixture of 2.5% lidocaine and 2.5% prilocaine (EMLA), and liposomal placebo gel, topically on to the palatal mucosa of the right canine region for 5 min each, at four different sessions. Pain associated with insertion of a 30G needle, and with injection of a local anaesthetic, was rated on a visual analogue scale (VAS). The effect of liposomal ropivacaine 1% and 2% did not differ from that of placebo (p=0.3 and p=0.1, respectively) in reducing pain during insertion of the needle. Lower VAS were obtained with EMLA. In this group VAS were lower in women than men (p=0.007). There was no difference in VAS among groups (p=0.3) as far as injection of the local anaesthetic was concerned. In conclusion, liposomal-encapsulated ropivacaine formulations did not reduce the pain of insertion of a needle into the palatal mucosa. None of the anaesthetic formulations tested, including the positive control (EMLA), were effective in reducing the pain of an injection of local anaesthetic compared with placebo.

  17. Distributed search engine architecture based on topic specific searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abudaqqa, Yousra; Patel, Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Indisputably, search engines (SEs) abound. The monumental growth of users performing online searches on the Web is a contending issue in the contemporary world nowadays. For example, there are tens of billions of searches performed everyday, which typically offer the users many irrelevant results which are time consuming and costly to the user. Based on the afore-going problem it has become a herculean task for existing Web SEs to provide complete, relevant and up-to-date information response to users' search queries. To overcome this problem, we developed the Distributed Search Engine Architecture (DSEA), which is a new means of smart information query and retrieval of the World Wide Web (WWW). In DSEAs, multiple autonomous search engines, owned by different organizations or individuals, cooperate and act as a single search engine. This paper includes the work reported in this research focusing on development of DSEA, based on topic-specific specialised search engines. In DSEA, the results to specific queries could be provided by any of the participating search engines, for which the user is unaware of. The important design goal of using topic-specific search engines in the research is to build systems that can effectively be used by larger number of users simultaneously. Efficient and effective usage with good response is important, because it involves leveraging the vast amount of searched data from the World Wide Web, by categorising it into condensed focused topic -specific results that meet the user's queries. This design model and the development of the DSEA adopt a Service Directory (SD) to route queries towards topic-specific document hosting SEs. It displays the most acceptable performance which is consistent with the requirements of the users. The evaluation results of the model return a very high priority score which is associated with each frequency of a keyword.

  18. Business Education Research: Identification and Prioritization of Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Martha H.; Wilhelm, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Using an affinity diagram, business educators generated 110 research topics. In a two-round modified Delphi, 15 business educators aggregated, categorized, and rank ordered the topics. Topics related to workplace soft skills, business communication, technology, and distance learning ranked highest. Topics related to traditional business education…

  19. Discrepancies among Teachers' Priorities for and Knowledge of Freshwater Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Meyer, Richard L.

    2000-01-01

    Teachers were asked to examine a list of water topics, assign a level of priority for their students to know about each topic, then report on their own knowledge level and the amount of teaching they do on the topics. Indicates that topics such as basic water properties and wetlands that had high priorities among teachers were not accompanied by…

  20. 21 CFR 868.5170 - Laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator. 868... topical anesthesia applicator. (a) Identification. A laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator is a device used to apply topical anesthetics to a patient's laryngotracheal area. (b) Classification....

  1. 21 CFR 868.5170 - Laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator. 868... topical anesthesia applicator. (a) Identification. A laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator is a device used to apply topical anesthetics to a patient's laryngotracheal area. (b) Classification....

  2. 21 CFR 868.5170 - Laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator. 868... topical anesthesia applicator. (a) Identification. A laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator is a device used to apply topical anesthetics to a patient's laryngotracheal area. (b) Classification....

  3. 21 CFR 868.5170 - Laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator. 868... topical anesthesia applicator. (a) Identification. A laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator is a device used to apply topical anesthetics to a patient's laryngotracheal area. (b) Classification....

  4. 21 CFR 868.5170 - Laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator. 868... topical anesthesia applicator. (a) Identification. A laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator is a device used to apply topical anesthetics to a patient's laryngotracheal area. (b) Classification....

  5. Fluidics research, including vortex and jet pipe valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The research at the Systems and Control Laboratory is reported. Topics discussed include: response characteristics of laminar fluidic amplifiers, power amplification with a vortex valve, pulse-supply-mode fluidics, speed control system employing a jet pipe valve, and the fluidics reference center.

  6. Payment Services for Global Online Systems Including Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seebeck, Bill; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A panel of four conference presenters address issues related to paying for services provided through online systems. Discussion includes the following topics: metering devices; electronic/digital cash; working within existing banking/credit card structures; provision of payment mechanisms in countries without extensive credit card usage; and…

  7. Investigation of some topical formulations containing dexpanthenol.

    PubMed

    Stozkowska, Wiesława; Piekoś, Ryszard

    2004-01-01

    Owing to its ability to regenerate epidermal cells Dexpanthenol (D-panthenol; chemically known as (+)-2,4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutyramide) has found use for the treatment of patholytic ileus and postoperative distention. The purpose of research was to develop a gel containing dexpanthenol by monitoring the effect of various concentrations of a gelating agent on the activity of the ciliary apparatus. A system containing 2.5% of hydroxyethylcellulose was optimal for the preparation of the gel. Together with a formulation containing 5% of dexpanthenol, drops with equal concentration of the active compound were tested for comparison. Physical characteristics, such as osmotic pressure, acidity, density and viscosity of the preparation were determined as well as its microbiological sterility. The anti-inflammatory activity of the gel was determined following its topical application. Epidermal tests showed its good tolerance after topical application to the shaved skin of guinea pigs.

