Science.gov

Sample records for additional validity evidence

  1. Eating disorder diagnostic scale: additional evidence of reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin

    2004-03-01

    The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based diagnoses, convergent validity with risk factors for eating pathology, and internal consistency. Studies 2 and 3 found that the EDDS was sufficiently sensitive to detect the effects of eating disorder prevention programs. Regarding predictive validity, Studies 3 and 4 found that the EDDS predicted response to a prevention program and future onset of eating pathology and depression. Results provide additional evidence of the reliability and validity of this scale and suggest it may be useful in clinical and research applications. PMID:15023093

  2. Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: Additional Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin

    2004-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based…

  3. Additional Evidence of Convergent Validity between SRSS-IE and SSiS-PSG Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Ennis, Robin Parks; Royer, David James

    2015-01-01

    We report findings of a validity study comparing two screening tools: the Student Risk Screening Scale-Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) and the Social Skills Improvement System-Performance Screening Guide (SSiS-PSG; Elliott & Gresham, 2007). Participants were 1,680 kindergarten through sixth-grade elementary students from three…

  4. Additional Validity Evidence and Across-Group Equivalency of the "HOPE Teacher Rating Scale"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Scott J.; Gentry, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    The "HOPE Scale" was developed to identify academic and social components of giftedness and talent in elementary-aged students with particular attention to students from low-income and/or culturally diverse families. Based on previous findings, additional research was conducted on revisions made to the "HOPE Scale". Items were added, and 71…

  5. Additional evidence for a dual-strategy model of reasoning: Probabilistic reasoning is more invariant than reasoning about logical validity.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Brisson, Janie; de Chantal, Pier-Luc

    2015-11-01

    One of the major debates concerning the nature of inferential reasoning is between counterexample-based strategies such as mental model theory and the statistical strategies underlying probabilistic models. The dual-strategy model proposed by Verschueren, Schaeken, and d'Ydewalle (2005a, 2005b) suggests that people might have access to both kinds of strategies. One of the postulates of this approach is that statistical strategies correspond to low-cost, intuitive modes of evaluation, whereas counterexample strategies are higher-cost and more variable in use. We examined this hypothesis by using a deductive-updating paradigm. The results of Study 1 showed that individual differences in strategy use predict different levels of deductive updating on inferences about logical validity. Study 2 demonstrated no such variation when explicitly probabilistic inferences were examined. Study 3 showed that presenting updating problems with probabilistic inferences modified performance on subsequent problems using logical validity, whereas the opposite was not true. These results provide clear evidence that the processes used to make probabilistic inferences are less subject to variation than those used to make inferences of logical validity. PMID:26148720

  6. An Empirically Derived Approach to the Latent Structure of the Adult Attachment Interview: Additional Convergent and Discriminant Validity Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Haydon, Katherine C.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Marks, Michael J.; Fraley, R. Chris

    2011-01-01

    Building on studies examining the latent structure of attachment-related individual differences as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) via Principal Components Analysis, the current report further explores the validity of four AAI dimensions reported by Haydon, Roisman, and Burt (in press): dismissing states of mind, preoccupied states of mind, and inferred negative experience with maternal and paternal caregivers. Study 1 reports evidence of distinctive cognitive correlates of dismissing v. preoccupied states of mind with reaction time in an attachment Stroop task and the valence of endorsed self-descriptors, respectively. Study 2 replicates prior meta-analytic findings of generally trivial convergence between state of mind dimensions and self-reported avoidance and anxiety (i.e., Roisman, Holland, et al., 2007). Study 3 contrastively demonstrates moderate empirical overlap between inferred experience—but not state of mind—AAI scales and self-reported avoidance and anxiety when the latter were assessed at the level of specific caregivers. Taken together, these findings add to accumulating evidence that an empirically-driven approach to scaling adults on AAI dimensions (Haydon et al., in press; Roisman et al., 2007) aids in identifying theoretically anticipated and distinctive affective, behavioral, and cognitive correlates of dismissing versus preoccupied states of mind. PMID:21838649

  7. Additional evidence of Mercurian volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trask, N.J.; Strom, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence concerned with (1) the character and distribution of terrain surrounding fresh basins, (2) albedo, color and temporal differences between a basin rim and smooth plains on its floor, and (3) the stratigraphic relations and local distribution of smooth plains in the hilly and lineated terrain are cited as additional evidence for an internal origin of much of the Mercurian smooth plains. Altough the question of Mercurian volcanism should be kept open, this evidence together with that presented in an earlier paper suggests that volcanism occurred on Mercury early in its history. ?? 1976.

  8. Additional Evidence for the Reliability and Validity of the Student Risk Screening Scale at the High School Level: A Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy P.; Ennis, Robin Parks; Cox, Meredith Lucille; Schatschneider, Christopher; Lambert, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This study reports findings from a validation study of the Student Risk Screening Scale for use with 9th- through 12th-grade students (N = 1854) attending a rural fringe school. Results indicated high internal consistency, test-retest stability, and inter-rater reliability. Predictive validity was established across two academic years, with Spring…

  9. Truth and Evidence in Validity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsboom, Denny; Markus, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    According to Kane (this issue), "the validity of a proposed interpretation or use depends on how well the evidence supports" the claims being made. Because truth and evidence are distinct, this means that the validity of a test score interpretation could be high even though the interpretation is false. As an illustration, we discuss the case of…

  10. Emotional Intelligence and Teaching: Further Validation Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Chris; Ball, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Further evidence is presented to demonstrate the validity of a new measure of emotional intelligence: Reactions to Teaching Situations (RTS). Using criterion-related groups of high and low scorers on the RTS, it is shown that high scorers give more responses coded as emotional intelligence in their answers to sentence completion tasks relating to…

  11. The Word Associates Format: Validation Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Norbert; Ng, Janice Wun Ching; Garras, John

    2011-01-01

    Although the Word Associates Format (WAF) is becoming more frequently used as a depth-of-knowledge measure, relatively little validation has been carried out on it. This report of two validation studies tackles various important WAF issues yet to be satisfactorily resolved. Study 1 conducted introspective interviews regarding students' WAF…

  12. Beliefs about language development: construct validity evidence.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Mavis L; Fu, Qiong; Smith, Everett V

    2012-01-01

    Understanding language development is incomplete without recognizing children's sociocultural environments, including adult beliefs about language development. Yet there is a need for data supporting valid inferences to assess these beliefs. The current study investigated the psychometric properties of data from a survey (MODeL) designed to explore beliefs in the popular culture, and their alignment with more formal theories. Support for the content, substantive, structural, generalizability, and external aspects of construct validity of the data were investigated. Subscales representing Behaviorist, Cognitive, Nativist, and Sociolinguistic models were identified as dimensions of beliefs. More than half of the items showed a high degree of consensus, suggesting culturally-transmitted beliefs. Behaviorist ideas were most popular. Bilingualism and ethnicity were related to Cognitive and Sociolinguistic beliefs. Identifying these beliefs may clarify the nature of child-directed speech, and enable the design of language intervention programs that are congruent with family and cultural expectations. PMID:23270979

  13. Sources of Validity Evidence for Educational and Psychological Tests: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cizek, Gregory J.; Bowen, Daniel; Church, Keri

    2010-01-01

    This study followed up on previous work that examined the incidence of reporting evidence based on test consequences in "Mental Measurements Yearbook". In the present study, additional possible outlets for what has been called "consequential validity" evidence were investigated, including all articles published in the past 10 years in several…

  14. 20 CFR 725.410 - Submission of additional evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Submission of additional evidence. (a) After the district director completes the development of medical... the claim was filed by, or on behalf of, a miner, the schedule shall contain a summary of the complete... employer other than the employer who last employed the claimant as a miner, the district director...

  15. Further evidence for the validity of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R; Parrott, Dominic J

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) as a measure of direct physical aggression. Hypotheses were generated from recent theory pertinent to the categorization and measurement of aggressive behavior as well as widely supported effects of alcohol intoxication and gender on aggression. Participants were 328 (163 men and 165 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age who completed self-report personality inventories designed to assess one's propensity toward direct physical aggression, verbal aggression, trait anger, and hostility. Following the consumption of either an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on the TAP, in which mild electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Direct physical aggression was operationalized as the shock intensities (i.e., first trial shock intensity, mean shock intensity, proportion of highest shock) administered to the fictitious opponent. Although all self-report measures were significantly associated with the three TAP indices, the associations involving physical aggression were strongest. In addition, self-report measures of physical aggression consistently predicted higher levels of aggression on the TAP indices in men, compared with women, and in intoxicated, relative to sober, participants. Taken as a whole, this pattern of findings provides further evidence for the validity of the TAP as a measure of direct physical aggression for men and women. PMID:17894385

  16. Consequences Validity Evidence: Evaluating the Impact of Educational Assessments.

    PubMed

    Cook, David A; Lineberry, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Because tests that do not alter management (i.e., influence decisions and actions) should not be performed, data on the consequences of assessment constitute a critical source of validity evidence. Consequences validity evidence is challenging for many educators to understand, perhaps because it has no counterpart in the older framework of content, criterion, and construct validity. The authors' purpose is to explain consequences validity evidence and propose a framework for organizing its collection and interpretation.Both clinical and educational assessments can be viewed as interventions. The act of administering or taking a test, the interpretation of scores, and the ensuing decisions and actions influence those being assessed (e.g., patients or students) and other people and systems (e.g., physicians, teachers, hospitals, schools). Consequences validity evidence examines such impacts of assessments. Despite its importance, consequences evidence is reported infrequently in health professions education (range 5%-20% of studies in recent systematic reviews) and is typically limited in scope and rigor.Consequences validity evidence can derive from evaluations of the impact on examinees, educators, schools, or the end target of practice (e.g., patients or health care systems); and the downstream impact of classifications (e.g., different score cut points and labels). Impact can result from the uses of scores or from the assessment activity itself, and can be intended or unintended and beneficial or harmful. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods are useful. The type, quantity, and rigor of consequences evidence required will vary depending on the assessment and the claims for its use. PMID:26839945

  17. 20 CFR 219.33 - Evidence of a deemed valid marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. 219.33... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Relationship § 219.33 Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. (a) Preferred evidence. Preferred evidence of a deemed valid marriage is— (1) Evidence of a ceremonial...

  18. 20 CFR 219.33 - Evidence of a deemed valid marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. 219.33... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Relationship § 219.33 Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. (a) Preferred evidence. Preferred evidence of a deemed valid marriage is— (1) Evidence of a ceremonial...

  19. 20 CFR 219.33 - Evidence of a deemed valid marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. 219.33... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Relationship § 219.33 Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. (a) Preferred evidence. Preferred evidence of a deemed valid marriage is— (1) Evidence of a ceremonial...

  20. 20 CFR 219.33 - Evidence of a deemed valid marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. 219.33... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Relationship § 219.33 Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. (a) Preferred evidence. Preferred evidence of a deemed valid marriage is— (1) Evidence of a ceremonial...

  1. 20 CFR 219.33 - Evidence of a deemed valid marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. 219.33... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Relationship § 219.33 Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. (a) Preferred evidence. Preferred evidence of a deemed valid marriage is— (1) Evidence of a ceremonial...

  2. Is there evidence for additional neutrino species from cosmology?

    SciTech Connect

    Feeney, Stephen M.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Verde, Licia E-mail: h.peiris@ucl.ac.uk

    2013-04-01

    It has been suggested that recent cosmological and flavor-oscillation data favor the existence of additional neutrino species beyond the three predicted by the Standard Model of particle physics. We apply Bayesian model selection to determine whether there is indeed any evidence from current cosmological datasets for the standard cosmological model to be extended to include additional neutrino flavors. The datasets employed include cosmic microwave background temperature, polarization and lensing power spectra, and measurements of the baryon acoustic oscillation scale and the Hubble constant. We also consider other extensions to the standard neutrino model, such as massive neutrinos, and possible degeneracies with other cosmological parameters. The Bayesian evidence indicates that current cosmological data do not require any non-standard neutrino properties.

  3. Validity Evidence for Games as Assessment Environments. CRESST Report 773

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delacruz, Girlie C.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Baker, Eva L.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides empirical evidence of a highly specific use of games in education--the assessment of the learner. Linear regressions were used to examine the predictive and convergent validity of a math game as assessment of mathematical understanding. Results indicate that prior knowledge significantly predicts game performance. Results also…

  4. Construct Validation of Mathematics Achievement: Evidence from Interview Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupermintz, Haggai; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Snow, Richard E.

    This study investigated the validity of measures derived from a large-scale multiple-choice achievement test in mathematics, using evidence from introspective think-aloud protocols of students as they attempted test items. A small-scale study of 21 local high-school students was conducted to identify and describe cognitive processes underlying…

  5. Extending Validity Evidence for Multidimensional Measures of Coaching Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Wolfe, Edward W.; Maier, Kimberly S.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Reckase, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    This study extended validity evidence for multidimensional measures of coaching competency derived from the Coaching Competency Scale (CCS; Myers, Feltz, Maier, Wolfe, & Reckase, 2006) by examining use of the original rating scale structure and testing how measures related to satisfaction with the head coach within teams and between teams.…

  6. The Communicative Effectiveness Survey: Preliminary Evidence of Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Neila J.; Kendall, Diane L.; Young, Mary Ellen; Rosenbek, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To provide preliminary evidence of the construct validity of the Communicative Effectiveness Survey (CES) for individuals with dysarthria and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: In a prospective, quasi-experimental design, 25 participants each were assigned to 3 groups (N = 75): PD and dysarthria, non-PD and no dysarthria, and PD…

  7. Validation of the Evidence-Based Practice Process Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Allen; Parrish, Danielle E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This report describes the reliability, validity, and sensitivity of a scale that assesses practitioners' perceived familiarity with, attitudes of, and implementation of the evidence-based practice (EBP) process. Method: Social work practitioners and second-year master of social works (MSW) students (N = 511) were surveyed in four sites…

  8. Validity Evidence in Scale Development: The Application of Cross Validation and Classification-Sequencing Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Tu¨lin

    2014-01-01

    In literature, it has been observed that many enhanced criteria are limited by factor analysis techniques. Besides examinations of statistical structure and/or psychological structure, such validity studies as cross validation and classification-sequencing studies should be performed frequently. The purpose of this study is to examine cross…

  9. Extending validity evidence for multidimensional measures of coaching competency.

    PubMed

    Myers, Nicholas D; Wolfe, Edward W; Maier, Kimberly S; Feltz, Deborah L; Reckase, Mark D

    2006-12-01

    This study extended validity evidence for multidimensional measures of coaching competency derived from the Coaching Competency Scale (CCS; Myers, Feltz, Maier, Wolfe, & Reckase, 2006) by examining use of the original rating scale structure and testing how measures related to satisfaction with the head coach within teams and between teams. Motivation, game strategy, technique, and character building comprised the dimensions of coaching competency. Data were collected from athletes (N = 585) nested within intercollegiate men's (g = 8) and women's (g = 13) soccer and women's ice hockey (g = 11) teams (G = 32). Validity concerns were observed for the original rating scale structure and the predicted positive relationship between motivation competency and satisfaction with the coach between teams. Validity evidence was offered for a condensed post hoc rating scale and the predicted relationship between motivation competency and satisfaction with the coach within teams. PMID:17243220

  10. Antiandrogenic activity of phthalate mixtures: Validity of concentration addition

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Verena; Crettaz, Pierre; Oberli-Schrämmli, Aurelia; Fent, Karl

    2012-03-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A have very widespread use leading to significant exposure of humans. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the androgen, estrogen and the thyroid hormone system. Here we analyzed the antiandrogenic activity of six binary, and one ternary mixture of phthalates exhibiting complete antiandrogenic dose–response curves, and binary mixtures of phthalates and bisphenol A at equi-effective concentrations of EC{sub 10}, EC{sub 25} and EC{sub 50} in MDA-kb2 cells. Mixture activity followed the concentration addition (CA) model with a tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low concentrations. Isoboles and the toxic unit approach (TUA) confirmed the additive to synergistic activity of the binary mixtures BBP + DBP, DBP + DEP and DEP + BPA at high concentrations. Both methods indicate a tendency to antagonism for the EC{sub 10} mixtures BBP + DBP, BBP + DEP and DBP + DEP, and the EC{sub 25} mixture of DBP + BPA. A ternary mixture revealed synergism at the EC{sub 50}, and weak antagonistic activity at the EC{sub 25} level by the TUA. A mixture of five phthalates representing a human urine composition and reflecting exposure to corresponding parent compounds showed no antiandrogenic activity. Our study demonstrates that CA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of antiandrogenic phthalates and bisphenol A. The interaction indicates a departure from additivity to antagonism at low concentrations, probably due to interaction with the androgen receptor and/or cofactors. This study emphasizes that a risk assessment of phthalates should account for mixture effects by applying the CA concept. -- Highlights: ► Antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of 2 and 3 phthalates are assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. ► Mixture activities followed the concentration addition model. ► A tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low levels occurred.

  11. 20 CFR 404.727 - Evidence of a deemed valid marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. 404.727... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.727 Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. (a) General. A deemed valid marriage is a ceremonial marriage we consider valid...

  12. 20 CFR 404.727 - Evidence of a deemed valid marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. 404.727... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.727 Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. (a) General. A deemed valid marriage is a ceremonial marriage we consider valid...

  13. 20 CFR 404.727 - Evidence of a deemed valid marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. 404.727... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.727 Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. (a) General. A deemed valid marriage is a ceremonial marriage we consider valid...

  14. 20 CFR 404.727 - Evidence of a deemed valid marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. 404.727... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.727 Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. (a) General. A deemed valid marriage is a ceremonial marriage we consider valid...

  15. 20 CFR 404.727 - Evidence of a deemed valid marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. 404.727... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.727 Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. (a) General. A deemed valid marriage is a ceremonial marriage we consider valid...

  16. Convergent Validity Evidence regarding the Validity of the Chilean Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelices, Maria Veronica; Taut, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes convergent validity evidence regarding the mandatory, standards-based Chilean national teacher evaluation system (NTES). The study examined whether NTES identifies--and thereby rewards or punishes--the "right" teachers as high- or low-performing. We collected in-depth teaching performance data on a sample of 58 teachers who…

  17. 20 CFR 404.725 - Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. 404... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.725 Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. (a) General. A valid ceremonial marriage is one that follows procedures set by law...

  18. 20 CFR 404.725 - Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. 404... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.725 Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. (a) General. A valid ceremonial marriage is one that follows procedures set by law...

  19. 20 CFR 404.725 - Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. 404... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.725 Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. (a) General. A valid ceremonial marriage is one that follows procedures set by law...

  20. 20 CFR 404.725 - Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. 404... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.725 Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. (a) General. A valid ceremonial marriage is one that follows procedures set by law...

  1. 20 CFR 404.725 - Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. 404... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.725 Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. (a) General. A valid ceremonial marriage is one that follows procedures set by law...

  2. External Standards or Standard Addition? Selecting and Validating a Method of Standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, David T.

    2002-05-01

    A common feature of many problem-based laboratories in analytical chemistry is a lengthy independent project involving the analysis of "real-world" samples. Students research the literature, adapting and developing a method suitable for their analyte, sample matrix, and problem scenario. Because these projects encompass the complete analytical process, students must consider issues such as obtaining a representative sample, selecting a method of analysis, developing a suitable standardization, validating results, and implementing appropriate quality assessment/quality control practices. Most textbooks and monographs suitable for an undergraduate course in analytical chemistry, however, provide only limited coverage of these important topics. The need for short laboratory experiments emphasizing important facets of method development, such as selecting a method of standardization, is evident. The experiment reported here, which is suitable for an introductory course in analytical chemistry, illustrates the importance of matrix effects when selecting a method of standardization. Students also learn how a spike recovery is used to validate an analytical method, and obtain a practical experience in the difference between performing an external standardization and a standard addition.

  3. 29 CFR 1607.15 - Documentation of impact and validity evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) and 15D above. F. Evidence of validity from cooperative studies. Where a selection procedure has been validated through a cooperative study, evidence that the study satisfies the requirements of sections 7,...

  4. Evidence of validity of an inhalant-craving questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Matías, Lizeth; Páez-Martínez, Nayeli; Reyes-Zamorano, Ernesto; González-Olvera, Jorge J

    2015-01-01

    Inhalants are substances widely used as recreational drugs: their addictive potential has been demonstrated by many studies. There is no reported measurable evidence of craving in inhalant users. The main goal of this study was to design and obtain evidence of validity of the score of a questionnaire for the evaluation of inhalant craving (ICQ) in a Mexican population sample. The ICQ is a type of visual analog scale with ten items. Face validity was evaluated by a group of experts in the addiction field. Reviewers considered the completeness, semantics, and sentence structure to guarantee a conceptual representation of the items. The final ICQ was applied to a sample of 520 Mexican high school students, 46% women and 54% men, between 12-19 years of age (M=15.18; SD=1.48), from 7th to 12th grades. The internal consistency of the ICQ showed a Cronbach's Alpha of 0.947. The 10 items were grouped into one single factor, with a factor loading above 0.74 for each of them. ROC analysis breakpoint was located at 18.5 mm with a sensitivity of 0.855 and specificity of 0.753. Thirty-three per cent (n= 172) of the student population evaluated reported the use of inhalants at some point in their lifetimes, with an average of misuse beginning at 13.6 years of age. The ICQ showed adequate psychometric properties, suggesting that the instrument may be considered a useful tool for screening for craving in young inhalant users. PMID:26706810

  5. Evidence that 'food addiction' is a valid phenotype of obesity.

    PubMed

    Davis, Caroline; Curtis, Claire; Levitan, Robert D; Carter, Jacqueline C; Kaplan, Allan S; Kennedy, James L

    2011-12-01

    There is growing evidence of 'food addiction' (FA) in sugar- and fat-bingeing animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the legitimacy of this disorder in the human condition. It was also our intention to extend the validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) - the first tool developed to identify individuals with addictive tendencies towards food. Using a sample of obese adults (aged 25-45 years), and a case-control methodology, we focused our assessments on three domains relevant to the characterization of conventional substance-dependence disorders: clinical co-morbidities, psychological risk factors, and abnormal motivation for the addictive substance. Results were strongly supportive of the FA construct and validation of the YFAS. Those who met the diagnostic criteria for FA had a significantly greater co-morbidity with Binge Eating Disorder, depression, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder compared to their age- and weight-equivalent counterparts. Those with FA were also more impulsive and displayed greater emotional reactivity than obese controls. They also displayed greater food cravings and the tendency to 'self-soothe' with food. These findings advance the quest to identify clinically relevant subtypes of obesity that may possess different vulnerabilities to environmental risk factors, and thereby could inform more personalized treatment approaches for those who struggle with overeating and weight gain. PMID:21907742

  6. Validation analysis of probabilistic models of dietary exposure to food additives.

    PubMed

    Gilsenan, M B; Thompson, R L; Lambe, J; Gibney, M J

    2003-10-01

    The validity of a range of simple conceptual models designed specifically for the estimation of food additive intakes using probabilistic analysis was assessed. Modelled intake estimates that fell below traditional conservative point estimates of intake and above 'true' additive intakes (calculated from a reference database at brand level) were considered to be in a valid region. Models were developed for 10 food additives by combining food intake data, the probability of an additive being present in a food group and additive concentration data. Food intake and additive concentration data were entered as raw data or as a lognormal distribution, and the probability of an additive being present was entered based on the per cent brands or the per cent eating occasions within a food group that contained an additive. Since the three model components assumed two possible modes of input, the validity of eight (2(3)) model combinations was assessed. All model inputs were derived from the reference database. An iterative approach was employed in which the validity of individual model components was assessed first, followed by validation of full conceptual models. While the distribution of intake estimates from models fell below conservative intakes, which assume that the additive is present at maximum permitted levels (MPLs) in all foods in which it is permitted, intake estimates were not consistently above 'true' intakes. These analyses indicate the need for more complex models for the estimation of food additive intakes using probabilistic analysis. Such models should incorporate information on market share and/or brand loyalty. PMID:14555358

  7. The Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviour in Sport Scale: further evidence for construct validity and reliability.

    PubMed

    Kavussanu, Maria; Stanger, Nicholas; Boardley, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to provide further evidence for the construct validity (i.e., convergent, concurrent, and discriminant validity) of the Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviour in Sport Scale (PABSS), an instrument that has four subscales measuring prosocial and antisocial behaviour toward teammates and opponents. We also investigated test-retest reliability and stability of the PABSS. We conducted three studies using athletes from a variety of team sports. In Study 1, participants (N = 129) completed the PABSS and measures of physical and verbal aggression, hostility, anger, moral identity, and empathy; a sub-sample (n = 111) also completed the PABSS one week later. In Study 2, in addition to the PABSS, participants (N = 89) completed measures of competitive aggressiveness and anger, moral attitudes, moral disengagement, goal orientation, and anxiety. In Study 3, participants (N = 307) completed the PABSS and a measure of social goals. Across the three studies, the four subscales evidenced the hypothesised relationships with a number of variables. Correlations were large between the two antisocial behaviours and small between the two prosocial behaviours. Overall, the findings supported the convergent, concurrent, and discriminant validity of the scale, provided evidence for its test-retest reliability and stability, and suggest that the instrument is a valid and reliable measure of prosocial and antisocial behaviour in sport. PMID:23472827

  8. Sources of Validity Evidence for Educational and Psychological Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cizek, Gregory J.; Rosenberg, Sharyn L.; Koons, Heather H.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates aspects of validity reflected in a large and diverse sample of published measures used in educational and psychological testing contexts. The current edition of "Mental Measurements Yearbook" served as the data source for this study. The validity aspects investigated included perspective on validity represented, number and…

  9. Further Evidence Supporting the Validity of Both a Multidimensional Profile and an Overall Evaluation of Teaching Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdsal, Charles A.; Harrison, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to provide additional empirical evidence supporting the use of both a multidimensional profile and an overall evaluation of teaching effectiveness as valid indicators of student perceptions of effective classroom instruction. A factor analytic teaching evaluation instrument was used that also included open-ended…

  10. Validity Evidence of an Electronic Portfolio for Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Yuankun; Thomas, Matt; Nickens, Nicole; Downing, Joyce Anderson; Burkett, Ruth S.; Lamson, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    This study applied Messick's unified, multifaceted concept of construct validity to an electronic portfolio system used in a teacher education program. The subjects included 128 preservice teachers who recently completed their final portfolio reviews and student teaching experiences. Four of Messick's six facets of validity were investigated for…

  11. 20 CFR 416.805 - When additional evidence may be required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When additional evidence may be required. 416.805 Section 416.805 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determination of Age § 416.805 When additional evidence may...

  12. Validation and verification of expert systems using evidence flow graphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Lee A.; Green, Peter E.; Duckworth, R. James; Bhatnagar, Jayant

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing investigation into the use of evidence flow graph techniques for performing V&V of expert systems. This method involves translating a rule-base into an evidence flow graph, a representation originally developed for real-time intelligent systems in distributed environments, and then running simulations of the evidence flow graph. Certain errors can be found during the translation process. The simulations can detect output sensitivity to rule firing order, to order of presentation of inputs, and to small changes in input values.

  13. Social Media and Social Reality - Theory, Evidence and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, William; Weber, Marta S.; Farber, Robert M.; Corley, Courtney D.; Cowell, Andrew J.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2010-06-14

    Social Media provide an exciting and novel view into social phenomena. The vast amounts of data that can be gathered from the Internet coupled with massively parallel supercomputers such as the Cray XMT open new vistas for research. Conclusions drawn from such analysis must recognize that social media are distinct from the underlying social reality. Rigorous validation is essential. This paper briefly presents results obtained from computational analysis of social media - utilizing both blog and twitter data. Validation of these results is discussed in the context of a framework of established methodologies from the social sciences. Finally, an outline for a set of supporting studies is proposed.

  14. 20 CFR 219.31 - Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. 219... marriage. (a) Preferred evidence. Preferred evidence of a ceremonial marriage is— (1) A copy of the public record of the marriage, certified by the custodian of the record or by a Board employee; (2) A copy of...

  15. 20 CFR 219.31 - Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. 219... marriage. (a) Preferred evidence. Preferred evidence of a ceremonial marriage is— (1) A copy of the public record of the marriage, certified by the custodian of the record or by a Board employee; (2) A copy of...

