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Sample records for additional unknown parameters

  1. Parameter estimation of qubit states with unknown phase parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Jun

    2015-02-01

    We discuss a problem of parameter estimation for quantum two-level system, qubit system, in presence of unknown phase parameter. We analyze trade-off relations for mean square errors (MSEs) when estimating relevant parameters with separable measurements based on known precision bounds; the symmetric logarithmic derivative (SLD) Cramér-Rao (CR) bound and Hayashi-Gill-Massar (HGM) bound. We investigate the optimal measurement which attains the HGM bound and discuss its properties. We show that the HGM bound for relevant parameters can be attained asymptotically by using some fraction of given n quantum states to estimate the phase parameter. We also discuss the Holevo bound which can be attained asymptotically by a collective measurement.

  2. Bayesian methods for characterizing unknown parameters of material models

    DOE PAGES

    Emery, J. M.; Grigoriu, M. D.; Field Jr., R. V.

    2016-02-04

    A Bayesian framework is developed for characterizing the unknown parameters of probabilistic models for material properties. In this framework, the unknown parameters are viewed as random and described by their posterior distributions obtained from prior information and measurements of quantities of interest that are observable and depend on the unknown parameters. The proposed Bayesian method is applied to characterize an unknown spatial correlation of the conductivity field in the definition of a stochastic transport equation and to solve this equation by Monte Carlo simulation and stochastic reduced order models (SROMs). As a result, the Bayesian method is also employed tomore » characterize unknown parameters of material properties for laser welds from measurements of peak forces sustained by these welds.« less

  3. Adaptive nonlinear observer for state and unknown parameter estimation in noisy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, Krishna; Valibeygi, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel adaptive observer for Lipschitz nonlinear systems and dissipative nonlinear systems in the presence of disturbances and sensor noise. The observer is based on an H∞ observer that can estimate both the system states and unknown parameters by minimising a cost function consisting of the sum of the square integrals of the estimation errors in the states and unknown parameters. The paper presents necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the observer, and the equations for determining observer gains are formulated as linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) that can be solved offline using commercially available LMI solvers. The observer design has also been extended to the case of time-varying unknown parameters. The use of the observer is demonstrated through illustrative examples and the performance is compared with extended Kalman filtering. Compared to previous results on nonlinear observers, the proposed observer is more computationally efficient, and guarantees state and parameter estimation for two very broad classes of nonlinear systems (Lipschitz and dissipative nonlinear systems) in the presence of input disturbances and sensor noise. In addition, the proposed observer does not require online computation of the observer gain.

  4. Reconstruction of signals with unknown spectra in information field theory with parameter uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Ensslin, Torsten A.; Frommert, Mona

    2011-05-15

    The optimal reconstruction of cosmic metric perturbations and other signals requires knowledge of their power spectra and other parameters. If these are not known a priori, they have to be measured simultaneously from the same data used for the signal reconstruction. We formulate the general problem of signal inference in the presence of unknown parameters within the framework of information field theory. To solve this, we develop a generic parameter-uncertainty renormalized estimation (PURE) technique. As a concrete application, we address the problem of reconstructing Gaussian signals with unknown power-spectrum with five different approaches: (i) separate maximum-a-posteriori power-spectrum measurement and subsequent reconstruction, (ii) maximum-a-posteriori reconstruction with marginalized power-spectrum, (iii) maximizing the joint posterior of signal and spectrum, (iv) guessing the spectrum from the variance in the Wiener-filter map, and (v) renormalization flow analysis of the field-theoretical problem providing the PURE filter. In all cases, the reconstruction can be described or approximated as Wiener-filter operations with assumed signal spectra derived from the data according to the same recipe, but with differing coefficients. All of these filters, except the renormalized one, exhibit a perception threshold in case of a Jeffreys prior for the unknown spectrum. Data modes with variance below this threshold do not affect the signal reconstruction at all. Filter (iv) seems to be similar to the so-called Karhune-Loeve and Feldman-Kaiser-Peacock estimators for galaxy power spectra used in cosmology, which therefore should also exhibit a marginal perception threshold if correctly implemented. We present statistical performance tests and show that the PURE filter is superior to the others, especially if the post-Wiener-filter corrections are included or in case an additional scale-independent spectral smoothness prior can be adopted.

  5. Monte Carlo method for adaptively estimating the unknown parameters and the dynamic state of chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariño, Inés P.; Míguez, Joaquín; Meucci, Riccardo

    2009-05-01

    We propose a Monte Carlo methodology for the joint estimation of unobserved dynamic variables and unknown static parameters in chaotic systems. The technique is sequential, i.e., it updates the variable and parameter estimates recursively as new observations become available, and, hence, suitable for online implementation. We demonstrate the validity of the method by way of two examples. In the first one, we tackle the estimation of all the dynamic variables and one unknown parameter of a five-dimensional nonlinear model using a time series of scalar observations experimentally collected from a chaotic CO2 laser. In the second example, we address the estimation of the two dynamic variables and the phase parameter of a numerical model commonly employed to represent the dynamics of optoelectronic feedback loops designed for chaotic communications over fiber-optic links.

  6. State, Parameter, and Unknown Input Estimation Problems in Active Automotive Safety Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phanomchoeng, Gridsada

    A variety of driver assistance systems such as traction control, electronic stability control (ESC), rollover prevention and lane departure avoidance systems are being developed by automotive manufacturers to reduce driver burden, partially automate normal driving operations, and reduce accidents. The effectiveness of these driver assistance systems can be significant enhanced if the real-time values of several vehicle parameters and state variables, namely tire-road friction coefficient, slip angle, roll angle, and rollover index, can be known. Since there are no inexpensive sensors available to measure these variables, it is necessary to estimate them. However, due to the significant nonlinear dynamics in a vehicle, due to unknown and changing plant parameters, and due to the presence of unknown input disturbances, the design of estimation algorithms for this application is challenging. This dissertation develops a new approach to observer design for nonlinear systems in which the nonlinearity has a globally (or locally) bounded Jacobian. The developed approach utilizes a modified version of the mean value theorem to express the nonlinearity in the estimation error dynamics as a convex combination of known matrices with time varying coefficients. The observer gains are then obtained by solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A number of illustrative examples are presented to show that the developed approach is less conservative and more useful than the standard Lipschitz assumption based nonlinear observer. The developed nonlinear observer is utilized for estimation of slip angle, longitudinal vehicle velocity, and vehicle roll angle. In order to predict and prevent vehicle rollovers in tripped situations, it is necessary to estimate the vertical tire forces in the presence of unknown road disturbance inputs. An approach to estimate unknown disturbance inputs in nonlinear systems using dynamic model inversion and a modified version of the mean value theorem is

  7. Chaos Synchronization of Two Coupled Dynamos Systems with Unknown System Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agiza, H. N.

    This paper addresses the synchronization problem of two coupled dynamos systems in the presence of unknown system parameters. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, an active control law is derived and activated to achieve the state synchronization of two identical coupled dynamos systems. By using Gerschgorin theorem, a simple generic criterion is derived for global synchronization of two coupled dynamos systems with a unidirectional linear error feedback coupling. This simple criterion is applicable to a large class of chaotic systems, where only a few algebraic inequalities are involved. Numerical simulations results are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control methods.

  8. Neutrino masses and mixings: Status of known and unknownparameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzi, F.; Lisi, E.; Marrone, A.; Montanino, D.; Palazzo, A.

    2016-07-01

    Within the standard 3ν mass-mixing framework, we present an up-to-date global analysis of neutrino oscillation data (as of January 2016), including the latest available results from experiments with atmospheric neutrinos (Super-Kamiokande and IceCube DeepCore), at accelerators (first T2K ν ‾ and NO νAν runs in both appearance and disappearance modes), and at short-baseline reactors (Daya Bay and RENO far/near spectral ratios), as well as a reanalysis of older KamLAND data in the light of the "bump" feature recently observed in reactor spectra. We discuss improved constraints on the five known oscillation parameters (δm2, | Δm2 |, sin2 ⁡θ12, sin2 ⁡θ13, sin2 ⁡θ23), and the status of the three remaining unknown parameters: the mass hierarchy [sign (± Δm2)], the θ23 octant [sign (sin2 ⁡θ23 - 1 / 2)], and the possible CP-violating phase δ. With respect to previous global fits, we find that the reanalysis of KamLAND data induces a slight decrease of both δm2 and sin2 ⁡θ12, while the latest accelerator and atmospheric data induce a slight increase of | Δm2 |. Concerning the unknown parameters, we confirm the previous intriguing preference for negative values of sin ⁡ δ (with best-fit values around sin ⁡ δ ≃ - 0.9), but we find no statistically significant indication about the θ23 octant or the mass hierarchy (normal or inverted). Assuming an alternative (so-called LEM) analysis of NO νA data, some δ ranges can be excluded at > 3 σ, and the normal mass hierarchy appears to be slightly favored at ∼ 90% C.L. We also describe in detail the covariances of selected pairs of oscillation parameters. Finally, we briefly discuss the implications of the above results on the three non-oscillation observables sensitive to the (unknown) absolute ν mass scale: the sum of ν masses Σ (in cosmology), the effective νe mass mβ (in beta decay), and the effective Majorana mass mββ (in neutrinoless double beta decay).

  9. Estimation of parameters for the elimination of an orally administered test substance with unknown absorption.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Josef A; Denzer, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Assessment of the elimination of an oral test dose based on plasma concentration values requires correction for the effect of gastric release and absorption. Irregular uptake processes should be described 'model independently', which requires estimation of a large number of absorption parameters. To limit the associated computational effort a new approach is developed with a reduced number of unknown parameters. A marginalized and regularized absorption approach (MRA) is defined, which uses for the uptake just one parameter to control rigidity of the uptake curve. For validation, elimination and absorption were reproduced using published IVIVC data and a synthetic data set for comparison with approaches using a 'model-free'--staircase function or mechanistic models to describe absorption. MRA performed almost as accurate as well specified mechanistic models, which gave the best reproduction. MRA demonstrated a 50fold increase in computational efficiency compared to other approaches. The absorption estimated for the IVIVC study demonstrated an in vivo-in vitro correlation comparable to published values. The newly developed MRA approach can be used to efficiently and accurately estimate elimination and absorption with a restricted number of adaptive parameters and with automatic adjustment of the complexity of the uptake.

  10. Bootstrap Standard Errors for Maximum Likelihood Ability Estimates When Item Parameters Are Unknown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Jeffrey M.; Cheng, Ying; Yuan, Ke-Hai; Diao, Qi

    2014-01-01

    When item parameter estimates are used to estimate the ability parameter in item response models, the standard error (SE) of the ability estimate must be corrected to reflect the error carried over from item calibration. For maximum likelihood (ML) ability estimates, a corrected asymptotic SE is available, but it requires a long test and the…

  11. Global 3ν oscillation analysis: Status of unknown parameters and future systematic challenges for ORCA and PINGU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzi, Francesco; Lisi, Eligio; Marrone, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Within the standard 3ν oscillation framework, we illustrate the status of currently unknown oscillation parameters: the θ23 octant, the mass hierarchy (normal or inverted), and the possible CP-violating phase δ, as derived by a (preliminary) global analysis of oscillation data available in 2015. We then discuss some challenges that will be faced by future, high-statistics analyses of spectral data, starting with one-dimensional energy spectra in reactor experiments, and concluding with two-dimensional energy-angle spectra in large-volume atmospheric experiments. It is shown that systematic uncertainties in the spectral shapes can noticeably affect the prospective sensitivities to unknown oscillation parameters, in particular to the mass hierarchy.

  12. Synchronization of Coupled Different Chaotic FitzHugh-Nagumo Neurons with Unknown Parameters under Communication-Direction-Dependent Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Rehan, Muhammad; Khaliq, Abdul; Rehman, Saeed-ur-; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the chaotic behavior and synchronization of two different coupled chaotic FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) neurons with unknown parameters under external electrical stimulation (EES). The coupled FHN neurons of different parameters admit unidirectional and bidirectional gap junctions in the medium between them. Dynamical properties, such as the increase in synchronization error as a consequence of the deviation of neuronal parameters for unlike neurons, the effect of difference in coupling strengths caused by the unidirectional gap junctions, and the impact of large time-delay due to separation of neurons, are studied in exploring the behavior of the coupled system. A novel integral-based nonlinear adaptive control scheme, to cope with the infeasibility of the recovery variable, for synchronization of two coupled delayed chaotic FHN neurons of different and unknown parameters under uncertain EES is derived. Further, to guarantee robust synchronization of different neurons against disturbances, the proposed control methodology is modified to achieve the uniformly ultimately bounded synchronization. The parametric estimation errors can be reduced by selecting suitable control parameters. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is illustrated via numerical simulations. PMID:25101140

  13. Estimation of unknown parameters to improve modeling of Microbially Induced Calcite Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommel, Johannes; Cunningham, Alfred B.; Helmig, Rainer; Ebigbo, Anozie; Class, Holger

    2014-05-01

    One of the key issues of underground gas storage is the long-term security of the storage site. Amongst the different storage mechanisms, cap-rock integrity is crucial for preventing leakage of the stored gas due to buoyancy into shallower aquifers or, ultimately, the atmosphere. This leakage would reduce the efficiency of underground gas storage and pose a threat to the environment. Ureolysis-driven, Microbially Induced Calcite Precipitation (MICP) is one of the technologies in the current focus of current research aiming at mitigation of potential leakage by sealing high-permeability zones in cap rocks. Previously, a numerical model, capable of simulating two-phase flow and MICP processes, was developed and validated against MICP experiments [1]. The model has been improved based on new experimental findings of our collaborators at MSU with respect to the microbial ureolysis kinetics as well as the impact of biomineralization on permeability. The number of fitting parameters used in the model has been reduced and the remaining ones have been refitted by inverse modeling. With the improved implementation of those processes relevant for modeling MICP, simulation results are expected to better match the observed features of a variety of MICP experiments in different porous media, flow regimes and under varying injection schemes conducted by our collaborators at MSU. References [1] A. Ebigbo, A.J. Phillips, R. Gerlach, R. Helmig, A.B. Cunningham, H. Class, L.H. Spangler. Darcy-scale modeling of microbially induced carbonate mineral precipitation in sand columns. Water Resources Research, 48, (2012)

  14. A new neuro-FDS definition for indirect adaptive control of unknown nonlinear systems using a method of parameter hopping.

    PubMed

    Boutalis, Yiannis; Theodoridis, Dimitris C; Christodoulou, Manolis A

    2009-04-01

    The indirect adaptive regulation of unknown nonlinear dynamical systems is considered in this paper. The method is based on a new neuro-fuzzy dynamical system (neuro-FDS) definition, which uses the concept of adaptive fuzzy systems (AFSs) operating in conjunction with high-order neural network functions (FHONNFs). Since the plant is considered unknown, we first propose its approximation by a special form of an FDS and then the fuzzy rules are approximated by appropriate HONNFs. Thus, the identification scheme leads up to a recurrent high-order neural network (RHONN), which however takes into account the fuzzy output partitions of the initial FDS. The proposed scheme does not require a priori experts' information on the number and type of input variable membership functions making it less vulnerable to initial design assumptions. Once the system is identified around an operation point, it is regulated to zero adaptively. Weight updating laws for the involved HONNFs are provided, which guarantee that both the identification error and the system states reach zero exponentially fast, while keeping all signals in the closed loop bounded. The existence of the control signal is always assured by introducing a novel method of parameter hopping, which is incorporated in the weight updating law. Simulations illustrate the potency of the method and comparisons with conventional approaches on benchmarking systems are given. Also, the applicability of the method is tested on a direct current (dc) motor system where it is shown that by following the proposed procedure one can obtain asymptotic regulation.

  15. Determination of Unknown Concentrations of Sodium Acetate Using the Method of Standard Addition and Proton NMR: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajabzadeh, Massy

    2012-01-01

    In this experiment, students learn how to find the unknown concentration of sodium acetate using both the graphical treatment of standard addition and the standard addition equation. In the graphical treatment of standard addition, the peak area of the methyl peak in each of the sodium acetate standard solutions is found by integration using…

  16. Searching for 'Unknown Unknowns'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Vickie S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was established to improve safety through engineering excellence within NASA programs and projects. As part of this goal, methods are being investigated to enable the NESC to become proactive in identifying areas that may be precursors to future problems. The goal is to find unknown indicators of future problems, not to duplicate the program-specific trending efforts. The data that is critical for detecting these indicators exist in a plethora of dissimilar non-conformance and other databases (without a common format or taxonomy). In fact, much of the data is unstructured text. However, one common database is not required if the right standards and electronic tools are employed. Electronic data mining is a particularly promising tool for this effort into unsupervised learning of common factors. This work in progress began with a systematic evaluation of available data mining software packages, based on documented decision techniques using weighted criteria. The four packages, which were perceived to have the most promise for NASA applications, are being benchmarked and evaluated by independent contractors. Preliminary recommendations for "best practices" in data mining and trending are provided. Final results and recommendations should be available in the Fall 2005. This critical first step in identifying "unknown unknowns" before they become problems is applicable to any set of engineering or programmatic data.

  17. A healthy fear of the unknown: perspectives on the interpretation of parameter fits from computational models in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Matthew R; Gold, Joshua I

    2013-04-01

    Fitting models to behavior is commonly used to infer the latent computational factors responsible for generating behavior. However, the complexity of many behaviors can handicap the interpretation of such models. Here we provide perspectives on problems that can arise when interpreting parameter fits from models that provide incomplete descriptions of behavior. We illustrate these problems by fitting commonly used and neurophysiologically motivated reinforcement-learning models to simulated behavioral data sets from learning tasks. These model fits can pass a host of standard goodness-of-fit tests and other model-selection diagnostics even when the models do not provide a complete description of the behavioral data. We show that such incomplete models can be misleading by yielding biased estimates of the parameters explicitly included in the models. This problem is particularly pernicious when the neglected factors are unknown and therefore not easily identified by model comparisons and similar methods. An obvious conclusion is that a parsimonious description of behavioral data does not necessarily imply an accurate description of the underlying computations. Moreover, general goodness-of-fit measures are not a strong basis to support claims that a particular model can provide a generalized understanding of the computations that govern behavior. To help overcome these challenges, we advocate the design of tasks that provide direct reports of the computational variables of interest. Such direct reports complement model-fitting approaches by providing a more complete, albeit possibly more task-specific, representation of the factors that drive behavior. Computational models then provide a means to connect such task-specific results to a more general algorithmic understanding of the brain.

  18. Additional Investigations of Ice Shape Sensitivity to Parameter Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Dean R.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Langhals, Tammy J.

    2006-01-01

    A second parameter sensitivity study was conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) using a 36 in. chord (0.91 m) NACA-0012 airfoil. The objective of this work was to further investigate the feasibility of using ice shape feature changes to define requirements for the simulation and measurement of SLD and appendix C icing conditions. A previous study concluded that it was feasible to use changes in ice shape features (e.g., ice horn angle, ice horn thickness, and ice shape mass) to detect relatively small variations in icing spray condition parameters (LWC, MVD, and temperature). The subject of this current investigation extends the scope of this previous work, by also examining the effect of icing tunnel spray-bar parameter variations (water pressure, air pressure) on ice shape feature changes. The approach was to vary spray-bar water pressure and air pressure, and then evaluate the effects of these parameter changes on the resulting ice shapes. This paper will provide a description of the experimental method, present selected experimental results, and conclude with an evaluation of these results.

  19. An improved PSO-based approach with dynamic parameter tuning for cooperative multi-robot target searching in complex unknown environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yifan; Yang, Simon X.

    2013-10-01

    Target searching in complex unknown environments is a challenging aspect of multi-robot cooperation. In this paper, an improved particle swarm optimisation (PSO) based approach is proposed for a team of mobile robots to cooperatively search for targets in complex unknown environments. The improved cooperation rules for a multi-robot system are applied in the potential field function, which acts as the fitness function of the PSO. The main improvements are the district-difference degree and dynamic parameter tuning. In the simulation studies, various complex situations are investigated and compared to the previous research results. The results demonstrate that the proposed approach can enable the multi-robot system to accomplish the target searching tasks in complex unknown environments.

  20. Identification of unknown experimental parameters from noisy apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope data with an evolutionary procedure.

    PubMed

    Macías, D; Barchiesi, D

    2005-10-01

    We determine a set of experimental parameters through the application of an evolutionary inversion procedure. The input to the algorithm is experimental apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope data. The performance of our inversion procedure is assessed by means of a comparison with a nonevolutionary technique.

  1. Application of particle swarm optimization in chaos synchronization in noisy environment in presence of unknown parameter uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirazi, Masoud Jahromi; Vatankhah, Ramin; Boroushaki, Mehrdad; Salarieh, Hassan; Alasty, Aria

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is applied to synchronize chaotic systems in presence of parameter uncertainties and measurement noise. Particle swarm optimization is an evolutionary algorithm which is introduced by Kennedy and Eberhart. This algorithm is inspired by birds flocking. Optimization algorithms can be applied to control by defining an appropriate cost function that guarantees stability of system. In presence of environment noise and parameter uncertainty, robustness plays a crucial role in succeed of controller. Since PSO needs only rudimentary information about the system, it can be a suitable algorithm for this case. Simulation results confirm that the proposed controller can handle the uncertainty and environment noise without any extra information about them. A comparison with some earlier works is performed during simulations.

  2. Anti-synchronization of fractional order chaotic and hyperchaotic systems with fully unknown parameters using modified adaptive control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sawalha, M. Mossa; Al-Sawalha, Ayman

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this article is to implement and extend applications of adaptive control to anti-synchronize different fractional order chaotic and hyperchaotic dynamical systems. The sufficient conditions for achieving anti-synchronization are derived by using the Lyapunov stability theory and an analytic expression of the controller with its adaptive laws of parameters is shown. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations are shown to verify the results.

  3. Cramer-von Mises and Anderson-Darling goodness of fit tests for extreme value distributions with unknown parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laio, Francesco

    2004-09-01

    The use of goodness of fit tests based on Cramer-von Mises and Anderson-Darling statistics is discussed, with reference to the composite hypothesis that a sample of observations comes from a distribution, FH, whose parameters are unspecified. When this is the case, the critical region of the test has to be redetermined for each hypothetical distribution FH. To avoid this difficulty, a transformation is proposed that produces a new test statistic which is independent of FH. This transformation involves three coefficients that are determined using the asymptotic theory of tests based on the empirical distribution function. A single table of coefficients is thus sufficient for carrying out the test with different hypothetical distributions; a set of probability models of common use in extreme value analysis is considered here, including the following: extreme value 1 and 2, normal and lognormal, generalized extreme value, three-parameter gamma, and log-Pearson type 3, in all cases with parameters estimated using maximum likelihood. Monte Carlo simulations are used to determine small sample corrections and to assess the power of the tests compared to alternative approaches.

  4. Additional perspectives on chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka – lessons learned from the WHO CKDu population prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The recent emergence of an apparently new form of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) has become a serious public health crisis in Sri Lanka. CKDu is slowly progressive, irreversible, and asymptomatic until late stages, and is not attributable to hypertension, diabetes, or other known aetiologies. In response to the scope and severity of the emerging CKDu health crisis, the Sri Lanka Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization initiated a collaborative research project from 2009 through 2012 to investigate CKDu prevalence and aetiology. The objective of this paper is to discuss the recently published findings of this investigation and present additional considerations and recommendations that may enhance subsequent investigations designed to identify and understand CKDu risk factors in Sri Lanka or other countries. PMID:25069485

  5. Radiation Therapy in the Management of Head-and-Neck Cancer of Unknown Primary Origin: How Does the Addition of Concurrent Chemotherapy Affect the Therapeutic Ratio?

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Lau, Derick H.; Li Baoqing; Luu, Quang; Donald, Paul J.

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To determine how the addition of cisplatin-based concurrent chemotherapy to radiation therapy influences outcomes among a cohort of patients treated for head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 60 consecutive patients treated by radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck presenting as cervical lymph node metastasis of occult primary origin were reviewed. Thirty-two patients (53%) were treated by concurrent chemoradiation, and 28 patients (47%) were treated by radiation therapy alone. Forty-five patients (75%) received radiation therapy after surgical resection, and 15 patients (25%) received primary radiation therapy. Thirty-five patients (58%) were treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Results: The 2-year estimates of overall survival, local-regional control, and progression-free survival were 89%, 89%, and 79%, respectively, among patients treated by chemoradiation, compared to 90%, 92%, and 83%, respectively, among patients treated by radiation therapy alone (p > 0.05, for all). Exploratory analysis failed to identify any subset of patients who benefited from the addition of concurrent chemotherapy to radiation therapy. The use of concurrent chemotherapy was associated with a significantly increased incidence of Grade 3+ acute and late toxicity (p < 0.001, for both). Conclusions: Concurrent chemoradiation is associated with significant toxicity without a clear advantage to overall survival, local-regional control, and progression-free survival in the treatment of head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin. Although selection bias cannot be ignored, prospective data are needed to further address this question.

  6. A new approach to NMR chemical shift additivity parameters using simultaneous linear equation method.

    PubMed

    Shahab, Yosif A; Khalil, Rabah A

    2006-10-01

    A new approach to NMR chemical shift additivity parameters using simultaneous linear equation method has been introduced. Three general nitrogen-15 NMR chemical shift additivity parameters with physical significance for aliphatic amines in methanol and cyclohexane and their hydrochlorides in methanol have been derived. A characteristic feature of these additivity parameters is the individual equation can be applied to both open-chain and rigid systems. The factors that influence the (15)N chemical shift of these substances have been determined. A new method for evaluating conformational equilibria at nitrogen in these compounds using the derived additivity parameters has been developed. Conformational analyses of these substances have been worked out. In general, the results indicate that there are four factors affecting the (15)N chemical shift of aliphatic amines; paramagnetic term (p-character), lone pair-proton interactions, proton-proton interactions, symmetry of alkyl substituents and molecular association.

  7. Additional field verification of convective scaling for the lateral dispersion parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Sakiyama, S.K.; Davis, P.A.

    1988-07-01

    The results of a series of diffusion trials over the heterogeneous surface of the Canadian Precambrian Shield provide additional support for the convective scaling of the lateral dispersion parameter. The data indicate that under convective conditions, the lateral dispersion parameter can be scaled with the convective velocity scale and the mixing depth. 10 references.

  8. Rheological parameters of dough with inulin addition and its effect on bread quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojnanska, T.; Tokar, M.; Vollmannova, A.

    2015-04-01

    The rheological properties of enriched flour prepared with an addition of inulin were studied. The addition of inulin caused changes of the rheological parameters of the recorder curve. 10% and more addition significantly extended development time and on the farinogram were two peaks of consistency, what is a non-standard shape. With increasing addition of inulin resistance to deformation grows and dough is difficult to process, over 15% addition make dough short and unsuitable for making bread. Bread volume, the most important parameter, significantly decreased with inulin addition. Our results suggest a level of 5% inulin to produce a functional bread of high sensory acceptance and a level of 10% inulin produce a bread of satisfactory sensory acceptance. Bread with a level over 10% of inulin was unsatisfactory.

  9. 21. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown Photographer unknown, Date unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown Photographer unknown, Date unknown TWO RUSSIAN CANNONS OUTSIDE OF FORT ENTRANCE - Sutter's Fort, L & Twenty-Seventh Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  10. 7. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown) Photographer unknown, Date unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown) Photographer unknown, Date unknown EXTERIOR CORNER WALLS SHOWING RAMPART AND CANNONS - Sutter's Fort, L & Twenty-Seventh Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  11. Voyager 1/UVS measurements of the backscattered solar Lyman-alpha emission at the distant heliosphere: unknown source of additional emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katushkina, Olga; Alexashov, Dmitry; Sandel, Bill R.; Izmodenov, Vladislav; Quemerais, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Voyager 1/UVS has been performing measurements of the backscattered solar Lyman-alpha intensities for more than 35 years at distances 5-130 AU from the Sun. Backscattered Lyman-alpha emission depends on the interstellar hydrogen distribution in the solar wind / LISM interaction region. Therefore, measurement of the Lyman-alpha intensities is a tool for remote sensing of the hydrogen parameters at the heliospheric boundary. It is interesting to study dependence of the Lyman-alpha intensities on distance from the Sun. Namely, the Voyager 1 data show decrease of intensity (after correction for the solar flux variations) from 5 to 90 AU (1979-2003), then almost constant intensity between 90 and 115 AU (2003-2011), and decrease of intensity again at 115-130 AU (2011-2014). We perform numerical modeling and an analysis of the data by using our kinetic-MHD heliospheric model (Izmodenov & Alexashov, 2015) and the radiative transfer code (Quemerais, 2000). It is shown that the data obtained up to 90 AU (before 2003) can be fitted by the model quite well. After that the model predicts decrease of intensity, while the data show almost constant values. This behavior can be explained by addition to the model some portion of isotropic "extraheliospheric" Lyman-alpha emission, which does not scattered in the heliosphere and does not depend on the solar Lyman-alpha flux.

  12. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  13. Additional deleterious effects of alcohol consumption on sperm parameters and DNA integrity in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Pourentezari, M; Talebi, A R; Mangoli, E; Anvari, M; Rahimipour, M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the impact of alcohol consumption on sperm parameters and DNA integrity in experimentally induced diabetic mice. A total of 32 adult male mice were divided into four groups: mice of group 1 served as control fed on basal diet, group 2 received streptozotocin (STZ) (200 mg kg(-1) , single dose, intraperitoneal) and basal diet, group 3 received alcohol (10 mg kg(-1) , water soluble) and basal diet, and group 4 received STZ and alcohol for 35 days. The cauda epididymidis of each mouse was dissected and placed in 1 ml of pre-warm Ham's F10 culture medium for 30 min. The swim-out spermatozoa were analysed for count, motility, morphology and viability. Sperm chromatin quality was evaluated with aniline blue, toluidine blue, acridine orange and chromomycin A3 staining. The results showed that all sperm parameters had significant differences (P < 0.05), also when sperm chromatin was assessed with cytochemical tests. There were significant differences (P < 0.001) between the groups. According to our results, alcohol and diabetes can cause abnormalities in sperm parameters and chromatin quality. In addition, alcohol consumption in diabetic mice can intensify sperm chromatin/DNA damage. PMID:26358836

  14. Transferability and additivity of dihedral parameters in polarizable and nonpolarizable empirical force fields.

    PubMed

    Zgarbová, Marie; Rosnik, Andreana M; Luque, F Javier; Curutchet, Carles; Jurečka, Petr

    2015-09-30

    Recent advances in polarizable force fields have revealed that major reparameterization is necessary when the polarization energy is treated explicitly. This study is focused on the torsional parameters, which are crucial for the accurate description of conformational equilibria in biomolecules. In particular, attention is paid to the influence of polarization on the (i) transferability of dihedral terms between molecules, (ii) transferability between different environments, and (iii) additivity of dihedral energies. To this end, three polarizable force fields based on the induced point dipole model designed for use in AMBER are tested, including two recent ff02 reparameterizations. Attention is paid to the contributions due to short range interactions (1-2, 1-3, and 1-4) within the four atoms defining the dihedral angle. The results show that when short range 1-2 and 1-3 polarization interactions are omitted, as for instance in ff02, the 1-4 polarization contribution is rather small and unlikely to improve the description of the torsional energy. Conversely, when screened 1-2 and 1-3 interactions are included, the polarization contribution is sizeable and shows potential to improve the transferability of parameters between different molecules and environments as well as the additivity of dihedral terms. However, to reproduce intramolecular polarization effects accurately, further fine-tuning of the short range damping of polarization is necessary.

  15. Transferability and additivity of dihedral parameters in polarizable and nonpolarizable empirical force fields.

    PubMed

    Zgarbová, Marie; Rosnik, Andreana M; Luque, F Javier; Curutchet, Carles; Jurečka, Petr

    2015-09-30

    Recent advances in polarizable force fields have revealed that major reparameterization is necessary when the polarization energy is treated explicitly. This study is focused on the torsional parameters, which are crucial for the accurate description of conformational equilibria in biomolecules. In particular, attention is paid to the influence of polarization on the (i) transferability of dihedral terms between molecules, (ii) transferability between different environments, and (iii) additivity of dihedral energies. To this end, three polarizable force fields based on the induced point dipole model designed for use in AMBER are tested, including two recent ff02 reparameterizations. Attention is paid to the contributions due to short range interactions (1-2, 1-3, and 1-4) within the four atoms defining the dihedral angle. The results show that when short range 1-2 and 1-3 polarization interactions are omitted, as for instance in ff02, the 1-4 polarization contribution is rather small and unlikely to improve the description of the torsional energy. Conversely, when screened 1-2 and 1-3 interactions are included, the polarization contribution is sizeable and shows potential to improve the transferability of parameters between different molecules and environments as well as the additivity of dihedral terms. However, to reproduce intramolecular polarization effects accurately, further fine-tuning of the short range damping of polarization is necessary. PMID:26224547

  16. A novel P106L mutation in EPSPS and an unknown mechanism(s) act additively to confer resistance to glyphosate in a South African Lolium rigidum population.

    PubMed

    Kaundun, Shiv S; Dale, Richard P; Zelaya, Ian A; Dinelli, Giovanni; Marotti, Ilaria; McIndoe, Eddie; Cairns, Andrew

    2011-04-13

    Glyphosate resistance evolution in weeds is a growing problem in world agriculture. Here, we have investigated the mechanism(s) of glyphosate resistance in a Lolium rigidum population (DAG1) from South Africa. Nucleotide sequencing revealed the existence of at least three EPSPS homologues in the L. rigidum genome and identified a novel proline 106 to leucine substitution (P106L) in 52% DAG1 individuals. This mutation conferred a 1.7-fold resistance increase to glyphosate at the whole plant level. Additionally, a 3.1-fold resistance increase, not linked to metabolism or translocation, was estimated between wild-type P106-DAG1 and P106-STDS sensitive plants. Point accepted mutation analysis suggested that other amino acid substitutions at EPSPS position 106 are likely to be found in nature besides the P106/S/A/T/L point mutations reported to date. This study highlights the importance of minor mechanisms acting additively to confer significant levels of resistance to commercial field rates of glyphosate in weed populations subjected to high selection pressure.

  17. Intrinsic viscosity and conformational parameters of xanthan in aqueous solutions: salt addition effect.

    PubMed

    Brunchi, Cristina-Eliza; Morariu, Simona; Bercea, Maria

    2014-10-01

    The intrinsic viscosity and conformational parameters of xanthan in aqueous solutions were investigated at 25°C as a function of salt nature (NaCl and KCl) and concentration (up to 3×10(-1)mol/L). The viscometric parameters were evaluated by applying semi-empirical equations proposed by Rao and Wolf. The results show that the new model proposed by Wolf provides accurate intrinsic viscosity values comparable with those obtained by using traditional methods. The experimental data were modeled with Boltzmann sigmoidal equation. The stiffness parameter, hydrodynamic volume and viscometric expansion factor were determined and discussed. With increasing salt concentration, the hydrodynamic volume and the viscometric expansion factor decrease and the critical overlap concentration increases, reaching limiting values above a given salt concentration. The high Huggins constant values suggest the existence of aggregates for salt concentrations above 5×10(-2) and 3×10(-3)mol/L for NaCl and KCl, respectively. Stiffness parameter was determined by Smidsrød and Haug method as being 5.45×10(-3), indicating a rigid conformation for xanthan macromolecules in solution.