  8. Nanoparticles and nanofibers for topical drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Ritu; Macri, Lauren K.; Kaplan, Hilton M.; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    This review provides the first comprehensive overview of the use of both nanoparticles and nanofibers for topical drug delivery. Researchers have explored the use of nanotechnology, specifically nanoparticles and nanofibers, as drug delivery systems for topical and transdermal applications. This approach employs increased drug concentration in the carrier, in order to increase drug flux into and through the skin. Both nanoparticles and nanofibers can be used to deliver hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs and are capable of controlled release for a prolonged period of time. The examples presented provide significant evidence that this area of research has—and will continue to have — a profound impact on both clinical outcomes and the development of new products. PMID:26518723

  9. Unsupervised Non-topical Classification of Documents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Swales [28] defines a genre as “a class of communicative events, the members of which share some set of communicative purposes. These purposes are...recognized by the expert members of the parent discourse community , and thereby constitute the rationale of the genre” (p.58). Lee [16] clarifies this...received much attention in the machine learning community (see, e.g. [24, 19]). Blei et al. [7] define topics of documents as multinomial distributions

  10. Automatic Pattern Recognition and Related Topics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    compared: one is a lensless Fresnel-zone system and the other uses a Fourier achromat. Both are opto-electronic hybrids with a twin-imaging...Fourier transforms are obtained for objects illuminated by spatially incoherent, bandlimited light. A lensless Fresnel zone processor consisting of a...agreement between theory and experiment is achieved. A diffraction theory topic of fundamental importance to sub-resolution in microscopy (or in

  11. Corneal Infection Therapy with Topical Bacteriophage Administration

    PubMed Central

    Fadlallah, Ali; Chelala, Elias; Legeais, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in bacterial keratitis, a vision-threatening disease. Although the incidence of S. aureus keratitis varies worldwide, the increasing trend of resistance to certain antibiotics makes this condition an important, global, healthcare concern. We report the case of a 65-year-old woman with nosocomial left-eye corneal abscess and interstitial keratitis.The patient then undergo topical Phage therapy with successful results. PMID:26862360

  12. A Note on Topical N-Grams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-24

    occurrences only. In this sense, collocations of words (phrases) have to be considered. However, like individual words, phrases sometimes show polysemy as...independently to each other, i.e., under the bag of words assumption. The possible over complicacy caused by introducing phrases makes these topic models...completely ignore them. It is true that these models with the bag of words assumption have enjoyed a big success, and attracted a lot of interests from

  13. Culture-directed topical antibiotic treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Greg E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Topical antibiotics, delivered optimally as high-volume culture-directed sinus irrigations, are being increasingly used for recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Their impact on subjective and objective outcome measures, however, is still unclear. Objective: To assess if the use of topical antibiotics in recalcitrant CRS is associated with improved 20-Item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test and Lund-Kennedy endoscopic scores, and to determine the negative posttreatment culture “control” rate. Methods: Patients were included in the study if they met diagnostic criteria for CRS, received high-volume topical antibiotic sinus irrigations twice daily for 1 month, between December 2009 and May 2015, and had undergone endoscopic sinus surgery. The primary outcome was the 20-Item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test score. Secondary outcomes were the Lund-Kennedy endoscopic score and a negative posttreatment culture “control” rate. Paired t-tests were used to compare pre- and posttreatment scores. Patients with cystic fibrosis were analyzed separately. Results: Of the 58 patients included, 47% had nasal polyposis, 57% had asthma, 16% had aspirin sensitivity, and 55% had environmental allergies. The median Lund-Mackay computed tomography score was 11 (interquartile range, 6–16), and the median time to follow-up was 8 weeks (interquartile range, 6–10 weeks). The 20-Item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test scores improved from pre- to posttreatment period, although this was not significant mean 1.5 [confidence interval {CI} 1.3, 1.7] to mean 1.3 [CI 1.1, 1.6]; p = 0.16). Lund-Kennedy endoscopic scores, however, significantly improved from pre- to posttreatment (mean 4.9 [CI 4.3, 5.6] to mean 4.1 [CI 3.5, 4.7]; p = 0.05). Of the 47 patients with complete culture data, 72% had negative posttreatment culture results, defined as “controlled.” Only one patient discontinued treatment, related to discomfort from irrigations. Conclusion: In patients with recalcitrant CRS, the use of

  14. Armenian media coverage of science topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkhitaryan, Marie

    2016-12-01

    The article discusses features and issues of Armenian media coverage on scientific topics and provides recommendations on how to promote scientific topics in media. The media is more interested in social or public reaction rather than in scientific information itself. Medical science has a large share of the global media coverage. It is followed by articles about environment, space, technology, physics and other areas. Armenian media mainly tends to focus on a scientific topic if at first sight it contains something revolutionary. Media primarily reviews whether that scientific study can affect the Armenian economy and only then decides to refer to it. Unfortunately, nowadays the perception of science is a little distorted in media. We can often see headlines of news where is mentioned that the scientist has made "an invention". Nowadays it is hard to see the border between a scientist and an inventor. In fact, the technological term "invention" attracts the media by making illusionary sensation and ensuring large audience. The report also addresses the "Gitamard" ("A science-man") special project started in 2016 in Mediamax that tells about scientists and their motivations.

  15. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    SciTech Connect

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2008-01-03

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 25% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  16. Topical rebamipide improves lid wiper epitheliopathy

    PubMed Central

    Itakura, Hirotaka; Kashima, Tomoyuki; Itakura, Mariko; Akiyama, Hideo; Kishi, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Administration of topical rebamipide increases the mucin level of tear film and improves the ocular surface in short break-up time type of dry eye. Lid wiper epitheliopathy (LWE) is a disorder of the marginal conjunctiva of the upper eyelid with dry eye symptoms. LWE may be related to mechanical forces during blinking resulting in inflammation of the ocular surface. Rebamipide also has various anti-inflammatory effects. In this report, we tried treatment with topical rebamipide for two cases of LWE. One case had been treated with sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution and diquafosol sodium eye drops by other doctors for several weeks. The other case was not previously treated. In both cases, fluorescein staining of the cornea and lid margin was remarkably improved, ocular symptoms decreased, and tear film break-up times increased with rebamipide eye drops four times daily for 2–3 weeks. Topical rebamipide was effective for corneal and conjunctival disorders in LWE. This drug may provide a novel approach to the treatment of LWE. PMID:24204116

  17. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  18. Intelligent topical sentiment analysis for the classification of e-learners and their topics of interest.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, M; Kulanthaivel, G; Chellatamilan, T

    2015-01-01

    Every day, huge numbers of instant tweets (messages) are published on Twitter as it is one of the massive social media for e-learners interactions. The options regarding various interesting topics to be studied are discussed among the learners and teachers through the capture of ideal sources in Twitter. The common sentiment behavior towards these topics is received through the massive number of instant messages about them. In this paper, rather than using the opinion polarity of each message relevant to the topic, authors focus on sentence level opinion classification upon using the unsupervised algorithm named bigram item response theory (BIRT). It differs from the traditional classification and document level classification algorithm. The investigation illustrated in this paper is of threefold which are listed as follows: (1) lexicon based sentiment polarity of tweet messages; (2) the bigram cooccurrence relationship using naïve Bayesian; (3) the bigram item response theory (BIRT) on various topics. It has been proposed that a model using item response theory is constructed for topical classification inference. The performance has been improved remarkably using this bigram item response theory when compared with other supervised algorithms. The experiment has been conducted on a real life dataset containing different set of tweets and topics.