  16. 20 CFR 219.31 - Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. 219... marriage. (a) Preferred evidence. Preferred evidence of a ceremonial marriage is— (1) A copy of the public record of the marriage, certified by the custodian of the record or by a Board employee; (2) A copy of...

  17. 20 CFR 219.31 - Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. 219... marriage. (a) Preferred evidence. Preferred evidence of a ceremonial marriage is— (1) A copy of the public record of the marriage, certified by the custodian of the record or by a Board employee; (2) A copy of...

  18. 20 CFR 219.31 - Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. 219... marriage. (a) Preferred evidence. Preferred evidence of a ceremonial marriage is— (1) A copy of the public record of the marriage, certified by the custodian of the record or by a Board employee; (2) A copy of...

  19. Further Validation of the IDAS: Evidence of Convergent, Discriminant, Criterion, and Incremental Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, David; O'Hara, Michael W.; Chmielewski, Michael; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth A.; Koffel, Erin; Naragon, Kristin; Stuart, Scott

    2008-01-01

    The authors explicated the validity of the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS; D. Watson et al., 2007) in 2 samples (306 college students and 605 psychiatric patients). The IDAS scales showed strong convergent validity in relation to parallel interview-based scores on the Clinician Rating version of the IDAS; the mean convergent…

  20. Perceived Organizational Support: Further Evidence of Construct Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Steven

    1997-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of scores from the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support (SPOS)(R. Eisenberger and others, 1986) using responses of 205 college faculty and staff members. Consistent with previous research, the SPOS was found to be unidimensional and distinguishable from two similarly…

  1. Validity Evidence for a Computer-Based Alternate Assessment Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyehouse, Melissa A.; Bennett, Deborah E.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the validity of a statewide alternate assessment program, IASEP (Indiana Assessment System of Educational Proficiencies) by examining supporting profile patterns on the 100 core IASEP items of individuals with significant disabilities. Participants were 5,192 students ranging in age from 7-21 years with special education…

  2. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  3. Validating a nondestructive optical method for apportioning colored particulate matter into black carbon and additional components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Beizhan; Kennedy, Daniel; Miller, Rachel L.; Cowin, James P.; Jung, Kyung-hwa; Perzanowski, Matt; Balletta, Marco; Perera, Federica P.; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2011-12-01

    Exposure of black carbon (BC) is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. A number of optical methods for estimating BC on Teflon filters have been adopted but most assume all light absorption is due to BC while other sources of colored particulate matter exist. Recently, a four-wavelength-optical reflectance measurement for distinguishing second hand cigarette smoke (SHS) from soot-BC was developed (Brook et al., 2010; Lawless et al., 2004). However, the method has not been validated for soot-BC nor SHS and little work has been done to look at the methodological issues of the optical reflectance measurements for samples that could have SHS, BC, and other colored particles. We refined this method using a lab-modified integrating sphere with absorption measured continuously from 350 nm to 1000 nm. Furthermore, we characterized the absorption spectrum of additional components of particulate matter (PM) on PM 2.5 filters including ammonium sulfate, hematite, goethite, and magnetite. Finally, we validate this method for BC by comparison to other standard methods. Use of synthesized data indicates that it is important to optimize the choice of wavelengths to minimize computational errors as additional components (more than 2) are added to the apportionment model of colored components. We found that substantial errors are introduced when using 4 wavelengths suggested by Lawless et al. to quantify four substances, while an optimized choice of wavelengths can reduce model-derived error from over 10% to less than 2%. For environmental samples, the method was sensitive for estimating airborne levels of BC and SHS, but not mass loadings of iron oxides and sulfate. Duplicate samples collected in NYC show high reproducibility (points consistent with a 1:1 line, R2 = 0.95). BC data measured by this method were consistent with those measured by other optical methods, including Aethalometer and Smoke-stain Reflectometer (SSR); although the SSR looses sensitivity at

  4. Validating a nondestructive optical method for apportioning colored particulate matter into black carbon and additional components

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Beizhan; Kennedy, Daniel; Miller, Rachel L.; Cowin, James P.; Jung, Kyung-hwa; Perzanowski, Matt; Balletta, Marco; Perera, Federica P.; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of black carbon (BC) is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. A number of optical methods for estimating BC on Teflon filters have been adopted but most assume all light absorption is due to BC while other sources of colored particulate matter exist. Recently, a four-wavelength-optical reflectance measurement for distinguishing second hand cigarette smoke (SHS) from soot-BC was developed (Brook et al., 2010; Lawless et al., 2004). However, the method has not been validated for soot-BC nor SHS and little work has been done to look at the methodological issues of the optical reflectance measurements for samples that could have SHS, BC, and other colored particles. We refined this method using a lab-modified integrating sphere with absorption measured continuously from 350 nm to 1000 nm. Furthermore, we characterized the absorption spectrum of additional components of particulate matter (PM) on PM2.5 filters including ammonium sulfate, hematite, goethite, and magnetite. Finally, we validate this method for BC by comparison to other standard methods. Use of synthesized data indicates that it is important to optimize the choice of wavelengths to minimize computational errors as additional components (more than 2) are added to the apportionment model of colored components. We found that substantial errors are introduced when using 4 wavelengths suggested by Lawless et al. to quantify four substances, while an optimized choice of wavelengths can reduce model-derived error from over 10% to less than 2%. For environmental samples, the method was sensitive for estimating airborne levels of BC and SHS, but not mass loadings of iron oxides and sulfate. Duplicate samples collected in NYC show high reproducibility (points consistent with a 1:1 line, R2 = 0.95). BC data measured by this method were consistent with those measured by other optical methods, including Aethalometer and Smoke-stain Reflectometer (SSR); although the SSR looses sensitivity at

  5. Validation of the Evidence-Based Practice Process Assessment Scale--Short Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Danielle E.; Rubin, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This report describes the reliability and validity of the Evidence-Based Practice Process Assessment Scale (EBPPAS)--Short Version, validated with three disciplines (Social Work, Licensed Marriage and Family Therapists (LMFTs), and Psychologists), that assesses practitioners' perceived familiarity with, attitudes about, and…

  6. Evaluating Existing and New Validity Evidence for the Academic Motivation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Amanda J.; Horst, S. Jeanne; Finney, Sara J.; Barron, Kenneth E.

    2005-01-01

    The current study evaluates existing and new validity evidence for the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS; Vallerand et al., 1992). We first provide a narrative review synthesizing past research, and then conduct a validity investigation of the scores from the measure. Data analysis using a sample of 1406 American college students provided construct…

  7. Evidence of Concurrent Validity of SII Scores for Asian American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Lee, W. Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    The validity of scores on the Strong Interest Inventory (SII) for Asian American college students has not been thoroughly investigated. This study examined the evidence of validity of the SII Occupational Scale scores for predicting college major choices of Asian American women and men and White women and men. The sample included 186 female and…

  8. Evidence-based toxicology - the toolbox of validation for the 21st century?

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Validation has become a primary driver of the evolution of toxicological methods. Agreement at OECD level currently requires validation of new approaches for consideration in test guideline development. Several examples of this exist. However, the toxicology in the 21(st) century movement, prompted by the 2007 NRC/NAS vision document, might lead to a revolutionary change in the toxicological toolbox. The challenge is whether the validation process, as it has been formalized over the last two decades, meets the needs for this paradigm shift.The concept of evidence-based medicine (EBM) has emerged from clinical medicine, which retrospectively assesses the evidence of adequacy of a given approach. This is not typically done in prospective studies - the equivalent of validation studies might be multicenter randomized trials. Evidently, where such unambiguous evidence is available, no other assessment is necessary. EBM, however, has developed procedures, including meta-analysis, to collect and evaluate all the available evidence where no such definitive study is available. The recent successful introduction of retrospective validation, i.e. the collection and evaluation of existing evidence from various sources, represents a step in this direction. Here, we will explore new toxicological approaches via evidence-based toxicology (EBT). PMID:21240468

  9. easyCBM® Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades K-1. Technical Report #1309

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade K-1 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy…

  10. easyCBM® Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades 2-5. Technical Report #1310

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade 2-5 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests and the Dynamic…

  11. Measuring Practitioner Attitudes toward Evidence-Based Treatments: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcraft, Rindee G. P.; Foster, Sharon L.; Lowery, Amy E.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Chapman, Jason E.; Rowland, Melisa D.

    2011-01-01

    A better understanding of clinicians' attitudes toward evidence-based treatments (EBT) will presumably enhance the transfer of EBTs for substance-abusing adolescents from research to clinical application. The reliability and validity of two measures of therapist attitudes toward EBT were examined: the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale…

  12. Importance of Statistical Evidence in Estimating Valid DEA Scores.

    PubMed

    Barnum, Darold T; Johnson, Matthew; Gleason, John M

    2016-03-01

    Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) allows healthcare scholars to measure productivity in a holistic manner. It combines a production unit's multiple outputs and multiple inputs into a single measure of its overall performance relative to other units in the sample being analyzed. It accomplishes this task by aggregating a unit's weighted outputs and dividing the output sum by the unit's aggregated weighted inputs, choosing output and input weights that maximize its output/input ratio when the same weights are applied to other units in the sample. Conventional DEA assumes that inputs and outputs are used in different proportions by the units in the sample. So, for the sample as a whole, inputs have been substituted for each other and outputs have been transformed into each other. Variables are assigned different weights based on their marginal rates of substitution and marginal rates of transformation. If in truth inputs have not been substituted nor outputs transformed, then there will be no marginal rates and therefore no valid basis for differential weights. This paper explains how to statistically test for the presence of substitutions among inputs and transformations among outputs. Then, it applies these tests to the input and output data from three healthcare DEA articles, in order to identify the effects on DEA scores when input substitutions and output transformations are absent in the sample data. It finds that DEA scores are badly biased when substitution and transformation are absent and conventional DEA models are used. PMID:26643077

  13. Evidence-based clinical practice: Overview of threats to the validity of evidence and how to minimise them.

    PubMed

    Garattini, Silvio; Jakobsen, Janus C; Wetterslev, Jørn; Bertelé, Vittorio; Banzi, Rita; Rath, Ana; Neugebauer, Edmund A M; Laville, Martine; Masson, Yvonne; Hivert, Virginie; Eikermann, Michaela; Aydin, Burc; Ngwabyt, Sandra; Martinho, Cecilia; Gerardi, Chiara; Szmigielski, Cezary A; Demotes-Mainard, Jacques; Gluud, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Using the best quality of clinical research evidence is essential for choosing the right treatment for patients. How to identify the best research evidence is, however, difficult. In this narrative review we summarise these threats and describe how to minimise them. Pertinent literature was considered through literature searches combined with personal files. Treatments should generally not be chosen based only on evidence from observational studies or single randomised clinical trials. Systematic reviews with meta-analysis of all identifiable randomised clinical trials with Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) assessment represent the highest level of evidence. Even though systematic reviews are trust worthier than other types of evidence, all levels of the evidence hierarchy are under threats from systematic errors (bias); design errors (abuse of surrogate outcomes, composite outcomes, etc.); and random errors (play of chance). Clinical research infrastructures may help in providing larger and better conducted trials. Trial Sequential Analysis may help in deciding when there is sufficient evidence in meta-analyses. If threats to the validity of clinical research are carefully considered and minimised, research results will be more valid and this will benefit patients and heath care systems. PMID:27160381

  14. Validity evidence for the reading competence test of words and non-words.

    PubMed

    Seabra, Alessandra Gotuzo; Muniz, Monalisa; Primi, Ricardo

    2009-11-01

    This study sought evidence of validity for the Reading Competence Test of Words and Non-This study sought evidence of validity for the Reading Competence Test of Words and Non-words (in Portuguese: Teste de Competência de Leitura de Palavras e Pseudopalavras or TCLPP). This test evaluates silent reading of isolated items by asking the student to determine if presented items of written image-word pairs are correct or not. Two thousand nine hundred and ninety four students from the 1st to 4th grade in public Brazilian elementary schools, of both genders, and between the ages of 6 and 11 years, participated, collectively evaluated in the TCLPP. The results showed the TCLPP's sensitivity for discriminating competence in reading between grades, supporting evidence of validity based on the relationships between the various levels. The difficulty in the items was compatible with the theory on which the test is based, providing evidence of validity based on the response process. Finally, two factors which compose the test were verified, one involving logographic and phonological strategies, and the other, lexical, attesting to evidence of validity based on the internal structure. PMID:19899679

  15. Some additional data to the occurrence, morphology and validity of Myxobolus turpisrotundus Zhang, 2009 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea).

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Gu, Z M; Luo, Y L

    2010-06-01

    Myxobolus turpisrotundus Zhang, 2009, infects allogynogenetic gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch) and is always regarded as synonymous with Myxobolus rotundus Nemeczek, 1911, since its first report in goldfish Carassius auratus auratus (L.) in China in 1955. In this study, it was comprehensively examined by morphological and molecular biological methods. The round spores of M. turpisrotundus are similar to those of M. rotundus from common bream Abramis brama (L.) in morphology; however, we detected slight differences in morphometry. The ratios of the length and width of the spore to the length and width of the polar capsule of M. turpisrotundus are usually below 2.0 and 1.9, respectively, however these ratios are always above 2.0 and 1.9 in M. rotundus. The plasmodium size of M. turpisrotundus is 600-6,200 microm in diameter and that of M. rotundus is 60-180 microm in diameter. Scanning observation showed the spore surface of M. turpisrotundus was generally pitted. Yet the surface of M. rotundus is smooth. Sequence comparison revealed the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence of M. turpisrotundus did not match any published sequences of M. rotundus (EU710583, 85% over 742 bp; FJ851447, 85% over 742 bp, FJ851448, 85% over 742 bp; FJ851449, 85% over 742 bp). Moreover, phylogenetic analysis showed M. turpisrotundus clustered with the species from allogynogenetic gibel carp with high bootstrap values (100% neighbor-joining, NJ; 100% maximum parsimony, MP) and M. rotundus from common bream composed a new cluster with high bootstrap values (100% NJ, 100% MP). From the morphological and molecular biological data, we gain enough evidences to support the validity of M. turpisrotundus. PMID:20352450

  16. 43 CFR 3741.3 - Additional evidence required with application for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional evidence required with application for patent. 3741.3 Section 3741.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) PUBLIC LAW 585; MULTIPLE MINERAL DEVELOPMENT...

  17. 43 CFR 3741.3 - Additional evidence required with application for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional evidence required with application for patent. 3741.3 Section 3741.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) PUBLIC LAW 585; MULTIPLE MINERAL DEVELOPMENT...

  18. 20 CFR 10.120 - May a claimant submit additional evidence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May a claimant submit additional evidence? 10.120 Section 10.120 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION...

  19. 20 CFR 10.120 - May a claimant submit additional evidence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true May a claimant submit additional evidence? 10.120 Section 10.120 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION...

  20. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the checklist...

  1. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the checklist...

  2. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  3. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  4. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  5. 30 CFR 1210.206 - Will I need to submit additional documents or evidence to ONRR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Will I need to submit additional documents or evidence to ONRR? 1210.206 Section 1210.206 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue FORMS AND REPORTS Production and...

  6. 38 CFR 20.709 - Rule 709. Procurement of additional evidence following a hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule 709. Procurement of additional evidence following a hearing. 20.709 Section 20.709 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) BOARD OF VETERANS' APPEALS: RULES OF PRACTICE Hearings on Appeal § 20.709 Rule 709. Procurement...

  7. Validating a tool that explores factors influencing the adoption of principles of evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Al Hadid, Lourance A; Hasheesh, Mohammad Abu; Al Momani, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    The adoption of principles of evidence-based practice in nursing education assists nursing graduates in improving their practice. Measuring factors that influence this adoption requires the use of a valid tool; however, few tools addressing these factors are available. This study measured the psychometric properties of a composite tool developed to assess factors influencing the adoption of the principles of evidence-based practice in nursing education. A descriptive, cross-sectional research design was used. A convenience, purposive sample of 85 nurse educators participated in this study. The Evidence-Based Nursing Education Questionnaire items were derived following a four-step approach: extensive literature review, thematic analysis of literature, expert opinion in the questionnaire items, and psychometric testing of the questionnaire. The psychometric properties indicated a valid and reliable tool. The resulting five factors include knowledge in educational principles and faculty practice. The questionnaire proved to be reliable and valid. PMID:21956260

  8. Validity evidence for the measurement of the strength of motivation for medical school.

    PubMed

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Croiset, Gerda; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle

    2011-05-01

    The Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire is designed to determine the strength of motivation of students particularly for medical study. This research was performed to establish the validity evidence for measuring strength of motivation for medical school. Internal structure and relations to other variables were used as the sources of validity evidence. The SMMS questionnaire was filled out by 1,494 medical students in different years of medical curriculum. The validity evidence for the internal structure was analyzed by principal components analysis with promax rotation. Validity evidence for relations to other variables was tested by comparing the SMMS scores with scores on the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) and the exhaustion scale of Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) for measuring study stress. Evidence for internal consistency was determined through the Cronbach's alpha for reliability. The analysis showed that the SMMS had a 3-factor structure. The validity in relations to other variables was established as both, the subscales and full scale scores significantly correlated positively with the intrinsic motivation scores and with the more autonomous forms of extrinsic motivation, the correlation decreasing and finally becoming negative towards the extrinsic motivation end of the spectrum. They also had significant negative correlations with amotivation scale of the AMS and exhaustion scale of MBI-SS. The Cronbach's alpha for reliability of the three subscales and full SMMS scores was 0.70, 0.67, 0.55 and 0.79. The strength of motivation for medical school has a three factor structure and acceptable validity evidence was found in our study. PMID:20953836

  9. On Selecting Psychology Graduate Students: Validity Evidence for a Test of Tacit Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Wayne R.; Schleicher, Deidra J.

    2004-01-01

    This study provides initial evidence for the criterion-related validity of tacit knowledge (TK) as an alternative measure for selecting psychology graduate students and adds insight to the construct of TK by evaluating its factor structure, assessing convergent relationships with other variables, and exploring alternative reasons for why TK…

  10. Relationships among Measures as Empirical Evidence of Validity: Incorporating Multiple Indicators of Achievement and School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Pete; Martinez, Jose Felipe; Niemi, David; Baker, Eva L.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we examine empirical evidence on the criterion, predictive, transfer, and fairness aspects of validity of a large-scale language arts performance assessment, referred to as the Performance Assignment (PA). We use multilevel models to avoid biased inferences that might result from the naturally nested data. Specifically, we examine…

  11. 41 CFR 60-3.15 - Documentation of impact and validity evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Documentation of impact and validity evidence. 60-3.15 Section 60-3.15 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts OFFICE OF FEDERAL CONTRACT COMPLIANCE PROGRAMS, EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  12. Validity Evidence for the Measurement of the Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Croiset, Gerda; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle

    2011-01-01

    The Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire is designed to determine the strength of motivation of students particularly for medical study. This research was performed to establish the validity evidence for measuring strength of motivation for medical school. Internal structure and relations to other variables were used as…

  13. Which Study Designs Are Capable of Producing Valid Evidence about a Program's Effectiveness? A Brief Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This guide is addressed to policy officials, program providers, and researchers who are seeking to: (1) identify and implement social programs backed by valid evidence of effectiveness; or (2) sponsor or conduct an evaluation to determine whether a program is effective. The guide provides a brief overview of which studies can produce valid…

  14. Examining Evidence for the Validity of PISA Learning Strategy Scales Based on Student Response Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopfenbeck, Therese N.; Maul, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate response-process based evidence for the validity of the Programme for International Student Assessment's (PISA) self-report questionnaire scales as measures of specific psychological constructs, with a focus on scales meant to measure inclination toward specific learning strategies. Cognitive interviews (N…

  15. Assessing Perceived Emotional Intelligence in Adolescents: New Validity Evidence of Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa, Ignacio; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Lozano, Luis M.; Muñiz, José; García-Cueto, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period of life during which significant psychosocial adjustment occurs and in which emotional intelligence plays an essential role. This article provides validity evidence for the Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24) scores based on an item response theory (IRT) approach. A sample of 2,693 Spanish adolescents (M = 16.52…

  16. Voices from Test-Takers: Further Evidence for Language Assessment Validation and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Liying; DeLuca, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Test-takers' interpretations of validity as related to test constructs and test use have been widely debated in large-scale language assessment. This study contributes further evidence to this debate by examining 59 test-takers' perspectives in writing large-scale English language tests. Participants wrote about their test-taking experiences in…

  17. A Motor Speech Assessment for Children with Severe Speech Disorders: Reliability and Validity Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Edythe A.; McCauley, Rebecca J.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Stoeckel, Ruth E.; Baas, Becky S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors report reliability and validity evidence for the Dynamic Evaluation of Motor Speech Skill (DEMSS), a new test that uses dynamic assessment to aid in the differential diagnosis of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Method: Participants were 81 children between 36 and 79 months of age who were referred to the…

  18. Developing an open platform for evidence-based microwave ablation treatment planning and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshazer, Garron; Dupuy, Damian E.; Walsh, Edward; Prakash, Punit; Fairchild, Dillon; Glidden, David; Collins, Scott A.; Cook, Madeleine L.; Ryan, Thomas P.; Merck, Derek

    2015-03-01

    The clinical utility of current thermal ablation planning tools is severely limited by treatment variability. We discuss the development of an open platform for evidence-based thermal ablation treatment planning and validation. Improved predictive treatment modeling and consistent outcome analysis are crucial components for useful planning and guidance tools.

  19. Social Validation of Evidence-Based Practices in Autism by Parents, Teachers, and Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Kevin; Henson, Robin K.; Cowan, Angela K.

    2008-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been devoted to the social validation of potentially effective autism interventions. Thus, it is often difficult to identify and implement evidence-based practices, and programming is often inadequate. The authors identified autism intervention components with reported effectiveness for school settings. The results…

  20. An Australian Version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale: Validity Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerin, Ester; Leslie, Eva; Owen, Neville; Bauman, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    This study examined validity evidence for the Australian version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS-AU). A stratified two-stage cluster sampling design was used to recruit 2,650 adults from Adelaide (Australia). The sample was drawn from residential addresses within eight high-walkable and eight low-walkable suburbs matched…

  1. Validity-Supporting Evidence of the Self-Efficacy for Teaching Mathematics Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Jennifer R.; Wang, Chuang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide evidence of reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Teaching Mathematics Instrument (SETMI). Self-efficacy, as defined by Bandura, was the theoretical framework for the development of the instrument. The complex belief systems of mathematics teachers, as touted by Ernest provided insights into the…

  2. Reliability and Validity of the Evidence-Based Practice Confidence (EPIC) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salbach, Nancy M.; Jaglal, Susan B.; Williams, Jack I.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The reliability, minimal detectable change (MDC), and construct validity of the evidence-based practice confidence (EPIC) scale were evaluated among physical therapists (PTs) in clinical practice. Methods: A longitudinal mail survey was conducted. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were estimated using Cronbach's alpha…

  3. Construct Validity Evidence for Bracken School Readiness Assessment, Third Edition, Spanish Form Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Arlene; Clinton, Amanda; Schaefer, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Convergent and discriminant validity evidence was examined for scores on the Spanish Record Form of the Bracken School Readiness Assessment, Third Edition (BSRA-3). Participants included a sample of 68 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking children ages 4 to 5 years enrolled in preschool programs in Puerto Rico. Scores obtained from the BSRA-3 Spanish Record…

  4. The Importance of Multi-Group Validity Evidence in Gifted and Talented Identification and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    Practitioners and researchers often review the validity evidence of an instrument before using it for student assessment or in the practice of diagnosing or identifying children with exceptionalities. However, few test manuals present data on instrument measurement equivalence/ invariance or differential item functioning. This information is…

  5. Mutations in RIT1 cause Noonan syndrome - additional functional evidence and expanding the clinical phenotype.

    PubMed

    Koenighofer, M; Hung, C Y; McCauley, J L; Dallman, J; Back, E J; Mihalek, I; Gripp, K W; Sol-Church, K; Rusconi, P; Zhang, Z; Shi, G-X; Andres, D A; Bodamer, O A

    2016-03-01

    RASopathies are a clinically heterogeneous group of conditions caused by mutations in 1 of 16 proteins in the RAS-mitogen activated protein kinase (RAS-MAPK) pathway. Recently, mutations in RIT1 were identified as a novel cause for Noonan syndrome. Here we provide additional functional evidence for a causal role of RIT1 mutations and expand the associated phenotypic spectrum. We identified two de novo missense variants p.Met90Ile and p.Ala57Gly. Both variants resulted in increased MEK-ERK signaling compared to wild-type, underscoring gain-of-function as the primary functional mechanism. Introduction of p.Met90Ile and p.Ala57Gly into zebrafish embryos reproduced not only aspects of the human phenotype but also revealed abnormalities of eye development, emphasizing the importance of RIT1 for spatial and temporal organization of the growing organism. In addition, we observed severe lymphedema of the lower extremity and genitalia in one patient. We provide additional evidence for a causal relationship between pathogenic mutations in RIT1, increased RAS-MAPK/MEK-ERK signaling and the clinical phenotype. The mutant RIT1 protein may possess reduced GTPase activity or a diminished ability to interact with cellular GTPase activating proteins; however the precise mechanism remains unknown. The phenotypic spectrum is likely to expand and includes lymphedema of the lower extremities in addition to nuchal hygroma. PMID:25959749

  6. Preliminary Evidence for the Validity of the New Test of Everyday Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheldall, Kevin; McMurtry, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Everyday Reading Comprehension (TERC) has recently been presented as an addition to the armoury of tests available for assessing the skills of low-progress readers. While comparison data for students of different ages are presented together with evidence for high test reliability, there is, as yet, no published evidence for its…

  7. Validation and Estimation of Additive Genetic Variation Associated with DNA Tests for Quantitative Beef Cattle Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC) has been involved in the validation of commercial DNA tests for quantitative beef quality traits since their first appearance on the U.S. market in the early 2000s. The NBCEC Advisory Council initially requested that the NBCEC set up a syst...

  8. External Standards or Standard Additions? Selecting and Validating a Method of Standardization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, David

    2002-01-01

    Reports an experiment which is suitable for an introductory course in analytical chemistry and which illustrates the importance of matrix effects when selecting a method of standardization. Asserts that students learn how a spike recovery is used to validate an analytical method, and obtain practical experience in the difference between performing…

  9. Evidence flow graph methods for validation and verification of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Lee A.; Green, Peter G.; Bhatnagar, Jayant

    1988-01-01

    This final report describes the results of an investigation into the use of evidence flow graph techniques for performing validation and verification of expert systems. This was approached by developing a translator to convert horn-clause rule bases into evidence flow graphs, a simulation program, and methods of analysis. These tools were then applied to a simple rule base which contained errors. It was found that the method was capable of identifying a variety of problems, for example that the order of presentation of input data or small changes in critical parameters could effect the output from a set of rules.

  10. Evidence flow graph methods for validation and verification of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Lee A.; Green, Peter G.; Bhatnagar, Jayant

    1989-01-01

    The results of an investigation into the use of evidence flow graph techniques for performing validation and verification of expert systems are given. A translator to convert horn-clause rule bases into evidence flow graphs, a simulation program, and methods of analysis were developed. These tools were then applied to a simple rule base which contained errors. It was found that the method was capable of identifying a variety of problems, for example that the order of presentation of input data or small changes in critical parameters could affect the output from a set of rules.

  11. Sensitivity to food additives, vaso-active amines and salicylates: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Skypala, Isabel J; Williams, M; Reeves, L; Meyer, R; Venter, C

    2015-01-01

    Although there is considerable literature pertaining to IgE and non IgE-mediated food allergy, there is a paucity of information on non-immune mediated reactions to foods, other than metabolic disorders such as lactose intolerance. Food additives and naturally occurring 'food chemicals' have long been reported as having the potential to provoke symptoms in those who are more sensitive to their effects. Diets low in 'food chemicals' gained prominence in the 1970s and 1980s, and their popularity remains, although the evidence of their efficacy is very limited. This review focuses on the available evidence for the role and likely adverse effects of both added and natural 'food chemicals' including benzoate, sulphite, monosodium glutamate, vaso-active or biogenic amines and salicylate. Studies assessing the efficacy of the restriction of these substances in the diet have mainly been undertaken in adults, but the paper will also touch on the use of such diets in children. The difficulty of reviewing the available evidence is that few of the studies have been controlled and, for many, considerable time has elapsed since their publication. Meanwhile dietary patterns and habits have changed hugely in the interim, so the conclusions may not be relevant for our current dietary norms. The conclusion of the review is that there may be some benefit in the removal of an additive or a group of foods high in natural food chemicals from the diet for a limited period for certain individuals, providing the diagnostic pathway is followed and the foods are reintroduced back into the diet to assess for the efficacy of removal. However diets involving the removal of multiple additives and food chemicals have the very great potential to lead to nutritional deficiency especially in the paediatric population. Any dietary intervention, whether for the purposes of diagnosis or management of food allergy or food intolerance, should be adapted to the individual's dietary habits and a suitably

  12. SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes): An Ozonesonde Network for Satellite Validation, Climatology and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; McPeters, Richard D.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Town, during a cruise in January and February 1999. In 2000, as part of the SAFARI-2000 experiment and a validation project called Southern African Validation for EOS (SAVE), enhancement of ozonesonde launches at Irene (South Africa) will extend the data set from this site beyond the 1998-1999 period.

