Science.gov

Sample records for additional travel costs

  1. Program Tracks Cost Of Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, Lemuel E., III

    1993-01-01

    Travel Forecaster is menu-driven, easy-to-use computer program that plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost of business-related travel of division or branch of organization and compiles information into data base to aid travel planner. Ability of program to handle multiple trip entries makes it valuable time-saving device.

  2. 77 FR 67366 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Travel Costs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Travel Costs AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... collection requirement concerning Travel Costs. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this... Information Collection 9000- 0088, Travel Costs by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov :...

  3. 48 CFR 31.205-46 - Travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... at the time of travel as set forth in the— (i) Federal Travel Regulation, prescribed by the General... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Travel costs. 31.205-46....205-46 Travel costs. (a) Costs for transportation, lodging, meals, and incidental expenses. (1)...

  4. 48 CFR 31.205-46 - Travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... at the time of travel as set forth in the— (i) Federal Travel Regulation, prescribed by the General... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Travel costs. 31.205-46....205-46 Travel costs. (a) Costs for transportation, lodging, meals, and incidental expenses. (1)...

  5. 48 CFR 731.205-46 - Travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Travel costs. 731.205-46... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 731.205-46 Travel costs. It is USAID policy to require prior written approval of international travel...

  6. 48 CFR 731.205-46 - Travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Travel costs. 731.205-46... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 731.205-46 Travel costs. It is USAID policy to require prior written approval of international travel...

  7. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-46 - Travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... rates in effect at the time of travel as set forth in the— (i) Federal Travel Regulation, prescribed by the General Services Administration (41 CFR chapters 300 through 304), for travel in the conterminous... airlines or other suitable, less costly, travel facilities are available at reasonable times,...

  8. The cost-constrained traveling salesman problem

    SciTech Connect

    Sokkappa, P.R.

    1990-10-01

    The Cost-Constrained Traveling Salesman Problem (CCTSP) is a variant of the well-known Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). In the TSP, the goal is to find a tour of a given set of cities such that the total cost of the tour is minimized. In the CCTSP, each city is given a value, and a fixed cost-constraint is specified. The objective is to find a subtour of the cities that achieves maximum value without exceeding the cost-constraint. Thus, unlike the TSP, the CCTSP requires both selection and sequencing. As a consequence, most results for the TSP cannot be extended to the CCTSP. We show that the CCTSP is NP-hard and that no K-approximation algorithm or fully polynomial approximation scheme exists, unless P = NP. We also show that several special cases are polynomially solvable. Algorithms for the CCTSP, which outperform previous methods, are developed in three areas: upper bounding methods, exact algorithms, and heuristics. We found that a bounding strategy based on the knapsack problem performs better, both in speed and in the quality of the bounds, than methods based on the assignment problem. Likewise, we found that a branch-and-bound approach using the knapsack bound was superior to a method based on a common branch-and-bound method for the TSP. In our study of heuristic algorithms, we found that, when selecting modes for inclusion in the subtour, it is important to consider the neighborhood'' of the nodes. A node with low value that brings the subtour near many other nodes may be more desirable than an isolated node of high value. We found two types of repetition to be desirable: repetitions based on randomization in the subtour buildings process, and repetitions encouraging the inclusion of different subsets of the nodes. By varying the number and type of repetitions, we can adjust the computation time required by our method to obtain algorithms that outperform previous methods.

  9. 48 CFR 31.205-46 - Travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Travel costs. 31.205-46 Section 31.205-46 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-46 Travel costs. (a) Costs...

  10. 48 CFR 31.205-46 - Travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Travel costs. 31.205-46... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-46 Travel costs. (a) Costs for transportation, lodging, meals, and incidental expenses. (1)...

  11. 48 CFR 31.205-46 - Travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Travel costs. 31.205-46... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-46 Travel costs. (a) Costs for transportation, lodging, meals, and incidental expenses. (1)...

  12. 2 CFR 200.474 - Travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT...) pursuant to any provisions of such subchapter must apply to travel under Federal awards (48 CFR 31.205-46(a... accommodations class offered by commercial airlines are unallowable except when such accommodations would:...

  13. Minimizing travel claims cost with minimal-spanning tree model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamalluddin, Mohd Helmi; Jaafar, Mohd Azrul; Amran, Mohd Iskandar; Ainul, Mohd Sharizal; Hamid, Aqmar; Mansor, Zafirah Mohd; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd

    2014-06-01

    Travel demand necessitates a big expenditure in spending, as has been proven by the National Audit Department (NAD). Every year the auditing process is carried out throughout the country involving official travel claims. This study focuses on the use of the Spanning Tree model to determine the shortest path to minimize the cost of the NAD's official travel claims. The objective is to study the possibility of running a network based in the Kluang District Health Office to eight Rural Clinics in Johor state using the Spanning Tree model applications for optimizing travelling distances and make recommendations to the senior management of the Audit Department to analyze travelling details before an audit is conducted. Result of this study reveals that there were claims of savings of up to 47.4% of the original claims, over the course of the travel distance.

  14. 45 CFR 1303.3 - Right to attorney, attorney fees, and travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... exceed those allowable under Standard Governmental Travel Regulations in effect at the time of the travel... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Right to attorney, attorney fees, and travel costs... AGENCIES General § 1303.3 Right to attorney, attorney fees, and travel costs. (a) All parties...

  15. 45 CFR 1303.3 - Right to attorney, attorney fees, and travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... exceed those allowable under Standard Governmental Travel Regulations in effect at the time of the travel... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Right to attorney, attorney fees, and travel costs... AGENCIES General § 1303.3 Right to attorney, attorney fees, and travel costs. (a) All parties...

  16. 45 CFR 1303.3 - Right to attorney, attorney fees, and travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... exceed those allowable under Standard Governmental Travel Regulations in effect at the time of the travel... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Right to attorney, attorney fees, and travel costs... AGENCIES General § 1303.3 Right to attorney, attorney fees, and travel costs. (a) All parties...

  17. 78 FR 31550 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Travel Costs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... collection requirement concerning Travel Costs. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 67366... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Travel Costs AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services..., 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0088, Travel Costs by...

  18. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-46 - Travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rates in effect at the time of travel as set forth in the— (i) Federal Travel Regulation, prescribed by the General Services Administration (41 CFR chapters 300 through 304), for travel in the conterminous... agreement (see 48 CFR 31.109 and 970.3101-9) with respect to compliance with paragraphs (a)(2) and (a)(3)...

  19. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-46 - Travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rates in effect at the time of travel as set forth in the— (i) Federal Travel Regulation, prescribed by the General Services Administration (41 CFR chapters 300 through 304), for travel in the conterminous... agreement (see 48 CFR 31.109 and 970.3101-9) with respect to compliance with paragraphs (a)(2) and (a)(3)...

  20. 10 CFR 719.34 - What is the treatment for travel costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Subject to This Part § 719.34 What is the treatment for travel costs? Travel and related expenses must at a minimum comply with the restrictions set forth in 48 CFR (FAR) 31.205-46, or 48 CFR (DEAR) 970... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is the treatment for travel costs? 719.34 Section...

  1. Modeling spatial segregation and travel cost influences on utilitarian walking: Towards policy intervention

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Rodriguez, Daniel A.; Brown, Daniel G.; Riolo, Rick; Diez-Roux, Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    We develop an agent-based model of utilitarian walking and use the model to explore spatial and socioeconomic factors affecting adult utilitarian walking and how travel costs as well as various educational interventions aimed at changing attitudes can alter the prevalence of walking and income differentials in walking. The model is validated against US national data. We contrast realistic and extreme parameter values in our model and test effects of changing these parameters across various segregation and pricing scenarios while allowing for interactions between travel choice and place and for behavioral feedbacks. Results suggest that in addition to income differences in the perceived cost of time, the concentration of mixed land use (differential density of residences and businesses) are important determinants of income differences in walking (high income walk less), whereas safety from crime and income segregation on their own do not have large influences on income differences in walking. We also show the difficulty in altering walking behaviors for higher income groups who are insensitive to price and how adding to the cost of driving could increase the income differential in walking particularly in the context of segregation by income and land use. We show that strategies to decrease positive attitudes towards driving can interact synergistically with shifting cost structures to favor walking in increasing the percent of walking trips. Agent-based models, with their ability to capture dynamic processes and incorporate empirical data, are powerful tools to explore the influence on health behavior from multiple factors and test policy interventions. PMID:25733776

  2. Vaccination against typhoid fever in travellers: a cost-effectiveness approach.

    PubMed

    Papadimitropoulos, V; Vergidis, P I; Bliziotis, I; Falagas, M E

    2004-08-01

    Analysis of data on the incidence of typhoid fever and the costs of vaccination of travellers to the developing world indicates that vaccination may not be cost-effective for travel to countries with a moderate-to-high endemicity. It may be reasonable to selectively vaccinate travellers to countries with a very high incidence of typhoid fever, and particularly those who are visiting relatives or who will be in close contact with the local population. Vaccination of travellers on standard tourist itineraries is probably not necessary. The basic preventative measure for typhoid fever should be the avoidance of potentially contaminated food and drink.

  3. 41 CFR 301-70.506 - How do we define actual cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... appropriate en route travel time. ... cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness or injury? 301-70.506 Section 301-70.506 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  4. 41 CFR 301-70.506 - How do we define actual cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... appropriate en route travel time. ... cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness or injury? 301-70.506 Section 301-70.506 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  5. 41 CFR 301-70.506 - How do we define actual cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... appropriate en route travel time. ... cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness or injury? 301-70.506 Section 301-70.506 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  6. A Low Cost Traveling Wave Tube for Wireless Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancil, Bernard Kenneth; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Williams, W. D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Demand for high data rate wireless communications is pushing up amplifier power, bandwidth and frequency requirements. Some systems are using vacuum electron devices again because solid-state power amplifiers are not able to efficiently meet the new requirements. The traveling wave tube is the VED of choice because of its excellent broadband capability as well as high power efficiency and frequency. But TWTs are very expensive on a per watt basis below about 200 watts of output power. We propose a new traveling wave tube that utilizes cathode ray tube construction technology and electrostatic focusing. We believe the tube can be built in quantity for under $1,000 each. We discuss several traveling wave tube slow wave circuits that lend themselves to the new construction. We will present modeling results and data on prototype devices.

  7. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-46 - Travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the General Services Administration (41 CFR chapters 300 through 304), for travel in the conterminous... agreement (see 48 CFR 31.109 and 970.3101-9) with respect to compliance with paragraphs (a)(2) and (a)(3) of... attributable to specific contract performance are allowable and may be charged to the contract under 48 CFR...

  8. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-46 - Travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the General Services Administration (41 CFR chapters 300 through 304), for travel in the conterminous... agreement (see 48 CFR 31.109 and 970.3101-9) with respect to compliance with paragraphs (a)(2) and (a)(3) of... attributable to specific contract performance are allowable and may be charged to the contract under 48 CFR...

  9. 41 CFR 301-13.3 - What additional travel expenses may my agency pay under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 13-TRAVEL OF AN EMPLOYEE WITH SPECIAL NEEDS § 301-13.3 What additional travel expenses may my agency... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional travel expenses may my agency pay under this part? 301-13.3 Section 301-13.3 Public Contracts and...

  10. 41 CFR 301-13.3 - What additional travel expenses may my agency pay under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 13-TRAVEL OF AN EMPLOYEE WITH SPECIAL NEEDS § 301-13.3 What additional travel expenses may my agency... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What additional travel expenses may my agency pay under this part? 301-13.3 Section 301-13.3 Public Contracts and...

  11. A Study of Additional Costs of Second Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly

    A study was conducted whose primary aim was to identify and explain additional costs incurred by Alberta, Canada school jurisdictions providing second language instruction in 1980. Additional costs were defined as those which would not have been incurred had the second language program not been in existence. Three types of additional costs were…

  12. An examination of sources of sensitivity of consumer surplus estimates in travel cost models.

    PubMed

    Blaine, Thomas W; Lichtkoppler, Frank R; Bader, Timothy J; Hartman, Travis J; Lucente, Joseph E

    2015-03-15

    We examine sensitivity of estimates of recreation demand using the Travel Cost Method (TCM) to four factors. Three of the four have been routinely and widely discussed in the TCM literature: a) Poisson verses negative binomial regression; b) application of Englin correction to account for endogenous stratification; c) truncation of the data set to eliminate outliers. A fourth issue we address has not been widely modeled: the potential effect on recreation demand of the interaction between income and travel cost. We provide a straightforward comparison of all four factors, analyzing the impact of each on regression parameters and consumer surplus estimates. Truncation has a modest effect on estimates obtained from the Poisson models but a radical effect on the estimates obtained by way of the negative binomial. Inclusion of an income-travel cost interaction term generally produces a more conservative but not a statistically significantly different estimate of consumer surplus in both Poisson and negative binomial models. It also generates broader confidence intervals. Application of truncation, the Englin correction and the income-travel cost interaction produced the most conservative estimates of consumer surplus and eliminated the statistical difference between the Poisson and the negative binomial. Use of the income-travel cost interaction term reveals that for visitors who face relatively low travel costs, the relationship between income and travel demand is negative, while it is positive for those who face high travel costs. This provides an explanation of the ambiguities on the findings regarding the role of income widely observed in the TCM literature. Our results suggest that policies that reduce access to publicly owned resources inordinately impact local low income recreationists and are contrary to environmental justice.

  13. Estimating the additional cost of disability: beyond budget standards.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson-Meyers, Laura; Brown, Paul; McNeill, Robert; Patston, Philip; Dylan, Sacha; Baker, Ronelle

    2010-11-01

    Disabled people have long advocated for sufficient resources to live a life with the same rights and responsibilities as non-disabled people. Identifying the unique resource needs of disabled people relative to the population as a whole and understanding the source of these needs is critical for determining adequate levels of income support and for prioritising service provision. Previous attempts to identify the resources and costs associated with disability have tended to rely on surveys of current resource use. These approaches have been criticised as being inadequate for identifying the resources that would be required to achieve a similar standard of living to non-disabled people and for not using methods that are acceptable to and appropriate for the disabled community. The challenge is therefore to develop a methodology that accurately identifies these unique resource needs, uses an approach that is acceptable to the disabled community, enables all disabled people to participate, and distinguishes 'needs' from 'wants.' This paper describes and presents the rationale for a mixed methodology for identifying and prioritising the resource needs of disabled people. The project is a partnership effort between disabled researchers, a disability support organisation and academic researchers in New Zealand. The method integrates a social model of disability framework and an economic cost model using a budget standards approach to identify additional support, equipment, travel and time required to live an 'ordinary life' in the community. A survey is then used to validate the findings and identify information gaps and resource priorities of the community. Both the theoretical basis of the approach and the practical challenges of designing and implementing a methodology that is acceptable to the disabled community, service providers and funding agencies are discussed. PMID:20933315

  14. 41 CFR 102-76.75 - What costs are included in the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a....75 What costs are included in the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an... facilities subject to the standards in § 102-76.65(a), the costs of alterations to provide an accessible...

  15. 41 CFR 102-76.75 - What costs are included in the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a....75 What costs are included in the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an... facilities subject to the standards in § 102-76.65(a), the costs of alterations to provide an accessible...

  16. 41 CFR 102-76.75 - What costs are included in the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a....75 What costs are included in the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an... facilities subject to the standards in § 102-76.65(a), the costs of alterations to provide an accessible...

  17. 41 CFR 102-76.75 - What costs are included in the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a....75 What costs are included in the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an... facilities subject to the standards in § 102-76.65(a), the costs of alterations to provide an accessible...

  18. 41 CFR 102-76.75 - What costs are included in the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a....75 What costs are included in the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an... facilities subject to the standards in § 102-76.65(a), the costs of alterations to provide an accessible...

  19. 10 CFR 719.34 - What is the treatment for travel costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the treatment for travel costs? 719.34 Section 719.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS Reimbursement of Costs... a minimum comply with the restrictions set forth in 48 CFR (FAR) 31.205-46, or 48 CFR (DEAR)...

  20. Valuing coral reefs: a travel cost analysis of the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Carr, Liam; Mendelsohn, Robert

    2003-08-01

    This study examines domestic and international travel to the Great Barrier Reef in order to estimate the benefits the reef provides to the 2 million visitors each year. The study explores the problems of functional form and of measuring travel cost for international visits: comparing actual costs, distance, and lowest price fares. The best estimates of the annual recreational benefits of the Great Barrier Reef range between USD 700 million to 1.6 billion. The domestic value to Australia is about USD 400 million, but the estimated value to more distant countries depends on the definition of travel cost and the functional form. The study conclusively demonstrates that there are very high benefits associated with protecting high quality coral reefs. PMID:14571965

  1. Surveillance of Travellers: An Additional Tool for Tracking Antimalarial Drug Resistance in Endemic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Gharbi, Myriam; Flegg, Jennifer A.; Pradines, Bruno; Berenger, Ako; Ndiaye, Magatte; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A.; Roper, Cally; Hubert, Véronique; Kendjo, Eric; Venkatesan, Meera; Brasseur, Philippe; Gaye, Oumar; Offianan, André T.; Penali, Louis; Le Bras, Jacques; Guérin, Philippe J.; Study, Members of the French National Reference Center for Imported Malaria

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There are growing concerns about the emergence of resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). Since the widespread adoption of ACTs, there has been a decrease in the systematic surveillance of antimalarial drug resistance in many malaria-endemic countries. The aim of this work was to test whether data on travellers returning from Africa with malaria could serve as an additional surveillance system of local information sources for the emergence of drug resistance in endemic-countries. Methodology Data were collected from travellers with symptomatic Plasmodium falciparum malaria returning from Senegal (n = 1,993), Mali (n = 2,372), Cote d’Ivoire (n = 4,778) or Cameroon (n = 3,272) and recorded in the French Malaria Reference Centre during the period 1996–2011. Temporal trends of the proportion of parasite isolates that carried the mutant genotype, pfcrt 76T, a marker of resistance to chloroquine (CQ) and pfdhfr 108N, a marker of resistance to pyrimethamine, were compared for travellers and within-country surveys that were identified through a literature review in PubMed. The in vitro response to CQ was also compared between these two groups for parasites from Senegal. Results The trends in the proportion of parasites that carried pfcrt 76T, and pfdhfr 108N, were compared for parasites from travellers and patients within-country using the slopes of the curves over time; no significant differences in the trends were found for any of the 4 countries. These results were supported by in vitro analysis of parasites from the field in Senegal and travellers returning to France, where the trends were also not significantly different. Conclusion The results have not shown different trends in resistance between parasites derived from travellers or from parasites within-country. This work highlights the value of an international database of drug responses in travellers as an additional tool to assess the emergence of drug

  2. 41 CFR 301-70.505 - May any travel costs be reimbursed if the employee travels to an alternate location for medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Procedures for Emergency Travel of Employee Due to Illness or Injury § 301-70.505 May any travel costs be... interrupts a TDY assignment because of an incapacitating illness or injury and takes leave of absence for...'s illness or injury will not, however, be considered an alternate location. Note to § 301-70.505:...

  3. 41 CFR 301-70.505 - May any travel costs be reimbursed if the employee travels to an alternate location for medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures for Emergency Travel of Employee Due to Illness or Injury § 301-70.505 May any travel costs be... interrupts a TDY assignment because of an incapacitating illness or injury and takes leave of absence for...'s illness or injury will not, however, be considered an alternate location. Note to § 301-70.505:...

  4. 41 CFR 301-13.2 - Under what conditions will my agency pay for my additional travel expense(s) under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... will my agency pay for my additional travel expense(s) under this part? 301-13.2 Section 301-13.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL... conditions will my agency pay for my additional travel expense(s) under this part? When an additional...

  5. 41 CFR 301-13.2 - Under what conditions will my agency pay for my additional travel expense(s) under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... will my agency pay for my additional travel expense(s) under this part? 301-13.2 Section 301-13.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL... conditions will my agency pay for my additional travel expense(s) under this part? When an additional...

  6. 45 CFR 1303.3 - Right to attorney, attorney fees, and travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Right to attorney, attorney fees, and travel costs. 1303.3 Section 1303.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN... Labor Statistics) beginning one year after the effective date of these regulations. The grantee...

  7. 41 CFR 301-70.802 - Must we ensure that travel on Government aircraft is the most cost-effective alternative?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...— (i) Travel on a scheduled commercial airline; (ii) Travel on a Federal aircraft; (iii) Travel on a... comparing the costs of using Government aircraft in lieu of scheduled commercial airline service and...

  8. Estimating the demand for drop-off recycling sites: a random utility travel cost approach.

    PubMed

    Sidique, Shaufique F; Lupi, Frank; Joshi, Satish V

    2013-09-30

    Drop-off recycling is one of the most widely adopted recycling programs in the United States. Despite its wide implementation, relatively little literature addresses the demand for drop-off recycling. This study examines the demand for drop-off recycling sites as a function of travel costs and various site characteristics using the random utility model (RUM). The findings of this study indicate that increased travel costs significantly reduce the frequency of visits to drop-off sites implying that the usage pattern of a site is influenced by its location relative to where people live. This study also demonstrates that site specific characteristics such as hours of operation, the number of recyclables accepted, acceptance of commingled recyclables, and acceptance of yard-waste affect the frequency of visits to drop-off sites.

  9. Variable population exposure and distributed travel speeds in least-cost tsunami evacuation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, S. A.; Wood, N. J.; Johnston, D. M.; Leonard, G. S.; Greening, P. D.; Rossetto, T.

    2014-11-01

    Evacuation of the population from a tsunami hazard zone is vital to reduce life-loss due to inundation. Geospatial least-cost distance modelling provides one approach to assessing tsunami evacuation potential. Previous models have generally used two static exposure scenarios and fixed travel speeds to represent population movement. Some analyses have assumed immediate departure or a common evacuation departure time for all exposed population. Here, a method is proposed to incorporate time-variable exposure, distributed travel speeds, and uncertain evacuation departure time into an existing anisotropic least-cost path distance framework. The method is demonstrated for hypothetical local-source tsunami evacuation in Napier City, Hawke's Bay, New Zealand. There is significant diurnal variation in pedestrian evacuation potential at the suburb level, although the total number of people unable to evacuate is stable across all scenarios. Whilst some fixed travel speeds approximate a distributed speed approach, others may overestimate evacuation potential. The impact of evacuation departure time is a significant contributor to total evacuation time. This method improves least-cost modelling of evacuation dynamics for evacuation planning, casualty modelling, and development of emergency response training scenarios. However, it requires detailed exposure data, which may preclude its use in many situations.

  10. Variable population exposure and distributed travel speeds in least-cost tsunami evacuation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, S. A.; Wood, N. J.; Johnston, D. M.; Leonard, G. S.; Greening, P. D.; Rossetto, T.

    2014-06-01

    Evacuation of the population from a tsunami hazard zone is vital to reduce life-loss due to inundation. Geospatial least-cost distance modelling provides one approach to assessing tsunami evacuation potential. Previous models have generally used two static exposure scenarios and fixed travel speeds to represent population movement. Some analyses have assumed immediate evacuation departure time or assumed a common departure time for all exposed population. In this paper, a method is proposed to incorporate time-variable exposure, distributed travel speeds, and uncertain evacuation departure time into an existing anisotropic least-cost path distance framework. The model is demonstrated for a case study of local-source tsunami evacuation in Napier City, Hawke's Bay, New Zealand. There is significant diurnal variation in pedestrian evacuation potential at the suburb-level, although the total number of people unable to evacuate is stable across all scenarios. Whilst some fixed travel speeds can approximate a distributed speed approach, others may overestimate evacuation potential. The impact of evacuation departure time is a significant contributor to total evacuation time. This method improves least-cost modelling of evacuation dynamics for evacuation planning, casualty modelling, and development of emergency response training scenarios.

  11. Variable population exposure and distributed travel speeds in least-cost tsunami evacuation modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fraser, Stuart A.; Wood, Nathan J.; Johnston, David A.; Leonard, Graham S.; Greening, Paul D.; Rossetto, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Evacuation of the population from a tsunami hazard zone is vital to reduce life-loss due to inundation. Geospatial least-cost distance modelling provides one approach to assessing tsunami evacuation potential. Previous models have generally used two static exposure scenarios and fixed travel speeds to represent population movement. Some analyses have assumed immediate departure or a common evacuation departure time for all exposed population. Here, a method is proposed to incorporate time-variable exposure, distributed travel speeds, and uncertain evacuation departure time into an existing anisotropic least-cost path distance framework. The method is demonstrated for hypothetical local-source tsunami evacuation in Napier City, Hawke's Bay, New Zealand. There is significant diurnal variation in pedestrian evacuation potential at the suburb level, although the total number of people unable to evacuate is stable across all scenarios. Whilst some fixed travel speeds approximate a distributed speed approach, others may overestimate evacuation potential. The impact of evacuation departure time is a significant contributor to total evacuation time. This method improves least-cost modelling of evacuation dynamics for evacuation planning, casualty modelling, and development of emergency response training scenarios. However, it requires detailed exposure data, which may preclude its use in many situations.

  12. New cement additive improves slurry properties and saves cost

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, R.; Hibbeler, J.; DiLullo, G.; Shotton, E.A.

    1994-12-31

    A new cement additive has been developed which improves slurry performance and reduces cost. The additive is a vitrified aggregate of calcium-magnesium aluminosilicates with potential cementitious reactivity, hereafter abbreviated CMAS. CMAS has been used successfully on oil and gas wells throughout Indonesia. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the technical enhancements and cost effectiveness of slurries incorporating CMAS. Laboratory data is presented and working mechanisms are defined to highlight CMAS`s positive effect on; compressive strength, fluid loss control, free water control, gas migration control, resistance to strength retrogression and aggressive fluids. Finally, case studies and an economic analysis are presented to show the cost savings for actual well applications.

  13. 48 CFR 246.470-1 - Assessment of additional costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment of additional costs. 246.470-1 Section 246.470-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract...

  14. Cost Analysis of Plug-In Hybred Electric Vehicles Using GPS-Based Longitudinal Travel Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xing; Dong, Jing; Lin, Zhenhong

    2014-01-01

    Using spatial, longitudinal travel data of 415 vehicles over 3 18 months in the Seattle metropolitan area, this paper estimates the operating costs of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) of various electric ranges (10, 20, 30, and 40 miles) for 3, 5, and 10 years of payback period, considering different charging infrastructure deployment levels and gasoline prices. Some key findings were made. (1) PHEVs could help save around 60% or 40% in energy costs, compared with conventional gasoline vehicles (CGVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), respectively. However, for motorists whose daily vehicle miles traveled (DVMT) is significant, HEVs may be even a better choice than PHEV40s, particularly in areas that lack a public charging infrastructure. (2) The incremental battery cost of large-battery PHEVs is difficult to justify based on the incremental savings of PHEVs operating costs unless a subsidy is offered for largebattery PHEVs. (3) When the price of gasoline increases from $4/gallon to $5/gallon, the number of drivers who benefit from a larger battery increases significantly. (4) Although quick chargers can reduce charging time, they contribute little to energy cost savings for PHEVs, as opposed to Level-II chargers.

  15. Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

  16. Cost Estimation of Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piili, Heidi; Happonen, Ari; Väistö, Tapio; Venkataramanan, Vijaikrishnan; Partanen, Jouni; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a layer wise fabrication method in which a laser beam melts metallic powder to form solid objects. Although 3D printing has been invented 30 years ago, the industrial use is quite limited whereas the introduction of cheap consumer 3D printers, in recent years, has familiarized the 3D printing. Interest is focused more and more in manufacturing of functional parts. Aim of this study is to define and discuss the current economic opportunities and restrictions of LAM process. Manufacturing costs were studied with different build scenarios each with estimated cost structure by calculated build time and calculating the costs of the machine, material and energy with optimized machine utilization. All manufacturing and time simulations in this study were carried out with a research machine equal to commercial EOS M series equipment. The study shows that the main expense in LAM is the investment cost of the LAM machine, compared to which the relative proportions of the energy and material costs are very low. The manufacturing time per part is the key factor to optimize costs of LAM.

  17. 41 CFR 301-70.802 - Must we ensure that travel on Government aircraft is the most cost-effective alternative?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Consider the cost of non-productive or lost work time while in travel status and certain other costs when... travel on Government aircraft is the most cost-effective alternative? 301-70.802 Section 301-70.802 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY)...

  18. 41 CFR 301-70.802 - Must we ensure that travel on Government aircraft is the most cost-effective alternative?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Consider the cost of non-productive or lost work time while in travel status and certain other costs when... travel on Government aircraft is the most cost-effective alternative? 301-70.802 Section 301-70.802 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY)...

  19. 41 CFR 301-70.802 - Must we ensure that travel on Government aircraft is the most cost-effective alternative?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Consider the cost of non-productive or lost work time while in travel status and certain other costs when... travel on Government aircraft is the most cost-effective alternative? 301-70.802 Section 301-70.802 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY)...

  20. The cost of defeat: Capuchin groups travel further, faster and later after losing conflicts with neighbors.

    PubMed

    Crofoot, Margaret C

    2013-09-01

    Although competition between social groups is central to hypotheses about the evolution of human social organization, competitive interactions among group-mates are thought to play a more dominant role in shaping the behavior and ecology of other primate species. However, few studies have directly tested the impact of intergroup conflicts in non-human primates. What is the cost of defeat? To address this question, the movements of six neighboring white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus) social groups living on Barro Colorado Island, Panama were tracked simultaneously using an Automated Radio Telemetry System (ARTS), for a period of six months. Groups moved 13% (441 m) further on days they lost interactions compared with days they won interactions. To cover these larger distances, they traveled faster, stopped less frequently, and remained active later in the evening. Defeat also caused groups to alter their patterns of space use. Losing groups had straighter travel paths than winning groups, larger net displacements and were more likely to change their sleeping site. These results demonstrate that losing groups pay increased travel costs and suggest that they forage in low-quality areas. They provide some of the first direct evidence that intergroup conflicts have important energetic consequences for members of competitively unsuccessful primate social groups. A better understanding of how intergroup competition impacts patterns of individual fitness is thus needed to clarify the role that this group-level process plays in shaping the evolution of human- and non-human primate behavior.

  1. Branching angles reflect a trade-off between reducing trail maintenance costs or travel distances in leaf-cutting ants.

    PubMed

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro Gustavo; Chinchilla, Federico; Umaña, María Natalia; Ocasio-Torres, Maríia Elena; Chauta-Mellizo, Alexander; Acosta-Rojas, Diana; Marinaro, Sofía; Curth, Mónica de Torres; Amador-Vargas, Sabrina

    2015-02-01

    The design of transport paths in consuming entities that use routes to access food should be under strong selective pressures to reduce costs and increase benefits. We studied the adaptive nature of branching angles in foraging trail networks of the two most abundant tropical leaf-cutting ant species. We mathematically assessed how these angles should reflect the relative weight of the pressure for reducing either trail maintenance effort or traveling distances. Bifurcation angles of ant foraging trails strongly differed depending on the location of the nests. Ant colonies in open areas showed more acute branching angles, which best shorten travel distances but create longer new trail sections to maintain than a perpendicular branch, suggesting that trail maintenance costs are smaller compared to the benefit of reduced traveling distance. Conversely, ant colonies in forest showed less acute branching angles, indicating that maintenance costs are of larger importance relative to the benefits of shortening travel distances. The trail pattern evident in forests may be attributable to huge amounts of litterfall that .increase trail maintenance costs, and the abundant canopy cover that reduces traveling costs by mitigating direct sunlight and rain. These results suggest that branching angles represent a trade-off between reducing maintenance work and shortening travel distances, illustrating how animal constructions can adjust to diverse environmental conditions. This idea may help to understand diverse networks systems, including urban travel networks. PMID:26240872

  2. 41 CFR 102-76.70 - When are the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary function... Architectural Barriers Act § 102-76.70 When are the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel... in § 102-76.65(a), the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an...

  3. 41 CFR 102-76.70 - When are the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary function... Architectural Barriers Act § 102-76.70 When are the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel... in § 102-76.65(a), the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an...

  4. 41 CFR 102-76.70 - When are the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary function... Architectural Barriers Act § 102-76.70 When are the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel... in § 102-76.65(a), the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an...

  5. 41 CFR 102-76.70 - When are the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary function... Architectural Barriers Act § 102-76.70 When are the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel... in § 102-76.65(a), the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an...

  6. 41 CFR 102-76.70 - When are the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary function... Architectural Barriers Act § 102-76.70 When are the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel... in § 102-76.65(a), the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an...

  7. 10 CFR 719.43 - What is the treatment of travel costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-46, as appropriate, to be reimbursable. (b) Travel time may be allowed at a full hourly rate for the... remaining travel time shall be reimbursed at 50 percent of the full hourly rate, except that in no event will travel time spent working for other clients be allowable. Also, for long distance travel...

  8. Calculation of enhanced slowing and cooling due to the addition of a traveling wave to an intense optical standing wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottesman, D.; Mervis, J.; Prentiss, M.; Bigelow, N. P.

    1992-07-01

    We investigate the force on a two-level atom interacting with intense monochromatic laser fields which are combinations of standing and traveling waves. We present a continued-fraction solution to the optical Bloch equations. Using this solution to calculate the force on an atom, we have examined the slowing and cooling of a thermal Na atomic beam. We find that the addition of a traveling wave to an intense standing wave can significantly improve the slowing rate and simultaneously decrease the final velocity of the cooled beam.

  9. 48 CFR 352.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... needed to support the bids, proposals, and applications. (2) B & P costs of the current accounting period are allowable as indirect costs. (3) B & P costs of past accounting periods are unallowable in the current period. However, if the organization's established practice is to treat these costs by some...

  10. 48 CFR 3452.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... scientific, cost and other data needed to support the bids, proposals and applications. Bid and proposal... practice is to treat these costs by some other method, they may be accepted if they are found to...

  11. 48 CFR 3452.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... scientific, cost, and other data needed to support the bids, proposals, and applications. Bid and proposal... practice is to treat these costs by some other method, they may be accepted if they are found to...

  12. 48 CFR 352.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Federal contracts, grants, and agreements, including the development of scientific, cost, and other data... method, they may be accepted if they are found to be reasonable and equitable. (4) B & P costs do...