  18. Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on performance, ovarian morphology, serum lipid parameters and egg sensory quality in laying hen

    PubMed Central

    Saki, Ali Asghar; Aliarabi, Hassan; Hosseini Siyar, Sayed Ali; Salari, Jalal; Hashemi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    This present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of 4, 8 and 12 g kg-1 phytogenic feed additives mixture on performance, egg quality, ovary parameters, serum biochemical parameters and yolk trimethylamine level in laying hens. The results of experiment have shown that egg weight was increased by supplementation of 12 g kg-1 feed additive whereas egg production, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not significantly affected. There were no significant differences in egg quality parameters by supplementation of phytogenic feed additive, whereas yolk trimethylamine level was decreased as the feed additive level increased. The sensory evaluation parameters did not differ significantly. No significant differences were found in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between the treatments but low- and high-density lipoprotein were significantly increased. Number of small follicles and ovary weight were significantly increased by supplementation of 12 g kg-1 feed additive. Overall, dietary supplementation of polyherbal additive increased egg weigh, improved ovary characteristics and declined yolk trimethylamine level. PMID:25610580

  19. Effect of argon addition on plasma parameters and dust charging in hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kakati, B. Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Saxena, Y. C.

    2014-10-28

    Experimental results on effect of adding argon gas to hydrogen plasma in a multi-cusp dusty plasma device are reported. Addition of argon modifies plasma density, electron temperature, degree of hydrogen dissociation, dust current as well as dust charge. From the dust charging profile, it is observed that the dust current and dust charge decrease significantly up to 40% addition of argon flow rate in hydrogen plasma. But beyond 40% of argon flow rate, the changes in dust current and dust charge are insignificant. Results show that the addition of argon to hydrogen plasma in a dusty plasma device can be used as a tool to control the dust charging in a low pressure dusty plasma.

  20. Radiation processing of thermoplastic starch by blending aromatic additives: Effect of blend composition and radiation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandal, Dhriti; Mikus, Pierre-Yves; Dole, Patrice; Coqueret, Xavier

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on poly α-1,4-glucose oligomers (maltodextrins) in the presence of water and of various aromatic additives, as model blends for gaining a better understanding at a molecular level the modifications occurring in amorphous starch-lignin blends submitted to ionizing irradiation for improving the properties of this type of bio-based thermoplastic material. A series of aromatic compounds, namely p-methoxy benzyl alcohol, benzene dimethanol, cinnamyl alcohol and some related carboxylic acids namely cinnamic acid, coumaric acid, and ferulic acid, was thus studied for assessing the ability of each additive to counteract chain scission of the polysaccharide and induce interchain covalent linkages. Gel formation in EB-irradiated blends comprising of maltodextrin was shown to be dependent on three main factors: the type of aromatic additive, presence of glycerol, and irradiation dose. The chain scission versus grafting phenomenon as a function of blend composition and dose were studied using Size Exclusion Chromatography by determining the changes in molecular weight distribution (MWD) from Refractive Index (RI) chromatograms and the presence of aromatic grafts onto the maltodextrin chains from UV chromatograms. The occurrence of crosslinking was quantified by gel fraction measurements allowing for ranking the cross-linking efficiency of the additives. When applying the method to destructurized starch blends, gel formation was also shown to be strongly affected by the moisture content of the sample submitted to irradiation. The results demonstrate the possibility to tune the reactivity of tailored blend for minimizing chain degradation and control the degree of cross-linking.

  1. Effect of Operating Parameters and Chemical Additives on Crystal Habit and Specific Cake Resistance of Zinc Hydroxide Precipitates

    SciTech Connect

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise

    1999-08-01

    The effect of process parameters and chemical additives on the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates was investigated. The ability of a slurry to be filtered is dependent upon the particle habit of the solid and the particle habit is influenced by certain process variables. The process variables studied include neutralization temperature, agitation type, and alkalinity source used for neutralization. Several commercially available chemical additives advertised to aid in solid/liquid separation were also examined in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation. A statistical analysis revealed that the neutralization temperature and the source of alkalinity were statistically significant in influencing the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates in this study. The type of agitation did not significantly effect the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates. The use of chemical additives in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation had a favorable effect on the filterability. The morphology of the hydroxide precipitates was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy.

  2. Exploring the Unknown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallant, Amy; Pryputniewicz, Sarah; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Scientists, and science in general, move from the unknown to increasing levels of certainty. Teaching students about science means encouraging them to embrace and investigate the unknown, make reliable scientific claims, justify those claims with evidence, and evaluate the quality of the evidence. In all areas of science--and especially in…

  3. The influence of non-solvent addition on the independent and dependent parameters in roller electrospinning of polyurethane.

    PubMed

    Cengiz-Callioglu, Funda; Jirsak, Oldrich; Dayik, Mehmet

    2013-07-01

    This paper discusses the effects of 1,1,2,2 tetrachlorethylen (TCE) non-solvent addition on the independent (electrical conductivity, dielectric constant, surface tension and the theological properties of the solution etc.) and dependent parameters (number of Taylor cones per square meter (NTC/m2), spinning performance for one Taylor cone (SP/TC), total spinning performance (SP), fiber properties such as diameter, diameter uniformity, non-fibrous area) in roller electrospinning of polyurethane (PU). The same process parameters (voltage, distance of the electrodes, humidity, etc.) were applied for all solutions during the spinning process. According to the results, the effect of TCE non-solvent concentration on the dielectric constant, surface tension, rheological properties of the solution and also spinning performance was important statistically. Beside these results, TCE non-solvent concentration effects quality of fiber and nano web structure. Generally high fiber density, low non-fibrous percentage and uniform nanofibers were obtained from fiber morphology analyses.

  4. Ultrasonic degradation of polymers: effect of operating parameters and intensification using additives for carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA).

    PubMed

    Mohod, Ashish V; Gogate, Parag R

    2011-05-01

    Use of ultrasound can yield polymer degradation as reflected by a significant reduction in the intrinsic viscosity or the molecular weight. The ultrasonic degradation of two water soluble polymers viz. carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) has been studied in the present work. The effect of different operating parameters such as time of irradiation, immersion depth of horn and solution concentration has been investigated initially using laboratory scale operation followed by intensification studies using different additives such as air, sodium chloride and surfactant. Effect of scale of operation has been investigated with experiments in the available different capacity reactors with an objective of recommending a suitable type of configuration for large scale operation. The experimental results show that the viscosity of polymer solution decreased with an increase in the ultrasonic irradiation time and approached a limiting value. Use of additives such as air, sodium chloride and surfactant helps in increasing the extent of viscosity reduction. At higher frequency operation the viscosity reduction has been found to be negligible possibly attributed to less contribution of the physical effects. The viscosity reduction in the case of ultrasonic horn has been observed to be more as compared to other large capacity reactors. Kinetic analysis of the polymer degradation process has also been performed. The present work has enabled us to understand the role of the different operating parameters in deciding the extent of viscosity reduction in polymer systems and also the controlling effects of low frequency high power ultrasound with experiments on different scales of operation.

  5. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  6. Effects of anodizing parameters and heat treatment on nanotopographical features, bioactivity, and cell culture response of additively manufactured porous titanium.

    PubMed

    Amin Yavari, S; Chai, Y C; Böttger, A J; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2015-06-01

    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium.

  7. Effects of anodizing parameters and heat treatment on nanotopographical features, bioactivity, and cell culture response of additively manufactured porous titanium.

    PubMed

    Amin Yavari, S; Chai, Y C; Böttger, A J; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2015-06-01

    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. PMID

  8. Calculating slope and ED50 of additive dose-response curves, and application of these tabulated parameter values.

    PubMed

    Pöch, G; Pancheva, S N

    1995-06-01

    Comparing dose-response curves (DRCs) of a compound A in the absence and presence of a fixed dose of an antagonist B is standard in pharmacology and toxicology. When B qualitatively resembles A in its action, it is often useful to construct theoretical DRCs of additive and independent combinations. Theoretical curves are calculated from experimental values by the program ALLFIT, which uses the four parameter logistic equation. DRCs of theoretical, additive DRCs are obtained by using the respective values for slope and ED50, which were taken from tables presented here compiled on the basis of the slope of the DRC of A alone (0.6-14) and of the effect of B alone (1-75%). These tables are unnecessary for the construction of theoretical curves if A acts by an independent mechanism, giving values for slope and ED50 identical to those of the DRC of A alone. Experimental DRCs of antiviral and other effects (the latter taken from data in the literature) are compared with theoretical curves by an F-test analysis provided by ALLFIT. The method can be used successfully for the construction of theoretical curves for additive and independent DRCs and comparison with experimental curves. This comparison may help clarify the mode of interaction of A with B. PMID:7640393

  9. Hematological parameters in Polish mixed breed rabbits with addition of meat breed blood in the annual cycle.

    PubMed

    Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, P; Adamiak, M; Hukowska-Szematowicz, B; Trzeciak-Ryczek, A; Deptuła, W

    2015-01-01

    In the paper we studied haematologic values, such as haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit value, thrombocytes, leucocytes: lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils and monocytes in the pheral blood in Polish mixed-breeds with addition of meat breed blood in order to obtain the reference values which are until now not available for this animals. In studying this indices we took into consideration the impact of the season (spring, summer, autumn, winter), and sex of the animals. The studies have shown a high impact of the season of the year on those rabbits, but only in spring and summer. Moreover we observed that the sex has mean impact on the studied values of haematological parameters in those rabbits. According to our knowledge, this is the first paper on haematologic values in this widely used group of rabbits, so they may serve as reference values. PMID:26812808

  10. Optimal welding parameters for very high power ultrasonic additive manufacturing of smart structures with aluminum 6061 matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolcott, Paul J.; Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a recent solid state manufacturing process that combines ad- ditive joining of thin metal tapes with subtractive milling operations to generate near net shape metallic parts. Due to the minimal heating during the process, UAM is a proven method of embedding Ni-Ti, Fe-Ga, and PVDF to create active metal matrix composites. Recently, advances in the UAM process utilizing 9 kW very high power (VHP) welding has improved bonding properties, enabling joining of high strength materials previously unweldable with 1 kW low power UAM. Consequently, a design of experiments study was conducted to optimize welding conditions for aluminum 6061 components. This understanding is critical in the design of UAM parts containing smart materials. Build parameters, including weld force, weld speed, amplitude, and temperature were varied based on a Taguchi experimental design matrix and tested for me- chanical strength. Optimal weld parameters were identi ed with statistical methods including a generalized linear model for analysis of variance (ANOVA), mean e ects plots, and interaction e ects plots.

  11. [Influence Additional Cognitive Tasks on EEG Beta Rhythm Parameters during Forming and Testing Set to Perception of the Facial Expression].

    PubMed

    Yakovenko, I A; Cheremushkin, E A; Kozlov, M K

    2015-01-01

    The research of changes of a beta rhythm parameters on condition of working memory loading by extension of a interstimuli interval between the target and triggering stimuli to 16 sec is investigated on 70 healthy adults in two series of experiments with set to a facial expression. In the second series at the middle of this interval for strengthening of the load was entered the additional cognitive task in the form of conditioning stimuli like Go/NoGo--circles of blue or green color. Data analysis of the research was carried out by means of continuous wavelet-transformation on the basis of "mather" complex Morlet-wavelet in the range of 1-35 Hz. Beta rhythm power was characterized by the mean level, maxima of wavelet-transformation coefficient (WLC) and latent periods of maxima. Introduction of additional cognitive task to pause between the target and triggering stimuli led to essential increase in absolute values of the mean level of beta rhythm WLC and relative sizes of maxima of beta rhythm WLC. In the series of experiments without conditioning stimulus subjects with large number of mistakes (from 6 to 40), i.e. rigid set, in comparison with subjects with small number of mistakes (to 5), i.e. plastic set, at the forming stage were characterized by higher values of the mean level of beta rhythm WLC. Introduction of the conditioning stimuli led to smoothing of intergroup distinctions throughout the experiment. PMID:26601500

  12. 32. Photocopy of drawing (Location of original unknown) Architect unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photocopy of drawing (Location of original unknown) Architect unknown, Date unknown STEEL WORK DETAILS, WEST END OF BANKING ROOM, STAIR LANDINGS - Anglo & London Paris National Bank, One Sansome Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. 7. Photocopy of photograph (Location of original unknown) Photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (Location of original unknown) Photographer unknown, Date unknown VIEW FROM RAILROAD TRACKS LOOKING NORTHWEST - Omaha Quartermaster Depot Historic District, Twenty-second & Woolworth Streets, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  14. Nano-Fe as feed additive improves the hematological and immunological parameters of fish, Labeo rohita H.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, T.; Swain, P.; Rangacharulu, P. V.; Samanta, M.

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of iron oxide nanoparticles ( T 1) and ferrous sulfate ( T 2) on Indian major carp, Labeo rohita H. There were significant differences ( P < 0.05) in the final weight of T 1 and T 2 compared with the control. Survival rates were not affected by the dietary treatments. Fish fed a basal diet (control) showed lower ( P < 0.05) iron content in muscle compared to T 1 and T 2. Furthermore, the highest value ( P < 0.05) of iron content was observed in T 1. In addition, RBCs and hemoglobin levels were significantly higher in T 1 as compared to other treated groups. Different innate immune parameters such as respiratory burst activity, bactericidal activity and myeloperoxidase activity were higher in nano-Fe-treated diet ( T 1) as compared to other iron source ( T 2) and control in 30 days post-feeding. Moreover, nano-Fe appeared to be more effective ( P < 0.05) than ferrous sulfate in increasing muscle iron and hemoglobin contents. Dietary administration of nano-Fe did not cause any oxidative damage, but improved antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD and GSH level) irrespective of different iron sources in the basal diet.

  15. Sonochemical degradation of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine: Effect of parameters, organic and inorganic additives and combination with a biological system.

    PubMed

    Serna-Galvis, Efraím A; Silva-Agredo, Javier; Giraldo-Aguirre, Ana L; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A

    2015-08-15

    Fluoxetine (FLX), one of the most widely used antidepressants in the world, is an emergent pollutant found in natural waters that causes disrupting effects on the endocrine systems of some aquatic species. This work explores the total elimination of FLX by sonochemical treatment coupled to a biological system. The biological process acting alone was shown to be unable to remove the pollutant, even under favourable conditions of pH and temperature. However, sonochemical treatment (600 kHz) was shown to be able to remove the pharmaceutical. Several parameters were evaluated for the ultrasound application: the applied power (20-60 W), dissolved gas (air, Ar and He), pH (3-11) and initial concentration of fluoxetine (2.9-162.0 μmol L(-1)). Additionally, the presence of organic (1-hexanol and 2-propanol) and inorganic (Fe(2+)) compounds in the water matrix and the degradation of FLX in a natural mineral water were evaluated. The sonochemical treatment readily eliminates FLX following a kinetic Langmuir. After 360 min of ultrasonic irradiation, 15% mineralization was achieved. Analysis of the biodegradability provided evidence that the sonochemical process transforms the pollutant into biodegradable substances, which can then be mineralized in a subsequent biological treatment.

  16. Fever of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nayan; Johnson, Karlon; Ghaly, Sabry

    2003-11-01

    This is a case study of a 26-year-old Hispanic male who presented with an initial complaint of fevers, chills and generalized weakness for three weeks. Patient reported a classical history of diurnal fever with temperature spikes as high as 105.8F after returning from a trip to Guatemala. His symptoms had waxed and waned for 3 weeks. This case study will focus on the initial presentation, value of complete history and physical exam, use of laboratory data and use of specialized diagnostic procedures in the outpatient setting. This case proves to be highly relevant to primary care in the context of treating patients with fevers of unknown etiology. Primary care physicians should be alert for unusual diseases in patients who are returning from foreign travel. Malaria is a potentially fatal disease that can be acquired by travelers to certain areas of the world, primarily developing nations. Transmitted through the bite of the Anopheles mosquito, malaria usually presents with fever and a vague systemic illness. The disease is diagnosed by demonstration of Plasmodium organisms on a specially prepared blood film. This case study speaks to the importance of prompt work up and treatment of fever of unknown origin that presents in an unusual clinical picture or that is not readily explainable.

  17. Effect of the addition of conventional additives and whey proteins concentrates on technological parameters, physicochemical properties, microstructure and sensory attributes of sous vide cooked beef muscles.

    PubMed

    Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

    2012-03-01

    Beef muscles submitted to four enhancement treatments (1.88% whey protein concentrate (WPC)+1.25% sodium chloride (NaCl); 1.88% modified whey protein concentrate (MWPC)+1.25%NaCl; 0.25% sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP)+1.25%NaCl; 1.25%NaCl) and a control treatment (non-injected muscles) were sous vide cooked. Muscles with STPP+NaCl presented a significantly higher total yield (106.5%) in comparison to those with WPC/MWPC+NaCl (94.7% and 92.9%, respectively), NaCl alone (84.8%) or controls (72.1%). Muscles with STPP+NaCl presented significantly lower shear force values than control ones; also, WPC/MWPC+NaCl added muscles presented similar values than those from the other treatments. After cooking, muscles with STPP+NaCl or WPC/MWPC+NaCl depicted compacted and uniform microstructures. Muscles with STPP+NaCl showed a pink colour, meanwhile other treatment muscles presented colours between pinkish-grey and grey-brown. STPP+NaCl added samples presented the highest values of global tenderness and juiciness. The addition of STPP+NaCl had a better performance than WPC/MWPC+NaCl. However, the addition of WPC/MWPC+NaCl improved total yield in comparison to NaCl added or control ones. PMID:22112522

  18. Effect of the addition of conventional additives and whey proteins concentrates on technological parameters, physicochemical properties, microstructure and sensory attributes of sous vide cooked beef muscles.

    PubMed

    Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

    2012-03-01

    Beef muscles submitted to four enhancement treatments (1.88% whey protein concentrate (WPC)+1.25% sodium chloride (NaCl); 1.88% modified whey protein concentrate (MWPC)+1.25%NaCl; 0.25% sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP)+1.25%NaCl; 1.25%NaCl) and a control treatment (non-injected muscles) were sous vide cooked. Muscles with STPP+NaCl presented a significantly higher total yield (106.5%) in comparison to those with WPC/MWPC+NaCl (94.7% and 92.9%, respectively), NaCl alone (84.8%) or controls (72.1%). Muscles with STPP+NaCl presented significantly lower shear force values than control ones; also, WPC/MWPC+NaCl added muscles presented similar values than those from the other treatments. After cooking, muscles with STPP+NaCl or WPC/MWPC+NaCl depicted compacted and uniform microstructures. Muscles with STPP+NaCl showed a pink colour, meanwhile other treatment muscles presented colours between pinkish-grey and grey-brown. STPP+NaCl added samples presented the highest values of global tenderness and juiciness. The addition of STPP+NaCl had a better performance than WPC/MWPC+NaCl. However, the addition of WPC/MWPC+NaCl improved total yield in comparison to NaCl added or control ones.

  19. Pregnancy of unknown location.

    PubMed

    Schuneman, Margaret; Von Wald, Tiffany; Hansen, Keith

    2015-04-01

    The development of highly sensitive and accurate human chorionic gonadotropin assays as well as the improvement of vaginal ultrasound have allowed for the early detection of pregnancy and have reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with ectopic gestations. One of the byproducts of this increased sensitivity is pregnancy of unknown location (PUL), a term which is used to describe pregnancy in a woman with a positive pregnancy test but no signs of intrauterine or extrauterine pregnancy. A PUL can include an early intrauterine pregnancy, a failing intrauterine/extrauterine pregnancy or ectopic pregnancy. Modern medical management has improved the diagnosis and treatment of early pregnancy and pregnancy loss. In the hemodynamically stable patient with PUL, expectant management has been shown to be safe and allows for confirmatory studies before proceeding with therapy.

  20. Optimum receivers for pattern recognition in the presence of Gaussian noise with unknown statistics.

    PubMed

    Towghi, N; Javidi, B

    2001-08-01

    We develop algorithms to detect a known pattern or a reference signal in the presence of additive, disjoint background, and multiplicative white Gaussian noise with unknown statistics. The presence of three different types of noise processes with unknown statistics presents difficulties in estimating the unknown parameters. The standard methods such as expected-maximization-type algorithms are iterative, and in the framework of hypothesis testing they are time-consuming, because corresponding to each hypothesis one must estimate a set of parameters. Other standard methods such as setting the gradient of the likelihood function with respect to the unknown parameters will lead to a nonlinear system of equations that do not have a closed-form solution and require iterative methods. We develop an approach to overcome these handicaps and derive algorithms to detect a known object. We present new methods to estimate unknown parameters within the framework of hypothesis testing. The methods that we present are direct and provide closed-form estimates of the unknown parameters. Computer simulations are used to show that for the images tested, the receivers that we have designed perform better than existing receivers. PMID:11488488

  1. 44. Photographer unknown Date unknown MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION, HIGHWAY 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photographer unknown Date unknown MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION, HIGHWAY 1. 1-MEN-1-I #9, MOVING CAMP. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  2. 66. Buckwheat Launder, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. Buckwheat Launder, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  3. 22. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, date unknown, original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, date unknown, original print in possession of National Park Service, Petrified Forest National Park), EROSION CONTROL IN RIVER NEAR BRIDGE. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  4. 6. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, date unknown DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, date unknown DETAIL OF BOTTOM OF DRUM, SHOWING DECORATIVE MOLDING OF DRUM AND ARCHES: NOTE EFFECT OF BOX BEAMS CREATED BY MOLDING - University of Kentucky, Carnegie Library, Lexington, Fayette County, KY

  5. 1. Photocopy of photograph (Original source unknown, date unknown) EXTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of photograph (Original source unknown, date unknown) EXTERIOR, SOUTH FRONT OF ADOBE INCLUDING ENVIRONS - Gaspar Orena House, East de la Guerra Street, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 1. Building a brush dam. Location unknown. Photographer: Unknown, no ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Building a brush dam. Location unknown. Photographer: Unknown, no date. Source: Salt River Project Archives (SRPA) - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 7. Photocopy of painting (Source unknown, Date unknown) EXTERIOR SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of painting (Source unknown, Date unknown) EXTERIOR SOUTH FRONT VIEW OF MISSION AND CONVENTO AFTER 1913 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  8. Parameters and pitfalls to consider in the conduct of food additive research, Carrageenan as a case study.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Myra L

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides guidance on the conduct of new in vivo and in vitro studies on high molecular weight food additives, with carrageenan, the widely used food additive, as a case study. It is important to understand the physical/chemical properties and to verify the identity/purity, molecular weight and homogeneity/stability of the additive in the vehicle for oral delivery. The strong binding of CGN to protein in rodent chow or infant formula results in no gastrointestinal tract exposure to free CGN. It is recommended that doses of high Mw non-caloric, non-nutritive additives not exceed 5% by weight of total solid diet to avoid potential nutritional effects. Addition of some high Mw additives at high concentrations to liquid nutritional supplements increases viscosity and may affect palatability, caloric intake and body weight gain. In in vitro studies, the use of well-characterized, relevant cell types and the appropriate composition of the culture media are necessary for proper conduct and interpretation. CGN is bound to media protein and not freely accessible to cells in vitro. Interpretation of new studies on food additives should consider the interaction of food additives with the vehicle components and the appropriateness of the animal or cell model and dose-response.

  9. Parameters and pitfalls to consider in the conduct of food additive research, Carrageenan as a case study.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Myra L

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides guidance on the conduct of new in vivo and in vitro studies on high molecular weight food additives, with carrageenan, the widely used food additive, as a case study. It is important to understand the physical/chemical properties and to verify the identity/purity, molecular weight and homogeneity/stability of the additive in the vehicle for oral delivery. The strong binding of CGN to protein in rodent chow or infant formula results in no gastrointestinal tract exposure to free CGN. It is recommended that doses of high Mw non-caloric, non-nutritive additives not exceed 5% by weight of total solid diet to avoid potential nutritional effects. Addition of some high Mw additives at high concentrations to liquid nutritional supplements increases viscosity and may affect palatability, caloric intake and body weight gain. In in vitro studies, the use of well-characterized, relevant cell types and the appropriate composition of the culture media are necessary for proper conduct and interpretation. CGN is bound to media protein and not freely accessible to cells in vitro. Interpretation of new studies on food additives should consider the interaction of food additives with the vehicle components and the appropriateness of the animal or cell model and dose-response. PMID:26615870

  10. 6. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, Photographer, Date Unknown PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF SOUTH (FRONT) AND EAST SIDE DURING MOVE SHOWING HOUSE RAISED - Hamilton Grange, (Moved From) 237 West 141 Street to 141st Street & Amsterdam, New York County, NY

  11. 4. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, Photographer, Date Unknown PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF SOUTH (FRONT) AND EAST SIDE BEFORE HOUSE MOVED SHOWING THIRTEEN LIQUIDAMBAR TREES IN FOREGROUND - Hamilton Grange, (Moved From) 237 West 141 Street to 141st Street & Amsterdam, New York County, NY

  12. Effect of addition of a probiotic micro-organism to broiler diet on intestinal mucosal architecture and electrophysiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Böhm, J

    2010-08-01

    Probiotics might be one of the solutions to reduce the effects of the recent ban on antimicrobial growth promoters in feed. However, the mode of action of probiotics still not fully understood. Therefore, evaluating probiotics (microbial feed additives) is essential. Thus the objective of this work was to investigate the efficacy of a new microbial feed additive (Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus reuteri) in broiler nutrition. The body weight (BW), average daily weight gain was relatively increased by the dietary inclusion of Lactobacillus sp. in broiler diets. Furthermore, the Lactobacillus feed additive influenced the histomorphological measurements of small intestinal villi. The addition of Lactobacillus sp. increased (p < 0.05) the villus height (VH)/crypt depth ratio and the VH was numerically increased in duodenum. The duodenal crypt depth remained unaffected (p > 0.05), while the ileal crypt depth was decreased by dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus sp. compared with the control. At the end of the feeding period, the basal and glucose stimulated short-circuit current (Isc) and electrical tissue conductivity were measured in the isolated gut mucosa to characterize the electrical properties of the gut. The addition of glucose on the mucosal side in Ussing chamber produced a significant increase (p = 0.001) in Isc in both jejunum and colon relative to the basal values in Lactobacillus probiotic group. This increase in Isc for probiotic group in jejunum is equivalent to an increase of about two times that for the basal values, while in the control group is about half fold that for the basal value. In addition, the DeltaIsc after glucose addition to the large intestine was greater than the DeltaIsc in the small intestine in both control and probiotic group. Moreover in both jejunum and colon, the increase in Isc for birds fed Lactobacillus was higher than their control counterparts (p < or = 0.1). This result suggests that the addition of

  13. Separating response-execution bias from decision bias: arguments for an additional parameter in Ratcliff's diffusion model.

    PubMed

    Voss, Andreas; Voss, Jochen; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2010-11-01

    Diffusion model data analysis permits the disentangling of different processes underlying the effects of experimental manipulations. Estimates can be provided for the speed of information accumulation, for the amount of information used to draw conclusions, and for a decision bias. One parameter describes the duration of non-decisional processes including the duration of motor-response execution. In the default diffusion model, it is implicitly assumed that both responses are executed with the same speed. In some applications of the diffusion model, this assumption will be violated. This will lead to biased parameter estimates. Consequently, we suggest accounting explicitly for differences in the speed of response execution for both responses. Results from a simulation study illustrate that parameter estimates from the default model are biased if the speed of response execution differs between responses. A second simulation study shows that large trial numbers (N>1,000) are needed to detect whether differences in response-execution times are based on different execution times.

  14. Learning for an Unknown Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    What is it to learn for an unknown future? It might be said that the future has always been unknown but this question surely takes on a new pedagogical challenge in the contemporary age. Generic skills may seem to offer the basis of just such a learning for an unknown future. Generic skills, by definition, are those that surely hold across…

  15. 7. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, Photographer, Date Unknown PERSPECTIVE VIEW (SOUTHEAST) FROM ORIGINAL SITE SHOWING THIRTEEN LIQUIDAMBAR TREES (FOREGROUND) AND NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF HOUSE AS LOCATED AND ALTERED AT PRESENT SITE (ENTRANCE STAIRS FROM ORIGINAL SOUTH FRONT MOVED TO PRESENT WEST FRONT) - Hamilton Grange, (Moved From) 237 West 141 Street to 141st Street & Amsterdam, New York County, NY

  16. Quantum circuits cannot control unknown operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Mateus; Feix, Adrien; Costa, Fabio; Brukner, Časlav

    2014-09-01

    One of the essential building blocks of classical computer programs is the ‘if’ clause, which executes a subroutine depending on the value of a control variable. Similarly, several quantum algorithms rely on applying a unitary operation conditioned on the state of a control system. Here we show that this control cannot be performed by a quantum circuit if the unitary is completely unknown. The task remains impossible even if we allow the control to be done modulo a global phase. However, this no-go theorem does not prevent implementing quantum control of unknown unitaries in practice, as any physical implementation of an unknown unitary provides additional information that makes the control possible. We then argue that one should extend the quantum circuit formalism to capture this possibility in a straightforward way. This is done by allowing unknown unitaries to be applied to subspaces and not only to subsystems.

  17. Insuring the unknown.

    PubMed

    Parsons, C

    2015-12-01

    Uncertainty is the central element in insurance. This article examines how insurers evaluate and price risks that can present very high levels of uncertainty, and which many underwriters regard as especially hazardous in insurance terms. These are the risks associated with new medical devices, new pharmaceutical products and others substances for human consumption, such as food additives. Insurance is likely to be needed for these products both during their research and development phases, including insurance for clinical trials, and also once the device, drug or other substance gains approval and is in regular use.The article examines the types of insurance that are available to cover these risks, the organizations that provide insurance and how the insurance is organised. It discusses the basic principles that insurers use to price insurance before considering the difficulties presented by novel and complex risks generally. The article concludes with a description of the techniques that insurers employ to analyse and price the particular risks that are our subject and a discussion of how underwriters seek to overcome the special problems associated with them. PMID:26614811

  18. Insuring the unknown.

    PubMed

    Parsons, C

    2015-12-01

    Uncertainty is the central element in insurance. This article examines how insurers evaluate and price risks that can present very high levels of uncertainty, and which many underwriters regard as especially hazardous in insurance terms. These are the risks associated with new medical devices, new pharmaceutical products and others substances for human consumption, such as food additives. Insurance is likely to be needed for these products both during their research and development phases, including insurance for clinical trials, and also once the device, drug or other substance gains approval and is in regular use.The article examines the types of insurance that are available to cover these risks, the organizations that provide insurance and how the insurance is organised. It discusses the basic principles that insurers use to price insurance before considering the difficulties presented by novel and complex risks generally. The article concludes with a description of the techniques that insurers employ to analyse and price the particular risks that are our subject and a discussion of how underwriters seek to overcome the special problems associated with them.

  19. Growth and parameters of microflora in intestinal and faecal samples of piglets due to application of a phytogenic feed additive.

    PubMed

    Muhl, A; Liebert, F

    2007-10-01

    A commercial phytogenic feed additive (PFA), containing the fructopolysaccharide inulin, an essential oil mix (carvacrol, thymol), chestnut meal (tannins) and cellulose powder as carrier substance, was examined for effects on growth and faecal and intestinal microflora of piglets. Two experiments (35 days) were conducted, each with 40 male castrated weaned piglets. In experiment 1, graded levels of the PFA were supplied (A1: control; B1: 0.05% PFA; C1: 0.1% PFA; D1: 0.15% PFA) in diets based on wheat, barley, soybean meal and fish meal with lysine as the limiting amino acid. In experiment 2, a similar diet with 0.1% of the PFA (A2: control; B2: 0.1% PFA; C2: +0.35% lysine; D2: 0.1% PFA + 0.35% lysine) and lysine supplementation was utilized. During experiment 1, no significant effect of the PFA on growth, feed intake and feed conversion rate was observed (p > 0.05). Lysine supplementation in experiment 2 improved growth performance significantly, but no significant effect of the PFA was detected. Microbial counts in faeces (aerobes, Gram negatives, anaerobes and lactobacilli) during the first and fifth week did not indicate any significant PFA effect (p > 0.05). In addition, microflora in intestinal samples was not significantly modified by supplementing the PFA (p > 0.05). Lysine supplementation indicated lysine as limiting amino acid in the basal diet, but did not influence the microbial counts in faeces and small intestine respectively.

  20. [Immunobiological blood parameters in rabbits after addition to the diet suspensions of chlorella, sodium sulfate, citrate and chromium chloride].

    PubMed

    Lesyk, Ia V; Fedoruk, R S; Dolaĭchuk, O P

    2013-01-01

    We studied the content of glycoproteins and their individual carbohydrate components, the phagocyte activity of neutrophils, phagocyte index, phagocyte number lizotsym and bactericidal activity of the serum concentration of circulating immune complexes and middle mass molecules in the blood of rabbits following administration into the diet chlorella suspension, sodium sulfate, chromium citrate and chromium chloride. The studies were conducted on rabbits weighing 3.7-3.9 kg with altered diet from the first day of life to 118 days old. Rabbits were divided into five groups: the control one and four experimental groups. We found that in the blood of rabbits of experimental groups recieved sodium sulphate, chromium chloride and chromium citrate, the content of glycoprotein's and their carbohydrate components was significantly higher during the 118 days of the study compared with the control group. Feeding rabbits with mineral supplements likely reflected the differences compared with the control parameters of nonspecific resistance in the blood for the study period, which was more pronounced in the first two months of life.

  1. Exploring the Unknown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logsdon, John M. (Editor); Garber, Stephen J. (Editor); Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    One of the most important developments of the twentieth century has been the movement of humanity into space with machines and people. The extension of human activity into outer space has been accompanied by a high degree of self-awareness of its historical significance. Because most of the activity in outer space was carried out under government sponsorship, it was accompanied by the documentary record required of public institutions, and there has been a spate of official and privately written histories of most major aspects of space achievement to date. When top leaders considered what course of action to pursue in space, their deliberations and decisions often were carefully put on the record. There is, accordingly, no lack of material for those who aspire to understand the origins and evolution of U.S. space policies and programs.This reality forms the rationale for this series. Precisely because there is so much historical material available on space matters, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) decided in 1988 that it would be extremely useful to have easily available to scholars and the interested public a selective collection of many of the seminal documents related to the evolution of the U.S. civilian space program. While recognizing that much space activity has taken place under the sponsorship of the Department of Defense and other national security organizations, the U.S. private sector, and in other countries around the world, NASA felt that there would be lasting value in a collection of documentary material primarily focused on the evolution of the U.S. government s civilian space program, most of which has been carried out since 1958 under the Agency s auspices. As a result, the NASA History Office contracted with the Space Policy Institute of George Washington University's Elliott School of International Affairs to prepare such a collection. This is the sixth volume in the documentary history series; two additional ones

  2. 53. Photographer unknown Date unknown VAN DUZEN BRIDGE, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photographer unknown Date unknown VAN DUZEN BRIDGE, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION F, HIGHWAY 1. 1. 1-HUM-1-F #24, VAN DUZEN BR. APPRAOCH/ST. 167+50. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  3. 414. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    414. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; DIVISION OF SAN FRANCISCO BAY TOLL CROSSINGS; SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE RECONSTRUCTION; STEEL WORK - WEST BAY; TYPICAL SECTIONS; SHEET NO. 5; DRAWING NO. C-4028-5R - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 396. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    396. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; CANTILEVER STRUCTURE; DETAILS I; DRG. NO. 68 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. 413. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    413. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; DIVISION OF SAN FRANCISCO BAY TOLL CROSSINGS; SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE RECONSTRUCTION; STEEL WORK - WEST BAY; CONTINUOUS SPANS - LONGITUDINAL GIRDERS; SHEET NO. 18; DRAWING NO. C-4028-18R - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. 397. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    397. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; CANTILEVER STRUCTURE; DETAILS II; DRG. NO. 69 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. 400. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    400. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; PIER E-6 TO E-23; TYPICAL DETAILS; DRG. NO. 52 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. 393. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    393. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; PIER-E3; GENERAL DETAILS; DRG. NO. 47 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. 398. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    398. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; GENERAL PLAN; TOWER E-9; DRG. NO. 59 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. Study on the effect of hydrogen addition on the variation of plasma parameters of argon-oxygen magnetron glow discharge for synthesis of TiO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Partha; Saikia, Bipul Kumar; Bhuyan, Heman

    2016-04-01

    We report the effect of hydrogen addition on plasma parameters of argon-oxygen magnetron glow discharge plasma in the synthesis of H-doped TiO2 films. The parameters of the hydrogen-added Ar/O2 plasma influence the properties and the structural phases of the deposited TiO2 film. Therefore, the variation of plasma parameters such as electron temperature (Te), electron density (ne), ion density (ni), degree of ionization of Ar and degree of dissociation of H2 as a function of hydrogen content in the discharge is studied. Langmuir probe and Optical emission spectroscopy are used to characterize the plasma. On the basis of the different reactions in the gas phase of the magnetron discharge, the variation of plasma parameters and sputtering rate are explained. It is observed that the electron and heavy ion density decline with gradual addition of hydrogen in the discharge. Hydrogen addition significantly changes the degree of ionization of Ar which influences the structural phases of the TiO2 film.