  13. Compactional deformation bands in Wingate Sandstone; additional evidence of an impact origin for Upheaval Dome, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Chris H.; Schultz, Richard A.

    2007-04-01

    Field and microstructural observations from Upheaval Dome, in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, show that inelastic strain of the Wingate Sandstone is localized along compactional deformation bands. These bands are tabular discontinuities (< 0.5 cm thick) that accommodate inelastic shear and compaction of inter-granular volume. Measurements of porosity and grain size from non-deformed samples are used to define a set of capped strength envelopes for the Wingate Sandstone. These strength envelopes reveal that compactional deformation bands require at least ca. 0.7 GPa (and potentially more than 2.3 GPa) of effective mean stress in order to nucleate within this sandstone. We find that the most plausible geologic process capable of generating these required magnitudes of mean stress is a meteoritic impact. Therefore the compactional deformation bands observed within the Wingate Sandstone are additional evidence of an impact event at Upheaval Dome and support a post-Wingate (post-Early Jurassic) age for this impact.

  14. Warming and drying of the eastern Mediterranean: Additional evidence from trend analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shohami, David; Dayan, Uri; Morin, Efrat

    2011-11-01

    The climate of the eastern Mediterranean (EM), at the transition zone between the Mediterranean climate and the semi-arid/arid climate, has been studied for a 39-year period to determine whether climate changes have taken place. A thorough trend analysis using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test with Sen's slope estimator has been applied to ground station measurements, atmospheric reanalysis data, synoptic classification data and global data sets for the years 1964-2003. In addition, changes in atmospheric regional patterns between the first and last twenty years were determined by visual comparisons of their composite mean. The main findings of the analysis are: 1) changes of atmospheric conditions during summer and the transitional seasons (mainly autumn) support a warmer climate over the EM and this change is already statistically evident in surface temperatures having exhibited positive trends of 0.2-1°C/decade; 2) changes of atmospheric conditions during winter and the transitional seasons support drier conditions due to reduction in cyclogenesis and specific humidity over the EM, but this change is not yet statistically evident in surface station rain data, presumably because of the high natural precipitation variance masking such a change. The overall conclusion of this study is that the EM region is under climate change leading to warmer and drier conditions.

  15. An Additional Baurusuchid from the Cretaceous of Brazil with Evidence of Interspecific Predation among Crocodyliformes

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Pedro L.; Montefeltro, Felipe C.; Norell, Mark A.; Langer, Max C.

    2014-01-01

    A new Baurusuchidae (Crocodyliformes, Mesoeucrocodylia), Aplestosuchus sordidus, is described based on a nearly complete skeleton collected in deposits of the Adamantina Formation (Bauru Group, Late Cretaceous) of Brazil. The nesting of the new taxon within Baurusuchidae can be ensured based on several exclusive skull features of this clade, such as the quadrate depression, medial approximation of the prefrontals, rostral extension of palatines (not reaching the level of the rostral margin of suborbital fenestrae), cylindrical dorsal portion of palatine bar, ridge on the ectopterygoid-jugal articulation, and supraoccipital with restricted thin transversal exposure in the caudalmost part of the skull roof. A newly proposed phylogeny of Baurusuchidae encompasses A. sordidus and recently described forms, suggesting its sixter-taxon relationship to Baurusuchus albertoi, within Baurusuchinae. Additionally, the remains of a sphagesaurid crocodyliform were preserved in the abdominal cavity of the new baurusuchid. Direct fossil evidence of behavioral interaction among fossil crocodyliforms is rare and mostly restricted to bite marks resulting from predation, as well as possible conspecific male-to-male aggression. This is the first time that a direct and unmistaken evidence of predation between different taxa of this group is recorded as fossils. This discovery confirms that baurusuchids were top predators of their time, with sphagesaurids occupying a lower trophic position, possibly with a more generalist diet. PMID:24809508

  16. The validation of forensic DNA extraction systems to utilize soil contaminated biological evidence.

    PubMed

    Kasu, Mohaimin; Shires, Karen

    2015-07-01

    The production of full DNA profiles from biological evidence found in soil has a high failure rate due largely to the inhibitory substance humic acid (HA). Abundant in various natural soils, HA co-extracts with DNA during extraction and inhibits DNA profiling by binding to the molecular components of the genotyping assay. To successfully utilize traces of soil contaminated evidence, such as that found at many murder and rape crime scenes in South Africa, a reliable HA removal extraction system would often be selected based on previous validation studies. However, for many standard forensic DNA extraction systems, peer-reviewed publications detailing the efficacy on soil evidence is either lacking or is incomplete. Consequently, these sample types are often not collected or fail to yield suitable DNA material due to the use of unsuitable methodology. The aim of this study was to validate the common forensic DNA collection and extraction systems used in South Africa, namely DNA IQ, FTA elute and Nucleosave for processing blood and saliva contaminated with HA. A forensic appropriate volume of biological evidence was spiked with HA (0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 mg/ml) and processed through each extraction protocol for the evaluation of HA removal using QPCR and STR-genotyping. The DNA IQ magnetic bead system effectively removed HA from highly contaminated blood and saliva, and generated consistently acceptable STR profiles from both artificially spiked samples and crude soil samples. This system is highly recommended for use on soil-contaminated evidence over the cellulose card-based systems currently being preferentially used for DNA sample collection. PMID:25690910

  17. Evidence for the criterion validity and clinical utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (Ns = 299, 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability with established indices of normal personality traits, psychopathology and clinical concerns, and pathological personality traits. Overall, the pattern of correlations supported the convergent and discriminate validity of grandiose and vulnerable conceptualizations of pathological narcissism as measured by the PNI. Clinical utility was assessed by evaluating the extent to which clinicians without specific training in pathological narcissism as well as clinicians with expertise in pathological narcissism could accurately predict the correlates of PNI grandiosity and vulnerability with normal and pathological personality traits and psychopathology. The rcontrast-cv coefficient (Westen & Rosenthal, 2003) provided a global index of accuracy in clinicians’ predictions that was more fully elaborated by examining systematic discrepancies across groups. Overall, novice and expert clinicians were generally able to predict criterion correlations, with some exceptions (e.g., counter to predictions, pathological narcissism was negatively associated with treatment resistance). These results provide further evidence regarding the validity and utility of the narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability constructs as measured by the PNI. PMID:22315481

  18. Adaptation of the ESPA29 Parental Socialization Styles Scale to the Basque language: evidence of validity.

    PubMed

    López-Jáuregui, Alicia; Oliden, Paula Elosua

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study is to adapt the ESPA29 scale of parental socialization styles in adolescence to the Basque language. The study of its psychometric properties is based on the search for evidence of internal and external validity. The first focuses on the assessment of the dimensionality of the scale by means of exploratory factor analysis. The relationship between the dimensions of parental socialization styles and gender and age guarantee the external validity of the scale. The study of the equivalence of the adapted and original versions is based on the comparisons of the reliability coefficients and on factor congruence. The results allow us to conclude the equivalence of the two scales. PMID:19899674

  19. The PROMIS® Smoking Initiative: Initial Validity Evidence for Six New Smoking Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Stucky, Brian D.; Hansen, Mark; Tucker, Joan S.; Shadel, William G.; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Smoking Initiative has developed 6 item banks for assessing smoking behaviors and biopsychosocial correlates of smoking among daily and nondaily adult cigarette smokers. This paper presents descriptive information and preliminary validity evidence for the item banks (Nicotine Dependence, Coping Expectancies, Emotional and Sensory Expectancies, Health Expectancies, Psychosocial Expectancies, and Social Motivations). Methods: Using data from a large sample of daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N = 1,183) smokers, we generated mean daily and nondaily smoking bank scores according to select demographic groups. We also examined correlations among the 6 banks and examined the associations of bank scores with smoking behavior items (e.g., quantity of smoking, interest in quitting) and select health-related quality of life measures (i.e., physical functioning, anxiety, alcohol consumption). Results: Correlations among the 6 banks are moderate (daily mean r = .48, range = .04–.80; nondaily mean r = .47, range = .12–.75). The pattern of associations between bank scores and other measures provides validity evidence for the bank domains (e.g., nicotine dependence is most strongly associated with smoking quantity and time to first cigarette of the day; health and psychosocial expectancies are most related to quitting recency and interest; coping expectancies are strongly associated with anxiety). Conclusions: These analyses provide useful descriptive information about the 6 smoking item banks as well as preliminary evidence for their validity. Independent sample data are currently being collected to replicate these findings, to establish test–retest reliability, and to develop crosswalks to existing smoking measures (e.g., nicotine dependence to Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence). Future research will also evaluate the bank scores’ sensitivity to change. PMID:25118232

  20. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions. PMID:26104396

  1. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo).

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-07-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions. PMID:26104396

  2. Reliability and Validity Evidence of Multiple Balance Assessments in Athletes With a Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Nicholas; Salvatore, Anthony; Powell, Douglas; Reed-Jones, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Context: An estimated 300 000 sport-related concussion injuries occur in the United States annually. Approximately 30% of individuals with concussions experience balance disturbances. Common methods of balance assessment include the Clinical Test of Sensory Organization and Balance (CTSIB), the Sensory Organization Test (SOT), the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), and the Romberg test; however, the National Collegiate Athletic Association recommended the Wii Fit as an alternative measure of balance in athletes with a concussion. A central concern regarding the implementation of the Wii Fit is whether it is reliable and valid for measuring balance disturbance in athletes with concussion. Objective: To examine the reliability and validity evidence for the CTSIB, SOT, BESS, Romberg test, and Wii Fit for detecting balance disturbance in athletes with a concussion. Data Sources: Literature considered for review included publications with reliability and validity data for the assessments of balance (CTSIB, SOT, BESS, Romberg test, and Wii Fit) from PubMed, PsycINFO, and CINAHL. Data Extraction: We identified 63 relevant articles for consideration in the review. Of the 63 articles, 28 were considered appropriate for inclusion and 35 were excluded. Data Synthesis: No current reliability or validity information supports the use of the CTSIB, SOT, Romberg test, or Wii Fit for balance assessment in athletes with a concussion. The BESS demonstrated moderate to high reliability (interclass correlation coefficient = 0.87) and low to moderate validity (sensitivity = 34%, specificity = 87%). However, the Romberg test and Wii Fit have been shown to be reliable tools in the assessment of balance in Parkinson patients. Conclusions: The BESS can evaluate balance problems after a concussion. However, it lacks the ability to detect balance problems after the third day of recovery. Further investigation is needed to establish the use of the CTSIB, SOT, Romberg test, and Wii Fit for

  3. Subtyping women with bulimia nervosa along dietary and negative affect dimensions: further evidence of reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Bohon, Cara; Marti, C Nathan; Fischer, Kathryn

    2008-12-01

    Studies have found that individuals with bulimia nervosa can be classified into dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes and that the latter exhibit greater eating pathology, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment; a more protracted clinical course; and a worse treatment response. In this report, the authors describe 2 prospective studies that found that young women with threshold (n = 48) and subthreshold (n = 83) bulimic pathology can be classified into dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes; that two subtyping approaches produced similar results (mean kappa = .94); that the subtyping distinction showed 4-week test-retest reliability (kappa = .61); and that the dietary-negative affect subtype showed greater eating pathology, emotional distress, functional impairment, treatment seeking, and lower likelihood of recovery over 6-month and 3-year follow-ups than the dietary subtype. The dieting-negative affect subtyping distinction evidenced greater test-retest reliability and concurrent and predictive validity than did the purging-nonpurging subtyping distinction. The additional evidence for the reliability and validity of this subtyping scheme, particularly the prognostic utility, suggests it is worth additional inquiry. PMID:19045970

  4. Aleutian lead isotopic data: additional evidence for the evolution of lithospheric plumbing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J.D.; Marsh, B.D.

    1987-07-01

    Lead isotopic ratios and concentrations have been measured in lavas from the Aleutian volcanic centers of Adak (12) and Atka (12). Lead contents in lavas from Atka increase four-fold over the compositional range of the volcanic suite. In contrast, Adak lavas have concentration levels of 0.6-13 ppm and display no simple correlation with SiO/sub 2/. The lead isotopic data alone can be explained by three different processes. Model 1 assigns lead isotopic differences to original magma source heterogeneity. According to Model 2, the isotopic ratios of a primary, non-radiogenic component from the mantle are elevated by the addition of an isotopically enriched slab-derived component. In contrast, Model 3 assumes a primary radiogenic magma produced by melting of the slab is contaminated by a non-radiogenic lithospheric component during conduit formation. Because these models all adequately explain the lead isotopic data, supplementary geologic, petrographic, geochemical and isotopic data must be used to select the most likely model. Careful consideration of the evidence suggests Model 3 best explains their extensive lead isotopic data as well as other characteristics of Aleutian lavas. The authors study suggests detailed isotopic studies of individual volcanic centers can be extremely useful in understanding the complex processes of magma generation, extraction, ascent and evolution.

  5. Additional evidence on the use of personal ornaments in the Middle Paleolithic of North Africa

    PubMed Central

    d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian; Barton, Nick; Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil; Mienis, Henk; Richter, Daniel; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; McPherron, Shannon P.; Lozouet, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Recent investigations into the origins of symbolism indicate that personal ornaments in the form of perforated marine shell beads were used in the Near East, North Africa, and SubSaharan Africa at least 35 ka earlier than any personal ornaments in Europe. Together with instances of pigment use, engravings, and formal bone tools, personal ornaments are used to support an early emergence of behavioral modernity in Africa, associated with the origin of our species and significantly predating the timing for its dispersal out of Africa. Criticisms have been leveled at the low numbers of recovered shells, the lack of secure dating evidence, and the fact that documented examples were not deliberately shaped. In this paper, we report on 25 additional shell beads from four Moroccan Middle Paleolithic sites. We review their stratigraphic and chronological contexts and address the issue of these shells having been deliberately modified and used. We detail the results of comparative analyses of modern, fossil, and archaeological assemblages and microscopic examinations of the Moroccan material. We conclude that Nassarius shells were consistently used for personal ornamentation in this region at the end of the last interglacial. Absence of ornaments at Middle Paleolithic sites postdating Marine Isotope Stage 5 raises the question of the possible role of climatic changes in the disappearance of this hallmark of symbolic behavior before its reinvention 40 ka ago. Our results suggest that further inquiry is necessary into the mechanisms of cultural transmission within early Homo sapiens populations. PMID:19717433

  6. Validation of the Portuguese version of the Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Rui Pedro Gomes; Guerra, Ana Cristina Pinheiro; Cardoso, Maria José da Silva Peixoto de Oliveira; dos Santos, Alzira Teresa Vieira Martins Ferreira; de Figueiredo, Maria do Céu Aguiar Barbieri; Carneiro, António Cândido Vaz

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to describe the process of translation and linguistic and cultural validation of the Evidence Based Practice Questionnaire for the Portuguese context: Questionário de Eficácia Clínica e Prática Baseada em Evidências (QECPBE). METHOD: a methodological and cross-sectional study was developed. The translation and back translation was performed according to traditional standards. Principal Components Analysis with orthogonal rotation according to the Varimax method was used to verify the QECPBE's psychometric characteristics, followed by confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was determined by Cronbach's alpha. Data were collected between December 2013 and February 2014. RESULTS: 358 nurses delivering care in a hospital facility in North of Portugal participated in the study. QECPBE contains 20 items and three subscales: Practice (α=0.74); Attitudes (α=0.75); Knowledge/Skills and Competencies (α=0.95), presenting an overall internal consistency of α=0.74. The tested model explained 55.86% of the variance and presented good fit: χ2(167)=520.009; p = 0.0001; χ2df=3.114; CFI=0.908; GFI=0.865; PCFI=0.798; PGFI=0.678; RMSEA=0.077 (CI90%=0.07-0.08). CONCLUSION: confirmatory factor analysis revealed the questionnaire is valid and appropriate to be used in the studied context. PMID:26039307

  7. What Counts as Validity Evidence? Examples and Prevalence in a Systematic Review of Simulation-Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, David A.; Zendejas, Benjamin; Hamstra, Stanley J.; Hatala, Rose; Brydges, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing transformations in health professions education underscore the need for valid and reliable assessment. The current standard for assessment validation requires evidence from five sources: content, response process, internal structure, relations with other variables, and consequences. However, researchers remain uncertain regarding the types…

  8. Construct Validity Evidence for Single-Response Items to Estimate Physical Activity Levels in Large Sample Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Bowles, Heather R.; FitzGerald, Shannon J.; Blair, Steven N.

    2007-01-01

    Valid measurement of physical activity is important for studying the risks for morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine evidence of construct validity of two similar single-response items assessing physical activity via self-report. Both items are based on the stages of change model. The sample was 687 participants (men =…

  9. Individual differences in hedonic experience: Further evidence for the construct validity of the ACIPS.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Diane C; Winston, Tina M; Pflum, Madeline J; Burgin, Chris J

    2015-09-30

    We conducted three investigations to examine the convergent and discriminant validity of the Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale (ACIPS; Gooding and Pflum, Psychiatry Research, 2014). In Study One, we used Mechanical Turk to individually administer the ACIPS to a diverse group of community adults aged 25-69. Reports of greater social/interpersonal pleasure was associated with greater sense of interpersonal connectedness with others, higher need to belong, and less likelihood of reporting anxiety during social interactions. In Studies Two and Three, participants were tested in group settings. Studies with undergraduate participants indicated that ACIPS scores are associated with measures of prosocial interactions and sociability as well as measures of anhedonia. Despite differences in testing conditions (i.e., online vs. paper administration) and heterogeneity in the samples in terms of educational level, geographical location, and age, the ACIPS demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity. Taken together, these studies add to the increasing body of evidence for the construct validity of the ACIPS. PMID:26228162

  10. The World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument for people with intellectual and physical disabilities (WHOQOL-Dis): evidence of validity of the Brazilian version

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of people with disabilities in Brazil and worldwide has grown substantially in recent decades. Cross-cultural quality of life instruments can be helpful in the development of interventions designed to meet the needs of this population and contribute to rational allocation of resources. This study sought to provide evidence of validity and reliability the Brazilian Portuguese version of WHOQOL-Dis-D (a cross-cultural, multicentre instrument developed by the WHOQOL-Group for the assessment of quality of life in persons with physical disability – PD) and WHOQOL-Dis-ID (for persons with intellectual disability – ID). Methods Classical psychometric methods were used to conduct independent analyses of the PD and ID samples. Criterion groups were established for analysis of construct validity. Concurrent validity was assessed in relation to SWLS and BDI-II scores; discriminant validity, in relation to WHODAS-II. Cronbach alpha was used to test the instrument scales and subscales for reliability. The ID subgroup was retested, and test-retest reliability assessed by means of intraclass correlation coefficients and paired Student’s t-test. Results A total of 162 (98 females) people with PD and 156 (55 females) people with ID participated in the study. Cronbach alpha was satisfactory across practically all domains and factors in the PD subsample. In IDs, most factors or domains had coefficients higher than 0.70, but four subscales exhibited less satisfactory performance. Evidence of construct and concurrent validity and reliability were obtained. Conclusions The analyses presented herein provide satisfactory evidence of the validity and reliability of the instrument and corroborated the factor structure revealed during cross-cultural research. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to obtain additional evidence of validity and reliability. PMID:24886102

  11. Additional evidence for bone technology in the southern African Middle Stone Age.

    PubMed

    d'Errico, Francesco; Henshilwood, Christopher S

    2007-02-01

    Few Middle Stone Age sites have yielded convincing evidence for a complex bone technology, a behavior often associated with the emergence of modern cultures. Here, we review the published evidence for Middle Stone Age bone tools from southern Africa, analyze an additional nine bone artifacts recently recovered from Middle Stone Age levels at Blombos Cave, describe an unpublished bone tool from probable Middle Stone Age levels at Peers Cave, examine a single bone awl found at Blombosch Sands (an open site near Blombos Cave), and reappraise marked bone artifacts and a bone point recovered from Klasies River. To determine the chronological and cultural attribution of these artifacts, document bone-manufacturing techniques associated with the southern African MSA, and discuss the symbolic significance of the markings present on some of these objects we use (1) available contextual information; (2) morphometric comparison of Later Stone Age, Modern San, and purported Middle Stone Age projectile points; (3) analysis of the carbon/nitrogen content of bone tools and faunal remains from Peers and Blombos caves; and (4) microscopic analysis of traces of manufacture and use. Previously undescribed bone artifacts from Blombos Cave include a massive point manufactured on weathered bone, two complete awls and two awl tips manufactured on small-sized mammal and bird bone, a probable projectile point with a tang manufactured by knapping and scraping, a shaft fragment modified by percussion, used as retoucher and bearing a set of incised lines on the middle of the periosteal surface, and two fragments with possible engravings. The point from Peers Cave can be assigned to the Middle Stone Age and bears tiny markings reminiscent of those recorded on projectile points from Blombos and used as marks of ownership on San arrow points. The awl from Blombosch Sands and the bone point from Klasies River can be attributed to the Later Stone Age. Two notched objects from Klasies are

  12. Validity of Qualis database as a predictor of evidence hierarchy and risk of bias in randomized controlled trials ‐ a case study in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Christiane Alves; Loureiro, Carlos Alfredo Salles; Saconato, Humberto; Atallah, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of the Qualis database in identifying the levels of scientific evidence and the quality of randomized controlled trials indexed in the Lilacs database. METHODS: We selected 40 open‐access journals and performed a page‐by‐page hand search, to identify published articles according to the type of study during a period of six years. Classification of studies was performed by independent reviewers assessed for their reliability. Randomized controlled trials were identified for separate evaluation of risk of bias using four dimensions: generation of allocation sequence, allocation concealment, blinding, and incomplete outcome data. The Qualis classification was considered to be the outcome variable. The statistical tests used included Kappa, Spearman's correlation, Kendall‐tau and ordinal regressions. RESULTS: Studies with low levels of scientific evidence received similar Qualis classifications when compared to studies with high levels of evidence. In addition, randomized controlled trials with a high risk of bias for the generation of allocation sequences and allocation concealment were more likely to be published in journals with higher Qualis levels. DISCUSSION: The hierarchy level of the scientific evidence as classified by type of research design, as well as by the validity of studies according to the bias control level, was not correlated or associated with Qualis stratification. CONCLUSION: Qualis classifications for journals are not an approximate or indirect predictor of the validity of randomized controlled trials published in these journals and are therefore not a legitimate or appropriate indicator of the validity of randomized controlled trials. PMID:21484055

  13. Diverse convergent evidence in the genetic analysis of complex disease: coordinating omic, informatic, and experimental evidence to better identify and validate risk factors.

    PubMed

    Ciesielski, Timothy H; Pendergrass, Sarah A; White, Marquitta J; Kodaman, Nuri; Sobota, Rafal S; Huang, Minjun; Bartlett, Jacquelaine; Li, Jing; Pan, Qinxin; Gui, Jiang; Selleck, Scott B; Amos, Christopher I; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Moore, Jason H; Williams, Scott M

    2014-01-01

    In omic research, such as genome wide association studies, researchers seek to repeat their results in other datasets to reduce false positive findings and thus provide evidence for the existence of true associations. Unfortunately this standard validation approach cannot completely eliminate false positive conclusions, and it can also mask many true associations that might otherwise advance our understanding of pathology. These issues beg the question: How can we increase the amount of knowledge gained from high throughput genetic data? To address this challenge, we present an approach that complements standard statistical validation methods by drawing attention to both potential false negative and false positive conclusions, as well as providing broad information for directing future research. The Diverse Convergent Evidence approach (DiCE) we propose integrates information from multiple sources (omics, informatics, and laboratory experiments) to estimate the strength of the available corroborating evidence supporting a given association. This process is designed to yield an evidence metric that has utility when etiologic heterogeneity, variable risk factor frequencies, and a variety of observational data imperfections might lead to false conclusions. We provide proof of principle examples in which DiCE identified strong evidence for associations that have established biological importance, when standard validation methods alone did not provide support. If used as an adjunct to standard validation methods this approach can leverage multiple distinct data types to improve genetic risk factor discovery/validation, promote effective science communication, and guide future research directions. PMID:25071867

  14. Validity Evidence for Learning Progression-Based Assessment Items That Fuse Core Disciplinary Ideas and Science Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Songer, Nancy Butler

    2013-01-01

    This article evaluates a validity argument for the degree to which assessment tasks are able to provide evidence about knowledge that fuses information from a progression of core disciplinary ideas in ecology and a progression for the scientific practice of developing evidence-based explanations. The article describes the interpretive framework…

  15. Internal Factor Structure and Convergent Validity Evidence: The Self-Report Version of Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Timothy J.; Dembitzer, Leah; Kettler, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    Using a sample of 348 middle school students, we gathered evidence regarding the internal consistency of scores, as well as the internal factor structure and convergent validity evidence for inferences from a self-report questionnaire called the Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory-Self Report. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the fit…

  16. Relations among Parental Alcoholism, Eating Disorders, and Substance Abuse in Nonclinical College Women: Additional Evidence against the Uniformity Myth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Laurie B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The relationship of parental alcoholism to eating disorder symptomology and substance abuse in a nonclinical sample of college women was examined. In addition, differences among adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) related to level of distress concerning parental alcohol use was examined. Results add additional evidence to the notion that not all…

  17. Cenozoic right-lateral slip on the Great Glen Fault, Scotland: Additional Evidence and Possible Causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Breton, E.; Cobbold, P. R.; Zanella, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Great Glen Fault (GGF) trends NNE-SSW across all of Northern Scotland, separating two Neoproterozoic supergroups (Moine and Dalradian). The GGF developed as a left-lateral fault during the Caledonian Orogeny (Ordovician to Early Devonian). However, according to previous studies (involving seismic data from the Moray Firth and analyses of Tertiary dyke swarms in NW Scotland), the GGF reactivated right-laterally in the Tertiary. Here we present additional evidence for this later phase, from a study of Jurassic outcrops along the GGF and the nearby Helmsdale Fault. At Eathie and Shandwick, on the NE coast of Scotland, Jurassic strata of marine origin (mostly shale) crop out along the GGF, in contact with Neoproterozoic basement or Devonian Old Red Sandstone. Minor folds and faults in these outcrops indicate post-depositional right-lateral slip, under transpression. In the shale, we have also found bedding-parallel calcite veins ('beef' and 'cone-in-cone'). If these veins provide evidence for overpressure development and maturation of organic matter at significant depth (as they do in other basins), the host sediment must have accumulated deeper offshore in the Moray Firth. Therefore, the Jurassic strata at Eathie and Shandwick must have been subject to Cenozoic exhumation during right-lateral displacement along the GGF. At Helmsdale, according to previous studies, the Jurassic 'Boulder Beds' accumulated during a period of normal faulting on the Helmsdale Fault. There the sedimentary facies are more proximal than those at Eathie and Shandwick and abundant conglomerate contains Devonian clasts but no 'beef'. However we have found steep calcite veins, which cut the entire Jurassic sequence. Their sigmoidal shapes indicate left-lateral slip along the Helmsdale fault zone. Such a motion is compatible with right-lateral displacement on the GGF. Indeed, according to previous studies, folds between the Helmsdale Fault and the GGF may have developed as a result of opposing