  19. Intelligent Topical Sentiment Analysis for the Classification of E-Learners and Their Topics of Interest

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, M.; Kulanthaivel, G.; Chellatamilan, T.

    2015-01-01

    Every day, huge numbers of instant tweets (messages) are published on Twitter as it is one of the massive social media for e-learners interactions. The options regarding various interesting topics to be studied are discussed among the learners and teachers through the capture of ideal sources in Twitter. The common sentiment behavior towards these topics is received through the massive number of instant messages about them. In this paper, rather than using the opinion polarity of each message relevant to the topic, authors focus on sentence level opinion classification upon using the unsupervised algorithm named bigram item response theory (BIRT). It differs from the traditional classification and document level classification algorithm. The investigation illustrated in this paper is of threefold which are listed as follows: (1) lexicon based sentiment polarity of tweet messages; (2) the bigram cooccurrence relationship using naïve Bayesian; (3) the bigram item response theory (BIRT) on various topics. It has been proposed that a model using item response theory is constructed for topical classification inference. The performance has been improved remarkably using this bigram item response theory when compared with other supervised algorithms. The experiment has been conducted on a real life dataset containing different set of tweets and topics. PMID:25866841

  20. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  1. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  2. In Vivo Methods for the Assessment of Topical Drug Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Herkenne, Christophe; Alberti, Ingo; Naik, Aarti; Kalia, Yogeshvar N.; Mathy, François-Xavier; Préat, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews some current methods for the in vivo assessment of local cutaneous bioavailability in humans after topical drug application. After an introduction discussing the importance of local drug bioavailability assessment and the limitations of model-based predictions, the focus turns to the relevance of experimental studies. The available techniques are then reviewed in detail, with particular emphasis on the tape stripping and microdialysis methodologies. Other less developed techniques, including the skin biopsy, suction blister, follicle removal and confocal Raman spectroscopy techniques are also described. PMID:17985216

  3. Hot topics in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus disease.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Maximillian S; Patel, Sanjay; Openshaw, Peter

    2011-03-01

    The 7th International Respiratory Syncytial Virus Symposium took place in Hotel Blijdorp, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The series has been running since 1996; this meeting took place after a 3-year gap, and was attended by approximately 200 clinicians, scientists and industry representatives from all over the world. The conference covered all aspects of respiratory syncytial virus disease, including virology, cell biology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, immunology, vaccines, antivirals and other therapeutic approaches. Reviews by invited keynote speakers were accompanied by oral and poster presentations, with ample opportunity for discussion of unpublished work. This article summarizes a small selection of hot topics from the meeting, focused on pathogenesis, therapeutics and vaccine development.

  4. Side-effects of topical steroids: A long overdue revisit

    PubMed Central

    Coondoo, Arijit; Phiske, Meghana; Verma, Shyam; Lahiri, Koushik

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of topical steroids (TS) of varying potency have rendered the therapy of inflammatory cutaneous disorders more effective and less time-consuming. However the usefulness of these has become a double edged sword with constantly rising instances of abuse and misuse leading to serious local, systemic and psychological side effects. These side effects occur more with TS of higher potency and on particular areas of the body like face and genitalia. The article reviews the side effects of TS with special mention about peadiatric age group, also includes the measures for preventing the side effects. PMID:25396122

  5. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  6. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  7. Topical Hemostatic Agents: What the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon Needs to Know.

    PubMed

    Vezeau, Patrick J

    2016-11-01

    Hemostasis is a key step in safe and predictable surgery. Knowledge of normal blood clotting mechanisms and abnormal diathesis is necessary to anticipate potential problems during and after surgery. As an adjunct to bleeding control, topical hemostatic agents have long been used in all surgical disciplines. This article provides a brief review of hemostasis and a topical summary of different classes of topical hemostatic agents useful to oral and maxillofacial surgery, including indications and potential complications/side effects. This rapidly evolving field promises to yield future agents with increased efficacy, cost efficiency, and decreased complications.

  8. Minor malformations characteristic of the retinoic acid embryopathy and other birth outcomes in children of women exposed to topical tretinoin during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Kirsten D; Kao, Kelly K; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Alvarado, Sonia; Chavez, Carmen; Dick, Lyn; Felix, Robert; Johnson, Diana; Chambers, Christina D

    2005-07-15

    Topical tretinoin (Retin-A) is used to treat acne and photodamaged skin. Its teratogenic potential is of concern due to its similarity to isotretinoin (Accutane), a recognized human teratogen. Through the California Teratogen Information Service and Clinical Research Program, between 1983 and 2003, 106 pregnant women with first-trimester exposure to topical tretinoin were prospectively ascertained and followed. Birth outcomes, including pregnancy loss, major structural defects, and pre- and postnatal growth were compared to 389 similarly and prospectively ascertained women with no topical tretinoin exposure during pregnancy. Because a distinct pattern of malformation had already been described for isotretinoin, we also compared exposed (n = 62) and unexposed (n = 191) infants on the prevalence of a specific subset of minor malformations selected to represent the spectrum of defects comprising the retinoic acid embyopathy. There were no significant differences between groups in the proportion of pregnancies ending in spontaneous abortion (6.6% in exposed vs. 8.5% in unexposed; P = 0.53), or infants with major structural defects (2.2% in exposed vs. 1.2% in unexposed; P = 0.62). In addition, the groups were similar in birth weight, length and head circumference, and there were no significant differences between groups in length of gestation. Furthermore, the prevalence of one or more retinoic acid-specific minor malformations did not differ significantly between groups (12.9% in exposed vs. 9.9% in unexposed; P = 0.51). First-trimester topical tretinoin exposure in this study was not associated with an increased risk of any adverse pregnancy outcome evaluated. Specifically, there was no indication that topical tretinoin is associated with an increased risk for minor malformations that are consistent with the retinoic acid embryopathy. Although it is impossible to exclude the possibility that some women/infants may be uniquely susceptible to topical tretinoin exposure

  9. Topics in quantum cryptography, quantum error correction, and channel simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhicheng

    In this thesis, we mainly investigate four different topics: efficiently implementable codes for quantum key expansion [51], quantum error-correcting codes based on privacy amplification [48], private classical capacity of quantum channels [44], and classical channel simulation with quantum side information [49, 50]. For the first topic, we propose an efficiently implementable quantum key expansion protocol, capable of increasing the size of a pre-shared secret key by a constant factor. Previously, the Shor-Preskill proof [64] of the security of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) [6] quantum key distribution protocol relied on the theoretical existence of good classical error-correcting codes with the "dual-containing" property. But the explicit and efficiently decodable construction of such codes is unknown. We show that we can lift the dual-containing constraint by employing the non-dual-containing codes with excellent performance and efficient decoding algorithms. For the second topic, we propose a construction of Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) [19, 68] quantum error-correcting codes, which are originally based on pairs of mutually dual-containing classical codes, by combining a classical code with a two-universal hash function. We show, using the results of Renner and Koenig [57], that the communication rates of such codes approach the hashing bound on tensor powers of Pauli channels in the limit of large block-length. For the third topic, we prove a regularized formula for the secret key assisted capacity region of a quantum channel for transmitting private classical information. This result parallels the work of Devetak on entanglement assisted quantum communication capacity. This formula provides a new family protocol, the private father protocol, under the resource inequality framework that includes the private classical communication without the assisted secret keys as a child protocol. For the fourth topic, we study and solve the problem of classical channel

  10. Topical use of sodium cromoglicate (cromolyn sodium) to treat atopic dermatitis and other skin allergies.

    PubMed

    Zur, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Sodium cromoglicate (cromolyn sodium) is a very well-known medicine that has been used for many years for various allergic conditions. The topical use of this medicine is less known, and there are no commercial medicines of cream, gel, or lotion in most of the world. This article summarizes the clinical data accumulated from seventeen trials that checked the topical efficacy and safety of sodium cromoglicate and analyzes the clinical implementations of this medicine in the topical treatment of atopic dermatitis and other skin allergies. In addition, this article analyzes the various formulations that have been used in the clinical trials in an attempt to find the optimal formulation. The topical use of sodium cromoglicate seemed to have a promising potential, and implementing the data of this article can allow the compounding pharmacist a very interesting professional activity in very common and widespread allergic pathologies.

  11. In vitro compatibility of tazarotene with other topical treatments of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Hecker, D; Worsley, J; Yueh, G; Lebwohl, M

    2000-06-01

    Tazarotene is the first receptor-selective retinoid indicated for the topical treatment of plaque psoriasis. It is being used clinically in combination with other topical antipsoriatic treatments, although its stability in the presence of these products has not been examined extensively. This study examines the compatibility of tazarotene 0.05% gel with 17 other topical products used in the treatment of psoriasis, assessed over a 2-week period. Tazarotene showed minimal degradation (<10%) at 0, 8, 24, and 48 hours after compounding with each of the 17 products. In addition, after 1 and 2 weeks, degradation of tazarotene remained less than 10% for 15 of the 17 products tested. Tazarotene appeared to have minimal impact on the stability of the other products. These results suggest that tazarotene gel can be successfully coprescribed with a range of commonly used topical psoriasis treatments without adversely affecting the chemical stability of either agent.

  12. Intravenous Foscarnet With Topical Cidofovir for Chronic Refractory Genital Herpes in a Patient With AIDS.

    PubMed

    Usoro, Agnes; Batts, Alfreda; Sarria, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Few case reports have documented the use of topical cidofovir for refractory genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. This drug formulation lacks a standardized concentration or even a procedural outline as to how it should be compounded. We aim to discuss the utilization of topical cidofovir in addition to presenting a procedural means of compounding it for treatment of refractory genital HSV ulcers. Our patient completed 21 days of intravenous foscarnet and 13 days of topical cidofovir with clinical improvement in the penile and scrotal ulcers. Genital herpes is a concern in patients with HIV because it generally manifests as a persistent infection. Physicians should be aware that when patients fail to respond to the conventional treatment regimens for genital HSV in a timely manner, other options are available, such as topical cidofovir as an adjuvant to systemic antivirals.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus resistance to topical antimicrobials in atopic dermatitis*

    PubMed Central

    Bessa, Giancarlo Rezende; Quinto, Vanessa Petry; Machado, Daiane Corrêa; Lipnharski, Caroline; Weber, Magda Blessmann; Bonamigo, Renan Rangel; D'Azevedo, Pedro Alves

    2016-01-01

    Background Topical antimicrobial drugs are indicated for limited superficial pyodermitis treatment, although they are largely used as self-prescribed medication for a variety of inflammatory dermatoses, including atopic dermatitis. Monitoring bacterial susceptibility to these drugs is difficult, given the paucity of laboratory standardization. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus topical antimicrobial drug resistance in atopic dermatitis patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of children and adults diagnosed with atopic dermatitis and S. aureus colonization. We used miscellaneous literature reported breakpoints to define S. aureus resistance to mupirocin, fusidic acid, gentamicin, neomycin and bacitracin. Results A total of 91 patients were included and 100 S. aureus isolates were analyzed. All strains were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. We found a low prevalence of mupirocin and fusidic acid resistance (1.1% and 5.9%, respectively), but high levels of neomycin and bacitracin resistance (42.6% and 100%, respectively). Fusidic acid resistance was associated with more severe atopic dermatitis, demonstrated by higher EASI scores (median 17.8 vs 5.7, p=.009). Our results also corroborate the literature on the absence of cross-resistance between the aminoglycosides neomycin and gentamicin. Conclusions Our data, in a southern Brazilian sample of AD patients, revealed a low prevalence of mupirocin and fusidic acid resistance of S. aureus atopic eczema colonizer strains. However, for neomycin and bacitracin, which are commonly used topical antimicrobial drugs in Brazil, high levels of resistance were identified. Further restrictions on the use of these antimicrobials seem necessary to keep resistance as low as possible. PMID:27828633

  14. Topical Antimicrobials for Burn Infections – An Update

    PubMed Central

    Sevgi, Mert; Toklu, Ani; Vecchio, Daniela; Hamblin, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    The relentless rise in antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria and fungi, coupled with the high susceptibility of burn wounds to infection, and the difficulty of systemically administered antibiotics to reach damaged tissue, taken together have made the development of novel topical antimicrobials for burn infections a fertile area of innovation for researchers and companies. We previously covered the existing patent literature in this area in 2010, but the notable progress made since then, has highlighted the need for an update to bring the reader up to date on recent developments. New patents in the areas of topically applied antibiotics and agents that can potentiate the action of existing antibiotics may extend their useful lifetime. Developments have also been made in biofilm-disrupting agents. Antimicrobial peptides are nature’s way for many life forms to defend themselves against attack by pathogens. Silver has long been known to be a highly active antimicrobial but new inorganic metal derivatives based on bismuth, copper and gallium have emerged. Halogens such as chlorine and iodine can be delivered by novel technologies. A variety of topically applied antimicrobials include chitosan preparations, usnic acid, ceragenins and XF porphyrins. Natural product derived antimicrobials such as tannins and essential oils have also been studied. Novel techniques to deliver reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in situ have been developed. Light-mediated techniques include photodynamic therapy, ultraviolet irradiation, blue light, low-level laser therapy and titania photocatalysis. Passive immunotherapy employs antibodies against pathogens and their virulence factors. Finally an interesting new area uses therapeutic microorganisms such as phages, probiotic bacteria and protozoa to combat infections. PMID:24215506