  13. 48 CFR 352.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... include independent research and development (IR & D) costs covered by the following paragraph, or pre-award costs covered by paragraph 36 of Attachment B to OMB Circular A-122. (b) IR & D costs. (1) IR & D...-Federal contracts, grants, or other agreements. (2) IR & D shall be allocated its proportionate share...

  14. 48 CFR 352.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... include independent research and development (IR & D) costs covered by the following paragraph, or pre-award costs covered by paragraph 36 of Attachment B to OMB Circular A-122. (b) IR & D costs. (1) IR & D...-Federal contracts, grants, or other agreements. (2) IR & D shall be allocated its proportionate share...

  15. 48 CFR 352.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... include independent research and development (IR & D) costs covered by the following paragraph, or pre-award costs covered by paragraph 36 of Attachment B to OMB Circular A-122. (b) IR & D costs. (1) IR & D...-Federal contracts, grants, or other agreements. (2) IR & D shall be allocated its proportionate share...

  16. 41 CFR 102-76.80 - What is required if the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary... to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary function are... accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary function are disproportionate to the...

  17. 41 CFR 102-76.80 - What is required if the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary... to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary function are... accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary function are disproportionate to the...

  18. 41 CFR 102-76.80 - What is required if the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary... to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary function are... accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary function are disproportionate to the...

  19. 41 CFR 102-76.80 - What is required if the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary... to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary function are... accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary function are disproportionate to the...

  20. 41 CFR 102-76.80 - What is required if the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary... to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary function are... accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary function are disproportionate to the...

  1. Evidence on global medical travel

    PubMed Central

    Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains –quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection – in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies. PMID:26549906

  2. Evidence on global medical travel.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Kai; Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-11-01

    The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains -quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection - in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies.

  3. Evidence on global medical travel.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Kai; Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-11-01

    The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains -quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection - in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies. PMID:26549906

  4. An Econometric Analysis of the Elasticity of Vehicle Travel with Respect to Fuel Cost per Mile Using RTEC Survey Data

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Kahn, J.; Gibson, R.

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents the results of econometric estimation of the ''rebound effect'' for household vehicle travel in the United States based on a comprehensive analysis of survey data collected by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) at approximately three-year intervals over a 15-year period. The rebound effect is defined as the percent change in vehicle travel for a percent change in fuel economy. It summarizes the tendency to ''take back'' potential energy savings due to fuel economy improvements in the form of increased vehicle travel. Separate vehicles use models were estimated for one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-vehicle households. The results are consistent with the consensus of recently published estimates based on national or state-level data, which show a long-run rebound effect of about +0.2 (a ten percent increase in fuel economy, all else equal, would produce roughly a two percent increase in vehicle travel and an eight percent reduction in fuel use). The hypothesis that vehicle travel responds equally to changes in fuel cost-per-mile whether caused by changes in fuel economy or fuel price per gallon could not be rejected. Recognizing the interdependency in survey data among miles of travel, fuel economy and price paid for fuel for a particular vehicle turns out to be crucial to obtaining meaningful results.

  5. Cost analysis of two strategies for preventing hepatitis A virus infection in Spanish travellers to developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Bayas, J. M.; González, A.; Vilella, A.; San-Martín, M.; Bertran, M. J.; Adell, C.

    2001-01-01

    Our objectives were to assess the prevalence of anti-hepatitis A (HAV) antibodies in Spanish travellers to developing countries and to carry out a cost analysis to allow the comparison of two vaccination strategies. Adult subjects were selected from among travellers to developing countries. Information was obtained on age, sex, destination, previous vaccination against HAV and having received immunoglobulin. Blood specimens were obtained for anti-HAV antibody determination. A total of 485 travellers were studied. The prevalence of anti-HAV antibody was 30.5% (95% CI 26-35). Antibody prevalence was inversely correlated with age: 9.8% in 18-25 years of age, rising to 75.4% in those 41-55 years of age. Cost analysis determined that the critical value of prevalence for vaccination with HAV vaccine was 37.5%. It was concluded that the youngest Spanish travellers lack anti-HAV antibodies. Vaccination without screening in those < or = 35 years of age and screening before vaccination for those > 35 years, are the preferred alternatives. PMID:11693513

  6. 19 CFR 24.18 - Preclearance of air travelers in a foreign country; reimbursable cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... are stationed for that purpose. (b) At the request of an airline, travelers on a direct flight to the... as defined in paragraph (c) of this section shall be made to the airline. (c) The reimbursable excess... used in calculating the prorated charge for preclearance service for each airline in accordance...

  7. 19 CFR 24.18 - Preclearance of air travelers in a foreign country; reimbursable cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... are stationed for that purpose. (b) At the request of an airline, travelers on a direct flight to the... as defined in paragraph (c) of this section shall be made to the airline. (c) The reimbursable excess... used in calculating the prorated charge for preclearance service for each airline in accordance...

  8. 19 CFR 24.18 - Preclearance of air travelers in a foreign country; reimbursable cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... are stationed for that purpose. (b) At the request of an airline, travelers on a direct flight to the... as defined in paragraph (c) of this section shall be made to the airline. (c) The reimbursable excess... used in calculating the prorated charge for preclearance service for each airline in accordance...

  9. TRAVEL FORECASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, L. E.

    1994-01-01

    Business travel planning within an organization is often a time-consuming task. Travel Forecaster is a menu-driven, easy-to-use program which plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost for business-related travel of a division or branch of an organization and compiles this information into a database to aid the travel planner. The program's ability to handle multiple trip entries makes it a valuable time-saving device. Travel Forecaster takes full advantage of relational data base properties so that information that remains constant, such as per diem rates and airline fares (which are unique for each city), needs entering only once. A typical entry would include selection with the mouse of the traveler's name and destination city from pop-up lists, and typed entries for number of travel days and purpose of the trip. Multiple persons can be selected from the pop-up lists and multiple trips are accommodated by entering the number of days by each appropriate month on the entry form. An estimated travel cost is not required of the user as it is calculated by a Fourth Dimension formula. With this information, the program can produce output of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for either organization or sub-entity of an organization; or produce outputs of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for international-only travel. It will also provide monthly and cumulative formats of planned vs. actual outputs in data or graph form. Travel Forecaster users can do custom queries to search and sort information in the database, and it can create custom reports with the user-friendly report generator. Travel Forecaster 1.1 is a database program for use with Fourth Dimension Runtime 2.1.1. It requires a Macintosh Plus running System 6.0.3 or later, 2Mb of RAM and a hard disk. The standard distribution medium for this package is one 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Travel Forecaster was developed in 1991. Macintosh is a registered trademark of

  10. Estimating the economic value of ice climbing in Hyalite Canyon: An application of travel cost count data models that account for excess zeros.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D Mark

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the sport of ice climbing has seen a dramatic increase in popularity. This paper uses the travel cost method to estimate the demand for ice climbing in Hyalite Canyon, Montana, one of the premier ice climbing venues in North America. Access to Hyalite and other ice climbing destinations have been put at risk due to liability issues, public land management agendas, and winter road conditions. To this point, there has been no analysis on the economic benefits of ice climbing. In addition to the novel outdoor recreation application, this study applies econometric methods designed to deal with "excess zeros" in the data. Depending upon model specification, per person per trip values are estimated to be in the range of $76 to $135.

  11. Estimating the Economic Value of Ice Climbing in Hyalite Canyon: An Application of Travel Cost Count Data Models that Account for Excess Zeros*

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the sport of ice climbing has seen a drastic increase in popularity. This paper uses the travel cost method to estimate the demand for ice climbing in Hyalite Canyon, Montana, one of the premier ice climbing venues in North America. Access to Hyalite and other ice climbing destinations have been put at risk due to liability issues, public land management agendas, and winter road conditions. To this point, there has been no analysis on the economic benefits of ice climbing. In addition to the novel outdoor recreation application, this study applies econometric methods designed to deal with “excess zeros” in the data. Depending upon model specification, per person per trip values are estimated to be in the range of $76 to $135. PMID:20044202

  12. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  13. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  14. 20 CFR 404.278 - Additional cost-of-living increase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional cost-of-living increase. 404.278 Section 404.278 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Cost-Of-Living Increases §...

  15. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  16. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  17. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  18. Travelling diabetics.

    PubMed

    Chełmińska, Katarzyna; Jaremin, Bogdan

    2002-01-01

    During the past several decades, the number of both business and tourist travels has greatly increased. Among them are persons suffering from chronic diseases, including diabetics for whom travels pose the additional health-hazard. Irrespective of better education, self-control and constantly improving quality of specialistic equipment available, diabetics still are the group of patients requiring particular attention. In the case of travelling diabetics, problems may occur concerning the transport and storage of insulin, as well as control of glycaemia, all caused by irregularity of meals, variable diet, physical activity, stress, kinetosis (sea voyages), and the change of time zones. The travel may as well evoke ailments caused by the change of climate and concomitant diseases such as traveller's diarrhoea, malaria, etc. Apart from avoiding glycaemia fluctuations, important for retaining health of diabetics is the prevention of other diseases and carrying the necessary drugs.

  19. Traveling-wave-tube efficiency improvement by a low-cost technique for deposition of carbon on multistage depressed collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebihara, Ben T.; Ramins, Peter; Peet, Shelly

    1987-01-01

    A simple method of improving the traveling-wave-tube (TWT) and multistage depressed collector (MDC) efficiency has been demonstrated. The efficiency improvement was produced by the application of a thin layer of carbon to the copper electrodes of the MDC by means of a rapid, low-cost technique involving the pyrolysis of hydrocarbon oil in electric arc discharges. Experimental results with a representative TWT and MDC showed an 11 percent improvement in both the TWT and MDC efficiencies as compared to those of the same TWT and MDC efficiencies with bare copper electrode surfaces. An extended test with a 500-W, continuous wave (CW) TWT and small-sized MDC indicated good stability of the carbon coated electrode surfaces after a relatively small initial degradation in TWT overall and apparent MDC efficiencies.

  20. 45 CFR 1303.3 - Right to attorney, attorney fees, and travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reflect the percentage change in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (issued by the Bureau of... delegate agency may use current operating funds to pay these costs. The fees of only one attorney may be.... (b) In the event that use of program funds under this section would result in curtailment of...

  1. 42 CFR 413.355 - Additional payment: QIO photocopy and mailing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Prospective Payment for Skilled Nursing Facilities § 413.355 Additional payment: QIO photocopy and mailing costs. An additional payment is made to a skilled nursing facility in accordance with § 476.78 of...

  2. 42 CFR 413.355 - Additional payment: QIO photocopy and mailing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Prospective Payment for Skilled Nursing Facilities § 413.355 Additional payment: QIO photocopy and mailing costs. An additional payment is made to a skilled nursing facility in accordance with § 476.78 of...

  3. 42 CFR 413.355 - Additional payment: QIO photocopy and mailing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Prospective Payment for Skilled Nursing Facilities § 413.355 Additional payment: QIO photocopy and mailing costs. An additional payment is made to a skilled nursing facility in accordance with § 476.78 of...

  4. 41 CFR 301-70.802 - Must we ensure that travel on Government aircraft is the most cost-effective alternative?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... found in the “U.S. Government Aircraft Cost Accounting Guide,” available through the General Services... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Must we ensure that... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY)...

  5. Using probabilistic terrorism risk modeling for regulatory benefit-cost analysis: application to the Western hemisphere travel initiative in the land environment.

    PubMed

    Willis, Henry H; LaTourrette, Tom

    2008-04-01

    This article presents a framework for using probabilistic terrorism risk modeling in regulatory analysis. We demonstrate the framework with an example application involving a regulation under consideration, the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative for the Land Environment, (WHTI-L). First, we estimate annualized loss from terrorist attacks with the Risk Management Solutions (RMS) Probabilistic Terrorism Model. We then estimate the critical risk reduction, which is the risk-reducing effectiveness of WHTI-L needed for its benefit, in terms of reduced terrorism loss in the United States, to exceed its cost. Our analysis indicates that the critical risk reduction depends strongly not only on uncertainties in the terrorism risk level, but also on uncertainty in the cost of regulation and how casualties are monetized. For a terrorism risk level based on the RMS standard risk estimate, the baseline regulatory cost estimate for WHTI-L, and a range of casualty cost estimates based on the willingness-to-pay approach, our estimate for the expected annualized loss from terrorism ranges from $2.7 billion to $5.2 billion. For this range in annualized loss, the critical risk reduction for WHTI-L ranges from 7% to 13%. Basing results on a lower risk level that results in halving the annualized terrorism loss would double the critical risk reduction (14-26%), and basing the results on a higher risk level that results in a doubling of the annualized terrorism loss would cut the critical risk reduction in half (3.5-6.6%). Ideally, decisions about terrorism security regulations and policies would be informed by true benefit-cost analyses in which the estimated benefits are compared to costs. Such analyses for terrorism security efforts face substantial impediments stemming from the great uncertainty in the terrorist threat and the very low recurrence interval for large attacks. Several approaches can be used to estimate how a terrorism security program or regulation reduces the

  6. Measuring the social recreation per-day net benefit of the wildlife amenities of a national park: a count-data travel-cost approach.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Isabel; Proença, Isabel

    2011-11-01

    In this article, we apply count-data travel-cost methods to a truncated sample of visitors to estimate the Peneda-Gerês National Park (PGNP) average consumer surplus (CS) for each day of visit. The measurement of recreation demand is highly specific because it is calculated by number of days of stay per visit. We therefore propose the application of altered truncated count-data models or truncated count-data models on grouped data to estimate a single, on-site individual recreation demand function, with the price (cost) of each recreation day per trip equal to out-of-pocket and time travel plus out-of-pocket and on-site time costs. We further check the sensitivity of coefficient estimations to alternative models and analyse the welfare measure precision by using the delta and simulation methods by Creel and Loomis. With simulated limits, CS is estimated to be 194 (range 116 to 448). This information is of use in the quest to improve government policy and PNPG management and conservation as well as promote nature-based tourism. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to measure the average recreation net benefits of each day of stay generated by a national park by using truncated altered and truncated grouped count-data travel-cost models based on observing the individual number of days of stay.

  7. Who visits a national park and what do they get out of it?: a joint visitor cluster analysis and travel cost model for Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Benson, Charles; Watson, Philip; Taylor, Garth; Cook, Philip; Hollenhorst, Steve

    2013-10-01

    Yellowstone National Park visitor data were obtained from a survey collected for the National Park Service by the Park Studies Unit at the University of Idaho. Travel cost models have been conducted for national parks in the United States; however, this study builds on these studies and investigates how benefits vary by types of visitors who participate in different activities while at the park. Visitor clusters were developed based on activities in which a visitor participated while at the park. The clusters were analyzed and then incorporated into a travel cost model to determine the economic value (consumer surplus) that the different visitor groups received from visiting the park. The model was estimated using a zero-truncated negative binomial regression corrected for endogenous stratification. The travel cost price variable was estimated using both 1/3 and 1/4 the wage rate to test for sensitivity to opportunity cost specification. The average benefit across all visitor cluster groups was estimated at between $235 and $276 per person per trip. However, per trip benefits varied substantially across clusters; from $90 to $103 for the "value picnickers," to $185-$263 for the "backcountry enthusiasts," $189-$278 for the "do it all adventurists," $204-$303 for the "windshield tourists," and $323-$714 for the "creature comfort" cluster group.

  8. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  9. Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; Watkins, Thomas R.; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Carver, Keith; England, Roger

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the proposed project between Cummins and ORNL is to significantly reduce the cost of the tooling (machining and materials) required to create injection molds to make plastic components. Presently, the high cost of this tooling forces the design decision to make cast aluminum parts because Cummins typical production volumes are too low to allow injection molded plastic parts to be cost effective with the amortized cost of the injection molding tooling. In addition to reducing the weight of components, polymer injection molding allows the opportunity for the alternative cooling methods, via nitrogen gas. Nitrogen gas cooling offers an environmentally and economically attractive cooling option, if the mold can be manufactured economically. In this project, a current injection molding design was optimized for cooling using nitrogen gas. The various components of the injection mold tooling were fabricated using the Renishaw powder bed laser additive manufacturing technology. Subsequent machining was performed on the as deposited components to form a working assembly. The injection mold is scheduled to be tested in a projection setting at a commercial vendor selected by Cummins.

  10. SideRack: A Cost-Effective Addition to Commercial Zebrafish Housing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Leonard; Gill, Ryan; Balciuniene, Jorune

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Commercially available aquatic housing systems provide excellent and relatively trouble-free hardware for rearing and housing juvenile as well as adult zebrafish. However, the cost of such systems is quite high and potentially prohibitive for smaller educational and research institutions. The need for tank space prompted us to experiment with various additions to our existing Aquaneering system. We also noted that high water exchange rates typical in commercial systems are suboptimal for quick growth of juvenile fish. We devised a housing system we call “SideRack,” which contains 20 large tanks with air supply and slow water circulation. It enables cost-effective expansion of existing fish facility, with a key additional benefit of increased growth and maturation rates of juvenile fish. PMID:24611601

  11. Cost-Sensitive Boosting: Fitting an Additive Asymmetric Logistic Regression Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiu-Jie; Mao, Yao-Bin; Wang, Zhi-Quan; Xiang, Wen-Bo

    Conventional machine learning algorithms like boosting tend to equally treat misclassification errors that are not adequate to process certain cost-sensitive classification problems such as object detection. Although many cost-sensitive extensions of boosting by directly modifying the weighting strategy of correspond original algorithms have been proposed and reported, they are heuristic in nature and only proved effective by empirical results but lack sound theoretical analysis. This paper develops a framework from a statistical insight that can embody almost all existing cost-sensitive boosting algorithms: fitting an additive asymmetric logistic regression model by stage-wise optimization of certain criterions. Four cost-sensitive versions of boosting algorithms are derived, namely CSDA, CSRA, CSGA and CSLB which respectively correspond to Discrete AdaBoost, Real AdaBoost, Gentle AdaBoost and LogitBoost. Experimental results on the application of face detection have shown the effectiveness of the proposed learning framework in the reduction of the cumulative misclassification cost.

  12. The Cost of an Additional Disability-Free Life Year for Older Americans: 1992–2005

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Liming

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost of an additional disability-free life year for older Americans in 1992–2005. Data Source This study used 1992–2005 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, a longitudinal survey of Medicare beneficiaries with a rotating panel design. Study Design This analysis used multistate life table model to estimate probabilities of transition among a discrete set of health states (nondisabled, disabled, and dead) for two panels of older Americans in 1992 and 2002. Health spending incurred between annual health interviews was estimated by a generalized linear mixed model. Health status, including death, was simulated for each member of the panel using these transition probabilities; the associated health spending was cross-walked to the simulated health changes. Principal Findings Disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) increased significantly more than life expectancy during the study period. Assuming that 50 percent of the gains in DFLE between 1992 and 2005 were attributable to increases in spending, the average discounted cost per additional disability-free life year was $71,000. There were small differences between gender and racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions The cost of an additional disability-free life year was substantially below previous estimates based on mortality trends alone. PMID:22670874

  13. Traveling with breathing problems

    MedlinePlus

    Oxygen - travel; Collaped lung - travel; Chest surgery - travel; COPD - travel; Chronic obstructive airways disease - travel; Chronic obstructive lung disease - travel; Chronic bronchitis - travel; ...

  14. [Traveler's thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Riedel, M; Bohanes, V

    2002-08-01

    It is pathophysiologically conceivable that prolonged sitting in a tight space (e.g., in airplane or other transport vehicle) may lead to leg vein thrombosis. The association between the incidence of venous thromboembolism and long travel has not been sufficiently documented but seems probable. However, this association is only weak and the incidence of symptomatic thromboembolism much lower than the impression given by the recent publicity. In a healthy person, the risk of suffering a clinically relevant leg vein thrombosis solely because of a flight is extreme low. In persons with risk factors for venous thromboembolism, the flight represents an additional, as yet not quantifiable risk. This risk increases with the duration of the travel. The most important cause of thrombosis during long journeys seems to be venostasis due to relative immobilization. It is not clear whether flight travel represents a higher risk of thrombosis compared to other transport vehicles with comparable duration and immobilization. Until more exact information becomes available, it seems reasonable to recommend simple isometric and isotonic leg exercises during long travel. More aggressive measures must be considered for persons with risk factors for thromboembolism, but these measures should be individualized.

  15. The Physical Costs and Psychosocial Benefits of Travel Aids for Persons Who Are Visually Impaired or Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitlin, L. N.; Mount, J.; Lucas, W.; Weirich, L. C.; Gramberg, L.

    1997-01-01

    This study investigated the musculoskeletal consequences of travel aids, particularly white canes and guide dogs, as perceived by 21 individuals (ages 27-68) with visual impairments or blindness. They experienced a variety of negative physical effects that they denied, ignored, or minimized because of benefits derived from being independently…

  16. 25 CFR 170.602 - If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sufficient additional funds are awarded. (See 25 CFR 900.130(e).) Miscellaneous Provisions ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it... Funding Process § 170.602 If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional...

  17. Connected Traveler

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Alex

    2015-11-01

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing efficient traveler behavior. This poster outlines various aspects of the Connected Traveler project, including market opportunity, understanding traveler behavior and decision-making, automation and connectivity, and a projected timeline for Connected Traveler's key milestones.

  18. How to produce personality neuroscience research with high statistical power and low additional cost.

    PubMed

    Mar, Raymond A; Spreng, R Nathan; Deyoung, Colin G

    2013-09-01

    Personality neuroscience involves examining relations between cognitive or behavioral variability and neural variables like brain structure and function. Such studies have uncovered a number of fascinating associations but require large samples, which are expensive to collect. Here, we propose a system that capitalizes on neuroimaging data commonly collected for separate purposes and combines it with new behavioral data to test novel hypotheses. Specifically, we suggest that groups of researchers compile a database of structural (i.e., anatomical) and resting-state functional scans produced for other task-based investigations and pair these data with contact information for the participants who contributed the data. This contact information can then be used to collect additional cognitive, behavioral, or individual-difference data that are then reassociated with the neuroimaging data for analysis. This would allow for novel hypotheses regarding brain-behavior relations to be tested on the basis of large sample sizes (with adequate statistical power) for low additional cost. This idea can be implemented at small scales at single institutions, among a group of collaborating researchers, or perhaps even within a single lab. It can also be implemented at a large scale across institutions, although doing so would entail a number of additional complications.

  19. Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space: HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVieneni, Alayna; Velez, Carlos Andres; Benjamin, David; Hollenbeck, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide. This document is intended to serve as a general road map for participants of the HELIOS Technology Challenge [HTC] Program and the associated inaugural challenge: HTC-01: Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space. Please note that this guide is not a rule book and is not meant to hinder the development of innovative ideas. Its primary goal is to highlight the objectives of the HTC-01 Challenge and to describe possible solution routes and pitfalls that such technology may encounter in space. Please also note that participants wishing to demonstrate any hardware developed under this program during any future HELIOS Technology Challenge showcase event(s) may be subject to event regulations to be published separately at a later date.

  20. Additive Manufacturing for Cost Efficient Production of Compact Ceramic Heat Exchangers and Recuperators

    SciTech Connect

    Shulman, Holly; Ross, Nicole

    2015-10-30

    An additive manufacture technique known as laminated object manufacturing (LOM) was used to fabricate compact ceramic heat exchanger prototypes. LOM uses precision CO2 laser cutting of ceramic green tapes, which are then precision stacked to build a 3D object with fine internal features. Modeling was used to develop prototype designs and predict the thermal response, stress, and efficiency in the ceramic heat exchangers. Build testing and materials analyses were used to provide feedback for the design selection. During this development process, laminated object manufacturing protocols were established. This included laser optimization, strategies for fine feature integrity, lamination fluid control, green handling, and firing profile. Three full size prototypes were fabricated using two different designs. One prototype was selected for performance testing. During testing, cross talk leakage prevented the application of a high pressure differential, however, the prototype was successful at withstanding the high temperature operating conditions (1300 °F). In addition, analysis showed that the bulk of the part did not have cracks or leakage issues. This led to the development of a module method for next generation LOM heat exchangers. A scale-up cost analysis showed that given a purpose built LOM system, these ceramic heat exchangers would be affordable for the applications.

  1. Travel medicine

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  2. 78 FR 32224 - Availability of Version 3.1.2 of the Connect America Fund Phase II Cost Model; Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ...; Additional Discussion Topics in Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop AGENCY: Federal Communications... issues in the ongoing virtual workshop. DATES: Comments are due on or before June 18, 2013. If you... comments. Virtual Workshop: In addition to the usual methods for filing electronic comments, the...

  3. Measuring demand for flat water recreation using a two-stage/disequilibrium travel cost model with adjustment for overdispersion and self-selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKean, John R.; Johnson, Donn; Taylor, R. Garth

    2003-04-01

    An alternate travel cost model is applied to an on-site sample to estimate the value of flat water recreation on the impounded lower Snake River. Four contiguous reservoirs would be eliminated if the dams are breached to protect endangered Pacific salmon and steelhead trout. The empirical method applies truncated negative binomial regression with adjustment for endogenous stratification. The two-stage decision model assumes that recreationists allocate their time among work and leisure prior to deciding among consumer goods. The allocation of time and money among goods in the second stage is conditional on the predetermined work time and income. The second stage is a disequilibrium labor market which also applies if employers set work hours or if recreationists are not in the labor force. When work time is either predetermined, fixed by contract, or nonexistent, recreationists must consider separate prices and budgets for time and money.

  4. Travelers' Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Zika Travel to the Olympics Infographic: Olympic Games in Brazil Olympics Freqently Asked Questions Find a ... Travelers Zika infographic: Enjoy Your Vacation Infographic: Olympic Games in Brazil Pack smart to prevent Zika Prevent ...

  5. Travelers' Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Citizens and Residents Living in Areas with Ongoing Zika Virus Transmission Guidelines for Travelers Visiting Friends and Family ... Vaccines. Medicines. Advice. Do you have questions about Zika virus or travel to the Olympics ? Destinations Who are ...

  6. Armchair Travels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1994-01-01

    Includes ideas and activities for school library media specialists relating to vacationing and traveling, including the use of maps, travel brochures, travel diaries, postcards, videos, slides, and guest speakers. An annotated bibliography of 75 pertinent sources of information, including picture books, intermediate level, nonfiction,…

  7. 41 CFR 301-52.2 - What information must I provide in my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., transit system fares, and parking meter fees, except any individual expenses costing over $75 must be... Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ARRANGING FOR TRAVEL SERVICES,...

  8. 78 FR 12271 - Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Additional Comment In Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Virtual Workshop AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this... Site: http://fjallfoss.fcc.gov/ecfs2/ . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Virtual...://www.fcc.gov/blog/wcb-cost-model-virtual-workshop-2012 . People with Disabilities: Contact the FCC...

  9. Travelers' Health: Travel and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... providers should explain clearly to breastfeeding mothers the value of continuing breastfeeding during travel. For the first 6 months of life, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended. This is especially important during travel because exclusive breastfeeding means feeding only ...

  10. Government regulation and public opposition create high additional costs for field trials with GM crops in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Bernauer, Thomas; Tribaldos, Theresa; Luginbühl, Carolin; Winzeler, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Field trials with GM crops are not only plant science experiments. They are also social experiments concerning the implications of government imposed regulatory constraints and public opposition for scientific activity. We assess these implications by estimating additional costs due to government regulation and public opposition in a recent set of field trials in Switzerland. We find that for every Euro spent on research, an additional 78 cents were spent on security, an additional 31 cents on biosafety, and an additional 17 cents on government regulatory supervision. Hence the total additional spending due to government regulation and public opposition was around 1.26 Euros for every Euro spent on the research per se. These estimates are conservative; they do not include additional costs that are hard to monetize (e.g. stakeholder information and dialogue activities, involvement of various government agencies). We conclude that further field experiments with GM crops in Switzerland are unlikely unless protected sites are set up to reduce these additional costs.

  11. Business travel in Asia: blood tests required?

    PubMed

    Karel, S

    1988-03-01

    Travellers to Asian countries face growing hostility as potential carriers of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Visitors who plan to stay in China, India, the Philippines, or South Korea for more than 1 year must prove that they are AIDS-free. In addition, all foreign students who enter China and India must carry documents indicating that they tested negative for the AIDS virus. The upcoming Olympics poses a special health problem for South Korea, which has not so far required AIDS testing for short-term visitors. A World Health Organization consultation on AIDS infection and international travel has raised questions about the feasibility of an AIDS screening program. The estimated direct cost per traveller for AIDS testing would be US$10-20. Even if all foreign travellers were to be screened, 2 problems could still allow AIDS to enter these countries: black marketing of false health certificates and failing to test foreign nationals who have been abroad. Moreover, a restrictive screening policy for international travellers could result in a decline in tourism and international commerce. Business people who intend to travel to Asia for extended periods of time are advised to check with embassies before their departure to find out what AIDS-related clearances may be required.

  12. Travelers' thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Raymond V; Hudson, Martin F

    2014-02-01

    The suggestion that venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with air travel has for several decades been the subject of both "media hype" and extensive debate in the medical literature. As emotion and anecdote is often a feature in this debate, it is therefore necessary to separate evidence from anecdote. "Travelers' thrombosis" is a more appropriate term because the evidence suggests that any form of travel involving immobility lasting more than 4 h can predispose to thrombosis. There is no unique factor in the air travel cabin environment that has been shown to have any effect on the coagulation cascade. Prevention of thrombosis in any form of travel, including air travel, requires being aware of the issue and making an adequate risk assessment together with appropriate prophylactic measures.

  13. Travelers' thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Raymond V; Hudson, Martin F

    2014-02-01

    The suggestion that venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with air travel has for several decades been the subject of both "media hype" and extensive debate in the medical literature. As emotion and anecdote is often a feature in this debate, it is therefore necessary to separate evidence from anecdote. "Travelers' thrombosis" is a more appropriate term because the evidence suggests that any form of travel involving immobility lasting more than 4 h can predispose to thrombosis. There is no unique factor in the air travel cabin environment that has been shown to have any effect on the coagulation cascade. Prevention of thrombosis in any form of travel, including air travel, requires being aware of the issue and making an adequate risk assessment together with appropriate prophylactic measures. PMID:24597166

  14. Healthcare-associated Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection: length of stay, attributable mortality, and additional direct costs.

    PubMed

    Primo, Mariusa Gomes Borges; Guilarde, Adriana Oliveira; Martelli, Celina M Turchi; Batista, Lindon Johnson de Abreu; Turchi, Marília Dalva

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the excess length of stay, extra expenditures, and attributable mortality to healthcare-associated S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) at a teaching hospital in central Brazil. The study design was a matched (1:1) case-control. Cases were defined as patients >13 years old, with a healthcare-associated S. aureus BSI. Controls included patients without an S. aureus BSI, who were matched to cases by gender, age (± 7 years), morbidity, and underlying disease. Data were collected from medical records and from the Brazilian National Hospital Information System (Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde - SIH/SUS). A Wilcoxon rank sum test was performed to compare length of stay and costs between cases and controls. Differences in mortality between cases and controls were compared using McNemar's tests. The Mantel-Haenzel stratified analysis was performed to compare invasive device utilization. Data analyses were conducted using Epi Info 6.0 and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 13.0). 84 case-control pairs matched by gender, age, admission period, morbidity, and underlying disease were analyzed. The mean lengths of hospital stay were 48.3 and 16.2 days for cases and controls, respectively (p<0.01), yielding an excess hospital stay among cases of 32.1 days. The excess mortality among cases compared to controls that was attributable to S. aureus bloodstream infection was 45.2%. Cases had a higher risk of dying compared to controls (OR 7.3, 95% CI 3.1-21.1). Overall costs of hospitalization (SIH/SUS) reached US$ 123,065 for cases versus US$ 40,247 for controls (p<0.01). The cost of antimicrobial therapy was 6.7 fold higher for cases compared to controls. Healthcare-associated S. aureus BSI was associated with statistically significant increases in length of hospitalization, attributable mortality, and economic burden. Implementation of measures to minimize the risk of healthcare-associated bacterial

  15. Municipal Rebate Programs for Environmental Retrofits: An Evaluation of Additionality and Cost-Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennear, Lori S.; Lee, Jonathan M.; Taylor, Laura O.

    2013-01-01

    When policies incentivize voluntary activities that also take place in the absence of the incentive, it is critical to identify the additionality of the policy--that is, the degree to which the policy results in actions that would not have occurred otherwise. Rebate programs have become a common conservation policy tool for local municipalities…

  16. Traveler's Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Stanley L; Stevens, A Michal; Leung, Daniel T

    2016-03-01

    Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is the most common travel-related illness, and it can have a significant impact on the traveler. Pretravel consultation provides an excellent opportunity for the clinician to counsel the traveler and discuss strategies such as food and water hygiene, vaccinations, and medications for prophylaxis or self-treatment that may decrease the incidence and impact of TD. Postinfectious sequelae, such as postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome, reactive arthritis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome, may develop weeks or months after return. PMID:26900116

  17. Low-cost additive improved silage quality and anaerobic digestion performance of napiergrass.

    PubMed

    Lianhua, Li; Feng, Zhen; Yongming, Sun; Zhenhong, Yuan; Xiaoying, Kong; Xianyou, Zhou; Hongzhi, Niu

    2014-12-01

    Effects of molasses-alcoholic wastewater on the ensiling quality of napiergrass were investigated at ambient temperature, and its anaerobic digestion performance was assessed at mesophilic temperature. Results showed that the molasses-alcoholic wastewater had positive effect on silage quality and anaerobic digestion performance. Lower pH values of 5.20-5.28, lower NH3-N contents of 32.65-36.60 g/kg and higher lactic acid contents of 56-61 mg/kg FM were obtained for the silage samples with molasses-alcoholic wastewater addition. Higher specific biogas yield of 273 mL/g VS was obtained for the sample with 11% molasses-alcoholic wastewater added. Therefore 11% molasses-alcoholic wastewater addition was recommended.