  18. Evidence for the Factorial and Construct Validity of a Self-Report Concussion Symptoms Scale

    PubMed Central

    Motl, Robert W.; Ferrara, Michael S.; Peterson, Connie L.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the factorial and construct validity of the Head Injury Scale (HIS) among a sample of male and female collegiate athletes. Design and Setting: Using a cross-sectional design, we established the factorial validity of the HIS scale with confirmatory factor analysis and the construct validity of the HIS with Pearson product moment correlation analyses. Using an experimental design, we compared scores on the HIS between concussed and nonconcussed groups with a 2 (groups) × 5 (time) mixed-model analysis of variance. Subjects: Participants (N = 279) in the cross-sectional analyses were predominately male (n = 223) collegiate athletes with a mean age of 19.49 ± 1.63 years. Participants (N = 33) in the experimental analyses were concussed (n = 17) and nonconcussed control (n = 16) collegiate athletes with a mean age of 19.76 ± 1.49 years. Measurements: All participants completed baseline measures for the 16-item HIS, neuropsychological testing battery, and posturography. Concussed individuals and paired controls were evaluated on days 1, 2, 3, and 10 postinjury on the same testing battery. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a theoretically derived, 3-factor model provided a good but not excellent fit to the 16-item HIS. Hence, the 16-item HIS was modified on the basis of substantive arguments about item-content validity. The subsequent analysis indicated that the 3-factor model provided an excellent fit to the modified 9-item HIS. The 3 factors were best described by a single second-order factor: concussion symptoms. Scores from the 16-item HIS and 9-item HIS were strongly correlated, but there were few significant correlations between HIS scores and scores from the neuropsychological and balance measures. A significant group-by-day interaction was noted on both the 9-item HIS and 16-item HIS, with significant differences seen between groups on days 1 and 2 postconcussion. Conclusions: We provide evidence for the factorial and

  19. Evidence of Validity for the Japanese Version of the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure

    PubMed Central

    Uematsu, Daisuke; Suzuki, Hidetomo; Sasaki, Shogo; Nagano, Yasuharu; Shinozuka, Nobuyuki; Sunagawa, Norihiko; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Context: The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) is a valid, reliable, and self-reported outcome instrument for the foot and ankle region. Objective: To provide evidence for translation, cross-cultural adaptation, validity, and reliability of the Japanese version of the FAAM (FAAM-J). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Collegiate athletic training/sports medicine clinical setting. Patients or Other Participants: Eighty-three collegiate athletes. Main Outcome Measure(s): All participants completed the Activities of Daily Living and Sports subscales of the FAAM-J and the Physical Functioning and Mental Health subscales of the Japanese version of the Short Form-36v2 (SF-36). Also, 19 participants (23%) whose conditions were expected to be stable completed another FAAM-J 2 to 6 days later for test-retest reliability. We analyzed the scores of those subscales for convergent and divergent validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. Results: The Activities of Daily Living and Sports subscales of the FAAM-J had correlation coefficients of 0.86 and 0.75, respectively, with the Physical Functioning section of the SF-36 for convergent validity. For divergent validity, the correlation coefficients with Mental Health of the SF-36 were 0.29 and 0.27 for each subscale, respectively. Cronbach α for internal consistency was 0.99 for the Activities of Daily Living and 0.98 for the Sports subscale. A 95% confidence interval with a single measure was ±8.1 and ±14.0 points for each subscale. The test-retest reliability measures revealed intraclass correlation coefficient values of 0.87 for the Activities of Daily Living and 0.91 for the Sports subscales with minimal detectable changes of ±6.8 and ±13.7 for the respective subscales. Conclusions: The FAAM was successfully translated for a Japanese version, and the FAAM-J was adapted cross-culturally. Thus, the FAAM-J can be used as a self-reported outcome measure for Japanese-speaking individuals; however

  20. Logic brightens my day: Evidence for implicit sensitivity to logical validity.

    PubMed

    Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J; Verde, Michael F; Morsanyi, Kinga

    2016-09-01

    A key assumption of dual process theory is that reasoning is an explicit, effortful, deliberative process. The present study offers evidence for an implicit, possibly intuitive component of reasoning. Participants were shown sentences embedded in logically valid or invalid arguments. Participants were not asked to reason but instead rated the sentences for liking (Experiment 1) and physical brightness (Experiments 2-3). Sentences that followed logically from preceding sentences were judged to be more likable and brighter. Two other factors thought to be linked to implicit processing-sentence believability and facial expression-had similar effects on liking and brightness ratings. The authors conclude that sensitivity to logical structure was implicit, occurring potentially automatically and outside of awareness. They discuss the results within a fluency misattribution framework and make reference to the literature on discourse comprehension. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26889685

  1. Kinks in subducted slabs: Petrological evidence points to additional hindrance to the exhumation of UHP rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, T.; Klemd, R.; Scherer, E. E.; Rondenay, S.; Gao, J.

    2012-12-01

    Sudden changes in the dip of subducted oceanic plates have been resolved by seismic imaging [1, 2]. Such kinking often coincides with the seismic disappearance of the low-velocity subducted oceanic crust, i.e., at a depth where eclogitization (dehydration) of the upper oceanic crust is nearly complete and the oceanic crust becomes almost seismically indistinguishable from mantle peridotite. We present petrological evidence for this phenomenon derived from oceanic blueschist- and eclogite-facies rocks from the Chinese Tianshan. The peak-metamorphic conditions of the samples range between 330 and 580°C at 1.5 to 2.3 GPa. Such a wide range of peak conditions for intercalated high- and ultrahigh-pressure rocks has also been reported from other Tianshan localities. These observations suggest that the rocks were derived from different depths within the subduction zone and later juxtaposed during exhumation within the subduction channel. Multi-point Lu-Hf isochrons from four high-pressure rocks yield consistent garnet-growth ages of around ~315 Ma, confirming that the eclogite-facies metamorphism of the Tianshan high-pressure rocks resulted from a single subduction event in the Late Carboniferous. These ages, in conjunction with the ~311 Ma cluster of 40Ar-39Ar and Rb-Sr white mica ages from the same localities imply rapid exhumation. Previously reported peak P-T estimates from UHP metasediments and eclogites all lie on a lower geothermal gradient—and thus on a colder P-T path at the slab-wedge interface—than that defined by the HP eclogites and meta-volcaniclastic rocks studied here. This suggests that the slab-subduction angle steepened sharply at approximately 90 km depth, just between the depths at which the HP and UHP rocks equilibrated. The increase in subduction angle may result from a greater slab pull resulting from eclogitization densification. An additional factor may be an ephemeral weakening of the slab as it undergoes eclogitization reactions [3, 4]. We

  2. Strengthen forensic entomology in court--the need for data exploration and the validation of a generalised additive mixed model.

    PubMed

    Baqué, Michèle; Amendt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Developmental data of juvenile blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are typically used to calculate the age of immature stages found on or around a corpse and thus to estimate a minimum post-mortem interval (PMI(min)). However, many of those data sets don't take into account that immature blow flies grow in a non-linear fashion. Linear models do not supply a sufficient reliability on age estimates and may even lead to an erroneous determination of the PMI(min). According to the Daubert standard and the need for improvements in forensic science, new statistic tools like smoothing methods and mixed models allow the modelling of non-linear relationships and expand the field of statistical analyses. The present study introduces into the background and application of these statistical techniques by analysing a model which describes the development of the forensically important blow fly Calliphora vicina at different temperatures. The comparison of three statistical methods (linear regression, generalised additive modelling and generalised additive mixed modelling) clearly demonstrates that only the latter provided regression parameters that reflect the data adequately. We focus explicitly on both the exploration of the data--to assure their quality and to show the importance of checking it carefully prior to conducting the statistical tests--and the validation of the resulting models. Hence, we present a common method for evaluating and testing forensic entomological data sets by using for the first time generalised additive mixed models. PMID:22370995

  3. Constructing a Validity Argument for the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS): A Systematic Review of Validity Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatala, Rose; Cook, David A.; Brydges, Ryan; Hawkins, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In order to construct and evaluate the validity argument for the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS), based on Kane's framework, we conducted a systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, Web of Science, Scopus, and selected reference lists through February 2013. Working in duplicate, we selected…

  4. Validity of the Student Risk Screening Scale: Evidence of Predictive Validity in a Diverse, Suburban Elementary Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menzies, Holly M.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne

    2012-01-01

    In this study the authors examined the psychometric properties of the "Student Risk Screening Scale" (SRSS), including predictive validity in terms of student outcomes in behavioral and academic domains. The school, a diverse, suburban school in Southern California, administered the SRSS at three time points as part of regular school practices…

  5. Is the Readmission Rate a Valid Quality Indicator? A Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Claudia; Lingsma, Hester F.; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J.; Kringos, Dionne S.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hospital readmission rates are increasingly used for both quality improvement and cost control. However, the validity of readmission rates as a measure of quality of hospital care is not evident. We aimed to give an overview of the different methodological aspects in the definition and measurement of readmission rates that need to be considered when interpreting readmission rates as a reflection of quality of care. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review, using the bibliographic databases Embase, Medline OvidSP, Web-of-Science, Cochrane central and PubMed for the period of January 2001 to May 2013. Results The search resulted in 102 included papers. We found that definition of the context in which readmissions are used as a quality indicator is crucial. This context includes the patient group and the specific aspects of care of which the quality is aimed to be assessed. Methodological flaws like unreliable data and insufficient case-mix correction may confound the comparison of readmission rates between hospitals. Another problem occurs when the basic distinction between planned and unplanned readmissions cannot be made. Finally, the multi-faceted nature of quality of care and the correlation between readmissions and other outcomes limit the indicator's validity. Conclusions Although readmission rates are a promising quality indicator, several methodological concerns identified in this study need to be addressed, especially when the indicator is intended for accountability or pay for performance. We recommend investing resources in accurate data registration, improved indicator description, and bundling outcome measures to provide a more complete picture of hospital care. PMID:25379675

  6. Evidence for additive and interaction effects of host genotype and infection in malaria

    PubMed Central

    Idaghdour, Youssef; Quinlan, Jacklyn; Goulet, Jean-Philippe; Berghout, Joanne; Gbeha, Elias; Bruat, Vanessa; de Malliard, Thibault; Grenier, Jean-Christophe; Gomez, Selma; Gros, Philippe; Rahimy, Mohamed Chérif; Sanni, Ambaliou; Awadalla, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The host mechanisms responsible for protection against malaria remain poorly understood, with only a few protective genetic effects mapped in humans. Here, we characterize a host-specific genome-wide signature in whole-blood transcriptomes of Plasmodium falciparum-infected West African children and report a demonstration of genotype-by-infection interactions in vivo. Several associations involve transcripts sensitive to infection and implicate complement system, antigen processing and presentation, and T-cell activation (i.e., SLC39A8, C3AR1, FCGR3B, RAD21, RETN, LRRC25, SLC3A2, and TAPBP), including one association that validated a genome-wide association candidate gene (SCO1), implicating binding variation within a noncoding regulatory element. Gene expression profiles in mice infected with Plasmodium chabaudi revealed and validated similar responses and highlighted specific pathways and genes that are likely important responders in both hosts. These results suggest that host variation and its interplay with infection affect children’s ability to cope with infection and suggest a polygenic model mounted at the transcriptional level for susceptibility. PMID:22949651

  7. 38 CFR 20.304 - Rule 304. Filing additional evidence does not extend time limit for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule 304. Filing additional evidence does not extend time limit for appeal. 20.304 Section 20.304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) BOARD OF VETERANS' APPEALS: RULES OF PRACTICE Filing § 20.304 Rule 304. Filing...

  8. Evidence for dose-additive effects of a type II pyrethroid mixture. In vitro assessment.

    PubMed

    Romero, A; Ares, I; Ramos, E; Castellano, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Larrañaga, M R; Anadón, A; Martínez, M A

    2015-04-01

    Despite the widespread use of pyrethroid insecticides that led to common exposure in the population, few studies have been conducted to quantitatively assess dose-additive effects of pyrethroids using a funcional measure involved in the common toxic mode of action. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potency and efficacy of 6 Type II pyretroids (α-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, λ-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, cyphenothrin and esfenvalerate) to evoke induction of both nitric oxide and lipid peroxides levels measured as malondialdehyde in three in vitro models (SH-SY5Y, HepG2 and Caco-2 human cells) as well as to test the hypothesis of dose additivity for mixtures of these same 6 pyrethroids. Concentration-responses for 6 pyrethroids were determined as well as the response to mixtures of all 6 pyrethroids. Additivity was tested assuming a dose-additive model. The human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line was the most sensitive in vitro model. The rank order of potency for cell SH-SY5Y viability MTT assay was deltamethrin>cyphenothrin>λ-cyhalothrin>cyfluthrin>esfenvalerate>α-cypermethrin. When 6 pyrethroids were present in the mixture at an equitoxic mixing ratio, the action on nitric oxide (NO) and lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) production was consistent with a dose-additive model. The results of the present study are consistent with previous reports of additivity of pyrethroids in vivo e in vitro. PMID:25688004

  9. Factor analysis methods and validity evidence: A systematic review of instrument development across the continuum of medical education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzel, Angela Payne

    Previous systematic reviews indicate a lack of reporting of reliability and validity evidence in subsets of the medical education literature. Psychology and general education reviews of factor analysis also indicate gaps between current and best practices; yet, a comprehensive review of exploratory factor analysis in instrument development across the continuum of medical education had not been previously identified. Therefore, the purpose for this study was critical review of instrument development articles employing exploratory factor or principal component analysis published in medical education (2006--2010) to describe and assess the reporting of methods and validity evidence based on the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing and factor analysis best practices. Data extraction of 64 articles measuring a variety of constructs that have been published throughout the peer-reviewed medical education literature indicate significant errors in the translation of exploratory factor analysis best practices to current practice. Further, techniques for establishing validity evidence tend to derive from a limited scope of methods including reliability statistics to support internal structure and support for test content. Instruments reviewed for this study lacked supporting evidence based on relationships with other variables and response process, and evidence based on consequences of testing was not evident. Findings suggest a need for further professional development within the medical education researcher community related to (1) appropriate factor analysis methodology and reporting and (2) the importance of pursuing multiple sources of reliability and validity evidence to construct a well-supported argument for the inferences made from the instrument. Medical education researchers and educators should be cautious in adopting instruments from the literature and carefully review available evidence. Finally, editors and reviewers are encouraged to recognize

  10. Thyroid-hormone-disrupting chemicals: evidence for dose-dependent additivity or synergism.

    PubMed

    Crofton, Kevin M; Craft, Elena S; Hedge, Joan M; Gennings, Chris; Simmons, Jane E; Carchman, Richard A; Carter, W Hans; DeVito, Michael J

    2005-11-01

    Endocrine disruption from environmental contaminants has been linked to a broad spectrum of adverse outcomes. One concern about endocrine-disrupting xenobiotics is the potential for additive or synergistic (i.e., greater-than-additive) effects of mixtures. A short-term dosing model to examine the effects of environmental mixtures on thyroid homeostasis has been developed. Prototypic thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDCs) such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers have been shown to alter thyroid hormone homeostasis in this model primarily by up-regulating hepatic catabolism of thyroid hormones via at least two mechanisms. Our present effort tested the hypothesis that a mixture of TDCs will affect serum total thyroxine (T4) concentrations in a dose-additive manner. Young female Long-Evans rats were dosed via gavage with 18 different polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons [2 dioxins, 4 dibenzofurans, and 12 PCBs, including dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like PCBs] for 4 consecutive days. Serum total T4 was measured via radioimmunoassay in samples collected 24 hr after the last dose. Extensive dose-response functions (based on seven to nine doses per chemical) were determined for individual chemicals. A mixture was custom synthesized with the ratio of chemicals based on environmental concentrations. Serial dilutions of this mixture ranged from approximately background levels to 100-fold greater than background human daily intakes. Six serial dilutions of the mixture were tested in the same 4-day assay. Doses of individual chemicals that were associated with a 30% TH decrease from control (ED30), as well as predicted mixture outcomes were calculated using a flexible single-chemical-required method applicable to chemicals with differing dose thresholds and maximum-effect asymptotes. The single-chemical data were modeled without and with the mixture data to determine, respectively, the expected mixture response (the additivity model

  11. Neurobehavioral deficits in Persian Gulf veterans: additional evidence from a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Storzbach, D; Rohlman, D S; Anger, W K; Binder, L M; Campbell, K A

    2001-01-01

    Reports of low-concentration nerve gas exposures during the Gulf War (GW) have spurred concern about possible health consequences and symptoms reported by many returning veterans. The Portland Environmental Hazards Research Center is studying veterans from the northwest United States who report persistent, unexplained "Gulf War" symptoms (cases) and those who do not report those symptoms (controls). An epidemiological survey focused on exposures and symptoms was mailed to a random sample of GW veterans from Oregon and southwestern Washington. Volunteers recruited from survey respondents agreed to undergo a thorough medical examination and psychological and neurobehavioral assessment. Persistent symptoms with no medical explanation associated with Persian Gulf service (e.g., fatigue, muscle pain, memory deficits) beginning during or after the war qualified respondents as cases. The 239 cases with unexplained symptoms and the 112 controls without symptoms were administered a computerized assessment battery of 12 psychosocial and 6 neurobehavioral tests. Replicating and extending previous interim findings, a subgroup of veterans emerged from the initial analysis in the form of extreme outliers which produced a visually and quantitatively obvious bimodal distribution. This led, as it had previously, to analyses of the outliers as a separate group (labeled "slow ODTP"), which confirmed the initial findings of neurobehavioral differences between the outliers and the other cases and controls and provided more convincing evidence that the majority of cases who report neurobehavioral symptoms have no objective evidence of neurobehavioral deficits. However, the larger group of symptomatic veterans do have highly significant and compelling evidence of psychological distress based on scores from 11 separate psychological tests. Whereas the cases differed from the controls by poorer neurobehavioral test performance, extraction of the slow ODTP participants (almost all cases

  12. Evidence That Certain Waste Tank Headspace Vapor Samples Were Contaminated by Semivolatile Polymer Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-09

    Vapor samples collected from the headspaces of the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks in 1994 and 1995 using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) were reported to contain trace levels of phthalates, antioxidants, and certain other industrial chemicals that did not have a logical origin in the waste. This report examines the evidence these chemicals were sampling artifacts (contamination) and identifies the chemicals reported as headspace constituents that may instead have been contaminants. Specific recommendations are given regarding the marking of certain chemicals as suspect on the basis they were sampling manifold contaminants.

  13. Additivity of semantic and phonological effects: Evidence from speech production in Mandarin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuebing; Zhang, Qingfang; Damian, Markus F

    2016-11-01

    A number of previous studies using picture-word interference (PWI) tasks conducted with speakers of Western languages have demonstrated non-additive effects of semantic and form overlap between pictures and words, which may indicate underlying non-discrete processing stages in lexical retrieval. The present study used Mandarin speakers and presented Chinese characters as distractors. In two experiments, we crossed semantic relatedness with "pure" phonological (i.e., orthographically unrelated) relatedness and found statistically additive effects. In a third experiment, semantic relatedness was crossed with orthographic overlap (phonological overlap was avoided), and once again we found an additive pattern. The results are discussed with regard to possible cross-linguistic differences between Western and non-Western languages in terms of phonological encoding, as well as concerning the locus of relatedness effects in PWI tasks. PMID:26730809

  14. Schizotypal personality questionnaire: new sources of validity evidence in college students.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Fumero, Ascensión; Paino, Mercedes; de Miguel, Adelia; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Muñiz, José

    2014-09-30

    Schizotypal traits represent the behavioral expression of vulnerability to psychosis in general population. Among the most widely used measurement instruments, we could find the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) (Raine, 1991). However, some aspects of its psychometric quality have yet to be analyzed. The main goal of the present study was to gather new sources of validity evidence of the SPQ scores in non-clinical young adults. The final sample was made up of 1123 college students (M=20.3 years; S.D.=2.6). The study of the internal structure using exploratory factor analysis revealed that SPQ items were grouped in a theoretical structure of seven second-order factors. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the four-factor model (Paranoid) displayed better goodness-of-fit indices than the other hypothetical dimensional models tested. More complex measurement models, such as those tested using second-order confirmatory factor analyses and Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling, also showed adequate goodness-of-fit indices. The reliability of the SPQ scores ranged from 0.80 to 0.91. A total of 11 items showed differential functioning by gender. Advances in psychosis phenotype measurement open up new horizons to understand the structure and content of schizotypy. PMID:24889846

  15. Triangulating Evidence to Investigate the Validity of Measures: Evidence from Discussion during Instruction, Cognitive Interviews, and Written Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burmester, Kristen O'Rourke

    2011-01-01

    Classrooms are a primary site of evidence about learning. Yet classroom proceedings often occur behind closed doors and hence evidence of student learning is observable only to the classroom teacher. The informal and undocumented nature of this information means that it is rarely included in statistical models or quantifiable analyses. This…

  16. Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Five Food Additives and Caffeine in Soft Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Aşçı, Bürge; Dinç Zor, Şule; Aksu Dönmez, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions for the simultaneous determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, carmoisine, allura red, ponceau 4R, and caffeine in commercial soft drinks. The experimental variables chosen were pH (6.0–7.0), flow rate (1.0–1.4 mL/min), and mobile phase ratio (85–95% acetate buffer). Resolution values of all peak pairs were used as a response. Stationary phase was Inertsil OctaDecylSilane- (ODS-) 3V reverse phase column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) dimensions. The detection was performed at 230 nm. Optimal values were found 6.0 pH, 1.0 mL/min flow rate, and 95% mobile phase ratio for the method which was validated by calculating the linearity (r2 > 0.9962), accuracy (recoveries ≥ 95.75%), precision (intraday variation ≤ 1.923%, interday variation ≤ 1.950%), limits of detection (LODs), and limits of quantification (LOQs) parameters. LODs and LOQs for analytes were in the range of 0.10–0.19 μg/mL and 0.33–0.63 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully for the simultaneous determination of the mixtures of five food additives and caffeine in soft drinks. PMID:26989415

  17. Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Five Food Additives and Caffeine in Soft Drinks.

    PubMed

    Aşçı, Bürge; Dinç Zor, Şule; Aksu Dönmez, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions for the simultaneous determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, carmoisine, allura red, ponceau 4R, and caffeine in commercial soft drinks. The experimental variables chosen were pH (6.0-7.0), flow rate (1.0-1.4 mL/min), and mobile phase ratio (85-95% acetate buffer). Resolution values of all peak pairs were used as a response. Stationary phase was Inertsil OctaDecylSilane- (ODS-) 3V reverse phase column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) dimensions. The detection was performed at 230 nm. Optimal values were found 6.0 pH, 1.0 mL/min flow rate, and 95% mobile phase ratio for the method which was validated by calculating the linearity (r (2) > 0.9962), accuracy (recoveries ≥ 95.75%), precision (intraday variation ≤ 1.923%, interday variation ≤ 1.950%), limits of detection (LODs), and limits of quantification (LOQs) parameters. LODs and LOQs for analytes were in the range of 0.10-0.19 μg/mL and 0.33-0.63 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully for the simultaneous determination of the mixtures of five food additives and caffeine in soft drinks. PMID:26989415

  18. Additional evidence of far transfer of scientific reasoning skills acquired in a CLASP reformed physics course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Wendell H.; Lynch, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    The introductory physics course taken by biological science majors at UC Davis, Physics 7, was radically reformed 16 years ago in order to explicitly emphasize the development of scientific reasoning skills in all elements of the course. We have previously seen evidence of increased performance on the biological and physical science portions of the MCAT exam, in a rigorous systemic physiology course, and higher graduating GPAs for students who took Physics 7 rather than a traditionally taught introductory physics course. We report here on the increased performance by a group of biological-science majors in a general chemistry course who took the first quarter of Physics 7 prior to beginning the chemistry course sequence compared to a similar group who began taking physics after completing the first two quarters of general chemistry.

  19. Additional evidence of EUV blank defects first seen by wafer printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, Rik; Van den Heuvel, Dieter; Bret, Tristan; Hofmann, Thorsten; Magana, John; Aharonson, Israel; Meshulach, Doron; Hendrickx, Eric; Ronse, Kurt

    2011-11-01

    First experimental evidence is given that a second generation blank inspection tool has missed a number of printing reticle defects caused by an imperfection of its EUV mirror, i.e., so-called multi-layer defects (ML-defects). This work continued to use a combination of blank inspection (BI), patterned mask inspection (PMI) and wafer inspection (WI) to find as many as possible printing defects on EUV reticles. The application of more advanced wafer inspection, combined with a separate repeater analysis for each of the multiple focus conditions used for exposure on the ASML Alpha Demo Tool (ADT) at IMEC, has allowed to increase the detection capability for printing ML-defects. It exploits the previous finding that ML-defects may have a through-focus printing behavior. They cause a different grade of CD impact on the pattern in their neighborhood, depending on the focus condition. Subsequent reticle review is done on the corresponding locations with both SEM (Secondary Electron Microscope) and AFM (Atomic Force Microscope). This review methodology has allowed achieving clear evidence of printing ML defects missed by this BI tool, despite of a too high nuisance rate, reported before. This establishes a next step in the investigation how essential actinic blank inspection (ABI) is. Presently it is the only known technique whose detection capability is considered independent from the presence of a (residual) distortion of the multi-layer at the top surface. This is considered an important asset for blank inspection, because the printability of a ML-defect in EUV lithography is determined by the distortion throughout the multilayer, not that at the top surface.

  20. Evidences of Validity of a Scale for Mapping Professional as Defining Competences and Performance by Brazilian Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Francisco Antonio, Jr.; Ferreira, Rodrigo Rezende; Paschoal, Tatiane; Faiad, Cristiane; Meneses, Paulo Murce

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to assess evidences of construct validity of the Brazilian Scale of Tutors Competences in the field of Open and Distance Learning and to examine if variables such as professional experience, perception of the student´s learning performance and prior experience influence the development of technical and…

  1. Building Validity Evidence for Scores on a State-Wide Alternate Assessment: A Contrasting Groups, Multimethod Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.; Compton, Elizabeth; Roach, Andrew T.

    2007-01-01

    The relationships between ratings on the Idaho Alternate Assessment (IAA) for 116 students with significant disabilities and corresponding ratings for the same students on two norm-referenced teacher rating scales were examined to gain evidence about the validity of resulting IAA scores. To contextualize these findings, another group of 54…

  2. A Practical Measure of Student Motivation: Establishing Validity Evidence for the Expectancy-Value-Cost Scale in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosovich, Jeff J.; Hulleman, Chris S.; Barron, Kenneth E.; Getty, Steve

    2015-01-01

    We present validity evidence for the Expectancy-Value-Cost (EVC) Scale of student motivation. Using a brief, 10-item scale, we measured middle school students' expectancy, value, and cost for their math and science classes in the Fall and Winter of the same academic year. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the three-factor structure of the EVC…

  3. Factor Analysis Methods and Validity Evidence: A Systematic Review of Instrument Development across the Continuum of Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Angela Payne

    2011-01-01

    Previous systematic reviews indicate a lack of reporting of reliability and validity evidence in subsets of the medical education literature. Psychology and general education reviews of factor analysis also indicate gaps between current and best practices; yet, a comprehensive review of exploratory factor analysis in instrument development across…

  4. Preschool Children's Learning Behaviors, Concept Attainment, Social Skills, and Problem Behaviors: Validity Evidence for Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Barbara A.; Shur, Kimberely Fitch; Macri-Summers, Maria; MacDonald, Scott L.