  11. 415. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    415. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; DIVISION OF SAN FRANCISCO BAY TOLL CROSSINGS; SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE RECONSTRUCTION; STEEL WORK - WEST BAY; Y.B. ANCHORAGE - FLOOR BEAMS YA-5 AND BENT 3; SHEET NO. 22; DRAWING NO. C-4028-22R - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. Numerical modeling of heat-transfer and the influence of process parameters on tailoring the grain morphology of IN718 in electron beam additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Raghavan, Narendran; Dehoff, Ryan; Pannala, Sreekanth; Simunovic, Srdjan; Kirka, Michael; Turner, John; Carlson, Neil; Babu, Sudarsanam S.

    2016-04-26

    The fabrication of 3-D parts from CAD models by additive manufacturing (AM) is a disruptive technology that is transforming the metal manufacturing industry. The correlation between solidification microstructure and mechanical properties has been well understood in the casting and welding processes over the years. This paper focuses on extending these principles to additive manufacturing to understand the transient phenomena of repeated melting and solidification during electron beam powder melting process to achieve site-specific microstructure control within a fabricated component. In this paper, we have developed a novel melt scan strategy for electron beam melting of nickel-base superalloy (Inconel 718) andmore » also analyzed 3-D heat transfer conditions using a parallel numerical solidification code (Truchas) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The spatial and temporal variations of temperature gradient (G) and growth velocity (R) at the liquid-solid interface of the melt pool were calculated as a function of electron beam parameters. By manipulating the relative number of voxels that lie in the columnar or equiaxed region, the crystallographic texture of the components can be controlled to an extent. The analysis of the parameters provided optimum processing conditions that will result in columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) during the solidification. Furthermore, the results from the numerical simulations were validated by experimental processing and characterization thereby proving the potential of additive manufacturing process to achieve site-specific crystallographic texture control within a fabricated component.« less

  13. In vivo assessment of an industrial waste product as a feed additive in dairy cows: Effects of larch (Larix decidua L.) sawdust on blood parameters and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, D; Garavaglia, L; Spagnuolo, M S; Pferschy-Wenzig, E M; Bauer, R; Franz, C

    2015-12-01

    When larch (Larix spp.) is processed in the wood industry, the sawdust is currently disposed of as waste or used as combustible material, even though it is rich in biologically active compounds. In this study the effect of larch sawdust supplementation on blood parameters as well as milk composition was examined in healthy mid-lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Italian Friesian dairy cows were assigned to groups receiving either 300 g/day/cow of larch sawdust or a control diet, and treatments were continued for a 20 day period. Milk parameters were unaffected by treatment. A lower plasma total protein concentration was observed and can be attributed to a decrease in globulin concentration. A lower plasma urea concentration was also detected in the larch group. Moreover, biomarkers of liver function were influenced by the treatment. Total bilirubin was lower in larch-treated animals, and cholesterol tended to be lower. In addition, an interaction between day and treatment was observed for very low density lipoprotein. The concentration of other parameters, including reactive oxygen metabolites, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and nitrotyrosine, did not differ between treatments. The observed benefits, together with the good palatability, make larch sawdust a promising candidate for the development of beneficial feed supplements for livestock. Further studies will be useful, particularly to evaluate its efficacy in different health conditions. PMID:26526868

  14. Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride addition plus tumbling procedures on technological parameters, physical properties and visual appearance of sous vide cooked beef.

    PubMed

    Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

    2007-07-01

    Beef muscles cooked by the sous vide system were evaluated for the effects of pre-injection tumbling, brine addition and post-injection tumbling on technological parameters, physical properties, visual appearance and tissue microstructure. The muscles were injected at 120% (over original weight) with a brine formulated to give a concentration of 3.5% whey protein concentrate and 0.7% sodium chloride on an injected raw product basis. Pre-injection tumbling did not affect most of the evaluated parameters. Brine addition reduced significantly the cooking and total weight losses. Total weight loss was 7.2% for injected muscles, and significantly higher (28.2%) for non-injected ones. Brine incorporation increased pH and reduced shear force values of cooked muscles. Extended post-injection tumbling (5rpm-10h) improved brine distribution and visual appearance, and also diminished the shear force values of cooked muscles. However, this treatment increased the weight losses of post-injection tumbling and cooking-pasteurization stages. PMID:22060988

  15. Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride addition plus tumbling procedures on technological parameters, physical properties and visual appearance of sous vide cooked beef.

    PubMed

    Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

    2007-07-01

    Beef muscles cooked by the sous vide system were evaluated for the effects of pre-injection tumbling, brine addition and post-injection tumbling on technological parameters, physical properties, visual appearance and tissue microstructure. The muscles were injected at 120% (over original weight) with a brine formulated to give a concentration of 3.5% whey protein concentrate and 0.7% sodium chloride on an injected raw product basis. Pre-injection tumbling did not affect most of the evaluated parameters. Brine addition reduced significantly the cooking and total weight losses. Total weight loss was 7.2% for injected muscles, and significantly higher (28.2%) for non-injected ones. Brine incorporation increased pH and reduced shear force values of cooked muscles. Extended post-injection tumbling (5rpm-10h) improved brine distribution and visual appearance, and also diminished the shear force values of cooked muscles. However, this treatment increased the weight losses of post-injection tumbling and cooking-pasteurization stages.

  16. Learning from the Unknown Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Angela T.; Gerstenschlager, Natasha E.; Harmon, Shannon E.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, three instructional situations demonstrate the value of using an "unknown" student's work to allow the advancement of students' mathematical thinking as well as their engagement in the mathematical practice of critiquing the reasoning of others: (1) introducing alternative solution strategies; (2) critiquing inaccuracies…

  17. Effects of low-density lipoproteins as additive on quality parameters and oxidative stress following cryopreservation of mithun (Bos frontalis) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Perumal, P; Srivastava, S K; Ghosh, S K; Baruah, K K; Bag, S; Rajoria, J S; Kumar, K; Rajkhowa, C; Pande, M; Srivastava, N

    2016-10-01

    Artificial breeding of mithun poses several challenges including lack of standard protocol for cryopreservation of spermatozoa. This is further complicated by harmful effects of hen's egg yolk (EY) as additive in extender. Purified low-density lipoproteins (LDL) extracted from EY have been shown as beneficial over EY extender for long-term semen storage in several species. This investigation explored use of LDL versus EY on semen quality and oxidative stress following freezing-thawing of spermatozoa. A total of 25 of 50 ejaculates based on biophysical parameters were selected for the experiment. After diluting with the Tris-citrate-glycerol (TCG) extender, each sample was split into three equal aliquots: Group I, control, EY; Group II and Group III contained 8% and 10% purified LDL, respectively. Frozen-thawed samples were evaluated for motility parameters (progressive, and in the bovine cervical mucus penetration test [BCMPT]), viability, sperm and nuclear abnormality, acrosome integrity, and enzymatic (leakage of intracellular contents) and biochemical (oxidative stress) profiles and in vitro fertility (IVF) assay. Study revealed a significant (p < .05) improvement in viability, sperm and nuclear abnormality, acrosome integrity, motility (progressive and in cervical mucus), cholesterol content, and reduction in the leakage of intracellular enzymes in Group II. Moreover, intactness of acrosome and biochemical membranes was protected significantly (p < .05) in addition to significant (p < .05) improvement in binding per cent and binding index in IVF assay in extender containing 8% LDL. These results demonstrate that although cryopreservation of mithun's spermatozoa in EY was comparable with other species, addition of 8% LDL holds a clear advantage over EY or 10% LDL. PMID:27418332

  18. Allocating monitoring effort in the face of unknown unknowns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wintle, B.A.; Runge, M.C.; Bekessy, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing view that to make efficient use of resources, ecological monitoring should be hypothesis-driven and targeted to address specific management questions. 'Targeted' monitoring has been contrasted with other approaches in which a range of quantities are monitored in case they exhibit an alarming trend or provide ad hoc ecological insights. The second form of monitoring, described as surveillance, has been criticized because it does not usually aim to discern between competing hypotheses, and its benefits are harder to identify a priori. The alternative view is that the existence of surveillance data may enable rapid corroboration of emerging hypotheses or help to detect important 'unknown unknowns' that, if undetected, could lead to catastrophic outcomes or missed opportunities. We derive a model to evaluate and compare the efficiency of investments in surveillance and targeted monitoring. We find that a decision to invest in surveillance monitoring may be defensible if: (1) the surveillance design is more likely to discover or corroborate previously unknown phenomena than a targeted design and (2) the expected benefits (or avoided costs) arising from discovery are substantially higher than those arising from a well-planned targeted design. Our examination highlights the importance of being explicit about the objectives, costs and expected benefits of monitoring in a decision analytic framework. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Effectiveness of Phytogenic Feed Additive as Alternative to Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate on Hematological Parameters, Intestinal Histomorphology and Microbial Population and Production Performance of Japanese Quails.

    PubMed

    Manafi, M; Hedayati, M; Khalaji, S

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytogenic additive and antibiotic growth promoter in laying Japanese quails. One hundred and sixty five quails were divided into three groups of 5 replicates and 11 quails (8 females and 3 males) in each replicate. Treatment 1 was fed control diet, treatment 2 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.05% bacitracin methylene disalicylate as antibiotic growth promoter and treatment 3 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.1% phytogenic feed additive (PFA) for two periods of 3 weeks each from 37 to 42 weeks of age. Results showed that egg production, eggshell strength, eggshell weight, villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio were significantly (p≤0.05) increased and feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, albumen, Haugh unit, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, gamma glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, number of goblet cell, crypt depth and intestinal bacterial population of Coliforms, Salmonella and E. coli were significantly (p≤0.05) decreased in PFA fed group. It is concluded that addition of PFA containing phytomolecules and organic acids as main ingredients could significantly improve the production parameters and the general health of laying quails as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. PMID:27189636

  20. COOH-terminal processing of nascent polypeptides by the glycosylphosphatidylinositol transamidase in the presence of hydrazine is governed by the same parameters as glycosylphosphatidylinositol addition.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, S; Maxwell, S E; Medof, M E; Chen, R; Gerber, L D; Udenfriend, S

    1996-07-23

    Proteins anchored to the cell membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety are found in all eukaryotes. After NH2-terminal peptide cleavage of the nascent protein by the signal peptidase, a second COOH-terminal signal peptide is cleaved with the concomitant addition of the GPI unit. The proposed mechanism of the GPI transfer is a transamidation reaction that involves the formation of an activated carbonyl intermediate (enzyme-substrate complex) with the ethanolamine moiety of the preassembled GPI unit serving as a nucleophile. Other nucleophilic acceptors like hydrazine (HDZ) and hydroxylamine have been shown to be possible alternate substrates for GPI. Since GPI has yet to be purified, the use of readily available nucleophilic substitutes such as HDZ and hydroxylamine is a viable alternative to study COOH-terminal processing by the putative transamidase. As a first step in developing a soluble system to study this process, we have examined the amino acid requirements at the COOH terminus for the transamidation reaction using HDZ as the nucleophilic acceptor instead of GPI. The hydrazide-forming reaction shows identical amino acid requirement profiles to that of GPI anchor addition. Additionally, we have studied other parameters relating to the kinetics of the transamidation reaction in the context of rough microsomal membranes. The findings with HDZ provide further evidence for the transamidase nature of the enzyme and also provide a starting point for development of a soluble assay.

  1. Effectiveness of Phytogenic Feed Additive as Alternative to Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate on Hematological Parameters, Intestinal Histomorphology and Microbial Population and Production Performance of Japanese Quails

    PubMed Central

    Manafi, M.; Hedayati, M.; Khalaji, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytogenic additive and antibiotic growth promoter in laying Japanese quails. One hundred and sixty five quails were divided into three groups of 5 replicates and 11 quails (8 females and 3 males) in each replicate. Treatment 1 was fed control diet, treatment 2 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.05% bacitracin methylene disalicylate as antibiotic growth promoter and treatment 3 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.1% phytogenic feed additive (PFA) for two periods of 3 weeks each from 37 to 42 weeks of age. Results showed that egg production, eggshell strength, eggshell weight, villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio were significantly (p≤0.05) increased and feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, albumen, Haugh unit, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, gamma glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, number of goblet cell, crypt depth and intestinal bacterial population of Coliforms, Salmonella and E. coli were significantly (p≤0.05) decreased in PFA fed group. It is concluded that addition of PFA containing phytomolecules and organic acids as main ingredients could significantly improve the production parameters and the general health of laying quails as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. PMID:27189636

  2. COOH-terminal processing of nascent polypeptides by the glycosylphosphatidylinositol transamidase in the presence of hydrazine is governed by the same parameters as glycosylphosphatidylinositol addition.

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, S; Maxwell, S E; Medof, M E; Chen, R; Gerber, L D; Udenfriend, S

    1996-01-01

    Proteins anchored to the cell membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety are found in all eukaryotes. After NH2-terminal peptide cleavage of the nascent protein by the signal peptidase, a second COOH-terminal signal peptide is cleaved with the concomitant addition of the GPI unit. The proposed mechanism of the GPI transfer is a transamidation reaction that involves the formation of an activated carbonyl intermediate (enzyme-substrate complex) with the ethanolamine moiety of the preassembled GPI unit serving as a nucleophile. Other nucleophilic acceptors like hydrazine (HDZ) and hydroxylamine have been shown to be possible alternate substrates for GPI. Since GPI has yet to be purified, the use of readily available nucleophilic substitutes such as HDZ and hydroxylamine is a viable alternative to study COOH-terminal processing by the putative transamidase. As a first step in developing a soluble system to study this process, we have examined the amino acid requirements at the COOH terminus for the transamidation reaction using HDZ as the nucleophilic acceptor instead of GPI. The hydrazide-forming reaction shows identical amino acid requirement profiles to that of GPI anchor addition. Additionally, we have studied other parameters relating to the kinetics of the transamidation reaction in the context of rough microsomal membranes. The findings with HDZ provide further evidence for the transamidase nature of the enzyme and also provide a starting point for development of a soluble assay. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8755508

  3. Effect of Mn and Cr additions on kinetics of recrystallization and parameters of grain-boundary relaxation of Al-4.9Mg alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailovskaya, A. V.; Golovin, I. S.; Zaitseva, A. A.; Portnoi, V. K.; Dröttboom, P.; Cifre, J.

    2013-03-01

    Methods of microstructural analysis, measurements of hardness, and temperature and time dependences of internal friction (TDIF and TDIF(iso), respectively) have been used to study recrystallization in cold-rolled alloys and grain-boundary relaxation in annealed alloys. A complex analysis of the effect of additions of transition metals (Mn, Cr) on the magnitude of the activation energy of the background of the internal friction in deformed and annealed states and on the activation parameters of grain-boundary relaxation has been performed. Methods of amplitude dependences of internal friction (ADIF) have been used to determine the critical amplitude that corresponds to the beginning of microplastic deformation in the alloys at different temperatures.

  4. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict CI engine parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For ANFIS modelling, Gaussian curve membership function (gaussmf) and 200 training epochs (iteration) were found to be optimum choices for training process. The results demonstrate that ANFIS is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  5. Additive Manufacturing of Single-Crystal Superalloy CMSX-4 Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy: Computational Modeling, Experimental Process Development, and Process Parameter Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Amrita; Acharya, Ranadip; Das, Suman

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on additive manufacturing (AM) of single-crystal (SX) nickel-based superalloy CMSX-4 through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE). SLE, a powder bed fusion-based AM process was explored for the purpose of producing crack-free, dense deposits of CMSX-4 on top of similar chemistry investment-cast substrates. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations revealed the presence of dendritic microstructures that consisted of fine γ' precipitates within the γ matrix in the deposit region. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based process modeling, statistical design of experiments (DoE), and microstructural characterization techniques were combined to produce metallurgically bonded single-crystal deposits of more than 500 μm height in a single pass along the entire length of the substrate. A customized quantitative metallography based image analysis technique was employed for automatic extraction of various deposit quality metrics from the digital cross-sectional micrographs. The processing parameters were varied, and optimal processing windows were identified to obtain good quality deposits. The results reported here represent one of the few successes obtained in producing single-crystal epitaxial deposits through a powder bed fusion-based metal AM process and thus demonstrate the potential of SLE to repair and manufacture single-crystal hot section components of gas turbine systems from nickel-based superalloy powders.

  6. Metastases of unknown primary site.

    PubMed

    Lembersky, B C; Thomas, L C

    1996-01-01

    Despite the fact that effective therapy does not currently exist for the majority of patients presenting with metastases of unknown primary site, the last decade has witnessed significant advances in the approach to this heterogeneous disease. The use of modern pathologic techniques that frequently provide better diagnostic precision and the recognition of specific subgroups with a favorable prognosis and responsiveness to treatment has improved the outcome for some patients. Currently the diagnostic strategy should emphasize the rapid identification of patients likely to benefit from available therapy, whereas clinical research should focus on the development of more effective treatments for those patients with unresponsive tumors. In the future, continued improvements in the molecular characterization of these tumors will likely enhance understanding of the metastatic process, allow for more specific definitions of cell lineage, and provide insights for better therapy. PMID:8569295

  7. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. PMID:27263029

  8. Dynamic Modeling from Flight Data with Unknown Time Skews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2016-01-01

    A method for estimating dynamic model parameters from flight data with unknown time skews is described and demonstrated. The method combines data reconstruction, nonlinear optimization, and equation-error parameter estimation in the frequency domain to accurately estimate both dynamic model parameters and the relative time skews in the data. Data from a nonlinear F-16 aircraft simulation with realistic noise, instrumentation errors, and arbitrary time skews were used to demonstrate the approach. The approach was further evaluated using flight data from a subscale jet transport aircraft, where the measured data were known to have relative time skews. Comparison of modeling results obtained from time-skewed and time-synchronized data showed that the method accurately estimates both dynamic model parameters and relative time skew parameters from flight data with unknown time skews.

  9. Control design for the SISO system with the unknown order and the unknown relative degree.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunzhe; Li, Donghai

    2014-07-01

    For the uncertain system whose order, relative degree and parameters are unknown in the control design, new research is still in need on the parameter tuning and close-loop stability. During the last 10 years, much progress is made in the application and theory research of the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) for the uncertain system. In this study, the necessary and sufficient conditions are established for building the ADRC for the minimum-phase system and the open-loop stable system when the plant parameters, orders and relative degrees are unknown, the corresponding ideal dynamics are analyzed, and the theoretical results are verified by the simulations. Considering the wide application and the long history of the PID/PI controller, a method is given to design ADRC quickly based on the existing (generalized or conventional) PID/PI controller. A plenty of simulations are made to illustrate this PID/PI-based design method and the corresponding close-loop performances. The simulation examples include the minimum/nonminimum-phase plants, the stable/integrating plants, the high/low-order plant, and the plants with time delays. Such plants are from a wider scope than the theoretical result, and representative of many kinds of the industrial processes. That leads to a new way to simplify the ADRC design via absorbing the engineering experience in designing the PID/PI controller.

  10. Unknown components of the plastidial permeome

    PubMed Central

    Pick, Thea R.; Weber, Andreas P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Beyond their role in photosynthesis plastids provide a plethora of additional metabolic functions to plant cells. For example, they harbor complete biosynthetic pathways for the de novo synthesis of carotenoids, fatty acids, and amino acids. Furthermore plastids contribute important reactions to multi-compartmentalized pathways, such as photorespiration or plant hormone syntheses, and they depend on the import of essential molecules that they cannot synthesize themselves, such as ascorbic acid. This causes a high traffic of metabolites across the plastid envelope. Although it was recently shown that non-polar substrates could be exchanged between the plastid and the ER without involving transporters, various essential transport processes are mediated by highly selective but still unknown metabolite transporters. This review focuses on selected components of the plastidial permeome that are predicted to exist but that have not yet been identified as molecular entities, such as the transporters for isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) or ascorbic acid. PMID:25191333

  11. Autonomous exploration and mapping of unknown environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Jason; Osteen, Phil; Fields, MaryAnne

    2012-06-01

    Autonomous exploration and mapping is a vital capability for future robotic systems expected to function in arbitrary complex environments. In this paper, we describe an end-to-end robotic solution for remotely mapping buildings. For a typical mapping system, an unmanned system is directed to enter an unknown building at a distance, sense the internal structure, and, barring additional tasks, while in situ, create a 2-D map of the building. This map provides a useful and intuitive representation of the environment for the remote operator. We have integrated a robust mapping and exploration system utilizing laser range scanners and RGB-D cameras, and we demonstrate an exploration and metacognition algorithm on a robotic platform. The algorithm allows the robot to safely navigate the building, explore the interior, report significant features to the operator, and generate a consistent map - all while maintaining localization.

  12. Fever of unknown origin: a clinical approach.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Lortholary, Olivier; Cunha, Cheston B

    2015-10-01

    Fevers of unknown origin remain one of the most difficult diagnostic challenges in medicine. Because fever of unknown origin may be caused by over 200 malignant/neoplastic, infectious, rheumatic/inflammatory, and miscellaneous disorders, clinicians often order non-clue-based imaging and specific testing early in the fever of unknown origin work-up, which may be inefficient/misleading. Unlike most other fever-of-unknown-origin reviews, this article presents a clinical approach. Characteristic history and physical examination findings together with key nonspecific test abnormalities are the basis for a focused clue-directed fever of unknown origin work-up.

  13. A Method for Finding Unknown Signals Using Reinforcement FFT Differencing

    SciTech Connect

    Charles R. Tolle; John W. James

    2009-12-01

    This note addresses a simple yet powerful method of discovering the spectral character of an unknown but intermittent signal buried in a background made up of a distribution of other signals. Knowledge of when the unknown signal is present and when it is not, along with samples of the combined signal when the unknown signal is present and when it is not are all that is necessary for this method. The method is based on reinforcing Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) power spectra when the signal of interest occurs and subtracting spectra when it does not. Several examples are presented. This method could be used to discover spectral components of unknown chemical species within spectral analysis instruments such as Mass Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography. In addition, this method can be used to isolate device loading signatures on power transmission lines.

  14. Atlas of relations between climatic parameters and distributions of important trees and shrubs in North America; additional conifers, hardwoods, and monocots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Robert S.; Anderson, Katherine H.; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Smith, Sharon A.

    2000-01-01

    This volume explores the continental-scale relations between climate and the geographic ranges of woody plant species in North America. A 25-km equal-area grid of modern climatic and bioclimatic parameters for North America was constructed from instrumental weather records. The geographic distributions of selected tree and shrub species were digitized, and the presence or absence of each species was determined for each cell on the 25-km grid, thus providing a basis for comparing climatic data and species' distribution.

  15. Failing to Prepare is Preparing to Fail: The Known, The Known Unknown, and The Unknown Unknown.

    PubMed

    Tribble, Curtis G

    2016-01-01

    Cardiothoracic surgery residents often enter their training with fairly limited prior exposure to the field. Obviously, they need to master the essential knowledge and skills of the discipline during their training. In addition to following a didactic curriculum of one sort or another, much of the necessary knowledge and understanding will accrue from their experiences caring for and operating on the patients who will be under their auspices, not only during their formal training but also after they finish their training.  Some of these cases and situations, such as elective cases, allow for careful preparation, while some more urgent or emergent cases require generic, advance preparation in order to be ready to perform optimally in these cases when they arise. And then there will always be cases for which one will not be able to prepare in any meaningful way, and these types of cases will require creativity and innovation "on the fly."  I will describe three cases, which are examples of each of these situations, with suggestions on how to handle each type of situation optimally. I will describe the preparation, such as it was for each, in some detail to help the reader understand how it felt to deal with each of these cases. The technical details of each of these cases resulted in a publication, which will be cited in the references, should the reader want to learn more about them. PMID:27355144

  16. Failing to Prepare is Preparing to Fail: The Known, The Known Unknown, and The Unknown Unknown.

    PubMed

    Tribble, Curtis G

    2016-06-16

    Cardiothoracic surgery residents often enter their training with fairly limited prior exposure to the field. Obviously, they need to master the essential knowledge and skills of the discipline during their training. In addition to following a didactic curriculum of one sort or another, much of the necessary knowledge and understanding will accrue from their experiences caring for and operating on the patients who will be under their auspices, not only during their formal training but also after they finish their training.  Some of these cases and situations, such as elective cases, allow for careful preparation, while some more urgent or emergent cases require generic, advance preparation in order to be ready to perform optimally in these cases when they arise. And then there will always be cases for which one will not be able to prepare in any meaningful way, and these types of cases will require creativity and innovation "on the fly."  I will describe three cases, which are examples of each of these situations, with suggestions on how to handle each type of situation optimally. I will describe the preparation, such as it was for each, in some detail to help the reader understand how it felt to deal with each of these cases. The technical details of each of these cases resulted in a publication, which will be cited in the references, should the reader want to learn more about them.

  17. Data Series Subtraction with Unknown and Unmodeled Background Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitale, Stefano; Congedo, Giuseppe; Dolesi, Rita; Ferroni, Valerio; Hueller, Mauro; Vetrugno, Daniele; Weber, William Joseph; Audley, Heather; Danzmann, Karsten; Diepholz, Ingo; Hewitson, Martin; Korsakova, Natalia; Ferraioli, Luigi; Gibert, Ferran; Karnesis, Nikolaos; Nofrarias, Miquel; Inchauspe, Henri; Plagnol, Eric; Jennrich, Oliver; McNamara, Paul W.; Armano, Michele; Thorpe, James Ira; Wass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the precursor mission to a gravitational wave observatory of the European Space Agency, will measure the degree to which two test masses can be put into free fall, aiming to demonstrate a suppression of disturbance forces corresponding to a residual relative acceleration with a power spectral density (PSD) below (30 fm/sq s/Hz)(sup 2) around 1 mHz. In LPF data analysis, the disturbance forces are obtained as the difference between the acceleration data and a linear combination of other measured data series. In many circumstances, the coefficients for this linear combination are obtained by fitting these data series to the acceleration, and the disturbance forces appear then as the data series of the residuals of the fit. Thus the background noise or, more precisely, its PSD, whose knowledge is needed to build up the likelihood function in ordinary maximum likelihood fitting, is here unknown, and its estimate constitutes instead one of the goals of the fit. In this paper we present a fitting method that does not require the knowledge of the PSD of the background noise. The method is based on the analytical marginalization of the posterior parameter probability density with respect to the background noise PSD, and returns an estimate both for the fitting parameters and for the PSD. We show that both these estimates are unbiased, and that, when using averaged Welchs periodograms for the residuals, the estimate of the PSD is consistent, as its error tends to zero with the inverse square root of the number of averaged periodograms. Additionally, we find that the method is equivalent to some implementations of iteratively reweighted least-squares fitting. We have tested the method both on simulated data of known PSD and on data from several experiments performed with the LISA Pathfinder end-to-end mission simulator.

  18. Data series subtraction with unknown and unmodeled background noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Stefano; Congedo, Giuseppe; Dolesi, Rita; Ferroni, Valerio; Hueller, Mauro; Vetrugno, Daniele; Weber, William Joseph; Audley, Heather; Danzmann, Karsten; Diepholz, Ingo; Hewitson, Martin; Korsakova, Natalia; Ferraioli, Luigi; Gibert, Ferran; Karnesis, Nikolaos; Nofrarias, Miquel; Inchauspe, Henri; Plagnol, Eric; Jennrich, Oliver; McNamara, Paul W.; Armano, Michele; Thorpe, James Ira; Wass, Peter

    2014-08-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the precursor mission to a gravitational wave observatory of the European Space Agency, will measure the degree to which two test masses can be put into free fall, aiming to demonstrate a suppression of disturbance forces corresponding to a residual relative acceleration with a power spectral density (PSD) below (30 fm/s2/√Hz )2 around 1 mHz. In LPF data analysis, the disturbance forces are obtained as the difference between the acceleration data and a linear combination of other measured data series. In many circumstances, the coefficients for this linear combination are obtained by fitting these data series to the acceleration, and the disturbance forces appear then as the data series of the residuals of the fit. Thus the background noise or, more precisely, its PSD, whose knowledge is needed to build up the likelihood function in ordinary maximum likelihood fitting, is here unknown, and its estimate constitutes instead one of the goals of the fit. In this paper we present a fitting method that does not require the knowledge of the PSD of the background noise. The method is based on the analytical marginalization of the posterior parameter probability density with respect to the background noise PSD, and returns an estimate both for the fitting parameters and for the PSD. We show that both these estimates are unbiased, and that, when using averaged Welch's periodograms for the residuals, the estimate of the PSD is consistent, as its error tends to zero with the inverse square root of the number of averaged periodograms. Additionally, we find that the method is equivalent to some implementations of iteratively reweighted least-squares fitting. We have tested the method both on simulated data of known PSD and on data from several experiments performed with the LISA Pathfinder end-to-end mission simulator.

  19. Unknown, Placeholder, or Variable: What Is "X"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Robert; Adams, Anne E.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most significant steps in learning algebra is understanding the change in the role of letters in mathematical expressions from unknowns to variables. We describe the historical development of this change in usage, starting with the ancient use of mathematical unknowns, detailing several important changes in practice that allowed for the…

  20. Deaths due to Unknown Foodborne Agents

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    This study reviews the available evidence on unknown pathogenic agents transmitted in food and examines the methods that have been used to estimate that such agents cause 3,400 deaths per year in the United States. The estimate of deaths was derived from hospital discharge and death certificate data on deaths attributed to gastroenteritis of unknown cause. Fatal illnesses due to unknown foodborne agents do not always involve gastroenteritis, and gastroenteritis may not be accurately diagnosed or reported on hospital charts or death certificates. The death estimate consequently omitted deaths from unknown foodborne agents that do not cause gastroenteritis and likely overstated the number of deaths from agents that cause gastroenteritis. Although the number of deaths from unknown foodborne agents is uncertain, the possible economic cost of these deaths is so large that increased efforts to identify the causal agents are warranted. PMID:15498153

  1. Entanglement purification of unknown quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Todd A.; Caves, Carlton M.; Schack, Rüdiger

    2001-04-01

    A concern has been expressed that ``the Jaynes principle can produce fake entanglement'' [R. Horodecki et al., Phys. Rev. A 59, 1799 (1999)]. In this paper we discuss the general problem of distilling maximally entangled states from N copies of a bipartite quantum system about which only partial information is known, for instance, in the form of a given expectation value. We point out that there is indeed a problem with applying the Jaynes principle of maximum entropy to more than one copy of a system, but the nature of this problem is classical and was discussed extensively by Jaynes. Under the additional assumption that the state ρ(N) of the N copies of the quantum system is exchangeable, one can write down a simple general expression for ρ(N). By measuring one or more of the subsystems, one can gain information and update the state estimate for the remaining subsystems with the quantum version of the Bayes rule. Using this rule, we show how to modify two standard entanglement purification protocols, one-way hashing and recurrence, so that they can be applied to exchangeable states. We thus give an explicit algorithm for distilling entanglement from an unknown or partially known quantum state.

  2. Entanglement purification of unknown quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, Todd A.; Caves, Carlton M.; Schack, Ru''diger

    2001-04-01

    A concern has been expressed that ''the Jaynes principle can produce fake entanglement'' [R. Horodecki , Phys. Rev. A 59, 1799 (1999)]. In this paper we discuss the general problem of distilling maximally entangled states from N copies of a bipartite quantum system about which only partial information is known, for instance, in the form of a given expectation value. We point out that there is indeed a problem with applying the Jaynes principle of maximum entropy to more than one copy of a system, but the nature of this problem is classical and was discussed extensively by Jaynes. Under the additional assumption that the state {rho}{sup (N)} of the N copies of the quantum system is exchangeable, one can write down a simple general expression for {rho}{sup (N)}. By measuring one or more of the subsystems, one can gain information and update the state estimate for the remaining subsystems with the quantum version of the Bayes rule. Using this rule, we show how to modify two standard entanglement purification protocols, one-way hashing and recurrence, so that they can be applied to exchangeable states. We thus give an explicit algorithm for distilling entanglement from an unknown or partially known quantum state.

  3. MoCha: Molecular Characterization of Unknown Pathways.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Daniel; Hammelman, Jennifer; Levin, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Automated methods for the reverse-engineering of complex regulatory networks are paving the way for the inference of mechanistic comprehensive models directly from experimental data. These novel methods can infer not only the relations and parameters of the known molecules defined in their input datasets, but also unknown components and pathways identified as necessary by the automated algorithms. Identifying the molecular nature of these unknown components is a crucial step for making testable predictions and experimentally validating the models, yet no specific and efficient tools exist to aid in this process. To this end, we present here MoCha (Molecular Characterization), a tool optimized for the search of unknown proteins and their pathways from a given set of known interacting proteins. MoCha uses the comprehensive dataset of protein-protein interactions provided by the STRING database, which currently includes more than a billion interactions from over 2,000 organisms. MoCha is highly optimized, performing typical searches within seconds. We demonstrate the use of MoCha with the characterization of unknown components from reverse-engineered models from the literature. MoCha is useful for working on network models by hand or as a downstream step of a model inference engine workflow and represents a valuable and efficient tool for the characterization of unknown pathways using known data from thousands of organisms. MoCha and its source code are freely available online under the GPLv3 license.