  18. Additional reductions in Medicare spending growth will likely require shifting costs to beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Chernew, Michael E

    2013-05-01

    Policy makers have considerable interest in reducing Medicare spending growth. Clarity in the debate on reducing Medicare spending growth requires recognition of three important distinctions: the difference between public and total spending on health, the difference between the level of health spending and rate of health spending growth, and the difference between growth per beneficiary and growth in the number of beneficiaries in Medicare. The primary policy issue facing the US health care system is the rate of spending growth in public programs, and solving that problem will probably require reforms to the entire health care sector. The Affordable Care Act created a projected trajectory for Medicare spending per beneficiary that is lower than historical growth rates. Although opportunities for one-time savings exist, any long-term savings from Medicare, beyond those already forecast, will probably require a shift in spending from taxpayers to beneficiaries via higher beneficiary premium contributions (overall or via means testing), changes in eligibility, or greater cost sharing at the point of service.

  19. Travel expense reimbursement for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-24

    The Travel and Treasury departments use the Operations Travel System to process business travel expenses and cash receipts. OTS feeds the payment information to either the payroll or payables system. ITS then feeds the cost information to Financial Data System.

  20. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    businesses market regional, cross-border health services available in the United States and intranational travel to clinics in Canada. In contrast to medical tourism companies, they do not market holiday tours in addition to medical care. Two companies occupy a narrow market niche and promote testing for CCSVI and “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis. Three additional companies offer bariatric surgery and cosmetic surgery at facilities in Mexico. Four businesses offer health insurance products intended to cover the cost of obtaining privately financed health care in the U.S. These businesses also help their clients arrange treatment beyond Canada’s borders. Finally, one medical travel company based in Canada markets health services primarily to U.S. citizens. Conclusions This article uses content analysis of websites of Canadian companies marketing medical travel to provide insight into Canada’s medical travel industry. The article reveals a complex marketplace with different types of companies taking distinct approaches to marketing medical travel. PMID:22703873

  1. [Adventure travel].

    PubMed

    Beck, Bernhard R

    2013-06-01

    Extreme travelling experiences appear to be a quite popular kick offered by tourist operators and sought by some travellers. But some travellers expose themselves to increased risk also during normal holidays, either voluntarily by booking hikes or tours leading them to adventurous locations or to unexpectedly encountering dangerous situations. In planned adventures, precise information in advance, good physical condition, careful planning, and profound medical preparation may contribute to a less hazardous adventure. Advising medical persons may need an expert consultation for specific topics in order to optimise the preparation. Based on three specific environmental situations (jungle, desert, and cave) the specific conditions, dangers and some medical aspects are outlined. PMID:23732454

  2. Air travel and pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaowen; Cowl, Clayton T; Baqir, Misbah; Ryu, Jay H

    2014-04-01

    The number of medical emergencies onboard aircraft is increasing as commercial air traffic increases and the general population ages, becomes more mobile, and includes individuals with serious medical conditions. Travelers with respiratory diseases are at particular risk for in-flight events because exposure to lower atmospheric pressure in a pressurized cabin at cruising altitude may result in not only hypoxemia but also pneumothorax due to gas expansion within enclosed pulmonary parenchymal spaces based on Boyle's law. Risks of pneumothorax during air travel pertain particularly to those patients with cystic lung diseases, recent pneumothorax or thoracic surgery, and chronic pneumothorax. Currently available guidelines are admittedly based on sparse data and include recommendations to delay air travel for 1 to 3 weeks after thoracic surgery or resolution of the pneumothorax. One of these guidelines declares existing pneumothorax to be an absolute contraindication to air travel although there are reports of uneventful air travel for those with chronic stable pneumothorax. In this article, we review the available data regarding pneumothorax and air travel that consist mostly of case reports and retrospective surveys. There is clearly a need for additional data that will inform decisions regarding air travel for patients at risk for pneumothorax, including those with recent thoracic surgery and transthoracic needle biopsy. PMID:24687705

  3. Air travel and pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaowen; Cowl, Clayton T; Baqir, Misbah; Ryu, Jay H

    2014-04-01

    The number of medical emergencies onboard aircraft is increasing as commercial air traffic increases and the general population ages, becomes more mobile, and includes individuals with serious medical conditions. Travelers with respiratory diseases are at particular risk for in-flight events because exposure to lower atmospheric pressure in a pressurized cabin at cruising altitude may result in not only hypoxemia but also pneumothorax due to gas expansion within enclosed pulmonary parenchymal spaces based on Boyle's law. Risks of pneumothorax during air travel pertain particularly to those patients with cystic lung diseases, recent pneumothorax or thoracic surgery, and chronic pneumothorax. Currently available guidelines are admittedly based on sparse data and include recommendations to delay air travel for 1 to 3 weeks after thoracic surgery or resolution of the pneumothorax. One of these guidelines declares existing pneumothorax to be an absolute contraindication to air travel although there are reports of uneventful air travel for those with chronic stable pneumothorax. In this article, we review the available data regarding pneumothorax and air travel that consist mostly of case reports and retrospective surveys. There is clearly a need for additional data that will inform decisions regarding air travel for patients at risk for pneumothorax, including those with recent thoracic surgery and transthoracic needle biopsy.

  4. Traveler's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... water, boil it or use iodine tablets. Food poisoning can also be a risk. Eat only food that is fully cooked and served hot. Avoid unwashed or unpeeled raw fruits and vegetables. If you are traveling out of the country, ...

  5. Future Trends in Business Travel Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Keith J.

    2002-01-01

    This research surveys twenty large companies and their travellers to identify and evaluate the effects of pressures on the business travel market in the future. The influence of the following areas on the decision making process are addressed: (1) Corporate travel policies and increasing professionalism in corporate purchasing; (2) The development of global strategic airline alliances; (3) The emergence of low cost airlines on short haul markets; and (4) The development of internet based booking tools and travel agency IT. The survey shows differences in views between travel managers, and travellers with regard to corporate travel policies. While travel managers see policy rules, travellers interpret these as guidelines, indicating travel managers will need to take further actions to exercise true control of travel budgets. The data shows that companies are more likely to prescribe a class of airline ticket, than the choice of airline itself. Corporate hierarchical bias in travel policies is still common both for short and particularly long haul flying. Other findings show that while travel managers believe that their companies are likely to sign global deals with strategic airline groups within a five year period in a bid to consolidating spending, they also believe that nearly a third of short haul flying will be taken with low cost carriers, indicating further penetration in this business travel market by these carriers. The paper also provides other predictions about the business travel market, based on the survey findings.

  6. 34 CFR 389.41 - What are allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are allowable costs? 389.41 Section 389.41... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 389.41 What are allowable costs? In addition to those allowable costs... Education programs— (a) Trainee per diem costs; (b) Trainee travel in connection with a training course;...

  7. 34 CFR 389.41 - What are allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true What are allowable costs? 389.41 Section 389.41... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 389.41 What are allowable costs? In addition to those allowable costs... Education programs— (a) Trainee per diem costs; (b) Trainee travel in connection with a training course;...

  8. 34 CFR 389.41 - What are allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are allowable costs? 389.41 Section 389.41... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 389.41 What are allowable costs? In addition to those allowable costs... Education programs— (a) Trainee per diem costs; (b) Trainee travel in connection with a training course;...

  9. 34 CFR 389.41 - What are allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What are allowable costs? 389.41 Section 389.41... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 389.41 What are allowable costs? In addition to those allowable costs... Education programs— (a) Trainee per diem costs; (b) Trainee travel in connection with a training course;...

  10. 34 CFR 389.41 - What are allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are allowable costs? 389.41 Section 389.41... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 389.41 What are allowable costs? In addition to those allowable costs... Education programs— (a) Trainee per diem costs; (b) Trainee travel in connection with a training course;...

  11. 75 FR 63184 - Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services... of agencies subject to the FTR to enhance travel cost savings and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This guidance will improve management of agency travel programs, save money on travel costs,...

  12. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider before travel. Passengers should practice good respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette. Passengers should report their respiratory ... from: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/hygiene/ships/en/shipsancomp.pdf?ua=1 . Chapter 6 - ...

  13. Formation of gold nanostructures on copier paper surface for cost effective SERS active substrate - Effect of halide additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmonda, Christa; Kar, Sudeshna; Tai, Yian

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we report the simple fabrication of an active substrate assisted by gold nanostructures (AuNS) for application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using copier paper, which is a biodegradable and cost-effective material. As cellulose is the main component of paper, it can behave as a reducing agent and as a capping molecule for the synthesis of AuNS on the paper substrate. AuNS can be directly generated on the surface of the copier paper by addition of halides. The AuNS thus synthesized were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, SEM, XRD, and XPS. In addition, the SERS effect of the AuNS-paper substrates synthesized by using various halides was investigated by using rhodamine 6G and melamine as probe molecules.

  14. Reducing metal alloy powder costs for use in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing: Improving the economics for production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Fransisco

    Titanium and its associated alloys have been used in industry for over 50 years and have become more popular in the recent decades. Titanium has been most successful in areas where the high strength to weight ratio provides an advantage over aluminum and steels. Other advantages of titanium include biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that has been successfully applied in the manufacturing of titanium components for the aerospace and medical industry with equivalent or better mechanical properties as parts fabricated via more traditional casting and machining methods. As the demand for titanium powder continues to increase, the price also increases. Titanium spheroidized powder from different vendors has a price range from 260/kg-450/kg, other spheroidized alloys such as Niobium can cost as high as $1,200/kg. Alternative titanium powders produced from methods such as the Titanium Hydride-Dehydride (HDH) process and the Armstrong Commercially Pure Titanium (CPTi) process can be fabricated at a fraction of the cost of powders fabricated via gas atomization. The alternative powders can be spheroidized and blended. Current sectors in additive manufacturing such as the medical industry are concerned that there will not be enough spherical powder for production and are seeking other powder options. It is believed the EBM technology can use a blend of spherical and angular powder to build fully dense parts with equal mechanical properties to those produced using traditional powders. Some of the challenges with angular and irregular powders are overcoming the poor flow characteristics and the attainment of the same or better packing densities as spherical powders. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing alternative and lower cost powders in the EBM process. As a result, reducing the cost of the raw material to reduce the overall cost of the product produced with

  15. Early treatment revisions by addition or switch for type 2 diabetes: impact on glycemic control, diabetic complications, and healthcare costs

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Phil; Saundankar, Vishal; Bouchard, Jonathan; Wintfeld, Neil; Suehs, Brandon; Moretz, Chad; Allen, Elsie; DeLuzio, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background The study examined the prevalence of early treatment revisions after glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥9.0% (75 mmol/mol) and estimated the impact of early treatment revisions on glycemic control, diabetic complications, and costs. Research design and methods A retrospective cohort study of administrative claims data of plan members with type 2 diabetes and HbA1c ≥9.0% (75 mmol/mol) was completed. Treatment revision was identified as treatment addition or switch. Glycemic control was measured as HbA1c during 6–12 months following the first qualifying HbA1c ≥9.0% (75 mmol/mol) laboratory result. Complications severity (via Diabetes Complication Severity Index (DCSI)) and costs were measured after 12, 24, and 36 months. Unadjusted comparisons and multivariable models were used to examine the relationship between early treatment revision (within 90 days of HbA1c) and outcomes after controlling for potentially confounding factors measured during a 12-month baseline period. Results 8463 participants were included with a mean baseline HbA1c of 10.2% (75 mmol/mol). Early treatment revision was associated with greater reduction in HbA1c at 6–12 months (−2.10% vs −1.87%; p<0.001). No significant relationship was observed between early treatment revision and DCSI at 12, 24, or 36 months (p=0.931, p=0.332, and p=0.418). Total costs, medical costs, and pharmacy costs at 12, 24, or 36 months were greater for the early treatment revision group compared with the delayed treatment revision group (all p<0.05). Conclusions The findings suggest that in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, treatment revision within 90 days of finding an HbA1c ≥9.0% is associated with a greater level of near-term glycemic control and higher cost. The impact on end points such as diabetic complications may not be realized over relatively short time frames. PMID:26925237

  16. The Traveling Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Mark S; Connor, Bradley A

    2016-09-01

    Given the recent interest in the human gut microbiome in health and disease, we have undertaken a review of the role of the gut microbiome as it relates to travel. Considering the microbiome as the interface with the external world of the traveler, not only from the perspective of protection from enteric infection by colonization resistance but also the possibility that a traveler's unique microbiome may place him or her at lesser or greater risk for enteric infection. We review available data on travel, travelers' diarrhea, and the use of antibiotics as it relates to changes in the microbiome and the acquisition of multi-drug-resistant bacteria and explore the interplay of these factors in the development of dysbiosis and the post-infectious sequelae of TD, specifically PI-IBS. In addition, we explore whether dietary changes in travel affect the gut microbiome in a way which modulates gastrointestinal function and susceptibility to infection and discuss whether pre- or probiotics have any meaningful role in prevention or treatment of TD. Finally, a discussion of important research gaps and opportunities in this area is identified. PMID:27447891

  17. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with addition of a low-cost adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sílvia C R; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2015-06-30

    Color removal from textile wastewaters, at a low-cost and consistent technology, is even today a challenge. Simultaneous biological treatment and adsorption is a known alternative to the treatment of wastewaters containing biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants. The present work aims at evaluating the treatability of a simulated textile wastewater by simultaneously combining biological treatment and adsorption in a SBR (sequencing batch reactor), but using a low-cost adsorbent, instead of a commercial one. The selected adsorbent was a metal hydroxide sludge (WS) from an electroplating industry. Direct Blue 85 dye (DB) was used in the preparation of the synthetic wastewater. Firstly, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were studied, in respect to many factors (temperature, pH, WS dosage and presence of salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the aqueous media). At 25 °C and pH 4, 7 and 10, maximum DB adsorption capacities in aqueous solution were 600, 339 and 98.7 mg/g, respectively. These values are quite considerable, compared to other reported in literature, but proved to be significantly reduced by the presence of dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the wastewater. The simulated textile wastewater treatment in SBR led to BOD5 removals of 53-79%, but color removal was rather limited (10-18%). The performance was significantly enhanced by the addition of WS, with BOD5 removals above 91% and average color removals of 60-69%.

  18. Travellers' diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Arduino, R C; DuPont, H L

    1993-06-01

    Although TD is usually a mild and self-limited illness, 30-50% of travellers from industrialized to less developed countries are affected. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) remain the most frequent cause, being identified in 40-70% of cases. TD frequently occurs within the first 2 weeks of arrival in the foreign country. The clinical manifestation is variable, but watery diarrhoea is the most common clinical presentation. Chronic diarrhoea or remitting symptoms after empirical therapy in the returning traveller are indications for a stool culture and a careful search for stool parasites. Since the major precaution against TD is to avoid exposure to the infectious agents, careful selection of food and beverage is crucial. Bismuth subsalicylate has been proven to be safe and effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of TD. The tablet form has removed the inconvenience of previously required luggage space. Doxycycline, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, trimethoprim and the quinolones have been shown to be effective for prevention of diarrhoea. However, side-effects, superinfection, development of antibiotic resistance and easy-to-treat illness may limit the use of these antimicrobial agents to those travellers with concomitant serious medical conditions that would be adversely affected by diarrhoea, or travellers with unaffordable temporary incapacity. A new oral-killed whole-cell and B-subunit cholera toxin vaccine was demonstrated to induce protection against severe ETEC-associated diarrhoea. This is a promising field under investigation. Finally, fluid replacement is the most important aspect of treatment. Patients with moderate to severe TD can be treated with one of the above-mentioned antimicrobial agents for 3-5 days. Selection of the antimicrobial agent is based on the pattern of resistance and the enteric organism prevalent in the geographical area. While TMP-SMX remains active against the strains prevalent in Mexico during summertime, the quinolones represent

  19. [Immunocompromised travelers].

    PubMed

    Delmont, J; Igo-Kemenes, A; Peyron, F; Ruiz, J M; Moreau, J; Bourgeade, A

    1997-01-01

    More and more immunocompromised people travel abroad especially in tropical countries where infectious risks are high. Before leaving, these subjects must consult their general practitioner who will determine their fitness in function of type of immunodeficiency, travel destination, availability of medical care at the destination, and possibility of medical evacuation. Counseling should also be provided concerning the precautions necessary to avoid the hazards of exposure to fecal material, venereal disease, insect bites, and sun. Antimalarial drug prophylaxis is the same as for uncompromised subjects. Advising immunocompromised subjects about vaccinations is difficult since there is no consensus on the subject. Administration of inert vaccines is usually recommended but their effectiveness is often diminished and harmful effects have been observed in HIV-infected subjects. Administration of live vaccines is always contraindicated in severely immunocompromised subjects but some live vaccines can be used in moderately immunocompromised subjects. The guidelines for vaccination differ depending on the underlying cause of immunodeficiency: congenital defects, cancer, hemopathy, treatment with immunosuppressors or corticosteroids (transplant patients and patients with systemic disease), HIV-infection, or spleen dysfunction. If there is a high risk of contracting a disease for which vaccination is contraindicated, drug prophylaxis or administration of immunoglobulins can be an alternative. If not, travel should either be postponed or the destination should be changed.

  20. 34 CFR 387.41 - What are allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are allowable costs? 387.41 Section 387.41... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 387.41 What are allowable costs? In addition to those allowable costs... training projects— (a) Student stipends; (b) Tuition and fees; and (c) Student travel in conjunction...

  1. 34 CFR 387.41 - What are allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true What are allowable costs? 387.41 Section 387.41... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 387.41 What are allowable costs? In addition to those allowable costs... training projects— (a) Student stipends; (b) Tuition and fees; and (c) Student travel in conjunction...

  2. 34 CFR 387.41 - What are allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are allowable costs? 387.41 Section 387.41... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 387.41 What are allowable costs? In addition to those allowable costs... training projects— (a) Student stipends; (b) Tuition and fees; and (c) Student travel in conjunction...

  3. 34 CFR 387.41 - What are allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What are allowable costs? 387.41 Section 387.41... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 387.41 What are allowable costs? In addition to those allowable costs... training projects— (a) Student stipends; (b) Tuition and fees; and (c) Student travel in conjunction...

  4. 34 CFR 387.41 - What are allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are allowable costs? 387.41 Section 387.41... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 387.41 What are allowable costs? In addition to those allowable costs... training projects— (a) Student stipends; (b) Tuition and fees; and (c) Student travel in conjunction...

  5. 7 CFR 52.50 - Travel and other expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and other expenses. Charges may be made to cover the cost of travel time incurred in connection with... exceed eight hours of travel time for any one person for any one day: And provided further, that if travel is by common carrier, no hourly charge may be made for travel time outside the employee's...

  6. 48 CFR 2452.251-70 - Contractor employee travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contractor employee travel... 2452.251-70 Contractor employee travel. As prescribed in 2451.7001, insert the following clause in all cost-reimbursement solicitations and contracts involving travel: Contractor Employee Travel (OCT...

  7. 48 CFR 2452.251-70 - Contractor employee travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contractor employee travel... 2452.251-70 Contractor employee travel. As prescribed in 2451.7001, insert the following clause in all cost-reimbursement solicitations and contracts involving travel: Contractor Employee Travel (OCT...

  8. 48 CFR 3452.247-70 - Foreign travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foreign travel. 3452.247....247-70 Foreign travel. As prescribed in 3447.701, insert the following clause in all solicitations and resultant cost-reimbursement contracts: Foreign Travel (MAR 2011) Foreign travel shall not be...

  9. Travel Medical Kit.

    PubMed

    Terry, Anne C; Haulman, N Jean

    2016-03-01

    "The traveler's medical kit is an essential tool for both the novice and expert traveler. It is designed to treat travel-related illness and injury and to ensure preexisting medical conditions are managed appropriately. Travelers are at increased risk for common gastrointestinal issues during travel. Respiratory illnesses make up approximately 8% of the ailments present in returned international travelers. Approximately 12% of travelers experience a travel-related skin condition. First aid treatment for minor injuries is essential to all travel medical kits. The complexity ranges from a small, simple case for the urban traveler to a larger, extensive case for wilderness travel." PMID:26900112

  10. Engineering and environmental properties of thermally treated mixtures containing MSWI fly ash and low-cost additives.

    PubMed

    Polettini, A; Pomi, R; Trinci, L; Muntoni, A; Lo Mastro, S

    2004-09-01

    An experimental work was carried out to investigate the feasibility of application of a sintering process to mixtures composed of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) fly ash and low-cost additives (waste from feldspar production and cullet). The proportions of the three constituents were varied to adjust the mixture compositions to within the optimal range for sintering. The material was compacted in cylindrical specimens and treated at 1100 and 1150 degrees C for 30 and 60 min. Engineering and environmental characteristics including weight loss, dimensional changes, density, open porosity, mechanical strength, chemical stability and leaching behavior were determined for the treated material, allowing the relationship between the degree of sintering and both mixture composition and treatment conditions to be singled out. Mineralogical analyses detected the presence of neo-formation minerals from the pyroxene group. Estimation of the extent of metal loss from the samples indicated that the potential for volatilization of species of Pb, Cd and Zn is still a matter of major concern when dealing with thermal treatment of incinerator ash. PMID:15268956

  11. Engineering and environmental properties of thermally treated mixtures containing MSWI fly ash and low-cost additives.

    PubMed

    Polettini, A; Pomi, R; Trinci, L; Muntoni, A; Lo Mastro, S

    2004-09-01

    An experimental work was carried out to investigate the feasibility of application of a sintering process to mixtures composed of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) fly ash and low-cost additives (waste from feldspar production and cullet). The proportions of the three constituents were varied to adjust the mixture compositions to within the optimal range for sintering. The material was compacted in cylindrical specimens and treated at 1100 and 1150 degrees C for 30 and 60 min. Engineering and environmental characteristics including weight loss, dimensional changes, density, open porosity, mechanical strength, chemical stability and leaching behavior were determined for the treated material, allowing the relationship between the degree of sintering and both mixture composition and treatment conditions to be singled out. Mineralogical analyses detected the presence of neo-formation minerals from the pyroxene group. Estimation of the extent of metal loss from the samples indicated that the potential for volatilization of species of Pb, Cd and Zn is still a matter of major concern when dealing with thermal treatment of incinerator ash.

  12. [True and virtual risks of travellers].

    PubMed

    Hatz, C; Walz, A; Genton, B; Behrens, R

    2014-05-01

    Evidence-based information on travel associated mortality is scarce. Perception, intuition and the availability of interventions such as vaccinations and chemoprophylaxis often guide pre-travel advice. Important risks including accidents and cardiovascular events are not routinely included in pre-travel consultations although they cause more fatalities and costs than infectious diseases. The increased risk of sustaining a road accident in poor economy countries should always be mentioned. The general practitioner is further best placed to discuss possible problems of travellers with chronic diseases before travel.

  13. Improving Classroom Performance in Underachieving Preadolescents: The Additive Effects of Response Cost to a School-Home Note System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Alyson P.; Kelley, Mary Lou

    1994-01-01

    Compared the effectiveness of a school-home note with and without response cost on the disruptive and on-task behavior of three preadolescents. Inclusion of response cost was associated with marked improvements in attentiveness and stabilization of disruptive behavior as compared with that obtained with a traditional school-home note. (LKS)

  14. Vaccinations for international travellers travelling from Greece.

    PubMed

    Pavli, Androula; Spilioti, Athina; Lymperi, Ioanna; Katerelos, Panagiotis; Maltezou, Helena C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this prospective, questionnaire-based study is to assess pre-travel vaccinations for international travellers who receive pre-travel advice in Greece. A total of 2494 travellers were studied from January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2010. Travellers sought pre-travel advice at a median of 16 days (range: 0-349 days) before departure. Sub-Saharan Africa was the most common destination (34.7%). Most travellers (60.8%) travelled for <1 month, for recreation purposes (58.9%), stayed in hotels (65.3%), and in urban areas (53.6%). Yellow fever, tetravalent meningococcal, typhoid fever, cholera, and rabies vaccines were administered to 1629 (65.3%), 666 (26.7%), 615 (24.7%), 28 (1.1%), and/or 12 (0.5%) travellers, respectively. Of those who received Yellow fever vaccine, 737 (45.2%) travelled to sub-Saharan Africa, 332 (20.4%) travelled to South America, 949 (58.3%) stayed for short term, and 762 (46.8%) stayed in urban areas. Of the 1629 travellers vaccinated against Yellow fever, 150 (9.2%) and 226 (13.8%) travelled to areas of sub-Saharan Africa and South America respectively, where the vaccine is not or generally not recommended. Of those travellers who received meningococcal vaccine, 327 (49.1%) travelled to the Middle East for the Hajj, 251 (29%) travelled to sub-Saharan Africa, 410 (61.6%) for short term, and 540 (64.4%) stayed in urban areas. Of those travellers who received typhoid vaccine, 241 (39.2%) travelled to sub-Saharan Africa, 78 (12.7%) to the Indian subcontinent, 234 (38%) for short term, and 419 (68.1%) stayed in urban areas. Regarding routine vaccines, tetanus-diphtheria, poliomyelitis, and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines were administered to 707 (28.3%), 639 (25.6%) and/or 149 (6%) travellers, respectively. Of those to whom poliomyelitis vaccine was recommended, 295 (46.2%) and 137 (21.4%) travelled to sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East, respectively, and 362 (56.7%) travelled for short term. In conclusion, this study revealed that

  15. Projections of costs, financing, and additional resource requirements for low- and lower middle-income country immunization programs over the decade, 2011-2020.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Gian; Lydon, Patrick; Cornejo, Santiago; Brenzel, Logan; Wrobel, Sandra; Chang, Hugh

    2013-04-18

    The Decade of Vaccines Global Vaccine Action Plan has outlined a set of ambitious goals to broaden the impact and reach of immunization across the globe. A projections exercise has been undertaken to assess the costs, financing availability, and additional resource requirements to achieve these goals through the delivery of vaccines against 19 diseases across 94 low- and middle-income countries for the period 2011-2020. The exercise draws upon data from existing published and unpublished global forecasts, country immunization plans, and costing studies. A combination of an ingredients-based approach and use of approximations based on past spending has been used to generate vaccine and non-vaccine delivery costs for routine programs, as well as supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Financing projections focused primarily on support from governments and the GAVI Alliance. Cost and financing projections are presented in constant 2010 US dollars (US$). Cumulative total costs for the decade are projected to be US$57.5 billion, with 85% for routine programs and the remaining 15% for SIAs. Delivery costs account for 54% of total cumulative costs, and vaccine costs make up the remainder. A conservative estimate of total financing for immunization programs is projected to be $34.3 billion over the decade, with country governments financing 65%. These projections imply a cumulative funding gap of $23.2 billion. About 57% of the total resources required to close the funding gap are needed just to maintain existing programs and scale up other currently available vaccines (i.e., before adding in the additional costs of vaccines still in development). Efforts to mobilize additional resources, manage program costs, and establish mutual accountability between countries and development partners will all be necessary to ensure the goals of the Decade of Vaccines are achieved. Establishing or building on existing mechanisms to more comprehensively track resources and

  16. Aging and space travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The matter of aging and its relation to space vehicle crewmembers undertaking prolonged space missions is addressed. The capabilities of the older space traveler to recover from bone demineralization and muscle atrophy are discussed. Certain advantages of the older person are noted, for example, a greater tolerance of monotony and repetitious activities. Additional parameters are delineated including the cardiovascular system, the reproductive system, ionizing radiation, performance, and group dynamics.

  17. 25 CFR 171.555 - What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing, and... following costs: (a) An administrative fee to process your Payment Plan, as required by 31 CFR 901.9....

  18. 25 CFR 171.555 - What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing, and... following costs: (a) An administrative fee to process your Payment Plan, as required by 31 CFR 901.9....

  19. 25 CFR 171.555 - What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing, and... following costs: (a) An administrative fee to process your Payment Plan, as required by 31 CFR 901.9....

  20. 25 CFR 171.555 - What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing, and... following costs: (a) An administrative fee to process your Payment Plan, as required by 31 CFR 901.9....

  1. 25 CFR 171.555 - What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing, and... following costs: (a) An administrative fee to process your Payment Plan, as required by 31 CFR 901.9....

  2. Protecting child health and nutrition status with ready-to-use food in addition to food assistance in urban Chad: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite growing interest in use of lipid nutrient supplements for preventing child malnutrition and morbidity, there is inconclusive evidence on the effectiveness, and no evidence on the cost-effectiveness of this strategy. Methods A cost effectiveness analysis was conducted comparing costs and outcomes of two arms of a cluster randomized controlled trial implemented in eastern Chad during the 2010 hunger gap by Action contre la Faim France and Ghent University. This trial assessed the effect on child malnutrition and morbidity of a 5-month general distribution of staple rations, or staple rations plus a ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF). RUSF was distributed to households with a child aged 6–36 months who was not acutely malnourished (weight-for-height > = 80% of the NCHS reference median, and absence of bilateral pitting edema), to prevent acute malnutrition in these children. While the addition of RUSF to a staple ration did not result in significant reduction in wasting rates, cost-effectiveness was assessed using successful secondary outcomes of cases of diarrhea and anemia (hemoglobin <110 g/L) averted among children receiving RUSF. Total costs of the program and incremental costs of RUSF and related management and logistics were estimated using accounting records and key informant interviews, and include costs to institutions and communities. An activity-based costing methodology was applied and incremental costs were calculated per episode of diarrhea and case of anemia averted. Results Adding RUSF to a general food distribution increased total costs by 23%, resulting in an additional cost per child of 374 EUR, and an incremental cost per episode of diarrhea averted of 1,083 EUR and per case of anemia averted of 3,627 EUR. Conclusions Adding RUSF to a staple ration was less cost-effective than other standard intervention options for averting diarrhea and anemia. This strategy holds potential to address a broad array of health and

  3. Travelers' Health: Water Disinfection for Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... be superior to tap water. Moreover, the plastic bottles create an ecological problem, since most developing countries do not recycle plastic bottles. All international travelers, especially long-term travelers or ...

  4. [Travel and renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Lavelle, O; Berland, Y

    1997-01-01

    Traveling can be dangerous for subjects with kidney insufficiency. Water loss or septic episodes can further increase renal dysfunction. Poor diet can lead to hyperkaliemia. Immunosuppression not only enhances the risk of infection but also complicates administration of live vaccines. Some antimalarial drugs are contraindicated (e.g. mefloquine) and others must be used with precaution. Prior to departure persons requiring hemodialysis should book sessions at centers listed in specialized guidebooks. In addition to infection, risks for hemodialysis patients include thrombosis of the arteriovenous fistula in case of dehydration or hypotension. In subjects with transplanted kidney, the risk of rejection can be enhanced either by poor compliance with immunodepressor treatment or by vaccination-induced antigenic stimulation. Pre-travel evaluation is necessary to determine metabolic, nutritional, and immune status. Subjects with kidney insufficiency and transplanted kidneys should be informed of the dangers and appropriate action in case of trouble.

  5. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part... the same trip in the same vehicle. (2) Lodging and meals. The cost allowable for lodging and meals for... prevailing per diem allowance rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part...

  6. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part... the same trip in the same vehicle. (2) Lodging and meals. The cost allowable for lodging and meals for... prevailing per diem allowance rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part...

  7. 38 CFR 21.9585 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Counseling § 21.9585 Travel expenses. VA will not pay for any costs of travel to and from the place of counseling regardless of whether the individual requests educational and vocational counseling or whether the counseling is required. (Authority: 38...

  8. 38 CFR 21.9585 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Counseling § 21.9585 Travel expenses. VA will not pay for any costs of travel to and from the place of counseling regardless of whether the individual requests educational and vocational counseling or whether the counseling is required. (Authority: 38...

  9. 38 CFR 21.9585 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Counseling § 21.9585 Travel expenses. VA will not pay for any costs of travel to and from the place of counseling regardless of whether the individual requests educational and vocational counseling or whether the counseling is required. (Authority: 38...

  10. 38 CFR 21.9585 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Counseling § 21.9585 Travel expenses. VA will not pay for any costs of travel to and from the place of counseling regardless of whether the individual requests educational and vocational counseling or whether the counseling is required. (Authority: 38...

  11. 41 CFR 301-10.261 - When may I use a Government aircraft for travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or lost work time while in travel status and certain other costs should be considered when comparing... Government aircraft for travel? 301-10.261 Section 301-10.261 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES...

  12. 41 CFR 301-10.261 - When may I use a Government aircraft for travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or lost work time while in travel status and certain other costs should be considered when comparing... Government aircraft for travel? 301-10.261 Section 301-10.261 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES...

  13. 41 CFR 301-10.261 - When may I use a Government aircraft for travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or lost work time while in travel status and certain other costs should be considered when comparing... Government aircraft for travel? 301-10.261 Section 301-10.261 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES...

  14. 50 CFR 260.79 - Travel and other expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... based on an hourly rate, an additional hourly charge may be made for travel time including time spent waiting for transportation as well as time spent traveling, but not to exceed 8 hours of travel time for... charge may be made for travel time outside the employee's official work hours....

  15. 50 CFR 260.79 - Travel and other expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... based on an hourly rate, an additional hourly charge may be made for travel time including time spent waiting for transportation as well as time spent traveling, but not to exceed 8 hours of travel time for... charge may be made for travel time outside the employee's official work hours....

  16. 50 CFR 260.79 - Travel and other expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... based on an hourly rate, an additional hourly charge may be made for travel time including time spent waiting for transportation as well as time spent traveling, but not to exceed 8 hours of travel time for... charge may be made for travel time outside the employee's official work hours....

  17. 50 CFR 260.79 - Travel and other expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... based on an hourly rate, an additional hourly charge may be made for travel time including time spent waiting for transportation as well as time spent traveling, but not to exceed 8 hours of travel time for... charge may be made for travel time outside the employee's official work hours....

  18. Financial Quality Control of In-Patient Chemotherapy in Germany: Are Additional Payments Cost-Covering for Pharmaco-Oncological Expenses?