  15. [Critical of the additive model of the randomized controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Boussageon, Rémy; Gueyffier, François; Bejan-Angoulvant, Theodora; Felden-Dominiak, Géraldine

    2008-01-01

    Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials are currently the best way to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of drugs. Its methodology relies on the method of difference (John Stuart Mill), through which the observed difference between two groups (drug vs placebo) can be attributed to the pharmacological effect of the drug being tested. However, this additive model can be questioned in the event of statistical interactions between the pharmacological and the placebo effects. Evidence in different domains has shown that the placebo effect can influence the effect of the active principle. This article evaluates the methodological, clinical and epistemological consequences of this phenomenon. Topics treated include extrapolating results, accounting for heterogeneous results, demonstrating the existence of several factors in the placebo effect, the necessity to take these factors into account for given symptoms or pathologies, as well as the problem of the "specific" effect.

  16. Mining hidden knowledge for drug safety assessment: topic modeling of LiverTox as a case study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the significant impact on public health and drug development, drug safety has been a focal point and research emphasis across multiple disciplines in addition to scientific investigation, including consumer advocates, drug developers and regulators. Such a concern and effort has led numerous databases with drug safety information available in the public domain and the majority of them contain substantial textual data. Text mining offers an opportunity to leverage the hidden knowledge within these textual data for the enhanced understanding of drug safety and thus improving public health. Methods In this proof-of-concept study, topic modeling, an unsupervised text mining approach, was performed on the LiverTox database developed by National Institutes of Health (NIH). The LiverTox structured one document per drug that contains multiple sections summarizing clinical information on drug-induced liver injury (DILI). We hypothesized that these documents might contain specific textual patterns that could be used to address key DILI issues. We placed the study on drug-induced acute liver failure (ALF) which was a severe form of DILI with limited treatment options. Results After topic modeling of the "Hepatotoxicity" sections of the LiverTox across 478 drug documents, we identified a hidden topic relevant to Hy's law that was a widely-accepted rule incriminating drugs with high risk of causing ALF in humans. Using this topic, a total of 127 drugs were further implicated, 77 of which had clear ALF relevant terms in the "Outcome and management" sections of the LiverTox. For the rest of 50 drugs, evidence supporting risk of ALF was found for 42 drugs from other public databases. Conclusion In this case study, the knowledge buried in the textual data was extracted for identification of drugs with potential of causing ALF by applying topic modeling to the LiverTox database. The knowledge further guided identification of drugs with the similar potential and most

  17. Consensus Guidelines for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis in Korea (Part I): General Management and Topical Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Eun; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Lew, Bark-Lynn; Lee, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Phil; Jang, Yong Hyun; Park, Kui Young; Seo, Seong Jun; Bae, Jung Min; Choi, Eung Ho; Suhr, Ki Beom; Lee, Seung Chul; Ko, Hyun Chang; Park, Young Lip; Son, Sang Wook; Seo, Young Jun; Lee, Yang Won; Cho, Sang Hyun; Park, Chun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Background Since the treatment guidelines for atopic dermatitis (AD) were released by the Korean Atopic Dermatitis Association (KADA) work group in 2006, there have been several advances in AD management. Objective We aimed to establish updated evidence- and experience-based treatment guidelines for Korean AD. Methods We collected a database of references from relevant systematic AD reviews and guidelines regarding general AD management such as bathing and skin care, avoidance of exacerbating factors, education and psychosocial support, and the use of moisturizers and topical anti-inflammatory and antipruritic drugs. Evidence for each statement was graded and the strength of the recommendation for each statement classified. Thirty-nine KADA council members participated in three rounds of voting to establish an expert consensus of recommendations. Results Basic AD treatment includes proper bathing and skin care, avoidance of exacerbating factors, proper education and psychosocial support, and use of moisturizers. The regular use of moisturizer has a steroid-sparing effect and reduces relapse episodes. The short- and long-term use of topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors improves AD symptoms and should be encouraged to use in an active and proactive treatment. Wet-wrap therapy can be used for rapid recovery of acute exacerbation. Topical antipruritic drugs cannot be recommended for the treatment of AD. Conclusion This report provides up-to-date evidence- and experience-based treatment guidelines for AD regarding general management and topical treatment. In addition, the average agreement scores obtained by a panel of experts based on the Korean healthcare system and patient adherence are presented. PMID:26512171

  18. Rheology of the lithosphere: selected topics.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, S.H.; Kronenberg, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews recent results concerning the rheology of the lithosphere with special attention to the following topics: 1) the flexure of the oceanic lithosphere, 2) deformation of the continental lithosphere resulting from vertical surface loads and forces applied at plate margins, 3) the rheological stratification of the continents, 4) strain localization and shear zone development, and 5) strain-induced crystallographic preferred orientations and anisotropies in body-wave velocities. We conclude with a section citing the 1983-1986 rock mechanics literature by category.-Authors

  19. Topical lignocaine for vaginismus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Praharaj, S K; Verma, P; Arora, M

    2006-01-01

    Vaginismus is a sexual dysfunction in which spasm of vaginal musculature precludes penetrative intercourse. In many cases associated pain or fear of pain may contribute to the maintenance of vaginismus. We report a case of primary vaginismus with associated pain that benefited from topical application of lignocaine gel along with systematic desensitization resulting in successful consummation, and suggest that it may be a useful adjunct during finger dilatation in the treatment of vaginismus, specifically in patients who have associated pain or areas of hyperesthesia in the introitus.