    2004-01-01

    This study provides concurrent and predictive validity and test-retest reliability evidence for scores from the preschool teacher-completed Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS; McDermott, Green, Francis, & Stott, 2002) using two regional samples of preschool children aged 3 to 5.5 years (Ns of 61 and 70). Teacher ratings of social skills and…

  5. Processing of multi-digit additions in high math-anxious individuals: psychophysiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Núñez-Peña, María Isabel; Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the time course of neural processing of multi-digit additions in high- (HMA) and low-math anxious (LMA) individuals. Seventeen HMA and 17 LMA individuals were presented with two-digit additions and were asked to perform a verification task. Behavioral data showed that HMA individuals were slower and more error prone than their LMA peers, and that incorrect solutions were solved more slowly and less accurately than correct ones. Moreover, HMA individuals tended to need more time and commit more errors when having to verify incorrect solutions than correct ones. ERPs time-locked to the presentation of the addends (calculation phase) and to the presentation of the proposed solution (verification phase) were also analyzed. In both phases, a P2 component of larger amplitude was found for HMA individuals than for their LMA peers. Because the P2 component is considered to be a biomarker of the mobilization of attentional resources toward emotionally negative stimuli, these results suggest that HMA individuals may have invested more attentional resources both when processing the addends (calculation phase) and when they had to report whether the proposed solution was correct or not (verification phase), as compared to their LMA peers. Moreover, in the verification phase, LMA individuals showed a larger late positive component (LPC) for incorrect solutions at parietal electrodes than their HMA counterparts. The smaller LPC shown by HMA individuals when verifying incorrect solutions suggests that these solutions may have been appeared more plausible to them than to their LMA counterparts. PMID:26347705

  6. Evidence of Convergent and Discriminant Validity of Child, Teacher, and Peer Reports of Teacher-Student Support

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Hughes, Jan N.; Kwok, Oi-man; Hsu, Hsien-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the construct validity of measures of teacher-student support in a sample of 709 ethnically diverse second and third grade academically at-risk students. Confirmatory factor analysis investigated the convergent and discriminant validities of teacher, child, and peer reports of teacher-student support and child conduct problems. Results supported the convergent and discriminant validity of scores on the measures. Peer reports accounted for the largest proportion of trait variance and non-significant method variance. Child reports accounted for the smallest proportion of trait variance and the largest method variance. A model with two latent factors provided a better fit to the data than a model with one factor, providing further evidence of the discriminant validity of measures of teacher-student support. Implications for research, policy, and practice are discussed. PMID:21767024

  7. Geochemical evidence for airborne dust additions to soils in Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Johnson, D.L.; Reheis, M.; Beann, J.; Skipp, G.; Fisher, E.; Jones, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that dust plays important roles in climate change, biogeochemical cycles, nutrient supply to ecosystems, and soil formation. In Channel Islands National Park, California, soils are clay-rich Vertisols or Alfisols and Mollisols with vertic properties. The soils are overlain by silt-rich mantles that contrast sharply with the underlying clay-rich horizons. Silt mantles contain minerals that are rare or absent in the volcanic rocks that dominate these islands. Immobile trace elements (Sc-Th-La and Ta-Nd-Cr) and rare-earth elements show that the basalt and andesite on the islands have a composition intermediate between upper-continental crust and oceanic crust. In contrast, the silt fractions and, to a lesser extent, clay fractions of the silt mantle have compositions closer to average upper-continental crust and very similar to Mojave Desert dust. Island shelves, exposed during the last glacial period, could have provided a source of eolian sediment for the silt mantles, but this is not supported by mineralogical data. We hypothesize that a more likely source for the silt-rich mantles is airborne dust from mainland California and Baja California, either from the Mojave Desert or from the continental shelf during glacial low stands of sea. Although average winds are from the northwest in coastal California, easterly winds occur numerous times of the year when "Santa Ana" conditions prevail, caused by a high-pressure cell centered over the Great Basin. The eolian silt mantles constitute an important medium of plant growth and provide evidence that abundant eolian silt and clay may be delivered to the eastern Pacific Ocean from inland desert sources. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  8. THE CAREGIVING HELPLESSNESS QUESTIONNAIRE: EVIDENCE FOR VALIDITY AND UTILITY WITH MOTHERS OF INFANTS.

    PubMed

    Huth-Bocks, Alissa C; Guyon-Harris, Katherine; Calvert, Maegan; Scott, Syreeta; Ahlfs-Dunn, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    Severe disruptions in the caregiving system can lead to disorganized caregiving characterized by maternal helplessness and fear. Such caregivers abdicate their caregiving role and fail to provide protection to the child. The measurement of disorganized caregiving has historically been limited to lengthy, labor-intensive interviews, indicating a need for other feasible tools to assess this important construct. Furthermore, few studies have investigated correlates of disorganized caregiving. Participants included 120 diverse, primarily economically disadvantaged women who were part of a longitudinal study examining psychosocial risk factors before and after the birth of a child. Participants completed the Caregiving Helplessness Questionnaire (CHQ; C. George & J. Solomon, 2011) along with measures assessing maternal mental health, trauma exposure, parenting stress, and infant socioemotional adjustment. Results indicated that caregiver helplessness and fear, based on the CHQ, were positively associated with maternal depression, parenting stress, and perceptions of infant socioemotional problems. Importantly, results also revealed significant associations between current maternal trauma experiences and mothers' reports of helplessness and fear. Findings from the present study indicate that the CHQ may be a valid screening tool for disorganized caregiving among mothers of infants. In addition, a number of maternal experiences may be related to disorganized caregiving following the birth of a child. PMID:27079544

  9. Experimental evidence of electron neutrino oscillations and validation of MSW-LMA model with Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avanzini, M. Buizza

    2011-04-01

    We report the real time measurements of 7Be and 8B solar neutrino fluxes performed with the Borexino experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. The achievement of these measurements was possible thanks to the excellent levels of the radiopurity reached. The measurement of the 7Be in real time is the first direct measurements of the survival probability for solar electron neutrinos in the vacuum region. For 8B we reached a threshold energy of 3MeV which is the lowest achieved so far in real time. For the first time, the same apparatus can measure two different oscillation regions (vacuum-driven and matter-enhanced) predicted by the MSW-LMA model. Borexino also quotes the ratio between the survival probabilities, corresponding to 1.93 ± 0.75, and validates the presence of the transition region between the two oscillation regimes, according to the MSW-LMA solution.In addition, a preliminary result on the Day-Night Asymmetry (ADN) for the 7Be neutrino flux is presented and corresponds to 0.007 ± 0.073. This measurement makes Borexino able to give once more an independent confirmation of the MSW-LMA solution.

  10. No Serological Evidence that Harbour Porpoises Are Additional Hosts of Influenza B Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Bodewes, Rogier; van de Bildt, Marco W. G.; van Elk, Cornelis E.; Bunskoek, Paulien E.; van de Vijver, David A. M. C.; Smits, Saskia L.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Kuiken, Thijs

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A and B viruses circulate among humans causing epidemics almost annually. While various hosts for influenza A viruses exist, influenza B viruses have been detected only in humans and seals. However, recurrent infections of seals in Dutch coastal waters with influenza B viruses that are antigenetically distinct from influenza B viruses circulating among humans suggest that influenza B viruses have been introduced into this seal population by another, non-human, host. Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) are sympatric with seals in these waters and are also occasionally in close contact with humans after stranding and subsequent rehabilitation. In addition, virus attachment studies demonstrated that influenza B viruses can bind to cells of the respiratory tract of these animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that harbour porpoises might be a reservoir of influenza B viruses. In the present study, an unique set of serum samples from 79 harbour porpoises, stranded alive on the Dutch coast between 2003 and 2013, was tested for the presence of antibodies against influenza B viruses by use of the hemagglutination inhibition test and for antibodies against influenza A viruses by use of a competitive influenza A nucleoprotein ELISA. No antibodies were detected against either virus, suggesting that influenza A and B virus infections of harbour porpoises in Dutch coastal waters are not common, which was supported by statistical analysis of the dataset. PMID:24551217

  11. No serological evidence that harbour porpoises are additional hosts of influenza B viruses.

    PubMed

    Bodewes, Rogier; van de Bildt, Marco W G; van Elk, Cornelis E; Bunskoek, Paulien E; van de Vijver, David A M C; Smits, Saskia L; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A and B viruses circulate among humans causing epidemics almost annually. While various hosts for influenza A viruses exist, influenza B viruses have been detected only in humans and seals. However, recurrent infections of seals in Dutch coastal waters with influenza B viruses that are antigenetically distinct from influenza B viruses circulating among humans suggest that influenza B viruses have been introduced into this seal population by another, non-human, host. Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) are sympatric with seals in these waters and are also occasionally in close contact with humans after stranding and subsequent rehabilitation. In addition, virus attachment studies demonstrated that influenza B viruses can bind to cells of the respiratory tract of these animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that harbour porpoises might be a reservoir of influenza B viruses. In the present study, an unique set of serum samples from 79 harbour porpoises, stranded alive on the Dutch coast between 2003 and 2013, was tested for the presence of antibodies against influenza B viruses by use of the hemagglutination inhibition test and for antibodies against influenza A viruses by use of a competitive influenza A nucleoprotein ELISA. No antibodies were detected against either virus, suggesting that influenza A and B virus infections of harbour porpoises in Dutch coastal waters are not common, which was supported by statistical analysis of the dataset. PMID:24551217

  12. A new analysis of the WASP-3 system: no evidence for an additional companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montalto, M.; Gregorio, J.; Boué, G.; Mortier, A.; Boisse, I.; Oshagh, M.; Maturi, M.; Figueira, P.; Sousa, S.; Santos, N. C.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the problem concerning the presence of additional bodies gravitationally bound with the WASP-3 system. We present eight new transits of this planet gathered between 2009 May and 2011 September by using the 30-cm telescope at the Crow Observatory-Portalegre, and analyse all the photometric and radial velocity data published so far. We did not observe significant periodicities in the Fourier spectrum of the observed minus calculated (O - C) transit timing and radial velocity diagrams (the highest peak having false-alarm probabilities of 56 and 31 per cent, respectively) or long-term trends. Combining all the available information, we conclude that the radial velocity and transit timing techniques exclude, at 99 per cent confidence limit, any perturber more massive than M ≳ 100 Mearth with periods up to 10 times the period of the inner planet. We also investigate the possible presence of an exomoon in this system and determine that considering the scatter of the O - C transit timing residuals a coplanar exomoon would likely produce detectable transits. This hypothesis is however apparently ruled out by observations conducted by other researchers. In the case where the orbit of the moon is not coplanar, the accuracy of our transit timing and transit duration measurements prevents any significant statement. Interestingly, on the basis of our reanalysis of SOPHIE data we noted that WASP-3 passed from a less active (logR HK '=-4.95) to a more active (logR HK '=-4.8) state during the 3 yr monitoring period spanned by the observations. Despite the fact that no clear spot crossing has been reported for this system, this analysis suggests a more intensive monitoring of the activity level of this star in order to understand its impact on photometric and radial velocity measurements.

  13. Research for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evidence of Social and Ecological Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Jennifer R.; Hall, Emilie; Conder, Emily; Lane, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    The social and ecological validity of a body of research may impact the degree to which interventions will be used outside of research contexts. The purpose of this review was to determine the extent to which social and ecological validity were demonstrated for interventions designed to increase social skills for young children with autism…

  14. Comparability of Writing Assessment Scores across Languages: Searching for Evidence of Valid Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevigny, Serge; Savard, Denis; Beaudoin, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Very few empirically based studies have denied or confirmed the validity of holistic score interpretations and the validity of French-English writing scores comparisons. The present study addresses these important issues. Part I investigates if adjacent holistic scores represent different writing skills. Part II evaluates if variations exposed in…

  15. The Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child): Evidence of Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Kuan-Lin; Wang, Hui-Yi; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Yao, Kai-Ping Grace; Huang, Chien-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child) is the first health condition-specific questionnaire designed for measuring QOL in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, its construct validity has not yet been confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Hence, this study assessed the construct validity of the caregiver…

  16. Validity Evidence for the Security Scale as a Measure of Perceived Attachment Security in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the validity of a self-report measure of children's perceived attachment security (the Kerns Security Scale) was tested using adolescents. With regards to predictive validity, the Security Scale was significantly associated with (1) observed mother-adolescent interactions during conflict and (2) parent- and teacher-rated social…

  17. Evidence for the Criterion Validity and Clinical Utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (N = 299 and 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic…

  18. An SAT® Validity Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    This primer should provide the reader with a deeper understanding of the concept of test validity and will present the recent available validity evidence on the relationship between SAT® scores and important college outcomes. In addition, the content examined on the SAT will be discussed as well as the fundamental attention paid to the fairness of…

  19. Ethical leadership: meta-analytic evidence of criterion-related and incremental validity.

    PubMed

    Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C

    2015-05-01

    This study examines the criterion-related and incremental validity of ethical leadership (EL) with meta-analytic data. Across 101 samples published over the last 15 years (N = 29,620), we observed that EL demonstrated acceptable criterion-related validity with variables that tap followers' job attitudes, job performance, and evaluations of their leaders. Further, followers' trust in the leader mediated the relationships of EL with job attitudes and performance. In terms of incremental validity, we found that EL significantly, albeit weakly in some cases, predicted task performance, citizenship behavior, and counterproductive work behavior-even after controlling for the effects of such variables as transformational leadership, use of contingent rewards, management by exception, interactional fairness, and destructive leadership. The article concludes with a discussion of ways to strengthen the incremental validity of EL. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25420055

  20. Additional evidence that rosacea pathogenesis may involve demodex: new information from the topical efficacy of ivermectin and praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Abokwidir, Manal; Fleischer, Alan B

    2015-09-01

    Additional evidence that Demodex folliculorum may contribute to the pathogenesis of papulopustular rosacea are new studies of two topical antiparasitic agents. Ivermectin and praziquantel have recently been shown to be effective in decreasing the severity of papulopustular rosacea. These two agents significantly differ in molecular structure, but yield similar antiparasitic mechanisms of action. Higher numbers of Demodex mites are found in the skin of patients with rosacea than in people with normal skin. If Demodex play a role in pathogenesis, then hypersensitivity to the mites, their flora, or their products could explain the observed efficacy of antidemodectic therapy. PMID:26437294

  1. 75 FR 25763 - Addition to the List of Validated End-Users: Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... August 13, 2009 (74 FR 41325 (August 14, 2009), has continued the EAR in effect under the International... FR 33646) by creating a new authorization for ``validated end-users'' located in eligible.... 13026, 61 FR 58767, 3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p. 228; E.O. 13222, 66 FR 44025, 3 CFR, 2001 Comp., p....

  2. 75 FR 62462 - Additions to the List of Validated End-Users in the People's Republic of China: Hynix...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... 19, 2007 (72 FR 33646) by creating a new authorization for ``validated end-users'' located in... the Notice of August 12, 2010 (75 FR 50681 (August 16, 2010), has continued the EAR in effect under... (71 FR 38313, July 2, 2006 and 72 FR 33646, June 19, 2007). Given the similarities between...

  3. Review of Self-reported Physical Activity Assessments for Pregnancy: Summary of the Evidence for Validity and Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Downs, Danielle Symons; Pearce, Emily E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies and surveillance systems of pregnant women often rely collection of physical activity through self-report. This systematic review identified and summarized self-reported physical activity assessments with evidence for validity and reliability among pregnant women. Methods Peer-reviewed articles published through 2011 were included if they assessed validity and/or reliability of an interviewer- or self-administered physical activity questionnaire or diary among pregnant women. Results We identified 15 studies, including 12 studies that assessed questionnaires and 4 studies that assessed diaries, conducted in Australia, Finland, Norway, United Kingdom, United States, and Vietnam. For questionnaires, 92% (11/12) assessed mode, all assessed frequency and/or duration, and 58% (7/12) collected information on perceived intensity. All but one study (92%) assessed validity of the questionnaires. Questionnaires compared to objective measures (accelerometers, pedometers) ranged from slight to fair agreement, while comparison to other self-reported measures ranged from substantial to almost perfect agreement. Five studies (42%) assessed test-retest reliability of the questionnaires, ranging from substantial to almost perfect agreement. The four studies on diaries were all assessed for validity against objective measures, ranging from slight to substantial agreement. Conclusions Selection of valid and reliable physical activity measures that collect information on dose (type, frequency, duration, intensity) is recommended to increase precision and accuracy in detecting associations of physical activity with maternal and fetal outcomes. PMID:22882792

  4. 78 FR 41291 - Additions to the List of Validated End-Users in the People's Republic of China: Samsung China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ...In this rule, the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) amends the Export Administration Regulations to add two end-users in the People's Republic of China to the list of Validated End-Users (VEU). Specifically, BIS amends Supplement No. 7 to part 748 of the EAR to add Samsung China Semiconductor Co. Ltd. (Samsung China) and Advanced Micro-Fabrication Equipment, Inc., China (AMEC) as VEUs.......

  5. Reliability and preliminary evidence of validity of a Farsi version of the depression anxiety stress scales.

    PubMed

    Bayani, Ali Asghar

    2010-08-01

    The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the Farsi version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales were examined, with a sample of 306 undergraduate students (123 men, 183 women) ranging from 18 to 51 years of age (M age = 25.4, SD = 6.1). Participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. The findings confirmed the preliminary reliabilities and preliminary construct validity of the Farsi translation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. PMID:21058592

  6. School Anxiety Inventory: Reliability and Validity Evidence in a Sample of Slovenian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levpušcek, Melita Puklek; Inglés, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; García-Fernández, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the School Anxiety Inventory (SAI) using a sample of 646 Slovenian adolescents (48% boys), ranging in age from 12 to 19 years. Single confirmatory factor analyses replicated the correlated four-factor structure of scores on the SAI for anxiety-provoking school situations…

  7. Validity Evidence in Accommodations for English Language Learners and Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The five papers in this special issue of the "Journal of Applied Testing Technology" address fundamental issues of validity when tests are modified or accommodations are provided to English Language Learners (ELL) or students with disabilities. Three papers employed differential item functioning (DIF) and factor analysis and found the underlying…

  8. Validating an Indirect Measure of Clarity of Feelings: Evidence from Laboratory and Naturalistic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lischetzke, Tanja; Angelova, Rozalina; Eid, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the reliability and validity of an indirect measure of clarity of feelings that is based on response latencies (RTs) of mood ratings. Fifty-two participants completed a laboratory session and an experience-sampling week with 6 measurement occasions per day. Shorter RT of mood ratings measured in the laboratory (but not…

  9. Assessing Irrational Beliefs and Emotional Distress: Evidence and Implications of Limited Discriminant Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurawski, Raymond M.; Smith, Timothy W.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the disciminant validity of measures of irrational beliefs. The Irrational Beliefs Test and the Rational Behavior Inventory were highly correlated but were equally highly correlated with self-report measures of depression and anxiety. Thus, rather than assessing beliefs correlated with emotional distress, the measures may actually assess…

  10. Validation of the Olympic Games Attitude Scale (OGAS): Evidence from Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Jennifer Y.; Cheung, Siu-Yin; King, Carina C.; Lam, Eddie T. C.

    2016-01-01

    There have been extensive studies of local residents' perception and reaction to the impacts of mega events. However, there is limited empirical research on the social impacts that shape foreign attitudes toward the host country. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Olympic Games Attitude Scale (OGAS) to examine viewers'…

  11. The Career Locus of Control Scale for Adolescents: Further Evidence of Validity in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Justin C.; Liu, Xiongyi; Griffin, Grant C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of the Career Locus of Control Scale (CLCS) among diverse urban youth within the United States (N = 308). Confirmatory factor analyses verified two of the three models as acceptable fits. Two new models were also explored. Model 5 (Internality, Luck, and Non-Control), which was one of the new models, was…

  12. Validity Evidence for ACT Compass® Placement Tests. ACT Research Report Series 2014 (2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westrick, Paul A.; Allen, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    We examined the validity of using Compass® test scores and high school grade point average (GPA) for placing students in first-year college courses and for identifying students at risk of not succeeding. Consistent with other research, the combination of high school GPA and Compass scores performed better than either measure used alone. Results…

  13. Measuring Graduate Students' Teaching and Research Skills through Self-Report: Descriptive Findings and Validity Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Joanna; Feldon, David

    2010-01-01

    This study extends research on graduate student development by examining descriptive findings and validity of a self-report survey designed to capture graduate students' assessments of their teaching and research skills. Descriptive findings provide some information about areas of growth among graduate students' in the first years of their…

  14. The Psychopathy Q-Sort. Construct Validity Evidence in a Nonclinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2007-01-01

    Scant research has examined the validity of instruments that permit observer ratings of psychopathy. Using a nonclinical (undergraduate) sample, the authors examined the associations between both self- and observer ratings on a psychopathy prototype (Psychopathy Q-Sort, PQS) and widely used measures of psychopathy, antisocial behavior, and…

  15. Validity of Adult Retrospective Reports of Adverse Childhood Experiences: Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardt, Jochen; Rutter, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Background: Influential studies have cast doubt on the validity of retrospective reports by adults of their own adverse experiences in childhood. Accordingly, many researchers view retrospective reports with scepticism. Method: A computer-based search, supplemented by hand searches, was used to identify studies reported between 1980 and 2001 in…

  16. EACOL (Scale of Evaluation of Reading Competence by the Teacher): evidence of concurrent and discriminant validity

    PubMed Central

    Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Ploubidis, George B; de Ávila, Clara Regina Brandão; de Jesus Mari, Jair; Pinheiro, Angela Maria Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Aim The study aimed to provide information about the concurrent and discriminant validation of the Scale of Evaluation of Reading Competence by the Teacher (EACOL), which is composed of 27 dichotomous items concerning reading aloud (17 items) and reading silently (10 items). Samples Three samples were used in this validation study. The first was composed of 335 students with an average age of 9.75 years (SD = 1.2) from Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais State), Brazil, where the full spectrum of reading ability was assessed. The second two samples were from São Paulo city (São Paulo State), Brazil, where only children with reading difficulties were recruited. The first São Paulo sample was labeled “SP-screening” and had n = 617, with a mean age of 9.8 years (SD = 1.0), and the other sample was labeled “SP-trial” and had n = 235, with a mean age of 9.15 years (SD = 0.05). Methods Results were obtained from a latent class analysis LCA, in which two latent groups were obtained as solutions, and were correlated with direct reading measures. Also, students’ scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale and on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire tested the discriminant validation. Results Latent groups of readers underlying the EACOL predicted all direct reading measures, while the same latent groups showed no association with behavior and intelligence assessments, giving concurrent and discriminant validity to EACOL, respectively. Conclusion EACOL is a reliable screening tool which can be used by a wide range of professionals for assessing reading skills. PMID:23091388

  17. [Validity evidence of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in Chile].

    PubMed

    Soto-Brandt, Gonzalo; Portilla Huidobro, Rodrigo; Huepe Artigas, David; Rivera-Rei, Álvaro; Escobar, María Josefina; Salas Guzmán, Natalia; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Ibáñez, Agustín; Martínez Guzmán, Claudio; Castillo-Carniglia, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to psychometrically validate the Chilean version of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test ASSIST. Specifically, this study is interested in evaluating the reliability, consistency and concurrent and discriminant validity of this instrument. The sample was composed for a total of 400 people from four different settings: treatment centers (residential and ambulatories), primary health care, police stations and companies. The reliability of the ASSIST was high (α = .86 for Alcohol, α = .84 for marijuana and α = .90 for cocaine). The intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) with test-retest comparison was statistically significant for Alcohol (ICC = .66), marijuana (ICC = .74) and cocaine (ICC = .80). There were statistically significant correlations between the ASSIST and the AUDIT score (Pearson’s r = .85), the ASSIST and the ASI-Lite score (r between .66 and .83 for tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine), and the ASSIST and the SDS score (r = .65). The original cutoff point for high risk detection was 27 points, however, in order to have a better balance between sensitivity and specificity the cut was changed to 21 points. The ASSIST presents good psychometric properties and therefore is a reliable and valid instrument to be used as a mechanism to detect risk levels of substance use in the Chilean population. PMID:25578000

  18. Does the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire measure what we think it does? Construct validity evidence from an active controlled randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Simon B; Wielgosz, Joseph; Dahl, Cortland; Schuyler, Brianna; MacCoon, Donal S; Rosenkranz, Melissa; Lutz, Antoine; Sebranek, Chad A; Davidson, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    The current study attempted a rigorous test of the construct validity of a widely used self-report measure of dispositional mindfulness, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), within the context of an active controlled randomized trial (n = 130). The trial included three arms: mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), an active control condition that did not include instruction in mindfulness meditation (Health Enhancement Program [HEP]), and a waitlist control condition. Partial evidence for the convergent validity of the FFMQ was shown in correlations at baseline between FFMQ facets and measures of psychological symptoms and psychological well-being. In addition, facets of the FFMQ were shown to increase over the course of an MBSR intervention relative to a waitlist control condition. However, the FFMQ failed to show discriminant validity. Specifically, facets of the FFMQ were shown to increase over the course of the HEP intervention relative to the waitlist control condition. MBSR and HEP, in contrast, did not differ in changes in FFMQ score over time. Implications of these findings for the measurement and theory of mindfulness and MBSR are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26460893

  19. Building Evidence of Validity: The Relation between Work Values, Interests, Personality, and Personal Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuty, Melanie E.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2013-01-01

    The current study used work values components (WVC) to examine the relationship between work values, vocational interests, personality, and personal values. Most intercorrelations between work values and other constructs were in the small effect range. Overall correlations between scale scores provided evidence of convergent and discriminant…

  20. Reflecting on Learner Assessments and Their Validity in the Presence of Emerging Evidence from Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watagodakumbura, Chandana

    2015-01-01

    We can now get purposefully directed in the way we assess our learners in light of the emergence of evidence from the field of neuroscience. Why higher-order learning or abstract concepts need to be the focus in assessment is elaborated using the knowledge of semantic and episodic memories. With most of our learning identified to be implicit, why…

  1. The Validity of Reading Comprehension Test Scores: Evidence of Generalizability across Different Test Administration Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, N. Scott

    This study examined the effects of different test administration conditions on reading comprehension test scores. Evidence of performance differences across district testing conditions might imply that the meanings and interpretations associated with the corresponding test scores have limited generalizability (i.e., knowing how well one reads…

  2. 78 FR 54752 - Addition and Revision to the List of Validated End-Users in the People's Republic of China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... items *Intel 78 FR [INSERT PAGE Semiconductor authorized for the Semiconductor NUMBER], 9-6-13. (Dalian... final rule published on June 19, 2007 (72 FR 33646) to create Authorization VEU. Addition to the List of..., 2001 Comp., p. 783 (2002)), as amended by Executive Order 13637 of March 8, 2013, 78 FR 16129 (March...