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Volker R.; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Cost-covering in-patient care is increasingly important for hospital providers in Germany, especially with regard to expensive oncological pharmaceuticals. Additional payments (Zusatzentgelte; ZE) on top of flat rate diagnose-related group (DRG) reimbursement can be claimed by hospitals for in-patient use of selected medications. To verify cost coverage of in-patient chemotherapies, the costs of medication were compared to their revenues. Method From January to June 2010, a retrospective cost-revenue study was performed at a German obstetrics/gynecology university clinic. The hospital's pharmacy list of inpatient oncological therapies for breast and gynecological cancer was checked for accuracy and compared with the documented ZEs and the costs and revenues for each oncological application. Results N = 45 in-patient oncological therapies were identified in n = 18 patients, as well as n = 7 bisphosphonate applications; n = 11 ZEs were documented. Costs for oncological medication were € 33,752. The corresponding ZE revenues amounted to only € 13,980, resulting in a loss of € 19,772. All in-patient oncological therapies performed were not cost-covering. Data discrepancy, incorrect documentation and cost attribution, and process aborts were identified. Conclusions Routine financial quality control at the medicine-pharmacy administration interface is implemented, with monthly comparison of costs and revenues, as well as admission status. Non-cost-covering therapies for in-patients should be converted to out-patient therapies. Necessary adjustments of clinic processes are made according to these results, to avoid future losses. PMID:21673822

  19. EPA evaluation of the SYNERGY-1 fuel additive under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1981-06-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'SYNERGY-1' device under provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. This additive is intended to improve fuel economy and exhaust emission levels of two and four cycle gasoline fueled engines.

  20. Childhood and Travel Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espey, David

    If children are not present in most travel literature--precisely because the genre has most typically been the domain of solitary male travelers who are escaping domestic obligation, routine, the familiar, and the family--they nevertheless are an integral part of the genre. The traveler is in many ways a child, an innocent abroad. Traveler writers…

  1. Travel-related illness.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Carol C

    2013-06-01

    Travel abroad for business and pleasure should be safe and meaningful for the traveler. To assure that safe experience, certain processes should be considered before travel. A thorough pretravel health assessment will offer patients and health care providers valuable information for anticipatory guidance before travel. The destination-based risk assessment will help determine the risks involved in travel to specific locations and guide in the development of contingency plans for all travelers, especially those with chronic conditions. Diseases are more prevalent overseas, and immunizations and vaccinations are all important considerations for persons traveling abroad.

  2. Travel Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... but there are additional concerns to keep in mind when you're ... you're in a new place because your body hasn't had a chance to adjust to ...

  3. Traveling light

    SciTech Connect

    Tirello, E.J. Jr. )

    1993-07-01

    Today's electric utility industry has come a long way from its staid roots. Conceived as a completely regulated monopoly, the industry matured in a sheltered environment where competition was unknown. Utilities were basically construction/engineering companies that built new generation to meet their customers' ever-growing demands. In 1978 the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act came along and everything began to change. Only now, some 15 years later, is the industry finally beginning to realize that competition is not only here to stay, but is growing rapidly, accelerated by the National Energy Policy Act, which opened the doors to transmission access. Now any legitimate power generator can request that a utility open its transmission lines to move that power. To a great extent, the utility must comply. In a nutshell, companies must meet this competitive threat by cutting costs and squeezing margins to lower their rates. But in many cases lower system rates will not be enough, since a neighboring utility might be able to steal a customer by offering power from a specific plant at below-average cost. Competition comes not only from neighboring utilities, but from equally threatening independent power producers (IPPS) that can [open quotes]cherry-pick[close quotes] to serve more attractive loads. As a result, many utilities in the later 1980s looked to grow earnings by diversifying. The IPP industry held particular attraction. After all, it was a business utilities knew well and the potential returns (with the favorable capital structure) were well in excess of those allowed by regulators. This led to a wave of non-utility subsidiary creation that has yet to ebb. More utilities are joining the ranks every day; within the next few years two-thirds of electric utilities will likely have an IPP subsidiary. While transmission access tightens the competitive screws at home, it also opens the door to opportunity abroad.

  4. 7 CFR 52.50 - Travel and other expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and other expenses. Charges may be made to cover the cost of travel time incurred in connection with... hour. This includes time spent waiting for transportation as well as time spent traveling, but not to exceed eight hours of travel time for any one person for any one day: And provided further, that...

  5. 48 CFR 752.7002 - Travel and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Travel and transportation... Travel and transportation. For use in cost reimbursement contracts performed in whole or in part overseas. Travel and Transportation (JAN 1990) (a) General. The Contractor will be reimbursed for...

  6. 48 CFR 752.7002 - Travel and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Travel and transportation... Travel and transportation. For use in cost reimbursement contracts performed in whole or in part overseas. Travel and Transportation (JAN 1990) (a) General. The Contractor will be reimbursed for...

  7. 48 CFR 752.7002 - Travel and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Travel and transportation... Travel and transportation. For use in cost reimbursement contracts performed in whole or in part overseas. Travel and Transportation (JAN 1990) (a) General. The Contractor will be reimbursed for...

  8. 7 CFR 58.42 - Travel expenses and other charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel expenses and other charges. 58.42 Section 58.42 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... § 58.42 Travel expenses and other charges. Charges shall be made to cover the cost of travel and...

  9. 7 CFR 51.40 - Traveling and other expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Traveling and other expenses. 51.40 Section 51.40... STANDARDS) Regulations 1 Schedule of Fees and Charges at Destination Markets § 51.40 Traveling and other expenses. Costs including travel incurred by the Agricultural Marketing Service in providing...

  10. 7 CFR 70.75 - Travel expenses and other charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel expenses and other charges. 70.75 Section 70.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Travel expenses and other charges. Charges are to be made to cover the cost of travel and other...

  11. 9 CFR 354.106 - Travel expenses and other charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel expenses and other charges. 354.106 Section 354.106 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 354.106 Travel expenses and other charges. Charges are to be made to cover the cost of travel...

  12. 7 CFR 70.75 - Travel expenses and other charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel expenses and other charges. 70.75 Section 70.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Travel expenses and other charges. Charges are to be made to cover the cost of travel and other...

  13. 7 CFR 51.40 - Traveling and other expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Traveling and other expenses. 51.40 Section 51.40... STANDARDS) Regulations 1 Schedule of Fees and Charges at Destination Markets § 51.40 Traveling and other expenses. Costs including travel incurred by the Agricultural Marketing Service in providing...

  14. 7 CFR 58.42 - Travel expenses and other charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel expenses and other charges. 58.42 Section 58.42 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... § 58.42 Travel expenses and other charges. Charges shall be made to cover the cost of travel and...

  15. 7 CFR 56.49 - Travel expenses and other charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel expenses and other charges. 56.49 Section 56.49... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Fees and Charges § 56.49 Travel expenses and other charges. Charges are to be made to cover the cost of travel and other expenses incurred by the AMS in connection...

  16. Additive manufacturing of liquid/gas diffusion layers for low-cost and high-efficiency hydrogen production

    DOE PAGES

    Mo, Jingke; Zhang, Feng -Yuan; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Peter, William H.; Toops, Todd J.; Green, Jr., Johney Boyd

    2016-01-14

    The electron beam melting (EBM) additive manufacturing technology was used to fabricate titanium liquid/gas diffusion media with high-corrosion resistances and well-controllable multifunctional parameters, including two-phase transport and excellent electric/thermal conductivities, has been first demonstrated. Their applications in proton exchange membrane eletrolyzer cells have been explored in-situ in a cell and characterized ex-situ with SEM and XRD. Compared with the conventional woven liquid/gas diffusion layers (LGDLs), much better performance with EBM fabricated LGDLs is obtained due to their significant reduction of ohmic loss. The EBM technology components exhibited several distinguished advantages in fabricating gas diffusion layer: well-controllable pore morphology and structure,more » rapid prototyping, fast manufacturing, highly customizing and economic. In addition, by taking advantage of additive manufacturing, it possible to fabricate complicated three-dimensional designs of virtually any shape from a digital model into one single solid object faster, cheaper and easier, especially for titanium. More importantly, this development will provide LGDLs with control of pore size, pore shape, pore distribution, and therefore porosity and permeability, which will be very valuable to develop modeling and to validate simulations of electrolyzers with optimal and repeatable performance. Further, it will lead to a manufacturing solution to greatly simplify the PEMEC/fuel cell components and to couple the LGDLs with other parts, since they can be easily integrated together with this advanced manufacturing process« less

  17. Rabies in travelers.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Parola, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Most cases of rabies in travelers are associated with dog bites and occur in adults who are commonly migrants. The incidence of injuries to travelers caused by potentially rabid animals is approximately 0.4 % per month of stay. Dogs account for 51 % of cases, but nonhuman primates are the leading animals responsible for injuries in travelers returning from Southeast Asia. Travel to Southeast Asia, India and North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism are risk factors for potential exposure. More than 70 % of travelers are not immunized prior to departing and do not receive adequate care when injured. The intradermal vaccination route has been proven economical, safe and immunogenic in travelers. The immunity provided by the three-dose series is long-lasting and should be considered an investment for future travel. Abbreviated schedules may be used for last-minute travelers. PMID:24562541

  18. Neural Correlates of Task Cost for Stance Control with an Additional Motor Task: Phase-Locked Electroencephalogram Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ing-Shiou; Huang, Cheng-Ya

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate reallocation of central resources, the ability to maintain an erect posture is not necessarily degraded by a concurrent motor task. This study investigated the neural control of a particular postural-suprapostural procedure involving brain mechanisms to solve crosstalk between posture and motor subtasks. Participants completed a single posture task and a dual-task while concurrently conducting force-matching and maintaining a tilted stabilometer stance at a target angle. Stabilometer movements and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The added force-matching task increased the irregularity of postural response rather than the size of postural response prior to force-matching. In addition, the added force-matching task during stabilometer stance led to marked topographic ERP modulation, with greater P2 positivity in the frontal and sensorimotor-parietal areas of the N1-P2 transitional phase and in the sensorimotor-parietal area of the late P2 phase. The time-frequency distribution of the ERP primary principal component revealed that the dual-task condition manifested more pronounced delta (1–4 Hz) and beta (13–35 Hz) synchronizations but suppressed theta activity (4–8 Hz) before force-matching. The dual-task condition also manifested coherent fronto-parietal delta activity in the P2 period. In addition to a decrease in postural regularity, this study reveals spatio-temporal and temporal-spectral reorganizations of ERPs in the fronto-sensorimotor-parietal network due to the added suprapostural motor task. For a particular set of postural-suprapostural task, the behavior and neural data suggest a facilitatory role of autonomous postural response and central resource expansion with increasing interregional interactions for task-shift and planning the motor-suprapostural task. PMID:27010634

  19. Transition Matrices and Time Travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hwee Kuan

    It has been proven by Lee [1] that the grandfather paradox and Deutsch's unproven paradox are precluded for twoand three-state graphical models. We prove that both paradoxes are also precluded for a general n-state model. In addition, we present a new time travel paradox in this paper.

  20. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Visceral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Infected travelers should be advised to consult an infectious disease or tropical medicine specialist. Therapy for VL should ...

  1. Travelers' Health: HIV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... 448-4911 ( www.nccc.ucsf.edu ). HIV TESTING REQUIREMENTS FOR US TRAVELERS ENTERING FOREIGN COUNTRIES International travelers ... extended stay should review that country’s policies and requirements. This information is usually available from the consular ...

  2. Zika Travel Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Citizens and Residents Living in Areas with Ongoing Zika Virus Transmission Guidelines for Travelers Visiting Friends and Family ... with Zika . For the most current information about Zika virus, please visit CDC’s Zika website . Traveling soon? Get ...

  3. Non-additive benefit or cost? Disentangling the indirect effects that occur when plants bearing extrafloral nectaries and honeydew-producing insects share exotic ant mutualists

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Amy M.; Rudgers, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims In complex communities, organisms often form mutualisms with multiple different partners simultaneously. Non-additive effects may emerge among species linked by these positive interactions. Ants commonly participate in mutualisms with both honeydew-producing insects (HPI) and their extrafloral nectary (EFN)-bearing host plants. Consequently, HPI and EFN-bearing plants may experience non-additive benefits or costs when these groups co-occur. The outcomes of these interactions are likely to be influenced by variation in preferences among ants for honeydew vs. nectar. In this study, a test was made for non-additive effects on HPI and EFN-bearing plants resulting from sharing exotic ant guards. Preferences of the dominant exotic ant species for nectar vs. honeydew resources were also examined. Methods Ant access, HPI and nectar availability were manipulated on the EFN-bearing shrub, Morinda citrifolia, and ant and HPI abundances, herbivory and plant growth were assessed. Ant-tending behaviours toward HPI across an experimental gradient of nectar availability were also tracked in order to investigate mechanisms underlying ant responses. Key Results The dominant ant species, Anoplolepis gracilipes, differed from less invasive ants in response to multiple mutualists, with reductions in plot-wide abundances when nectar was reduced, but no response to HPI reduction. Conversely, at sites where A. gracilipes was absent or rare, abundances of less invasive ants increased when nectar was reduced, but declined when HPI were reduced. Non-additive benefits were found at sites dominated by A. gracilipes, but only for M. citrifolia plants. Responses of HPI at these sites supported predictions of the non-additive cost model. Interestingly, the opposite non-additive patterns emerged at sites dominated by other ants. Conclusions It was demonstrated that strong non-additive benefits and costs can both occur when a plant and herbivore share mutualist partners. These

  4. Fever in the returned traveler.

    PubMed

    Strickland, G T

    1992-11-01

    Febrile infections can be fatal in travelers to tropical countries unless the patient seeks medical care in a timely manner and the physician takes the time and has the skill to make a rapid diagnosis and prescribe appropriate therapy. In addition to the usual febrile illnesses present in temperate climates, the patient may have an "exotic" infection, e.g., malaria, infectious hepatitis, enteric fever, or dengue fever. The potential causes of fever in travelers are extensive. This article provides practical clues to assist the physician in making the correct diagnosis--by using exposure information, symptoms and signs, and concomitant symptom complexes.

  5. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  6. Air Travel Health Tips

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Air Travel Health Tips Air Travel Health Tips How can I improve plane travel? Most people don't have any problems when ... and dosages of all of your medicines. The air in airplanes is dry, so drink nonalcoholic, decaffeinated ...

  7. The Jet Travel Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Airplane travelers are dismayed by the long lines and seemingly chaotic activities that precede boarding a full airplane. Surely, the one who can solve this problem is going to make many travelers happy. This article describes the Jet Travel Challenge, an activity that challenges students to create some alternatives to this now frustrating…

  8. 9 CFR 354.106 - Travel expenses and other charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....106 Section 354.106 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 354.106 Travel expenses and other charges. Charges are to be made to cover the cost of travel and... shall include the costs of transportation, per diem, and any other expenses....

  9. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murabona Oduori, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for more than 400 years, and through good use of it scientists have made many astonishing discoveries and begun to understand our place in the universe. Most people, however, have never looked through one. Yet it is a great tool for cool science and observation especially in a continent and country with beautifully dark skies. The Travelling Telescope project aims to invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky.The Travelling Telescope aims to promote science learning to a wide range of Kenyan schools in various locations exchanging knowledge about the sky through direct observations of celestial bodies using state of the art telescopes. In addition to direct observing we also teach science using various hands-on activities and astronomy software, ideal for explaining concepts which are hard to understand, and for a better grasp of the sights visible through the telescope. We are dedicated to promoting science using astronomy especially in schools, targeting children from as young as 3 years to the youth, teachers, their parents and members of the public. Our presentation focuses on the OAD funded project in rural coastal Kenya.

  10. Utilizing Traveler Demand Modeling to Predict Future Commercial Flight Schedules in the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Smith, Jeremy; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2006-01-01

    The current work incorporates the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) to predict the future demand for airline travel. TSAM is a multi-mode, national model that predicts the demand for all long distance travel at a county level based upon population and demographics. The model conducts a mode choice analysis to compute the demand for commercial airline travel based upon the traveler s purpose of the trip, value of time, cost and time of the trip,. The county demand for airline travel is then aggregated (or distributed) to the airport level, and the enplanement demand at commercial airports is modeled. With the growth in flight demand, and utilizing current airline flight schedules, the Fratar algorithm is used to develop future flight schedules in the NAS. The projected flights can then be flown through air transportation simulators to quantify the ability of the NAS to meet future demand. A major strength of the TSAM analysis is that scenario planning can be conducted to quantify capacity requirements at individual airports, based upon different future scenarios. Different demographic scenarios can be analyzed to model the demand sensitivity to them. Also, it is fairly well know, but not well modeled at the airport level, that the demand for travel is highly dependent on the cost of travel, or the fare yield of the airline industry. The FAA projects the fare yield (in constant year dollars) to keep decreasing into the future. The magnitude and/or direction of these projections can be suspect in light of the general lack of airline profits and the large rises in airline fuel cost. Also, changes in travel time and convenience have an influence on the demand for air travel, especially for business travel. Future planners cannot easily conduct sensitivity studies of future demand with the FAA TAF data, nor with the Boeing or Airbus projections. In TSAM many factors can be parameterized and various demand sensitivities can be predicted for future travel. These

  11. California Smart Traveler System. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Behnke, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    The report describes how audiotex and videotex information systems can be used to develop new modes of public transportation (e.g., parataxis or single-trip carpools) and how these new modes can be integrated with conventional transit, paratransit and ridesharing modes to reduce traffic congestion, gasoline consumption, air pollution and mobility problems at a low cost to taxpayers. This report also describes how these telephone-based information services can be used to develop low-cost, user-friendly Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) that will tell drivers and riders the 'best' ways to get between any two points in an area via either private vehicle or public transportation. The proposed California Smart Traveler (CST) System will enable travelers to obtain more timely and accurate information on which to base their local or regional travel decisions.

  12. [Vaccinations and malaria prophylaxis for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Alberer, Martin; Löscher, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    The prevention of infectious diseases by vaccination and by counselling about malaria prophylaxis is a central aspect of travel medicine. Besides mandatory vaccinations required for entry to certain countries various vaccinations may be indicated depending on destination and type of travel as well as on individual risks of the traveler. In addition, pre-travel counselling should always include a check-up of standard vaccinations. Protection against mosquito bites is the basis of malaria prophylaxis. The addition of chemoprophylaxis is warranted in high risk areas. When regular chemoprophylaxis is not applied it is recommended to carry an appropriate antimalarial drug which can be used for emergency stand-by treatment in case of unexplained fever and when medical attention is not available within 24 hours. Travelers should realize that self-treatment is a first-aid measure and that they should still seek medical advice as soon as possible.

  13. Quantum ring-polymer contraction method: Including nuclear quantum effects at no additional computational cost in comparison to ab initio molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    John, Christopher; Spura, Thomas; Habershon, Scott; Kühne, Thomas D

    2016-04-01

    We present a simple and accurate computational method which facilitates ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, where the quantum-mechanical nature of the nuclei is explicitly taken into account, at essentially no additional computational cost in comparison to the corresponding calculation using classical nuclei. The predictive power of the proposed quantum ring-polymer contraction method is demonstrated by computing various static and dynamic properties of liquid water at ambient conditions using density functional theory. This development will enable routine inclusion of nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of condensed-phase systems. PMID:27176426

  14. Quantum ring-polymer contraction method: Including nuclear quantum effects at no additional computational cost in comparison to ab initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Christopher; Spura, Thomas; Habershon, Scott; Kühne, Thomas D.

    2016-04-01

    We present a simple and accurate computational method which facilitates ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, where the quantum-mechanical nature of the nuclei is explicitly taken into account, at essentially no additional computational cost in comparison to the corresponding calculation using classical nuclei. The predictive power of the proposed quantum ring-polymer contraction method is demonstrated by computing various static and dynamic properties of liquid water at ambient conditions using density functional theory. This development will enable routine inclusion of nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of condensed-phase systems.

  15. Diseases of travel, with particular reference to tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, A. W.

    1975-01-01

    The large amount of disease acquired by travellers demonstrates that at present travel is not safe. Study of this disease, however, indicates that travel could be made safe by the application of relatively simple precautions. Groups of travellers particularly liable to develop illness include those on short-term business and holiday trips to the Tropics. Young persons undertaking low cost overland journeys are particularly at risk. Among the important protozoal diseases acquired by travellers are malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis and amoebiasis and the recent recognition of Lassa fever requires noting in connection with the diagnosis of fevers among persons who have recently travelled from West Africa. It is most important that travellers should receive information on precautions they should take in tropical regions and that doctors in temperate regions should ask patients if they have recently travelled and, if the answer is in the affirmative, tropically-acquired disease should be considered. PMID:1208292

  16. Cybermediation in the Tourism and Travel Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killion, Les

    Travel and tourism are second only to pornography in adopting Internet-based technologies to intermediate between those supplying the total travel experience, and those seeking to satisfy leisure needs by engaging in tourism. From Thomas Cook in the 1800s, traditional ‘travel trade networks’ have provided the components of the travel experience: transport, accommodation and attractions. However, the Internet has encouraged customer self-service, and on-going debate regarding the future of traditional travel trade intermediaries. The intermediation debate suggests the emergence of ‘hybrid’ intermediation systems combining customer self-service with face-to-face customer contacts characteristic of traditional travel agents. A focus group investigation identified profiles and motives of customers using the Internet to make holiday arrangements. Potential cost savings are a primary motivation for customer self-service. Using the Internet for travel and tourism is becoming commonplace among older travellers as well as younger people. In gathering information before making holiday decisions, potential tourists also engage in a Web 2.0 environment where family and friends, not established intermediaries, provide reliable and authentic information via their individual blogs.

  17. Coupling between air travel and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Barkley, Hannah C.; Martin, Jonathan E.

    2015-12-01

    The airline industry closely monitors the midlatitude jet stream for short-term planning of flight paths and arrival times. In addition to passenger safety and on-time metrics, this is due to the acute sensitivity of airline profits to fuel cost. US carriers spent US$47 billion on jet fuel in 2011, compared with a total industry operating revenue of US$192 billion. Beyond the timescale of synoptic weather, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Arctic Oscillation (AO) and other modes of variability modulate the strength and position of the Aleutian low and Pacific high on interannual timescales, which influence the tendency of the exit region of the midlatitude Pacific jet stream to extend, retract and meander poleward and equatorward. The impact of global aviation on climate change has been studied for decades owing to the radiative forcing of emitted greenhouse gases, contrails and other effects. The impact of climate variability on air travel, however, has only recently come into focus, primarily in terms of turbulence. Shifting attention to flight durations, here we show that 88% of the interannual variance in domestic flight times between Hawaii and the continental US is explained by a linear combination of ENSO and the AO. Further, we extend our analysis to CMIP5 model projections to explore potential feedbacks between anthropogenic climate change and air travel.

  18. Inspection of the Secretary of Energy`s foreign travel

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-07

    On December 9, 1995, the Secretary of Energy requested that the Department`s Inspector General (IG) conduct a thorough examination of all Secretarial foreign travel from 1993 to December 1995 to include the purpose of each trip, the activities of each Federal participant in each trip, the funding of each trip, and claims for reimbursements for expenses by Federal trip participants. The Secretary also requested that the review include an assessment of travel authorization, voucher, traveler reimbursement, and auditing systems employed by the Department to identify steps that could be taken to reduce errors and improve accounting oversight. Additionally, the Secretary requested that the Inspector General conduct a thorough examination of the establishment and filling of the Department`s Ombudsman position. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) initiated a review into these matters and assigned primary responsibility for the review to the Office of Inspections. The purpose of this inspection was to conduct a thorough examination of the 16 Secretarial foreign trips from June 1993 to December 1995. This report focuses on the four trade missions because of their extent and cost. We examined a number of Departmental management systems and processes involved in planning and executing the 16 foreign trips. To determine the actual cost of the 16 trips, it was necessary to determine who participated in the trips and to identify the individual travel costs. We were required to perform extensive reviews of records and conduct a large number of interviews because the Department could not provide any specific documents that could accurately account for who actually participated on the 16 trips. Having identified who participated, it was then necessary to examine key aspects of the Department`s management systems. Our report contains 31 recommendations for corrective action.

  19. Overview of selected infectious disease risks for the corporate traveler.

    PubMed

    Hudson, T Warner; Fortuna, Joseph

    2008-08-01

    International business travel to under-developed and developing countries has increased considerably over the past two decades. Most of these destinations are endemic to a variety of infectious diseases, many of which are associated with considerable morbidity, mortality, or both and the nonimmune, unprepared corporate traveler is at risk. Comprehensive pretravel consultation is essential to prevent travel-related illness. This review addresses some of the infectious diseases that can be acquired during international travel, including regions of endemicity, assessment of risk, and available means of prevention. In addition, we discuss data concerning current practices and attitudes of travelers, along with some of the issues surrounding the counseling of corporate travelers.

  20. Student Travel: Policies - Regulations - Exhibits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Lorenzo A.; And Others

    The Jefferson County (Colorado) Public Schools' regulations and policies concerning student travel covers these forms of travel: student activity travel, extended student travel, district sponsored student travel, district authorized student travel, student exchange, and bonus learning trips. Issues and items addressed include: (1) authorization…

  1. Sensitive and cost-effective LC-MS/MS method for quantitation of CVT-6883 in human urine using sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate additive to eliminate adsorptive losses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chungwen; Bajpai, Lakshmikant; Mollova, Nevena; Leung, Kwan

    2009-04-01

    CVT-6883, a novel selective A(2B) adenosine receptor antagonist currently under clinical development, is highly lipophilic and exhibits high affinity for non-specific binding to container surfaces, resulting in very low recovery in urine assays. Our study showed the use of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), a low-cost additive, eliminated non-specific binding problems in the analysis of CVT-6883 in human urine without compromising sensitivity. A new sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method for quantitation of CVT-6883 in the range of 0.200-80.0ng/mL using SDBS additive was therefore developed and validated for the analysis of human urine samples. The recoveries during sample collection, handling and extraction for the analyte and internal standard (d(5)-CVT-6883) were higher than 87%. CVT-6883 was found stable under the following conditions: in extract - at ambient temperature for 3 days, under refrigeration (5 degrees C) for 6 days; in human urine (containing 4mM SDBS) - after three freeze/thaw cycles, at ambient temperature for 26h, under refrigeration (5 degrees C) for 94h, and in a freezer set to -20 degrees C for at least 2 months. The results demonstrated that the validated method is sufficiently sensitive, specific, and cost-effective for the analysis of CVT-6883 in human urine and will provide a powerful tool to support the clinical programs for CVT-6883.

  2. 11 CFR 9034.7 - Allocation of travel expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... required by 11 CFR 100.93(j)(1) in addition to any other documentation required in this section. For travel... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of travel expenditures. 9034.7...: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND ENTITLEMENTS § 9034.7 Allocation of travel expenditures. Link to...

  3. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination.

  4. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination. PMID:26920587

  5. Suburb-to-suburb intercity travel: Energy, time and dollar expenditures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fels, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of adding suburb to terminal and terminal to suburb travel is examined. The energy consumed in entire trips was estimated. The total energy costs are compared with total travel times, and dollar costs to the traveler. Trips between origins in seven suburbs of Newark, New Jersey and destinations in two Washington, D. C. suburbs are analyzed.

  6. Travel fosters tool use in wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Thibaud; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Neumann, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Ecological variation influences the appearance and maintenance of tool use in animals, either due to necessity or opportunity, but little is known about the relative importance of these two factors. Here, we combined long-term behavioural data on feeding and travelling with six years of field experiments in a wild chimpanzee community. In the experiments, subjects engaged with natural logs, which contained energetically valuable honey that was only accessible through tool use. Engagement with the experiment was highest after periods of low fruit availability involving more travel between food patches, while instances of actual tool-using were significantly influenced by prior travel effort only. Additionally, combining data from the main chimpanzee study communities across Africa supported this result, insofar as groups with larger travel efforts had larger tool repertoires. Travel thus appears to foster tool use in wild chimpanzees and may also have been a driving force in early hominin technological evolution. PMID:27431611

  7. Positioner with long travel in two dimensions

    DOEpatents

    Trumper, David L.; Williams, Mark E.

    1997-12-23

    A precision positioning system is provided which provides long travel in two of the linear dimensions, while using non-contact bearings for both a first subassembly which provides long travel in one of the linear dimension and a second subassembly which provides long travel in the second linear dimension. The first or upper subassembly is preferably a magnetic subassembly which, in addition to providing long travel, also compensates or positions in three rotary dimensions and in the third linear dimension. The second subassembly is preferably either an air bearing or magnetic subassembly and is normally used only to provide long travel. Angled surfaces may be provided for magnetic bearings and capacitive or other gap sensing probes may be mounted to the stage and ground flush with the bearing actuators to provide more precise gap measurements.

  8. Neurologic Aspects of Infections in International Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Han, May H.; Zunt, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Background As international travel for business and pleasure becomes part of contemporary lifestyle, the clinician today is confronted with an increasing number of travelers returning ill with unfamiliar syndromes. The physician will encounter a myriad of patients with exotic infections, emerging infectious diseases, or resurgent Old-World infections. Review Summary This review article will discuss salient points of important infectious diseases associated with overseas travel, provide a syndromic approach to the traveler who returns with neurologic manifestations, and list resources for additional diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive information. Conclusions As many of infections acquired in other countries can directly or indirectly affect the nervous system, the care of the ill traveler often falls into the hands of neurologists. The contemporary neurologist should therefore be knowledgeable of the clinical manifestations, potential complications, and appropriate management of region-specific infections. PMID:15631642

  9. Travel trends and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Corsi, T.M.; Harvey, M.E.

    1980-04-01

    Available data sources are utilized to construct scenarios of adjustment patterns in vacation/recreation travel as affected by both past and prospective fuel price and availability developments. The increases in gasoline prices coupled with supply uncertainties that occurred during the 1970's have strained the traditional vacation patterns of many U.S. households. New travel patterns will prompt changes in the location of outdoor recreation centers/ such centers will be located closer to major population centers to shorten travel time.

  10. Prevention of traveler's diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Tellier, R; Keystone, J S

    1992-06-01

    Preventing traveler's diarrhea is usually a matter of common sense, good luck, and the host's ability to defend against enteric pathogens, particularly enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Untreated tap water, ice cubes, unpasteurized milk products, salads, food from street vendors, and dining in unhygienic-appearing restaurants should be avoided. Well-cooked food that is served hot and carbonated, commercially bottled beverages are usually safe. Food and water precautions, however, are no guarantee of success in preventing traveler's diarrhea. Bismuth subsalicylate used prophylactically is somewhat inconvenient and is only moderately effective. Although antibiotic prophylaxis is very effective for traveler's diarrhea, particularly the quinolones, it should be reserved for high-risk travelers. PMID:1624780

  11. Malaria Risk in Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Askling, Helena Hervius; Nilsson, Jenny; Tegnell, Anders; Janzon, Ragnhild

    2005-01-01

    Imported malaria has been an increasing problem in several Western countries in the last 2 decades. To calculate the risk factors of age, sex, and travel destination in Swedish travelers, we used data from the routine reporting system for malaria (mixture of patients with and without adequate prophylaxis), a database on travel patterns, and in-flight or visa data on Swedish travelers of 1997 to 2003. The crude risk for travelers varied from 1 per 100,000 travelers to Central America and the Caribbean to 357 per 100,000 in central Africa. Travelers to East Africa had the highest adjusted odds ratio (OR = 341; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 134–886) for being reported with malaria, closely followed by travelers to central Africa and West Africa. Male travelers as well as children <1–6 years of age had a higher risk of being reported with malaria (OR = 1,7; 95% CI 1.3–2.3 and OR = 4,8; 95%CI 1.5–14.8) than women and other age groups. PMID:15757560

  12. [Travel and venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Hallundbæk Mikkelsen, Kristian; Knudsen, Stine Ulrik; Nannestad Jørgensen, Lars

    2013-10-28

    A literature study on the association between travel and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is conducted. Studies examining the risk of travel-associated VTE, predisposing factors and prophylactic measures are presented. It is concluded that the absolute risk of travel-associated VTE is low and holds a 2-4 fold increase after travel. The risk increases with duration, presence of other risk factors for VTE and extremes of height. Stockings reduces the risk of asymptomatic VTE. Heparin is presumed to constitute protection whereas there is no evidence of a prophylactic effect of acetylsalicylic acid.

  13. Pre-Travel Medical Preparation of Business and Occupational Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nomana M.; Jentes, Emily S.; Brown, Clive; Han, Pauline; Rao, Sowmya R.; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Hagmann, Stefan H.F.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to understand more about pre-travel preparations and itineraries of business and occupational travelers. Methods: De-identified data from 18 Global TravEpiNet clinics from January 2009 to December 2012 were analyzed. Results: Of 23,534 travelers, 61% were non-occupational and 39% occupational. Business travelers were more likely to be men, had short times to departure and shorter trip durations, and commonly refused influenza, meningococcal, and hepatitis B vaccines. Most business travelers indicated that employers suggested the pre-travel health consultation, whereas non-occupational travelers sought consultations because of travel health concerns. Conclusions: Sub-groups of occupational travelers have characteristic profiles, with business travelers being particularly distinct. Employers play a role in encouraging business travelers to seek pre-travel consultations. Such consultations, even if scheduled immediately before travel, can identify vaccination gaps and increase coverage. PMID:26479857

  14. Demand modelling of passenger air travel: An analysis and extension, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    Previous intercity travel demand models in terms of their ability to predict air travel in a useful way and the need for disaggregation in the approach to demand modelling are evaluated. The viability of incorporating non-conventional factors (i.e. non-econometric, such as time and cost) in travel demand forecasting models are determined. The investigation of existing models is carried out in order to provide insight into their strong points and shortcomings. The model is characterized as a market segmentation model. This is a consequence of the strengths of disaggregation and its natural evolution to a usable aggregate formulation. The need for this approach both pedagogically and mathematically is discussed. In addition this volume contains two appendices which should prove useful to the non-specialist in the area.

  15. Illness in Returned Travellers

    PubMed Central

    Lawee, D.; Scappatura, P.; Gutman, E.