  20. Topical application of DEET for schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Kalyanasundaram; He, Yi-Xun; Salafsky, Buz; Shibuya, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (also known as DEET) is a broad-spectrum insect repellent that is used extensively against both human and animal pests, worldwide. Recent studies show that topical lipid formulations of DEET, such as LipoDEET, are highly effective in killing schistosome cercariae in the skin. Minimal systemic absorption, low manufacturing cost, and a wide range of activity against insects and schistosomes potentially makes compounds such as LipoDEET an excellent prophylactic agent against human and animal schistosomiasis in endemic areas, especially for travelers, until an effective vaccine is available. PMID:14642762

  1. Recent Topics in Instrumentation and Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Kazuo; Hirose, Masanobu; Otani, Akihito; Mochizuki, Ken; Uchida, Masafumi

    Instrumentation and measurement play a vital role in research and development in the science and engineering fields. Recently, the goals of instrumentation and measurement have expanded to meet not only the industrial and science requirements but also the needs in all fields of social life, such as medicine and welfare, the environment, and disaster and security. In this article, the state of TC-IM (Technical Committee of Instrumentation and Measurement of IEEJ) activities and technical topics in the instrumentation and measurement field are reported, mainly referring to over seventy papers presented at the IM Technical Meeting.

  2. Topical rapamycin (sirolimus) for facial angiofibromas.

    PubMed

    Madke, Bhushan

    2013-01-01

    Rapamycin (sirolimus) is a fungal fermentation product that inhibits the proper functioning of a serine/threonine protein kinase in mammalian cells eponymously named mammalian target of rapamycin, or mTOR. Rapamycin is a novel class of anticancer and immunosuppressant drugs targeting the proteins at molecular level. Rapamycin (sirolimus) is routinely incorporated in drug-eluting stents used for cardiac angioplasty. In recent years, rapamycin was found to be efficacious in managing the symptom complex of tuberous sclerosis, i.e. renal angiomyolipoma, giant cell astrocytoma and pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis. Various investigators have also proved that topically applied rapamycin causes regression of facial angiofibromas, giving better cosmetic results.

  3. (Topics in theoretical physics). Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Progress is reported in these areas: supersymmetry and conformal invariance and new structures in two dimensional critical phenomena; spinor fields and new applications and techniques for studying Ising model correlation factors; superstring compactification and high energy physics applications for novel two dimensional critical points; ordered and disordered spatial structure in dynamical systems; and fermion-boson mass relations in BCS type theories. Research is proposed in covariant formulation of the superstring, topics in superconformal field theory and new structures in two dimensional critical phenomena, ordered and disordered spatial structure in dynamical systems, and field theory over Galois fields. 48 refs. (LEW)

  4. Efinaconazole topical solution, 10%: formulation development program of a new topical treatment of toenail onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, V; Pillai, R

    2015-07-01

    Transungual drug delivery of antifungals is considered highly desirable to treat common nail disorders such as onychomycosis, due to localized effects, and improved adherence resulting from minimal systemic adverse events. However, the development of effective topical therapies has been hampered by poor nail penetration. An effective topical antifungal must permeate through, and under the dense keratinized nail plate to the site of infection in the nail bed and nail matrix. We present here the formulation development program to provide effective transungual and subungual delivery of efinaconazole, the first topical broad spectrum triazole specifically developed for onychomycosis treatment. We discuss the important aspects encompassing the formulation development program for efinaconazole topical solution, 10%, focusing on its solubility in a number of solvents, in vitro penetration through the nail, and in vivo efficacy. Efinaconazole topical solution, 10% is a stable, non-lacquer, antifungal with a unique combination of ingredients added to an alcohol-based formulation to provide low surface tension and good wetting properties. This low surface tension is believed to affect effective transungual delivery of efinaconazole and believed to provide a dual mode of delivery by accessing the nail bed by wicking into the space between the nail and nail plate.

  5. Chlorhexidine Monotherapy with Adjunctive Topical Corticosteroids for Acanthamoeba Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Firoozeh; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammad Nasser; Tafti, Mohammadreza Falah; Mehjerdi, Mohammadali Zare; Safizadeh, Mona Seyed; Pour, Elias Khalili; Sefidan, Bahram Bohrani

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of chlorhexidine monotherapy for Acanthamoeba keratitis, and to determine the therapeutic outcomes of concomitant topical corticosteroids. Methods: In this prospective interventional case series, 31 eyes of 31 patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) were treated with chlorhexidine 0.02% as monotherapy, from April 2010 to April 2011. The diagnosis of AK was made based on clinical manifestations and positive confocal microscopic (confoscan 3.4, Nidek Co. Ltd., Gamagori, Japan) results. We report the percentage of a favorable clinical response within two weeks of initiating treatment, worsening of the infection while receiving chlorhexidine, recovery of visual acuity (VA), duration of treatment with chlorhexidine and corticosteroids, necessity for addition of other anti-Acanthamoeba agents, presence of corneal scar at the end of the treatment, and need for penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Results: Two weeks after initiation of chlorhexidine, improvement in signs and symptoms was observed in 26 (83.9%) patients but 3 eyes required the addition of propamidine. After initial improvement in one patient, the infection worsened, necessitating the addition of Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB) and propamidine. A total of 26 (83.9%) patients received topical corticosteroids with mean duration of 65.8 ± 45.1 days. In 22 (71%) eyes, final visual acuity was ≥0.80. Improved VA occurred in 29 eyes (93.5%). Optical PK was considered in 3 (9.7%) eyes and a corneal scar developed in 8 (25.8%) eyes. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine is effective for monotherapy in AK and could be a good choice for initiating treatment. After the initial response to anti-Acanthamoeba agents, corticosteroids can be used as adjunctive therapy depending on the clinical condition. PMID:26425310

  6. A Simple Experimental Setup for Teaching Additive Colors with Arduino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Paulo Simeão; Hahn, Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    The result of additive colors is always fascinating to young students. When we teach this topic to 14- to 16-year-old students, they do not usually notice we use maximum light quantities of red (R), green (G), and blue (B) to obtain yellow, magenta, and cyan colors in order to build the well-known additive color diagram of Fig. 1. But how about using different light intensities for R, G, and B? What colors do we get? This problem of color mixing has been intensively discussed for decades by several authors, as pointed out by Ruiz's "Color Addition and Subtraction Apps" work and the references included therein. An early LED demonstrator for additive color mixing dates back to 1985, and apps to illustrate color mixing are available online. In this work, we describe an experimental setup making use of a microcontroller device: the Arduino Uno. This setup is designed as a game in order to improve students' understanding of color mixing.

  7. 78 FR 23192 - Wireline Competition Bureau Adds New Discussion Topic to Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... Virtual Workshop AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Wireline Competition Bureau adds a new virtual workshop discussion topic, entitled... for submitting comments. Virtual Workshop: In addition to the usual methods for filing...