  4. MoCha: Molecular Characterization of Unknown Pathways.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Daniel; Hammelman, Jennifer; Levin, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Automated methods for the reverse-engineering of complex regulatory networks are paving the way for the inference of mechanistic comprehensive models directly from experimental data. These novel methods can infer not only the relations and parameters of the known molecules defined in their input datasets, but also unknown components and pathways identified as necessary by the automated algorithms. Identifying the molecular nature of these unknown components is a crucial step for making testable predictions and experimentally validating the models, yet no specific and efficient tools exist to aid in this process. To this end, we present here MoCha (Molecular Characterization), a tool optimized for the search of unknown proteins and their pathways from a given set of known interacting proteins. MoCha uses the comprehensive dataset of protein-protein interactions provided by the STRING database, which currently includes more than a billion interactions from over 2,000 organisms. MoCha is highly optimized, performing typical searches within seconds. We demonstrate the use of MoCha with the characterization of unknown components from reverse-engineered models from the literature. MoCha is useful for working on network models by hand or as a downstream step of a model inference engine workflow and represents a valuable and efficient tool for the characterization of unknown pathways using known data from thousands of organisms. MoCha and its source code are freely available online under the GPLv3 license. PMID:26950055

  5. Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Ruttink, Tom; Demeyer, Rolinde; Van Gulck, Elke; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Querci, Maddalena; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc

    2010-03-01

    Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by screening blind samples for commonly used transgenic elements, such as p35S or t-nos. If (1) positive detection of such screening elements shows the presence of transgenic material and (2) all known GMOs are tested by event-specific methods but are not detected, then the presence of an unknown GMO is inferred. However, such evidence is indirect because it is based on negative observations and inconclusive because the procedure does not identify the causative event per se. In addition, detection of unknown events is hampered in products that also contain known authorized events. Here, we outline alternative approaches for analytical detection and GMO identification and develop new methods to complement the existing routine screening procedure. We developed a fluorescent anchor-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the identification of the sequences flanking the p35S and t-nos screening elements. Thus, anchor-PCR fingerprinting allows the detection of unique discriminative signals per event. In addition, we established a collection of in silico calculated fingerprints of known events to support interpretation of experimentally generated anchor-PCR GM fingerprints of blind samples. Here, we first describe the molecular characterization of a novel GMO, which expresses recombinant human intrinsic factor in Arabidopsis thaliana. Next, we purposefully treated the novel GMO as a blind sample to simulate how the new methods lead to the molecular identification of a novel unknown event without prior knowledge of its transgene

  6. Detection and characterisation of frauds in bovine meat in natura by non-meat ingredient additions using data fusion of chemical parameters and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Karen M; Andrade, Marcus Vinícius O; Santos Filho, Antônio M P; Lasmar, Marcelo C; Sena, Marcelo M

    2016-08-15

    Concerns about meat authenticity are increasing recently, due to great fraud scandals. This paper analysed real samples (43 adulterated and 12 controls) originated from criminal networks dismantled by the Brazilian Police. This fraud consisted of injecting solutions of non-meat ingredients (NaCl, phosphates, carrageenan, maltodextrin) in bovine meat, aiming to increase its water holding capacity. Five physico-chemical variables were determined, protein, ash, chloride, sodium, phosphate. Additionally, infrared spectra were recorded. Supervised classification PLS-DA models were built with each data set individually, but the best model was obtained with data fusion, correctly detecting 91% of the adulterated samples. From this model, a variable selection based on the highest VIPscores was performed and a new data fusion model was built with only one chemical variable, providing slightly lower predictions, but a good cost/performance ratio. Finally, some of the selected infrared bands were specifically associated to the presence of adulterants NaCl, tripolyphosphate and carrageenan.

  7. Addition of superoxide dismutase mimics during cooling process prevents oxidative stress and improves semen quality parameters in frozen/thawed ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Santiani, Alexei; Evangelista, Shirley; Sepúlveda, Néstor; Risopatrón, Jennie; Villegas, Juana; Sánchez, Raúl

    2014-10-01

    High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may be related to reduced semen quality, are detected during semen cryopreservation in some species. The objectives of this study were to measure the oxidative stress during ram semen cryopreservation and to evaluate the effect of adding 2 antioxidant mimics of superoxide dismutase (Tempo and Tempol) during the cooling process on sperm motility, viability, acrosomal integrity, capacitation status, ROS levels, and lipid peroxidation in frozen and/or thawed ram spermatozoa. Measuring of ROS levels during the cooling process at 35, 25, 15, and 5 °C and after freezing and/or thawing showed a directly proportional increase (P < 0.05) when temperatures were lowering. Adding antioxidants at 10 °C confered a higher motility and sperm viability after cryopreservation in comparison with adding at 35 °C or at 35 °C/5 °C. After freezing and/or thawing, sperm motility was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Tempo and Tempol 1 mM than that in control group. Percentage of capacitated spermatozoa was lower (P < 0.05) in Tempo and Tempol 1 mM in comparison with that in control group. In addition, ROS levels and lipid peroxidation in group Tempo 1 mM were lower (P < 0.05) than those in control group. These results demonstrate that ram spermatozoa are exposed to oxidative stress during the cooling process, specifically when maintained at 5 °C and that lipid peroxidation induced by high levels of ROS decreases sperm motility and induces premature sperm capacitation. In contrast, the addition of Tempo or Tempol at 0.5 to 1 mM during the cooling process (10 °C) protects ram spermatozoa from oxidative stress.

  8. Near-Optimal Controller for Nonlinear Continuous-Time Systems With Unknown Dynamics Using Policy Iteration.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Samrat; Patchaikani, Prem Kumar; Behera, Laxmidhar

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a single-network adaptive critic-based controller for continuous-time systems with unknown dynamics in a policy iteration (PI) framework. It is assumed that the unknown dynamics can be estimated using the Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy model with arbitrary precision. The successful implementation of a PI scheme depends on the effective learning of critic network parameters. Network parameters must stabilize the system in each iteration in addition to approximating the critic and the cost. It is found that the critic updates according to the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman formulation sometimes lead to the instability of the closed-loop systems. In the proposed work, a novel critic network parameter update scheme is adopted, which not only approximates the critic at current iteration but also provides feasible solutions that keep the policy stable in the next step of training by combining a Lyapunov-based linear matrix inequalities approach with PI. The critic modeling technique presented here is the first of its kind to address this issue. Though multiple literature exists discussing the convergence of PI, however, to the best of our knowledge, there exists no literature, which focuses on the effect of critic network parameters on the convergence. Computational complexity in the proposed algorithm is reduced to the order of (Fz)(n-1) , where n is the fuzzy state dimensionality and Fz is the number of fuzzy zones in the states space. A genetic algorithm toolbox of MATLAB is used for searching stable parameters while minimizing the training error. The proposed algorithm also provides a way to solve for the initial stable control policy in the PI scheme. The algorithm is validated through real-time experiment on a commercial robotic manipulator. Results show that the algorithm successfully finds stable critic network parameters in real time for a highly nonlinear system. PMID:26259150

  9. Detection and characterisation of frauds in bovine meat in natura by non-meat ingredient additions using data fusion of chemical parameters and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Karen M; Andrade, Marcus Vinícius O; Santos Filho, Antônio M P; Lasmar, Marcelo C; Sena, Marcelo M

    2016-08-15

    Concerns about meat authenticity are increasing recently, due to great fraud scandals. This paper analysed real samples (43 adulterated and 12 controls) originated from criminal networks dismantled by the Brazilian Police. This fraud consisted of injecting solutions of non-meat ingredients (NaCl, phosphates, carrageenan, maltodextrin) in bovine meat, aiming to increase its water holding capacity. Five physico-chemical variables were determined, protein, ash, chloride, sodium, phosphate. Additionally, infrared spectra were recorded. Supervised classification PLS-DA models were built with each data set individually, but the best model was obtained with data fusion, correctly detecting 91% of the adulterated samples. From this model, a variable selection based on the highest VIPscores was performed and a new data fusion model was built with only one chemical variable, providing slightly lower predictions, but a good cost/performance ratio. Finally, some of the selected infrared bands were specifically associated to the presence of adulterants NaCl, tripolyphosphate and carrageenan. PMID:27006208

  10. 53. Photographer unknown, date unknown. E.C. COLLIER under sail, dredging ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photographer unknown, date unknown. E.C. COLLIER under sail, dredging oysters. Please credit Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, St. Michaels, Maryland. - Two-Sail Bateau E. C. COLLIER, Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, Mills Street, Saint Michaels, Talbot County, MD

  11. Male pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin.

    PubMed

    Chiec, Lauren; Verma, Sadhna; Kendler, Ady; Abdel Karim, Nagla

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin has been described in several case reports of female patients. However, there have been no published reports describing male patients with pelvic squamous cell cancer of unknown primary origin. Our case describes a 52-year-old man who presented with right buttock pain, rectal urgency, and constipation. His physical examination demonstrated tenderness to palpation around his gluteal folds. Computed tomography scan of his abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a large mass in his retroperitoneum. The mass was determined to be squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin. Additionally, the patient had small nodules in his right lower lung lobe and right hepatic lobe. The patient was treated with concomitant chemoradiation, including cisplatin and intensity-modulated radiation therapy, followed by carboplatin and paclitaxel. The patient achieved partial remission, in which he remained one year after his presentation. Our case is consistent with the literature which suggests that squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin occurring outside of the head and neck region may have a more favorable prognosis than other carcinomas of unknown primary origin. Further studies are necessary to determine the most appropriate work-up, diagnosis, and optimal treatment strategies. PMID:25478265

  12. Fracture pain-Traveling unknown pathways.

    PubMed

    Alves, Cecília J; Neto, Estrela; Sousa, Daniela M; Leitão, Luís; Vasconcelos, Daniel M; Ribeiro-Silva, Manuel; Alencastre, Inês S; Lamghari, Meriem

    2016-04-01

    An increase of fracture incidence is expected for the next decades, mostly due to the undeniable increase of osteoporotic fractures, associated with the rapid population ageing. The rise in sports-related fractures affecting the young and active population also contributes to this increased fracture incidence, and further amplifies the economical burden of fractures. Fracture often results in severe pain, which is a primary symptom to be treated, not only to guarantee individual's wellbeing, but also because an efficient management of fracture pain is mandatory to ensure proper bone healing. Here, we review the available data on bone innervation and its response to fracture, and discuss putative mechanisms of fracture pain signaling. In addition, the common therapeutic approaches to treat fracture pain are discussed. Although there is still much to learn, research in fracture pain has allowed an initial insight into the mechanisms involved. During the inflammatory response to fracture, several mediators are released and will putatively activate and sensitize primary sensory neurons, in parallel, intense nerve sprouting that occurs in the fracture callus area is also suggested to be involved in pain signaling. The establishment of hyperalgesia and allodynia after fracture indicates the development of peripheral and central sensitization, still, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. A major concern during the treatment of fracture pain needs to be the preservation of proper bone healing. However, the most common therapeutic agents, NSAIDS and opiates, can cause significant side effects that include fracture repair impairment. The understanding of the mechanisms of fracture pain signaling will allow the development of mechanisms-based therapies to effectively and safely manage fracture pain.

  13. Fracture pain-Traveling unknown pathways.

    PubMed

    Alves, Cecília J; Neto, Estrela; Sousa, Daniela M; Leitão, Luís; Vasconcelos, Daniel M; Ribeiro-Silva, Manuel; Alencastre, Inês S; Lamghari, Meriem

    2016-04-01

    An increase of fracture incidence is expected for the next decades, mostly due to the undeniable increase of osteoporotic fractures, associated with the rapid population ageing. The rise in sports-related fractures affecting the young and active population also contributes to this increased fracture incidence, and further amplifies the economical burden of fractures. Fracture often results in severe pain, which is a primary symptom to be treated, not only to guarantee individual's wellbeing, but also because an efficient management of fracture pain is mandatory to ensure proper bone healing. Here, we review the available data on bone innervation and its response to fracture, and discuss putative mechanisms of fracture pain signaling. In addition, the common therapeutic approaches to treat fracture pain are discussed. Although there is still much to learn, research in fracture pain has allowed an initial insight into the mechanisms involved. During the inflammatory response to fracture, several mediators are released and will putatively activate and sensitize primary sensory neurons, in parallel, intense nerve sprouting that occurs in the fracture callus area is also suggested to be involved in pain signaling. The establishment of hyperalgesia and allodynia after fracture indicates the development of peripheral and central sensitization, still, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. A major concern during the treatment of fracture pain needs to be the preservation of proper bone healing. However, the most common therapeutic agents, NSAIDS and opiates, can cause significant side effects that include fracture repair impairment. The understanding of the mechanisms of fracture pain signaling will allow the development of mechanisms-based therapies to effectively and safely manage fracture pain. PMID:26851411

  14. 1. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, 1886 (?) ) Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, 1886 (?) ) Photographer unknown, Date unknown GENERAL VIEW LOOKING UP POWELL STREET FROM MARKET STREET - Powell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. Optimising gravitational wave searches for unknown isolated neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Sinead; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    All-sky searches for gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars must be highly sensitive over a large parameter space. This requirement presents a significant computational challenge. Computing power is amassed with the support of the public via the Einstein@Home project. Semi-coherent search methods seek to maximise sensitivity to signals of unknown frequency over the whole sky. Parameter space coverage in each dimension, and coherent integration time at each point in parameter space, impact the search sensitivity and the computing requirements. The optimal search design is a trade-off among these elements, with the best choice depending on the amount of LIGO data and the area in parameter space to be covered. Here I present efforts to address the multi-dimensional challenge of optimising all-sky searches for isolated neutron stars with Einstein@Home.

  16. Characterizing unknown systematics in large scale structure surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Nishant; Ho, Shirley; Myers, Adam D.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Ross, Ashley J.; Bahcall, Neta; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Muna, Demitri; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yèche, Christophe; Petitjean, Patrick; Schneider, Donald P.; Streblyanska, Alina; Weaver, Benjamin A.

    2014-04-01

    Photometric large scale structure (LSS) surveys probe the largest volumes in the Universe, but are inevitably limited by systematic uncertainties. Imperfect photometric calibration leads to biases in our measurements of the density fields of LSS tracers such as galaxies and quasars, and as a result in cosmological parameter estimation. Earlier studies have proposed using cross-correlations between different redshift slices or cross-correlations between different surveys to reduce the effects of such systematics. In this paper we develop a method to characterize unknown systematics. We demonstrate that while we do not have sufficient information to correct for unknown systematics in the data, we can obtain an estimate of their magnitude. We define a parameter to estimate contamination from unknown systematics using cross-correlations between different redshift slices and propose discarding bins in the angular power spectrum that lie outside a certain contamination tolerance level. We show that this method improves estimates of the bias using simulated data and further apply it to photometric luminous red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a case study.

  17. Analysis of multinomial models with unknown index using data augmentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Dorazio, R.M.; Link, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Multinomial models with unknown index ('sample size') arise in many practical settings. In practice, Bayesian analysis of such models has proved difficult because the dimension of the parameter space is not fixed, being in some cases a function of the unknown index. We describe a data augmentation approach to the analysis of this class of models that provides for a generic and efficient Bayesian implementation. Under this approach, the data are augmented with all-zero detection histories. The resulting augmented dataset is modeled as a zero-inflated version of the complete-data model where an estimable zero-inflation parameter takes the place of the unknown multinomial index. Interestingly, data augmentation can be justified as being equivalent to imposing a discrete uniform prior on the multinomial index. We provide three examples involving estimating the size of an animal population, estimating the number of diabetes cases in a population using the Rasch model, and the motivating example of estimating the number of species in an animal community with latent probabilities of species occurrence and detection.

  18. Creating a Superposition of Unknown Quantum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oszmaniec, Michał; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Wójcik, Antoni

    2016-03-01

    The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work, we systematically study the problem of the creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. First, we prove a no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. Second, we provide an explicit probabilistic protocol generating a superposition of two unknown states, each having a fixed overlap with the known referential pure state. The protocol can be applied to generate coherent superposition of results of independent runs of subroutines in a quantum computer. Moreover, in the context of quantum optics it can be used to efficiently generate highly nonclassical states or non-Gaussian states.

  19. Creating a Superposition of Unknown Quantum States.

    PubMed

    Oszmaniec, Michał; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Wójcik, Antoni

    2016-03-18

    The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work, we systematically study the problem of the creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. First, we prove a no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. Second, we provide an explicit probabilistic protocol generating a superposition of two unknown states, each having a fixed overlap with the known referential pure state. The protocol can be applied to generate coherent superposition of results of independent runs of subroutines in a quantum computer. Moreover, in the context of quantum optics it can be used to efficiently generate highly nonclassical states or non-Gaussian states.

  20. Implementing quantum control for unknown subroutines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friis, Nicolai; Dunjko, Vedran; Dür, Wolfgang; Briegel, Hans J.

    2014-03-01

    We present setups for the practical realization of adding control to unknown subroutines, supplementing the existing quantum optical scheme for black-box control with a counterpart for the quantum control of the ordering of sequences of operations. We also provide schemes to realize either task using trapped ions. These practical circumventions of recent no-go theorems are based on existing technologies. We argue that the possibility to add control to unknown operations in practice is a common feature of many physical systems. Based on the proposed implementations we discuss the apparent contradictions between theory and practice.

  1. Mean-square state and parameter estimation for stochastic linear systems with Gaussian and Poisson noises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basin, M.; Maldonado, J. J.; Zendejo, O.

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes new mean-square filter and parameter estimator design for linear stochastic systems with unknown parameters over linear observations, where unknown parameters are considered as combinations of Gaussian and Poisson white noises. The problem is treated by reducing the original problem to a filtering problem for an extended state vector that includes parameters as additional states, modelled as combinations of independent Gaussian and Poisson processes. The solution to this filtering problem is based on the mean-square filtering equations for incompletely polynomial states confused with Gaussian and Poisson noises over linear observations. The resulting mean-square filter serves as an identifier for the unknown parameters. Finally, a simulation example shows effectiveness of the proposed mean-square filter and parameter estimator.

  2. M-MRAC Backstepping for Systems with Unknown Virtual Control Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an over-parametrization free certainty equivalence state feedback backstepping adaptive control design method for systems of any relative degree with unmatched uncertainties and unknown virtual control coefficients. It uses a fast prediction model to estimate the unknown parameters, which is independent of the control design. It is shown that the system's input and output tracking errors can be systematically decreased by the proper choice of the design parameters. The benefits of the approach are demonstrated in numerical simulations.

  3. Unknown Vocabulary Density and Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsueh-Chao, Marcella Hu; Nation, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Examines what percentage of coverage of text is needed for unassisted reading for pleasure, where learners are able to read without the interruption of looking up words. Looks at the effect of three densities of unknown vocabulary on two measures of reading comprehension, a multiple-choice test and a cued written recall test. (Author/VWL)

  4. [Pavlov's unknown letter to L. A. Orbely].

    PubMed

    Budko, A A; Nazartsev, B I

    2012-07-01

    The text of Ivan P. Pavlov's unknown letter addressed to Leon A. Orbely is published for the first time. The document is kept in the Fund of the Military Medical Museum of the Military Medical Academy named after Sergey M. Kirov.

  5. Method for genetic identification of unknown organisms

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Fitch, Joseph P.; Hindson, Benjamin J.; Carter, Chance J.; Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-08-23

    A method of rapid, genome and proteome based identification of unknown pathogenic or non-pathogenic organisms in a complex sample. The entire sample is analyzed by creating millions of emulsion encapsulated microdroplets, each containing a single pathogenic or non-pathogenic organism sized particle and appropriate reagents for amplification. Following amplification, the amplified product is analyzed.

  6. Conquering the Unknown: Exploring the Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lynne M.

    2012-01-01

    There are many challenges that lie ahead for families of children with special needs. It is indeed a time for conquering the unknown and diligently exploring the options in an effort to locate, understand, and ultimately embrace the as yet undiscovered beauties of the new setting. This paper will consider some of the issues relevant for parents,…

  7. [Pavlov's unknown letter to L. A. Orbely].

    PubMed

    Budko, A A; Nazartsev, B I

    2012-07-01

    The text of Ivan P. Pavlov's unknown letter addressed to Leon A. Orbely is published for the first time. The document is kept in the Fund of the Military Medical Museum of the Military Medical Academy named after Sergey M. Kirov. PMID:23074838

  8. Problems Dealing with Unknown Quantities and Two Different Levels of Representing Unknowns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filloy, Eugenio; Rojano, Teresa; Solares, Armando

    2010-01-01

    This article centers on studying the progress of algebraic syntax once students have surmounted initial obstacles found in the transition toward symbolic algebra. It specifically analyzes students' progress concerning the operation on the unknown, when the latter is represented by an expression that involves a 2nd unknown. In curricular terms,…

  9. 14. Photocopy of photograph (source unknown) photographer unknown pre1885 NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of photograph (source unknown) photographer unknown pre-1885 NORTH SIDE AND WEST FRONT (NOTE ABSENCE OF DORMER ON GAMBREL ROOF OF ELL) (Illustration #6 of Data Report included in Field Records) - Narbonne House, 71 Essex Street, Salem, Essex County, MA

  10. Carcinoma of unknown primary and paraneoplastic dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenblick, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Dermatomyositis is known to be associated with neoplastic disorders, however the presentation of carcinoma of unknown primary as dermatomyositis is rare. We describe a case index of 50-year-old female who presented with enlarged inguinal lymph nodes accompanied with symmetric proximal muscle weakness and erythematous plaques. Conventional basic work-up did not reveal the diagnosis, however, positron emission tomography-computed tomography and re-staining of the pathology specimen suggested the ovaries as the primary site. Chemotherapy including carboplatin paclitaxel and bevacizumab led to complete response of disease and improvement in the dermatomyositis. The present case emphasizes the importance of a thorough directed evaluation for the underlying cancer in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary presenting as dermatomyositis. We further provide an up-to-date detailed review of published data describing these clinical entities. PMID:26677443

  11. Noma: an "infectious" disease of unknown aetiology.

    PubMed

    Baratti-Mayer, Denise; Pittet, Brigitte; Montandon, Denys; Bolivar, Ignacio; Bornand, Jacques-Etienne; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Jaquinet, Alexandre; Schrenzel, Jacques; Pittet, Didier

    2003-07-01

    Noma (cancrum oris) is a devastating gangrenous disease that leads to severe tissue destruction in the face and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is seen almost exclusively in young children living in remote areas of less developed countries, particularly in Africa. The exact prevalence of the disease is unknown, but a conservative estimate is that 770000 people are currently affected by noma sequelae. The cause remains unknown, but a combination of several elements of a plausible aetiology has been identified: malnutrition, a compromised immune system, poor oral hygiene and a lesion of the gingival mucosal barrier, and an unidentified bacterial factor acting as a trigger for the disease. This review discusses the epidemiology, clinical features, current understanding of the pathophysiology, and treatment of the acute phase and sequelae requiring reconstructive surgery. Noma may be preventable if recognised at an early stage. Further research is needed to identify more exactly the causative agents.

  12. Unified sensor management in unknown dynamic clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Ronald; El-Fallah, Adel

    2010-04-01

    In recent years the first author has developed a unified, computationally tractable approach to multisensor-multitarget sensor management. This approach consists of closed-loop recursion of a PHD or CPHD filter with maximization of a "natural" sensor management objective function called PENT (posterior expected number of targets). In this paper we extend this approach so that it can be used in unknown, dynamic clutter backgrounds.

  13. Infectious causes of fever of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Alastair C; Moore, David A

    2015-06-01

    The causes of fever of unknown origin (FUO) are changing because advances in clinical practice and diagnostics have facilitated the identification of some infections. A variety of bacterial infections can cause FUO, and these can be divided into those that are easy to identify using culture and those that require serological or molecular tests for identification. A number of viral, parasitic and fungal infections can also cause prolonged fever. This article summarises the clinical features and diagnostic strategy of these infections.

  14. Fever of unknown origin in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Loizidou, A; Aoun, M; Klastersky, J

    2016-05-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains a challenging clinical problem, namely in patients with cancer. In cancer patients, FUO may be due to the cancer itself, as it is the case of hematological malignancies; digestive tumors (colon cancer, liver metastases) are significantly associated with FUO and infection can be demonstrated in some cases. Prevention with G-CSF and empirical antimicrobial therapy are essential approaches for the management of FUO in cancer patients. New diagnostic approaches, such as PET imaging, should be further evaluated in cancer patients with FUO. PMID:26995082

  15. Bearing fault diagnosis under unknown variable speed via gear noise cancellation and rotational order sideband identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianyang; Liang, Ming; Li, Jianyong; Cheng, Weidong; Li, Chuan

    2015-10-01

    The interfering vibration signals of a gearbox often represent a challenging issue in rolling bearing fault detection and diagnosis, particularly under unknown variable rotational speed conditions. Though some methods have been proposed to remove the gearbox interfering signals based on their discrete frequency nature, such methods may not work well under unknown variable speed conditions. As such, we propose a new approach to address this issue. The new approach consists of three main steps: (a) adaptive gear interference removal, (b) fault characteristic order (FCO) based fault detection, and (c) rotational-order-sideband (ROS) based fault type identification. For gear interference removal, an enhanced adaptive noise cancellation (ANC) algorithm has been developed in this study. The new ANC algorithm does not require an additional accelerometer to provide reference input. Instead, the reference signal is adaptively constructed from signal maxima and instantaneous dominant meshing multiple (IDMM) trend. Key ANC parameters such as filter length and step size have also been tailored to suit the variable speed conditions, The main advantage of using ROS for fault type diagnosis is that it is insusceptible to confusion caused by the co-existence of bearing and gear rotational frequency peaks in the identification of the bearing fault characteristic frequency in the FCO sub-order region. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been demonstrated using both simulation and experimental data. Our experimental study also indicates that the proposed method is applicable regardless whether the bearing and gear rotational speeds are proportional to each other or not.

  16. Adaptive backstepping fault-tolerant control for flexible spacecraft with unknown bounded disturbances and actuator failures.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ye; Hu, Qinglei; Ma, Guangfu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a robust adaptive fault-tolerant control approach to attitude tracking of flexible spacecraft is proposed for use in situations when there are reaction wheel/actuator failures, persistent bounded disturbances and unknown inertia parameter uncertainties. The controller is designed based on an adaptive backstepping sliding mode control scheme, and a sufficient condition under which this control law can render the system semi-globally input-to-state stable is also provided such that the closed-loop system is robust with respect to any disturbance within a quantifiable restriction on the amplitude, as well as the set of initial conditions, if the control gains are designed appropriately. Moreover, in the design, the control law does not need a fault detection and isolation mechanism even if the failure time instants, patterns and values on actuator failures are also unknown for the designers, as motivated from a practical spacecraft control application. In addition to detailed derivations of the new controller design and a rigorous sketch of all the associated stability and attitude error convergence proofs, illustrative simulation results of an application to flexible spacecraft show that high precise attitude control and vibration suppression are successfully achieved using various scenarios of controlling effective failures.

  17. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  18. An urban scale inverse modelling for retrieving unknown elevated emissions with building-resolving simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pramod; Singh, Sarvesh Kumar; Feiz, Amir-Ali; Ngae, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    This study illustrates an atmospheric source reconstruction methodology for identification of an unknown continuous point release in the geometrically complex urban environments. The methodology is based on the renormalization inversion theory coupled with a building resolving Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling approach which estimates the release height along with the projected location on the ground surface and the intensity of an unknown continuous point source in an urban area. An estimation of the release height in a three-dimensional urban environment is relatively more difficult from both technical and computational point of view. Thus, a salient feature of the methodology is to address the problem of vertical structure (i.e. height of a source) in atmospheric source reconstruction in three-dimensional space of an urban region. The inversion methodology presents a way to utilize a CFD model fluidyn-PANACHE in source reconstruction in the urban regions. The described methodology is evaluated with 20 trials of the Mock Urban Field Setting Test (MUST) field experiment in various atmospheric stability conditions varying from neutral to stable and very stable conditions. The retrieved source parameters in all the 20 trials are estimated close to their true source. The source height is retrieved within a factor of two and four in 55% and 75% of the MUST trials, respectively. The averaged location error for all 20 trials is obtained 14.54 m with a minimum of 3.58 m and maximum of 34.55 m. The averaged estimated release rate for all trials is overpredicted within a factor of 1.48 of the true source intensity and in 85% of the trials, it is retrieved within in factor of two. In source reconstruction with non-zero measurements, it was observed that the use of all concentration measurements instead of only non-zero essentially makes only the small differences in quality of the source reconstruction and gives a little additional information for better

  19. Unknown unknowns in biomedical research: does an inability to deal with ambiguity contribute to issues of irreproducibility?

    PubMed

    Mullane, Kevin; Williams, Michael

    2015-09-15

    The credibility and consequent sustainability of the biomedical research "ecosystem" is in jeopardy, in part due to an inability to reproduce data from the peer-reviewed literature. Despite obvious and relatively inexpensive solutions to improve reproducibility-ensuring that experimental reagents, specifically cancer cell lines and antibodies, are authenticated/validated before use and that best practices in statistical usage are incorporated into the design, analysis, and reporting of experiments-these are routinely ignored, a reflection of hubris and a comfort with the status quo on the part of many investigators. New guidelines for the peer review of publications and grant applications introduced in the past year, while well-intended, lack the necessary consequences, e.g., denial of funding, that would result in sustained improvements when scientific rigor is lacking and/or transparency is, at best, opaque. An additional factor contributing to irreproducibility is a reductionist mindset that prioritizes certainty in research outcomes over the ambiguity intrinsic to biological systems that is often reflected in "unknown unknowns". This has resulted in a tendency towards codifying "rules" that can provide "yes-no" outcomes that represent a poor substitute for the intellectual challenge and skepticism that leads to an awareness and consideration of "unknown unknowns". When acknowledged as potential causes of unexpected experimental outcomes, these can often transition into the "knowns" that facilitate positive, disruptive innovation in biomedical research like the human microbiome. Changes in investigator mindset, both in terms of validating reagents and embracing ambiguity, are necessary to aid in reducing issues with reproducibility.

  20. Fever of unknown origin in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Gaweł, Bartłomiej; Krankowska, Dagny; Wasilczuk, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article is to discuss issues associated with the occurrence of febrile illnesses in leisure and business travellers, with a particular emphasis on fevers of unknown origin (FUO). FUO, apart from diarrhoeas, respiratory tract infections and skin lesions, are one of the most common health problems in travellers to tropical and subtropical countries. FUO are manifestations of various diseases, typically of infectious or invasive aetiology. In one out of 3 cases, the cause of a fever in travellers returning from the hot climate zone is malaria, and therefore diagnostic tests should first aim at ruling out this specific disease entity. Other illnesses with persistent fever include dengue, enteric fever, viral hepatitis A, bacterial diarrhoeas and rickettsioses. Fever may also occur in travellers suffering from diseases of non-tropical origin, e.g. cosmopolitan respiratory tract or urinary tract infections, also, fever may coexist with other illnesses or injuries (skin rashes, bites, burns).

  1. A Physician's Nightmare: Fever of Unknown Origin.

    PubMed

    Din, Sana; Anwer, Farrukh; Beg, Mirza

    2016-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains to be a challenge despite advancement in diagnostic technologies and procedures. FUO is considered when fever presents intermittently without an explanation. It has been linked to various etiologies, which makes it difficult to diagnose. We present the case of 18-month-old female with recurrent fever, splenomegaly, abdominal pain, and constipation. The workup for her symptoms revealed wandering spleen. Wandering spleen is a result from excessive laxity or absence of splenic ligaments. The patient underwent splenectomy and was advised to continue on Senna, Miralax, and high fiber diet. Her mother reported that the fever is no longer present and there is marked improvement in her constipation and abdominal pain after splenectomy. PMID:27433363

  2. Carcinomatous Meningitis from Unknown Primary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Favier, L.; Ladoire, L.; Guiu, B.; Arnould, L.; Guiu, S.; Boichot, C.; Isambert, N.; Besancenot, J.F.; Muller, M.; Ghiringhelli, F.

    2009-01-01

    Carcinomatous meningitis (CM) occurs in 3 to 8% of cancer patients. Patients present with a focal symptom, and multifocal signs are often found following neurological examination. The gold standard for diagnosis remains the demonstration of carcinomatous cells in the cerebrospinal fluid on cytopathological examination. Despite the poor prognosis, palliative treatment could improve quality of life and, in some cases, overall survival. We report on a patient who presented with vertigo, tinnitus and left-sided hearing loss followed by progressive diffuse facial nerve paralysis. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of CM. However, no primary tumor was discovered, even after multiple invasive investigations. This is the first reported case in the English-language medical literature of CM resulting from a carcinoma of unknown primary origin. PMID:20737034

  3. A Physician's Nightmare: Fever of Unknown Origin

    PubMed Central

    Anwer, Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains to be a challenge despite advancement in diagnostic technologies and procedures. FUO is considered when fever presents intermittently without an explanation. It has been linked to various etiologies, which makes it difficult to diagnose. We present the case of 18-month-old female with recurrent fever, splenomegaly, abdominal pain, and constipation. The workup for her symptoms revealed wandering spleen. Wandering spleen is a result from excessive laxity or absence of splenic ligaments. The patient underwent splenectomy and was advised to continue on Senna, Miralax, and high fiber diet. Her mother reported that the fever is no longer present and there is marked improvement in her constipation and abdominal pain after splenectomy. PMID:27433363

  4. Education Through Exploration: Evaluating the Unknown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Mastery of the peculiar and powerful practices of science is increasingly important for the average citizen. With the rise of the Internet, most of human knowledge is at our fingertips. As content becomes a commodity, success and survival aren't about who knows the most, but who is better able to explore the unknown, actively applying and extending knowledge through critical thinking and hypothesis-driven problem-solving. This applies to the economic livelihoods of individuals and to society at large as we grapple with climate change and other science-infused challenges. Unfortunately, science is too often taught as an encyclopedic collection of settled facts to be mastered rather than as a process of exploration that embraces curiosity, inquiry, testing, and communication to reduce uncertainty about the unknown. This problem is exacerbated by the continued prevalence of teacher-centric pedagogy, which promotes learning-from-authority and passive learning. The initial wave of massively open online courses (MOOCs) generally mimic this teaching style in virtual form. It is hypothesized that emerging digital teaching technologies can help address this challenge at Internet scale in "next generation" MOOCs and flipped classroom experiences. Interactive simulations, immersive virtual field trips, gamified elements, rapid adaptive feedback, intelligent tutoring systems, and personalized pathways, should motivate and enhance learning. Through lab-like projects and tutorials, students should be able to construct knowledge from interactive experiences, modeling the authentic practice of science while mastering complex concepts. Freed from lecturing, teaching staff should be available for direct and intense student-teacher interactions. These claims are difficult to evaluate with traditional assessment instruments, but digital technologies provide powerful new ways to evaluate student learning and learn from student behaviors. We will describe ongoing experiences with such

  5. On differential photometric reconstruction for unknown, isotropic BRDFs.

    PubMed

    Chandraker, Manmohan; Bai, Jiamin; Ramamoorthi, Ravi

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive theory of photometric surface reconstruction from image derivatives in the presence of a general, unknown isotropic BRDF. We derive precise topological classes up to which the surface may be determined and specify exact priors for a full geometric reconstruction. These results are the culmination of a series of fundamental observations. First, we exploit the linearity of chain rule differentiation to discover photometric invariants that relate image derivatives to the surface geometry, regardless of the form of isotropic BRDF. For the problem of shape-from-shading, we show that a reconstruction may be performed up to isocontours of constant magnitude of the gradient. For the problem of photometric stereo, we show that just two measurements of spatial and temporal image derivatives, from unknown light directions on a circle, suffice to recover surface information from the photometric invariant. Surprisingly, the form of the invariant bears a striking resemblance to optical flow; however, it does not suffer from the aperture problem. This photometric flow is shown to determine the surface up to isocontours of constant magnitude of the surface gradient, as well as isocontours of constant depth. Further, we prove that specification of the surface normal at a single point completely determines the surface depth from these isocontours. In addition, we propose practical algorithms that require additional initial or boundary information, but recover depth from lower order derivatives. Our theoretical results are illustrated with several examples on synthetic and real data.