    1989-01-01

    Intercontinental travel is more common now than it has ever been before, and so are travel-related diseases. A thorough history and physical examination provide many clues to possible pathogens, particularly when combined with knowledge of the geographic distribution of specific diseases. Prompt diagnosis and proper treatment are imperative. PMID:21249095

  16. Economics of Malaria Prevention in US Travelers to West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Kenji; Coleman, Margaret S.; Khan, Nomana; Jentes, Emily S.; Arguin, Paul; Rao, Sowmya R.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Sotir, Mark J.; Brunette, Gary; Ryan, Edward T.; Meltzer, Martin I.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pretravel health consultations help international travelers manage travel-related illness risks through education, vaccination, and medication. This study evaluated costs and benefits of that portion of the health consultation associated with malaria prevention provided to US travelers bound for West Africa. Methods. The estimated change in disease risk and associated costs and benefits resulting from traveler adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis were calculated from 2 perspectives: the healthcare payer's and the traveler's. We used data from the Global TravEpiNet network of US travel clinics that collect de-identified pretravel data for international travelers. Disease risk and chemoprophylaxis effectiveness were estimated from published medical reports. Direct medical costs were obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and published literature. Results. We analyzed 1029 records from January 2009 to January 2011. Assuming full adherence to chemoprophylaxis regimens, consultations saved healthcare payers a per-traveler average of $14 (9-day trip) to $372 (30-day trip). For travelers, consultations resulted in a range of net cost of $20 (9-day trip) to a net savings of $32 (30-day trip). Differences were mostly driven by risk of malaria in the destination country. Conclusions. Our model suggests that healthcare payers save money for short- and longer-term trips, and that travelers save money for longer trips when travelers adhere to malaria recommendations and prophylactic regimens in West Africa. This is a potential incentive to healthcare payers to offer consistent pretravel preventive care to travelers. This financial benefit complements the medical benefit of reducing the risk of malaria. PMID:24014735

  17. International travel and HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    von Reyn, C. F.; Mann, J. M.; Chin, J.

    1990-01-01

    Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a worldwide problem, its prevalence and pattern vary from country to country. Accordingly, the risk to international travellers of acquiring HIV infection also varies widely in different parts of the world, and depends principally on their behaviour. The risk of sexual acquisition of HIV infection can be virtually eliminated by avoiding penetrative sexual intercourse with intravenous drug users and persons who have had multiple sexual partners (such as prostitutes) or reduced by the use of condoms. The risk of parenteral exposure to HIV can be reduced by avoiding parenteral drug use and behaviour that is likely to lead to injury (with its attendant risk of requiring blood transfusion) and by seeking medical facilities with adequate capabilities to screen blood donors for HIV and to sterilize instruments. HIV screening of international travellers is an ineffective, costly, and impractical public health strategy for limiting the worldwide spread of HIV infection. Travellers infected with HIV require specialized advice regarding health precautions, prophylactic medications, and immunization. PMID:2194689

  18. Traveling-Wave Maser for 32 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shell, James; Clauss, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The figure depicts a traveling-wave ruby maser that has been designed (though not yet implemented in hardware) to serve as a low-noise amplifier for reception of weak radio signals in the frequency band of 31.8 to 32.3 GHz. The design offers significant improvements over previous designs of 32-GHz traveling-wave masers. In addition, relative to prior designs of 32-GHz amplifiers based on high-electron-mobility transistors, this design affords higher immunity to radio-frequency interference and lower equivalent input noise temperature. In addition to the basic frequency-band and low-noise requirements, the initial design problem included a requirement for capability of operation in a closed-cycle helium refrigerator at a temperature .4 K and a requirement that the design be mechanically simplified, relative to prior designs, in order to minimize the cost of fabrication and assembly. Previous attempts to build 32- GHz traveling-wave masers involved the use of metallic slow-wave structures comprising coupled transverse electromagnetic (TEM)-mode resonators that were subject to very tight tolerances and, hence, were expensive to fabricate and assemble. Impedance matching for coupling signals into and out of these earlier masers was very difficult. A key feature of the design is a slow-wave structure, the metallic portions of which would be mechanically relatively simple in that, unlike in prior slow-wave structures, there would be no internal metal steps, irises, or posts. The metallic portions of the slow-wave structure would consist only of two rectangular metal waveguide arms. The arms would contain sections filled with the active material (ruby) alternating with evanescent-wave sections. This structure would be transparent in both the signal-frequency band (the aforementioned range of 31.8 to 32.3 GHz) and the pump-frequency band (65.75 to 66.75 GHz), and would impose large slowing factors in both frequency bands. Resonant ferrite isolators would be placed in the

  19. Understanding taxi travel patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hua; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Taxis play important roles in modern urban transportation systems, especially in mega cities. While providing necessary amenities, taxis also significantly contribute to traffic congestion, urban energy consumption, and air pollution. Understanding the travel patterns of taxis is thus important for addressing many urban sustainability challenges. Previous research has primarily focused on examining the statistical properties of passenger trips, which include only taxi trips occupied with passengers. However, unoccupied trips are also important for urban sustainability issues because they represent potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the transportation system. Therefore, we need to understand the travel patterns of taxis as an integrated system, instead of focusing only on the occupied trips. In this study we examine GPS trajectory data of 11,880 taxis in Beijing, China for a period of three weeks. Our results show that taxi travel patterns share similar traits with travel patterns of individuals but also exhibit differences. Trip displacement distribution of taxi travels is statistically greater than the exponential distribution and smaller than the truncated power-law distribution. The distribution of short trips (less than 30 miles) can be best fitted with power-law while long trips follow exponential decay. We use radius of gyration to characterize individual taxi's travel distance and find that it does not follow a truncated power-law as observed in previous studies. Spatial and temporal regularities exist in taxi travels. However, with increasing spatial coverage, taxi trips can exhibit dual high probability density centers.

  20. [Vaccinations for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Berens-Riha, N; Alberer, M; Löscher, T

    2014-03-01

    Vaccinations are a prominent part of health preparations before international travel. They can avoid or significantly reduce the risk of numerous infectious diseases. Until recently, vaccination against yellow fever was the only obligatory vaccination. However, according to updated international health regulations, other vaccinations and prophylactic measures may be required at entry from certain countries. For all routine vaccinations as recommended in Germany, necessary revaccination and catch-up of missed vaccinations should be administered before travel. At most destinations the risk of infection is higher than in Germany. Hepatitis A vaccine is generally recommended for travelers to areas of increased risk, polio vaccine for all destinations where eradication is not yet confirmed (Asia and Africa). The indications for other travel vaccines must take into consideration travel destination and itinerary, type and duration of travel, individual risk of exposure as well as the epidemiology of the disease to be prevented. Several vaccines of potential interest for travel medicine, e.g., new vaccines against malaria and dengue fever, are under development.

  1. 76 FR 32340 - Federal Travel Regulation; Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances (Taxes) AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide... Relocation Advisory Board (GRAB) concerning calculation of reimbursements for taxes on relocation expenses. In addition, this proposed rule alters the process for calculating reimbursements for taxes...

  2. 38 CFR 21.7103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.7103 Section 21.7103 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED...) VA determines that the individual is unable to defray the cost based upon his or her...

  3. 48 CFR 2052.215-77 - Travel approvals and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Travel approvals and....215-77 Travel approvals and reimbursement. As prescribed at 2015.209-70(d), the contracting officer shall insert the following clause in cost reimbursement solicitations and contracts which require...

  4. 11 CFR 9004.7 - Allocation of travel expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... campaign purposes. (ii) If the trip is by non-charter commercial transportation, the actual cost shall be... travel expenditures. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of 11 CFR 106.3, expenditures for travel relating... be reported by the candidate's authorized committee(s) as expenditures. (b)(1) For a trip which...

  5. 11 CFR 9004.7 - Allocation of travel expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... campaign purposes. (ii) If the trip is by non-charter commercial transportation, the actual cost shall be... travel expenditures. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of 11 CFR 106.3, expenditures for travel relating... be reported by the candidate's authorized committee(s) as expenditures. (b)(1) For a trip which...

  6. 11 CFR 9004.7 - Allocation of travel expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... campaign purposes. (ii) If the trip is by non-charter commercial transportation, the actual cost shall be... travel expenditures. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of 11 CFR 106.3, expenditures for travel relating... be reported by the candidate's authorized committee(s) as expenditures. (b)(1) For a trip which...

  7. 48 CFR 2052.215-77 - Travel approvals and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Travel approvals and....215-77 Travel approvals and reimbursement. As prescribed at 2015.209-70(d), the contracting officer shall insert the following clause in cost reimbursement solicitations and contracts which require...

  8. 48 CFR 752.7002 - Travel and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...” clause of this contract, time spent away from post resulting from educational travel will be counted as... shall be eligible for such sick leave as provided under the “Leave and Holidays” clause of this contract... provided in the “Leave and Holidays” clause of this contract, the cost of travel for home leave...

  9. 48 CFR 2052.215-77 - Travel approvals and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Travel approvals and....215-77 Travel approvals and reimbursement. As prescribed at 2015.209-70(d), the contracting officer shall insert the following clause in cost reimbursement solicitations and contracts which require...

  10. 48 CFR 2052.215-77 - Travel approvals and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Travel approvals and....215-77 Travel approvals and reimbursement. As prescribed at 2015.209-70(d), the contracting officer shall insert the following clause in cost reimbursement solicitations and contracts which require...

  11. 48 CFR 2052.215-77 - Travel approvals and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Travel approvals and....215-77 Travel approvals and reimbursement. As prescribed at 2015.209-70(d), the contracting officer shall insert the following clause in cost reimbursement solicitations and contracts which require...

  12. [Travel destinations South America].

    PubMed

    Neumayr, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    The number of tourists visiting South America comprises only a small fraction of the worldwide stream of international travellers (approx. 980 Mio. in 2011). Nevertheless, their number has markedly increased in the last years (2000: 15.3 Mio.; 2005: 18.3 Mio.; 2010: 23.6 Mio.; 2011: 26.1 Mio.) and in 2011, South America was ranked top in the list of worldwide travel destinations with the highest increase in annual international tourist arrivals (10.4 %)[1]. This article aims at providing a practice-oriented overview on vaccinations, malaria prophylaxis, and other relevant health risks to be considered when counselling travellers visiting South America.

  13. [The elderly traveler].

    PubMed

    Brousse, G

    1997-01-01

    An elderly traveler in good health is the same as any other traveler. However before departure elderly subjects should make sure that the proposed schedule of activities is compatible with their physical abilities. Medical counseling should be sought to determine that there are no conflicting health problems or physical impediments. Destination, itinerary, and transportation should selected accordingly. Immunization records should be checked and the main vaccination requirements for elderly subjects should be updated. To avoid running short of any prescribed mediation, an adequate supply for the whole trip must be packed. If air travel is planned, advice should be given on avoiding dehydration and thromboembolism. During his stay at the destination and especially in tropical areas, the subject should get adequate rest and guard against dehydration by drinking sufficiently, protecting against heat exposure, and controlling diarrhea promptly. Using these precautions, elderly subjects can travel as safely as possible.

  14. Travelers' Health: Rubella

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  15. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... American Association for Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Recommendations for testing, managing, ...

  16. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis E

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  17. Travelers' Health: Cryptosporidiosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  18. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  19. Travelers' Health: Japanese Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  20. Travelers' Health: Tickborne Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  1. Travelers' Health: Diphtheria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  2. Travelers' Health: Mumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  3. Travelers' Health: Giardiasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Gabriel PS, Alonso M, et al. Prevalence of infectious diseases among internationally adopted children. Pediatrics. 2001 Sep 3; ...

  4. Travelers' Health: Varicella (Chickenpox)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 29th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy ...

  5. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  6. Travelers' Health: Pertussis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 29th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy ...

  7. Travelers' Health: Coccidioidomycosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  8. Travelers' Health: Meningococcal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 29th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy ...

  9. Travelers' Health: Scabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 29th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy ...

  10. Travelers' Health: Yellow Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  11. Space Traveler Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes the winners of the Space Traveler Project, a contest jointly sponsored by Rockwell International, NASA, and this magazine to identify worthwhile elementary science programs relating to the Space Shuttle. (SJL)

  12. Traveling-wave photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1993-01-01

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size.

  13. Traveling-wave photodetector

    SciTech Connect

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.

    1992-12-31

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size.

  14. Pregnancy and travel

    MedlinePlus

    ... a day. Always wear your seatbelt. Place the lap belt under your belly and across your hips so ... breasts and across your shoulder. Always wear the lap shoulder seat belt strap when traveling while pregnant. If you have ...

  15. [Diabetes and travel].

    PubMed

    Bauduceau, B; Mayaudon, H; Ducorps, M; Belmejdoub, G; Thiolet, C; Pellan, M; Cosson, E

    1997-01-01

    With the continuing expansion in international air travel, increasing numbers of diabetic patients consult physicians for advice before going abroad. Careful planning is required taking into account climatic and medical conditions at the destination. Diabetic travelers should pack an appropriate treatment kit and contract special insurance coverage for medical evacuation. Precautions are necessary to limit the effects of motion sickness and time differences on diabetes control and especially the risk of hypoglycemia. Special attention is needed to avoid digestive problems and prevent foot injuries which can lead to serious complications in diabetic patients. Diabetic patients cannot forget their health problem during vacation and must be especially cautious when traveling. However with proper training, the risks of foreign travel can be reduced to acceptable levels.

  16. Traveling Space Museum

    NASA Video Gallery

    In an effort to inspire and motivate the next generation of space explorers, NASA’s Ames Research Center teamed up with the Traveling Space Museum to teach students the way astronauts are taughtâ...

  17. Travel Inside the Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Menu Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Balance Taste and Smell Voice, Speech, and Language ... here Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves ...

  18. Traveling Wave Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluger-Bell, Barry

    1995-01-01

    Describes a traveling-wave demonstration that uses inexpensive materials (crepe-paper streamers) and is simple to assemble and perform. Explains how the properties of light waves are illustrated using the demonstration apparatus. (LZ)

  19. Traveling-wave photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.

    1993-12-14

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size. 4 figures.

  20. Travel during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of pregnancy. If you are planning an international flight, the cutoff point for traveling with international airlines ... up and stretch your legs during a long flight. Avoid gas-producing foods and carbonated drinks before ...

  1. Advice to Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    1975-01-01

    Travelers, particularly those whose tastes or occupations lead to deviation from the usual tourist routes, are at a small but significant risk of acquiring certain diseases they would be unlikely to encounter had they remained in the continental United States. Many of these infections can be rendered unlikely even for the most adventuresome traveler through the appropriate use of immunization and chemoprophylaxis. Other infections are currently unpreventable and the physician's responsibility lies in their premorbid detection. PMID:1154779

  2. [Travel thrombosis, 2008].

    PubMed

    Sándor, Tamás

    2009-01-18

    In Hungary, the first studies on travel thrombosis were published at the beginning of the 2000s. In this paper recent investigational results of this special type of venous thrombosis have been reviewed. Travel thrombosis is a subgroup of sitting thromboses. It is a consequence of prolonged sitting which is common of ground transportation and air travel. More and more computer-linked sitting thromboses have been observed as well. Long-haul air travel related venous thrombosis is a multifactorial disease. Possible contributory risk factors are in connection with the milieu of the cabin. Various investigations evaluated the effect of immobilization and hypobaric hypoxia on thrombin generation and fibrinolysis. The studies differed much in participants' characteristics, duration and type of exposure and statistical analysis, so the results are contradictory. Personal, traveller-related risk factors may be regarded as triggers. The presently available evidences do not permit to assess the exact actual risk. For healthy young passengers there seem to be low risk. However, passengers suffering from predisposing factors for venous thromboembolism can be exposed to serious hazards, if they fly more than 5000 km or travel more than 8 hours. Proper safety measures are summarized on the basis of recent international recommendations.

  3. Cosmocultural Evolution: Cosmic Motivation for Interstellar Travel?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupisella, M.

    Motivations for interstellar travel can vary widely from practical survival motivations to wider-ranging moral obligations to future generations. But it may also be fruitful to explore what, if any, "cosmic" relevance there may be regarding interstellar travel. Cosmocultural evolution can be defined as the coevolution of cosmos and culture, with cultural evolution playing an important and perhaps critical role in the overall evolution of the universe. Strong versions of cosmocultural evolution might suggest that cultural evolution may have unlimited potential as a cosmic force. In such a worldview, the advancement of cultural beings throughout the universe could have significant cosmic relevance, perhaps providing additional motivation for interstellar travel. This paper will explore some potential philosophical and policy implications for interstellar travel of a cosmocultural evolutionary perspective and other related concepts, including some from a recent NASA book, Cosmos and Culture: Cultural Evolution in a Cosmic Context.

  4. Air travel and venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Mendis, Shanthi; Yach, Derek; Alwan, Ala

    2002-01-01

    There has recently been increased publicity on the risk of venous thrombosis after long-haul flights. This paper reviews the evidence base related to the association between air travel and venous thromboembolism. The evidence consists only of case reports, clinical case-control studies and observational studies involving the use of intermediate end-points, or expert opinion. Some studies have suggested that there is no clear association, whereas others have indicated a strong relationship. On the whole it appears that there is probably a link between air travel and venous thrombosis. However, the link is likely to be weak, mainly affecting passengers with additional risk factors for venous thromboembolism. The available evidence is not adequate to allow quantification of the risk. There are insufficient scientific data on which to base specific recommendations for prevention, other than that leg exercise should be taken during travel. Further studies are urgently needed in order to identify prospectively the incidence of the condition and those at risk. PMID:12077617

  5. 75 FR 43395 - Campaign Travel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... of 2007. See Final Rules on Campaign Travel, 74 FR 63951 (Dec. 7, 2009) (the ``Travel Rules... 11 CFR 9004.7 at a later date. Travel Rules, 74 FR at 63951. Through this Notice, the Commission... of the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act governing campaign travel on noncommercial...

  6. Solving standard traveling salesman problem and multiple traveling salesman problem by using branch-and-bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Shakila; Wan Jaafar, Wan Nurhadani; Jamil, Siti Jasmida

    2013-04-01

    The standard Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) is the classical Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) while Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (MTSP) is an extension of TSP when more than one salesman is involved. The objective of MTSP is to find the least costly route that the traveling salesman problem can take if he wishes to visit exactly once each of a list of n cities and then return back to the home city. There are a few methods that can be used to solve MTSP. The objective of this research is to implement an exact method called Branch-and-Bound (B&B) algorithm. Briefly, the idea of B&B algorithm is to start with the associated Assignment Problem (AP). A branching strategy will be applied to the TSP and MTSP which is Breadth-first-Search (BFS). 11 nodes of cities are implemented for both problem and the solutions to the problem are presented.

  7. 48 CFR 752.7014 - Notice of changes in travel regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... travel regulations. 752.7014 Section 752.7014 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR... Clauses 752.7014 Notice of changes in travel regulations. The following clause is for use in cost-reimbursement contracts involving work overseas. Notice of Changes in Travel Regulations (JAN 1990) (a)...

  8. 48 CFR 752.7014 - Notice of changes in travel regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... travel regulations. 752.7014 Section 752.7014 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR... Clauses 752.7014 Notice of changes in travel regulations. The following clause is for use in cost-reimbursement contracts involving work overseas. Notice of Changes in Travel Regulations (JAN 1990) (a)...

  9. 41 CFR 301-72.203 - When may we limit traveler reimbursement for a cash payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the traveler must not exceed the cost which would have been properly chargeable to the Government had the traveler used a government provided payment resource, (e.g., individual Government contractor... Carrier Transportation Services § 301-72.203 When may we limit traveler reimbursement for a cash...

  10. [Travellers to South America].

    PubMed

    Lloveras, Susana Cristina

    2011-12-01

    The geography, tourist attractions and the multiple sites of historical and cultural interest make South America as an important destination chosen by travelers. The continent has a wide climatic variation from north to south, making exposure to risk different between the tropics and the temperate or cold regions. In the countries of tropical South America, the greatest risk is associated with the possibility of acquiring vector-borne diseases, like yellow fever, dengue, malaria and leishmaniasis. The risk of acquiring traveler's diarrhea and food-borne illness is similar across the continent, with some variations according to country and to visit urban or rural areas. Rabies, pertussis and diphtheria have appeared as epidemics in several countries and other diseases such as rickettsiosis, hantavirosis and viral encephalitis have expanded their distribution. The geographic and epidemiological diversity of South America, promotes a challenge for travel medicine specialists because during the pre-travel advice they have to take in account the kind of trip, traveller's medical history, exposure to risk and the dynamics of endemic emerging and reemerging diseases in the region.

  11. Refusal of recommended travel-related vaccines among U.S. international travellers in Global TravEpiNet

    PubMed Central

    Lammert, Sara M.; Rao, Sowmya R.; Jentes, Emily S.; Fairley, Jessica K.; Erskine, Stefanie; Walker, Allison T.; Hagmann, Stefan H.; Sotir, Mark J.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: International travellers are at risk of travel-related, vaccine-preventable diseases. More data are needed on the proportion of travellers who refuse vaccines during a pre-travel health consultation and their reasons for refusing vaccines. Methods: We analyzed data on travellers seen for a pre-travel health consultation from July 2012 through June 2014 in the Global TravEpiNet (GTEN) consortium. Providers were required to indicate one of three reasons for a traveller refusing a recommended vaccine: (1) cost concerns, (2) safety concerns or (3) not concerned with the illness. We calculated refusal rates among travellers eligible for each vaccine based on CDC recommendations current at the time of travel. We used multivariable logistic regression models to examine the effect of individual variables on the likelihood of accepting all recommended vaccines. Results: Of 24 478 travellers, 23 768 (97%) were eligible for at least one vaccine. Travellers were most frequently eligible for typhoid (N = 20 092), hepatitis A (N = 12 990) and influenza vaccines (N = 10 539). Of 23 768 eligible travellers, 6573 (25%) refused one or more recommended vaccine(s). Of those eligible, more than one-third refused the following vaccines: meningococcal: 2232 (44%) of 5029; rabies: 1155 (44%) of 2650; Japanese encephalitis: 761 (41%) of 1846; and influenza: 3527 (33%) of 10 539. The most common reason for declining vaccines was that the traveller was not concerned about the illness. In multivariable analysis, travellers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) in low or medium human development countries were less likely to accept all recommended vaccines, compared with non-VFR travellers (OR = 0.74 (0.59–0.95)). Conclusions: Travellers who sought pre-travel health care refused recommended vaccines at varying rates. A lack of concern about the associated illness was the most commonly cited reason for all refused vaccines. Our data suggest more effective

  12. Emerging infectious diseases and travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Ostroff, S M; Kozarsky, P

    1998-03-01

    International movement of individuals, populations, and products is one of the major factors associated with the emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases as the pace of global travel and commerce increases rapidly. Travel can be associated with disease emergence because (1) the disease arises in an area of heavy tourism, (2) tourists may be at heightened risk because of their activities, or (3) because they can act as vectors to transport the agent to new areas. Examples of recently recognized diseases with relationship to travel include HIV, Legionnaire's disease, cyclosporiasis, Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal, hantavirus, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease. Reemerging diseases include dengue fever, malaria, cholera, schistosomiasis, leptospirosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers. In addition, tuberculosis, drug-resistant shigellosis, and cholera have been major concerns in refugee and migrant populations. Because of the unique role of travel in emerging infections, efforts are underway to address this factor by agencies such as the CDC, WHO, the International Society of Travel Medicine, and the travel industry.

  13. [Investigating fever after travel].

    PubMed

    D'Acremont, Valérie; Jaquérioz, Frédérique; Genton, Blaise

    2003-02-01

    Two questions are crucial in the evaluation of fever in returning travellers, i.e. "Where have you been?" and "When did you go and when did you return from your trip?". Prior to establishing practice guidelines for fever in returning travellers and migrants, we did a systematic review of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases in the tropical and subtropical countries. In the present paper, results are summarized by disease per continent. We also reviewed the extreme ranges for the incubation of the same diseases. Results are expressed graphically. Detailed information on space and time should help the practitioner to do an appropriate differential diagnosis, in particular to exclude diseases that are absent in the country visited or diseases with an incubation period that is incompatible with the travel history and symptoms occurrence dates.

  14. [Pregnancy and traveling].

    PubMed

    Walentiny, C

    2009-03-01

    The second trimester is the safest time for travelling, because the pregnant woman feels generally most at ease and the risk of spontaneous abortion and pre-term labour is very low. Possible risks must be discussed with the obstetrician before travelling. If the pregnancy is uncomplicated most airlines allow flying up to the 36th (domestic flights) and 35th (international flights) week of gestation. Unless the fetal oxygen supply is already impaired at ground level due to an underlying disease, flying does not pose a risk of fetal hypoxia. Radiation exposure during a long distant flight is low compared to the average annual exposure dosage, but the risk of thrombosis is increased. Altitudes up to 2,500 m pose no problem. Sufficient time to acclimatize must be taken when travelling to high altitudes and exercise kept to a minimum. Scuba diving is contraindicated. Since only a few drugs are completely safe during pregnancy a thorough risk/benefit evaluation is mandatory. Treatment of infections can be considerably complicated, but any necessary treatment should not be withheld because of the fear of potential fetal injury. Good knowledge of local medical resources is essential before travelling. Several personal protective measures minimize the risk of infection: food and water precautions, protection from insect bites and avoidance of crowds, unsafe sex and, if need be, freshwater. Many vaccinations are recommended for travellers. However, live vaccines are contraindicated in pregnant women because of theoretical considerations. Exceptionally a yellow fever vaccination may be given after the first trimester. Killed, inactivated or polysaccharide vaccines can be given after the first trimester after a thorough risk/benefit evaluation. Because of the potentially devastating effect of malaria to the mother and the child, travelling to endemic malaria regions should be avoided. If the risk of infection is high chemoprophylaxis with mefloquine is indicated. In low

  15. Culture shock and travelers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L; Leggat, P A

    1998-06-01

    As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate

  16. Malaria prevention in travelers.

    PubMed

    Genton, Blaise; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2012-09-01

    A common approach to malaria prevention is to follow the "A, B, C, D" rule: Awareness of risk, Bite avoidance, Compliance with chemoprophylaxis, and prompt Diagnosis in case of fever. The risk of acquiring malaria depends on the length and intensity of exposure; the risk of developing severe disease is primarily determined by the health status of the traveler. These parameters need to be assessed before recommending chemoprophylaxis and/or stand-by emergency treatment. This review discusses the different strategies and drug options available for the prevention of malaria during and post travel.

  17. Intergalactic Travel Bureau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, Olivia; Rosin, Mark; Guerilla Science Team

    2014-03-01

    The Intergalactic Travel Bureau is an interactive theater outreach experience that engages the public in the incredible possibilities of space tourism. The Bureau is staffed by professional actors, who play the role of space travel agents, and professional astrophysicists, who play the role of resident scientists. Members of the public of all ages were invited to visit with bureau staff to plan the vacation of their dreams-to space. We describe the project's successful nine day run in New York in August 2013. Funded by the American Physical Society Public Outreach and Informing the Public Grants.

  18. Costs and cost-minimisation analysis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R

    1993-09-18

    Whatever kind of economic evaluation you plan to undertake, the costs must be assessed. In health care these are first of all divided into costs borne by the NHS (like drugs), by patients and their families (like travel), and by the rest of society (like health education). Next the costs have to be valued in monetary terms; direct costs, like wages, pose little problem, but indirect costs (like time spent in hospital) have to have values imputed to them. And that is not all: costs must be further subdivided into average, marginal, and joint costs, which help decisions on how much of a service should be provided. Capital costs (investments in plant, buildings, and machinery) are also important, as are discounting and inflation. In this second article in the series Ray Robinson defines the types of costs, their measurement, and how they should be valued in monetary terms. PMID:8401098

  19. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  20. Mentors as Fellow Travelers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrosino, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    A junior faculty member arrives at an unfamiliar university for a new teaching assignment. She is poised for the adventure, but feels like a traveler at the edge of long, unknown road. She does not know what obstacles or vistas may appear on the road, and wants to avoid major potholes. She takes a nervous look around and finds an experienced…

  1. Risk for Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... specified risk materials from animal feed and human food chains as of October 1, 2000; such bans had already been instituted in most member states. To reduce any risk of acquiring vCJD from food, concerned travelers to Europe or other areas with ...

  2. Family travel: an overview.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Paediatric travel medicine involves the education of parents about the numerous health and safety issues related to traveling with infants and young children--whether overseas or a weekend at a local lake. It includes providing children with vaccines and medications, giving telephone advice to parents while they are traveling, and treating children should they come home ill. Practitioners must be knowledgeable about such varied topics like avoiding diarrhoea, infant safety seats for air travel, altitude sickness, sun exposure, waterfront safety, insect protection, dealing with hot and cold environments, and at what age it is safe to begin scuba diving, to name just a very few. Practitioners must also know when adult recommendations can--and cannot--be adapted for children; that vaccine doses, needle size, and injection site may vary with the size of the child; and the answers to hundreds of everyday questions such as how to administer an essential but bitter tasting medication to an uncooperative child--and what to do when the child refuses to take the medication or vomits it.

  3. Time travel paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnikov, S.

    2002-03-01

    We define the time travel paradox in physical terms and prove its existence by constructing an explicit example. We argue further that in theories-such as general relativity-where the spacetime geometry is subject to nothing but differential equations and initial data no paradoxes arise.

  4. The stress of travel.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, J; Reilly, T; Edwards, B

    2004-10-01

    International travel is an essential part of the life of elite athletes, both for competition and training. It is also becoming increasingly common among recreational sportspersons. Long-distance travel is associated with a group of transient negative effects, collectively referred to as 'travel fatigue', which result from anxiety about the journey, the change to an individual's daily routine, and dehydration due to time spent in the dry air of the aircraft cabin. Travel fatigue lasts for only a day or so, but for those who fly across several time zones, there are also the longer-lasting difficulties associated with 'jet lag'. The problems of jet lag can last for over a week if the flight crosses 10 time zones or more, and they can reduce performance and the motivation to train effectively. Knowledge of the properties of the body clock enables the cause of the difficulties to be understood (an unadjusted body clock), and forms the basis of using light in the new time zone to promote adjustment of the body clock. Sleep loss and its effects are important components of jet lag, and attempts to promote sleep by the use of melatonin and other hypnotics are also relevant. Sleep loss is also found in those who undertake challenges that involve long periods where the normal consolidated sleep of 8 h length is not possible. Advice on sleep regimens in such circumstances is given. PMID:15768727

  5. Traveling in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philyaw, Henry; And Others

    This minicourse guide for teachers of French is intended to help motivate and prepare students for travel in France. Activities are outlined in eleven related areas, including (1) planning for the trip, (2) currency, (3) going through customs, (4) tipping, (5) shopping, (6) guided tours, (7) touring on your own, (8) social life and entertainment,…

  6. The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dongen, Hans P A.; Maislin, Greg; Mullington, Janet M.; Dinges, David F.

    2003-01-01

    were near-linearly related to the cumulative duration of wakefulness in excess of 15.84 h (s.e. 0.73 h). CONCLUSIONS: Since chronic restriction of sleep to 6 h or less per night produced cognitive performance deficits equivalent to up to 2 nights of total sleep deprivation, it appears that even relatively moderate sleep restriction can seriously impair waking neurobehavioral functions in healthy adults. Sleepiness ratings suggest that subjects were largely unaware of these increasing cognitive deficits, which may explain why the impact of chronic sleep restriction on waking cognitive functions is often assumed to be benign. Physiological sleep responses to chronic restriction did not mirror waking neurobehavioral responses, but cumulative wakefulness in excess of a 15.84 h predicted performance lapses across all four experimental conditions. This suggests that sleep debt is perhaps best understood as resulting in additional wakefulness that has a neurobiological "cost" which accumulates over time.

  7. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity over 60% and ambient temperature of 25-30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10-14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to February 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 69 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acoustic buzzers, aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone-proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), doxycycline, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vaporising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine-dapsone, pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, smoke, topical (skin-applied) insect repellents, and vaccines. PMID:19450348

  8. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity greater than 60% and ambient temperature of 25 °C to 30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10 to 14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in adult and child travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 79 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone–proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), dietary supplementation, doxycycline, electronic mosquito repellents, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vapourising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine–dapsone, pyrimethamine–sulfadoxine, smoke

  9. International Launch Vehicle Selection for Interplanetary Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrone, Kristine; Nguyen, Lori T.

    2010-01-01

    In developing a mission strategy for interplanetary travel, the first step is to consider launch capabilities which provide the basis for fundamental parameters of the mission. This investigation focuses on the numerous launch vehicles of various characteristics available and in development internationally with respect to upmass, launch site, payload shroud size, fuel type, cost, and launch frequency. This presentation will describe launch vehicles available and in development worldwide, then carefully detail a selection process for choosing appropriate vehicles for interplanetary missions focusing on international collaboration, risk management, and minimization of cost. The vehicles that fit the established criteria will be discussed in detail with emphasis on the specifications and limitations related to interplanetary travel. The final menu of options will include recommendations for overall mission design and strategy.

  10. Global aerial flyways allow efficient travelling.

    PubMed

    Kranstauber, B; Weinzierl, R; Wikelski, M; Safi, K

    2015-12-01

    Birds migrate over vast distances at substantial costs. The highly dynamic nature of the air makes the selection of the best travel route difficult. We investigated to what extent migratory birds may optimise migratory route choice with respect to wind, and if route choice can be subject to natural selection. Following the optimal route, calculated using 21 years of empirical global wind data, reduced median travel time by 26.5% compared to the spatially shortest route. When we used a time-dependent survival model to quantify the adaptive benefit of choosing a fixed wind-optimised route, 84.8% of pairs of locations yielded a route with a higher survival than the shortest route. This suggests that birds, even if incapable of predicting wind individually, could adjust their migratory routes at a population level. As a consequence, this may result in the emergence of low-cost flyways representing a global network of aerial migratory pathways.