  8. 78 FR 38265 - Wireline Competition Bureau Adds Two New Discussion Topics to Connect America Cost Model Virtual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Model Virtual Workshop AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Wireline Competition Bureau adds two new virtual workshop discussion topics.../ecfs2/ . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Virtual Workshop: In addition to the...

  9. Space Resources for Teachers: Biology, Including Suggestions for Classroom Activities and Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tom E.; And Others

    This compilation of resource units concerns the latest developments in space biology. Some of the topics included are oxygen consumption, temperature, radiation, rhythms, weightlessness, acceleration and vibration stress, toxicity, and sensory and perceptual problems. Many of the topics are interdisciplinary and relate biology, physiology,…

  10. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis: A Controlled Double-Blind Experiment. (Includes NIE Staff Critique).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, C. Keith; And Others

    Fifteen hyperkinetic children (6-12 years old) were involved in a pilot study to test B. Feingold's hypothesis that hyperkinesis may be caused by artificial flavors and colors in food. Prior to treatment, parents and teachers completed bi-weekly questionnaires regarding each Ss' behavior both on medication (pretreatment period) and when medication…

  11. Additions to the knowledge of the land snails of Sabah (Malaysia, Borneo), including 48 new species

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Jaap J.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present reviews of the Sabah (Malaysia, on the island of Borneo) species of the following problematical genera of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Acmella and Anaglyphula (Caenogastropoda: Assimineidae); Ditropopsis (Caenogastropoda: Cyclophoridae); Microcystina (Pulmonata: Ariophantidae); Philalanka and Thysanota (Pulmonata: Endodontidae); Kaliella, Rahula, (Pulmonata: Euconulidae); Trochomorpha and Geotrochus (Pulmonata: Trochomorphidae). Next to this, we describe new species in previously revised genera, such as Diplommatina (Diplommatinidae); Georissa (Hydrocenidae); as well as some new species of genera not revised previously, such as Japonia (Cyclophoridae); Durgella and Dyakia (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus, and Trachia (Camaenidae); Paralaoma (Punctidae); Curvella (Subulinidae). All descriptions are based on the morphology of the shells. We distinguish the following 48 new species: Acmella cyrtoglyphe, Acmella umbilicata, Acmella ovoidea, Acmella nana, Acmella subcancellata, Acmella striata, and Anaglyphula sauroderma (Assimineidae); Ditropopsis davisoni, Ditropopsis trachychilus, Ditropopsis constricta, Ditropopsis tyloacron, Ditropopsis cincta, and Japonia anceps (Cyclophoridae); Diplommatina bidentata and Diplommatina tylocheilos (Diplommatinidae); Georissa leucococca and Georissa nephrostoma (Hydrocenidae); Durgella densestriata, Dyakia chlorosoma, Microcystina microrhynchus, Microcystina callifera, Microcystina striatula, Microcystina planiuscula, and Microcystina physotrochus (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus psephos and Trachia serpentinitica (Camaenidae); Philalanka tambunanensis, Philalanka obscura, Philalanka anomphala, Philalanka rugulosa, and Philalanka malimgunung (Endodontidae); Kaliella eurytrochus, Kaliella sublaxa, Kaliella phacomorpha, Kaliella punctata, Kaliella microsoma, Rahula delopleura, (Euconulidae); Paralaoma angusta (Punctidae); Curvella hadrotes (Subulinidae); Trochomorpha trachus, Trochomorpha haptoderma, Trochomorpha thelecoryphe, Geotrochus oedobasis, Geotrochus spilokeiria, Geotrochus scolops, Geotrochus kitteli, Geotrochus subscalaris, and Geotrochus meristorhachis (Trochomorphidae). PMID:26692803

  12. Collaborative Assessment: Working with Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired, Including Those with Additional Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Stephen A., Ed.; Wittenstein, Stuart H., Ed.

    This book offers a comprehensive text on the assessment of students with blindness or visual impairment with a focus on approaches used at the California School for the Blind. An introductory chapter is by Frances K. Liefert and Marsha A. Silver. Eleven chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Introduction to Visual Impairment"…

  13. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  14. Gasification Studies Task 4 Topical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitty, Kevin; Fletcher, Thomas; Pugmire, Ronald; Smith, Philip; Sutherland, James; Thornock, Jeremy; Boshayeshi, Babak; Hunsacker, Isaac; Lewis, Aaron; Waind, Travis; Kelly, Kerry

    2014-02-01

    A key objective of the Task 4 activities has been to develop simulation tools to support development, troubleshooting and optimization of pressurized entrained-flow coal gasifiers. The overall gasifier models (Subtask 4.1) combine submodels for fluid flow (Subtask 4.2) and heat transfer (Subtask 4.3) with fundamental understanding of the chemical processes (Subtask 4.4) processes that take place as coal particles are converted to synthesis gas and slag. However, it is important to be able to compare predictions from the models against data obtained from actual operating coal gasifiers, and Subtask 4.6 aims to provide an accessible, non-proprietary system, which can be operated over a wide range of conditions to provide well-characterized data for model validation. Highlights of this work include: • Verification and validation activities performed with the Arches coal gasification simulation tool on experimental data from the CANMET gasifier (Subtask 4.1). • The simulation of multiphase reacting flows with coal particles including detailed gas-phase chemistry calculations using an extension of the one-dimensional turbulence model’s capability (Subtask 4.2). • The demonstration and implementation of the Reverse Monte Carlo ray tracing (RMCRT) radiation algorithm in the ARCHES code (Subtask 4.3). • Determination of steam and CO{sub 2} gasification kinetics of bituminous coal chars at high temperature and elevated pressure under entrained-flow conditions (Subtask 4.4). In addition, attempts were made to gain insight into the chemical structure differences between young and mature coal soot, but both NMR and TEM characterization efforts were hampered by the highly reacted nature of the soot. • The development, operation, and demonstration of in-situ gas phase measurements from the University of Utah’s pilot-scale entrained-flow coal gasifier (EFG) (Subtask 4.6). This subtask aimed at acquiring predictable, consistent performance and characterizing the

  15. Treatment for pulmonary hypertension including lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Kengo F

    2011-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a progressive disease characterized by sustained elevation in pulmonary arterial pressure and increased pulmonary vascular resistance, leading to right-sided ventricular failure. The untreated median survival period is 2-3 years from the time of diagnosis, with the cause of death usually being right-sided ventricular failure. However, outcomes have dramatically changed in recent years because of great advances in medical management of PH, including early diagnosis and new drugs such as prostaglandins, endothelin receptor antagonists, and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. Long-term continuous intravenous prostacyclin therapy has shown excellent results in patients with PH. More recently, a molecular-targeted agent, imatinib mesylate, that acts by specifically inhibiting a certain enzyme that is characteristic of a particular cancer cell, rather than nonspecifically inhibiting and killing all rapidly dividing cells, has also been shown to have a potential role in the treatment of PH. This drug has been shown to reduce both pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia in a variety of disease processes. We summarize here recent topics regarding PH and advances in treatments for PH, particularly pulmonary arterial hypertension, including lung transplantation.