  3. An Evidence-Based Microsimulation Model for Colorectal Cancer: Validation and Application

    PubMed Central

    Savarino, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Background The Colorectal Cancer Simulated Population model for Incidence and Natural history (CRC-SPIN) is a new microsimulation model for the natural history of colorectal cancer (CRC) that can be used for comparative effectiveness studies of CRC screening modalities. Methods CRC-SPIN simulates individual event histories associated with CRC, based on the adenoma-carcinoma sequence: adenoma initiation and growth, development of preclinical invasive CRC, development of clinically detectable CRC, death from CRC, and death from other causes. We present CRC-SPIN structure and parameters, data used for model calibration, and model validation. We also provide basic model outputs to further describe CRC-SPIN, including annual transition probabilities between various disease states and dwell times. We conclude with a simple application which predicts the impact of a one time colonoscopy at age 50 on the incidence of CRC assuming three different operating characteristics for colonoscopy. Results CRC-SPIN provides good prediction of both the calibration and validation data. Using CRC-SPIN, we predict that a one time colonoscopy greatly reduces CRC incidence over the subsequent 35 years. Conclusions CRC-SPIN is a valuable new tool for combining expert opinion with observational and experimental results to predict the comparative effectiveness of alternative CRC screening modalities. Impact Microsimulation models are increasingly being used to guide health policy decisions. It is critical that these models be fully described and reviewed in the literature, and that model predictions include measures of precision to allow for appropriate use of model predictions. PMID:20647403

  4. Examining the Internal Structure Evidence for the Performance Assessment for California Teachers: A Validation Study of the Elementary Literacy Teaching Event for Tier I Teacher Licensure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckor, Brent; Castellano, Katherine E.; Téllez, Kip; Wihardini, Diah; Wilson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Interpretations for licensure tests involve a series of inferences or a validity argument, leading from the test score to decisions about who is accepted or denied entry into a profession. Utilizing an argument-based framework for validation based on the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, we explore the evidence for the ongoing…

  5. Assessing Social Validity of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Plans: Evidence for the Reliability and Structure of the Primary Intervention Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Kalberg, Jemma Robertson; Bruhn, Allison Leigh; Driscoll, Steven A.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides initial evidence for the reliability and structural validity of scores from the Primary Intervention Rating Scale (Lane, Robertson, & Wehby, 2002), an adapted version of the Intervention Rating Profile-15 (Witt & Elliott, 1985) designed to assess faculty's perceptions of social validity of primary prevention plans prior to…

  6. Strong claims and weak evidence: reassessing the predictive validity of the IAT.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James; Klick, Jonathan; Mellers, Barbara; Mitchell, Gregory; Tetlock, Philip E

    2009-05-01

    The authors reanalyzed data from 2 influential studies-A. R. McConnell and J. M. Leibold and J. C. Ziegert and P. J. Hanges-that explore links between implicit bias and discriminatory behavior and that have been invoked to support strong claims about the predictive validity of the Implicit Association Test. In both of these studies, the inclusion of race Implicit Association Test scores in regression models reduced prediction errors by only tiny amounts, and Implicit Association Test scores did not permit prediction of individual-level behaviors. Furthermore, the results were not robust when the impact of rater reliability, statistical specifications, and/or outliers were taken into account, and reanalysis of A. R. McConnell & J. M. Leibold (2001) revealed a pattern of behavior consistent with a pro-Black behavioral bias, rather than the anti-Black bias suggested in the original study. PMID:19449998

  7. Archaeological evidence of validity of fish populations on unexploited reefs as proxy targets for modern populations.

    PubMed

    Longenecker, Ken; Chan, Yvonne L; Toonen, Robert J; Carlon, David B; Hunt, Terry L; Friedlander, Alan M; Demartini, Edward E

    2014-10-01

    Reef-fish management and conservation is hindered by a lack of information on fish populations prior to large-scale contemporary human impacts. As a result, relatively pristine sites are often used as conservation baselines for populations near sites affected by humans. This space-for-time approach can only be validated by sampling assemblages through time. We used archaeological remains to evaluate whether the remote, uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) might provide a reasonable proxy for a lightly exploited baseline in the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI). We used molecular and morphological techniques to describe the taxonomic and size composition of the scarine parrotfish catches present in 2 archaeological assemblages from the MHI, compared metrics of these catches with modern estimates of reproductive parameters to evaluate whether catches represented by the archaeological material were consistent with sustainable fishing, and evaluated overlap between size structures represented by the archaeological material and modern survey data from the MHI and the NWHI to assess whether a space-for-time substitution is reasonable. The parrotfish catches represented by archaeological remains were consistent with sustainable fishing because they were dominated by large, mature individuals whose average size remained stable from prehistoric (AD approximately 1400-1700) through historic (AD 1700-1960) periods. The ancient catches were unlike populations in the MHI today. Overlap between the size structure of ancient MHI catches and modern survey data from the NWHI or the MHI was an order of magnitude greater for the NWHI comparison, a result that supports the validity of using the NWHI parrotfish data as a proxy for the MHI before accelerated, heavy human impacts in modern times. PMID:24665960

  8. Spatial repellents: from discovery and development to evidence-based validation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    International public health workers are challenged by a burden of arthropod-borne disease that remains elevated despite best efforts in control programmes. With this challenge comes the opportunity to develop novel vector control paradigms to guide product development and programme implementation. The role of vector behaviour modification in disease control was first highlighted several decades ago but has received limited attention within the public health community. This paper presents current evidence highlighting the value of sub-lethal agents, specifically spatial repellents, and their use in global health, and identifies the primary challenges towards establishing a clearly defined and recommended role for spatial repellent products in disease control. PMID:22583679

  9. Predictors of victim disclosure in child sexual abuse: Additional evidence from a sample of incarcerated adult sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Benoit; Wortley, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The under-reporting of child sexual abuse by victims is a serious problem that may prolong the suffering of victims and leave perpetrators free to continue offending. Yet empirical evidence indicates that victim disclosure rates are low. In this study, we perform regression analysis with a sample of 369 adult child sexual offenders to examine potential predictors of victim disclosure. Specifically, we extend the range of previously examined potential predictors of victim disclosure and investigate interaction effects in order to better capture under which circumstances victim disclosure is more likely. The current study differs from previous studies in that it examines the impact of victim and offense variables on victim disclosure from the perspective of the offender. In line with previous studies, we found that disclosure increased with the age of the victim and if penetration had occurred. In addition, we found that disclosure increased when the victim came from a non-dysfunctional family and resisted the abuse. The presence of an interaction effect highlighted the impact of the situation on victim disclosure. This effect indicated that as victims get older, they are more likely to disclose the abuse when they are not living with the offender at the time of abuse, but less likely to do so when they are living with the offender at the time of abuse. These findings are discussed in relation to previous studies and the need to facilitate victim disclosure. PMID:25812798

  10. Evidence of Rapidly Warming Rivers in the UK from an Extensive Additive Modelling Study at the National Scale Using R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, G. L.

    2011-12-01

    River water temperature data exhibit non-linear behaviour over the past 50 or so years. Standard techniques for identifying and quantifying trends have centred around the use of linear regression and Mann-Kendall and Thiel-Sen procedures. Observational data from UK rivers suggest that temperatures are far more variable then assumed under these statistical models. In a national-scale assessment of the response of riverine systems to global climatic change, an additive model framework was employed to model patterns in water temperatures from a large database of temporal observational data. Models were developed using R, which allowed for the deployment of cutting-edge additive modelling techniques to describe trends at 2773 sites across England and Wales, UK. At a subset of sites, additive models were used to model long-term trends, trends within seasons and the long-term variation in the seasonal pattern of water temperatures. Changes in water temperature have important consequences for aquatic ecology, with some species being particularly sensitive even to small shifts in temperature during some or all of their lifecycle. While there are many studies reporting increasing regional and global air temperatures, evidence for changes in river water temperature has thus far been site specific and/or from sites heavily influenced by human activities that could themselves lead to warming. Here I present selected results from a national-scale assessment of changing river water temperatures, covering the whole of England and Wales, comprising data from 2,773 locations. Positive trends in water temperature were observed at 86% of sites. At a subset of sites, seasonal trend models were developed, which showed that 90% of locations demonstrated statistically significant increases in water temperature during Autumn and Winter periods. Multivariate smoothers, that allow for within-year and longer-term trend interactions in time, suggest that periods of warmer waters now extend

  11. Validation of mineralogical variations evident in simulated ARIES-1 hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, Jonathan F.; Yang, Kai; Boardman, Joseph W.

    1998-08-01

    The Australian Resource Information and Environment Satellite (ARIES-1) will offer improved opportunities to map the mineralogical composition of outcropping rocks, hydrothermal alteration zones and the regolith on the Earth's surface in greater detail than before. This paper presents simulated ARIES-1 mineral mapping results for the Comstock mining district, Nevada, USA, and demonstrates how the spectrally- derived information on hydrothermal alteration has been validated through field work and supporting analytical studies. In the Comstock mining district, three types of white mica with short, medium and long Al-OH absorption wavelengths, respectively, were identified based on the simulated ARIES-1 hyperspectral data. Laboratory analytical work confirmed that the low, medium and long Al-OH absorption wavelengths correspond to low, medium and high octahedral Fe+Mg content, respectively, of the white micas. Each of the three types of white mica tends to occur in a particular alteration zone. The spatial distributions of the three types of white mica may have implications for interpreting the hydrothermal alteration processes. The white mica of short wavelength Al-OH absorption, proximal to Au-Ag mineralization, formed in acidic hydrothermal conditions both at the earliest and the last alteration stages. The white mica of medium wavelength Al-OH absorption, characteristics of the propylitic zone surrounding Au-Ag mineralization, was produced mainly in the second, low- sulfidation hydrothermal event. The white mica of long wavelength Al-OH absorption was probably formed in multiple stages, and generally occurs distal to Au-Ag mineralization.

  12. Experimental evidence of ion acoustic soliton chain formation and validation of nonlinear fluid theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kakad, Amar; Omura, Yoshiharu; Kakad, Bharati

    2013-06-15

    We perform one-dimensional fluid simulation of ion acoustic (IA) solitons propagating parallel to the magnetic field in electron-ion plasmas by assuming a large system length. To model the initial density perturbations (IDP), we employ a KdV soliton type solution. Our simulation demonstrates that the generation mechanism of IA solitons depends on the wavelength of the IDP. The short wavelength IDP evolve into two oppositely propagating identical IA solitons, whereas the long wavelength IDP develop into two indistinguishable chains of multiple IA solitons through a wave breaking process. The wave breaking occurs close to the time when electrostatic energy exceeds half of the kinetic energy of the electron fluid. The wave breaking amplitude and time of its initiation are found to be dependent on characteristics of the IDP. The strength of the IDP controls the number of IA solitons in the solitary chains. The speed, width, and amplitude of IA solitons estimated during their stable propagation in the simulation are in good agreement with the nonlinear fluid theory. This fluid simulation is the first to confirm the validity of the general nonlinear fluid theory, which is widely used in the study of solitary waves in laboratory and space plasmas.

  13. The Self-Presentation Motives for Physical Activity Questionnaire: Instrument Development and Preliminary Construct Validity Evidence.

    PubMed

    Howle, Timothy C; Dimmock, James A; Whipp, Peter R; Jackson, Ben

    2015-06-01

    With the aim of advancing the literature on impression management in physical activity settings, we developed a theoretically derived 2 by 2 instrument that was designed to measure different types of context-specific self-presentation motives. Following item generation and expert review (Study 1), the instrument was completed by 206 group exercise class attendees (Study 2) and 463 high school physical education students (Study 3). Our analyses supported the intended factor structure (i.e., reflecting acquisitive-agentic, acquisitive-communal, protective-agentic, and protective-communal motives). We found some support for construct validity, and the self-presentation motives were associated with variables of theoretical and applied interest (e.g., impression motivation and construction, social anxiety, social and achievement goals, efficacy beliefs, engagement). Taken together, the results indicate that the Self-presentation Motives for Physical Activity Questionnaire (SMPAQ) may be useful for measuring various types of self-presentation motives in physical activity settings. PMID:26265337

  14. Development and Validation of the Rappel Indicé-24: Behavioral and Brain Morphological Evidence.

    PubMed

    Park, Soowon; Kim, Inhye; Park, Hyun Gyu; Shin, Seong A; Cho, Youngsung; Youn, Jung-Hae; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Jun-Young

    2016-05-01

    The primary goals of the present study were to develop and validate the Rappel Indicé 24 (RI-24), a shorter version of the original Rappel Indicé, which includes 48 items (RI-48), and to identify the specific brain regions that were correlated with scores on the RI-24. Using these clinical scales, the present study evaluated 91 elderly Korean participants who were classified into 3 groups: normal control (NC; n = 34), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 29), and patients with Alzheimer disease (AD; n = 28). Of the 91 participants, 77 also underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans. The RI-24 delayed cued recall (DCR) scores significantly differed among the NC, MCI, and AD groups. A receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the RI-24 was very sensitive (89%) and specific (91%) for the detection of AD. Furthermore, although the time needed to administer the RI-24 was half that needed for the RI-48, the 24-item version showed a high correlation (r= .85 for the DCR score) with the 48-item version. In terms of brain morphological characteristics, voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed a significant positive correlation between DCR score and gray matter volume in the parahippocampal gyrus (r= .468), which plays a role in cued recall. Taken together, the present findings indicate that the RI-24 is a sensitive and reliable test for the detection of memory impairments in patients with MCI and AD despite its brief administration time. PMID:26956224

  15. Experimental evidence of ion acoustic soliton chain formation and validation of nonlinear fluid theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakad, Amar; Omura, Yoshiharu; Kakad, Bharati

    2013-06-01

    We perform one-dimensional fluid simulation of ion acoustic (IA) solitons propagating parallel to the magnetic field in electron-ion plasmas by assuming a large system length. To model the initial density perturbations (IDP), we employ a KdV soliton type solution. Our simulation demonstrates that the generation mechanism of IA solitons depends on the wavelength of the IDP. The short wavelength IDP evolve into two oppositely propagating identical IA solitons, whereas the long wavelength IDP develop into two indistinguishable chains of multiple IA solitons through a wave breaking process. The wave breaking occurs close to the time when electrostatic energy exceeds half of the kinetic energy of the electron fluid. The wave breaking amplitude and time of its initiation are found to be dependent on characteristics of the IDP. The strength of the IDP controls the number of IA solitons in the solitary chains. The speed, width, and amplitude of IA solitons estimated during their stable propagation in the simulation are in good agreement with the nonlinear fluid theory. This fluid simulation is the first to confirm the validity of the general nonlinear fluid theory, which is widely used in the study of solitary waves in laboratory and space plasmas.

  16. Dogs Evaluate Threatening Facial Expressions by Their Biological Validity--Evidence from Gazing Patterns.

    PubMed

    Somppi, Sanni; Törnqvist, Heini; Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Hänninen, Laura; Krause, Christina M; Vainio, Outi

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate response to companions' emotional signals is important for all social creatures. The emotional expressions of humans and non-human animals have analogies in their form and function, suggesting shared evolutionary roots, but very little is known about how animals other than primates view and process facial expressions. In primates, threat-related facial expressions evoke exceptional viewing patterns compared with neutral or positive stimuli. Here, we explore if domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have such an attentional bias toward threatening social stimuli and whether observed emotional expressions affect dogs' gaze fixation distribution among the facial features (eyes, midface and mouth). We recorded the voluntary eye gaze of 31 domestic dogs during viewing of facial photographs of humans and dogs with three emotional expressions (threatening, pleasant and neutral). We found that dogs' gaze fixations spread systematically among facial features. The distribution of fixations was altered by the seen expression, but eyes were the most probable targets of the first fixations and gathered longer looking durations than mouth regardless of the viewed expression. The examination of the inner facial features as a whole revealed more pronounced scanning differences among expressions. This suggests that dogs do not base their perception of facial expressions on the viewing of single structures, but the interpretation of the composition formed by eyes, midface and mouth. Dogs evaluated social threat rapidly and this evaluation led to attentional bias, which was dependent on the depicted species: threatening conspecifics' faces evoked heightened attention but threatening human faces instead an avoidance response. We propose that threatening signals carrying differential biological validity are processed via distinctive neurocognitive pathways. Both of these mechanisms may have an adaptive significance for domestic dogs. The findings provide a novel perspective on

  17. The EADC-ADNI Harmonized Protocol for manual hippocampal segmentation on magnetic resonance: Evidence of validity

    PubMed Central

    Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Jack, Clifford R.; Bocchetta, Martina; Bauer, Corinna; Frederiksen, Kristian S.; Liu, Yawu; Preboske, Gregory; Swihart, Tim; Blair, Melanie; Cavedo, Enrica; Grothe, Michel J.; Lanfredi, Mariangela; Martinez, Oliver; Nishikawa, Masami; Portegies, Marileen; Stoub, Travis; Ward, Chadwich; Apostolova, Liana G.; Ganzola, Rossana; Wolf, Dominik; Barkhof, Frederik; Bartzokis, George; DeCarli, Charles; Csernansky, John G.; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Geerlings, Mirjam I.; Kaye, Jeffrey; Killiany, Ronald J.; Lehéricy, Stephane; Matsuda, Hiroshi; O'Brien, John; Silbert, Lisa C.; Scheltens, Philip; Soininen, Hilkka; Teipel, Stefan; Waldemar, Gunhild; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Barnes, Josephine; Firbank, Michael; Gerritsen, Lotte; Henneman, Wouter; Malykhin, Nikolai; Pruessner, Jens C.; Wang, Lei; Watson, Craig; Wolf, Henrike; deLeon, Mony; Pantel, Johannes; Ferrari, Clarissa; Bosco, Paolo; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Duchesne, Simon; Duvernoy, Henri; Boccardi, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Background An international Delphi panel has defined a harmonized protocol (HarP) for the manual segmentation of the hippocampus on MR. The aim of this study is to study the concurrent validity of the HarP toward local protocols, and its major sources of variance. Methods Fourteen tracers segmented 10 Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cases scanned at 1.5 T and 3T following local protocols, qualified for segmentation based on the HarP through a standard web-platform and resegmented following the HarP. The five most accurate tracers followed the HarP to segment 15 ADNI cases acquired at three time points on both 1.5 T and 3T. Results The agreement among tracers was relatively low with the local protocols (absolute left/right ICC 0.44/0.43) and much higher with the HarP (absolute left/right ICC 0.88/0.89). On the larger set of 15 cases, the HarP agreement within (left/right ICC range: 0.94/0.95 to 0.99/0.99) and among tracers (left/right ICC range: 0.89/0.90) was very high. The volume variance due to different tracers was 0.9% of the total, comparing favorably to variance due to scanner manufacturer (1.2), atrophy rates (3.5), hemispheric asymmetry (3.7), field strength (4.4), and significantly smaller than the variance due to atrophy (33.5%, P < .001), and physiological variability (49.2%, P < .001). Conclusions The HarP has high measurement stability compared with local segmentation protocols, and good reproducibility within and among human tracers. Hippocampi segmented with the HarP can be used as a reference for the qualification of human tracers and automated segmentation algorithms. PMID:25267715

  18. Dogs Evaluate Threatening Facial Expressions by Their Biological ValidityEvidence from Gazing Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Somppi, Sanni; Törnqvist, Heini; Kujala, Miiamaaria V.; Hänninen, Laura; Krause, Christina M.; Vainio, Outi

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate response to companions’ emotional signals is important for all social creatures. The emotional expressions of humans and non-human animals have analogies in their form and function, suggesting shared evolutionary roots, but very little is known about how animals other than primates view and process facial expressions. In primates, threat-related facial expressions evoke exceptional viewing patterns compared with neutral or positive stimuli. Here, we explore if domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have such an attentional bias toward threatening social stimuli and whether observed emotional expressions affect dogs’ gaze fixation distribution among the facial features (eyes, midface and mouth). We recorded the voluntary eye gaze of 31 domestic dogs during viewing of facial photographs of humans and dogs with three emotional expressions (threatening, pleasant and neutral). We found that dogs’ gaze fixations spread systematically among facial features. The distribution of fixations was altered by the seen expression, but eyes were the most probable targets of the first fixations and gathered longer looking durations than mouth regardless of the viewed expression. The examination of the inner facial features as a whole revealed more pronounced scanning differences among expressions. This suggests that dogs do not base their perception of facial expressions on the viewing of single structures, but the interpretation of the composition formed by eyes, midface and mouth. Dogs evaluated social threat rapidly and this evaluation led to attentional bias, which was dependent on the depicted species: threatening conspecifics’ faces evoked heightened attention but threatening human faces instead an avoidance response. We propose that threatening signals carrying differential biological validity are processed via distinctive neurocognitive pathways. Both of these mechanisms may have an adaptive significance for domestic dogs. The findings provide a novel

  19. Role of Chronic Inflammation in Myopia Progression: Clinical Evidence and Experimental Validation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Ju; Wei, Chang-Ching; Chang, Ching-Yao; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Hsu, Yu-An; Hsieh, Yi-Ching; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Wan, Lei

    2016-08-01

    Prevention and treatment of myopia is an important public problem worldwide. We found a higher incidence of myopia among patients with inflammatory diseases such as type 1 diabetes mellitus (7.9%), uveitis (3.7%), or systemic lupus erythematosus (3.5%) compared to those without inflammatory diseases (p<0.001) using data from children (<18years old) in the National Health Insurance Research database. We then examined the inhibition of myopia by atropine in Syrian hamsters with monocular form deprivation (MFD), an experimental myopia model. We found atropine downregulated inflammation in MFD eyes. The expression levels of c-Fos, nuclear factor κB (NFκB), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were upregulated in myopic eyes and downregulated upon treatment with atropine. The relationship between the inflammatory response and myopia was investigated by treating MFD hamsters with the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A (CSA) or the inflammatory stimulators lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or peptidoglycan (PGN). Myopia progression was slowed by CSA application but was enhanced by LPS and PGN administration. The levels of c-Fos, NF-κB, IL-6, and TNF-α were upregulated in LPS- and PGN-treated eyes and downregulated by CSA treatment. These findings provide clinical and experimental evidence that inflammation plays a crucial role in the development of myopia. PMID:27470424

  20. Development and validation of the competence in evidence based practice questionnaire (EBP-COQ) among nursing students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nursing educators need rigorously developed instruments to assess competency in evidence based practice (EBP) at undergraduate level. This concept is defined as the capability to choose and use an integrated combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes with the intention to develop a task in a certain context. Also, we understand that EBP is gaining knowledge and skills, as well as increasing positive attitudes toward EBP that will promote a change in behaviour to implement EBP in practice. This study aims to develop a psychometric test of the Evidence Based Practice Evaluation Competence Questionnaire (EBP-COQ) among undergraduate nursing students. Methods The questionnaire was developed by item generation through a review of scientific literature and focus groups. The instrument was validated in terms of content validity through an expert review. The EBP-COQ was administered to a cohort of nursing students (n =100) to evaluate test reliability and select the best items. Psychometric properties of the final instrument were assessed in a sample of 261 nursing students. Results The EBP-COQ consisted of 25 items. A factorial analysis grouped the items into the three categories that define competence relating to EBP: attitude, knowledge and skills. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.888 for the entire questionnaire. The factor solution explained 55.55% of the variance. Conclusions EBP-COQ appears to measure with adequate reliability the attributes of undergraduate nursing students’ competence in EBP. The instrument is quick to disseminate and easy to score, making it a suitable instrument for nursing educators to evaluate students’ self-perceived competence in EBP. PMID:23391040

  1. The predictive validity of selection for entry into postgraduate training in general practice: evidence from three longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Fiona; Lievens, Filip; Kerrin, Máire; Munro, Neil; Irish, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Background The selection methodology for UK general practice is designed to accommodate several thousand applicants per year and targets six core attributes identified in a multi-method job-analysis study Aim To evaluate the predictive validity of selection methods for entry into postgraduate training, comprising a clinical problem-solving test, a situational judgement test, and a selection centre. Design and setting A three-part longitudinal predictive validity study of selection into training for UK general practice. Method In sample 1, participants were junior doctors applying for training in general practice (n = 6824). In sample 2, participants were GP registrars 1 year into training (n = 196). In sample 3, participants were GP registrars sitting the licensing examination after 3 years, at the end of training (n = 2292). The outcome measures include: assessor ratings of performance in a selection centre comprising job simulation exercises (sample 1); supervisor ratings of trainee job performance 1 year into training (sample 2); and licensing examination results, including an applied knowledge examination and a 12-station clinical skills objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; sample 3). Results Performance ratings at selection predicted subsequent supervisor ratings of job performance 1 year later. Selection results also significantly predicted performance on both the clinical skills OSCE and applied knowledge examination for licensing at the end of training. Conclusion In combination, these longitudinal findings provide good evidence of the predictive validity of the selection methods, and are the first reported for entry into postgraduate training. Results show that the best predictor of work performance and training outcomes is a combination of a clinical problem-solving test, a situational judgement test, and a selection centre. Implications for selection methods for all postgraduate specialties are considered. PMID:24267856

  2. Path-analysis based validation of aerosol-precipitation micro-scale interaction using observational evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, Prashant; Bhushan, Mani; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2016-04-01

    Aerosols can modulate variability of Indian summer monsoon by perturbing the radiative balance of the atmosphere, affecting the land-ocean processes and altering the cloud-microphysics at varying spatio-temporal scale, ranging from fast (less than a day) to slow (months) temporal effects. In the literature, overall interaction between AOD and Precipitation was quantified as correlation coefficients (Ramchandran and Kedia, 2013; Gryspeerdt et al., 2012; Gryspeerdt et al., 2014), however the segregation of the interaction was required to better understand the presence/absence of pathway mediated through changes in cloud-microphysics and atmospheric stability. In this work, effects of aerosols on precipitation, mediated through changes in cloud-microphysics and atmospheric stability, on daily time-scales, are studied and quantified using coincident observational data of aerosols, clouds and rainfall, using Path-analysis (Wright, 1969). MODIS, ERA-interim and IMD data-sets for years 2000-2009 for Aerosol optical depth (AOD), Column water vapour (CWV), Cloud droplet effective radius (CDERL), Convective available potential energy (CAPE) and Precipitation, over Indian region were used for the analysis. Cause-effect model was built to validate and quantify the effects of AOD on precipitation, mediated through CDERL and CAPE. To contrast cause-effect mechanism in presence and absence of aerosol fields, high AOD-low Precipitation and low AOD-low Precipitation clusters were formed. Cluster-averaged time series were used to calculate the lagged correlation (AOD leading) and provided as input to Path-analysis. "AOD-CDERL-Precipitation" and "AOD-CAPE-Precipitation" pathways were found to be statistically significant for high AOD-low Precipitation clusters while both were absent for low AOD-low Precipitation clusters, for years 2003 and 2004. For other years statistically significant pathway between AOD and Precipitation could not be found. In "AOD-CDERL-Precipitation" pathway

  3. Evidence for predictive validity of blood assays to evaluate individual radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Severin, Erhard . E-mail: severie@uni-muenster.de; Greve, Burkhard; Pascher, Elke; Wedemeyer, Niels; Hacker-Klom, Ursula; Silling, Gerda; Kienast, Joachim; Willich, Normann; Goehde, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: An escalation in standard irradiation dose ensuring improved local tumor control is estimated, but this strategy would require the exclusion of the most sensitive individuals from treatment. Therefore, fast and reliable assays for prediction of the individual radiosensitivity are urgently required. Methods and Materials: Seven parameters in lymphocytes of 40 patients with leukemia were analyzed before, during, and after total body irradiation (TBI) and in vitro X-ray irradiation. These were: cell proliferation, nuclear damage, activation of cytokines, and numbers of total leukocytes of CD34+ hematopoietic blood stem cells and of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. Additionally, antioxidative capacity of blood plasma, uric acid, and hemoglobin levels were measured. Blood samples of 67 healthy donors were used as controls. Results: In vivo and in vitro irradiations showed comparable results. A dose-response relationship was found for most parameters. Three parameters were associated with severe acute oral mucositis (Grade 3 or 4 vs. Grade 0 to 2): leukocytes fewer than 6200/{mu}L after 4 Gy TBI, a rate of >19% lymphocytes with reduced DNA and protein content ('necroses') after 4 Gy in vitro irradiation, and a small antioxidative capacity in blood plasma (<0.68 mMol) after 8 Gy TBI. Conclusion: Three simple blood assays were associated with oral mucositis that are posed here hypothetically as an early symptom of enhanced radiosensitivity in leukemic patients: leukocyte count, damaged lymphocyte score, and the antioxidative capacity after exposure.