  11. Travel Pattern and Prescription Analysis at a Single Travel Clinic Specialized for Yellow Fever Vaccination in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Gianella, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background Travel-related risks for infectious diseases vary depending on travel patterns such as purpose, destination, and duration. In this study, we describe the patterns of travel and prescription of vaccines as well as malaria prophylaxis medication (MPM) at a travel clinic in South Korea to identify the gaps to fill for the optimization of pre-travel consultation. Materials and Methods A cohort of travel clinic visitors in 2011 was constructed and early one-third of the visitors of each month were reviewed. During the study period, 10,009 visited the travel clinic and a retrospective chart review was performed for 3,332 cases for analysis of travel patterns and prescriptions. Results People receiving yellow fever vaccine (YFV) (n = 2,933) were traveling more frequently for business and tourism and less frequently for providing non-medical service or research/education compared to the 399 people who did not receive the YFV. Overall, most people were traveling to Eastern Africa, South America, and Western Africa, while South-Eastern Asia was the most common destination for the non-YFV group. Besides YFV, the typhoid vaccine was the most commonly prescribed (54.2%), while hepatitis A presented the highest coverage (74.7%) considering the natural immunity, prior and current vaccination history. Additionally, 402 (82.5%) individuals received a prescription for MPM among the 487 individuals travelling to areas with high-risk of malaria infection. Age over 55 was independently associated with receiving MPM prescription, while purpose of providing service and travel duration over 10 days were associated with no MPM prescription, despite travelling to high-risk areas. Conclusion Eastern Africa and South America were common travel destinations among the visitors to a travel clinic for YFV, and most of them were travelling for tourism and business. For the individuals who are traveling to areas with high-risk for malaria, more proactive approach might be required in

  12. Evaluating School Travel Initiatives and Promoting "Healthy Travel" through PSHCE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baslington, Hazel

    2010-01-01

    The number of primary school children travelling to school by car in the UK has almost doubled from 22% to 43% in 20 years. A governmental policy response is school travel plans (STPs). This paper reports the findings of an empirical evaluation designed to measure the effectiveness of the travel initiative at three schools. Quantitative and…

  13. Review: Malaria chemoprophylaxis for travelers to Latin America.

    PubMed

    Steinhardt, Laura C; Magill, Alan J; Arguin, Paul M

    2011-12-01

    Because of recent declining malaria transmission in Latin America, some authorities have recommended against chemoprophylaxis for most travelers to this region. However, the predominant parasite species in Latin America, Plasmodium vivax, can form hypnozoites sequestered in the liver, causing malaria relapses. Additionally, new evidence shows the potential severity of vivax infections, warranting continued consideration of prophylaxis for travel to Latin America. Individualized travel risk assessments are recommended and should consider travel locations, type, length, and season, as well as probability of itinerary changes. Travel recommendations might include no precautions, mosquito avoidance only, or mosquito avoidance and chemoprophylaxis. There are a range of good options for chemoprophylaxis in Latin America, including atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, mefloquine, and--in selected areas--chloroquine. Primaquine should be strongly considered for nonpregnant, G6PD-nondeficient patients traveling to vivax-endemic areas of Latin America, and it has the added benefit of being the only drug to protect against malaria relapses.

  14. Electronic Travel Aids for Blind Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Everett W.; Bradfield, Anna L.

    1984-01-01

    The article describes application for visually impaired persons of widely used Electronic Travel Aids--the Lindsay Russell Pathsounder, the Mowat Sensor, the Sonicguide, and the C-5 Laser Cane. In addition, a research review provides insight into the issues affecting future use of the devices. (Author/CL)

  15. International business travel: impact on families and travellers

    PubMed Central

    Espino, C; Sundstrom, S; Frick, H; Jacobs, M; Peters, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Spouses and staff of the World Bank Group (WBG) were questioned about the impact of international business travel on families and travellers. Dependent variables were self reported stress, concern about the health of the traveller, and negative impact on the family. We hypothesised that several travel factors (independent variables) would be associated with these impacts. These travel factors had to do with the frequency, duration, and predictability of travel and its interference with family activities. Methods: Survey forms were developed and distributed to all spouses of travelling staff as well as a small sample of operational staff. Kendall's tau b correlation coefficients of response frequencies were computed with the data from scaled items. Written responses to open ended questions were categorised. Results: Response rates for spouses and staff were 24% and 36%, respectively. Half the spouse sample (n=533) and almost 75% of the staff sample (n=102) reported high or very high stress due to business travel. Self reported spouse stress was associated with six out of eight travel factors. Female spouses, those with children, and younger spouses reported greater stress. Self reported staff stress was significantly associated with four out of nine travel factors. Further insight into how business travel affects families and staff (including children's behavioural changes) and how families cope was gained through responses to written questions. Conclusions: The findings support the notion that lengthy and frequent travel and frequent changes in travel dates which affect family plans, all characteristic of WBG missions, negatively affects many spouses and children (particularly young children) and that the strain on families contributes significantly to the stress staff feel about their travel. Policies or management practices that take into consideration family activities and give staff greater leeway in controlling and refusing travel may help relieve

  16. Travel and Adventure Medicine Resources.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Christopher A; Pottinger, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    Given the ever-changing nature of travel medicine, practitioners who provide pretravel and posttravel care are obligatorily students for the duration of their professional careers. A large variety of resources are available for medical practitioners. Providers should join at least one travel or tropical medicine professional association, attend its annual meeting, and read its journal. The largest general travel medicine association is the International Society of Travel Medicine. PMID:26900122

  17. Travel and Adventure Medicine Resources.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Christopher A; Pottinger, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    Given the ever-changing nature of travel medicine, practitioners who provide pretravel and posttravel care are obligatorily students for the duration of their professional careers. A large variety of resources are available for medical practitioners. Providers should join at least one travel or tropical medicine professional association, attend its annual meeting, and read its journal. The largest general travel medicine association is the International Society of Travel Medicine.

  18. Development of cost-effective media to increase the economic potential for larger-scale bioproduction of natural food additives by Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Debaryomyces hansenii , and Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés, Sandra; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2009-11-11

    Yeast extract (YE) is the most common nitrogen source in a variety of bioprocesses in spite of the high cost. Therefore, the use of YE in culture media is one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes, making the search for alternative-cheaper nitrogen sources particularly desired. The aim of the current study is to develop cost-effective media based on corn steep liquor (CSL) and locally available vinasses in order to increase the economic potential for larger-scale bioproduction. Three microorganisms were evaluated: Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Debaryomyces hansenii , and Aspergillus niger . The amino acid profile and protein concentration was relevant for the xylitol and citric acid production by D. hansenii and A. niger , respectively. Metals also played an important role for citric acid production, meanwhile, D. hansenii showed a strong dependence with the initial amount of Mg(2+). Under the best conditions, 28.8 g lactic acid/L (Q(LA) = 0.800 g/L.h, Y(LA/S) = 0.95 g/g), 35.3 g xylitol/L (Q(xylitol) = 0.380 g/L.h, Y(xylitol/S) = 0.69 g/g), and 13.9 g citric acid/L (Q(CA) = 0.146 g/L.h, Y(CA/S) = 0.63 g/g) were obtained. The economic efficiency (E(p/euro)) parameter identify vinasses as a lower cost and more effective nutrient source in comparison to CSL.

  19. Including Gypsy Travellers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwynned; Stead, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Examined the educational exclusion and inclusion of Gypsy Traveller students, exploring how some Scottish schools responded to Traveller student culture and how this led to exclusion. Interviews with school staff, Traveller students, and parents indicated that continuing prejudice and harassment promoted inappropriate school placement and…

  20. Medical oxygen and air travel.

    PubMed

    Lyznicki, J M; Williams, M A; Deitchman, S D; Howe, J P

    2000-08-01

    This report responds to a resolution that asked the American Medical Association (AMA) to take action to improve airport and airline accommodations for passengers requiring medical oxygen. Information for the report was derived from a search of the MEDLINE database and references listed in pertinent articles, as well as through communications with experts in aerospace and emergency medicine. Based on this information, the AMA Council on Scientific Affairs determined that commercial air travel exposes passengers to altitude-related hypoxia and gas expansion, which may cause some passengers to experience significant symptoms and medical complications during flight. Medical guidelines are available to help physicians evaluate and counsel potential passengers who are at increased risk of inflight hypoxemia. Supplemental oxygen may be needed for some passengers to maintain adequate tissue oxygenation and prevent hypoxemic complications. For safety and security reasons, federal regulations prohibit travelers from using their own portable oxygen system onboard commercial aircraft. Many U.S. airlines supply medical oxygen for use during flight but policies and procedures vary. Oxygen-dependent passengers must make additional arrangements for the use of supplemental oxygen in airports. Uniform standards are needed to specify procedures and equipment for the use of medical oxygen in airports and aboard commercial aircraft. Revision of federal regulations should be considered to accommodate oxygen-dependent passengers and permit them to have an uninterrupted source of oxygen from departure to destination.

  1. Travelers In The Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Albert D.

    2014-11-01

    Travelers In The Night is an engaging and informative series of two minute radio programs about asteroids, comets, spacecraft, and other objects in space. The pieces are evergreen in that they are current but not dated. They are published on the Public Radio Exchange and carried by a number of radio stations. For teachers, students, and kids of all ages, the script for each piece and the start of a path for further inquiry can be found on the website travelersinthenight.org . The Travelers InThe Night Pieces are written and produced by an observing member of the Catalina Sky Survey Team at the University of Arizona. DPS members are encouraged to submit program ideas which can be developed to feature their research efforts.

  2. Wilderness and adventure travel with underlying asthma.

    PubMed

    Doan, Daniel; Luks, Andrew M

    2014-06-01

    Given the high prevalence of asthma, it is likely that providers working in a pretravel setting will be asked to provide guidance for asthma patients about how to manage their disease before and during wilderness or adventure travel, while providers working in the field setting may need to address asthma-related issues that arise during such excursions. This review aims to provide information to assist providers facing these issues. Relevant literature was identified through the MEDLINE database using a key word search of the English-language literature from 1980 to 2013 using the term "asthma" cross-referenced with "adventure travel," "trekking," "exercise," "exercise-induced bronchoconstriction," "high-altitude," "scuba," and "diving." We review data on the frequency of worsening asthma control during wilderness or adventure travel and discuss the unique aspects of wilderness travel that may affect asthma patients in the field. We then provide a general approach to evaluation and management of asthma before and during a planned sojourn and address 2 particular situations, activities at high altitude and scuba diving, which pose unique risks to asthma patients and warrant additional attention. Although wilderness and adventure travel should be avoided in individuals with poorly controlled disease or worsening control at the time of a planned trip, individuals with well-controlled asthma who undergo appropriate pretravel assessment and planning can safely engage in a wide range of wilderness and adventure-related activities. PMID:24393703

  3. Travel fosters tool use in wild chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Thibaud; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Neumann, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Ecological variation influences the appearance and maintenance of tool use in animals, either due to necessity or opportunity, but little is known about the relative importance of these two factors. Here, we combined long-term behavioural data on feeding and travelling with six years of field experiments in a wild chimpanzee community. In the experiments, subjects engaged with natural logs, which contained energetically valuable honey that was only accessible through tool use. Engagement with the experiment was highest after periods of low fruit availability involving more travel between food patches, while instances of actual tool-using were significantly influenced by prior travel effort only. Additionally, combining data from the main chimpanzee study communities across Africa supported this result, insofar as groups with larger travel efforts had larger tool repertoires. Travel thus appears to foster tool use in wild chimpanzees and may also have been a driving force in early hominin technological evolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16371.001 PMID:27431611

  4. [Which vaccinations for which travel-destination?].

    PubMed

    De Crom, Susan; Veit, Olivia; Hatz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Several vaccinations are recommended to protect international travellers, especially to tropical countries, from diseases in other parts of the world. Firstly, the routine schedule of childhood vaccinations and booster shots according to the Swiss immunisation programme should be checked, updated or even completed. Additional vaccinations against hepatitis A and B, typhoid fever, poliomyelitis, rabies or Japanese encephalitis may be recommended. This will depend on a number of factors including the exact destination and route (developing countries, rural areas), planned activities (backpacker, family visit, business trip), duration of travel, season, age of the traveller and current health status including the current medication and previous vaccinations. Some vaccinations, such as yellow fever, may be required for travellers to certain countries and the international certificate of vaccination may even be required when entering a country from another country where yellow fever is endemic. The international certificate of vaccination (or a letter of exemption when appropriate) is considered valid only if it is administered by an approved vaccination centre. Furthermore, the meningococcal vaccination (A, C, W, Y) is required for pilgrims to Saudi Arabia. It is recommended to start the vaccinations four to six weeks before departure to ensure enough time to administer all the necessary doses for an adequate immune response. All commonly used vaccines can be administered on the same day. The basic health insurance does not usually cover travel vaccines. PMID:27268450

  5. [Which vaccinations for which travel-destination?].

    PubMed

    De Crom, Susan; Veit, Olivia; Hatz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Several vaccinations are recommended to protect international travellers, especially to tropical countries, from diseases in other parts of the world. Firstly, the routine schedule of childhood vaccinations and booster shots according to the Swiss immunisation programme should be checked, updated or even completed. Additional vaccinations against hepatitis A and B, typhoid fever, poliomyelitis, rabies or Japanese encephalitis may be recommended. This will depend on a number of factors including the exact destination and route (developing countries, rural areas), planned activities (backpacker, family visit, business trip), duration of travel, season, age of the traveller and current health status including the current medication and previous vaccinations. Some vaccinations, such as yellow fever, may be required for travellers to certain countries and the international certificate of vaccination may even be required when entering a country from another country where yellow fever is endemic. The international certificate of vaccination (or a letter of exemption when appropriate) is considered valid only if it is administered by an approved vaccination centre. Furthermore, the meningococcal vaccination (A, C, W, Y) is required for pilgrims to Saudi Arabia. It is recommended to start the vaccinations four to six weeks before departure to ensure enough time to administer all the necessary doses for an adequate immune response. All commonly used vaccines can be administered on the same day. The basic health insurance does not usually cover travel vaccines.

  6. Wilderness and adventure travel with underlying asthma.

    PubMed

    Doan, Daniel; Luks, Andrew M

    2014-06-01

    Given the high prevalence of asthma, it is likely that providers working in a pretravel setting will be asked to provide guidance for asthma patients about how to manage their disease before and during wilderness or adventure travel, while providers working in the field setting may need to address asthma-related issues that arise during such excursions. This review aims to provide information to assist providers facing these issues. Relevant literature was identified through the MEDLINE database using a key word search of the English-language literature from 1980 to 2013 using the term "asthma" cross-referenced with "adventure travel," "trekking," "exercise," "exercise-induced bronchoconstriction," "high-altitude," "scuba," and "diving." We review data on the frequency of worsening asthma control during wilderness or adventure travel and discuss the unique aspects of wilderness travel that may affect asthma patients in the field. We then provide a general approach to evaluation and management of asthma before and during a planned sojourn and address 2 particular situations, activities at high altitude and scuba diving, which pose unique risks to asthma patients and warrant additional attention. Although wilderness and adventure travel should be avoided in individuals with poorly controlled disease or worsening control at the time of a planned trip, individuals with well-controlled asthma who undergo appropriate pretravel assessment and planning can safely engage in a wide range of wilderness and adventure-related activities.

  7. [Traveling with small children].

    PubMed

    Olivier, C

    1997-01-01

    Traveling with children especially in the tropics requires special planning. Contraindications are rare but care providers should obtain information about medical and transfusional facilities at the destination. Children should receive all vaccinations required for international travel and for specific countries, taking into account age, location, duration of stay, and purpose of trip. A first aid kit should be packed containing a thermometer, bandages, antiseptic agents, a total sunscreen preparation, a mosquito net, sterile compresses, tablets for water disinfection, and indispensable medications (antimalarial agents, antipyretics, oral rehydration solutions, antiemetics, and eye wash). The main indication for chemoprophylaxis is malaria. Chloroquine is recommended for most locations but proguanil may be necessary in areas of resistance. Special attention must be paid to skin care in infants: maintaining cleanliness, avoiding cuts insofar as possible, and treating any wounds. Clothing must be carefully laundered and adequate to prevent overexposure to sunlight and insect bites. Insect bites must also be prevented by applying repellents, using mosquito nets, and wearing insecticide-treated garments. Handwashing by people who prepare meals and by the children before eating is important to prevent food poisoning. Breast feeding is advisable for infants. Thorough cooking of meats, rinsing of fresh produce, drinking of bottled beverages, and sterilization of water are also important food safety measures. These precautions are usually adequate to allow safe travel with children.

  8. Time - A Traveler's Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    1999-09-01

    "Bucky Fuller thought big," Wired magazine recently noted, "Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." In his newest book, Cliff Pickover outdoes even himself, probing a mystery that has baffled mystics, philosophers, and scientists throughout history--What is the nature of time?In Time: A Traveler's Guide , Pickover takes readers to the forefront of science as he illuminates the most mysterious phenomenon in the universe--time itself. Is time travel possible? Is time real? Does it flow in one direction only? Does it have a beginning and an end? What is eternity? Pickover's book offers a stimulating blend of Chopin, philosophy, Einstein, and modern physics, spiced with diverting side-trips to such topics as the history of clocks, the nature of free will, and the reason gold glitters. Numerous diagrams ensure readers will have no trouble following along.By the time we finish this book, we understand a wide variety of scientific concepts pertaining to time. And most important, we will understand that time travel is, indeed, possible.

  9. [Travelers, mad, wandering].

    PubMed

    Vaschetto, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion of "wandering" through the use of some phenomena enrolled at the dawn of modernity such as the Rousseau dromomanie's philosopher and writer, the origin of the first mad traveler (Albert Dadas), epidemics of mad travelers Europe and romantic tourism (with renewed acquires significance in the "beat generation" of the twentieth century). These historical facts are "mounting" as play contemporary manifestations such as loss, disorientation, to lose one's way, and wandering without reducing them only to clinical psychosis. Readings of classic psychiatrists such as Régis, Foville, Sérieux and Capgras, Tissié, go hand in hand with the current readings of the philosopher Ian Hacking and critics of pop culture as S. Reynolds and D. Diederichsen, illustrating how the travel's phenomenon can make different subjective configurations depending on historical times. In conclusion it is noted that not only psychosis exposes the wandering soul of suffering but there are also subject positions (as will be exemplified in a clinical case) and go no further nesting wandering into human existence. PMID:25153978

  10. Family planning for travellers.

    PubMed

    Rustom, A

    1990-11-01

    A public health nurse from London describes the customs of nomadic people in the British Isles, known as "travellers," as they affect provision of family planning services. Most are of British or Irish stock, some migrate and others live in caravan sites all year. Their traditions dictate that men work and women are housewives. Early, often arranged, marriage, early childbearing and large families are the norm. Sex and contraception are not considered appropriate for discussion between the sexes, or in the presence of children. Large families and financial hardship force many women to space pregnancies. Women often have to hide contraceptives from their husbands, difficult in conditions without privacy. Therefore they prefer IUDs, but some use oral contraceptives, although sometimes erratically because most are illiterate. Traveller women are usually unwilling to do self-examination, as needed with IUDs. They often have difficulty attending regular Pap smear clinics. Cervical cancer rates are high. They experience discrimination in clinics, and need extra care about modesty. It is worth while to take time to develop trust in the clinical relationship, to deal with the traveller woman's uneasy among outsiders.

  11. Ion acoustic traveling waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, G. M.; Burrows, R. H.; Ao, X.; Zank, G. P.; Zank

    2014-04-01

    Models for traveling waves in multi-fluid plasmas give essential insight into fully nonlinear wave structures in plasmas, not readily available from either numerical simulations or from weakly nonlinear wave theories. We illustrate these ideas using one of the simplest models of an electron-proton multi-fluid plasma for the case where there is no magnetic field or a constant normal magnetic field present. We show that the traveling waves can be reduced to a single first-order differential equation governing the dynamics. We also show that the equations admit a multi-symplectic Hamiltonian formulation in which both the space and time variables can act as the evolution variable. An integral equation useful for calculating adiabatic, electrostatic solitary wave signatures for multi-fluid plasmas with arbitrary mass ratios is presented. The integral equation arises naturally from a fluid dynamics approach for a two fluid plasma, with a given mass ratio of the two species (e.g. the plasma could be an electron-proton or an electron-positron plasma). Besides its intrinsic interest, the integral equation solution provides a useful analytical test for numerical codes that include a proton-electron mass ratio as a fundamental constant, such as for particle in cell (PIC) codes. The integral equation is used to delineate the physical characteristics of ion acoustic traveling waves consisting of hot electron and cold proton fluids.

  12. Direct and indirect costs of asthma in Canada, 1990.

    PubMed Central

    Krahn, M D; Berka, C; Langlois, P; Detsky, A S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To calculate the direct and indirect costs of asthma in Canada. DESIGN: Cost-of-illness study. SETTING: Canada. PATIENTS: All Canadians receiving inpatient or outpatient care for asthma in 1990. OUTCOME MEASURES: Direct costs incurred by inpatient care, emergency services, physician and nursing services, ambulance use, drugs and devices, outpatient diagnostic tests, research and education. Indirect costs from productivity loss due to absence from work, inability to to perform housekeeping activities, need to care for children with asthma who were absent from school, time spent travelling and waiting for medical care, and premature death from asthma. All costs are in 1990 Canadian dollars. RESULTS: Depending on assumptions, the total cost of asthma was estimated to be between $504 million and $648 million. Direct costs were $306 million. The single largest component of direct costs was the cost of drugs ($124 million). The largest component of indirect costs was illness-related disability ($76 million). CONCLUSIONS: Annual costs of treating asthma are comparable to the individual cost of infectious diseases, hematological diseases, congenital defects, perinatal illnesses, home care and ambulance services. Asthma costs may increase in the future, given current morbidity and mortality trends. Further evaluation of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of available asthma interventions in addition to aggregate cost data are required to determine whether resource allocation for the treatment of asthma can be improved. PMID:8634960

  13. A unifying framework of the demand for transnational medical travel.

    PubMed

    Osterle, August; Johnson, Tricia; Delgado, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Transnational medical travel has gained attention recently as a strategy for patients to obtain care that is higher quality, costs less, or offers improved access relative to care provided within their home countries. This article examines institutional environments in the European Union and United States that influence transnational medical travel, describes the conceptual model of demand for medical travel, and illustrates individual dimensions in the conceptual model of medical travel using a series of case studies. The conceptual model of medical travel is predicated on Andersen's behavioral model of health services. Transnational medical travel is a heterogeneous phenomenon that is influenced by a number of patient-related factors and by the institutional environment in which the patient resides. While cost, access, and quality are commonly cited factors that influence a patient's decision regarding where to seek care, multiple factors may simultaneously influence the decision about the destination for care, including culture, social factors, and the institutional environment. The conceptual framework addresses the patient-related factors that influence where a patient seeks care. This framework can help researchers and regulatory bodies to evaluate the opportunities and the risks of transnational medical travel and help providers and governments to develop international patient programs.

  14. Travelers with Disabilities and Medical Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Claims Travel Tips Travel Bulletin Travel Checklist FAQ Disabilities and Medical Conditions To ensure your security, all ... other questions or concerns about traveling with a disability please contact passenger support . If you are approved ...

  15. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Ashley

    2000-01-01

    Definition Malaria is caused by a protozoan infection of red blood cells with one of four species of the genus plasmodium: P falciparum, P vivax, P ovale, or P malariae.1 Clinically, malaria may present in different ways, but it is usually characterised by fever (which may be swinging), tachycardia, rigors, and sweating. Anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, cerebral involvement, renal failure, and shock may occur. Incidence/prevalence Each year there are 300-500 million clinical cases of malaria. About 40% of the world's population is at risk of acquiring the disease.23 Each year 25-30 million people from non-tropical countries visit areas in which malaria is endemic,4 of whom between 10 000 and 30 000 contract malaria.5 Aetiology/risk factors Malaria is mainly a rural disease, requiring standing water nearby. It is transmitted by bites6 from infected female anopheline mosquitoes,7 mainly at dusk and during the night.18 In cities, mosquito bites are usually from female culicene mosquitoes, which are not vectors of malaria.9 Malaria is resurgent in most tropical countries and the risk to travellers is increasing.10 Prognosis Ninety per cent of travellers who contract malaria do not become ill until after they return home.5 “Imported malaria” is easily treated if diagnosed promptly, and it follows a serious course in only about 12% of people.1112 The most severe form of the disease is cerebral malaria, with a case fatality rate in adult travellers of 2-6%,3 mainly because of delays in diagnosis.5 Aims To reduce the risk of infection; to prevent illness and death. Outcomes Rates of malarial illness and death, and adverse effects of treatment. Proxy measures include number of mosquito bites and number of mosquitoes in indoor areas. We found limited evidence linking number of mosquito bites and risk of malaria.13 Methods Clinical Evidence search and appraisal in November 1999. We reviewed all identified systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials (RCTs

  16. Home range and travels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  17. Effect of airline travel on performance: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Leatherwood, Whitney E; Dragoo, Jason L

    2013-06-01

    The need for athletes to travel long distances has spurred investigation into the effect of air travel across multiple time zones on athletic performance. Rapid eastward or westward travel may negatively affect the body in many ways; therefore, strategies should be employed to minimise these effects which may hamper athletic performance. In this review, the fundamentals of circadian rhythm disruption are examined along with additional effects of airline travel including jet lag, sleep deprivation, travel at altitude and nutritional considerations that negatively affect performance. Evidence-based recommendations are provided at the end of the manuscript to minimise the effects of airline travel on performance.

  18. 41 CFR 301-70.803 - How must we authorize travel on a Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compliance with this regulation and any additional agency policies. Travel on Government aircraft that does... travel on a Government aircraft? 301-70.803 Section 301-70.803 Public Contracts and Property Management...-INTERNAL POLICY AND PROCEDURE REQUIREMENTS Policies and Procedures for Agencies That Authorize Travel...

  19. Travel Demand Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, Frank; Garrow, Dr. Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the principal types of both passenger and freight demand models in use today, providing a brief history of model development supported by references to a number of popular texts on the subject, and directing the reader to papers covering some of the more recent technical developments in the area. Over the past half century a variety of methods have been used to estimate and forecast travel demands, drawing concepts from economic/utility maximization theory, transportation system optimization and spatial interaction theory, using and often combining solution techniques as varied as Box-Jenkins methods, non-linear multivariate regression, non-linear mathematical programming, and agent-based microsimulation.

  20. Time, travel and infection.

    PubMed

    Cliff, Andrew; Haggett, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The collapse of geographical space over the last 200 years has had profound effects on the circulation of human populations and on the transfer of infectious diseases. Three examples are used to illustrate the process: (a) the impact of the switch from sail to steamships in importing measles into Fiji over a 40-year period; (b) changes in measles epidemic behaviour in Iceland over a 150-year period; and (c) changes in the spread of cholera within the United States over a 35-year period. In each case, the link between time, travel and disease has been an intimate one.

  1. Traveling-Wave Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.

    1998-01-01

    The traveling-wave tube (TWT) is a vacuum device invented in the early 1940's used for amplification at microwave frequencies. Amplification is attained by surrendering kinetic energy from an electron beam to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic wave. The demand for vacuum devices has been decreased largely by the advent of solid-state devices. However, although solid state devices have replaced vacuum devices in many areas, there are still many applications such as radar, electronic countermeasures and satellite communications, that require operating characteristics such as high power (Watts to Megawatts), high frequency (below 1 GHz to over 100 GHz) and large bandwidth that only vacuum devices can provide. Vacuum devices are also deemed irreplaceable in the music industry where musicians treasure their tube-based amplifiers claiming that the solid-state and digital counterparts could never provide the same "warmth" (3). The term traveling-wave tube includes both fast-wave and slow-wave devices. This article will concentrate on slow-wave devices as the vast majority of TWTs in operation fall into this category.

  2. [Travel-associated pneumonias].

    PubMed

    Geerdes-Fenge, H F

    2014-10-01

    Respiratory infections are responsible for up to 11% of febrile infections in travellers or immigrants from tropical and subtropical regions. The main pathogens are the same as in temperate climate zones: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, influenza viruses, Legionella pneumophila. However, some pulmonary diseases can be attributed to bacterial, parasitic, viral or fungal pathogens that are endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. The most commonly imported infections are malaria, dengue, and tuberculosis. Pulmonary symptoms and eosinophilia in returning travellers and migrants may be caused by several parasitic infections such as Katayama syndrome, Loeffler syndrome, tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, amebiasis, paragonimiasis, echinococcosis, and toxocariasis. In Asia, Tsutsugamushi fever is transmitted by chiggers, spotted fever rickettsiae are transmitted by ticks. Transmission of zoonotic diseases occurs mainly via contact with infected animals or their excretions, human-to-human transmission is generally rare: MERS-CoA (dromedary camels), pulmonary hantavirus infection (rodents), tularemia (rabbits and hares), leptospirosis (rats), Q-fever (sheep and goats), very rarely anthrax (hides of ruminants) and pest (infected rats and wildlife). Inhalation of contaminated dust can cause infections with dimorphic fungi: histoplasmosis (bat guano) and coccidioidomycosis in America and parts of Africa, blastomycosis in America. Some infections can cause symptoms years after a stay in tropical or subtropical regions (melioidosis, tuberculosis, histoplasmosis, schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension). Noninfectious respiratory diseases caused by inhalation of high amounts of air pollution or toxic dusts may also be considered. PMID:25290923

  3. Evaluation of the returned traveler.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    Recognition of clinical syndromes in returned travelers is an important part of providing care to international travelers. The first step is to take a history with attention to pre-travel preventive measures, the patient's itinerary, and potential exposure to infectious agents. The patient should then be examined to document physical signs, such as fever, rash, or hepatosplenomegaly, and to have basic laboratory data obtained. This evaluation will provide most physicians with the necessary information to generate a differential diagnosis. Each diagnosis should be matched against the incubation period of the disease, the geographic location of illness, the frequency of illness in returned travelers, and the pre-travel preventive measures. Careful attention to these aspects of patient care should result in the appropriate diagnosis and therapeutic intervention for the ill returned traveler. PMID:1290276

  4. [Cardiovascular risk for the traveler].

    PubMed

    Touze, J E; Fourcade, L; Heno, P; Van de Walle, J P; Mafart, B; N'Guyen-Hai

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular events during travel is rising with the age of the population and number of traveling seniors. Cardiovascular events are the second most frequent reason for medical evacuation and the cause of 50% of deaths recorded during commercial air travel. In most cases the underlying disorder is coronary artery disease which is readily destabilized by stress and fatigue associated with travel. Inflight conditions that can cause problems include altitude-related hypoxia, pressurization, and cramped seating in most sections of the plane. Upon arrival the traveler is exposed to a variety of climatic, food, and environmental factors that can trigger manifestations of latent heart disease. Prophylactic drugs for tropical infectious disease (especially antimalarials of the quinidine group) should be used with caution due to possible adverse interaction with medications used to treat heart disease. A pre-travel examination is necessary to ascertain cardiovascular status and define simple preventive precautions.

  5. Optimal path choice in railway passenger travel network based on residual train capacity.

    PubMed

    Dou, Fei; Yan, Kai; Huang, Yakun; Wang, Li; Jia, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Passenger's optimal path choice is one of the prominent research topics in the field of railway passenger transport organization. More and more different train types are available, increasing path choices from departure to destination for travelers are unstoppable. However, travelers cannot avoid being confused when they hope to choose a perfect travel plan based on various travel time and cost constraints before departure. In this study, railway passenger travel network is constructed based on train timetable. Both the generalized cost function we developed and the residual train capacity are considered to be the foundation of path searching procedure. The railway passenger travel network topology is analyzed based on residual train capacity. Considering the total travel time, the total travel cost, and the total number of passengers, we propose an optimal path searching algorithm based on residual train capacity in railway passenger travel network. Finally, the rationale of the railway passenger travel network and the optimal path generation algorithm are verified positively by case study.

  6. Optimal Path Choice in Railway Passenger Travel Network Based on Residual Train Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Fei; Yan, Kai; Huang, Yakun; Jia, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Passenger's optimal path choice is one of the prominent research topics in the field of railway passenger transport organization. More and more different train types are available, increasing path choices from departure to destination for travelers are unstoppable. However, travelers cannot avoid being confused when they hope to choose a perfect travel plan based on various travel time and cost constraints before departure. In this study, railway passenger travel network is constructed based on train timetable. Both the generalized cost function we developed and the residual train capacity are considered to be the foundation of path searching procedure. The railway passenger travel network topology is analyzed based on residual train capacity. Considering the total travel time, the total travel cost, and the total number of passengers, we propose an optimal path searching algorithm based on residual train capacity in railway passenger travel network. Finally, the rationale of the railway passenger travel network and the optimal path generation algorithm are verified positively by case study. PMID:25097867

  7. Traveling waves in visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuo K; Nauhaus, Ian; Carandini, Matteo

    2012-07-26

    Electrode recordings and imaging studies have revealed that localized visual stimuli elicit waves of activity that travel across primary visual cortex. Traveling waves are present also during spontaneous activity, but they can be greatly reduced by widespread and intensive visual stimulation. In this Review, we summarize the evidence in favor of these traveling waves. We suggest that their substrate may lie in long-range horizontal connections and that their functional role may involve the integration of information over large regions of space.

  8. Skin lesions in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Juszczak, Dariusz; Jerzemowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Skin lesions, apart from diarrhoeas, fever of unknown origin, and respiratory tract infections belong to the most frequent medical problems in travellers returned from tropical and subtropical destinations, accounting more than 10% of reported cases. Most dermatoses have their clinical onset during travel, although some of them can occur after return. Travel-related dermatological problems can have a wide spectrum of clinical picture, from macular, popular or nodular rash, linear and migratory lesions, to plaques, vesicles, bullae, erosions or ulcers. Skin conditions in returning travellers may be of infectious and non-infectious aetiologies. Infectious lesions may be originally tropical (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, myiasis, tungiasis, loiasis), although the majority are cosmopolitan (arthropod bites, sunburns, allergic rashes). The evaluation of skin lesions depends on many factors, including immune status of patients, use of medicines, exposure on health hazards (fauna, flora, risky behaviours), as well as the time, duration and location of travel. As the number of travellers to tropical and subtropical destinations has been continuously rising, the number of skin illnesses has also been increasing. This means that specialists in travel medicine need to extend their knowledge of epidemiology, clinical features and diagnosis of travel-related health problems including skin lesions in returning travellers. PMID:26394319

  9. Skin lesions in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Juszczak, Dariusz; Jerzemowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Skin lesions, apart from diarrhoeas, fever of unknown origin, and respiratory tract infections belong to the most frequent medical problems in travellers returned from tropical and subtropical destinations, accounting more than 10% of reported cases. Most dermatoses have their clinical onset during travel, although some of them can occur after return. Travel-related dermatological problems can have a wide spectrum of clinical picture, from macular, popular or nodular rash, linear and migratory lesions, to plaques, vesicles, bullae, erosions or ulcers. Skin conditions in returning travellers may be of infectious and non-infectious aetiologies. Infectious lesions may be originally tropical (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, myiasis, tungiasis, loiasis), although the majority are cosmopolitan (arthropod bites, sunburns, allergic rashes). The evaluation of skin lesions depends on many factors, including immune status of patients, use of medicines, exposure on health hazards (fauna, flora, risky behaviours), as well as the time, duration and location of travel. As the number of travellers to tropical and subtropical destinations has been continuously rising, the number of skin illnesses has also been increasing. This means that specialists in travel medicine need to extend their knowledge of epidemiology, clinical features and diagnosis of travel-related health problems including skin lesions in returning travellers.