  6. System and method for motor parameter estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Luhrs, Bin; Yan, Ting

    2014-03-18

    A system and method for determining unknown values of certain motor parameters includes a motor input device connectable to an electric motor having associated therewith values for known motor parameters and an unknown value of at least one motor parameter. The motor input device includes a processing unit that receives a first input from the electric motor comprising values for the known motor parameters for the electric motor and receive a second input comprising motor data on a plurality of reference motors, including values for motor parameters corresponding to the known motor parameters of the electric motor and values for motor parameters corresponding to the at least one unknown motor parameter value of the electric motor. The processor determines the unknown value of the at least one motor parameter from the first input and the second input and determines a motor management strategy for the electric motor based thereon.

  7. Multigrain indexing of unknown multiphase materials

    PubMed Central

    Wejdemann, Christian; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2016-01-01

    A multigrain indexing algorithm for use with samples comprising an arbitrary number of known or unknown phases is presented. No a priori crystallographic knowledge is required. The algorithm applies to data acquired with a monochromatic beam and a conventional two-dimensional detector for diffraction. Initially, candidate grains are found by searching for crystallographic planes, using a Dirac comb convoluted with a box function as a filter. Next, candidate grains are validated and the unit cell is optimized. The algorithm is validated by simulations. Simulations of 500 cementite grains and ∼100 reflections per grain resulted in 99.2% of all grains being indexed correctly and 99.5% of the reflections becoming associated with the right grain. Simulations with 200 grains associated with four mineral phases and 50–700 reflections per grain resulted in 99.9% of all grains being indexed correctly and 99.9% of the reflections becoming associated with the right grain. The main limitation is in terms of overlap of diffraction spots and computing time. Potential areas of use include three-dimensional grain mapping, structural solution and refinement studies of complex samples, and studies of dilute phases. PMID:27047308

  8. Merkel Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin

    PubMed Central

    Deneve, Jeremiah L.; Messina, Jane L.; Marzban, Suroosh S.; Gonzalez, Ricardo J.; Walls, Brooke M.; Fisher, Kate J.; Ann Chen, Y.; Wayne Cruse, C.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Zager, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor of the skin. MCC from an unknown primary origin (MCCUP) can present a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We describe our single-institution experience with the diagnosis and management of MCCUP presenting as metastases to lymph nodes. Methods After institutional review board approval, our institutional database spanning the years 1998–2010 was queried for patients with MCCUP. Clinicopathologic variables and outcomes were assessed. Results From a database of 321 patients with MCC, 38 (12%) were identified as having nodal MCCUP. Median age was 67 years, and 79% were men. Nodal basins involved at presentation were cervical (58%), axillary/epitrochlear (21%), or inguinal/iliac (21%). CK20 staining was positive in 93% of tumors tested, and all were negative for thyroid transcription factor-1. Twenty-nine patients (76%) underwent complete regional lymph node dissection (LND): 3 had LND alone, ten had LND and adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 underwent LND followed by chemoradiotherapy. Definitive chemoradiotherapy without surgery was provided to six patients (16%), while radiotherapy alone was provided to three (8%). Recurrence was observed in 34% of patients. Median recurrence-free survival was 35 months. Ten patients (26%) died, five of disease and five of other causes. The median overall survival was 104 months. Conclusions Nodal MCCUP is a rare disease affecting primarily elderly white men. Recurrence is observed in approximately one-third of patients, with a 104 month median overall survival after a multimodal treatment approach consisting of surgery along with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the majority of patients. PMID:22271206

  9. Adaptive neural control of nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown virtual control coefficients.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Hong, Fan; Lee, Tong Heng

    2004-02-01

    In this paper, adaptive neural control is presented for a class of strict-feedback nonlinear systems with unknown time delays. The proposed design method does not require a priori knowledge of the signs of the unknown virtual control coefficients. The unknown time delays are compensated for using appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals in the design. It is proved that the proposed backstepping design method is able to guarantee semiglobal uniformly ultimately boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop. In addition, the output of the system is proven to converge to a small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  10. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  11. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  12. Global adaptive stabilisation for nonlinear systems with unknown control directions and input disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Yongchao; Liu, Yungang

    2016-05-01

    This paper addresses the global adaptive stabilisation via switching and learning strategies for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems. Remarkably, the systems in question simultaneously have unknown control directions, unknown input disturbance and unknown growth rate, which makes the problem in question challenging to solve and essentially different from those in the existing literature. To solve the problem, an adaptive scheme via switching and learning is proposed by skilfully integrating the techniques of backstepping design, adaptive learning and adaptive switching. One key point in the design scheme is the introduction of the learning mechanism, in order to compensate the unknown input disturbance, and the other one is the design of the switching mechanism, through tuning the design parameters online to deal with the unknown control directions, unknown bound and period of input disturbance and unknown growth rate. The designed controller guarantees that all the signals of the resulting closed-loop systems are bounded, and furthermore, the closed-loop system states globally converge to zero.

  13. Pattern Recognition Algorithm for High-Sensitivity Odorant Detection in Unknown Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.

    2012-01-01

    In a realistic odorant detection application environment, the collected sensory data is a mix of unknown chemicals with unknown concentrations and noise. The identification of the odorants among these mixtures is a challenge in data recognition. In addition, deriving their individual concentrations in the mix is also a challenge. A deterministic analytical model was developed to accurately identify odorants and calculate their concentrations in a mixture with noisy data.

  14. 51. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown EXTERIOR, ELEVATION DETAILS - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 46. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown NORTH ELEVATION - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 49. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown SECTION THROUGH BUILDING, LOOKING EAST - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 53. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown DETAILS OF CORRIDORS ON SECOND - TWELFTH FLOORS - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 50. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angleles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown ENTRANCE AND TYPICAL BAY ON FLOWER STREET - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 44. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown FIRST FLOOR PLAN - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 52. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown DETAILS OF MAIN FLOOR ELEVATOR LOBBY - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 45. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown SECOND FLOOR PLAN - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 48. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA., Photographer, Date unknown SECTION THROUGH BUILDING, LOOKING NORTH - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 47. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angleles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown WEST ELEVATION - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 14. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1932, photographer unknown Historic view of bridge - Bridge at Mouth of Rogue River, Spanning Rogue River on Oregon Coast Highway, Gold Beach, Curry County, OR

  5. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographer Unknown. Furnished by Mrs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographer Unknown. Furnished by Mrs Mecia, Tombstone, Arizona. Date Unknown GENERAL VIEW MAIN CHURCH (SOUTHEAST ELEVATION). - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  6. 48 CFR 22.1009 - Place of performance unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Place of performance unknown. 22.1009 Section 22.1009 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....1009 Place of performance unknown....

  7. 16. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1936, photographer unknown Historic view of north approach to bridge - Coos Bay Bridge, Spanning Coos Bay on Oregon Coast Highway, North Bend, Coos County, OR

  8. 17. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1936, photographer unknown Historic view of bridge - Coos Bay Bridge, Spanning Coos Bay on Oregon Coast Highway, North Bend, Coos County, OR

  9. 12. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1936, photographer unknown Historic view from roadway - Siuslaw River Bridge, Spanning Siuslaw River at Oregon Coast Highway, Florence, Lane County, OR

  10. Distributed parameter estimation in unreliable sensor networks via broadcast gossip algorithms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiwei; Liao, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zidong; Huang, Tingwen; Chen, Guo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an asynchronous algorithm to estimate the unknown parameter under an unreliable network which allows new sensors to join and old sensors to leave, and can tolerate link failures. Each sensor has access to partially informative measurements when it is awakened. In addition, the proposed algorithm can avoid the interference among messages and effectively reduce the accumulated measurement and quantization errors. Based on the theory of stochastic approximation, we prove that our proposed algorithm almost surely converges to the unknown parameter. Finally, we present a numerical example to assess the performance and the communication cost of the algorithm.

  11. Significance of tartrazine sensitivity in chronic urticaria of unknown etiology.

    PubMed

    Settipane, G A; Chafee, F H; Postman, I M; Levine, M I; Saker, J H; Barrick, R H; Nicholas, S S; Schwartz, H J; Honsinger, R W; Klein, D E

    1976-06-01

    Of 38 patients with chronic urticaria of unknown etiology who were evaluated for food and drug additive sensitivity, 53% (20/38) had urticaria for 1 yr or more. Total eosinophil counts were not elevated in most patients, and the frequency of atopy was found to be similar to that in a general population. Of these 38 patients, 10 (26%) had a personal history of aspirin intolerance, but elimination of aspirin did not relieve the urticaria. In a double-blind crossover challenge with 0.22 mg of tartrazine and a control, tartrazine sensitivity was found in 8% (3/38) of patients with chronic urticaria and 20% (2/10) of patients with aspirin intolerance. PMID:777074

  12. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71.83... Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic abundance... unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron multiplication....

  13. 48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Unknown. 52.247-62 Section 52.247-62 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-16(d)(2), insert the following clause in... the contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For the purpose of evaluating...

  14. 48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Unknown. 52.247-62 Section 52.247-62 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-16(d)(2), insert the following clause in... the contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For the purpose of evaluating...

  15. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71.83... Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic abundance... unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron multiplication....

  16. 48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Unknown. 52.247-62 Section 52.247-62 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-16(d)(2), insert the following clause in... the contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For the purpose of evaluating...

  17. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71.83... Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic abundance... unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron multiplication....

  18. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71.83... Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic abundance... unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron multiplication....

  19. 48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Unknown. 52.247-62 Section 52.247-62 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-16(d)(2), insert the following clause in... the contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For the purpose of evaluating...

  20. 48 CFR 47.305-5 - Destination unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Destination unknown. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-5 Destination unknown. (a)(1) When destinations are unknown, solicitations shall be f.o.b. origin only. (2) The contracting officer shall...

  1. 48 CFR 47.305-5 - Destination unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destination unknown. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-5 Destination unknown. (a)(1) When destinations are unknown, solicitations shall be f.o.b. origin only. (2) The contracting officer shall...

  2. 48 CFR 47.305-5 - Destination unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Destination unknown. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-5 Destination unknown. (a)(1) When destinations are unknown, solicitations shall be f.o.b. origin only. (2) The contracting officer shall...

  3. A study of parameter identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herget, C. J.; Patterson, R. E., III

    1978-01-01

    A set of definitions for deterministic parameter identification ability were proposed. Deterministic parameter identificability properties are presented based on four system characteristics: direct parameter recoverability, properties of the system transfer function, properties of output distinguishability, and uniqueness properties of a quadratic cost functional. Stochastic parameter identifiability was defined in terms of the existence of an estimation sequence for the unknown parameters which is consistent in probability. Stochastic parameter identifiability properties are presented based on the following characteristics: convergence properties of the maximum likelihood estimate, properties of the joint probability density functions of the observations, and properties of the information matrix.

  4. Nanotechnology: the challenge of regulating known unknowns.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robin Fretwell

    2006-01-01

    Media reports of the health hazards posed by nano-sized particles (NSPs) have turned a white hot spotlight on the risks of nanotechnology. Worried about the risks posed to workers producing nano-materials, the Washington Post has labeled nanotechnology a "seat-of-the-pants occupational health experiment." This article examines our emerging knowledge base about the hazards of two types of exposure: inhalation of NSPs and topical application of products containing NSPs. It argues that a clear-eyed evaluation of the benefits and risks of nanotechnology is made extremely difficult by the marriage of a complex science with a venture capitalist-like hype. It then suggests that, absent additional statutory authority, governmental regulators cannot readily address the risks posed by these products. This regulatory inaction leaves a significant role for the private insurance market, a role that regulators should support in tangible ways outlined in the article. PMID:17199812

  5. Smooth extrapolation of unknown anatomy via statistical shape models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grupp, R. B.; Chiang, H.; Otake, Y.; Murphy, R. J.; Gordon, C. R.; Armand, M.; Taylor, R. H.

    2015-03-01

    Several methods to perform extrapolation of unknown anatomy were evaluated. The primary application is to enhance surgical procedures that may use partial medical images or medical images of incomplete anatomy. Le Fort-based, face-jaw-teeth transplant is one such procedure. From CT data of 36 skulls and 21 mandibles separate Statistical Shape Models of the anatomical surfaces were created. Using the Statistical Shape Models, incomplete surfaces were projected to obtain complete surface estimates. The surface estimates exhibit non-zero error in regions where the true surface is known; it is desirable to keep the true surface and seamlessly merge the estimated unknown surface. Existing extrapolation techniques produce non-smooth transitions from the true surface to the estimated surface, resulting in additional error and a less aesthetically pleasing result. The three extrapolation techniques evaluated were: copying and pasting of the surface estimate (non-smooth baseline), a feathering between the patient surface and surface estimate, and an estimate generated via a Thin Plate Spline trained from displacements between the surface estimate and corresponding vertices of the known patient surface. Feathering and Thin Plate Spline approaches both yielded smooth transitions. However, feathering corrupted known vertex values. Leave-one-out analyses were conducted, with 5% to 50% of known anatomy removed from the left-out patient and estimated via the proposed approaches. The Thin Plate Spline approach yielded smaller errors than the other two approaches, with an average vertex error improvement of 1.46 mm and 1.38 mm for the skull and mandible respectively, over the baseline approach.

  6. Bacterial Motility Reveals Unknown Molecular Organization.

    PubMed

    Duchesne, Ismaël; Rainville, Simon; Galstian, Tigran

    2015-11-17

    The water solubility of lyotropic liquid crystals (LCs) makes them very attractive to study the behavior of biological microorganisms in an environment where local symmetry is broken (as often encountered in nature). Several recent studies have shown a dramatic change in the behavior of flagellated bacteria when swimming in solutions of the lyotropic LC disodium cromoglycate (DSCG). In this study, the movements of Escherichia coli bacteria in DSCG-water solutions of different concentrations are observed to improve our understanding of this phenomenon. In addition, the viscosity of DSCG aqueous solutions is measured as a function of concentration at room temperature. We also experimentally identify a previously undescribed isotropic pretransition zone where bacteria start sticking to each other and to surfaces. Simple estimations show that the unbalanced osmotic pressure induced depletion force might be responsible for this sticking phenomenon. An estimate of the bacteria propulsive force and the DSCG aggregates length (versus concentration) are calculated from the measured viscosity of the medium. All these quantities are found to undergo a strong increase in the pretransition zone, starting at a threshold concentration of 6±1 wt % DSCG that is well below the known isotropic-LC transition (∼10 wt %). This study also shines light on the motility of flagellated bacteria in realistic environments, and it opens new avenues for interesting applications such as the use of motile microorganisms to probe the physical properties of their host or smart bandages that could guide bacteria out of wounds.

  7. THE EFFECT OF ASSUMPTIONS ON UNKNOWN PARAMETER VALUES IN FORECASTING RELIABILITY OF MEETING EFFLUENT LIMITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forecasting tools exist for regulatory agencies to predict the reliability in meeting effluent limits or total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) from point sources discharging to water bodies covered under section 303(d)of the Clean Water Act. Performing 2-D Monte Carlo simulations wit...

  8. Partial state and unknown input estimation for time-delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, P. S.; Trinh, H.

    2012-04-01

    This article considers the problem of estimating a partial set of the state vector and/or unknown input vector of linear systems driven by unknown inputs and time-varying delay in the state variables. Three types of reduced-order observers, namely, observers with delays, observers without internal delays and delay-free observers are proposed in this article. Existence conditions and design procedures are presented for the determination of parameters for each case of observers. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the design procedures.

  9. Overfitting Bayesian Mixture Models with an Unknown Number of Components

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes solutions to three issues pertaining to the estimation of finite mixture models with an unknown number of components: the non-identifiability induced by overfitting the number of components, the mixing limitations of standard Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling techniques, and the related label switching problem. An overfitting approach is used to estimate the number of components in a finite mixture model via a Zmix algorithm. Zmix provides a bridge between multidimensional samplers and test based estimation methods, whereby priors are chosen to encourage extra groups to have weights approaching zero. MCMC sampling is made possible by the implementation of prior parallel tempering, an extension of parallel tempering. Zmix can accurately estimate the number of components, posterior parameter estimates and allocation probabilities given a sufficiently large sample size. The results will reflect uncertainty in the final model and will report the range of possible candidate models and their respective estimated probabilities from a single run. Label switching is resolved with a computationally light-weight method, Zswitch, developed for overfitted mixtures by exploiting the intuitiveness of allocation-based relabelling algorithms and the precision of label-invariant loss functions. Four simulation studies are included to illustrate Zmix and Zswitch, as well as three case studies from the literature. All methods are available as part of the R package Zmix, which can currently be applied to univariate Gaussian mixture models. PMID:26177375

  10. 34. photographer unknown undated PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB NO. 9. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. photographer unknown undated PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB NO. 9. NOTE CONTOURING TO FIT IRREGULARITIES OF RIVER BOTTOM. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  11. 16. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. VIEW OF BRIDGE UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. VIEW OF BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING WEST. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 57. photographer unknown 30 October 1935 PIERS RISING FROM CONCRETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. photographer unknown 30 October 1935 PIERS RISING FROM CONCRETE DECK. BAFFLES IN VARIOUS STAGES OF CONSTRUCTION. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  13. On the GPI approach with unknown inertia matrix in robot manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arteaga-Pérez, Marco A.; Gutiérrez-Giles, Alejandro

    2014-04-01

    This article discusses the design of generalised proportional integral observers for the tracking control of robot manipulators. The unknown, possibly state-dependent, additive nonlinearity influencing the input-output description, in terms of the tracking error dynamics is modelled for observer construction purposes, as an absolutely bounded, additive, unknown time-varying perturbation input signal. A disadvantage of the approach lies in the fact that the system inertia matrix is usually required for implementation. In this work, it is shown how the approach can be modified to avoid the use of the inertia matrix when it is unknown. A set of experiments with three different test beds is carried out to show the good performance of the proposed algorithm.

  14. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  15. The Information Available to a Moving Observer on Shape with Unknown, Isotropic BRDFs.

    PubMed

    Chandraker, Manmohan

    2016-07-01

    Psychophysical studies show motion cues inform about shape even with unknown reflectance. Recent works in computer vision have considered shape recovery for an object of unknown BRDF using light source or object motions. This paper proposes a theory that addresses the remaining problem of determining shape from the (small or differential) motion of the camera, for unknown isotropic BRDFs. Our theory derives a differential stereo relation that relates camera motion to surface depth, which generalizes traditional Lambertian assumptions. Under orthographic projection, we show differential stereo may not determine shape for general BRDFs, but suffices to yield an invariant for several restricted (still unknown) BRDFs exhibited by common materials. For the perspective case, we show that differential stereo yields the surface depth for unknown isotropic BRDF and unknown directional lighting, while additional constraints are obtained with restrictions on the BRDF or lighting. The limits imposed by our theory are intrinsic to the shape recovery problem and independent of choice of reconstruction method. We also illustrate trends shared by theories on shape from differential motion of light source, object or camera, to relate the hardness of surface reconstruction to the complexity of imaging setup.

  16. 37 CFR 382.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 382.7 Section 382.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... SATELLITE DIGITAL AUDIO RADIO SERVICES Preexisting Subscription Services § 382.7 Unknown copyright...

  17. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  18. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If...

  19. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  20. 37 CFR 382.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 382.7 Section 382.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... SATELLITE DIGITAL AUDIO RADIO SERVICES Preexisting Subscription Services § 382.7 Unknown copyright...

  1. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If...

  2. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  3. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  4. 37 CFR 382.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 382.7 Section 382.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... SATELLITE DIGITAL AUDIO RADIO SERVICES Preexisting Subscription Services § 382.7 Unknown copyright...

  5. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  6. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If...

  7. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  8. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If...

  9. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  10. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  11. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  12. 48 CFR 52.247-49 - Destination Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Destination Unknown. 52....247-49 Destination Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-5(b)(2), insert the following provision in solicitations when destinations are tentative and only for the purpose of evaluating offers: Destination...

  13. 48 CFR 52.247-49 - Destination Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Destination Unknown. 52....247-49 Destination Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-5(b)(2), insert the following provision in solicitations when destinations are tentative and only for the purpose of evaluating offers: Destination...

  14. 48 CFR 22.1009 - Place of performance unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Place of performance unknown. 22.1009 Section 22.1009 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Amended 22.1009 Place of performance unknown....

  15. 48 CFR 22.1009 - Place of performance unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Place of performance unknown. 22.1009 Section 22.1009 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Amended 22.1009 Place of performance unknown....

  16. 5 CFR 1651.16 - Missing and unknown beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Missing and unknown beneficiaries. 1651.16 Section 1651.16 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.16 Missing and unknown beneficiaries. (a) Locate and identify beneficiaries. (1) The TSP...

  17. 48 CFR 22.1009 - Place of performance unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Place of performance unknown. 22.1009 Section 22.1009 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Amended 22.1009 Place of performance unknown....

  18. 15. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1932, photographer unknown Historic view of cartouche detail at center of arch - Bridge at Mouth of Rogue River, Spanning Rogue River on Oregon Coast Highway, Gold Beach, Curry County, OR

  19. 5 CFR 1651.16 - Missing and unknown beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Missing and unknown beneficiaries. 1651.16 Section 1651.16 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.16 Missing and unknown beneficiaries. (a) Locate and identify beneficiaries. (1) The TSP...

  20. 48 CFR 52.247-49 - Destination Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destination Unknown. 52....247-49 Destination Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-5(b)(2), insert the following provision in solicitations when destinations are tentative and only for the purpose of evaluating offers: Destination...

  1. 48 CFR 52.247-49 - Destination Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Destination Unknown. 52....247-49 Destination Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-5(b)(2), insert the following provision in solicitations when destinations are tentative and only for the purpose of evaluating offers: Destination...

  2. 5 CFR 1651.16 - Missing and unknown beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Missing and unknown beneficiaries. 1651.16 Section 1651.16 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.16 Missing and unknown beneficiaries. (a) Locate and identify beneficiaries. (1) The TSP...

  3. 5 CFR 1651.16 - Missing and unknown beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Missing and unknown beneficiaries. 1651.16 Section 1651.16 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.16 Missing and unknown beneficiaries. (a) Locate and identify beneficiaries. (1) The TSP...

  4. Students' Conscious Unknowns about Artefacts and Natural Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaz-Rebelo, Piedade; Fernandes, Paula; Morgado, Julia; Monteiro, António; Otero, José

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to characterise what 7th- and 12th-grade students believe they do not know about artefacts and natural objects, as well as the dependence of what is unknown on a knowledge of these objects. The students were asked to make explicit through questioning what they did not know about a sample of objects. The unknowns generated were…

  5. 48. Northwest Side of Breaker, from Culm Bank, date unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Northwest Side of Breaker, from Culm Bank, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre,PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  6. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71.83... Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic abundance... fissile material in any package is not known, the licensee shall package the fissile material as if...

  7. Considering Unknown Unknowns: Reconstruction of Nonconfoundable Causal Relations in Biological Networks

    PubMed Central

    Moffa, Giusi; Spang, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Our current understanding of cellular networks is rather incomplete. We over look important but so far unknown genes and mechanisms in the pathways. Moreover, we often only have a partial account of the molecular interactions and modifications of the known players. When analyzing the cell, we look through narrow windows leaving potentially important events in blind spots. Network reconstruction is naturally confined to what we have observed. Little is known on how the incompleteness of our observations confounds our interpretation of the available data. Here we ask which features of a network can be confounded by incomplete observations and which cannot. In the context of nested effects models, we show that in the presence of missing observations or hidden factors a reliable reconstruction of the full network is not feasible. Nevertheless, we can show that certain characteristics of signaling networks like the existence of cross-talk between certain branches of the network can be inferred in a nonconfoundable way. We derive a test for inferring such nonconfoundable characteristics of signaling networks. Next, we introduce a new data structure to represent partially reconstructed signaling networks. Finally, we evaluate our method both on simulated data and in the context of a study on early stem cell differentiation in mice. PMID:24195708

  8. Considering unknown unknowns: reconstruction of nonconfoundable causal relations in biological networks.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Mohammad J; Moffa, Giusi; Spang, Rainer

    2013-11-01

    Our current understanding of cellular networks is rather incomplete. We over look important but so far unknown genes and mechanisms in the pathways. Moreover, we often only have a partial account of the molecular interactions and modifications of the known players. When analyzing the cell, we look through narrow windows leaving potentially important events in blind spots. Network reconstruction is naturally confined to what we have observed. Little is known on how the incompleteness of our observations confounds our interpretation of the available data. Here we ask which features of a network can be confounded by incomplete observations and which cannot. In the context of nested effects models, we show that in the presence of missing observations or hidden factors a reliable reconstruction of the full network is not feasible. Nevertheless, we can show that certain characteristics of signaling networks like the existence of cross-talk between certain branches of the network can be inferred in a nonconfoundable way. We derive a test for inferring such nonconfoundable characteristics of signaling networks. Next, we introduce a new data structure to represent partially reconstructed signaling networks. Finally, we evaluate our method both on simulated data and in the context of a study on early stem cell differentiation in mice.

  9. 52. Neg. No.none, ca. 1950's, PhotographerUnknown, AERIAL VIEWS OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Neg. No.-none, ca. 1950's, Photographer-Unknown, AERIAL VIEWS OF THE FORD MOTOR COMPANY ASSEMBLY PLANT, SOMETIME AFTER THE ADDITION OF THE NORTHERN WING - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Viral Diseases in Zebrafish: What Is Known and Unknown

    PubMed Central

    Crim, Marcus J.; Riley, Lela K.

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring viral infections have the potential to introduce confounding variability that leads to invalid and misinterpreted data. Whereas the viral diseases of research rodents are well characterized and closely monitored, no naturally occurring viral infections have been characterized for the laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio), an increasingly important biomedical research model. Despite the ignorance about naturally occurring zebrafish viruses, zebrafish models are rapidly expanding in areas of biomedical research where the confounding effects of unknown infectious agents present a serious concern. In addition, many zebrafish research colonies remain linked to the ornamental (pet) zebrafish trade, which can contribute to the introduction of new pathogens into research colonies, whereas mice used for research are purpose bred, with no introduction of new mice from the pet industry. Identification, characterization, and monitoring of naturally occurring viruses in zebrafish are crucial to the improvement of zebrafish health, the reduction of unwanted variability, and the continued development of the zebrafish as a model organism. This article addresses the importance of identifying and characterizing the viral diseases of zebrafish as the scope of zebrafish models expands into new research areas and also briefly addresses zebrafish susceptibility to experimental viral infection and the utility of the zebrafish as an infection and immunology model. PMID:23382345

  11. Exploration for Agents with Different Personalities in Unknown Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doumit, Sarjoun; Minai, Ali

    We present in this paper a personality-based architecture (PA) that combines elements from the subsumption architecture and reinforcement learning to find alternate solutions for problems facing artificial agents exploring unknown environments. The underlying PA algorithm is decomposed into layers according to the different (non-contiguous) stages that our agent passes in, which in turn are influenced by the sources of rewards present in the environment. The cumulative rewards collected by an agent, in addition to its internal composition serve as factors in shaping its personality. In missions where multiple agents are deployed, our solution-goal is to allow each of the agents develop its own distinct personality in order for the collective to reach a balanced society, which then can accumulate the largest possible amount of rewards for the agent and society as well. The architecture is tested in a simulated matrix world which embodies different types of positive rewards and negative rewards. Varying experiments are performed to compare the performance of our algorithm with other algorithms under the same environment conditions. The use of our architecture accelerates the overall adaptation of the agents to their environment and goals by allowing the emergence of an optimal society of agents with different personalities. We believe that our approach achieves much efficient results when compared to other more restrictive policy designs.

  12. Impedance spectroscopy for the detection and identification of unknown toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, B. C.; Plopper, G. E.; Paluh, J. L.; Phamduy, T. B.; Corr, D. T.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2012-06-01

    Advancements in biological and chemical warfare has allowed for the creation of novel toxins necessitating a universal, real-time sensor. We have used a function-based biosensor employing impedance spectroscopy using a low current density AC signal over a range of frequencies (62.5 Hz-64 kHz) to measure the electrical impedance of a confluent epithelial cell monolayer at 120 sec intervals. Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells were grown to confluence on thin film interdigitated gold electrodes. A stable impedance measurement of 2200 Ω was found after 24 hrs of growth. After exposure to cytotoxins anthrax lethal toxin and etoposide, the impedance decreased in a linear fashion resulting in a 50% drop in impedance over 50hrs showing significant difference from the control sample (~20% decrease). Immunofluorescent imaging showed that apoptosis was induced through the addition of toxins. Similarities of the impedance signal shows that the mechanism of cellular death was the same between ALT and etoposide. A revised equivalent circuit model was employed in order to quantify morphological changes in the cell monolayer such as tight junction integrity and cell surface area coverage. This model showed a faster response to cytotoxin (2 hrs) compared to raw measurements (20 hrs). We demonstrate that herein that impedance spectroscopy of epithelial monolayers serves as a real-time non-destructive sensor for unknown pathogens.

  13. Age correlation of petroleum of unknown source using biological markers

    SciTech Connect

    Moldowan, J.M.; Jacobson, S.R.; Lee, C.Y. ); Huizinga, B.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Determination of age constraints on petroleums from unknown sources provides a means of choosing among possible source rock candidates, predicting migration scenarios for oil, and determining the timing of its emplacement in the reservoir. A number of parameters used to assign such age constraints to petroleum have been suggested by geochemists. However, any constraining marker, regardless of age, may not be found in a particular facies because the parent organisms are absent in those sediments. Thus, the presence of a specific age correlation marker may be significant whereas its absence may not. The authors have investigated two markers for their age-correlation significance. Oleanane, a marker related to pentacyclic triterpanes in flowering plants (angiosperms) occurs in many Late Cretaceous or younger rocks and oils, even though angiosperm fossils are known in older rocks. A survey of a sequence of middle to upper Cretaceous rocks from Wyoming provides an example of a Late Cretaceous age for the onset of oleanane. However, a level of uncertainty exists for older Cretaceous rocks where a trace component with many similarities to oleanane (which could in fact be oleanane) can occur. C{sub 30}-steranes (24-n-propylcholestanes) have been used as a widely occurring marker for marine organic input to petroleum. A recent report postulates the origin of C{sub 30}-steranes from marine Sarcinochrysidales order of Chrysophycase (golden brown algae). Although the fossil record of these algae has not been recorded, their sample base indicates that C{sub 30} steranes, and therefore their parent organisms, originate in the Middle Ordovician.

  14. 51. Photographer unknown 1930 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photographer unknown 1930 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. 1-HUM-1-A #101, MEASURING BETWEEN TREES, 1930. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  15. 21. photographer unknown undated RECORDING CONTROL BOARD AND BATCHING TUBES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. photographer unknown undated RECORDING CONTROL BOARD AND BATCHING TUBES OF CONCRETE PLANT. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  16. 32. photographer unknown undated AGGREGATE PLANT SHOWING MAIN BELT CONVEYOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. photographer unknown undated AGGREGATE PLANT SHOWING MAIN BELT CONVEYOR UNITS AND STORAGE UNIT. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  17. 41. Upstream end of emergency spillway excavation. Photographer unknown, 1929. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Upstream end of emergency spillway excavation. Photographer unknown, 1929. Source: Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR). - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. 44. Reinforcement construction to Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Reinforcement construction to Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: Huber Collection, University of California, Berkeley, Water Resources Library. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, WITH INDUCTION MOTORS. HARTLEY BOILER, MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA, ON RIGHT. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  20. 43. Photographer unknown September 1967 VISITOR INFORMATION KIOSK, LOCATED NEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photographer unknown September 1967 VISITOR INFORMATION KIOSK, LOCATED NEAR THE POWDER MILL ROAD INTERCHANGE. (NPS/NCR (cn) 9995-C) - Baltimore-Washington Parkway, Greenbelt, Prince George's County, MD

  1. 13. Photocopy of color photograph (Photographer unknown, 1974) INTERIOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of color photograph (Photographer unknown, 1974) INTERIOR OF SACRISTY LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FURRING AND METAL LATH PUT IN DURING 1974 RESTORATION - Church of the Holy Cross, State Route 261, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

  2. 1. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC DRAWING OF SHIP SECTION, UNKNOWN DELINEATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC DRAWING OF SHIP SECTION, UNKNOWN DELINEATOR AND DATE, SOURCE: BISHOP MUSEUM, HONOLULU, HI. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  3. 19. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, ca. 1895 GENERAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, ca. 1895 GENERAL VIEW OF KEY WEST WITH FORT TAYLOR IN THE BACKGROUND LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST - Fort Taylor, Whitehead Spit Vicinity, Key West, Monroe County, FL

  4. 27. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original owned ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original owned by Waterloo Community Development Board, Waterloo, Iowa; SPLITTING CATTLE CARCASSES WITH RECIPROCATING SAW - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  5. Optimal programmable unambiguous discriminator between two unknown latitudinal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunian, XiaoBing; Li, YuWei; Zhou, Tao

    2016-10-01

    Two unknown states can be unambiguously distinguished by a universal programmable discriminator, which has been widely discussed in previous works and the optimal solution has also been obtained. In this paper, we investigate the programmable unambiguous discriminator between two unknown "latitudinal" states, which lie in a subspace of the total state space. By equivalence of unknown pure states to known average mixed states, the optimal solution for this problem is systematically derived, and the analytical success probabilities for the optimal unambiguous discrimination are obtained. It is beyond one's expectation that the optimal setting for the programmable unambiguous discrimination between two unknown "latitudinal" states is the same as that for the universal ones. The results in this work can be used for the realization of the programmable discriminator in laboratory.

  6. 73. photographer unknown 9 January 1936 TOP OF DRAFT TUBE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. photographer unknown 9 January 1936 TOP OF DRAFT TUBE LINER AND SPEED RING PIERS. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  7. View of an unknown industrial building in the Dolphin Jute ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of an unknown industrial building in the Dolphin Jute Mill Complex, looking southwest. Note Garret Mountain at upper left and historic Dexter-Lambert smokestack. - Dolphin Manufacturing Company, Spruce & Barbour Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  8. 43. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca January 1929 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca January 1929 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). COMPLETED BRIDGE. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  9. 48 CFR 47.305-5 - Destination unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-5 Destination unknown. (a)(1) When... shipping weights, the solicitation shall state that subsequent shipments shall be made in carloads...

  10. 48 CFR 47.305-5 - Destination unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-5 Destination unknown. (a)(1) When... shipping weights, the solicitation shall state that subsequent shipments shall be made in carloads...