  4. Local perceptions of climate change validated by scientific evidence in the Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Pashupati; Bawa, Kamaljit S

    2011-10-23

    The Himalayas are assumed to be undergoing rapid climate change, with serious environmental, social and economic consequences for more than two billion people. However, data on the extent of climate change or its impact on the region are meagre. Based on local knowledge, we report perceived changes in climate and consequences of such changes for biodiversity and agriculture. Our analyses are based on 250 household interviews administered in 18 villages, and focused group discussions conducted in 10 additional villages in Darjeeling Hills, West Bengal, India and Ilam district of Nepal. There is a widespread feeling that weather is getting warmer, the water sources are drying up, the onset of summer and monsoon has advanced during last 10 years and there is less snow on mountains than before. Local perceptions of the impact of climate change on biodiversity included early budburst and flowering, new agricultural pests and weeds and appearance of mosquitoes. People at high altitudes appear more sensitive to climate change than those at low altitudes. Most local perceptions conform to scientific data. Local knowledge can be rapidly and efficiently gathered using systematic tools. Such knowledge can allow scientists to test specific hypotheses, and policy makers to design mitigation and adaptation strategies for climate change, especially in an extraordinarily important part of our world that is experiencing considerable change. PMID:21525050

  5. A Risk Score with Additional Four Independent Factors to Predict the Incidence and Recovery from Metabolic Syndrome: Development and Validation in Large Japanese Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Obokata, Masaru; Negishi, Kazuaki; Ohyama, Yoshiaki; Okada, Haruka; Imai, Kunihiko; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Background Although many risk factors for Metabolic syndrome (MetS) have been reported, there is no clinical score that predicts its incidence. The purposes of this study were to create and validate a risk score for predicting both incidence and recovery from MetS in a large cohort. Methods Subjects without MetS at enrollment (n = 13,634) were randomly divided into 2 groups and followed to record incidence of MetS. We also examined recovery from it in rest 2,743 individuals with prevalent MetS. Results During median follow-up of 3.0 years, 878 subjects in the derivation and 757 in validation cohorts developed MetS. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified 12 independent variables from the derivation cohort and initial score for subsequent MetS was created, which showed good discrimination both in the derivation (c-statistics 0.82) and validation cohorts (0.83). The predictability of the initial score for recovery from MetS was tested in the 2,743 MetS population (906 subjects recovered from MetS), where nine variables (including age, sex, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, uric acid and five MetS diagnostic criteria constituents.) remained significant. Then, the final score was created using the nine variables. This score significantly predicted both the recovery from MetS (c-statistics 0.70, p<0.001, 78% sensitivity and 54% specificity) and incident MetS (c-statistics 0.80) with an incremental discriminative ability over the model derived from five factors used in the diagnosis of MetS (continuous net reclassification improvement: 0.35, p < 0.001 and integrated discrimination improvement: 0.01, p<0.001). Conclusions We identified four additional independent risk factors associated with subsequent MetS, developed and validated a risk score to predict both incident and recovery from MetS. PMID:26230621

  6. Spectroscopic Evidence for Covalent Binding of Sulfadiazine to Natural Soils via 1,4-nucleophilic addition (Michael Type Addition) studied by Spin Labeling ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    with different polarity. As shown by the spin labeling ESR experiment, molecules modeling SDZ were promptly bound to non-hydrolysable network of soil organic matter only via the aromatic amines that was accompanied by a prompt enlargement of humic particles binding aromatic amines, whereas binding of decomposition products of SDZ to humic acids of soil via the aliphatic amines was not observable. The ESR spectra obviously showed a single-phase process of covalent binding of the aromatic amines. Repeated washouts of labeled soil samples using distil water and ultrafiltration through the membrane of 5000 MWCO PES confirmed irreversible binding of the aromatic amines, and showed that via the aliphatic amines, binding of SDZ or decomposition products of SDZ to soil might also occur but reversibly and only to small soil molecules, which don't enter into the composition of non-hydrolysable part of soil organic matter. SL ESR experiments of different soils at the presence of Laccase highlighted that covalent binding of the aromatic amines to humic particles occurred in the specific hydrophobic areas of soil found as depleted in oxygen. All measured data evidenced that first, SDZ might be decomposed that allowed for measuring the same change of a paramagnetic signal of soil organic matter influenced by both aromatic and aliphatic amines as in the experiment of the interaction of soil with SDZ. Second, a decomposition product of SDZ with the aromatic amine might be bound to non-hydrolysable parts of soil organic matter under specific anaerobic conditions only via 1,4 - nucleophilic addition, Michael-type addition. Gulkowska, A., Thalmann, B., D., Hollender, J., & Krauss, M. (2014). Chemosphere, 107, 366 - 372. Müller, T., Rosendahl, I., Focks, A., Siemens, J., Klasmeier, J., & Matthies. (2013). Environmental Pollution, 172,180 - 185. Nowak, K.M., Miltner, A., Gehre, M., Schaeffer, A., & Kaestner, M. (2011). Environmental Science & Technology 45, 999 - 1006. Weber, E.J., Spidle

  7. Spectroscopic Evidence for Covalent Binding of Sulfadiazine to Natural Soils via 1,4-nucleophilic addition (Michael Type Addition) studied by Spin Labeling ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    with different polarity. As shown by the spin labeling ESR experiment, molecules modeling SDZ were promptly bound to non-hydrolysable network of soil organic matter only via the aromatic amines that was accompanied by a prompt enlargement of humic particles binding aromatic amines, whereas binding of decomposition products of SDZ to humic acids of soil via the aliphatic amines was not observable. The ESR spectra obviously showed a single-phase process of covalent binding of the aromatic amines. Repeated washouts of labeled soil samples using distil water and ultrafiltration through the membrane of 5000 MWCO PES confirmed irreversible binding of the aromatic amines, and showed that via the aliphatic amines, binding of SDZ or decomposition products of SDZ to soil might also occur but reversibly and only to small soil molecules, which don't enter into the composition of non-hydrolysable part of soil organic matter. SL ESR experiments of different soils at the presence of Laccase highlighted that covalent binding of the aromatic amines to humic particles occurred in the specific hydrophobic areas of soil found as depleted in oxygen. All measured data evidenced that first, SDZ might be decomposed that allowed for measuring the same change of a paramagnetic signal of soil organic matter influenced by both aromatic and aliphatic amines as in the experiment of the interaction of soil with SDZ. Second, a decomposition product of SDZ with the aromatic amine might be bound to non-hydrolysable parts of soil organic matter under specific anaerobic conditions only via 1,4 - nucleophilic addition, Michael-type addition. Gulkowska, A., Thalmann, B., D., Hollender, J., & Krauss, M. (2014). Chemosphere, 107, 366 - 372. Müller, T., Rosendahl, I., Focks, A., Siemens, J., Klasmeier, J., & Matthies. (2013). Environmental Pollution, 172,180 - 185. Nowak, K.M., Miltner, A., Gehre, M., Schaeffer, A., & Kaestner, M. (2011). Environmental Science & Technology 45, 999 - 1006. Weber, E.J., Spidle

  8. Evidence cross-validation and Bayesian inference of MAST plasma equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Nessi, G. T.; Hole, M. J.; Svensson, J.; Appel, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, current profiles for plasma discharges on the mega-ampere spherical tokamak are directly calculated from pickup coil, flux loop, and motional-Stark effect observations via methods based in the statistical theory of Bayesian analysis. By representing toroidal plasma current as a series of axisymmetric current beams with rectangular cross-section and inferring the current for each one of these beams, flux-surface geometry and q-profiles are subsequently calculated by elementary application of Biot-Savart's law. The use of this plasma model in the context of Bayesian analysis was pioneered by Svensson and Werner on the joint-European tokamak [Svensson and Werner,Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50(8), 085002 (2008)]. In this framework, linear forward models are used to generate diagnostic predictions, and the probability distribution for the currents in the collection of plasma beams was subsequently calculated directly via application of Bayes' formula. In this work, we introduce a new diagnostic technique to identify and remove outlier observations associated with diagnostics falling out of calibration or suffering from an unidentified malfunction. These modifications enable a good agreement between Bayesian inference of the last-closed flux-surface with other corroborating data, such as that from force balance considerations using EFIT++ [Appel et al., "A unified approach to equilibrium reconstruction" Proceedings of the 33rd EPS Conference on Plasma Physics (Rome, Italy, 2006)]. In addition, this analysis also yields errors on the plasma current profile and flux-surface geometry as well as directly predicting the Shafranov shift of the plasma core.

  9. Implementation and Initial Validation of the APS English Test [and] The APS English-Writing Test at Golden West College: Evidence for Predictive Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isonio, Steven

    In May 1991, Golden West College (California) conducted a validation study of the English portion of the Assessment and Placement Services for Community Colleges (APS), followed by a predictive validity study in July 1991. The initial study was designed to aid in the implementation of the new test at GWC by comparing data on APS use at other…

  10. Addition of a Decision Point in Evidence-Based Practice Process Steps to Distinguish EBP, Research and Quality Improvement Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Mick, JoAnn

    2015-06-01

    This column shares the best evidence-based strategies and innovative ideas on how to facilitate the learning of EBP principles and processes by clinicians as well as nursing and interprofessional students. Guidelines for submission are available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1741--6787. PMID:25773966

  11. Test of visuospatial construction: Validity evidence in extremely low birth weight and late preterm children at early school age.

    PubMed

    Rider, G Nicole; Weiss, Brandi A; McDermott, Adam T; Hopp, Crista A; Baron, Ida Sue

    2016-01-01

    The Test of Visuospatial Construction (TVSC), a measure of visuoconstruction that does not rely on upper extremity motor response or written production, was administered to extremely low birth weight (ELBW), late preterm (LPT), and term participants at preschool (n = 355) and kindergarten (n = 265) ages. TVSC showed statistically significant weak-to-moderate positive correlations (age 3: r = .118-.303; age 6: r = .138-.348) with Developmental VMI, Differential Ability Scales-II Copying, Matrices, and Pattern Construction subtests, Baron-Hopkins Board Test, and the Purdue Pegboard. One-way ANOVA indicated ELBW performed worse than Term (p = .044) on visuospatial construction at age 3 with a small-to-medium effect size (d = -0.43). No other statistically significant differences were found at age 3 on the TVSC (ELBW/LPT: p = .608, d = -0.17; LPT/Term: p = .116, d = -0.31). At age 6, ELBW participants performed worse than LPT participants (p = .027) and Term participants (p = .012); LPT participants did not differ from Term participants. Small effect sizes at age 3 (ELBW < LPT, d = -0.17; ELBW < Term, d = -0.43) were notably larger at age 6 (ELBW < LPT, d = -0.42; ELBW < Term, d = -0.53). Important practical differences showing LPT participants performed below Term participants (d = -0.31) at age 3 were no longer evident at age 6 (d = -0.097). These findings provide preliminary evidence of TVSC validity supporting its use to detect neuropsychological impairment and to recommend appropriate interventions in young preterm children. PMID:25952145

  12. A Four-Step and Four-Criteria Approach for Evaluating Evidence of Dose Addition in Chemical Mixture Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose addition is the most frequently-used component-based approach for predicting dose response for a mixture of toxicologically-similar chemicals and for statistical evaluation of whether the mixture response is consistent with dose additivity and therefore predictable from the ...

  13. Towards Validation of a New Computerised Test of Goal Neglect: Preliminary Evidence from Clinical and Neuroimaging Pilot Studies

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Breda; Brennan, David; Manly, Tom; Evans, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Goal neglect is a significant problem following brain injury, and is a target for rehabilitation. It is not yet known how neural activation might change to reflect rehabilitation gains. We developed a computerised multiple elements test (CMET), suitable for use in neuroimaging paradigms. Design Pilot correlational study and event-related fMRI study. Methods In Study 1, 18 adults with acquired brain injury were assessed using the CMET, other tests of goal neglect (Hotel Test; Modified Six Elements Test) and tests of reasoning. In Study 2, 12 healthy adults underwent fMRI, during which the CMET was administered under two conditions: self-generated switching and experimenter-prompted switching. Results Among the clinical sample, CMET performance was positively correlated with both the Hotel Test (r = 0.675, p = 0.003) and the Modified Six Elements Test (r = 0.568, p = 0.014), but not with other clinical or demographic measures. In the healthy sample, fMRI demonstrated significant activation in rostro-lateral prefrontal cortex in the self-generated condition compared with the prompted condition (peak 40, 44, 4; ZE = 4.25, p(FWEcorr) = 0.026). Conclusions These pilot studies provide preliminary evidence towards the validation of the CMET as a measure of goal neglect. Future studies will aim to further establish its psychometric properties, and determine optimum pre- and post-rehabilitation fMRI paradigms. PMID:26824704

  14. Screening the risk of bipolar spectrum disorders: Validity evidence of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Paino, Mercedes; Muñiz, José

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gather sources of validity evidence of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) in young adults for its use as a screening tool for bipolar spectrum disorders. The sample was composed of 1,002 participants, 268 men (26.7%). The mean age of participants was 21.1 years (SD=3.9). The results showed that between 3 and 59% of the sample reported some hypomanic experience. Gender differences were found in the total score of the MDQ. The analysis of the internal structure by exploratory factor analysis yielded 2 factors, called Energy-Activity and Disinhibition-Attention. This dimensional structure was replicated in the exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), and also had factorial equivalence by gender. Participants who met the cut-off points of the MDQ reported a worse perceived mental health status and more consummatory and anticipatory pleasure, compared to the low scores group. These findings indicate that the MDQ has adequate psychometric properties in non-clinical samples, and could be useful as a screening tool in psychopathology, with the possibility of optimizing strategies for early identification and prevention in individuals at high risk for bipolar disorders. Future studies should further explore the role of subclinical bipolar phenotype and conduct longitudinal studies in samples of the general population. PMID:26055933

  15. Evidence-Based Communication Practices for Children with Visual Impairments and Additional Disabilities: An Examination of Single-Subject Design Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Amy T.; Grimmett, Eric S.; Summers, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    This review examines practices for building effective communication strategies for children with visual impairments, including those with additional disabilities, that have been tested by single-subject design methodology. The authors found 30 studies that met the search criteria and grouped intervention strategies to align any evidence of the…

  16. Reliability and Validity Evidence of Scores on the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire in a Sample of Spanish Students of Compulsory Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingles, Candido J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Castejon, Juan L.; Valle, Antonio; Delgado, Beatriz; Marzo, Juan C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity evidence drawn from the scores of the Spanish version of the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire (AGTQ) using a sample of 2,022 (51.1% boys) Spanish students from grades 7 to 10. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the correlated three-factor structure of the AGTQ in this sample: Learning…

  17. Assessing Attachment Security With the Attachment Q Sort: Meta-Analytic Evidence for the Validity of the Observer AQS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van I Jzendoorn,Marinus H.; Vereijken, Carolus M.J.L.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Riksen-Walraven, Marianne J.

    2004-01-01

    The reliability and validity of the Attachment Q Sort (AQS; Waters & Deane, 1985) was tested in a series of meta-analyses on 139 studies with 13,835 children. The observer AQS security score showed convergent validity with Strange Situation procedure (SSP) security (r=31) and excellent predictive validity with sensitivity measures (r=39). Its…

  18. A novel ion-pairing chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of both nicarbazin components in feed additives: chemometric tools for improving the optimization and validation.

    PubMed

    De Zan, María M; Teglia, Carla M; Robles, Juan C; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2011-07-15

    The development, optimization and validation of an ion-pairing high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of both nicarbazin (NIC) components: 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) and 2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine (HDP) in bulk materials and feed additives are described. An experimental design was used for the optimization of the chromatographic system. Four variables, including mobile phase composition and oven temperature, were analyzed through a central composite design exploring their contribution to analyte separation. Five responses: peak resolutions, HDP capacity factor, HDP tailing and analysis time, were modelled by using the response surface methodology and were optimized simultaneously by implementing the desirability function. The optimum conditions resulted in a mobile phase consisting of 10.0 mmol L(-1) of 1-heptanesulfonate, 20.0 mmol L(-1) of sodium acetate, pH=3.30 buffer and acetonitrile in a gradient system at a flow rate of 1.00 mL min(-1). Column was an INERSTIL ODS-3 (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm particle size) at 40.0°C. Detection was performed at 300 nm by a diode array detector. The validation results of the method indicated a high selectivity and good precision characteristics, with RSD less than 1.0% for both components, both in intra and inter-assay precision studies. Linearity was proved for a range of 32.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) of NIC in sample solution. The recovery, studied at three different fortification levels, varied from 98.0 to 101.4 for HDP and from 99.1 to 100.2 for DNC. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by determining DNC and HDP content in raw materials and commercial formulations used for coccidiosis prevention. Assays results on real samples showed that considerable differences in molecular ratio DNC:HDP exist among them. PMID:21645683

  19. A validated LC-MS/MS determination method for the illegal food additive rhodamine B: Applications of a pharmacokinetic study in rats.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Yi; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2016-06-01

    Rhodamine B is an illegal and potentially carcinogenic food dye. The aim of this study was to develop a convenient, rapid, and sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS method for pharmacokinetic studies in rats. Rat plasma samples were deproteinized with acetonitrile and separated by UHPLC on a reverse-phase C18e column (100mm×2.1mm, 2μm) using a mobile phase consisting of methanol-5mM ammonium acetate (90:10, v/v). Detection was performed using a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in the selected reaction monitoring mode at [M](+) ion m/z 443.39→399.28 for rhodamine B and [M+H](+) ion m/z 253.17→238.02 for 5-methoxyflavone as the internal standard. This method was specific and produced linear results over a concentration range of 0.5-100ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.5ng/mL. All validation parameters, including the inter-day, intra-day, matrix effect, recovery, and stability in rat plasma, were acceptable according to the biological method validation guidelines developed by the FDA (2001). This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats; oral administration of 1mg/kg of rhodamine B yielded a time to maximum concentration (Tmax) of 1.3±0.4h and an elimination half-life of 8.8±1.4h, with a clearance of 229.7±19.4mL/h/kg. These pharmacokinetic results provide a constructive contribution to our understanding of the absorption mechanism of rhodamine B and support additional food safety evaluations. PMID:27131149

  20. Geochemical and mineralogical evidence for Sahara and Sahel dust additions to Quaternary soils on Lanzarote, eastern Canary Islands, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.; Skipp, G.; Prospero, J.M.; Patterson, D.; Bettis, E. Arthur, III

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the most important source of dust in the world today, and dust storms are frequent on the nearby Canary Islands. Previous workers have inferred that the Sahara is the most important source of dust to Canary Islands soils, with little contribution from the Sahel region. Soils overlying a late Quaternary basalt flow on Lanzarote, Canary Islands, contain, in addition to volcanic minerals, quartz and mica, exotic to the island's bedrock. Kaolinite in the soils also likely has an exotic origin. Trace-element geochemistry shows that the soils are derived from varying proportions of locally derived basalt and African dust. Major-element geochemistry, clay mineralogy and interpretation of satellite imagery suggest that dust additions to the Canary Islands come not only from the Sahara Desert, but also from the Sahel region. ?? Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Behavioural response of adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) to predator and conspecific alarm cues: evidence of additive effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Di Rocco, Richard T; Imre, Istvan; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant B

    2015-01-01

    Sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus, an invasive pest in the Upper Great Lakes, avoid odours that represent danger in their habitat. These odours include conspecific alarm cues and predator cues, like 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl), which is found in the urine of mammalian predators. Whether conspecific alarm cues and predator cues function additively or synergistically when mixed together is unknown. The objectives of this experimental study were to determine if the avoidance response of sea lamprey to PEA HCl is proportional to the concentration delivered, and if the avoidance response to the combination of a predator cue (PEA HCl) and sea lamprey alarm cue is additive. To accomplish the first objective, groups of ten sea lampreys were placed in an artificial stream channel and presented with stepwise concentrations of PEA HCl ranging from 5 × 10−8 to 5 × 10−10 M and a deionized water control. Sea lampreys exhibited an increase in their avoidance behaviour in response to increasing concentrations of PEA HCl. To accomplish the second objective, sea lampreys were exposed to PEA HCl, conspecific alarm cue and a combination of the two. Sea lampreys responded to the combination of predator cue and conspecific alarm cue in an additive manner.

  2. Analysis of cocaine and metabolites in hair: validation and application of measurement of hydroxycocaine metabolites as evidence of cocaine ingestion.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Michael; Cheng, Chen-Chih; Chao, Oscar; Hill, Virginia; Matsui, Paul

    2016-03-01

    An LC/MS/MS method to identify and quantitate in hair the minor metabolites of cocaine-meta-, para-, and ortho-hydroxy cocaine-was developed and validated. Analysis was performed on a triple quadrupole ABSciex API 3000 MS equipped with an atmospheric pressure ionization source via an IonSpray (ESI). For LC, a series 200 micro binary pump with a Perkin Elmer Model 200 autosampler was used. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.02 ng/10 mg hair, with linearity from 0.02 to 10 ng/10 mg hair. Concentrations of the para isomer in extensively washed hair samples were in the range of 1-2 % of the cocaine in the sample, while the concentrations of the ortho form were considerably less. The method was used to analyze large numbers of samples from two populations: workplace and criminal justice. In vitro experiments to determine if deodorants or peroxide-containing cosmetic treatments could result in the presence of these metabolites in hair showed that this does not occur with extensively washed hair. Presence of hydroxycocaines, when detected after aggressive washing of the hair samples, provides a valuable additional indicator of ingestion of cocaine rather than mere environmental exposure. PMID:26873203

  3. Stimulus modality and working memory performance in Greek children with reading disabilities: additional evidence for the pictorial superiority hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Constantinidou, Fofi; Evripidou, Christiana

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of stimulus presentation modality on working memory performance in children with reading disabilities (RD) and in typically developing children (TDC), all native speakers of Greek. It was hypothesized that the visual presentation of common objects would result in improved learning and recall performance as compared to the auditory presentation of stimuli. Twenty children, ages 10-12, diagnosed with RD were matched to 20 TDC age peers. The experimental tasks implemented a multitrial verbal learning paradigm incorporating three modalities: auditory, visual, and auditory plus visual. Significant group differences were noted on language, verbal and nonverbal memory, and measures of executive abilities. A mixed-model MANOVA indicated that children with RD had a slower learning curve and recalled fewer words than TDC across experimental modalities. Both groups of participants benefited from the visual presentation of objects; however, children with RD showed the greatest gains during this condition. In conclusion, working memory for common verbal items is impaired in children with RD; however, performance can be facilitated, and learning efficiency maximized, when information is presented visually. The results provide further evidence for the pictorial superiority hypothesis and the theory that pictorial presentation of verbal stimuli is adequate for dual coding. PMID:21942734

  4. Evidence of statistical epistasis between DISC1, CIT and NDEL1 impacting risk for schizophrenia: biological validation with functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Nicodemus, Kristin K; Callicott, Joseph H; Higier, Rachel G; Luna, Augustin; Nixon, Devon C; Lipska, Barbara K; Vakkalanka, Radhakrishna; Giegling, Ina; Rujescu, Dan; St Clair, David; Muglia, Pierandrea; Shugart, Yin Yao; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2010-04-01

    The etiology of schizophrenia likely involves genetic interactions. DISC1, a promising candidate susceptibility gene, encodes a protein which interacts with many other proteins, including CIT, NDEL1, NDE1, FEZ1 and PAFAH1B1, some of which also have been associated with psychosis. We tested for epistasis between these genes in a schizophrenia case-control study using machine learning algorithms (MLAs: random forest, generalized boosted regression andMonteCarlo logic regression). Convergence of MLAs revealed a subset of seven SNPs that were subjected to 2-SNP interaction modeling using likelihood ratio tests for nested unconditional logistic regression models. Of the 7C2 = 21 interactions, four were significant at the α = 0.05 level: DISC1 rs1411771-CIT rs10744743 OR = 3.07 (1.37, 6.98) p = 0.007; CIT rs3847960-CIT rs203332 OR = 2.90 (1.45, 5.79) p = 0.003; CIT rs3847960-CIT rs440299 OR = 2.16 (1.04, 4.46) p = 0.038; one survived Bonferroni correction (NDEL1 rs4791707-CIT rs10744743 OR = 4.44 (2.22, 8.88) p = 0.00013). Three of four interactions were validated via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in an independent sample of healthy controls; risk associated alleles at both SNPs predicted prefrontal cortical inefficiency during the N-back task, a schizophrenia-linked intermediate biological phenotype: rs3847960-rs440299; rs1411771-rs10744743, rs4791707-rs10744743 (SPM5 p < 0.05, corrected), although we were unable to statistically replicate the interactions in other clinical samples. Interestingly, the CIT SNPs are proximal to exons that encode theDISC1 interaction domain. In addition, the 3' UTR DISC1 rs1411771 is predicted to be an exonic splicing enhancer and the NDEL1 SNP is ~3,000 bp from the exon encoding the region of NDEL1 that interacts with the DISC1 protein, giving a plausible biological basis for epistasis signals validated by fMRI. PMID:20084519

  5. Less is often more, but not always: additional evidence that familiarity breeds contempt and a call for future research.

    PubMed

    Norton, Michael I; Frost, Jeana H; Ariely, Dan

    2013-12-01

    Ullrich, Krueger, Brod, and Groschupf (2013)-using a replication of the trait paradigm from Norton, Frost, and Ariely (2007)-suggest that less information does not always equal greater liking. We first ground the current debate in a larger historical debate in social psychology regarding the merits of configural versus algebraic models of person perception. We next review (a) related research that has suggested that more information can in some cases lead to more liking and (b) a large body of "real world" data-from friendships, daters, married couples, employment, celebrities, and politics-that suggests that more information often leads to less liking. We then provide an additional replication of our "less is more" effect, using a slight variation of the trait-list paradigm. The existing data suggest a need for further integrative explorations of when familiarity leads to contempt or liking or has no effect. PMID:24295381

  6. Phylogeny of the Heelwalkers (Insecta: Mantophasmatodea) based on mtDNA sequences, with evidence for additional taxa in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Damgaard, Jakob; Klass, Klaus-Dieter; Picker, Mike D; Buder, Gerda

    2008-05-01

    We examined the phylogeny of Mantophasmatodea from southern Africa (South Africa, Namibia) using approx. 1300 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the genes encoding COI and 16S. The taxon sample comprised multiple specimens from eight described species (Namaquaphasma ookiepense, Austrophasma rawsonvillense, A. caledonense, A. gansbaaiense, Lobatophasma redelinghuysense, Hemilobophasma montaguense, Karoophasma botterkloofense, K. biedouwense) and four undescribed species of Austrophasmatidae; three specimens of Sclerophasma paresisense (Mantophasmatidae); and two specimens of Praedatophasma maraisi and one of Tyrannophasma gladiator (not yet convincingly assigned to any family). For outgroup comparison a broad selection from hemimetabolous insect orders was included. Equally weighted parsimony analyses of the combined COI+16S data sets with gaps in 16S scored as a fifth character state supported Austrophasmatidae and all species and genera of Mantophasmatodea as being monophyletic. Most species were highly supported with 98-100% bootstrap/7-39 Bremer support (BS), but K. biedouwense had moderate support (87/4) and A. caledonense low support (70/1). Mantophasmatodea, Austrophasmatidae, and a clade Tyrannophasma gladiator+Praedatophasma maraisi were all strongly supported (99-100/12-25), while relationships among the two latter clades and Mantophasmatidae remain ambiguous. Concerning the relationships among genera of Austrophasmatidae, support values are moderately high for some nodes, but not significant for others. We additionally calculated the partitioned BS values of COI and 16S for all nodes in the strict consensus of the combined tree. COI and 16S are highly congruent at the species level as well as at the base of Mantophasmatodea, but congruence is poor for most intergeneric relationships. In forthcoming studies, deeper relationships in the order should be additionally explored by nuclear genes, such as 18S and 28S, for a reduced sample of specimens

  7. Oblique fault systems crossing the Seattle Basin: Geophysical evidence for additional shallow fault systems in the central Puget Lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, Chris G.; Keranen, Katie M.

    2012-03-01

    Upper plate seismicity in the Puget Lowland is more broadly distributed than mapped fault systems and presents a conundrum for understanding the active tectonics of the region. Although many previous studies have mapped faulting in the Puget Lowland from subsurface geophysical data, many of these efforts have focused specifically on mapping the structure of the Seattle Fault Zone and the South Whidbey Island Fault. The thick glacial sediments and extensive water bodies may conceal additional active faults away from these major structures. We map fault networks in Quaternary sediments broadly throughout the central Puget Lowland using existing marine multichannel seismic reflection data sets with widely distributed profiles to extend the results of previous work. We identify a NE-SW zone of recent high-angle faulting and shallow sediment deformation crossing the Seattle Uplift and the Seattle Basin that segments the Seattle Fault Zone and is distinct from previously mapped fault systems. Faults in this zone cut or deform sediments at the seafloor, and the zone trends across the central Puget Lowland at an oblique angle to major regional structures. Two additional zones of faulting trend NW-SE and cut through the Seattle Basin and the Kingston Arch, respectively. Aeromagnetic lineations extend the NE-SW trend of deformation across the Seattle Uplift and connect deformation of shallow sediment in the Puget Sound with deformation of shallow sediment in the Hood Canal. These oblique fault structures may partially control the wide distribution of seismicity within the central Puget Lowland and should be considered in seismic hazard assessments.

  8. Validity of the Consensual Assessment Technique--Evidence with Three Groups of Judges and an Elementary School Student Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Haiying

    2012-01-01

    As one of the most widely used creativity assessment tools, the Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT) has been praised as a valid tool to assess creativity. In Amabile's (1982) seminal work, the inter-rater reliability was defined as construct validity of the CAT. During the past three decades, researchers followed this definition and…

  9. Randomised Controlled Feasibility Trial of an Evidence-Informed Behavioural Intervention for Obese Adults with Additional Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sniehotta, Falko F.; Dombrowski, Stephan U.; Avenell, Alison; Johnston, Marie; McDonald, Suzanne; Murchie, Peter; Ramsay, Craig R.; Robertson, Kim; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Background Interventions for dietary and physical activity changes in obese adults may be less effective for participants with additional obesity-related risk factors and co-morbidities than for otherwise healthy individuals. This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of the recruitment, allocation, measurement, retention and intervention procedures of a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve physical activity and dietary practices amongst obese adults with additional obesity related risk factors. Method Pilot single centre open-labelled outcome assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial of obese (Body Mass Index (BMI)≥30 kg/m2) adults (age≥18 y) with obesity related co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension. Participants were randomly allocated to a manual-based group intervention or a leaflet control condition in accordance to a 2∶1 allocation ratio. Primary outcome was acceptability and feasibility of trial procedures, secondary outcomes included measures of body composition, physical activity, food intake and psychological process measures. Results Out of 806 potentially eligible individuals identified through list searches in two primary care general medical practices N = 81 participants (63% female; mean-age = 56.56(11.44); mean-BMI = 36.73(6.06)) with 2.35(1.47) co-morbidities were randomised. Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) was the only significant predictor of providing consent to take part in the study (higher chances of consent for invitees with lower levels of deprivation). Participant flowcharts, qualitative and quantitative feedback suggested good acceptance and feasibility of intervention procedures but 34.6% of randomised participants were lost to follow-up due to overly high measurement burden and sub-optimal retention procedures. Participants in the intervention group showed positive trends for most psychological, behavioural and body

  10. Early Holocene human remains from the Argentinean Pampas: additional evidence for distinctive cranial morphology of early South Americans.