  10. Dengue fever in international travelers.

    PubMed

    Jelinek, T

    2000-07-01

    Dengue virus infection is becoming increasingly recognized as one of the world's major emerging infectious diseases. Although only a few systematic studies have been conducted to assess the incidence and clinical course of dengue fever in travelers, it is now possible to estimate risk factors for travelers to areas of endemicity. Dengue virus and its vector, Aedes mosquitoes, benefit from human habitation and travel-related aspects of human behavior. Thus, travelers serve an important double role as potential victims of the disease and as vehicles for further spread of dengue.

  11. The Effect of Corporate Influence in the Short Haul Business Travel Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Keith J.

    1999-01-01

    The importance of corporate involvement in the decision making process for business related air travel is being increasingly recognized in the literature. Business travellers consume air services (i.e. they take airline flights), however; they may not be the principal decision-maker in the purchase, Also it is the organization that employs the traveller that incurs the cost for air travel, Consequently this research addresses the relationship between the traveller and the employing organization in the purchase of air travel. In this paper traveller opinions on their corporate travel policy are evaluated using a Likert summated rating scale. The benefits sought, by the traveller, from the air service are also investigated and these benefits are used to segment the short haul business air travel market in the EU. Changes in the market for short haul business travel since the full liberalisation of the aviation market in the EU are evaluated by comparing the data to an earlier study of similar travellers in 1992.

  12. The Effect of Corporate Influence in the Short Haul Business Travel Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Keith J.

    1999-01-01

    The importance of corporate involvement in the decision making process for business related air travel is being increasingly recognised in the literature. Business travellers consume air services (i.e. they take airline flights), however; they may not be the principal decision-maker in the purchase. Also it is the organization that employs the traveller that incurs die cost for air travel. Consequently this research addresses the relationship between the traveller and the employing organisation in the purchase of air travel. In this paper traveller opinions on their corporate travel policy are evaluated using a Likert summated rating scale. The benefits sought, by the traveller, from the air service are also investigated and these benefits are used to segment the short haul business air travel market in the EU. Changes in the market for short haul business travel since the full liberalisation of the aviation market in-the EU are evaluated by comparing the data to an earlier study of similar travellers in 1992.

  13. 41 CFR 302-16.203 - What are examples of types of costs not covered by the MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... property; (c) Additional costs of moving household goods caused by exceeding the maximum weight limitation... result of sale or disposal of items of personal property not considered convenient or practicable to move; (i) Damage or loss of clothing, luggage, or other personal effects while traveling to the...

  14. Solar wind travel time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.

    A useful rule of thumb in solar terrestrial studies is that the solar wind travels 4 Earth radii (RE) per minute. Long-term studies of solar wind velocity [e.g., Luhmann et al., 1993; 1994] show that the median velocity is about 420 km/s, corresponding to 3.96 RE min-1. The quartiles are about 370 km/s and 495 km/s, corresponding to 3.48 Re min-1 and 4.66 Re min-1 respectively. This number helps estimate the delays expected when observing a discontinuity at a solar wind monitor; one example is ISEE-3 when it was at the forward libration point (about 60 min). It is also helpful for estimating how much time passes before the dayside magnetosphere is compressed as denser solar wind flows by (about 2.5 min).

  15. [Travel and skin diseases].

    PubMed

    Stüttgen, G

    1992-02-20

    The problem "travelling and dermatological diseases" is presented as a temporary change of place with associated changes in ecological conditions. Latent dermatoses may be provoked--but full-blown dermatoses may also improve with no specific treatment (climatic therapy of neurodermatitis). Physiological changes at the surface of the skin brought about by, for example, temperature or the effects of solar radiation, may allow fungal, bacterial or viral infections to develop. Direct contact with the living environment on land or in the water, in particular in the tropics, can lead to the development of diseases. Some dermatoses have a lengthy latency and develop only later at home. Recommendations for general and specific prophylaxis and treatment are made.

  16. Mental travel: some reservations.

    PubMed

    Richman, C L; Mitchell, D B; Reznick, J S

    1979-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the extent of potential experimental demand characteristics inherent in the image-scanning paradigm. The results of the first "mental travel" experiment that pitted verbal versus imagery coding showed that (a) the positive correlation between physical distance and reaction time was replicated, and (b) when given a choice, subjects' reaction times varied as a function of verbal codes rather than imagery. To isolate the effects due to demand constraints from those produced by mode dominance, a nonexperiment in which subjects received only a description of the image-scanning procedure was conducted. Results demonstrated that subjects were capable of predicting the reaction time results for both verbal and imagery codes. The presence of experimental demand in the image-scanning paradigm necessitates caution when structural interpretations of visual images are considered.

  17. Traveling wave tube circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, D. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A traveling wave tube (TWT) has a slow wave structure (SWS) which is severed into two or more sections. A signal path, connects the end of an SWS section to the beginning of the following SWS section. The signal path comprises an impedance matching coupler (IMC), followed by an isolator, a variable phase shifter, and a second IMC. The aggregate band pass characteristic of the components in the signal path is chosen to reject, or strongly attenuate, all frequencies outside the desired operating frequency range of the TWT and yet pass, with minimal attenuation in the forward direction, all frequencies within the desired operating frequency range. The isolator is chosen to reject, or strongly attenuate, waves, of all frequencies, which propagate in the backward direction. The aggregate phase shift characteristic of the components in the signal path is chosen to apply signal power to the beginning of the following SWS section with the phase angle yielding maximum efficiency.

  18. Travel and Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... pay part of the cost of an emergency flight home from abroad. That can help you make ... said. Plane Precautions Sitting immobile on long plane flights can slightly increase a normal person’s risk of ...

  19. New technology for traveling with less energy

    SciTech Connect

    Oman, H.

    1997-12-31

    Better airplane performance came from jet engines with turbine blades that operate in a 1426 C (2600 F) inlet-gas temperature. An important by-product of this development is the aeroderivative gas turbine, which when installed in a combined-cycle power plant, converts natural-gas energy to electric power with 60% efficiency. Independent power producers are selling this power for 3 cents per kWh. Another new and pertinent development has been computer simulation which predicts the aerodynamic performance of a given design. The Raven, a human-powered airplane with a 100-mile nonstop range, illustrates the usefulness of modeling. It uses a carbon-fiber reinforced structure. The resulting airplane, with a 35-meter (115-foot) wingspan, weighs only 34 kg (75 pounds). Ten years ago the author had calculated the cost of traveling 1609 km (1000 miles) in 12 different vehicles. The cost energy for this travel ranged from $127.40 to $3.29. Now a battery-powered electric bicycle offers the lowest energy cost for the trip--$2.12.

  20. A comparative cost analysis of digital fundus imaging and direct fundus examination for assessment of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Ulla, Francisco; Alonso, Florentina; Aibar, Beatriz; Gonzalez, Francisco

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the cost between two procedures for fundus examination in patients with diabetes. In our setting, two alternatives for fundus examination are available for patients with diabetes. In the first alternative, a digital image is taken with a nonmydriatic fundus camera when the patient is at the endocrinology consultation, and the image is then examined by an ophthalmologist. In the second alternative, a direct fundus examination is made by an ophthalmologist. We calculated the costs of both procedures from both Public Healthcare System (PHS) and patient perspectives using the official scales to compute personnel, consumables, capital cost of equipment, travel expenses, and time loss of the patient caused by attending the consultation. The first alternative (digital fundus image) required 2.69, 0.03, and 1.62 Euros per patient for personnel, consumables, and capital cost of the equipment, respectively. A direct fundus examination was needed in 31% of patients that had an additional cost of 0.97 Euros per patient for the PHS plus 14.97 Euros per patient because of travel cost and loss of income. The second alternative (direct fundus examination) required 2.69, 0.11, and 0.33 Euros per patient for personnel, consumables, and capital cost, respectively. All patients in this second alternative had to attend a consultation that implied travel and loss of income costs. Attending a consultation represented a cost of 48.29 Euros per patient. From the PHS perspective, direct fundus examination is less costly than using digital fundus images. The higher cost of the digital fundus option is a consequence of the higher capital costs required by the equipment needed to obtain the digital image. However, from a global perspective, the digital image alternative is more convenient because the travel cost and loss of income of the patient are lower.

  1. Sensitivity of ray travel times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, I. P.; Virovlyansky, A. L.; Zaslavsky, G. M.

    2002-09-01

    Ray in a waveguide can be considered as a trajectory of the corresponding Hamiltonian system, which appears to be chaotic in a nonuniform environment. From the experimental and practical viewpoints, the ray travel time is an important characteristic that, in some way, involves an information about the waveguide condition. It is shown that the ray travel time as a function of the initial momentum and propagation range in the unperturbed waveguide displays a scaling law. Some properties of the ray travel time predicted by this law still persist in periodically nonuniform waveguides with chaotic ray trajectories. As examples we consider few models with special attention to the underwater acoustic waveguide. It is demonstrated for a deep ocean propagation model that even under conditions of ray chaos the ray travel time is determined, to a considerable extent, by the coordinates of the ray endpoints and the number of turning points, i.e., by a topology of the ray path. We show how the closeness of travel times for rays with equal numbers of turning points reveals itself in ray travel time dependencies on the starting momentum and on the depth of the observation point. It has been shown that the same effect is associated with the appearance of the gap between travel times of chaotic and regular rays. The manifestation of the stickiness (the presence of such parts in a chaotic trajectory where the latter exhibits an almost regular behavior) in ray travel times is discussed.

  2. Travel and Adult Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

  3. Winter Wilderness Travel and Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilchrest, Norman

    Knowledge and skill are needed for safe and enjoyable travel and camping in the wilderness in winter. The beauty of snow and ice, reduced human use, and higher tolerance of animals toward humans make the wilderness attractive during winter. The uniqueness of winter travel presents several challenges that are not present in other seasons. Safety is…

  4. 49 CFR 229.55 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piston travel. 229.55 Section 229.55... Piston travel. (a) Brake cylinder piston travel shall be sufficient to provide brake shoe clearance when... piston travel may not exceed 11/2 inches less than the total possible piston travel. The total...

  5. 49 CFR 229.55 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piston travel. 229.55 Section 229.55... Piston travel. (a) Brake cylinder piston travel shall be sufficient to provide brake shoe clearance when... piston travel may not exceed 11/2 inches less than the total possible piston travel. The total...

  6. Traveling wave tube and method of manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancil, Bernard K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A traveling wave tube includes a glass or other insulating envelope having a plurality of substantially parallel glass rods supported therewithin which in turn support an electron gun, a collector and an intermediate slow wave structure. The slow wave structure itself provides electrostatic focussing of a central electron beam thereby eliminating the need for focussing magnetics and materially decreasing the cost of construction as well as enabling miniaturization. The slow wave structure advantageously includes cavities along the electron beam through which the r.f. energy is propagated, or a double, interleaved ring loop structure supported by dielectric fins within a ground plane cylinder disposed coaxially within the glass envelope.

  7. [Travel and patients with allergies].

    PubMed

    Miltgen, J; N'Guyen, G; Cuguilliere, A; Marotel, C; Bonnet, D

    1997-01-01

    By changing their surroundings and lifestyle, travelers with allergic conditions exposed themselves to new risks. The main perennial allergens are house dust mites which thrive in tropical areas and can be especially sensitizing. The risk of seasonal reactions to grass-pollens varies from region to region. Reactions to some highly sensitizing respiratory allergens can occur in travelers who return to regions where they were previously exposed. Subjects with food allergies should beware of possible reactions to ingredients in exotic dishes. The bites of several insects can cause anaphylactic reactions. Some medications required for tropical travel (e.g. antimalarial drugs) can trigger severe hypersensitivity reactions. Avoidance of allergens is more difficult during travel. Travelers with allergic conditions should carry alert identification cards and medications for routine as well as emergency treatment including self-injectable adrenaline.

  8. President's Address: Travel Medicine and Principles of Safe Travel

    PubMed Central

    DuPont, Herbert L.

    2008-01-01

    Persons crossing international boundaries away from their medical support systems are put at risk for illness and injury. Travel medicine is a new medical discipline that quantifies these health risks and develops strategies for reducing them. Obtaining health and evacuation insurance for a future trip is important for persons with medical conditions, those planning trips to developing tropical or semi-tropical regions of the world or when an international stay anywhere will be as long as a month. Pre-travel medical evaluation, vaccines against endemic infectious diseases and medications to reduce the occurrence of diarrhea and malaria during trips to endemic areas, and medications for self-treatment of common illnesses such as diarrhea are fundamental to travel medicine. There are a number of miscellaneous areas to consider in travel medicine including preventing deep vein thrombosis and minimizing jet lag during long haul air travel and reducing the occurrence of accidents and water- and altitude-related illnesses. An important recently defined challenge to the field is the growing number of ill-prepared persons put at great risk for illness while visiting friends and relatives living in areas of reduced hygiene. All persons need to have an idea of how and where they may find medical care if they develop illness while abroad. This article summarizes essential elements in travel medicine and offers 10 recommendations for safe travel. PMID:18596858

  9. 41 CFR 105-54.304 - Cost guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... compensation (13 percent of basic payroll); (3) Travel costs (including per diem) of committee members... space acquired for committee use; (6) Other services required by the committee, including...

  10. Cost Benefit Studies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Arthur; Marson, Arthur A.

    This document applies Dr. Mehar Aurora's method for conducting cost benefit studies to the Food Manufacturing Technology-Dairy and the Food Manufacturing Technology-Canning and Freezing programs offered by the Moraine Park Technical Institute. Costs to individual students enrolled in the programs include tuition, fees, housing, travel, books,…

  11. Patterns of measles transmission among airplane travelers.

    PubMed

    Edelson, Paul J

    2012-09-01

    on 10 flights, were identified in which transmission on board the aircraft appeared likely and which included seating information for both the index (primary) and secondary cases. Separation between index and secondary cases ranged from adjacent seats to 17 rows, with a median of 6 rows. Three flights had more than one index case aboard. Based on previously published data, it is not possible to say how unusual cases of measles transmission among air travelers beyond the usual zone of contact investigation (the row the index case sat in and 2 rows ahead of or behind that row) may be. The fact that several flights had more than one infectious case aboard and that all but two index cases were in the prodromal phase may be of importance in understanding the wider spread described in several of the reviewed reports. Although the pattern of cabin air flow typical of modern commercial aircraft has been considered highly effective in limiting the airborne spread of microorganisms, concerns have been raised about relying on the operation of these systems to determine exposure risk, as turbulence in the cabin air stream is generated when passengers and crew are aboard, allowing the transmission of infectious agents over many rows. Additionally, the characteristics of some index cases may reflect a greater likelihood of disease transmission. Investigators should continue to examine carefully both aircraft and index-case factors that may influence disease transmission and could serve as indicators on a case-by-case basis to include a broader group of travelers in a contact investigation.

  12. Patterns of measles transmission among airplane travelers.

    PubMed

    Edelson, Paul J

    2012-09-01

    on 10 flights, were identified in which transmission on board the aircraft appeared likely and which included seating information for both the index (primary) and secondary cases. Separation between index and secondary cases ranged from adjacent seats to 17 rows, with a median of 6 rows. Three flights had more than one index case aboard. Based on previously published data, it is not possible to say how unusual cases of measles transmission among air travelers beyond the usual zone of contact investigation (the row the index case sat in and 2 rows ahead of or behind that row) may be. The fact that several flights had more than one infectious case aboard and that all but two index cases were in the prodromal phase may be of importance in understanding the wider spread described in several of the reviewed reports. Although the pattern of cabin air flow typical of modern commercial aircraft has been considered highly effective in limiting the airborne spread of microorganisms, concerns have been raised about relying on the operation of these systems to determine exposure risk, as turbulence in the cabin air stream is generated when passengers and crew are aboard, allowing the transmission of infectious agents over many rows. Additionally, the characteristics of some index cases may reflect a greater likelihood of disease transmission. Investigators should continue to examine carefully both aircraft and index-case factors that may influence disease transmission and could serve as indicators on a case-by-case basis to include a broader group of travelers in a contact investigation. PMID:23127863

  13. Summer Travel: Plan Ahead To Stay Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... This Issue Features Summer Travel Strange Migrations and Killer Cramps Health Capsules How Secondhand Smoke Affects the ... healthy.” search Features Summer Travel Strange Migrations and Killer Cramps Wise Choices Links Plan for Healthy Travel ...

  14. Travelers' Health: Natural Disasters and Environmental Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  15. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  16. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  17. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  18. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  19. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  20. Travelling waves in hybrid chemotaxis models.

    PubMed

    Franz, Benjamin; Xue, Chuan; Painter, Kevin J; Erban, Radek

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid models of chemotaxis combine agent-based models of cells with partial differential equation models of extracellular chemical signals. In this paper, travelling wave properties of hybrid models of bacterial chemotaxis are investigated. Bacteria are modelled using an agent-based (individual-based) approach with internal dynamics describing signal transduction. In addition to the chemotactic behaviour of the bacteria, the individual-based model also includes cell proliferation and death. Cells consume the extracellular nutrient field (chemoattractant), which is modelled using a partial differential equation. Mesoscopic and macroscopic equations representing the behaviour of the hybrid model are derived and the existence of travelling wave solutions for these models is established. It is shown that cell proliferation is necessary for the existence of non-transient (stationary) travelling waves in hybrid models. Additionally, a numerical comparison between the wave speeds of the continuum models and the hybrid models shows good agreement in the case of weak chemotaxis and qualitative agreement for the strong chemotaxis case. In the case of slow cell adaptation, we detect oscillating behaviour of the wave, which cannot be explained by mean-field approximations.

  1. Dengue vaccines: Are they safe for travelers?

    PubMed

    Halstead, Scott B; Aguiar, Maira

    2016-01-01

    The four dengue viruses (DENV) circulate among nearly one-half of the world's population in tropical and semitropical countries imposing a huge morbidity burden on travelers. Sanofipasteur has developed a tetravalent live-attenuated vaccine, Dengvaxia, recently approved by the World Health Organization and licensed in four dengue-endemic countries. An additional two dengue vaccines, developed by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), USA and Takeda, are entering phase III testing. Dengvaxia is composed of four yellow fever 17D-DENV chimeras, the NIAID vaccine contains three mutagenized DENV and one DENV2/4 chimera while the Takeda vaccine contains an attenuated DENV 2 and three DENV 2-DENV chimeras. Which of these vaccines might be useful in protecting travelers against dengue infections and disease? Dengvaxia requires three doses administered over the course of one year but in addition has safety signals suggesting that susceptible individuals should not be vaccinated. The NIAID vaccine is promising as a travel vaccine as a single dose fully protected susceptible adults against live dengue 2 virus challenge. The protective efficacy and safety of the Takeda vaccine remain to be demonstrated. PMID:27343438

  2. 29 CFR 25.7 - Fees; cost; expenses; decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... limited to per diem, travel expenses and services on a time-worked basis. (e) Upon request, the Secretary... ORDER 10988 § 25.7 Fees; cost; expenses; decisions. (a) Arbitrator's fees, per diem and travel expenses.... Travel and per diem should be paid at the maximum rate payable to Government employees under...

  3. 29 CFR 25.7 - Fees; cost; expenses; decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... limited to per diem, travel expenses and services on a time-worked basis. (e) Upon request, the Secretary... ORDER 10988 § 25.7 Fees; cost; expenses; decisions. (a) Arbitrator's fees, per diem and travel expenses.... Travel and per diem should be paid at the maximum rate payable to Government employees under...

  4. 29 CFR 25.7 - Fees; cost; expenses; decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... limited to per diem, travel expenses and services on a time-worked basis. (e) Upon request, the Secretary... ORDER 10988 § 25.7 Fees; cost; expenses; decisions. (a) Arbitrator's fees, per diem and travel expenses.... Travel and per diem should be paid at the maximum rate payable to Government employees under...

  5. 41 CFR 301-74.2 - What costs should be considered when planning a conference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... transportation; and (i) Employees' time at the conference and on en route travel. ... Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74... associated with the conference. Some examples of such costs are: (a) Authorized travel and per diem...

  6. 41 CFR 301-74.2 - What costs should be considered when planning a conference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... transportation; and (i) Employees' time at the conference and on en route travel. ... Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74... associated with the conference. Some examples of such costs are: (a) Authorized travel and per diem...

  7. Troubleshooting Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornacki, Jeffrey L.

    Seventy-six million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States alone. Medical and lost productivity costs of the most common pathogens are estimated to be 5.6-9.4 billion. Product recalls, whether from foodborne illness or spoilage, result in added costs to manufacturers in a variety of ways. These may include expenses associated with lawsuits from real or allegedly stricken individuals and lawsuits from shorted customers. Other costs include those associated with efforts involved in finding the source of the contamination and eliminating it and include time when lines are shut down and therefore non-productive, additional non-routine testing, consultant fees, time and personnel required to overhaul the entire food safety system, lost market share to competitors, and the cost associated with redesign of the factory and redesign or acquisition of more hygienic equipment. The cost associated with an effective quality assurance plan is well worth the effort to prevent the situations described.

  8. 8 CFR 217.5 - Electronic System for Travel Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., 2015, the fee for an approved ESTA is $14.00, which is the sum of two amounts: a $10 travel promotion... denied, the fee is $4.00 to cover the operational costs. (2) Beginning October 1, 2015, the fee for...

  9. 8 CFR 217.5 - Electronic System for Travel Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., 2015, the fee for an approved ESTA is $14.00, which is the sum of two amounts: a $10 travel promotion... denied, the fee is $4.00 to cover the operational costs. (2) Beginning October 1, 2015, the fee for...

  10. Colleges Use Video Conferences to Trim Their Travel Budgets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    1991-01-01

    Increasingly, colleges and universities are using video conferencing to cut administrative travel budgets and improve productivity. Texas A&M University uses the technology to link eight campuses statewide. Declining costs and enhanced picture quality make video conferencing more appealing to many institutions. It is also used for distance…

  11. 41 CFR 301-70.801 - When may we authorize travel on Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... airline service is reasonably available to fulfill your agency's travel requirement (i.e., able to meet... aircraft is not more than the cost of the city-pair fare for scheduled commercial airline service or the... in a remote location not accessible to commercial airline service; or (3) The traveler is...

  12. Have skimmer, will travel

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, M.

    1996-04-01

    This article describes the use of a portable belt skimmer to clean up groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbons. Skimmer selection criteria are listed, and the advantages and disadvantages of several skimmer designs are noted. Selection of the proper equipment configuration to maximize product removal while minimizing problems, capital outlay, and operating costs is outlined.

  13. [Immunization for children travelling to the tropics: neglected vaccines].

    PubMed

    Imbert, P; Guérin, N; Sorge, F

    2008-06-01

    Each year hundreds of thousands of children leave France to travel to developing countries where they are exposed to infectious agents that can be prevented by vaccination. During the child's pre-travel check-up, practitioners should check that all mandatory immunizations are up-to-date and provide advice on relevant vaccines in function of the epidemiological situation at the chosen destination. However various factors hinder full compliance with this approach and some vaccines are underused. Underused vaccines are referred to as neglected vaccines. In the French vaccination schedule three vaccinations can be considered as neglected. The first is the hepatitis B vaccine that has a low coverage level in France due to strong reluctance to its use despite the fact that the virus is widespread in tropical areas. The second is pneumococcal vaccine that should be administered to all infants less than 2 years of age, especially for travel to areas where pneumonia and meningitis are frequent. The third is BCG vaccine that is now at greater risk of being neglected in child travellers because its use has been downgraded from a general requirement to a recommendation only for children at risk. A serious limitation on the use of travel vaccinations is cost that can lead families to neglect some infectious risk such as hepatitis A that is a major risk for child travellers as well as for their relatives during or after the trip and typhoid fever that is essentially an imported disease. Rabies vaccine is also underused due to its cost and to poor understanding of the risk by many practitioners and families. The purpose of this article is to underline the need to improve information and access to vaccines that are all too often neglected in child travellers.

  14. Travelers' Health: Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Guerrant RL, Walker DH, Weller PF, editors. Tropical Infectious Diseases: Principles, Pathogens and Practice. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; ...

  15. Influenza Prevention: Information for Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... season and are traveling to parts of the world where influenza activity is ongoing should get a ... have been circulating in other parts of the world. People should get vaccinated at least 2 weeks ...

  16. Travelers' Health: Injuries and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... optimal care for serious injuries are uncommon outside urban areas in many foreign destinations. Travelers should be ... poor in many countries, victims of injuries and violence can die before reaching a hospital, and there ...

  17. Before Departure: Advising Tropical Travellers

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Margaret

    1990-01-01

    Advising travellers to tropical and subtropical countries before their departure requires physician use of regularly updated information sources. The author outlines an approach to risk assessment and presents an overview of important issues and some information sources. PMID:21233911

  18. Tuberculosis Information for International Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... shelters). Travelers who will be working in clinics, hospitals, or other health care settings where TB patients are likely to be encountered should consult infection control or occupational health experts. They should ask about ...

  19. 2001 New York State NHTS: Travel Patterns of Special Populations

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Patricia S; Reuscher, Tim

    2010-03-01

    Policymakers rely on transportation statistics, including data on personal travel behavior, to formulate strategic transportation policies, and to improve the safety and efficiency of the U.S. transportation system. Data on personal travel trends are needed to examine the reliability, efficiency, capacity, and flexibility of the Nation's transportation system to meet current demands and accommodate future demands; to assess the feasibility and efficiency of alternative congestion-alleviating technologies (e.g., high-speed rail, magnetically levitated trains, intelligent vehicle and highway systems); to evaluate the merits of alternative transportation investment programs; and to assess the energy-use and air-quality impacts of various policies. To address these data needs, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) initiated an effort in 1969 to collect detailed data on personal travel. The 1969 survey was the first Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995, and 2001. Data on daily travel were collected in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. Longer-distance travel was collected in 1977 and 1995. The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) collected both daily and longer-distance trips in one survey. The 2001 survey was sponsored by three USDOT agencies: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The primary objective of the survey was to collect trip-based data on the nature and characteristics of personal travel so that the relationships between the characteristics of personal travel and the demographics of the traveler can be established. Commercial and institutional travel was not part of the survey. New York State participated in the 2001 NHTS by procuring additional 12,000 sample households. These additional sample households allowed New York State to address transportation planning issues

  20. Long-range airplane study: The consumer looks at SST travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landes, K. H.; Matter, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The attitudes of long-range air travelers toward several basic air travel decisions, were surveyed. Of interest were tradeoffs involving time versus comfort and time versus cost as they pertain to supersonic versus conventional wide-body aircraft on overseas routes. The market focused upon was the segment of air travelers most likely to make that type of tradeoff decision: those having flown overseas routes for business or personal reasons in the recent past. The information generated is intended to provide quantifiable insight into consumer demand for supersonic as compared to wide-body aircraft alternatives for long-range overseas air travel.

  1. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Nelson, Scott D.; Poole, Brian R.

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  2. [Sexually transmitted diseases and travel].

    PubMed

    Halioua, B; Prazuck, T; Malkin, J E

    1997-01-01

    Travelers are highly exposed to acquiring sexually transmitted diseases especially since the most popular destinations are high risk areas. While this risk applies to all travelers, it is highest for the "sex" tourist who is typically a male with a mean age of 38 years. Awareness of risks is still incomplete, especially with regard to HIV. Several studies have shown that only 20% to 70% of travelers use condoms. This finding accounts for the high incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in returning travelers: 2% to 10%. The risk of HIV infection is particularly high for persons living abroad. Based on available data, we can define the typical profile of the high risk traveler who should be targeted for prevention. Prevention depends on providing adequate information before departure, especially concerning HIV infection. Use of a condom throughout sexual contact is a basic safety rule. However condom quality is poor in many developing countries. Returning travelers should seek medical advice if manifestations involving the anogenital regions should appear. PMID:9612761

  3. [Sexually transmitted diseases and travel].

    PubMed

    Halioua, B; Prazuck, T; Malkin, J E

    1997-01-01

    Travelers are highly exposed to acquiring sexually transmitted diseases especially since the most popular destinations are high risk areas. While this risk applies to all travelers, it is highest for the "sex" tourist who is typically a male with a mean age of 38 years. Awareness of risks is still incomplete, especially with regard to HIV. Several studies have shown that only 20% to 70% of travelers use condoms. This finding accounts for the high incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in returning travelers: 2% to 10%. The risk of HIV infection is particularly high for persons living abroad. Based on available data, we can define the typical profile of the high risk traveler who should be targeted for prevention. Prevention depends on providing adequate information before departure, especially concerning HIV infection. Use of a condom throughout sexual contact is a basic safety rule. However condom quality is poor in many developing countries. Returning travelers should seek medical advice if manifestations involving the anogenital regions should appear.

  4. 5 CFR 734.503 - Allocation and reimbursement of costs associated with political activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... employee covered under this subpart must apportion the costs of mixed travel based on the time spent on political activities and the time spent performing official duties. Prorating the cost of travel involves..., receptions, rallies, and similar activities. Time spent in actual travel, private study, or rest...

  5. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  6. MarsQuest: A National Traveling Exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. W.; Dusenbery, P. B.

    1998-09-01

    With the successful landing of Mars Pathfinder and the arrival of Mars Global Surveyor, a new decade of Mars exploration has commenced. MarsQuest, a 5000 square foot traveling exhibition, is being developed to further bring the excitement and discoveries of this "Decade of Mars Exploration" to the public. MarsQuest is partially funded by the Informal Science Education Program of the National Science Foundation and NASA's Office of Space Science. The Space Science Institute (SSI) in Boulder, CO, is leading the project. Scientific and educational advisors from many different universities and government laboratories, most of whom are directly involved in the active and planned Mars missions, will ensure the scientific accuracy, timeliness, and relevance of the key concepts presented in the exhibition and accompanying programs. The traveling exhibit is the primary element of the MarsQuest project. The exhibition experience, carefully keyed to current events in Mars exploration, will transport visitors to the surface of the Red Planet via large murals, dioramas, and numerous interactive displays. There they will have the opportunity to share in the spirit and thrill of exploration, and come to appreciate the similarities and differences between Earth and Mars. A planetarium show, geared to the goals of the MarsQuest project, will be an important sensory addition to the traveling exhibit. The planetarium/star-theater venue presents a unique environment where audience members can literally be surrounded by Mars images. Education and outreach programs comprise the remainder of the MarsQuest project. The goal of these is to make scientific concepts and scientific and engineering processes understandable to students via Mars-inspired curricula. MarsQuest will open in late-1999, traveling to about nine sites throughout the United States and reaching an estimated two to three million children and adults during its planned three-year tour. Mars - coming soon to a museum near

  7. Who are the medical travelers and what do they want?: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Karuppan, Corinne M; Karuppan, Muthu

    2011-04-01

    The ongoing debate on U.S. healthcare reform fueled by increasing cost and poor access to quality healthcare is spurring interest in medical travel. The topic of medical travel-going abroad to seek medical care-has been widely reported in various news outlets. This issue even resulted in a Senate Hearing before the Special Committee on Aging. Despite this popularity, very little empirical research has been conducted to describe and understand medical travelers. To fill this gap, the present study involves in-depth interviews of medical travel facilitators with extensive exposure to and communication with medical travelers. This article has multiple objectives. It aims to develop a demographic and psychographic profile of medical travelers and identify their underlying motives to seek medical care overseas. Based on these insights, it presents a list of propositions to be tested in further research. Finally, it offers practical implications for the healthcare industry. PMID:21590560

  8. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by...

  9. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the...

  10. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the...

  11. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by...

  12. 38 CFR 21.7103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.7103... Bill-Active Duty) Counseling § 21.7103 Travel expenses. (a) Travel for veterans and servicemembers. (1... travel to and from the place of counseling for individuals who are required to receive counseling if—...

  13. 28 CFR 2.93 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.93 Section 2.93... Travel approval. (a) A parolee's Supervision Officer may approve travel outside the district of... possibilities. (3) Recurring travel across a district boundary, not to exceed fifty miles outside the...

  14. 28 CFR 2.93 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.93 Section 2.93... Travel approval. (a) A parolee's Supervision Officer may approve travel outside the district of... possibilities. (3) Recurring travel across a district boundary, not to exceed fifty miles outside the...

  15. Further We Travel the Faster We Go

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Levente; Kovács, András; Tóth, Géza; Papp, István; Néda, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    The average travelling speed increases in a nontrivial manner with the travel distance. This leads to scaling-like relations on quite extended spatial scales, for all mobility modes taken together and also for a given mobility mode in part. We offer a wide range of experimental results, investigating and quantifying this universal effect and its measurable causes. The increasing travelling speed with the travel distance arises from the combined effects of: choosing the most appropriate travelling mode; the structure of the travel networks; the travel times lost in the main hubs, starting or target cities; and the speed limit of roads and vehicles. PMID:26863605

  16. Further We Travel the Faster We Go.

    PubMed

    Varga, Levente; Kovács, András; Tóth, Géza; Papp, István; Néda, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    The average travelling speed increases in a nontrivial manner with the travel distance. This leads to scaling-like relations on quite extended spatial scales, for all mobility modes taken together and also for a given mobility mode in part. We offer a wide range of experimental results, investigating and quantifying this universal effect and its measurable causes. The increasing travelling speed with the travel distance arises from the combined effects of: choosing the most appropriate travelling mode; the structure of the travel networks; the travel times lost in the main hubs, starting or target cities; and the speed limit of roads and vehicles.