  11. 30. Upstream face of construction effort. Photographer unknown, January 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Upstream face of construction effort. Photographer unknown, January 29, 1927. Source: Fritz Seifritz. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 35. Photocopy of drawing (from Library of Congress) Artist unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photocopy of drawing (from Library of Congress) Artist unknown 1891 SOUTH FRONT FROM THE SOUTHWEST - Patent Office Building, Bounded by Seventh, Ninth, F & G Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copy, Photographer unknown 1900 (a) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copy, Photographer unknown 1900 (a) Old Photo showing Kilns about 1900 (from original print found at site) - Charcoal Kilns, Valley Road, Pelham, Hampshire County, MA

  14. 4. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown DETAIL, DECORATIVE SWAG OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown DETAIL, DECORATIVE SWAG OF EARS OF CORN - Thomas Asylum for Orphan & Destitute Indians, Dining Hall, Route 438, Cattaraugas Reservation, Irving, Chautauqua County, NY

  15. 26. photographer unknown 19 August 1935 SOUNDING BARGE USED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. photographer unknown 19 August 1935 SOUNDING BARGE USED TO DETERMINE RIVER-BOTTOM CONTOURS. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  16. 28. photographer unknown undated SIDE VIEW OF PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. photographer unknown undated SIDE VIEW OF PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB NO. 13. NOTE CONTOURING TO FIT IRREGULARITIES OF RIVER BOTTOM. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  17. 6. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in the possession of the Wisconsin Veterans Museums). COTTAGES, INCLUDING 'J.P. McPHERSON POST NO. 27 CAFE GENEVA'. - Wisconsin Home for Veterans, King, Waupaca County, WI

  18. 410. Delineator Unknown Revised November 2, 1933 SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    410. Delineator Unknown Revised November 2, 1933 SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; "A" - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 20. photographer unknown undated EXCAVATION AND ROCK TRIMMING FOR LOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. photographer unknown undated EXCAVATION AND ROCK TRIMMING FOR LOCK AND GATE SILL COMPLETED. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  20. 22. photographer unknown 8 May 1935 EXCAVATION FOR MAIN CULVERT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. photographer unknown 8 May 1935 EXCAVATION FOR MAIN CULVERT AND LATERALS IN LOCK FLOOR. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  1. 17. Photographer unknown, March 1928 PARK ROAD BOOSTERS ATTEND A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographer unknown, March 1928 PARK ROAD BOOSTERS ATTEND A MEETING IN MARCH OF 1928, WHEN A $5 MILLION GIFT FOR THE LAURA SPELLMAN ROCKEFELLER MEMORIAL WAS ANNOUNCED. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  2. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Unknown Photographer, no date, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Unknown Photographer, no date, VIEW OF GROUND FLOOR SALES COUNTER AND STAIRWAY, Private Collection, Photocopy by Jack Boucher, October 1972. - Powers Building, 16 Main Street West, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  3. Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims ... in the recent Advances in molecular biology and genetics," says team member Stephen Sherry, Ph.D., of ...

  4. Floating Crane YD82 general view. Date taken unknown. Taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floating Crane YD-82 - general view. Date taken unknown. Taken by Pearl Harbor photographer. Crane Division Collection - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Waterfront Crane Track System, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 31. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH (date unknown) Original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH (date unknown) Original print in the possession of the Library of the Daughters of the Republic of Texas at the Alamo, San Antonio, Texas. - Fairmount Hotel, 857 East Commerce Street, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  6. 11. Photocopy of photograph (from St. Paul's Church) Photographer unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of photograph (from St. Paul's Church) Photographer unknown 1886 'EPISCOPAL CHURCH, CORNER OF 1ST AND J ST. BENICIA' WEST AND SOUTH SIDES - St. Paul's Episcopal Church, 120 East J Street, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  7. 20. Photographic copy of photograph, circa 1880, photographer unknown (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photographic copy of photograph, circa 1880, photographer unknown (original at Rochester Landmark Society, Rochester, New York) VIEW SOUTH, MILITIA ASSEMBLED IN FRONT OF ARSENAL - New York State Arsenal, 75 Woodbury Boulevard, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  8. [Diagnostic approach of recurrent fevers of unknown origin in adults].

    PubMed

    Zenone, T

    2015-07-01

    Recurrent fever of unknown origin is probably the most difficult to diagnose subtype of fever of unknown origin. It represents between 18 and 42% of the cases in large series of patients with fever of unknown origin. The limited literature data do not allow one to construct a diagnostic algorithm. However, the diagnostic strategy is different from classic fever of unknown origin. The spectrum of causative disorders is different from continuous fever with less infections and tumors. Among systemic inflammatory diseases, adult-onset Still's disease is the most common cause. More than 50% of the cases remain unexplained. Hereditary recurrent fevers, the prototype of autoinflammatory diseases, are now more easily discuss in a young adult.

  9. System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, J.S.

    1999-07-20

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy. 37 figs.

  10. Method for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, John S.

    2000-01-01

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.

  11. System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, John S.

    1999-01-01

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.

  12. 48. Photographer unknown February 1925 MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION K, HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photographer unknown February 1925 MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION K, HIGHWAY 1. 1-MEN-1-K #39, LOG GUARD RAIL, 2-25. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  13. 22. Photographic copy of photograph, circa 1928, photographer unknown (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photographic copy of photograph, circa 1928, photographer unknown (original in Rundell Library, Rochester, New York) AUDITORIUM AND STAGE DECORATED FOR POLITICAL CONVENTION, VIEW FROM BALCONY LOOKING SOUTHWEST - New York State Arsenal, 75 Woodbury Boulevard, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  14. 47. Photocopy of postcard (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Hampton's Old ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of postcard (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Hampton's Old Point Comfort electric trolley in 1921. - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  15. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey unknown illustrator, 1898 DRAWING OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey unknown illustrator, 1898 DRAWING OF PLYMOUTH PLACE, 1898 From the Collection of the Regional Transportation District - Plymouth Place, 1560-1572 Broadway, Denver, Denver County, CO

  16. Using the Wheatstone Bridge to Compute Unknown Resistances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This document presents a secondary level physics unit which introduces students to the Wheatstone Bridge, its use in determining the value of unknown resistors, and the effects of wiring resistors in series or in parallel. (SL)

  17. The Unknown Computer Viruses Detection Based on Similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongda; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji

    New computer viruses are continually being generated and they cause damage all over the world. In general, current anti-virus software detects viruses by matching a pattern based on the signature; thus, unknown viruses without any signature cannot be detected. Although there are some static analysis technologies that do not depend on signatures, virus writers often use code obfuscation techniques, which make it difficult to execute a code analysis. As is generally known, unknown viruses and known viruses share a common feature. In this paper we propose a new static analysis technology that can circumvent code obfuscation to extract the common feature and detect unknown viruses based on similarity. The results of evaluation experiments demonstrated that this technique is able to detect unknown viruses without false positives.

  18. 25. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, c. 19231925) EXTERIOR, CLOSEUP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, c. 1923-1925) EXTERIOR, CLOSE-UP OF SOUTH FRONT OF MISSION AFTER RESTORATION, C. 1923-1925 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  19. 356. Delineator Unknown March 1946 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    356. Delineator Unknown March 1946 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; GENERAL DATA; PLAT III - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 40. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1954. VIEW OF SHEARING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1954. VIEW OF SHEARING SHEEP IN SHED NEAR WEST END OF THE BRIDGE. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. 35. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1941. VIEW OF HORSESHOE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1941. VIEW OF HORSESHOE DAM SITE BRIDGE, SHOWING WALKWAY WITH CHARLES WILLIS (WITH HAT) AND FAMILY. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. 39. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING SHEEP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING SHEEP CROSSING BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM CORRAL AT EAST APPROACH TO WALKWAY. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. 29. Historic photographer, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW OF BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic photographer, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST FROM TOP OF WEST TOWER. SHEEP CROSSING BRIDGE. NOTE SWAY CABLES. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. 34. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, October 10, 1944. VIEW SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, October 10, 1944. VIEW SHOWING HORSESHOE DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING WEST. ONLY THE BRIDGE TOWERS REMAIN. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. 37. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1942. PHOTOGRAPH OF B. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1942. PHOTOGRAPH OF B. L. 'LES' SMITH, SON OF GEORGE W. SMITH, REPAIRING HORSESHOE DAM SITE BRIDGE - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. 32. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1943. VIEW OF HORSESHOE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1943. VIEW OF HORSESHOE DAM SITE BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING BRIDGE SPANNING THE VERDE RIVER BEFORE DAM WAS BUILT. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 18. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST. EAST TOWER ON SKYLINE HAS NOT BEEN REINFORCED WITH CONCRETE. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. 38. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING BURROS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING BURROS (OR MULES) CROSSING BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. 41. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1954. VIEW OF LOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1954. VIEW OF LOADING SACKS OF FLEECES ONTO TRUCK AT JUNCTION OF SEVEN SPRINGS ROAD AND TANGLE CREEK ROAD. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. 54. Date unknown. "No. 38. View of stringers and middle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Date unknown. "No. 38. View of stringers and middle pier, Wheeler Creek Bridge, Pinnacles Road, mile two. Taken from under bridge, looking up." - Crater Lake National Park Roads, Klamath Falls, Klamath County, OR

  11. 2. Photocopy of photograph (from Reading Co. Archives) Photographer unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph (from Reading Co. Archives) Photographer unknown ca. 1937 NORTHEAST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Terminal Station, 1115-1141 Market Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 26. photographer unknown 29 December 1937 FLOATING MOORING BIT INSTALLED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. photographer unknown 29 December 1937 FLOATING MOORING BIT INSTALLED IN LOCK SIDEWALL. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  13. 63. photographer unknown 21 November 1935 BAFFLES AND PIERS FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. photographer unknown 21 November 1935 BAFFLES AND PIERS FOR SOUTH HALF OF MAIN DAM IN VARIOUS STAGES OF CONSTRUCTION. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  14. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1908 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1908 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "CONSTRUCTION - BOISE RIVER DIVERSION DAM." - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  15. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 20 March 1912 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 20 March 1912 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "DIVERSION WORKS AND POWER HOUSE CONSTRUCTION" - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  16. 33. photographer unknown 15 October 1936 PANORAMA OF BONNEVILLE PROJECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. photographer unknown 15 October 1936 PANORAMA OF BONNEVILLE PROJECT WITH LOCK AND ORIGINAL POWERHOUSE NEARLY COMPLETE AND SPILLWAY UNDER CONSTRUCTION. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  17. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 April 1912 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 April 1912 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "POWER PLANT CONSTRUCTION AT DIVERSION DAM" - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  18. 81. photographer unknown 11 June 1937 WORKMEN ON TURBINE BLADES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. photographer unknown 11 June 1937 WORKMEN ON TURBINE BLADES BEFORE LOWERING INTO DRAFT TUBE LINER. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  19. 8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. AT TEAM OF HORSES ON OPPOSITE BANKS OF THE CANAL DRAG A CHAIN BETWEEN THEM ALONG THE BOTTOM OF THE CANAL, WHICH PULLS THE MOSS AND WEEDS LOOSE. THE PLANS THEN FLOAT DOWN THE CANAL AND ARE CAUGHT IN A SCREEN AND REMOVED. Photographer unknown, 1923 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. On estimating the phase of periodic waveform in additive Gaussian noise, part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, L. L.

    1984-11-01

    Motivated by advances in signal processing technology that support more complex algorithms, a new look is taken at the problem of estimating the phase and other parameters of a periodic waveform in additive Gaussian noise. The general problem was introduced and the maximum a posteriori probability criterion with signal space interpretation was used to obtain the structures of optimum and some suboptimum phase estimators for known constant frequency and unknown constant phase with an a priori distribution. Optimal algorithms are obtained for some cases where the frequency is a parameterized function of time with the unknown parameters and phase having a joint a priori distribution. In the last section, the intrinsic and extrinsic geometry of hypersurfaces is introduced to provide insight to the estimation problem for the small noise and large noise cases.

  1. Extension of the standard addition method by blank addition.

    PubMed

    Steliopoulos, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Standard addition involves adding varying amounts of the analyte to sample portions of fixed mass or fixed volume and submitting those portions to the sample preparation procedure. After measuring the final extract solutions, the observed signals are linearly regressed on the spiked amounts. The original unknown amount is estimated by the opposite of the abscissa intercept of the fitted straight line [1]. A limitation of this method is that only data points with abscissa values equal to and greater than zero are available so that there is no information on whether linearity holds below the spiking level zero. An approach to overcome this limitation is introduced.•Standard addition is combined with blank addition.•Blank addition means that defined mixtures of blank matrix and sample material are subjected to sample preparation to give final extract solutions.•Equations are presented to estimate the original unknown amount and to calculate the 1-2α confidence interval about this estimate using the combined data set.

  2. Extension of the standard addition method by blank addition

    PubMed Central

    Steliopoulos, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Standard addition involves adding varying amounts of the analyte to sample portions of fixed mass or fixed volume and submitting those portions to the sample preparation procedure. After measuring the final extract solutions, the observed signals are linearly regressed on the spiked amounts. The original unknown amount is estimated by the opposite of the abscissa intercept of the fitted straight line [1]. A limitation of this method is that only data points with abscissa values equal to and greater than zero are available so that there is no information on whether linearity holds below the spiking level zero. An approach to overcome this limitation is introduced.•Standard addition is combined with blank addition.•Blank addition means that defined mixtures of blank matrix and sample material are subjected to sample preparation to give final extract solutions.•Equations are presented to estimate the original unknown amount and to calculate the 1-2α confidence interval about this estimate using the combined data set. PMID:26844210

  3. FT-Raman and chemometric tools for rapid determination of quality parameters in milk powder: Classification of samples for the presence of lactose and fraud detection by addition of maltodextrin.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Júnior, Paulo Henrique; de Sá Oliveira, Kamila; de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Rocha; De Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Cappa; Stephani, Rodrigo; Pinto, Michele da Silva; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes; Perrone, Ítalo Tuler

    2016-04-01

    FT-Raman spectroscopy has been explored as a quick screening method to evaluate the presence of lactose and identify milk powder samples adulterated with maltodextrin (2.5-50% w/w). Raman measurements can easily differentiate samples of milk powder, without the need for sample preparation, while traditional quality control methods, including high performance liquid chromatography, are cumbersome and slow. FT-Raman spectra were obtained from samples of whole lactose and low-lactose milk powder, both without and with addition of maltodextrin. Differences were observed between the spectra involved in identifying samples with low lactose content, as well as adulterated samples. Exploratory data analysis using Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis was also developed to classify samples with PCA and PLS-DA. The PLS-DA models obtained allowed to correctly classify all samples. These results demonstrate the utility of FT-Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics to infer about the quality of milk powder.

  4. Inference of ancestry: constructing hierarchical reference populations and assigning unknown individuals

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    The ability to infer personal genetic ancestry is being increasingly utilised in certain medical and forensic situations. Herein, the unsupervised Bayesian clustering algorithms structure, is employed to analyse 377 autosomal short tandem repeats typed on 1,056 individuals from the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain Human Diversity Panel. Individuals of known geographical origin were hierarchically classified into a framework of increasingly homogeneous clusters to serve as reference populations into which individuals of unknown ancestry can be assigned. The groupings were characterised by the geographical affinities of cluster members and the accuracy of these procedures was verified using several genetic indices. Fine-scale substructure was detectable beyond the broad population level classifications that previously have been explored in this dataset. Metrics indicated that within certain lines, the strongest structuring signals were detected at the leaves of the hierarchy where lineage-specific groupings were identified. The accuracy of unknown assignment was assessed at each level of the hierarchy using a 'leave one out' strategy in which each individual was stripped of cluster membership and then re-assigned using the supervised Bayesian clustering algorithm implemented in GeneClass2. Although most clusters at all levels of resolution experienced highly accurate assignment, a decline was observed in the finer levels due to the mixed membership characteristics of some individuals. The parameters defined by this study allowed for assignment of unknown individuals to genetically defined clusters with measured likelihood. Shared ancestry data can then be inferred for the unknown individual. PMID:16460647

  5. Effects of black pepper (piper nigrum), turmeric powder (curcuma longa) and coriander seeds (coriandrum sativum) and their combinations as feed additives on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abou-Elkhair, R; Ahmed, H A; Selim, S

    2014-06-01

    Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb) one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1), 0.5% turmeric powder (T2), 2% coriander seeds (T3), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5), and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6). Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) were observed in broilers on T1, T3, T5, and T6 compared to control. Dietary supplements with T1, T2, T3, and T6 improved the cumulative G:F of broilers during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) compared with control. The dressing percentage and edible giblets were not influenced by dietary supplements, while higher values of relative weight of the liver (p<0.05) were obtained in T5 and T6 compared to control. The addition of feed supplements in T5 and T6 significantly increased serum total protein and decreased serum glucose, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase concentrations compared with the control group (p<0.05). Broilers on T6 showed significant decrease in the serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase concentration (p<0.05) compared to control. The broilers having T5 and T6 supplemented feed had relatively greater antibody titre (p<0.001) at 35 d of age than control. It is concluded that dietary supplements with black pepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens.

  6. Effects of Black Pepper (Piper Nigrum), Turmeric Powder (Curcuma Longa) and Coriander Seeds (Coriandrum Sativum) and Their Combinations as Feed Additives on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Some Blood Parameters and Humoral Immune Response of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Elkhair, R.; Ahmed, H. A.; Selim, S.

    2014-01-01

    Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb) one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1), 0.5% turmeric powder (T2), 2% coriander seeds (T3), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5), and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6). Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) were observed in broilers on T1, T3, T5, and T6 compared to control. Dietary supplements with T1, T2, T3, and T6 improved the cumulative G:F of broilers during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) compared with control. The dressing percentage and edible giblets were not influenced by dietary supplements, while higher values of relative weight of the liver (p<0.05) were obtained in T5 and T6 compared to control. The addition of feed supplements in T5 and T6 significantly increased serum total protein and decreased serum glucose, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase concentrations compared with the control group (p<0.05). Broilers on T6 showed significant decrease in the serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase concentration (p<0.05) compared to control. The broilers having T5 and T6 supplemented feed had relatively greater antibody titre (p<0.001) at 35 d of age than control. It is concluded that dietary supplements with black pepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens. PMID:25050023

  7. Erythropoietin Levels in Elderly Patients with Anemia of Unknown Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Swetha; Martin, Alison; Xenocostas, Anargyros; Lazo-Langner, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Background In many elderly patients with anemia, a specific cause cannot be identified. This study investigates whether erythropoietin levels are inappropriately low in these cases of “anemia of unknown etiology” and whether this trend persists after accounting for confounders. Methods This study includes all anemic patients over 60 years old who had erythropoietin measured between 2005 and 2013 at a single center. Three independent reviewers used defined criteria to assign each patient’s anemia to one of ten etiologies: chronic kidney disease, iron deficiency, chronic disease, confirmed myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), suspected MDS, vitamin B12 deficiency, folate deficiency, anemia of unknown etiology, other etiology, or multifactorial etiology. Iron deficiency anemia served as the comparison group in all analyses. We used linear regression to model the relationship between erythropoietin and the presence of each etiology, sequentially adding terms to the model to account for the hemoglobin concentration, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and Charlson Comorbidity Index. Results A total of 570 patients met the inclusion criteria. Linear regression analysis showed that erythropoietin levels in chronic kidney disease, anemia of chronic disease and anemia of unknown etiology were lower by 48%, 46% and 27%, respectively, compared to iron deficiency anemia even after adjusting for hemoglobin, eGFR and comorbidities. Conclusions We have shown that erythropoietin levels are inappropriately low in anemia of unknown etiology, even after adjusting for confounders. This suggests that decreased erythropoietin production may play a key role in the pathogenesis of anemia of unknown etiology. PMID:27310832

  8. 17. Photographic copy of photograph. Location unknown but assumed to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of photograph. Location unknown but assumed to be uper end of canal. Features no longer extant. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1925. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, Irrigation District #4, California and Southern Arizona, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 28, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photographer unknown. MAIN (TITLED FLORENCE) CANAL, WASTEWAY, SLUICEWAY, & BRIDGE, 1/26/25. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Marin Canal, Amhurst-Hayden Dam to Picacho Reservoir, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  9. Influence of multiple categories on the prediction of unknown properties

    PubMed Central

    Verde, Michael F.; Murphy, Gregory L.; Ross, Brian H.

    2006-01-01

    Knowing an item's category helps us predict its unknown properties. Previous studies suggest that when asked to evaluate the probability of an unknown property, people tend to consider only an item's most likely category, ignoring alternative categories. In the present study, property prediction took the form of either a probability rating or a speeded, binary-choice judgment. Consistent with past findings, subjects ignored alternative categories in their probability ratings. However, their binary-choice judgments were influenced by alternative categories. This novel finding suggests that the way category knowledge is used in prediction depends critically on the form of the prediction. PMID:16156183

  10. Scheme for approximate conditional teleportation of an unknown atomic state without the Bell-state measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Shibiao

    2004-06-01

    We propose a scheme for approximately and conditionally teleporting an unknown atomic state in cavity QED. Our scheme does not involve the Bell-state measurement and thus an additional atom is unnecessary. Only two atoms and one single-mode cavity are required. The scheme may be used to teleport the state of a cavity mode to another mode using a single atom. The idea may also be used to teleport the state of a trapped ion.

  11. A novel sensitivity-based method for damage detection of structures under unknown periodic excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseralavi, S. S.; Salajegheh, E.; Fadaee, M. J.; Salajegheh, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a technique for damage detection in structures under unknown periodic excitations using the transient displacement response. The method is capable of identifying the damage parameters without finding the input excitations. We first define the concept of displacement space as a linear space in which each point represents displacements of structure under an excitation and initial condition. Roughly speaking, the method is based on the fact that structural displacements under free and forced vibrations are associated with two parallel subspaces in the displacement space. Considering this novel geometrical viewpoint, an equation called kernel parallelization equation (KPE) is derived for damage detection under unknown periodic excitations and a sensitivity-based algorithm for solving KPE is proposed accordingly. The method is evaluated via three case studies under periodic excitations, which confirm the efficiency of the proposed method.

  12. A novel adaptive controller for two-degree of freedom polar robot with unknown perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faieghi, Mohammad Reza; Delavari, Hadi; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2012-02-01

    In industrial applications, the performance of robot manipulators is always affected due to the presence of uncertainties and disturbances. This paper proposes a novel adaptive control scheme for robust control of robotic manipulators perturbed by unknown uncertainties and disturbances. First, an active sliding mode controller is designed and a sufficient condition is obtained guarantying reachability of the states to hit the sliding surface in finite time. Then, based on a Lyapunov function candidate an adaptive switching gain is derived which make the controller capable to bring the tracking error to zero without any disturbance exerted upon the stability. By virtue of this controller it can be shown that the controller can track the desired trajectories even in the presence of unknown perturbations. For the problem of determining the control parameters Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm has been employed. Our theoretic achievements are verified by numerical simulations.

  13. Target Capturing Control for Space Robots with Unknown Mass Properties: A Self-Tuning Method Based on Gyros and Cameras.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenyu; Wang, Bin; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Satellite capturing with free-floating space robots is still a challenging task due to the non-fixed base and unknown mass property issues. In this paper gyro and eye-in-hand camera data are adopted as an alternative choice for solving this problem. For this improved system, a new modeling approach that reduces the complexity of system control and identification is proposed. With the newly developed model, the space robot is equivalent to a ground-fixed manipulator system. Accordingly, a self-tuning control scheme is applied to handle such a control problem including unknown parameters. To determine the controller parameters, an estimator is designed based on the least-squares technique for identifying the unknown mass properties in real time. The proposed method is tested with a credible 3-dimensional ground verification experimental system, and the experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. PMID:27589748

  14. Target Capturing Control for Space Robots with Unknown Mass Properties: A Self-Tuning Method Based on Gyros and Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenyu; Wang, Bin; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Satellite capturing with free-floating space robots is still a challenging task due to the non-fixed base and unknown mass property issues. In this paper gyro and eye-in-hand camera data are adopted as an alternative choice for solving this problem. For this improved system, a new modeling approach that reduces the complexity of system control and identification is proposed. With the newly developed model, the space robot is equivalent to a ground-fixed manipulator system. Accordingly, a self-tuning control scheme is applied to handle such a control problem including unknown parameters. To determine the controller parameters, an estimator is designed based on the least-squares technique for identifying the unknown mass properties in real time. The proposed method is tested with a credible 3-dimensional ground verification experimental system, and the experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. PMID:27589748

  15. Target Capturing Control for Space Robots with Unknown Mass Properties: A Self-Tuning Method Based on Gyros and Cameras.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenyu; Wang, Bin; Liu, Hong

    2016-08-30

    Satellite capturing with free-floating space robots is still a challenging task due to the non-fixed base and unknown mass property issues. In this paper gyro and eye-in-hand camera data are adopted as an alternative choice for solving this problem. For this improved system, a new modeling approach that reduces the complexity of system control and identification is proposed. With the newly developed model, the space robot is equivalent to a ground-fixed manipulator system. Accordingly, a self-tuning control scheme is applied to handle such a control problem including unknown parameters. To determine the controller parameters, an estimator is designed based on the least-squares technique for identifying the unknown mass properties in real time. The proposed method is tested with a credible 3-dimensional ground verification experimental system, and the experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  16. Characterization of unknown brominated disinfection byproducts during chlorination using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haifeng; Zhang, Yahe; Shi, Quan; Zheng, Hongdie; Yang, Min

    2014-03-18

    Brominated disinfection byproducts (Br-DBPs), formed from the reaction of disinfectant(s) with natural organic matter in the presence of bromide in raw water, are generally more cytotoxic and genotoxic than their chlorinated analogues. To date, only a few Br-DBPs in drinking water have been identified, while a significant portion of Br-DBPs in drinking water is still unknown. In this study, negative ion electrospray ionization ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) was used to characterize unknown Br-DBPs in artificial drinking water. In total, 441 formulas for one-bromine-containing products and 37 formulas for two-bromine-containing products, most of which had not been previously reported, were detected in the chlorinated sample. Most Br-DBPs have corresponding chlorine-containing analogues with identical CHO composition. In addition, on-resonance collision-induced dissociation (CID) of single ultrahigh resolved bromine containing mass peaks was performed in the ICR cell to isolate single bromine-containing components in a very complex natural organic matter spectrum and provide structure information. Relatively abundant neutral loss of CO2 was observed in MS-MS spectra, indicating that the unknown Br-DBPs are rich in carboxyl groups. The results demonstrate that the ESI FT-ICR MS method could provide valuable molecular composition and structure information on unknown Br-DBPs.

  17. 43. Photographer unknown February 1925 MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION, HIGHWAY 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photographer unknown February 1925 MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION, HIGHWAY 1. 1-MEN-1-1 #12, NEW HIGHWAY DISPLACING OLD COUNTY ROAD, 2-25. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  18. A Size Exclusion Chromatography Laboratory with Unknowns for Introductory Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntee, Edward J.; Graham, Kate J.; Colosky, Edward C.; Jakubowski, Henry V.

    2015-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography is an important technique in the separation of biological and polymeric samples by molecular weight. While a number of laboratory experiments have been published that use this technique for the purification of large molecules, this is the first report of an experiment that focuses on purifying an unknown small…

  19. 15. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1929; Photographer unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1929; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Box 4; THE RATH COMPLEX IN THE LATE 1920S; LOOKING WEST FROM 18TH STREET; LARGE BUILDING AT CENTER IS HOG KILL (BUILDING 40) - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  20. Pyrexia of Unknown Origin: An Approach to Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, James C.

    1982-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin is one of the supreme diagnostic challenges in medicine. Most cases are caused by common problems presenting in unusual ways. Infections account for 40%, neoplasms 20% and collagen vascular diseases 15% of cases. Repeated clinical evaluation and individualization in planning investigative procedures are the keys to early diagnosis. Several possible causes of pyrexia are discussed. PMID:20469388

  1. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1912 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1912 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "LINING OF OUTLET TUNNEL BELOW THE DAM" - Kachess Dam, Outlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  2. Severe scratcher-reaction: an unknown health hazard?

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer; Holmgren, Helene Ringe; Arvesen, Kristian Bakke; Jarjis, Reem Dina; Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur

    2015-03-16

    Tattoos are well known to cause skin problems and the number of reported adverse reactions after tattooing has increased. Illegally imported tattoo ink is unrestrained and can contain unknown ingredients and contamination thereby posing a serious health hazard. We present a case illustrating the risk of pronounced phototoxic allergic reaction and other severe complications after using home kit tattoo ink. PMID:25918618

  3. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 29 July 1911 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 29 July 1911 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "NEW SAND AND GRAVEL BIN AND CONCRETE MIXING PLANT" - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  4. 10. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, date unknown Original photograph can ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, date unknown Original photograph can be found in Marvine Colliery folder, archives of the Lackawanna Historical Society, Scranton, Pennsylvania. INTERIOR VIEW OF MINERS CHANGING ROOM, SHOWING CLOTHING SUSPENDED FROM CEILING - Marvine Colliery, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  5. 6. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. ca. 1922 Original photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. ca. 1922 Original photograph can be found in Marvine Colliery folder, archives of The Lackawanna Historical Society, Scranton, Pennsylvania. AERIAL VIEW OF ENTIRE COMPLEX, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  6. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 6 June 1914 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 6 June 1914 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "CATERPILLAR TRACTOR USED TO HAUL LOGS TO THE LAKE AND WOOD AND TIE TIMBER TO THE MILL AT EASTON" - Kachess Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  7. Unknown Gases: Student-Designed Experiments in the Introductory Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, John; Hoyt, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Introductory students design and carry-out experimental procedures to determine the identity of three unknown gases from a list of eight possibilities: air, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, helium, methane, and hydrogen. Students are excited and motivated by the opportunity to come up with their own experimental approach to solving a…

  8. 374. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    374. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; YERBA BUENA CROSSING; EYE BAR CHAIN; CONTRACT NO. 5; SUP. DRAWING NO. 12A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. 362. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    362. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; EYE BAR ANCHOR CHAIN; CONTRACT NO. 3; SUP. DRAWING NO. 11-A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. 8. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown (original print on file ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown (original print on file at U.S. Army Intelligence Security Command, Fort Belvoir, Virginia). VIEW OF SULLINS COLLEGE, BRISTOL, VIRGINIA. SULLINS COLLEGE PRESIDENT WILLIAM MARTIN FOUNDED ARLINGTON HALL JUNIOR COLLEGE, AND APPEARS TO HAVE LOOSELY BASED THE DESIGN OF THE NEW SCHOOL'S BUILDINGS UPON THOSE AT SULLINS. - Arlington Hall Station, 4000 Arlington Boulevard, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  11. 28. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; WORKERS STACKING HIDES IN THE CELLAR OF BUILDING 149 - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  12. 26. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; EVISCERATING CATTLE CARCASSES INSIDE BUILDING 149 - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  13. Multiple analysis of an unknown optical multilayer coating

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrowolski, J.A.; Ho, F.C.; Waldorf, A.; Mitchell, D.F.; Costich, V.R.; Vincent, S.; Thoeni, W.; Casparis, E.; Pfefferkorn, R.; Bartella, J.

    1985-08-15

    Results are given of the analysis at five different laboratories of an unknown optical multilayer coating. In all, eleven different analytical and laboratory techniques were applied to the problem. The multilayer nominally consisted of three dielectric and two metallic layers. It was demonstrated convincingly that with present day techniques it is possible to determine the basic structure of such a coating.

  14. Photocopy of photograph (from NBPPNSY) photographer unknown, 1988 view east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from NBP-PNSY) photographer unknown, 1988 view east of marine railway (Haer no. Pa-387-W). The railway was being dismantled at the time this photograph was taken. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1915 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1915 (original print located at Southern Ute Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office, Ignacio, Colorado). Overall view of Southern Ute Agency Boarding School, with main building (boy's dormitory) at right. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  16. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located at Southern UTE Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office, Ignacio, Colorado). East rear and north side of boy's dormitory. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  17. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located at Southern UTE Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office, Ignacio, Colorado). West front and south side of boy's dormitory. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  18. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print located at Colorado Historical Society, Denver, Colorado). Overall view of Southern UTE Agency Boarding School, with boys dormitory at center. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  19. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print located at Colorado Historical Society, Denver, Colorado). Overall views of Southern Ute Agency Boarding School, with boys' dormitory at left of lower view. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  20. 7. Photocopy of 7' x 9' photograph, photographer unknown, taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of 7' x 9' photograph, photographer unknown, taken circa 1890 (original print in the possession of W.F. Rhinehart, Phoenixville, R.D.#1, Pennsylvania) NORTH ELEVATION - William Moore House, State Route 23 & Reading Railroad Tracks vicinity (Schuykill Township), Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  1. 17. Photocopy of a photograph, source and date unknown GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of a photograph, source and date unknown GENERAL VIEW OF FRONT FACADE OF MT. CLARE STATION; PASSENGER CAR SHOP IN REAR - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  2. 7. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown. VIEW OF WEST HIGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown. VIEW OF WEST HIGH STREET BRIDGE OVER SOUTH BRANCH OF FRENCH CREEK, WITH PENN RAILROAD BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND. (Original in Union City Historical Museum.) 8'x10' enlargement from 4'x5' negative. - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Little French Creek at Bridge Street, Union City, Erie County, PA

  3. Photocopy of photograph (from NBPPNSY) photographer unknown, September 23, 1941 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from NBP-PNSY) photographer unknown, September 23, 1941 view northwest of caisson for drydock no. 2 (Haer no. Pa-387-B) in drydock no. 1 (Haer no. PA-387-A) for overhaul and repair of rubber gasket. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 46. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, CA. 1935 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, CA. 1935 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). BRIDGE WITH NEW COMMEMORATIVE PLATE INSTALLED IN 1934. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  5. 45. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1415 June 1929 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 14-15 June 1929 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). AIRPLANE STUNT DURING DEDICATION CEREMONY AT BRIDGE. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  6. 42. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 12 September 1928 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 12 September 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). BRIDGE IMMEDIATELY AFTER INSERTION OF CENTER PIN. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  7. Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print located at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print located at the History Office, U.S. Army South, Fort Clayton, Republic of Panama). Early view of Fort Sherman from boat dock with theater in background, facing southwest. - Fort Sherman, Toro Point on Limon Bay, Colon, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. 4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  9. 5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  10. 178. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1927 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    178. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1927 (original print located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado). MAURER CHILDREN. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 28. Photographic copy of historic construction drawing (date unknown, original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photographic copy of historic construction drawing (date unknown, original print in possession of St. Paul District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) sectional elevation thru typical bay, view east - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  12. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights U.S. COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES USE OF CERTAIN COPYRIGHTED WORKS IN CONNECTION...

  13. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights U.S. COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES RATES AND TERMS FOR PREEXISTING...

  14. Intervention Validity of Cognitive Assessment: Knowns, Unknowables, and Unknowns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braden, Jeffery P.; Shaw, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The intervention validity of cognitive assessment batteries is considered within an historical context to identify what the evidence supports (knowns), what cannot be known (unknowables), and what is not yet known (unknowns). Two ways cognitive batteries could inform intervention are identified: a disordinal (i.e., aptitude-treatment interaction)…

  15. Unknown input observer design and analysis for networked control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Ahmad F.; Elmahdi, Ahmed; Panchal, Jitesh H.; Sun, Dengfeng

    2015-05-01

    The insertion of communication networks in the feedback loops of control systems is a defining feature of modern control systems. These systems are often subject to unknown inputs in a form of disturbances, perturbations, or attacks. The objective of this paper is to design and analyse an observer for networked dynamical systems with unknown inputs. The network effect can be viewed as either a perturbation or time-delay to the exchanged signals. In this paper, we (1) review an unknown input observer (UIO) design for a non-networked system, (2) derive the networked unknown input observer (NetUIO) dynamics, (3) design a NetUIO such that the effect of higher delay order terms are nullified and (4) establish stability-guaranteeing bounds on the networked-induced time-delay and perturbation. The formulation and results derived in this paper can be generalised to scenarios and applications where the signals are perturbed due to a different source of perturbation or delay.