  16. Contact allergy to topical corticosteroids and sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, Abir

    2012-01-01

    Topical corticosteroids and sunscreens are extensively used formulations, both as over-the-counter products and as prescription medicines. Topical corticosteroids are increasingly being recognized as causes of allergic contact dermatitis. Because of their anti-inflammatory property, contact allergy to these agents may be difficult to suspect and prove. With corticosteroid allergy, there are special issues in patch testing that need to be considered: Screening tests need to be done with budesonide and tixocortol pivalate, and delayed readings are essential to pick up all positive cases. Preventive advice needs to be tailored according to the structural and chemical peculiarities of a particular molecule. Sunscreen allergy is a significant part of cosmetic allergy; especially in cases of photoallergic reactions. Each passing decade is bringing forth new allergens in this class. In many countries, benzophenones have recently been replaced by octocrylene as the leading causes of contact dermatitis to sunscreens. This article provides a broad overview of corticosteroid and sunscreen allergy so that the readers are aware of these important emerging classes of allergens.

  17. Topical antibiotic ear drops: are they safe?

    PubMed

    Pappas, S; Nikolopoulos, T P; Korres, S; Papacharalampous, G; Tzangarulakis, A; Ferekidis, E

    2006-09-01

    A discharging ear is a very common condition for the general practitioner and the ENT surgeon. Oral and intravenous antibiotics have potential complications, are costly, and exhibit increasing resistance. This study explores the advantages and disadvantages of all common otic preparations and compares effectiveness, safety, cost and complication rates. In chronic otitis media (chronic discharging ears), topical antibiotics seem to be the treatment of choice by comparison with oral or intravenous antibiotics. Cultures and antibiograms do not correspond directly to clinical efficacy, as laboratory determination of resistance does not take into account the high concentration of antibiotics in local preparations. It is safer to use quinolone drops as a first-line treatment, but it is still possible to use short courses of other drops if quinolones are either unavailable or contraindicated (e.g. allergy), or when bacteria are resistant to them. However, in such a situation, a round window membrane involved in an established inflammatory process and therefore less permeable to the passage of topical preparations is the preferred setting, as ototoxicity is a potential complication, especially in the case of gentamicin, in which case patients should be warned accordingly.

  18. Stability of Sulforaphane for Topical Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Stephen J.; Dickinson, Sally E.; Karlage, Kelly L.; Bowden, G Tim.; Myrdal, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural compound that has been investigated as a chemopreventive agent. SFN has been shown to inhibit the activator-protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor and may be effective for inhibition of ultraviolet (UV) induced skin carcinogenesis. This study was designed to investigate the stability of SFN as a function of pH, temperature and in various solvents and formulations. SFN was determined to undergo apparent first order degradation kinetics for the conditions explored. It was observed that SFN undergoes base catalyzed degradation. Buffer species and solvent type impacts stability as well. SFN was found to be very sensitive to temperature with degradation rate changing by a factor of nearly 3.1 for every 10°C change in temperature (at pH 4.0). SFN completely degraded after 30 days in a conventional pharmaceutical cream formulation. Improved stability was observed in organic formulation components. Stability studies were conducted on two non-aqueous topical formulations, a polyethylene glycol (PEG) ointment base and an organic oleaginous base. Topically applied SFN in the PEG base formulation significantly reduced AP-1 activation after UV stimulation in the skin of a transgenic mouse model, indicating that SFN in this formulation retains efficacy in vivo. PMID:23611476

  19. Topically applied ceramide accumulates in skin glyphs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qihong; Flach, Carol R; Mendelsohn, Richard; Mao, Guangru; Pappas, Apostolos; Mack, M Catherine; Walters, Russel M; Southall, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Ceramides (CERs), structural components of the stratum corneum (SC), impart essential barrier properties to this thin outer layer of the epidermis. Variations in CER species within this layer have been linked to several skin diseases. A recent proliferation of CER-containing topical skin-care products warrants the elucidation of CER penetration profiles in both healthy and diseased skin. In the current study, the spatial distributions of CER concentration profiles, following topical application of two species of CER, were tracked using infrared imaging. Suspensions of single-chain perdeuterated sphingosine and phytosphingosine CER in oleic acid were applied, in separate experiments, to the surface of healthy intact ex vivo human skin using Franz diffusion cells. Following either a 24- or 48-hour incubation period at 34°C, infrared images were acquired from microtomed skin sections. Both CER species accumulated in glyph regions of the skin and penetrated into the SC, to a limited extent, only in these regions. The concentration profiles observed herein were independent of the CER species and incubation time utilized in the study. As a result, a very heterogeneous, sparse, spatial distribution of CERs in the SC was revealed. In contrast, oleic acid was found to be fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the SC and viable epidermis, albeit at lower concentrations in the latter. A more uniform, lateral distribution of CERs in the SC would likely be important for barrier efficacy or enhancement. PMID:26170709

  20. Availability of online educational content concerning topics of animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Petervary, Nicolette; Allen, Tim; Stokes, William S; Banks, Ron E

    2016-05-01

    Animal welfare is an important area of study for professionals in fields of animal care and use, and many turn to self-learning resources to gain a better understanding of topics in this area. We assessed the state of these self-learning resources by evaluating open access, freely available resources on the internet with respect to their content and the reliability of their information. We categorized content using a modified list of the topics described in the American College of Animal Welfare's Role Delineation Document, and we identified subject areas that are underrepresented among freely available resources. We identified that the field needs more content describing practical information on subtopics of animal transportation, humane education and economic issues in animal welfare. We also suggest a targeted approach to improve and increase particular aspects of content that concerns the impacts of human, animal and environment interactions on animal welfare. We recommend that veterinary societies place more emphasis on welfare policies in their websites. Additionally, the field of animal welfare would benefit from more available and authoritative information on certain species and uses of animals that are presently underrepresented.