  17. Further We Travel the Faster We Go.

    PubMed

    Varga, Levente; Kovács, András; Tóth, Géza; Papp, István; Néda, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    The average travelling speed increases in a nontrivial manner with the travel distance. This leads to scaling-like relations on quite extended spatial scales, for all mobility modes taken together and also for a given mobility mode in part. We offer a wide range of experimental results, investigating and quantifying this universal effect and its measurable causes. The increasing travelling speed with the travel distance arises from the combined effects of: choosing the most appropriate travelling mode; the structure of the travel networks; the travel times lost in the main hubs, starting or target cities; and the speed limit of roads and vehicles. PMID:26863605

  18. Tropical Skin Infections Among Israeli Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Michal; Benenson, Shmuel; Baum, Sharon; Schwartz, Eli

    2011-01-01

    Infectious skin disorders are common dermatologic illnesses in travelers. Knowledge of post-travel–related infectious skin disorders will allow for effective pre- and post-travel counseling. All cases of returning travelers seen in our center seeking care for infectious skin diseases were included in this study. For a comparison, data on returned travelers with non-infectious skin diseases and healthy travelers who had pre-travel consultations in our institution were also analyzed. Altogether, skin-related diagnosis was reported in 540 ill travelers, and among them, 286 (53%) had infectious skin diseases. Tropical skin infection was diagnosed in 64% of the infectious cases. Travelers returning from Latin America were significantly more ill with tropical skin infections than those traveling to Asia and Africa, The most common diagnoses were cutaneous leishmaniasis, myiasis, and cutaneous larva migrans. In conclusion, tropical skin infections are common among Israeli travelers, especially among those who visited Latin America. PMID:22049040

  19. UNderstanding uptake of Immunisations in TravellIng aNd Gypsy communities (UNITING): a qualitative interview study.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Cath; Dyson, Lisa; Bedford, Helen; Cheater, Francine M; Condon, Louise; Crocker, Annie; Emslie, Carol; Ireland, Lana; Kemsley, Philippa; Kerr, Susan; Lewis, Helen J; Mytton, Julie; Overend, Karen; Redsell, Sarah; Richardson, Zoe; Shepherd, Christine; Smith, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gypsies, Travellers and Roma (referred to as Travellers) are less likely to access health services, including immunisation. To improve immunisation rates, we need to understand what helps and hinders individuals in these communities in taking up immunisations. AIMS (1) Investigate the barriers to and facilitators of acceptability and uptake of immunisations among six Traveller communities across four UK cities; and (2) identify possible interventions to increase uptake of immunisations in these Traveller communities that could be tested in a subsequent feasibility study. METHODS Three-phase qualitative study underpinned by the social ecological model. Phase 1: interviews with 174 Travellers from six communities: Romanian Roma (Bristol); English Gypsy/Irish Traveller (Bristol); English Gypsy (York); Romanian/Slovakian Roma (Glasgow); Scottish Showpeople (Glasgow); and Irish Traveller (London). Focus on childhood and adult vaccines. Phase 2: interviews with 39 service providers. Data were analysed using the framework approach. Interventions were identified using a modified intervention mapping approach. Phase 3: 51 Travellers and 25 service providers attended workshops and produced a prioritised list of potentially acceptable and feasible interventions. RESULTS There were many common accounts of barriers and facilitators across communities, particularly across the English-speaking communities. Scottish Showpeople were the most similar to the general population. Roma communities experienced additional barriers of language and being in a new country. Men, women and service providers described similar barriers and facilitators. There was widespread acceptance of childhood and adult immunisation, with current parents perceived as more positive than their elders. A minority of English-speaking Travellers worried about multiple/combined childhood vaccines, adult flu and whooping cough. Cultural concerns about vaccines offered during pregnancy and about human

  20. Relativistic helix traveling wave tube amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, H.P.; Vanderplaats, N.R.; Kodis, M.A. )

    1992-07-01

    A relativistic field theory of a helix traveling wave tube (TWT) is described for the case in which a thin annular beam propagates through a sheath helix enclosed within a loss-free wall. The theory is applied to the study of a TWT with an intense relativistic electron beam. The analysis implicitly includes beam space-charge effects and is valid for arbitrary azimuthal mode number, and the coupled-wave Pierce theory is recovered in the [ital near]-[ital resonant] limit. The results indicate that impressive gains and efficiencies are possible in this regime. In addition, the interaction is relatively insensitive to the effects of a beam energy spread.

  1. Observational Study of Travelers' Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Meuris

    1995-03-01

    Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical

  2. 76 FR 43236 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION 41 CFR Chapter 301 Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration (GSA... Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) in an effort to streamline travel policies, increase travel efficiency...

  3. Poliomyelitis--prevention in travellers.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Cora A; Neilson, Amy A

    2010-03-01

    This article is the second in a series providing a summary of prevention strategies and vaccination for infections that may be acquired by travellers. The series aims to provide practical strategies to assist general practitioners in giving travel advice, as a synthesis of multiple information sources which must otherwise be consulted. Poliomyelitis is a potentially fatal viral illness, which may cause acute flaccid paralysis and permanent central nervous system damage. Ongoing global efforts to eradicate poliomyelitis have been under way since 1988. Travellers are at risk of infection in countries with endemic wild poliomyelitis virus or imported cases, and can spread the infection to areas where poliomyelitis has been eradicated. While all adults should be immune to poliomyelitis, it is important that at-risk travellers are vaccinated appropriately. Vaccine options and regions currently reporting poliomyelitis are presented from a number of sources, which may facilitate the process of giving travel advice in a general practice setting, although it is also important to seek up-to-date epidemiological information.

  4. Health, sustainability and student travel.

    PubMed

    Green, Gill; Morris, Jenny; Wade, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    A survey of 246 pre-registration nursing students in a University in the South West of England was carried out to explore the impact of course related travel on the student experience. Results from the survey indicated that students' main mode of transport to practice placements was by car which reflects the rural nature of the South West and the relative paucity of public transport. Long distances that many students travel to their study centre and to placements, and the concurrent financial strain that this creates, impacted negatively on the student experience. Students recognised the need to travel to a place of study and clinical placements and suggestions of minimising the negative impact of travel were offered. These included the increased use of electronic delivery of lectures, attendance at local university premises, the provision of shared transport to placements and placements closer to the student's home. Few students, however, considered the environmental impact of travel. Higher Education Institutions need to address issues of sustainability through promoting student wellbeing and taking steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It is therefore important that student awareness of sustainability related issues is increased as well as focusing on reducing the environmental impact through organisational change.

  5. Transportation methods and costs for sawlogs, pulpwood bolts, and longwood

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    Travel speeds, average load volumes, and costs per mile were determined for 15 different trucking methods. Equations were developed to predict rail and barge transportation costs. Several photographs are provided for user association and correlation with the study results.

  6. New York Household Travel Patterns: A Comparison Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Patricia S; Reuscher, Tim

    2007-05-01

    In 1969, the U. S. Department of Transportation began collecting detailed data on personal travel to address various transportation planning issues. These issues range from assessing transportation investment programs to developing new technologies to alleviate congestion. This 1969 survey was the birth of the Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. Longer-distance travel was collected in 1977 and 1995. In 2001, the survey was renamed to the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and collected both daily and longer-distance trips in one survey. In addition to the number of sample households that the national NPTS/NHTS survey allotted to New York State (NYS), the state procured an additional sample of households in both the 1995 and 2001 surveys. In the 1995 survey, NYS procured an addition sample of more than 9,000 households, increasing the final NY NPTS sample size to a total of 11,004 households. Again in 2001, NYS procured 12,000 additional sample households, increasing the final New York NHTS sample size to a total of 13,423 households with usable data. These additional sample households allowed NYS to address transportation planning issues pertinent to geographic areas significantly smaller than for what the national NPTS and NHTS data are intended. Specifically, these larger sample sizes enable detailed analysis of twelve individual Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs). Furthermore, they allowed NYS to address trends in travel behavior over time. In this report, travel data for the entire NYS were compared to those of the rest of the country with respect to personal travel behavior and key travel determinants. The influence of New York City (NYC) data on the comparisons of the state of New York to the rest of the country was also examined. Moreover, the analysis examined the relationship between population density and travel patterns, and the similarities and differences among New

  7. Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanssen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.

  8. Toxoplasmosis as a travel risk.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C; Gómez-Marin, Jorge E; Bobić, Branko; Naranjo-Galvis, Carlos A; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with worldwide distribution that infects more than one third of the global population. Primary infection in immunocompetent individuals is usually asymptomatic; however, different organs can be affected in immunocompromised individuals leading to the development of encephalitis, myocarditis or pneumonitis. The prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma as well as its genetic structure varies geographically and for that reason travel may be considered as a risk factor to acquire the infection. As toxoplasmosis is a foodborne disease, health care providers should give health education on prevention measures to all prospective travelers in order to decrease the risk of infection in endemic areas. This review presents an overview of the infection with T. gondii with some considerations for travelers to and from endemic zones. PMID:24951321

  9. Toxoplasmosis as a travel risk.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C; Gómez-Marin, Jorge E; Bobić, Branko; Naranjo-Galvis, Carlos A; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with worldwide distribution that infects more than one third of the global population. Primary infection in immunocompetent individuals is usually asymptomatic; however, different organs can be affected in immunocompromised individuals leading to the development of encephalitis, myocarditis or pneumonitis. The prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma as well as its genetic structure varies geographically and for that reason travel may be considered as a risk factor to acquire the infection. As toxoplasmosis is a foodborne disease, health care providers should give health education on prevention measures to all prospective travelers in order to decrease the risk of infection in endemic areas. This review presents an overview of the infection with T. gondii with some considerations for travelers to and from endemic zones.

  10. Cost and performance trade-offs for commercially available linear stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwertz, Katie; Burge, J. H.

    2010-08-01

    The following paper provides the practicing engineer with guidelines on the relationships between cost and various performance factors for different types of linear stages. When multiple precise motions need to be made in a system, stages are typically the solution. A number of factors should be considered before choosing a stage: cost, load capacity, travel range, repeatability, resolution, encoding accuracy, errors in motion, stiffness, stability, velocity of motion, environmental sensitivity, and additional features like over-travel protection and locking mechanisms. There are a variety of different bearing types for linear stages, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. This paper presents charts that provide relationships between the cost, travel range, angular deviation, and load capacity of various types of manual one-axis linear stages. The stages considered were those that had less than a 2.5" travel range and sold by major optomechanical vendors. The bearing types investigated were dovetail, flexure, ball bearing, double row ball bearing, crossed roller bearing, and gothic arch ball bearing. Using the charts and general guidelines provided in this paper, a more informed decision may be made when selecting a linear stage.

  11. 2 CFR 200.444 - General costs of government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General costs of government. 200.444 Section... Cost § 200.444 General costs of government. (a) For states, local governments, and Indian Tribes, the general costs of government are unallowable (except as provided in § 200.474 Travel costs)....

  12. Schistosomiasis in Travelers and Expatriates.

    PubMed

    Jelinek; Nothdurft; Löscher

    1996-09-01

    Background: Several outbreaks of schistosomiasis among travelers, expatriates, and military serviceman have been reported in recent years. Methods: The travel histories and anamnestic and clinical features of 62 patients with schistosomiasis, who presented to a German outpatient clinic specializing in infectious and tropical diseases, were investigated to identify risk factors that could lead to infection in travelers and expatriates. Results: All patients remembered incidents that led to a likely exposure to cercariae of Schistosoma sp. Fifty nine patients (95%) acquired infection in Africa, two (3%) in South America, and one each (2% each) in Iraq and the Mekong River, respectively. The highest proportion of infection (45%) was imported from West Africa. Patients returning from West Africa reported either contact with tributaries of the Niger (including freshwater pools in the Dogon country, Mali) or with waters of the Volta River, notably Lake Volta and/or its delta. Six patients (10%) acquired infection in little-visited areas such as Central Africa and the Congo Basin. East Africa (especially Lake Victoria) and Lake Malawi contributed 14 patients (22%) to our study group; a further nine patients (14%) became infected after contact with waters of the Zambezi River. Conclusions: The most sensitive method for detection of possible infection with schistosomiasis appeared to be a combination of thorough travel history and serologic testing by indirect hemagglutination (IHA), immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most infections were acquired by travelers on lengthy and adventurous journeys or by expatriates venturing outside their normal areas of activity. Most patients knew that they had traveled in an area endemic for schistosomiasis, but were uninformed about behavioral risks they had taken in specific settings. PMID:9815445

  13. Schistosomiasis in Travelers and Expatriates.

    PubMed

    Jelinek; Nothdurft; Löscher

    1996-09-01

    Background: Several outbreaks of schistosomiasis among travelers, expatriates, and military serviceman have been reported in recent years. Methods: The travel histories and anamnestic and clinical features of 62 patients with schistosomiasis, who presented to a German outpatient clinic specializing in infectious and tropical diseases, were investigated to identify risk factors that could lead to infection in travelers and expatriates. Results: All patients remembered incidents that led to a likely exposure to cercariae of Schistosoma sp. Fifty nine patients (95%) acquired infection in Africa, two (3%) in South America, and one each (2% each) in Iraq and the Mekong River, respectively. The highest proportion of infection (45%) was imported from West Africa. Patients returning from West Africa reported either contact with tributaries of the Niger (including freshwater pools in the Dogon country, Mali) or with waters of the Volta River, notably Lake Volta and/or its delta. Six patients (10%) acquired infection in little-visited areas such as Central Africa and the Congo Basin. East Africa (especially Lake Victoria) and Lake Malawi contributed 14 patients (22%) to our study group; a further nine patients (14%) became infected after contact with waters of the Zambezi River. Conclusions: The most sensitive method for detection of possible infection with schistosomiasis appeared to be a combination of thorough travel history and serologic testing by indirect hemagglutination (IHA), immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most infections were acquired by travelers on lengthy and adventurous journeys or by expatriates venturing outside their normal areas of activity. Most patients knew that they had traveled in an area endemic for schistosomiasis, but were uninformed about behavioral risks they had taken in specific settings.

  14. Travel epidemiology: the Saudi perspective.

    PubMed

    Memish, Ziad A; Venkatesh, S; Ahmed, Qanta A

    2003-02-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula, with a land area of 2 million square kilometres. Saudi Arabia holds a unique position in the Islamic world, as the custodian of the two holiest places of Islam, in Mecca and Medina. Annually, some 2 million Muslims from over 140 countries embark on Hajj. This extraordinary en masse migration is a unique forum for the study of travel epidemiology since the Hajj carries various health risks, both communicable and non-communicable, often on a colossal scale. Non-communicable hazards of the Hajj include stampede and motor vehicle trauma, fire-related burn injuries and accidental hand injury during animal slaughter. Communicable hazards in the form of outbreaks of multiple infectious diseases have been reported repeatedly, during and following the Hajj. Meningococcal meningitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis A, B and C, and various zoonotic diseases comprise some of the possible infectious hazards at the Hajj. Many of these infectious and non-infectious hazards can be avoided or averted by adopting appropriate prophylactic measures. Physicians and health personnel must be aware of these risks to appropriately educate, immunize and prepare these travellers facing the unique epidemiological challenges of Hajj in an effort to minimize untoward effects. Travel epidemiology related to the Hajj is a new and exciting area, which offers valuable insights to the travel specialist. The sheer scale of numbers affords a rare view of migration medicine in action. As data is continually gathered and both national and international policy making is tailored to vital insights gained through travel epidemiology, the Hajj will be continually safeguarded. Practitioners will gain from findings of travel related epidemiological changes in evolution at the Hajj: the impact of vaccinating policies, infection control policies and public health are afforded a real-world laboratory setting at each annual Hajj, allowing us to

  15. Final Report Phase I Study to Characterize the Market Potential for Non-Motorized Travel

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Reuscher, Tim; Wilson, Daniel W; Schmoyer, Richard L

    2012-06-01

    The idea of livable communities suggests that people should have the option to utilize non-motorized travel (NMT), specifically walking and bicycling, to conduct their daily tasks. Forecasting personal travel by walk and bike is necessary as part of regional transportation planning, and requires fine detail not only about individual travel, but also on transportation and neighborhood infrastructure. In an attempt to characterize the 'market' potential for NMT, the Office of Planning, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) funded the Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to conduct a study. The objectives of this effort were to identify factors that influence communities to walk and bike and to examine why, or why not, travelers walk and bike in their communities. This study relied on information collected under the 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) as the major source of data, and was supplemented with data from the American Community Survey (ACS), educational survey, health, employment, and others. Initial statistical screening methods were applied to sort through over 400 potential predictor variables, and examined with various measures (e.g., walk trip per person, walk mileage per person, bike trip per person, bike mileage per person) as the dependent variables. The best geographic level of detail used in the modeling for this study was determined to be the Census block group level for walking and Census tract level for biking. The need for additional supplemental private data (i.e., Walk Scores and Nielsen employment data), and geospatial information that reflects land use and physical environments, became evident after an examination of findings from the initial screening models. To be feasible, in terms of costs and time, the geographic scale of the study region was scaled down to nine selected NHTS add-on regions. These regions were chosen based on various criteria including transit availability

  16. Black Holes: A Traveler's Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    1998-03-01

    BLACK HOLES A TRAVELER'S GUIDE Clifford Pickover's inventive and entertaining excursion beyond the curves of space and time. "I've enjoyed Clifford Pickover's earlier books . . . now he has ventured into the exploration of black holes. All would-be tourists are strongly advised to read his traveler's guide." -Arthur C. Clarke. "Many books have been written about black holes, but none surpass this one in arousing emotions of awe and wonder towards the mysterious structure of the universe." -Martin Gardner. "Bucky Fuller thought big. Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." -Wired. "The book is fun, zany, in-your-face, and refreshingly addictive." -Times Higher Education Supplement.

  17. Navigation: traveling the water highways!

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Marion; Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank

    1996-01-01

    NAVIGATION is travel or transportation over water. Many different kinds of boats and ships are used on rivers and oceans to move people and products from one place to another. Navigation was extremely important for foreign and domestic trade and travel in the early days of our country before cars, trucks, trains, and airplanes were invented. In those days, rivers were used as "roads" to connect inland settlements to river and coastal ports. Communities established at these commercial ports became important economic, cultural, and social hubs in the development of our Nation.

  18. [Travel and chronic respiratory insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, D; Marotel, C; Miltgen, J; N'Guyen, G; Cuguilliere, A; L'Her, P

    1997-01-01

    Changes in climate, altitude and lifestyle during travel confronts patients presenting chronic respiratory insufficiency with special problems. A major challenge is related to high altitude during air travel. To limit risks, a preflight examination is necessary to ascertain respiratory status. Patients requiring oxygen therapy must ensure availability both during the flight and at the destination. Patients with asthma or chronic bronchitis must bring along a sufficient supply of usual inhalers. All patients should carry a doctor's letter describing their condition and listing medications. Using these elementary precautions, patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency can safely enjoy sightseeing and outdoor leisure activities.

  19. Cosmic-string traveling waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfinkle, David

    1991-08-01

    An attempt to solve Einstein's equations by assuming the existence of symmetries and by treating metrics that possess a Killing vector is presented. A spacetime with a null Killing field can be regarded as the history of a disturbance that propagates at the speed of light without changing its amplitude or shape. Such spacetimes are referred to as traveling waves. A new technique for generating solutions of Einstein's equations is then presented. The technique produces a new traveling wave spacetime given an old one. It applies to both the vacuum Einstein equations and Einstein's equations coupled to various types of matter.

  20. Collection Development "Mini-Travel Guides": Traveling Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    Predictions regarding how much traveling Americans will be doing this year and where they might go vary, but it is expected that many will cut back on what is increasingly considered a luxury. Even so, gasoline prices are down substantially from a year ago, the stronger dollar means better prices in Europe, and there are discounts in all areas of…

  1. 75 FR 24434 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Transportation in Conjunction With Official Travel and Relocation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... ``Official travel'' and ``Transit system''; clarifies reimbursement for transportation at an official station... and definitions for ``Official travel'' and ``Transit system'' and also removes references to ``local travel,'' ``local transit system,'' ``local transportation,'' ``local transportation system,''...

  2. Why do medical tourists travel to where they do? The role of networks in determining medical travel.

    PubMed

    Hanefeld, J; Lunt, N; Smith, R; Horsfall, D

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on medical tourism, including patient motivation, is increasing. Existing studies have focused on identifying push and pull factors across different types of treatment, for example cosmetic or bariatric surgery, or on groups, such as diaspora patients returning 'home' for treatment. Less attention has been on why individuals travel to specific locations or providers and on how this decision is made. The paper focused on the role of networks, defined as linkages - formal and informal - between individual providers, patients and facilitators to explain why and where patients travel. Findings are based on a recently completed, two year research project, which examined the effects of medical tourism on the UK NHS. Research included in-depth interviews with 77 returning medical tourists and over sixty managers, medical travel facilitators, clinicians and providers of medical tourism in recipient countries to understand the medical tourism industry. Interviews were conducted between 2011 and 2012, recorded and transcribed, or documented through note taking. Authors undertook a thematic analysis of interviews to identify treatment pathways by patients, and professional linkages between clinicians and facilitators to understand choice of treatment destination. The results highlight that across a large sample of patients travelling for a variety of conditions from dental treatment, cosmetic and bariatric surgery, through to specialist care the role of networks is critical to understand choice of treatment, provider and destination. While distance, costs, expertise and availability of treatment all were factors influencing patients' decision to travel, choice of destination and provider was largely the result of informal networks, including web fora, personal recommendations and support groups. Where patients were referred by UK clinicians or facilitators these followed informal networks. In conclusion, investigating medical travel through focus on networks of

  3. Why do medical tourists travel to where they do? The role of networks in determining medical travel.

    PubMed

    Hanefeld, J; Lunt, N; Smith, R; Horsfall, D

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on medical tourism, including patient motivation, is increasing. Existing studies have focused on identifying push and pull factors across different types of treatment, for example cosmetic or bariatric surgery, or on groups, such as diaspora patients returning 'home' for treatment. Less attention has been on why individuals travel to specific locations or providers and on how this decision is made. The paper focused on the role of networks, defined as linkages - formal and informal - between individual providers, patients and facilitators to explain why and where patients travel. Findings are based on a recently completed, two year research project, which examined the effects of medical tourism on the UK NHS. Research included in-depth interviews with 77 returning medical tourists and over sixty managers, medical travel facilitators, clinicians and providers of medical tourism in recipient countries to understand the medical tourism industry. Interviews were conducted between 2011 and 2012, recorded and transcribed, or documented through note taking. Authors undertook a thematic analysis of interviews to identify treatment pathways by patients, and professional linkages between clinicians and facilitators to understand choice of treatment destination. The results highlight that across a large sample of patients travelling for a variety of conditions from dental treatment, cosmetic and bariatric surgery, through to specialist care the role of networks is critical to understand choice of treatment, provider and destination. While distance, costs, expertise and availability of treatment all were factors influencing patients' decision to travel, choice of destination and provider was largely the result of informal networks, including web fora, personal recommendations and support groups. Where patients were referred by UK clinicians or facilitators these followed informal networks. In conclusion, investigating medical travel through focus on networks of

  4. [Indications for PCR in travel medicine].

    PubMed

    Chappuis, F

    2011-05-11

    The use of PCR-based molecular diagnosis in travel medicine remains limited to specific indications such as clinical suspicion of some of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (e.g. Ebola, Marburg), differential diagnosis between Entamoeba histolytica (pathogen) and E. dispar (non pathogen) in the stools, and parasitological diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The scope of indications is likely to expand in the coming years with the development of techniques (e.g. multiplex PCR) able to identify several pathogens from a single sample. Simplification and cost-reduction of molecular techniques, which would allow for more equitable access to these diagnostic tools in countries where the targeted diseases are highly prevalent, pose major technological and ethical challenges.

  5. Hedonic travel cost and random utility models of recreation

    SciTech Connect

    Pendleton, L.; Mendelsohn, R.; Davis, E.W.

    1998-07-09

    Micro-economic theory began as an attempt to describe, predict and value the demand and supply of consumption goods. Quality was largely ignored at first, but economists have started to address quality within the theory of demand and specifically the question of site quality, which is an important component of land management. This paper demonstrates that hedonic and random utility models emanate from the same utility theoretical foundation, although they make different estimation assumptions. Using a theoretically consistent comparison, both approaches are applied to examine the quality of wilderness areas in the Southeastern US. Data were collected on 4778 visits to 46 trails in 20 different forest areas near the Smoky Mountains. Visitor data came from permits and an independent survey. The authors limited the data set to visitors from within 300 miles of the North Carolina and Tennessee border in order to focus the analysis on single purpose trips. When consistently applied, both models lead to results with similar signs but different magnitudes. Because the two models are equally valid, recreation studies should continue to use both models to value site quality. Further, practitioners should be careful not to make simplifying a priori assumptions which limit the effectiveness of both techniques.

  6. Time Travel in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Donna W.

    2005-01-01

    A Time Travel project in the library gives enthusiasm to students to connect with the past and reinforces their research skills while instilling respect for the past years. The librarian should choose one specific decade to highlight in the library and create an extravaganza that would allow memorabilia from that time period to be located without…

  7. Your Travel Dollar. Money Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.

    This illustrated guide was designed to familiarize consumers with planning a vacation trip, whether domestic or abroad. The guide covers setting up a budget; package tours; cruises and charter flights; travel agencies and clubs; and arranging stays in hotels/motels, rental condominiums, bed-and-breakfasts, hostels, campsites, and private…

  8. Music Travel: Avoiding the Potholes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2010-01-01

    Even given the countless hours clocked in class and rehearsal time, there's nothing that compares to a road trip to seal the bond among band, orchestra, and vocal music students. "Nothing can replace travel," says Peter Markes, orchestra director at Edmond North High School in Oklahoma. "It's safe, well-structured and, for many of the kids, it's…

  9. Preparing Students for Travel Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotny, Jeanne

    1989-01-01

    This article outlines information which can be provided by the school nurse or health educator to help make student trips abroad healthy as well as educational. Topics covered include: food and water, traveler's diarrhea, handwashing, insect and animal bites, stress, and prior health problems. (IAH)

  10. Language and Cultural Skills for Travel Industry Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwamura, Susan Grohs

    Program objectives and assessment results of language courses taught at the School of Travel Industry Management (TIM) of the University of Hawaii are discussed. In addition to preparing students to speak with employees and clientele in Mandarin, Japanese, French, and Spanish, these courses include the study of cultural practices and values that…

  11. 48 CFR 1842.7002 - Travel outside of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Travel outside of the... AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Additional NASA Contract Clauses 1842.7002 Travel outside of the United States. The contracting officer...

  12. Measuring the Effect of Tourism Services on Travelers' Quality of Life: Further Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Janet D.; Sirgy, M. Joseph; Uysal, Muzaffer

    2004-01-01

    lication and extension study provided additional validational support of the original tourism services satisfaction measure in relation to QOL-related measures.Neal, Sirgy and Uysal (1999) developed a model and a measure to capture the effect of tourism services on travelers' quality of life (QOL). They hypothesized that travelers' overall life…

  13. 41 CFR 301-10.262 - How will my agency authorize travel on Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compliance with the agency's written policies describing the special circumstances under which the agency... or qualified non-crewmembers on a flight in which they are also traveling (i.e., being transported... with this regulation and any additional agency policies. Travel on Government aircraft that does...

  14. 48 CFR 1842.7002 - Travel outside of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Travel outside of the... AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Additional NASA Contract Clauses 1842.7002 Travel outside of the United States. The contracting officer...

  15. 48 CFR 1842.7002 - Travel outside of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Travel outside of the... AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Additional NASA Contract Clauses 1842.7002 Travel outside of the United States. The contracting officer...

  16. 48 CFR 1842.7002 - Travel outside of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Travel outside of the... AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Additional NASA Contract Clauses 1842.7002 Travel outside of the United States. The contracting officer...

  17. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  18. The practice of travel medicine in Europe.

    PubMed

    Schlagenhauf, P; Santos-O'Connor, F; Parola, P

    2010-03-01

    Europe, because of its geographical location, strategic position on trade routes, and colonial past, has a long history of caring for travellers' health. Within Europe, there is great diversity in the practice of travel medicine. Some countries have travel medicine societies and provisions for a periodic distribution of recommendations, but many countries have no national pre-travel guidelines and follow international recommendations such as those provided by the WHO. Providers of travel medicine include tropical medicine specialists, general practice nurses and physicians, specialist 'travel clinics', occupational physicians, and pharmacists. One of the core functions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control-funded network of travel and tropical medicine professionals, EuroTravNet, is to document the status quo of travel medicine in Europe. A three-pronged approach is used, with a real-time online questionnaire, a structured interview with experts in each country, and web searching.

  19. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  20. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  1. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  2. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  3. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  4. Network Structure and Travel Time Perception

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathi, Pavithra; Levinson, David; Hochmair, Hartwig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to test the systematic variation in the perception of travel time among travelers and relate the variation to the underlying street network structure. Travel survey data from the Twin Cities metropolitan area (which includes the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul) is used for the analysis. Travelers are classified into two groups based on the ratio of perceived and estimated commute travel time. The measures of network structure are estimated using the street network along the identified commute route. T-test comparisons are conducted to identify statistically significant differences in estimated network measures between the two traveler groups. The combined effect of these estimated network measures on travel time is then analyzed using regression models. The results from the t-test and regression analyses confirm the influence of the underlying network structure on the perception of travel time. PMID:24204932

  5. Network structure and travel time perception.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathi, Pavithra; Levinson, David; Hochmair, Hartwig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to test the systematic variation in the perception of travel time among travelers and relate the variation to the underlying street network structure. Travel survey data from the Twin Cities metropolitan area (which includes the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul) is used for the analysis. Travelers are classified into two groups based on the ratio of perceived and estimated commute travel time. The measures of network structure are estimated using the street network along the identified commute route. T-test comparisons are conducted to identify statistically significant differences in estimated network measures between the two traveler groups. The combined effect of these estimated network measures on travel time is then analyzed using regression models. The results from the t-test and regression analyses confirm the influence of the underlying network structure on the perception of travel time.

  6. Breast cancer stage at diagnosis: is travel time important?

    PubMed

    Henry, Kevin A; Boscoe, Francis P; Johnson, Christopher J; Goldberg, Daniel W; Sherman, Recinda; Cockburn, Myles

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have produced inconsistent results in their examination of the potential association between proximity to healthcare or mammography facilities and breast cancer stage at diagnosis. Using a multistate dataset, we re-examine this issue by investigating whether travel time to a patient's diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility impacts breast cancer stage at diagnosis. We studied 161,619 women 40 years and older diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from ten state population based cancer registries in the United States. For each woman, we calculated travel time to their diagnosing facility and nearest mammography facility. Logistic multilevel models of late versus early stage were fitted, and odds ratios were calculated for travel times, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, census tract poverty, rural/urban residence, health insurance, and state random effects. Seventy-six percent of women in the study lived less than 20 min from their diagnosing facility, and 93 percent lived less than 20 min from the nearest mammography facility. Late stage at diagnosis was not associated with increasing travel time to diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility. Diagnosis age under 50, Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, high census tract poverty, and no health insurance were all significantly associated with late stage at diagnosis. Travel time to diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility was not a determinant of late stage of breast cancer at diagnosis, and better geographic proximity did not assure more favorable stage distributions. Other factors beyond geographic proximity that can affect access should be evaluated more closely, including facility capacity, insurance acceptance, public transportation, and travel costs.

  7. 38 CFR 60.5 - Travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel. 60.5 Section 60.5... TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.5 Travel. As a condition for receiving temporary lodging under this part, a veteran must be required to travel either 50 or more miles, or at least two hours from his or her home to...

  8. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  9. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  10. The Traveler with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Willen, Shaina M.; Thornburg, Courtney D.; Lantos, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common genetic disease among persons with African ancestry. This article provides a background on SCD and reviews many important aspects of travel preparation in this population. Methods The medical literature was searched for studies about travel-associated preparedness and complications in individuals with SCD. Topics researched included malaria, bacterial infections, vaccinations, dehydration, altitude, air travel, and travel preparedness. Results There is very little published literature that specifically addresses the risks faced by travelers with SCD. Rates of medical complications during travel appear to be high. There is a body of literature that describes complications of SCD in indigenous populations, particularly within Africa. The generalizability of these data to a traveler are uncertain. Combining these sources of data and the broader medical literature we address major travel-related questions that may face a provider preparing an individual with SCD for safe travel. Conclusions Travelers with SCD face considerable medical risks when traveling to developing tropical countries; these include malaria, bacterial infections, hypovolemia, and sickle cell-associated vaso-occlusive crises. Frank counseling about risks, vigilant preventative measures, and contingency planning for illness while abroad are necessary parts of the pre-travel visit for individuals with SCD. PMID:24947546

  11. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  12. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  13. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  14. 32 CFR 726.6 - Travel orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel orders. 726.6 Section 726.6 National... MENTALLY INCOMPETENT MEMBERS OF THE NAVAL SERVICE § 726.6 Travel orders. The Chief of Naval Personnel or the Deputy Commandant, Manpower & Reserve Affairs, may issue travel orders to a member to...

  15. 38 CFR 21.3105 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.3105.... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3105 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for an eligible person who is required to...

  16. 28 CFR 2.41 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.41 Section 2.41..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.41 Travel approval. (a) The probation officer may approve travel outside the district without approval of...

  17. 38 CFR 60.5 - Travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel. 60.5 Section 60.5... TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.5 Travel. As a condition for receiving temporary lodging under this part, a veteran must be required to travel either 50 or more miles, or at least two hours from his or her home to...

  18. 32 CFR 726.6 - Travel orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel orders. 726.6 Section 726.6 National... MENTALLY INCOMPETENT MEMBERS OF THE NAVAL SERVICE § 726.6 Travel orders. The Chief of Naval Personnel or the Deputy Commandant, Manpower & Reserve Affairs, may issue travel orders to a member to...

  19. 38 CFR 21.3105 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.3105.... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3105 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for an eligible person who is required to...

  20. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part... prevailing per diem allowance rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section...