  16. 25. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; REMOVING HIDES ON THE SKINNING TABLE; CARCASSES IN HALF-HOIST POSITION; LOOKING SOUTH - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  17. 24. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; REMOVING HIDES ON THE MOVING SKINNING TABLE; LOOKING NORTH - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  18. 43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 1, 1947, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 1, 1947, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PORT SIDE VIEW WHILE IN U.S. NAVY SERVICE AS YF 445. NOTE GRAY PAINT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  19. 48. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 23, 1964, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 23, 1964, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. AERIAL VIEW OF STARBOARD SIDE WHILE UNDERWAY. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  20. 44. Photocopy of photograph, dated June 19, 1959, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopy of photograph, dated June 19, 1959, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PORT SIDE VIEW IN HARBOR. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  1. 46. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  2. 45. Photocopy of photograph, dated February 19, 1948, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of photograph, dated February 19, 1948, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE VIEW DURING UNDERWAY TRIAL. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  3. 47. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  4. 42. Photocopy of photograph, ca. 1950, photographer unknown. Original photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Photocopy of photograph, ca. 1950, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  5. 45. Photocopy of photograph, dated September 14, 1964, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of photograph, dated September 14, 1964, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PILOT HOUSE SHOWING STARBOARD SIDE. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  6. 43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 13, 1953, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 13, 1953, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. LOADING OF LIGHTED BUOYS WITH MOORINGS OF HEAVY CHAIN. CONCRETE, AND CAST-IRON SINKERS. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  7. 44. Photocopy of photograph, dated February 19, 1948, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopy of photograph, dated February 19, 1948, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW DURING UNDERWAY TRIAL. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. 47. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 1, 1960, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 1, 1960, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PORT SIDE VIEW IN HARBOR. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. 46. Photocopy of photograph, dated June 24, 1960, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of photograph, dated June 24, 1960, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. VIEW FROM BOW SHOWING MAIN DECK AND PILOTHOUSE. NOTE BUOYS STORED ON PIER AT RIGHT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. 15. UPSTREAM VIEW (PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN) SHOWING BIG DALTON DAM NEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. UPSTREAM VIEW (PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN) SHOWING BIG DALTON DAM NEAR FULL CAPACITY AFTER CONSTRUCTION. PICTURE WAS DEVELOPED FROM COPY NEGATIVES WHICH WERE TAKEN ON 2-15-1973 BY PHOTOGRAPHER D. MEIER OF L.A. COUNTY PUBLIC WORKS. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 45. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown (circa 1900). A single truck, solid mahagony car which ran between Hampton, Phoebus and Old Point Comfort. - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  12. 38. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Bus garage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Bus garage to left now demolished. Trolley car drivers, maintenance personnel and management staff in 1915. VIEW SOUTH - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  13. 44. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1415 June 1929 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 14-15 June 1929 (original print located at Utah State Historical Society Photograph Collection, Salt Lake City UT). DEDICATION CEREMONY AT BRIDGE. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  14. 408. Delineator Unknown September 19, 1933 SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    408. Delineator Unknown September 19, 1933 SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; STUDY FOR SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SHEET NO. 26 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 407. Delineator Unknown July 11, 1933 PERSPECTIVE STUDY OF SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    407. Delineator Unknown July 11, 1933 PERSPECTIVE STUDY OF SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SHEET 12 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 404. Delineator Unknown June 1, 1933 STUDY FOR TOP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    404. Delineator Unknown June 1, 1933 STUDY FOR TOP OF SUSPENSION TOWERS; SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SCHEME 7-A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 406. Delineator Unknown April 19, 1933 ELEVATION STUDY FOR SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    406. Delineator Unknown April 19, 1933 ELEVATION STUDY FOR SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; SHEET 23 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 403. Delineator Unknown May 2, 1933 STUDY FOR SUSPENSION TOWERS; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    403. Delineator Unknown May 2, 1933 STUDY FOR SUSPENSION TOWERS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SCHEME 2 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 402. Delineator Unknown May 2, 1933 STUDY FOR SUSPENSION TOWERS; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    402. Delineator Unknown May 2, 1933 STUDY FOR SUSPENSION TOWERS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SCHEME 1A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 409. Delineator Unknown October 25, 1933 (SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE); SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    409. Delineator Unknown October 25, 1933 (SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE); SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; DRAWING NO.33 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 54. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY 1. HUM-1-J #34, SINKS ALONG HIGH. NEAR OCEAN, 2-25. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  2. 56. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY 1. HUM-1-J #36, SINKS ALONG OCEAN SHORE, 2-25. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  3. 40. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca., 1974, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca., 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY MODEL - ELEVATION SHOWING FLOOR AND EQUIPMENT LAYOUT. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  4. 39. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca. 1974, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca. 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY MODEL - SHOWING "A" AND "B" FACES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  5. 41. Photocopy of progress photograph ca. 1974, photographer unknown. Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Photocopy of progress photograph ca. 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph Property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. This is the source for views 41 to 47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - SHOWING BUILDING "RED IRON" STEEL STRUCTURE NEARING COMPLETION. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  6. 15. Photocopy of color photograph (Photographer unknown, 1974) SACRISTY ATTIC, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of color photograph (Photographer unknown, 1974) SACRISTY ATTIC, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE RAMMED EARTH WALL (NORTH WALL OF CHANCEL) AT LEFT; HOLES WERE LEFT BY WOODEN BRACES USED TO HOLD WALL FORMS DURING CONSTRUCTION - Church of the Holy Cross, State Route 261, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

  7. 6. Photographic copy of photograph. No date. Photographer unknown. (Source: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of photograph. No date. Photographer unknown. (Source: SCIP office, Coolidge, AZ) CHINA WASH FLUME UNDER CONSTRUCTION - San Carlos Irrigation Project, China Wash Flume, Main (Florence-Case Grande) Canal at Station 137+00, T4S, R10E, S14, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  8. 17. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1937; Photographer unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1937; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed uner: Rath Packing Company, Box 4; POWER PLANT (BUILDING 27), LEFT; LARD REFINERY (BUILDING 93), CENTER; AND MANUFACTURING BUILDING (BUILDING 88), RIGHT - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  9. 79. photographer unknown 13 March 1936 AERIAL VIEW OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. photographer unknown 13 March 1936 AERIAL VIEW OF THE SPILLWAY DAM JUST BEFORE FLOODING THE FIRST STEP COFFERDAM. TWO CRIBS IN PLACE ON WASHINGTON SHORE FOR EACH LEG OF THE SECOND STEP COFFERDAM. CRIBWAYS NEAR UPSTREAM LEG. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  10. 48 CFR 22.1009 - Place of performance unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Place of performance... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1009 Place of performance unknown....

  11. 19. Photographer unknown, circa 1950 'THE LOOP OVER' BRIDGE WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photographer unknown, circa 1950 'THE LOOP OVER' BRIDGE WAS CONSTRUCTED ON NEWFOUND GAP ROAD TO REPLACE A SERIES OF DANGEROUS SWITCHBACKS. THIS ENGINEERING FEATURE QUICKLY BECAME A POPULAR TOURIST ATTRACTION. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. 1. Drop Structure on the Arizona Crosscut Canal. Photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Drop Structure on the Arizona Crosscut Canal. Photographer unknown, no date. Note that caption is incorrect: in relation to Camelback Mountain (rear), this can only be the Old Crosscut. Source: reprinted from the 13th Annual Report of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1893. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. 380. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    380. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; CABLES & ATTACHMENTS WEST BAY CROSSING; CABLE BANDS; CONTRACT NO. 6A; DRAWING NO. 3 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 390. Delineator Unknown October 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    390. Delineator Unknown October 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SUPERSTRUCTURE - EAST BAY CROSSING; SPANS YBI TO El - E9 TO El ; TYPICAL CROSSSECTION; CONTRACT NO. 7; SUP. DRAWING NO. 82 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 379. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    379. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; CABLES AND ATTACHMENTS - WEST BAY CROSSING; SPLAY CASTINGS; CONTRACT NO. 6A; DRAWING NO. 4 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 375. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    375. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; YERBA BUENA CROSSING; ANCHORAGE TUNNELS; CONTRACT NO. 5; DRAWING NO. 10A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 385. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    385. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SUPERSTRUCTURE - WEST BAY CROSSING; ROCKER POSTS AND BEARING; CONTRACT NO. 6; DRAWINGS NO. 42 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 33. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, February 13, 1944. VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, February 13, 1944. VIEW OF HORSESHOE DAM SITE BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING BRIDGE SPANNING THE VERDE RIVER JUST AS WORK ON THE DAM IS BEGINNING. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 36. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1943. PHOTOGRAPH OF GEORGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1943. PHOTOGRAPH OF GEORGE E. SMITH (RIGHT), ONE OF THE PRINCIPAL BUILDERS OF THE VERDE RIVER SHEEP BRIDGE AND HIS SON, B. L. 'LES' SMITH. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. 17. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. ENLARGEMENT OF PORTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. ENLARGEMENT OF PORTION OF PHOTOGRAPH AZ-10-16, SHOWING WOOD TOWER BEFORE CONCRETE WAS ADDED. NOTE GUY CABLE CONNECTED TO TOP RIGHT OF TOWER. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. 359. Delineator Unknown April 1935 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    359. Delineator Unknown April 1935 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; BRIDGE RAILWAY SAN FRANCISCO LOOP; DETAILS OF VIADUCT; FINAL REPORT; DRG. NO. 92 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 6. Photographic copy of historic photograph (date and photograph unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of historic photograph (date and photograph unknown) of upper dam showing retaining walls (original in possession of United States Department of Agriculture-Forest Service-Allegheny National Forest). VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  3. 48. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 5 September 1916 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 5 September 1916 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Piling logs with Washington donkey." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  4. 159. Photocopy of measured drawing (location of original document unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    159. Photocopy of measured drawing (location of original document unknown) C. H. Puls, delineator 12 January 1937 Last revised by Keister 23 September 1948 FIFTH FLOOR PLAN - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 24. Photographic copy of historic photo of unknown date (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photographic copy of historic photo of unknown date (original filed in drawer 98, Bridge Division, Department of Public Works, St. Paul City Annex). 3/4 view of main spans of Selby Avenue Bridge similar to that shown in MN-61-4. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  6. 197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. GATE STEMS AND LIFTING DEVICES, NO COUNTY; BLUEPRINT SKETCHES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  7. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH (Original photograph dated 6849, photographer unknown, now ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH (Original photograph dated 6-8-49, photographer unknown, now in possession of Director, Los Angeles National Cemetery, Los Angeles, CA) MAIN ENTRANCE WITH GATEHOUSE AND WALLS, LOS ANGELES NATIONAL CEMETERY, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST ON CONSTITUTION AVENUE FROM SEPULVEDA BOULEVARD - Los Angeles National Cemetery, Gate, 950 South Sepulveda Boulevard, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. Simultaneous parameter estimation and contaminant source characterization for coupled groundwater flow and contaminant transport modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, B.J.

    1992-01-01

    Parameter estimation and contaminant source characterization are key steps in the development of a coupled groundwater flow and contaminant transport simulation model. Here a methodologyfor simultaneous model parameter estimation and source characterization is presented. The parameter estimation/source characterization inverse model combines groundwater flow and contaminant transport simulation with non-linear maximum likelihood estimation to determine optimal estimates of the unknown model parameters and source characteristics based on measurements of hydraulic head and contaminant concentration. First-order uncertainty analysis provides a means for assessing the reliability of the maximum likelihood estimates and evaluating the accuracy and reliability of the flow and transport model predictions. A series of hypothetical examples is presented to demonstrate the ability of the inverse model to solve the combined parameter estimation/source characterization inverse problem. Hydraulic conductivities, effective porosity, longitudinal and transverse dispersivities, boundary flux, and contaminant flux at the source are estimated for a two-dimensional groundwater system. In addition, characterization of the history of contaminant disposal or location of the contaminant source is demonstrated. Finally, the problem of estimating the statistical parameters that describe the errors associated with the head and concentration data is addressed. A stage-wise estimation procedure is used to jointly estimate these statistical parameters along with the unknown model parameters and source characteristics. ?? 1992.

  9. Face relighting from a single image under arbitrary unknown lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Zicheng; Hua, Gang; Wen, Zhen; Zhang, Zhengyou; Samaras, Dimitris

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to modify the appearance of a face image by manipulating the illumination condition, when the face geometry and albedo information is unknown. This problem is particularly difficult when there is only a single image of the subject available. Recent research demonstrates that the set of images of a convex Lambertian object obtained under a wide variety of lighting conditions can be approximated accurately by a low-dimensional linear subspace using a spherical harmonic representation. Moreover, morphable models are statistical ensembles of facial properties such as shape and texture. In this paper, we integrate spherical harmonics into the morphable model framework by proposing a 3D spherical harmonic basis morphable model (SHBMM). The proposed method can represent a face under arbitrary unknown lighting and pose simply by three low-dimensional vectors, i.e., shape parameters, spherical harmonic basis parameters, and illumination coefficients, which are called the SHBMM parameters. However, when the image was taken under an extreme lighting condition, the approximation error can be large, thus making it difficult to recover albedo information. In order to address this problem, we propose a subregion-based framework that uses a Markov random field to model the statistical distribution and spatial coherence of face texture, which makes our approach not only robust to extreme lighting conditions, but also insensitive to partial occlusions. The performance of our framework is demonstrated through various experimental results, including the improved rates for face recognition under extreme lighting conditions.

  10. Identification and quantification of unknown antioxidants in plastic materials by ultrasonic extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Yuan, Jiaojian

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has been applied to the targeted analysis of commonly used additives (such as Irganox 1010, Irganox 1076, Irgafos 168, etc.) in plastic materials, but a fast and straightforward method for the non-targeted identification and quantification of unusual or potentially new antioxidant additives is still unavailable. In this study, a novel and simple method for the identification and quantification of unknown antioxidant additives in plastic food packaging using ultrasonic extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been developed. A method for the Irganox series analyzed here has not been reported previously. Unknown antioxidant additives have been identified by accurate m/z determination, MS(2) fragments and comparison with synthesized standards. The mass fragmentation patterns and structural assignments of these antioxidants have been studied. Parameters affecting the efficiency of the process, such as extraction solvents, extraction volume, extraction time and chromatographic conditions, have been studied and optimized. Ultrasonic extraction of plastic materials (40 mg) with dichloromethane (0.5 mL) at 25 °C was applied as optimal. Limits of detection of the target additives ranged from 0.5 ng g(-1) to 1.5 ng g(-1), and the detection was linear over the range studied (0.01-1.5 µg mg(-1), r(2)>0.99). The accuracy of the method has been tested by relative recovery experiments with spiked samples, with results ranging from 94.3% to 104.8%, and the precision (relative standard deviation) was within 11.0% (n=3). Finally, the method has been successfully applied to the determination of antioxidants in several real plastic samples.

  11. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  12. Effects on Diagnostic Parameters After Removing Additional Synchronous Gear Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Harry J.

    2003-01-01

    Gear cracks are typically difficult to diagnose with sufficient time before catastrophic damage occurs. Significant damage must be present before algorithms appear to be able to detect the damage. Frequently there are multiple gear meshes on a single shaft. Since they are all synchronous with the shaft frequency, the commonly used synchronous averaging technique is ineffective in removing other gear mesh effects. Carefully applying a filter to these extraneous gear mesh frequencies can reduce the overall vibration signal and increase the accuracy of commonly used vibration metrics. The vibration signals from three seeded fault tests were analyzed using this filtering procedure. Both the filtered and unfiltered vibration signals were then analyzed using commonly used fault detection metrics and compared. The tests were conducted on aerospace quality spur gears in a test rig. The tests were conducted at speeds ranging from 2500 to 5000 revolutions per minute and torques from 184 to 228 percent of design load. The inability to detect these cracks with high confidence results from the high loading which is causing fast fracture as opposed to stable crack growth. The results indicate that these techniques do not currently produce an indication of damage that significantly exceeds experimental scatter.

  13. Nonlinear robust controller design for multi-robot systems with unknown payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Y. D.; Anderson, J. N.; Homaifar, A.; Lai, H. Y.

    1992-01-01

    This work is concerned with the control problem of a multi-robot system handling a payload with unknown mass properties. Force constraints at the grasp points are considered. Robust control schemes are proposed that cope with the model uncertainty and achieve asymptotic path tracking. To deal with the force constraints, a strategy for optimally sharing the task is suggested. This strategy basically consists of two steps. The first detects the robots that need help and the second arranges that help. It is shown that the overall system is not only robust to uncertain payload parameters, but also satisfies the force constraints.

  14. Distributed adaptive output consensus control of second-order systems containing unknown non-linear control gains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Chaoli; Du, Qinghui; Cai, Xuan

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we address the output consensus problem of tracking a desired trajectory for a group of second-order agents on a directed graph with a fixed topology. Each agent is modelled by a second-order non-linear system with unknown non-linear dynamics and unknown non-linear control gains. Only a subset of the agents is given access to the desired trajectory information directly. A distributed adaptive consensus protocol driving all agents to track the desired trajectory is presented using the backstepping technique and approximation technique of Fourier series (FSs). The FS structure is taken not only for tracking the non-linear dynamics but also the unknown portion in the controller design procedure, which can avoid virtual controllers containing the uncertain terms. Stability analysis and parameter convergence of the proposed algorithm are conducted based on the Lyapunov theory and the algebraic graph theory. It is also demonstrated that arbitrary small tracking errors can be achieved by appropriately choosing design parameters. Though the proposed work is applicable for second-order non-linear systems containing unknown non-linear control gains, the proposed controller design can be easily extended to higher-order non-linear systems containing unknown non-linear control gains. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  15. Physical parameter identification method based on modal analysis for two-axis on-road vehicles: Theory and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Minyi; Zhang, Bangji; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Nong

    2016-03-01

    Physical parameters are very important for vehicle dynamic modeling and analysis. However, most of physical parameter identification methods are assuming some physical parameters of vehicle are known, and the other unknown parameters can be identified. In order to identify physical parameters of vehicle in the case that all physical parameters are unknown, a methodology based on the State Variable Method(SVM) for physical parameter identification of two-axis on-road vehicle is presented. The modal parameters of the vehicle are identified by the SVM, furthermore, the physical parameters of the vehicle are estimated by least squares method. In numerical simulations, physical parameters of Ford Granada are chosen as parameters of vehicle model, and half-sine bump function is chosen to simulate tire stimulated by impulse excitation. The first numerical simulation shows that the present method can identify all of the physical parameters and the largest absolute value of percentage error of the identified physical parameter is 0.205%; and the effect of the errors of additional mass, structural parameter and measurement noise are discussed in the following simulations, the results shows that when signal contains 30 dB noise, the largest absolute value of percentage error of the identification is 3.78%. These simulations verify that the presented method is effective and accurate for physical parameter identification of two-axis on-road vehicles. The proposed methodology can identify all physical parameters of 7-DOF vehicle model by using free-decay responses of vehicle without need to assume some physical parameters are known.

  16. Physical parameter identification method based on modal analysis for two-axis on-road vehicles: Theory and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Minyi; Zhang, Bangji; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Nong

    2016-07-01

    Physical parameters are very important for vehicle dynamic modeling and analysis. However, most of physical parameter identification methods are assuming some physical parameters of vehicle are known, and the other unknown parameters can be identified. In order to identify physical parameters of vehicle in the case that all physical parameters are unknown, a methodology based on the State Variable Method(SVM) for physical parameter identification of two-axis on-road vehicle is presented. The modal parameters of the vehicle are identified by the SVM, furthermore, the physical parameters of the vehicle are estimated by least squares method. In numerical simulations, physical parameters of Ford Granada are chosen as parameters of vehicle model, and half-sine bump function is chosen to simulate tire stimulated by impulse excitation. The first numerical simulation shows that the present method can identify all of the physical parameters and the largest absolute value of percentage error of the identified physical parameter is 0.205%; and the effect of the errors of additional mass, structural parameter and measurement noise are discussed in the following simulations, the results shows that when signal contains 30 dB noise, the largest absolute value of percentage error of the identification is 3.78%. These simulations verify that the presented method is effective and accurate for physical parameter identification of two-axis on-road vehicles. The proposed methodology can identify all physical parameters of 7-DOF vehicle model by using free-decay responses of vehicle without need to assume some physical parameters are known.

  17. Markov sequential pattern recognition : dependency and the unknown class.

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Kevin Thomas; Haschke, Greg Benjamin; Koch, Mark William

    2004-10-01

    The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) minimizes the expected number of observations to a decision and can solve problems in sequential pattern recognition. Some problems have dependencies between the observations, and Markov chains can model dependencies where the state occupancy probability is geometric. For a non-geometric process we show how to use the effective amount of independent information to modify the decision process, so that we can account for the remaining dependencies. Along with dependencies between observations, a successful system needs to handle the unknown class in unconstrained environments. For example, in an acoustic pattern recognition problem any sound source not belonging to the target set is in the unknown class. We show how to incorporate goodness of fit (GOF) classifiers into the Markov SPRT, and determine the worse case nontarget model. We also develop a multiclass Markov SPRT using the GOF concept.

  18. Child deaths of unknown cause: review of 7 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Kathryn A; Marshall, William N

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the Pima County (Arizona) Child Fatality Review Team, we sought to describe the nature of unknown cause pediatric deaths. Of 1,150 total deaths (1995-2001), 22 were unknown cause and 3 had only a mode of death on the death certificate. There were 15 infants <6 months, 4 children 1-4 years, 2 children 5-9 years, 1 preteen (10-14 years), and 3 aged 15-17 years. Four patterns were seen: those resembling SIDS but with confounding history, autopsy, or scene investigation; sleeping toddlers with respiratory symptoms; children with underlying conditions not expected to cause death; and deaths without complete investigation. PMID:15583775

  19. Towards high-speed autonomous navigation of unknown environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Charles; Roy, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we summarize recent research enabling high-speed navigation in unknown environments for dynamic robots that perceive the world through onboard sensors. Many existing solutions to this problem guarantee safety by making the conservative assumption that any unknown portion of the map may contain an obstacle, and therefore constrain planned motions to lie entirely within known free space. In this work, we observe that safety constraints may significantly limit performance and that faster navigation is possible if the planner reasons about collision with unobserved obstacles probabilistically. Our overall approach is to use machine learning to approximate the expected costs of collision using the current state of the map and the planned trajectory. Our contribution is to demonstrate fast but safe planning using a learned function to predict future collision probabilities.

  20. Radiohalos: some unique lead isotope ratios and unknown alpha radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Gentry, R V

    1971-08-20

    Previously unreported lead isotope ratios, that is, values for the lead-206/lead-207 ratio ranging from about 20 to 60, primarily radiogenic in origin but unsupported by uranium decay, have been determined in the inclusions of certain polonium halos by means of ion microprobe techniques. Evidence for radiogenic lead-208 unsupported by thorium decay may also be inferred from the existence of a composite polonium halo type with rings from the radioactive precursors of lead-208. Several new dwarf halo sizes, seem to indicate the existence of unknown, very low-energy alpha-emitters. Furthermore, the three-ring "X halo" also provides evidence for an unknown series of genetically related alpha-emitters with energies in the range from 3 to 7 million electron volts.

  1. Experimental creation of superposition of unknown photonic quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao-Min; Hu, Meng-Jun; Chen, Jiang-Shan; Liu, Bi-Heng; Huang, Yun-Feng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhang, Yong-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    As one of the most intriguing intrinsic properties of the quantum world, quantum superposition provokes great interest in its own generation. Though a universal quantum machine that creates superposition of two arbitrary unknown states has been shown to be physically impossible, a probabilistic protocol exists given that two input states have nonzero overlaps with the referential state. Here we report a probabilistic quantum machine realizing superposition of two arbitrary unknown photonic qubits as long as they have nonzero overlaps with the horizontal polarization state |H > . A total of 11 different qubit pairs are chosen to test this protocol and we obtain the average fidelity as high as 0.99, which shows the excellent reliability of our realization. This realization may have significant applications in quantum information and quantum computation, e.g., generating nonclassical states and realizing information compression in a quantum computation.

  2. NASA WHY FILES: The Case of the Unknown Stink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this program, students are invited to actively join the tree house detectives as they investigate the 'Case of the Unknown Stink.' The tree house detectives accept the challenge of trying to find the source of an unpleasant odor that is invading the surrounding neighborhoods. To determine the source of the stink, our detectives learn about the sense of smell: what it is, how people and animals smell, and how wind speed and direction influence the movement of odor. They also learn about how NASA's Atmospheric Science research can help solve the case. While investigating the case, the tree house detectives learn that the source of the 'unknown stink' is 'right under their very noses.'

  3. 14. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1925; Photographer unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1925; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collection, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6: THE RATH COMPLEX IN THE MID 1920; LARGE BUILDING TO LEFT OF SMOKESTACK IS HOG KILL (BUILDING 40); LOOKING NORTH FROM ACROSS CEDAR RIVER - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  4. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, October 1911 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, October 1911 (original print located at National Archives and Records Center, Denver, Colorado). "OUTLET TUNNEL PRIOR TO BACKFILLING." SHOWS CONDUIT SECTION THAT WOULD PASS THROUGH THE NOT-YET-BUILT DAM EMBANKMENT. THE CORE WALL IS VISIBLE THROUGH THE CENTER OF THE VIEW - Kachess Dam, Outlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  5. 13. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, circa 1940. Original photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, circa 1940. Original photograph can be found in Marvine Colliery folder in the archives of the Lackawanna Historical Society, Scranton, Pennsylvania. VIEW SHOWING SOUTH AND EAST FACADES OF BREAKER, WITH OVERHEAD PIPING IN FOREGROUND AND RETAIL SCALES OFFICE AT FAR RIGHT, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  6. 11. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, circa 1955. Original photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, circa 1955. Original photograph can be found in Marvine Colliery folder in the archives of the Lackawanna Historical Society, Scranton, Pennsylvania. VIEW SHOWING EAST AND NORTH FACADES OF BREAKER, WITH BOILER HOUSE AT FAR LEFT AND RETAIL SCALES OFFICE DIRECTLY EAST OF BREAKER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  7. Earth Limb and Clouds over Open Ocean, Location Unknown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A northern hemisphere tropical storm over open ocean - location unknown, can be seen forming by the loosly defined cyclonic spiral gyre within the cumulonimbus clouds. The storm can be readily identified as being in the northern hemisphere by the counter-clockwise rotation of the gyre. Because of the Earth's rotation induced coriolis effect, all northern hemisphere cyclonic circulations rotate in a counter-clockwise spiral and all those in the southern hemisphere rotate in a clockwise spiral.

  8. 2. Photographic copy of undated photograph; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photographic copy of undated photograph; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collections, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6; HOG KILLING OPERATIONS INSIDE BUILDING 40; WORKER AT RIGHT REAR IS USING BLOWTORCH TO REMOVE BRISTLES FROM CARCASSES - Rath Packing Company, Hog Killing & By-Products Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  9. Interferometric distillation and determination of unknown two-qubit entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.-S. B.; Sim, H.-S.

    2009-05-15

    We propose a scheme for both distilling and quantifying entanglement, applicable to individual copies of an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state. It is realized in a usual two-qubit interferometry with local filtering. Proper filtering operation for the maximal distillation of the state is achieved by erasing single-qubit interference, and then the concurrence of the state is determined directly from the visibilities of two-qubit interference. We compare the scheme with full state tomography.

  10. Fever of unknown origin (FUO) due to Legionnaire's disease.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Gómez, Sigridh; Cunha, Burke A

    2015-01-01

    Fevers of unknown origin (FUOs) may be due to any of over 200 different disorders. We present a most unusual case of an FUO in a returning traveler from the Dominican Republic. Work-up for Q fever, Brucellosis, Bartonella, malaria and HIV were negative, but very highly elevated ESRs and ferritin levels suggested possible Legionnaire's disease. This is the third reported case of Legionnaire's disease presenting as an FUO.

  11. 11. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 2 July 1938 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 2 July 1938 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Inspecting concrete on upstream face of Keechelus Dam spillway. Joseph Jacobs, consulting engineer; M.B. Lemon, Gatetender; Paul Taylor, assistant engineer; and C.H. Paul, consulting engineer." - Keechelus Dam, Spillway, Yakim River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  12. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Typical suggestion award photograph from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Typical suggestion award photograph from the World War II period. Useful suggestions were awarded a $ 50 bond and usually a photo in the shipyard newspaper, the beacon. This photo shows an improved bilge block template layout table left to right: Stuart S. Sanders, Rosalie Moschella, Eddie Ormond, Lt. CDR. J.M. Ballinger, and A.A. Goldman. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. Component spectra extraction from terahertz measurements of unknown mixtures.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Hou, D B; Huang, P J; Cai, J H; Zhang, G X

    2015-10-20

    The aim of this work is to extract component spectra from unknown mixtures in the terahertz region. To that end, a method, hard modeling factor analysis (HMFA), was applied to resolve terahertz spectral matrices collected from the unknown mixtures. This method does not require any expertise of the user and allows the consideration of nonlinear effects such as peak variations or peak shifts. It describes the spectra using a peak-based nonlinear mathematic model and builds the component spectra automatically by recombination of the resolved peaks through correlation analysis. Meanwhile, modifications on the method were made to take the features of terahertz spectra into account and to deal with the artificial baseline problem that troubles the extraction process of some terahertz spectra. In order to validate the proposed method, simulated wideband terahertz spectra of binary and ternary systems and experimental terahertz absorption spectra of amino acids mixtures were tested. In each test, not only the number of pure components could be correctly predicted but also the identified pure spectra had a good similarity with the true spectra. Moreover, the proposed method associated the molecular motions with the component extraction, making the identification process more physically meaningful and interpretable compared to other methods. The results indicate that the HMFA method with the modifications can be a practical tool for identifying component terahertz spectra in completely unknown mixtures. This work reports the solution to this kind of problem in the terahertz region for the first time, to the best of the authors' knowledge, and represents a significant advance toward exploring physical or chemical mechanisms of unknown complex systems by terahertz spectroscopy.

  14. 13. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1901; Photographer unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1901; Photographer unknown; Original in collection of Waterloo Courier, Waterloo, Iowa; THE RATH COMPLEX AS IT APPEARED AT THE END OF THE COMPANY'S FIRST DECADE: ENGINE ROOM AT LEFT, KILLING BUILDING AT CENTER, WAREHOUSE BUILDINGS AT RIGHT; A PORTION OF THE ICEHOUSE IS VISIBLE AT EXTREME RIGHT; LOOKING SOUTH - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  15. 16. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1935; Photographer unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1935; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collection, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6: COLD STORAGE AND WAREHOUSE BUILDINGS ON WEST END OF RATH COMPLEX; BUILDING WITH ELEVATOR TOWER NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO IS BUILDING 9: LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  16. 65. Photographer unknown March 1931 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION B, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Photographer unknown March 1931 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION B, HIGHWAY 1, 1-DN-1-B #66A, STA. 166.0+00 WIDENED ROADBED BEFORE COVERING LOG CRIB, 3-31. BACK READS: WIDENING ROAD BED WITH LOGS, APPROX 30 SQUARE & 60 LONG ON DN-1 SEC B STA 156+. Stamped office copy, - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  17. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Poster from the World War ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Poster from the World War II period. During drives to encourage purchase of war bonds, posters featuring female shipyard workers were widely distributed purchasers were allowed one vote for each bond bought. Votes were cast and the woman who got the most votes was named "War Bond Girl." The contest was won by Kay McGinty, 4th row, 2nd column. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Unknown Word Processing Method for the Common Sense Judgement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Seiji; Kojima, Kazuhide; Watabe, Hirokazu; Kawaoka, Tsukasa

    When we humans receive uncertain information, we interpret it properly, so we can expand the conversation, and take the proper actions. This is possible because we have “common sense” concerning the basic word concept, which is built up from long time experience storing knowledge of our language. Of the common sense we use in our every day lives we think that there are; common sense concerning quantity such as size, weight, speed, time, or place; common sense concerning sense or feeling such as hot, beautiful, or loud; and moreover common sense concerning emotion such as happy or sad. In order to make computers closer to human beings, we think that the construction of a “Common Sense Judgment System” which deals with these kinds of common sense is necessary. When aiming to realize this “Common Sense Judgment System” and trying to make a computer have the same common sense knowledge and judgment ability as human beings, a very important factor is the handling of unknown words. Judgment concerning words which were given to the computer as knowledge before hand, it can refer to that knowledge, and the process will have no problem at all. But when an unknown word, which is not registered as knowledge, is inputted, how to process that word is a very difficult problem. In this paper, by using a concept base, which is made from several electric dictionaries; the degree of association, which is done based on the concept base; neural network, putting the closeness of meaning in consideration, we propose a method of unknown word processing, which connects an inputted unknown word to a representing word that is registered in the judgment knowledge base, and we will verify its effectiveness by experiment applied to the emotional judgment subsystem.

  19. Assisted assignment of ligands corresponding to unknown electron density.

    SciTech Connect

    Binkowski, T. A.; Cuff, M.; Nocek, B.; Chang, C.; Joachimiak, A.; Biosciences Division

    2010-01-03

    A semi-automated computational procedure to assist in the identification of bound ligands from unknown electron density has been developed. The atomic surface surrounding the density blob is compared to a library of three-dimensional ligand binding surfaces extracted from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Ligands corresponding to surfaces which share physicochemical texture and geometric shape similarities are considered for assignment. The method is benchmarked against a set of well represented ligands from the PDB, in which we show that we can identify the correct ligand based on the corresponding binding surface. Finally, we apply the method during model building and refinement stages from structural genomics targets in which unknown density blobs were discovered. A semi-automated computational method is described which aims to assist crystallographers with assigning the identity of a ligand corresponding to unknown electron density. Using shape and physicochemical similarity assessments between the protein surface surrounding the density and a database of known ligand binding surfaces, a plausible list of candidate ligands are identified for consideration. The method is validated against highly observed ligands from the Protein Data Bank and results are shown from its use in a high-throughput structural genomics pipeline.

  20. Two-dimensional robot navigation among unknown stationary polygonal obstacles

    SciTech Connect

    Foux, G.; Heymann, M.; Bruckstein, A. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1993-02-01

    The authors describe an algorithm for navigating a polygonal robot, capable of translational motion, in an unknown environment. The environment contains stationary polygonal obstacles and is bounded by polygonal walls, all of which are initially unknown to the robot. The environment is learned during the navigation process by use of a laser range-finding device, and new knowledge is integrated with previously acquired information. A partial map of the environment is thus obtained. The map contains parts of the obstacles that were seen by the robot and the free space between them. The obstacles in the map are transformed into a new set of expanded polygonal obstacles. This enables treating the robot as a point instead of a polygon, and the navigation problem is reduced to point navigation among unknown polygonal obstacles. A navigation graph is built from the transformed obstacles in the map. This is a partial visibility graph of the enlarged obstacles. A search is conducted on the graph for a path to the destination. The path is piecewise linear; at its corners, the robot stops, scans its environment, and updates the map, the obstacles, and the planned path. The algorithm is proved to converge to the desired destination in a finite number of steps provided a path to the destination exists. If such a path does not exist, then the navigation process terminates in a finite number of steps with the conclusion that the destination is unreachable.

  1. Turkish as a Foreign Language Learners' Awareness and Use of Morphology in Guessing the Meanings of Unknown Words from Content: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Turkish as foreign language learners' awareness and use of Turkish derivational affixes as a knowledge source in guessing the meanings of unknown words in written contexts. In addition, this study also examined the type of knowledge sources used in guessing the meaning of the unknown words. The study was conducted with the…

  2. Adaptive attitude controller for a satellite based on neural network in the presence of unknown external disturbances and actuator faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazlyab, Ali Reza; Fani Saberi, Farhad; Kabganian, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive attitude control algorithm is developed based on neural network for a satellite. The proposed attitude control is based on nonlinear modified Rodrigues parameters feedback control in the presence of unknown terms like external disturbances and actuator faults. In order to eliminate the effect of the uncertainties, a multilayer neural network with a new learning rule will be designed appropriately. In this method, asymptotic stability of the proposed algorithm has been proven in the presence of unknown terms based on Lyapunov stability theorem. Finally, the performance of the designed attitude controller is investigated by simulations.

  3. Electrical resistivity imaging for unknown bridge foundation depth determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjwech, Rungroj

    Unknown bridge foundations pose a significant safety risk due to stream scour and erosion. Records from older structures may be non-existent, incomplete, or incorrect. Nondestructive and inexpensive geophysical methods have been identified as suitable to investigate unknown bridge foundations. The objective of the present study is to apply advanced 2D electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) in order to identify depth of unknown bridge foundations. A survey procedure is carried out in mixed terrain water and land environments with rough topography. A conventional resistivity survey procedure is used with the electrodes installed on the stream banks. However, some electrodes must be adapted for underwater use. Tests were conducted in one laboratory experimentation and at five field experimentations located at three roadway bridges, a geotechnical test site, and a railway bridge. The first experimentation was at the bridges with the smallest foundations, later working up in size to larger drilled shafts and spread footings. Both known to unknown foundations were investigated. The geotechnical test site is used as an experimental site for 2D and 3D ERI. The data acquisition is carried out along 2D profile with a linear array in the dipole-dipole configuration. The data collections have been carried out using electrodes deployed directly across smaller foundations. Electrodes are deployed in proximity to larger foundations to image them from the side. The 2D ERI can detect the presence of a bridge foundation but is unable to resolve its precise shape and depth. Increasing the spatial extent of the foundation permits better image of its shape and depth. Using electrode < 1 m to detect a slender foundation < 1 m in diameter is not feasible. The 2D ERI method that has been widely used for land surface surveys presently can be adapted effectively in water-covered environments. The method is the most appropriate geophysical method for determination of unknown bridge foundations

  4. Parameter estimation and interval type-2 fuzzy sliding mode control of a z-axis MEMS gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Fazlyab, Mahyar; Pedram, Maysam Zamani; Salarieh, Hassan; Alasty, Aria

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports a hybrid intelligent controller for application in single axis MEMS vibratory gyroscopes. First, unknown parameters of a micro gyroscope including unknown time varying angular velocity are estimated online via normalized continuous time least mean squares algorithm. Then, an additional interval type-2 fuzzy sliding mode control is incorporated in order to match the resonant frequencies and to compensate for undesired mechanical couplings. The main advantage of this control strategy is its robustness to parameters uncertainty, external disturbance and measurement noise. Consistent estimation of parameters is guaranteed and stability of the closed-loop system is proved via the Lyapunov stability theorem. Finally, numerical simulation is done in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, both for a constant and time-varying angular rate.

  5. Fast entanglement detection for unknown states of two spatial qutrits

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, G.; Gomez, E. S.; Saavedra, C.; Vargas, A.; Vianna, R. O.

    2010-07-15

    We investigate the practicality of the method proposed by Maciel et al. [Phys. Rev. A. 80, 032325 (2009).] for detecting the entanglement of two spatial qutrits (three-dimensional quantum systems), which are encoded in the discrete transverse momentum of single photons transmitted through a multislit aperture. The method is based on the acquisition of partial information of the quantum state through projective measurements, and a data processing analysis done with semidefinite programs. This analysis relies on generating gradually an optimal entanglement witness operator, and numerical investigations have shown that it allows for the entanglement detection of unknown states with a cost much lower than full state tomography.

  6. Earth Limb and Hurricane Clouds over Open Ocean, Location Unknown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A northern hemisphere tropical storm or hurricane over open ocean - location unknown, can be seen in the early stages of forming by the loosly defined cyclonic spiral gyre and eye within the cumulonimbus clouds. The storm can be readily identified as being in the northern hemisphere by the counter- clockwise rotation of the gyre. Because of the Earth's rotation induced coriolis effect, all northern hemisphere cyclonic circulations rotate in a counter-clockwise spiral and all those in the southern hemisphere rotate in a clockwise spiral.

  7. Earth Limb and Hurricane Clouds over Open Ocean, Location Unknown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A northern hemisphere tropical storm or hurricane over open ocean - location unknown, can be seen in the early stages of forming by the loosly defined cyclonic spiral gyre and eye within the cumulonimbus clouds. The storm can be readily identified as being in the northern hemisphere by the counter- clockwise rotation of the gyre. Because of the Earth's rotation induced coriolis effect, all northern hemisphere cyclonic circulations rotate in a counter-clockwise spiral and all those in the southern hemisphere rotate in a clockwise spiral.

  8. 1979J2 - Discovery of a previously unknown Jovian satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synnott, S. P.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed examination of imaging data of Jupiter taken by Voyager 1 reveals a previously unknown satellite 1979J2. Analysis of the image on the Jovian disk indicates that it is not an atmospheric feature or the shadow of any known satellite. The orbital period is calculated at 16 hours 11 minutes 21.25 seconds + or - 0.5 second and the semimajor axis is 3.1054 Jupiter radii. The observed profile is roughly circular with a diameter of 80 kilometers. An albedo of approximately 0.05 is reported, which is similar to Amalthea's. The geometry of the observational situation is illustrated.

  9. Maximum-revenue tariff under Bertrand duopoly with unknown costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2009-09-01

    This paper considers an international trade under Bertrand model with differentiated products and with unknown production costs. The home government imposes a specific import tariff per unit of imports from the foreign firm. We prove that this tariff is decreasing in the expected production costs of the foreign firm and increasing in the production costs of the home firm. Furthermore, it is increasing in the degree of product substitutability. We also show that an increase in the tariff results in both firms increasing their prices, an increase in both expected sales and expected profits for the home firm, and a decrease in both expected sales and expected profits for the foreign firm.

  10. 7. Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print in possession of James E. Zielinski Earth Tech, Huntsville, AL). Pan American World Airways, photographer. Aerial view (north to south) of missile launch area. Warhead handling building can be seen at the bottom center of the picture and the universal missile building in the middle right. In the distance can be seen the missile site control building and related structures - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Launch Area, Within Exclusion Area, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  11. Sequence Elucidation of an Unknown Cyclic Peptide of High Doping Potential by ETD and CID Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Fuyu; Uboh, Cornelius E.; Soma, Lawrence R.; Rudy, Jeffrey

    2011-04-01

    Identification of an unknown substance without any information remains a daunting challenge despite advances in chemistry and mass spectrometry. However, an unknown cyclic peptide in a sample with very limited volume seized at a Pennsylvania racetrack has been successfully identified. The unknown sample was determined by accurate mass measurements to contain a small unknown peptide as the major component. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the unknown peptide revealed the presence of Lys (not Gln, by accurate mass), Phe, and Arg residues, and absence of any y-type product ion. The latter, together with the tryptic digestion results of the unusual deamidation and absence of any tryptic cleavage, suggests a cyclic structure for the peptide. Electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) of the unknown peptide indicated the presence of Gln (not Lys, by the unusual deamidation), Phe, and Arg residues and their connectivity. After all the results were pieced together, a cyclic tetrapeptide, cyclo[Arg-Lys-N(C6H9)Gln-Phe], is proposed for the unknown peptide. Observations of different amino acid residues from CID and ETD experiments for the peptide were interpreted by a fragmentation pathway proposed, as was preferential CID loss of a Lys residue from the peptide. ETD was used for the first time in sequencing of a cyclic peptide; product ions resulting from ETD of the peptide identified were categorized into two types and named pseudo-b and pseudo-z ions that are important for sequencing of cyclic peptides. The ETD product ions were interpreted by fragmentation pathways proposed. Additionally, multi-stage CID mass spectrometry cannot provide complete sequence information for cyclic peptides containing adjacent Arg and Lys residues. The identified cyclic peptide has not been documented in the literature, its pharmacological effects are unknown, but it might be a "designer" drug with athletic performance-enhancing effects.

  12. Supergranular Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayashankar, Paniveni

    2016-07-01

    I study the complexity of supergranular cells using intensity patterns from Kodaikanal solar observatory. The chaotic and turbulent aspect of the solar supergranulation can be studied by examining the interrelationships amongst the parameters characterizing supergranular cells namely size, horizontal flow field, lifetime and physical dimensions of the cells and the fractal dimension deduced from the size data. The findings are supportive of Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence. The Data consists of visually identified supergranular cells, from which a fractal dimension 'D' for supergranulation is obtained according to the relation P α AD/2 where 'A' is the area and 'P' is the perimeter of the supergranular cells. I find a fractal dimension close to about 1.3 which is consistent with that for isobars and suggests a possible turbulent origin. The cell circularity shows a dependence on the perimeter with a peak around (1.1-1.2) x 105 m. The findings are supportive of Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence.

  13. Identifying unknown nanocrystals by fringe fingerprinting in two dimensions and free-access crystallographic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeck, Peter; Čertik, Ondřej; Seipel, Bjoern; Groebner, Rebecca; Noice, Lori; Upreti, Girish; Fraundorf, Philip; Erni, Rolf; Browning, Nigel D.; Kiesow, Andreas; Jolivet, Jean-Pierre

    2005-11-01

    New needs to determine the crystallography of nanocrystals arise with the advent of science and engineering on the nanometer scale. Direct space high-resolution phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and atomic resolution Z-contrast scanning TEM (Z-STEM), when combined with tools for image-based nanocrystallography possess the capacity to meet these needs. This paper introduces such a tool, i.e. fringe fingerprinting in two dimensions (2D), for the identification of unknown nanocrystal phases and compares this method briefly to qualitative standard powder X-ray diffractometry (i.e. spatial frequency fingerprinting). Free-access crystallographic databases are also discussed because the whole fingerprinting concept is only viable if there are comprehensive databases to support the identification of an unknown nanocrystal phase. This discussion provides the rationale for our ongoing development of a dedicated free-access Nano-Crystallography Database (NCD) that contains comprehensive information on both nanocrystal structures and morphologies. The current status of the NCD project and plans for its future developments are briefly outlined. Although feasible in contemporary HRTEMs and Z-STEMs, fringe fingerprinting in 2D (and image-based nanocrystallography in general) will become much more viable with the increased availability of aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopes. When the image acquisition and interpretation are, in addition, automated in such microscopes, fringe fingerprinting in 2D will be able to compete with powder X-ray diffraction for the identification of unknown nanocrystal phases on a routine basis. Since it possesses a range of advantages over powder X-ray diffractometry, e.g., fringe fingerprint plots contain much more information for the identification of an unknown crystal phase, fringe fingerprinting in 2D may then capture a significant part of the nanocrystal metrology market.

  14. Brain biopsy in neurologic decline of unknown etiology.

    PubMed

    Magaki, Shino; Gardner, Tracie; Khanlou, Negar; Yong, William H; Salamon, Noriko; Vinters, Harry V

    2015-04-01

    Brain biopsies have an uncertain role in the diagnosis of patients with dementia or neurologic decline of unknown etiology. They are often performed only after an exhaustive panel of less invasive tests and procedures have failed to provide a definitive diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of brain biopsies in this patient group through the retrospective analysis of 53 brain biopsies performed for neurologic disease of unknown etiology at a single tertiary care institution between December 2001 and December 2011. Patients with known nonlymphomatous neoplasms thought to be associated with the neurologic symptoms or with immunodeficiency were excluded from the study. Furthermore, the clinical presentation, imaging and laboratory tests were compared between diagnostic groups to identify factors more likely to yield a diagnosis. Sixty percent of the biopsies were diagnostic (32 of 53), with the most common histologic diagnosis of central nervous system lymphoma in 14 of 53 patients (26% of total) followed by infarct in four subjects (7.5%). A few patients were found to have rare and unsuspected diseases such as lymphomatosis cerebri, neurosarcoidosis and neuroaxonal leukodystrophy. Complications from biopsy were uncommon and included hemorrhage and infection with abscess formation at the biopsy site. These results suggest that brain biopsies may be useful in difficult cases in which less invasive measures have been unable to yield a definitive diagnosis.

  15. Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in agricultural communities.

    PubMed

    Almaguer, Miguel; Herrera, Raúl; Orantes, Carlos M

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, Central America, Egypt, India and Sri Lanka have reported a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. This essay examines the disease's case definitions, epidemiology (disease burden, demographics, associated risk factors) and causal hypotheses, by reviewing published findings from El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Sri Lanka, Egypt and India. The range of confirmed chronic kidney disease prevalence was 17.9%-21.1%. Prevalence of reduced glomerular filtration (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 body surface area) based on a single serum creatinine measurement was 0%-67% men and 0%-57% women. Prevalence was generally higher in male farmworkers aged 20-50 years, and varied by community economic activity and altitude. Cause was unknown in 57.4%-66.7% of patients. The dominant histopathological diagnosis was chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis. Associations were reported with agricultural work, agrochemical exposure, dehydration, hypertension, homemade alcohol use and family history of chronic kidney disease. There is no strong evidence for a single cause, and multiple environmental, occupational and social factors are probably involved. Further etiological research is needed, plus interventions to reduce preventable risk factors. PMID:24878644

  16. Learned navigation in unknown terrains: A retraction method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Nageswara S. V.; Stoltzfus, N.; Iyengar, S. Sitharama

    1989-01-01

    The problem of learned navigation of a circular robot R, of radius delta (is greater than or equal to 0), through a terrain whose model is not a-priori known is considered. Two-dimensional finite-sized terrains populated by an unknown (but, finite) number of simple polygonal obstacles are also considered. The number and locations of the vertices of each obstacle are unknown to R. R is equipped with a sensor system that detects all vertices and edges that are visible from its present location. In this context two problems are covered. In the visit problem, the robot is required to visit a sequence of destination points, and in the terrain model acquisition problem, the robot is required to acquire the complete model of the terrain. An algorithmic framework is presented for solving these two problems using a retraction of the freespace onto the Voronoi diagram of the terrain. Algorithms are then presented to solve the visit problem and the terrain model acquisition problem.

  17. Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in agricultural communities.

    PubMed

    Almaguer, Miguel; Herrera, Raúl; Orantes, Carlos M

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, Central America, Egypt, India and Sri Lanka have reported a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. This essay examines the disease's case definitions, epidemiology (disease burden, demographics, associated risk factors) and causal hypotheses, by reviewing published findings from El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Sri Lanka, Egypt and India. The range of confirmed chronic kidney disease prevalence was 17.9%-21.1%. Prevalence of reduced glomerular filtration (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 body surface area) based on a single serum creatinine measurement was 0%-67% men and 0%-57% women. Prevalence was generally higher in male farmworkers aged 20-50 years, and varied by community economic activity and altitude. Cause was unknown in 57.4%-66.7% of patients. The dominant histopathological diagnosis was chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis. Associations were reported with agricultural work, agrochemical exposure, dehydration, hypertension, homemade alcohol use and family history of chronic kidney disease. There is no strong evidence for a single cause, and multiple environmental, occupational and social factors are probably involved. Further etiological research is needed, plus interventions to reduce preventable risk factors.

  18. Computational Approach to Annotating Variants of Unknown Significance in Clinical Next Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Wade L; Tormey, Christopher A; Torres, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has become a common technology in the clinical laboratory, particularly for the analysis of malignant neoplasms. However, most mutations identified by NGS are variants of unknown clinical significance (VOUS). Although the approach to define these variants differs by institution, software algorithms that predict variant effect on protein function may be used. However, these algorithms commonly generate conflicting results, potentially adding uncertainty to interpretation. In this review, we examine several computational tools used to predict whether a variant has clinical significance. In addition to describing the role of these tools in clinical diagnostics, we assess their efficacy in analyzing known pathogenic and benign variants in hematologic malignancies.

  19. FDG-PET/CT for detection of the unknown primary head and neck tumor.

    PubMed

    Johansen, J; Petersen, H; Godballe, C; Loft, A; Grau, C

    2011-10-01

    The benefit of FDG-PET in addition to standard work-up for carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) and metastatic neck lesions has been widely described. However, most studies have been of retrospective nature with large heterogeneities in terms of workup standards and patient selection leaving several questions to be answered regarding the real value of PET in CUP. We here present an overview of the literature with focus on the current evidence of FDG-PET in detecting a primary in CUP and discuss the rationale of PET/CT in the diagnostic armamentarium of CUP. PMID:22019707

  20. IL-6-Producing, Noncatecholamines Secreting Pheochromocytoma Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin.

    PubMed

    Ciacciarelli, Marco; Bellini, Davide; Laghi, Andrea; Polidoro, Alessandro; Pacelli, Antonio; Bottaccioli, Anna Giulia; Palmaccio, Giuseppina; Stefanelli, Federica; Clemenzi, Piera; Carini, Luisa; Iuliano, Luigi; Alessandri, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) can be an unusual first clinical manifestation of pheochromocytoma. Pheochromocytomas are tumors that may produce a variety of substances in addition to catecholamines. To date, several cases of IL-6-producing pheochromocytomas have been reported. This report describes a 45-year-old woman with pheochromocytoma who was admitted with FUO, normal blood pressure levels, microcytic and hypochromic anemia, thrombocytosis, hyperfibrinogenemia, hypoalbuminemia, and normal levels of urine and plasma metanephrines. After adrenalectomy, fever and all inflammatory findings disappeared. PMID:27579040

  1. IL-6-Producing, Noncatecholamines Secreting Pheochromocytoma Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin

    PubMed Central

    Bellini, Davide; Laghi, Andrea; Polidoro, Alessandro; Pacelli, Antonio; Bottaccioli, Anna Giulia; Palmaccio, Giuseppina; Stefanelli, Federica; Clemenzi, Piera; Carini, Luisa; Alessandri, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) can be an unusual first clinical manifestation of pheochromocytoma. Pheochromocytomas are tumors that may produce a variety of substances in addition to catecholamines. To date, several cases of IL-6-producing pheochromocytomas have been reported. This report describes a 45-year-old woman with pheochromocytoma who was admitted with FUO, normal blood pressure levels, microcytic and hypochromic anemia, thrombocytosis, hyperfibrinogenemia, hypoalbuminemia, and normal levels of urine and plasma metanephrines. After adrenalectomy, fever and all inflammatory findings disappeared. PMID:27579040

  2. Detection of Radio Signals with Unknown Duration, Amplitude, and Initial Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, A. P.; Korchagin, Yu. É.; Trifonov, M. V.

    2015-10-01

    We develop the maximum-likelihood algorithm for detecting a radio signal with an arbitrary envelope shape, which is observed against the background of additive Gaussian white noise. The signal duration, amplitude, and initial phase are unknown. The developed algorithm is analyzed on the assumption of sufficiently large signal-to-noise ratios. Asymptotic expressions for the detection-error probabilities are obtained. The developed-algorithm efficiency is checked by computer simulation and the applicability range of the obtained asymptotic expressions for the algorithm characteristics is determined.

  3. Adverse reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1986-01-01

    There are thousands of agents that are intentionally added to the food that we consume. These include preservatives, stabilizers, conditioners, thickeners, colorings, flavorings, sweeteners, antioxidants, etc. etc. Yet only a surprisingly small number have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Amongst all the additives, FD&C dyes have been most frequently associated with adverse reactions. Tartrazine is the most notorious of them all; however, critical review of the medical literature and current Scripps Clinic studies would indicate that tartrazine has been confirmed to be at best only occasionally associated with flares of urticaria or asthma. There is no convincing evidence in the literature of reactivity to the other azo or nonazo dyes. This can also be said of BHA/BHT, nitrites/nitrates and sorbates. Parabens have been shown to elicit IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions when used as pharmaceutical preservatives; however, as with the other additives noted above, ingested parabens have only occasionally been associated with adverse reactions. MSG, the cause of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' has only been linked to asthma in one report. Sulfiting agents used primarily as food fresheners and to control microbial growth in fermented beverages have been established as the cause of any where from mild to severe and even fatal reactions in at least 5% of the asthmatic population. Other reactions reported to follow sulfite ingestion include anaphylaxis, gastro intestinal complaints and dermatological eruptions. The prevalence of these non asthmatic reactions is unknown. The mechanism of sulfite sensitive asthma is also unknown but most likely involves hyperreactivity to inhale SO2 in the great majority of cases; however, there are reports of IgE mediated reactions and other sulfite sensitive asthmatics have been found with low levels of sulfite oxidase; necessary to oxidize endogenous sulfite to sulfate.

  4. PHYLOGENOMICS - GUIDED VALIDATION OF FUNCTION FOR CONSERVED UNKNOWN GENES

    SciTech Connect

    V, DE CRECY-LAGARD; D, HANSON A

    2012-01-03

    Identifying functions for all gene products in all sequenced organisms is a central challenge of the post-genomic era. However, at least 30-50% of the proteins encoded by any given genome are of unknown function, or wrongly or vaguely annotated. Many of these 'unknown' proteins are common to prokaryotes and plants. We accordingly set out to predict and experimentally test the functions of such proteins. Our approach to functional prediction is integrative, coupling the extensive post-genomic resources available for plants with comparative genomics based on hundreds of microbial genomes, and functional genomic datasets from model microorganisms. The early phase is computer-assisted; later phases incorporate intellectual input from expert plant and microbial biochemists. The approach thus bridges the gap between automated homology-based annotations and the classical gene discovery efforts of experimentalists, and is much more powerful than purely computational approaches to identifying gene-function associations. Among Arabidopsis genes, we focused on those (2,325 in total) that (i) are unique or belong to families with no more than three members, (ii) are conserved between plants and prokaryotes, and (iii) have unknown or poorly known functions. Computer-assisted selection of promising targets for deeper analysis was based on homology .. independent characteristics associated in the SEED database with the prokaryotic members of each family, specifically gene clustering and phyletic spread, as well as availability of functional genomics data, and publications that could link candidate families to general metabolic areas, or to specific functions. In-depth comparative genomic analysis was then performed for about 500 top candidate families, which connected ~55 of them to general areas of metabolism and led to specific functional predictions for a subset of ~25 more. Twenty predicted functions were experimentally tested in at least one prokaryotic organism via reverse

  5. Radiation impacts on human health: certain, fuzzy, and unknown.

    PubMed

    Shore, Roy E

    2014-02-01

    The atomic bomb and other studies have established with certainty that moderate-to-high doses of radiation cause many types of solid cancer and leukemia. Moving down the dose range to the vicinity of 100-200 mSv, the risks become fuzzy and then unknown at low doses on the order of 10-20 mSv. Nor have low-dose experimental studies provided definitive answers: some have suggested there may be adverse biological effects in the range of 5-50 mSv, while others support a "no risk" interpretation. Epidemiologic data contain intrinsic "noise" (variation by known and unknown factors related to genetics, lifestyle, other environmental exposures, sociodemographics, diagnostic accuracy, etc.) so are generally too insensitive to provide compelling answers in the low-dose range. However, there have been recent provocative reports regarding risk from relatively low-dose occupational and medical radiation exposures that warrant careful consideration. Summaries of the largest studies with low-dose or low dose-rate radiation exposure provide suggestive evidence of risk for solid cancer and stronger evidence for leukemia risk. Recently, interest in health endpoints other than cancer also has risen sharply, in particular the degree of cardiovascular and cataract risk following doses under 1 Sv. Data regarding cardiovascular disease are limited and fuzzy, with suggestions of inconsistencies, and the risk at low doses is essentially unknown. The evidence of cataract risk after low dose-rate exposures among those conducting interventional medical radiological procedures is becoming strong. The magnitude of radiation impacts on human health requires fuller documentation, especially for low-dose or low dose-rate exposures. From the epidemiologic vantage point, this will require longer observation of existing irradiated cohorts and development of new informative cohorts, improved accuracy in dose assessments, more attention to confounding variables, and more biosamples from irradiated

  6. Some Unknown Pages of the Living Organisms' First Orbital Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malashenkov, D. C.

    2002-01-01

    The successful creation of ballistic rockets in USSR has allowed at the end of 1953 to make a real task of delivery of a payload into the Earth's orbit. In March 1954 during the meeting in the Academy of Sciences of USSR, the basic research problems conducted by means of artificial satellites of the Earth were determined. In May, 1954 S. Korolev has sent to Government of the USSR the report with the offer of creation the space satellites on the basis of intercontinental ballistic rocket -7 developed by him. It was the first time when the idea about possibility of interplanetary flights was stated in the official document. In August 1954 Council of Ministers of the USSR had ratified the submitted offers and have entrusted to work over scientific and theoretical problems of space flight. In the beginning of 1956 the Korolev's United Design Bureau was officially entrusted the creation and launch of undirected research satellite named "Object D" weighing 1.000-1.400 kg in 1957-1958. The main scientific management and development of scientific equipment was assigned to a commission of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR under the direction of . Keldysh. The measurement of parameters of the atmosphere, corpuscular radiation of the Sun, magnetic fields, space radiation etc. was planned during the "Object D" flight. The successful performance in the middle of 1956 of the second series of launches of geophysical rockets has allowed to gain a large volume of the information about parameters of physiological functions and behavior of animals in conditions of flight. For enlargement of these works the laboratory of V. Yazdovsky in the Institute of aviation medicine was extended to a department, the large group of the new employees, including V. Antipov, . Baevsky, I. Balakhovsky, B. Buylov, . Genin, O. Gazenko, A. Gurdjian, I. Kasyan, A. Kotovskaya, E..Yuganov, . Shepelev and others came to the department. But, owing to the delay of development of the scientific equipment for

  7. [Neuroleptic malignant syndrome : Rare cause of fever of unknown origin].

    PubMed

    Chackupurakal, R; Wild, U; Kamm, M; Wappler, F; Reske, D; Sakka, S G

    2015-07-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a possible cause of fever of unknown origin (FUO) and is a potentially fatal adverse effect of various drugs, especially of neuroleptics. First generation antipsychotics, such as received by the patient described in this article, are more likely to cause NMS than second generation antipsychotics. The key symptoms are the development of severe muscle rigidity and elevated temperature associated with the use of neuroleptic medication. Malignant catatonia (MC) is an important differential diagnosis of NMS. While neuroleptics can trigger NMS and must be immediately discontinued if NMS occurs, neuroleptic therapy represents the first line treatment for MC. This article describes the case of a patient with schizoaffective disorder where initially the diagnosis of NMS was not clear. Eventually, fever and a markedly elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) led to the correct diagnosis and the appropriate therapy with dantrolene, bromocriptine and amantadine. Furthermore, a thorough review of the currently available literature on NMS is provided. PMID:26122200

  8. Drug leads for interactive protein targets with unknown structure.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ariel; Scott, L Ridgway

    2016-04-01

    The disruption of protein-protein interfaces (PPIs) remains a challenge in drug discovery. The problem becomes daunting when the structure of the target protein is unknown and is even further complicated when the interface is susceptible to disruptive phosphorylation. Based solely on protein sequence and information about phosphorylation-susceptible sites within the PPI, a new technology has been developed to identify drug leads to inhibit protein associations. Here we reveal this technology and contrast it with current structure-based technologies for the generation of drug leads. The novel technology is illustrated by a patented invention to treat heart failure. The success of this technology shows that it is possible to generate drug leads in the absence of target structure. PMID:26484433

  9. Pyrexia of unknown origin: causes, investigation and management.

    PubMed

    Beresford, R W; Gosbell, I B

    2016-09-01

    Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) is a syndrome that has long tested the skills of physicians to achieve a diagnosis in affected patients. By definition, patients included in this syndrome will be more difficult to diagnose as they have already resisted classification during baseline investigations. Furthermore, investigation of PUO requires knowledge of many diseases across a range of clinical specialties, as well as knowledge of less commonly used investigative tools. As both society and medicine continue to change, the aetiology and epidemiology of the diseases that cause PUO also change. For these reasons, it is important for physicians to approach PUO in a logical manner, and for the causes and approach to PUO to be continuously reviewed. In this article, we review the aetiology of PUO and the diagnostic strategies that may be used to investigate it. PMID:27633467

  10. Phase shift estimation in interferograms with unknown phase step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalmau, Oscar; Rivera, Mariano; Gonzalez, Adonai

    2016-08-01

    We first present two closed formulas for computing the phase shift in interferograms with unknown phase step. These formulas obtain theoretically the exact phase step in fringe pattern without noise and only require the information in two pixels of the image. The previous formulas allows us to define a functional that yields an estimate of the phase step in interferograms corrupted by noise. In the experiment we use the standard Least Square formulation which also yields a closed formula, although the general formulation admits a robust potential. We provide two possible implementations of our approach, one in which the sites can be randomly selected and the other in which we can scan the whole image. The experiments show that the proposed algorithm presents the best results compared with state of the art algorithms.

  11. Statins and diabetes: the good, the bad, and the unknown.

    PubMed

    Axsom, Kelly; Berger, Jeffrey S; Schwartzbard, Arthur Z

    2013-02-01

    The ability for statins to reduce major cardiovascular events and mortality has lead to this drug class being the most commonly prescribed in the world. In particular, the benefit of these drugs in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is well established. In February 2012, the Food and Drug Administration released changes to statin safety label to include that statins have been associated with increases in hemoglobin A1C and fasting serum glucose levels. This has stirred much debate in the medical community. Estimate for new onset diabetes from statin treatment is approximately one in 255 patients over four years. The number needed to treat for statin benefit is estimated at one in 40 depending on the population. The mechanism of this link remains unknown. Statins may accelerate progression to diabetes via molecular mechanisms that impact insulin resistance and cellular metabolism of carbohydrates. It remains clear that the benefit of statin therapy outweighs the risk of developing diabetes. PMID:23299640

  12. Informed inferences of unknown feature values in categorization.

    PubMed

    Wood, Michael J; Blair, Mark R

    2011-05-01

    Many current computational models of object categorization either include no explicit provisions for dealing with incomplete stimulus information (e.g. Kruschke, Psychological Review 99:22-44, 1992) or take approaches that are at odds with evidence from other fields (e.g. Verguts, Ameel, & Storms, Memory & Cognition 32:379-389, 2004). In two experiments centered around the inverse base-rate effect, we demonstrate that people not only make highly informed inferences about the values of unknown features, but also subsequently use the inferred values to come to a categorization decision. The inferences appear to be based on immediately available information about the particular stimulus under consideration, as well as on higher-level inferences about the stimulus class as a whole. Implications for future modeling efforts are discussed. PMID:21264594

  13. Designing low cost autonomous robots in unknown environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alouani, Ali T.; Sri, Aravind M.

    2008-04-01

    This paper documents the design and development of a low cost robot capable of autonomous navigation in unknown indoor environments. The proposed design uses only two complementary rotating sensors for navigation. The use of real time mapping allows for detection and avoidance of obstacles. The fusion of the sensors data helped improve accuracy of the online map of the robot environment. The robot builds an online map of its environment, and then automatically plans its navigation path. The feedback control keeps the robot moving along its planned path. The robot has been successfully tested in a cluttered environment in the Advanced Systems Lab. Preliminary tests carried out have shown the success of the robot in navigating autonomously.

  14. An Efficient Algorithm for Direction Finding against Unknown Mutual Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weijiang; Ren, Shiwei; Ding, Yingtao; Wang, Haoyu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an algorithm of direction finding is proposed in the presence of unknown mutual coupling. The preliminary direction of arrival (DOA) is estimated using the whole array for high resolution. Further refinement can then be conducted by estimating the angularly dependent coefficients (ADCs) with the subspace theory. The mutual coupling coefficients are finally determined by solving the least squares problem with all of the ADCs utilized without discarding any. Simulation results show that the proposed method can achieve better performance at a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with a small-sized array and is more robust, compared with the similar processes employing the initial DOA estimation and further improvement iteratively. PMID:25347587

  15. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Juan David; Istenič, Klemen; Gracias, Nuno; Palomeras, Narcís; Campos, Ricard; Vidal, Eduard; García, Rafael; Carreras, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario. PMID:27472337

  16. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Juan David; Istenič, Klemen; Gracias, Nuno; Palomeras, Narcís; Campos, Ricard; Vidal, Eduard; García, Rafael; Carreras, Marc

    2016-07-26

    We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario.

  17. Seasonal dynamics of previously unknown fungal lineages in tundra soils.

    PubMed

    Schadt, Christopher W; Martin, Andrew P; Lipson, David A; Schmidt, Steven K

    2003-09-01

    The finding that microbial communities are active under snow has changed the estimated global rates of biogeochemical processes beneath seasonal snow packs. We used microbiological and molecular techniques to elucidate the phylogenetic composition of undersnow microbial communities in Colorado, the United States. Here, we show that tundra soil microbial biomass reaches its annual peak under snow, and that fungi account for most of the biomass. Phylogenetic analysis of tundra soil fungi revealed a high diversity of fungi and three novel clades that constitute major new groups of fungi (divergent at the subphylum or class level). An abundance of previously unknown fungi that are active beneath the snow substantially broadens our understanding of both the diversity and biogeochemical functioning of fungi in cold environments.

  18. Simulated NMIS Imaging Data for an Unknown Object

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Mark E; Mihalczo, John T

    2012-04-01

    This report presents simulated Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) imaging data for an unclassified object, whose characteristics are initially unknown to the reader. This data will be used to test various analysis capabilities and was created with a simple deterministic ray-tracing algorithm. NMIS is a time-dependent coincidence counting system that is used to characterize both fissile and non-fissile materials undergoing nondestructive assay. NMIS characterizes materials by interrogating them with neutrons, either from an associated-particle deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron generator, which produces a time and directionally tagged monoenergetic beam of 14.1 MeV neutrons, or a time-tagged spontaneous fission source in an ionization chamber.

  19. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Juan David; Istenič, Klemen; Gracias, Nuno; Palomeras, Narcís; Campos, Ricard; Vidal, Eduard; García, Rafael; Carreras, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario. PMID:27472337

  20. [Structural analyses of unknown red dyes detected in dried strawberry].

    PubMed

    Shindo, Tetsuya; Sadamasu, Yuki; Suzuki, Keiko; Tanaka, Yasukazu; Togawa, Akiko; Nakajima, Junichi; Nakazato, Mitsuo; Uematsu, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    We examined two unknown red dyes (designated as red dyes "A" and "B") from a dried strawberry package with a label that indicated the presence of food red No. 40 (R40). Red dye "A" was identified as trisodium 3-hydroxy-4-[(2'-methoxy-5'-methyl-4'-sulfonatophenyl)azo]-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonate (CSA-R) by HPLC, UV-VIS spectra and MS spectra. This compound is one of the four reported subsidiary colors of R40. Detailed analyses of red dye "B" by MS and NMR demonstrated that its structure was disodium 3-hydroxy-4-[(2'-methoxy-5'-methyl-4'-sulfonatophenyl)azo]-2-naphthalenesulfonate. Red dye "B" is a structural isomer of R40, that has not been reported previously. Our results suggest that the two minor red dyes were subsidiary colors contained in R40, which had been added to the dried strawberries.