    PubMed

    Pucciarelli, Héctor M; Perez, S Ivan; Politis, Gustavo G

    2010-10-01

    The cranial morphology of Early Holocene American human samples is characterized by a long and narrow cranial vault, whereas more recent samples exhibit a shorter and wider cranial vault. Two hypotheses have been proposed to account for the morphological differences between early and late-American samples: (a) the migratory hypothesis that suggests that the morphological variation between early and late American samples was the result of a variable number of migratory waves; and (b) the local diversification hypothesis, that is, the morphological differences between early and late American samples were mainly generated by local, random (genetic drift), and nonrandom factors (selection and phenotypic plasticity). We present the first craniometric study of three early skulls from the Argentinean Pampas, dated ∼8,000 cal. years BP (Arroyo Seco 2, Chocorí, and La Tigra), and one associated with mega-faunal remains (Fontezuelas skull). In addition, we studied several Late Holocene samples. We show that the skulls from the Argentinean Pampas are morphologically similar to other Early Holocene American skulls (i.e., Lagoa Santa from Brazil, Tequendama, Checua, and Aguazuque from Colombia, Lauricocha from Peru, and early Mexicans) that exhibit long and narrow cranial vaults. These samples differ from the Late Holocene American samples that exhibit a shorter and wider cranial vault. Our results underscore the important differences in cranial morphology between early and late-American samples. However, we emphasize the need for further studies to discuss alternative hypotheses regarding such differences. PMID:20623674

  11. Arrest Histories of High-Risk Gay and Bisexual Men in Miami: Unexpected Additional Evidence For Syndemic Theory†

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Steven P.

    2009-01-01

    Gay and bisexual men continue to suffer the highest burden of HIV/AIDS in the U.S. Since the beginning of the epidemic, substance abuse has been shown to be one of the strongest predictors of sexual risk behaviors and seroconversion among this population. Recent research has focused on additional aspects of health risk disparities among gay and bisexual men, including depression and other mental health problems, childhood sexual abuse, and adult victimization, suggesting that these men are impacted by a syndemic of health risks. The involvement of gay and bisexual men with the criminal justice system is largely absent from the literature. This article describes the nature, extent and predictors of the arrest histories of a sample of gay and bisexual substance users at very high risk for HIV infection and/or transmission. These histories are surprisingly extensive, and are strongly associated with poverty, severe mental distress, substance abuse and dependence, and victimization. The involvement of gay and bisexual men in the criminal justice system deserves a stronger research focus because of the unique challenges facing such men and also because arrests are yet another marker for a host of health risks among them. PMID:19283955

  12. Self-Reported Emotion Reactivity Among Early-Adolescent Girls: Evidence for Convergent and Discriminant Validity in an Urban Community Sample.

    PubMed

    Evans, Spencer C; Blossom, Jennifer B; Canter, Kimberly S; Poppert-Cordts, Katrina; Kanine, Rebecca; Garcia, Andrea; Roberts, Michael C

    2016-05-01

    Emotion reactivity, measured via the self-report Emotion Reactivity Scale (ERS), has shown unique associations with different forms of psychopathology and suicidal thoughts and behaviors; however, this limited body of research has been conducted among adults and older adolescents of predominantly White/European ethnic backgrounds. The present study investigated the validity of ERS scores for measuring emotion reactivity among an urban community sample of middle-school-age girls. Participants (N = 93, ages 11-15, 76% African-American, 18% Latina) completed the ERS and measures of emotion coping, internalizing problems, proactive and reactive aggression, negative life events, and lifetime suicidal ideation and substance use. As hypothesized, ERS scores were significantly associated with internalizing problems, poor emotion coping, negative life events, reactive aggression, and suicidal ideation (evidence for convergent validity), but showed little to no association with proactive aggression or lifetime substance use (evidence for discriminant validity). A series of logistic regressions were conducted to further explore the associations among internalizing problems, emotion reactivity, and suicidal ideation. With depressive symptoms included in the model, emotion reactivity was no longer uniquely predictive of lifetime suicidal ideation, nor did it serve as a moderator of other associations. In conjunction with previous research, these findings offer further support for the construct validity and research utility of the ERS as a self-report measure of emotion reactivity in adolescents. PMID:27157025

  13. Initial Evidence for the Reliability and Validity of the Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors at the Middle School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Carter, Erik W.; Lambert, Warren E.; Jenkins, Abbie B.

    2013-01-01

    We reported findings of an exploratory validation study of a revised universal screening instrument: the Student Risk Screening Scale--Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) for use with middle school students. Tested initially for use with elementary-age students, the SRSS-IE was adapted to include seven additional items reflecting…

  14. Initial Evidence for the Reliability and Validity of the Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors at the Elementary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy P.; Harris, Pamela J.; Menzies, Holly Mariah; Cox, Meredith; Lambert, Warren

    2012-01-01

    We report findings of an exploratory validation study of a revised instrument: the Student Risk Screening Scale-Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE). The SRSS-IE was modified to include seven additional items reflecting characteristics of internalizing behaviors, with proposed items generated from the current literature base, review of…

  15. Validating the Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Karma El; Madhum, Ghida

    2007-01-01

    This study validated the Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) on a sample of 273 private university students in Lebanon. For that purpose, evidence for construct validation was investigated through identifying the test's factor structure and subscale total correlations, in addition to differences in scores by gender, different levels,…

  16. 15N electron nuclear double resonance of the primary donor cation radical P+.865 in reaction centers of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides: additional evidence for the dimer model.

    PubMed Central

    Lubitz, W; Isaacson, R A; Abresch, E C; Feher, G

    1984-01-01

    Four 15N hyperfine coupling constants, including signs, have been measured by electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron nuclear nuclear triple resonance (TRIPLE) for the bacteriochlorophyll a radical cation, BChla+., in vitro and for the light-induced primary donor radical cation, P+.865, in reaction centers of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides R-26. A comparison of the data shows that the hyperfine coupling constants have the same sign in both radicals and are, on the average, smaller by a factor of 2 in P+.865. These results provide additional evidence that P+.865 is a bacteriochlorophyll dimer and are in contradiction with the monomer structure of P+.865 recently proposed by O'Malley and Babcock. The reduction factors of the individual 15N couplings, together with the evidence from proton ENDOR data and molecular orbital calculations, indicate a dimer structure in which only two rings (either I and I or III and III) of the bacteriochlorophyll macrocycles overlap. PMID:6096857

  17. Assessing Students' Opportunity to Learn the Intended Curriculum Using an Online Teacher Log: Initial Validity Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.; Yel, Nedim

    2014-01-01

    This study provides initial evidence supporting intended score interpretations for the purpose of assessing opportunity to learn (OTL) via an online teacher log. MyiLOGS yields 5 scores related to instructional time, content, and quality. Based on data from 46 middle school classes, the evidence indicated that (a) MyiLOGS has high usability, (b)…

  18. Expanding the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (Ex-GRADE) for Evidence-Based Clinical Recommendations: Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Phi, Linda; Ajaj, Reem; Ramchandani, Manisha H; Brant, Xenia MC; Oluwadara, Oluwadayo; Polinovsky, Olga; Moradi, David; Barkhordarian, Andre; Sriphanlop, Pathu; Ong, Margaret; Giroux, Amy; Lee, Justin; Siddiqui, Muniza; Ghodousi, Nora; Chiappelli, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Clinicians use general practice guidelines as a source of support for their intervention, but how much confidence should they place on these recommendations? How much confidence should patients place on these recommendations? Various instruments are available to assess the quality of evidence of research, such as the revised Wong scale (R-Wong) which examines the quality of research design, methodology and data analysis, and the revision of the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (R-AMSTAR), which examines the quality of systematic reviews. The Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group developed an instrument called the GRADE system in order to grade the quality of the evidence in studies and to evaluate the strength of recommendation of the intervention that is proposed in the published article. The GRADE looks at four factors to determine the quality of the evidence: study design, study quality, consistency, and directness. After combining the four components and assessing the grade of the evidence, the strength of recommendation of the intervention is established. The GRADE, however, only makes a qualitative assessment of the evidence and does not generate quantifiable data. In this study, we have quantified both the grading of the quality of evidence and also the strength of recommendation of the original GRADE, hence expanding the GRADE. This expansion of the GRADE (Ex-GRADE) permits the creation of a new instrument that can produce tangible data and possibly bridge the gap between evidence-based research and evidence-based clinical practice. PMID:22303416

  19. Reliability and Validity Evidence for the Social Goal Scale-Physical Education (SGS-PE) in High School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Jianmin; McBride, Ron E.; Xiang, Ping

    2006-01-01

    Two types of social goals associated with students' academic performance have received attention from researchers. One is the social responsibility goal and the other is the social relationship goal. While several scales have been validated for measuring social relationship and social responsibility goals in academic settings, few studies have…

  20. Validity of Evidence-Derived Criteria for Reactive Attachment Disorder: Indiscriminately Social/Disinhibited and Emotionally Withdrawn/Inhibited Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fox, Nathan A.; Drury, Stacy; Smyke, Anna; Egger, Helen L.; Nelson, Charles A., III; Gregas, Matthew C.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the validity of criteria for indiscriminately social/disinhibited and emotionally withdrawn/inhibited reactive attachment disorder (RAD). Method: As part of a longitudinal intervention trial of previously institutionalized children, caregiver interviews and direct observational measurements provided continuous and…

  1. How Nonrecidivism Affects Predictive Accuracy: Evidence from a Cross-Validation of the Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment (ODARA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, N. Zoe; Harris, Grant T.

    2009-01-01

    Prediction effect sizes such as ROC area are important for demonstrating a risk assessment's generalizability and utility. How a study defines recidivism might affect predictive accuracy. Nonrecidivism is problematic when predicting specialized violence (e.g., domestic violence). The present study cross-validates the ability of the Ontario…

  2. Examining Evidence for External and Consequential Validity of the First Term General Chemistry Exam from the ACS Examinations Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Validity of educational research instruments and student assessments has appropriately become a growing interest in the chemistry education research community. Of particular concern is an attention to the consequences to students that result from the interpretation of assessment scores and whether those consequences are swayed by invalidity within…

  3. Validating a Computer-Assisted Language Learning Attitude Instrument Used in Iranian EFL Context: An Evidence-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aryadoust, Vahid; Mehran, Parisa; Alizadeh, Mehrasa

    2016-01-01

    A few computer-assisted language learning (CALL) instruments have been developed in Iran to measure EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' attitude toward CALL. However, these instruments have no solid validity argument and accordingly would be unable to provide a reliable measurement of attitude. The present study aimed to develop a CALL…

  4. Reliability and Validity Evidence of the Chinese Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale Scores among Taiwanese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flahive, Mon-hsin Wang; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Li, Chien-Mo

    2011-01-01

    The Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale-Second Edition (Piers-Harris 2) was designed to measure self-concept among children and adolescents. This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the scores of the Chinese version of the Piers-Harris 2 (Chinese Piers-Harris). The Chinese Piers-Harris 2 was administered to 243 Taiwanese…

  5. Initial Evidence for the Reliability and Validity of the Student Risk Screening Scale with Elementary Age English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Richards-Tutor, Catherine; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Connor, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We report findings of a validation study exploring the Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS; Drummond, 1994) for use with English learners (ELs) attending a large suburban elementary school. First, we explored the reliability of the SRSS by examining internal consistency, with results indicating adequate internal consistency (0.83). Second, we…

  6. How Is Impulsivity Related to Depression in Adolescence? Evidence from a French Validation of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Acremont, Mathieu.; Van der Linden, Martial

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a French version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ; Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., & Spinhoven, P., 2001. Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and emotional problems. "Personality and Individual Differences, 30," 1311-1327) and to explore its relationships with impulsivity and…

  7. The Unidimensional Relationship Closeness Scale (URCS): Reliability and Validity Evidence for a New Measure of Relationship Closeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dibble, Jayson L.; Levine, Timothy R.; Park, Hee Sun

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental dimension along which all social and personal relationships vary is closeness. The Unidimensional Relationship Closeness Scale (URCS) is a 12-item self-report scale measuring the closeness of social and personal relationships. The reliability and validity of the URCS were assessed with college dating couples (N = 192), female friends…

  8. Preliminary Evidence Regarding the Validity of the Personal Orientation Inventory as a Measure of the Construct Self-Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Gary E.

    1976-01-01

    Construct validity of the Personal Orientation Inventory was investigated. A sample of graduate students were administered the inventory immediately after a stressful experience and again two weeks later after the stressful experience had been resolved. Two of the twelve inventory subscales, Self Regard and Self Acceptance showed significant…

  9. Structural Validity of the MACI Psychopathy and Narcissism Scales: Evidence of Multidimensionality and Implications for Use in Research and Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Stephanie R.; Moretti, Marlene M.; Da Silva, Kimberley S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties and predictive validity of three self-report scales (the Psychopathy Content Scale, the Psychopathy-16 scale, and the Egotistic scale) derived from the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) to screen for the presence of psychopathic and narcissistic personality characteristics. Exploratory…

  10. Criterion Validity Evidence for the easyCBM© CCSS Math Measures: Grades 6-8. Technical Report #1402

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Rowley, Brock; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    The easyCBM© CCSS Math tests were developed to help inform teachers' instructional decisions by providing relevant information on students' mathematical skills, relative to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). This technical report describes a study to explore the validity of the easyCBM© CCSS Math tests by evaluating the relation…

  11. Further Evidence of the Reliability and Validity of DSM-IV ODD and CD in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Danis, Barbara; Hill, Carri; Humphries, Marisha; Duax, Jeanne; Donald, Radiah

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test the reliability and validity of DSM-IV oppositional defiant and conduct disorders (ODD and CD) and symptoms using the Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorders Schedule and generate data on the manifestation of symptoms of ODD and CD in 3- to 5-year-old children. Method: One hundred twenty-three consecutive referrals to a child and…

  12. Evidence of Shared Genome-Wide Additive Genetic Effects on Interpersonal Trauma Exposure and Generalized Vulnerability to Drug Dependence in a Population of Substance Users.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Rohan H C; Nugent, Nicole R; Brick, Leslie A; Bidwell, Cinnamon L; McGeary, John E; Keller, Matthew C; Knopik, Valerie S

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to traumatic experiences is associated with an increased risk for drug dependence and poorer response to substance abuse treatment (Claus & Kindleberger, 2002; Jaycox, Ebener, Damesek, & Becker, 2004). Despite this evidence, the reasons for the observed associations of trauma and the general tendency to be dependent upon drugs of abuse remain unclear. Data (N = 2,596) from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment were used to analyze (a) the degree to which commonly occurring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; minor allele frequency > 1%) in the human genome explains exposure to interpersonal traumatic experiences, and (b) the extent to which additive genetic effects on trauma are shared with additive genetic effects on drug dependence. Our results suggested moderate additive genetic influences on interpersonal trauma, h(2) SNP-Interpersonal = .47, 95% confidence interval (CI) [.10, .85], that are partially shared with additive genetic effects on generalized vulnerability to drug dependence, h(2) SNP-DD = .36, 95% CI [.11, .61]; rG-SNP = .49, 95% CI [.02, .96]. Although the design/technique does not exclude the possibility that substance abuse causally increases risk for traumatic experiences (or vice versa), these findings raise the possibility that commonly occurring SNPs influence both the general tendency towards drug dependence and interpersonal trauma. PMID:27214850

  13. Development and preliminary evidence for the validity of an instrument assessing implementation of human-factors principles in medication-related decision-support systems—I-MeDeSA

    PubMed Central

    Zachariah, Marianne; Seidling, Hanna M; Neri, Pamela M; Cresswell, Kathrin M; Duke, Jon; Bloomrosen, Meryl; Volk, Lynn A; Bates, David W

    2011-01-01

    Background Medication-related decision support can reduce the frequency of preventable adverse drug events. However, the design of current medication alerts often results in alert fatigue and high over-ride rates, thus reducing any potential benefits. Methods The authors previously reviewed human-factors principles for relevance to medication-related decision support alerts. In this study, instrument items were developed for assessing the appropriate implementation of these human-factors principles in drug–drug interaction (DDI) alerts. User feedback regarding nine electronic medical records was considered during the development process. Content validity, construct validity through correlation analysis, and inter-rater reliability were assessed. Results The final version of the instrument included 26 items associated with nine human-factors principles. Content validation on three systems resulted in the addition of one principle (Corrective Actions) to the instrument and the elimination of eight items. Additionally, the wording of eight items was altered. Correlation analysis suggests a direct relationship between system age and performance of DDI alerts (p=0.0016). Inter-rater reliability indicated substantial agreement between raters (κ=0.764). Conclusion The authors developed and gathered preliminary evidence for the validity of an instrument that measures the appropriate use of human-factors principles in the design and display of DDI alerts. Designers of DDI alerts may use the instrument to improve usability and increase user acceptance of medication alerts, and organizations selecting an electronic medical record may find the instrument helpful in meeting their clinicians' usability needs. PMID:21946241

  14. Financial Decision-making Abilities and Financial Exploitation in Older African Americans: Preliminary Validity Evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS)

    PubMed Central

    Ficker, Lisa J.; Rahman-Filipiak, Annalise

    2015-01-01

    This study examines preliminary evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS), a new person-centered approach to assessing capacity to make financial decisions, and its relationship to self-reported cases of financial exploitation in 69 older African Americans. More than one third of individuals reporting financial exploitation also had questionable decisional abilities. Overall, decisional ability score and current decision total were significantly associated with cognitive screening test and financial ability scores, demonstrating good criterion validity. Financially exploited individuals, and non-exploited individuals, showed mean group differences on the Mini Mental State Exam, Financial Situational Awareness, Psychological Vulnerability, Current Decisional Ability, and Susceptibility to undue influence subscales, and Total Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale Score. Study findings suggest that impaired decisional abilities may render older adults more vulnerable to financial exploitation, and that the LFDRS is a valid tool for measuring both decisional abilities and financial exploitation. PMID:26285038

  15. Validity and power of association testing in family-based sampling designs: evidence for and against the common wisdom.

    PubMed

    Knight, Stacey; Camp, Nicola J

    2011-04-01

    Current common wisdom posits that association analyses using family-based designs have inflated type 1 error rates (if relationships are ignored) and independent controls are more powerful than familial controls. We explore these suppositions. We show theoretically that family-based designs can have deflated type-error rates. Through simulation, we examine the validity and power of family designs for several scenarios: cases from randomly or selectively ascertained pedigrees; and familial or independent controls. Family structures considered are as follows: sibships, nuclear families, moderate-sized and extended pedigrees. Three methods were considered with the χ(2) test for trend: variance correction (VC), weighted (weights assigned to account for genetic similarity), and naïve (ignoring relatedness) as well as the Modified Quasi-likelihood Score (MQLS) test. Selectively ascertained pedigrees had similar levels of disease enrichment; random ascertainment had no such restriction. Data for 1,000 cases and 1,000 controls were created under the null and alternate models. The VC and MQLS methods were always valid. The naïve method was anti-conservative if independent controls were used and valid or conservative in designs with familial controls. The weighted association method was generally valid for independent controls, and was conservative for familial controls. With regard to power, independent controls were more powerful for small-to-moderate selectively ascertained pedigrees, but familial and independent controls were equivalent in the extended pedigrees and familial controls were consistently more powerful for all randomly ascertained pedigrees. These results suggest a more complex situation than previously assumed, which has important implications for study design and analysis. PMID:21328615

  16. The Boston Assessment of Traumatic Brain Injury–Lifetime (BAT-L) Semistructured Interview: Evidence of Research Utility and Validity

    PubMed Central

    Fortier, Catherine Brawn; Amick, Melissa M.; Grande, Laura; McGlynn, Susan; Kenna, Alexandra; Morra, Lindsay; Clark, Alexandra; Milberg, William P.; McGlinchey, Regina E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Report the prevalence of lifetime and military-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans and validate the Boston Assessment of TBI–Lifetime (BAT-L). Setting The BAT-L is the first validated, postcombat, semistructured clinical interview to characterize head injuries and diagnose TBIs throughout the life span. Participants Community-dwelling convenience sample of 131 OEF/OIF veterans. Design TBI criteria (alteration of mental status, posttraumatic amnesia, and loss of consciousness) were evaluated for all possible TBIs, including a novel evaluation of blast exposure. Main Measures BAT-L, Ohio State University TBI Identification Method (OSU-TBI-ID). Results About 67% of veterans incurred a TBI in their lifetime. Almost 35% of veterans experienced at least 1 military-related TBI; all were mild in severity, 40% of them were due to blast, 50% were due to some other (ie, blunt) mechanism, and 10% were due to both types of injuries. Predeployment TBIs were frequent (45% of veterans). There was strong correspondence between the BAT-L and the OSU-TBI-ID (Cohen κ = 0.89; Kendall τ-b 0.95). Interrater reliability of the BAT-L was strong (κs >0.80). Conclusions The BAT-L is a valid instrument with which to assess TBI across a service member’s lifetime and captures the varied and complex nature of brain injuries across OEF/OIF veterans’ life span. PMID:23535389

  17. The Predictive Validity of Measures of Teacher Candidate Programs and Performance: Toward an Evidence-Based Approach to Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gary T.; Campbell, Shanyce L.; Thompson, Charles L.; Patriarca, Linda A.; Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Lys, Diana B.; Covington, Vivian Martin

    2013-01-01

    Calls for evidence-based reform of teacher preparation programs (TPPs) suggest the question: Do the current indicators of progress and performance used by TPPs predict effectiveness of their graduates when they become teachers? In this study, the indicators of progress and performance used by one program are examined for their ability to predict…

  18. Factor Structure and Validity of Paper-and-Pencil Measures of Mental Speed: Evidence for a Higher-Order Model?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danthiir, Vanessa; Wilhelm, Oliver; Schulze, Ralf; Roberts, Richard D.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored the structure of elementary cognitive tasks (ECTs) and relations between the corresponding construct(s) with processing speed (Gs) and fluid intelligence (Gf). Participants (N=321) completed 14 ECTs, 3 Gs, and 6 Gf marker tests, all administered in paper-and-pencil format to reduce potential confounds evident when tasks are…

  19. Evidence for the formation of an enamine species during aldol and Michael-type addition reactions promiscuously catalyzed by 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase.

    PubMed

    Poddar, Harshwardhan; Rahimi, Mehran; Geertsema, Edzard M; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W H; Poelarends, Gerrit J

    2015-03-23

    The enzyme 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT), which has a catalytic N-terminal proline residue (Pro1), can promiscuously catalyze various carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, including aldol condensation of acetaldehyde with benzaldehyde to yield cinnamaldehyde, and Michael-type addition of acetaldehyde to a wide variety of nitroalkenes to yield valuable γ-nitroaldehydes. To gain insight into how 4-OT catalyzes these unnatural reactions, we carried out exchange studies in D2 O, and X-ray crystallography studies. The former established that H-D exchange within acetaldehyde is catalyzed by 4-OT and that the Pro1 residue is crucial for this activity. The latter showed that Pro1 of 4-OT had reacted with acetaldehyde to give an enamine species. These results provide evidence of the mechanism of the 4-OT-catalyzed aldol and Michael-type addition reactions in which acetaldehyde is activated for nucleophilic addition by Pro1-dependent formation of an enamine intermediate. PMID:25728471

  20. Validation of Eustiromastix guianae (Caporiacco, 1954) (Araneae, Salticidae) with a first description of the female, and additions to the salticid fauna of French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Courtial, Cyril; Picard, Lionel; Ysnel, Frédéric; Pétillon, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we validate the doubtful species status of E. guianae, with redescriptions of (supposedly lost) type and holotype males, and a first description of the female. Both sexes are measured and illustrated by pictures of habitus and copulatory organs. Seventeen new salticid species for French Guiana are also reported and a detailed catalogue of all salticid species from the Trinité National Nature Reserve is provided. PMID:25061368

  1. Are hormonal contraceptive users more likely to misreport unprotected sex? Evidence from a biomarker validation study in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Sandra I.; Ralph, Lauren J.; Padian, Nancy S.; Minnis, Alexandra M.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed biomarker validation data of unprotected sex from women in Zimbabwe to determine whether condom and sexual behavior misreporting differs between users of different contraceptive methods. Self-reported sexual behavior was compared with the presence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in vaginal fluid, a biomarker of semen exposure. Of the 195 women who were PSA positive, 94 (48%) reported no sex or only condom-protected sex. Hormonal contraceptive users misreported sexual behavior less than women using non-hormonal methods (45% vs. 67%, P=0.03). This misclassification pattern could have implications on the elevated risk of HIV infection associated with hormonal contraception in some studies. PMID:24619603

  2. Are hormonal contraceptive users more likely to misreport unprotected sex? Evidence from a biomarker validation study in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Sandra I; Ralph, Lauren J; Padian, Nancy S; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2014-12-01

    We analyzed biomarker validation data of unprotected sex from women in Zimbabwe to determine whether condom and sexual behavior misreporting differs between users of different contraceptive methods. Self-reported sexual behavior was compared with the presence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in vaginal fluid, a biomarker of semen exposure. Of the 195 women who were PSA positive, 94 (48 %) reported no sex or only condom-protected sex. Hormonal contraceptive users misreported sexual behavior less than women using non-hormonal methods (45 vs. 67 %, P = 0.03). This misclassification pattern could have implications on the elevated risk of HIV infection associated with hormonal contraception in some studies. PMID:24619603

  3. EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR THE FORMATION OF HIGHLY SUPERHYDROGENATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS THROUGH H ATOM ADDITION AND THEIR CATALYTIC ROLE IN H{sub 2} FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Thrower, J. D.; Jorgensen, B.; Friis, E. E.; Baouche, S.; Luntz, A. C.; Andersen, M.; Hammer, B.; Hornekaer, L.; Mennella, V.

    2012-06-10

    Mass spectrometry measurements show the formation of highly superhydrogenated derivatives of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecule coronene through H atom addition reactions. The observed product mass distribution provides evidence also for abstraction reactions resulting in H{sub 2} formation, in agreement with recent IR measurements. Complementary density functional theory calculations confirm the stability of the observed superhydrogenated species toward spontaneous H and H{sub 2} loss indicating that abstraction reactions may be the dominant route to H{sub 2} formation involving neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicate that highly superhydrogenated PAHs could well be formed and could act as efficient catalysts for H{sub 2} formation in the interstellar medium in low UV flux regions.

  4. Validity of the TAS-45 as a Measure of Toddler-Parent Attachment: Preliminary Evidence from Early Head Start Families

    PubMed Central

    Spieker, Susan; Nelson, Elizabeth M.; Condon, Marie-Celeste

    2010-01-01

    A new observational measure of attachment strategies in the home, the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 (TAS-45) was completed for 59 18- to 36-month-old recipients of EHS. Mothers completed the Brief Infant Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA); children were tested on the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-4); and a mother-child snack was videotaped and coded for dyadic mutuality. The TAS-45 Security score was associated with more dyadic mutuality, higher language and competence scores, and lower problem scores. Discriminant validity was evidenced by a lack of associations with the TAS-45 Dependence score. The TAS-45 Disorganized “hotspot” (cluster) score also showed expected associations with these outcomes. Results are discussed in terms of next steps for use of the TAS-45 in research and practice. PMID:21240695

  5. Structural Validity of the Tonic Immobility Scale in a Population Exposed to Trauma: Evidence from Two Large Brazilian Samples

    PubMed Central

    Reichenheim, Michael; Souza, Wanderson; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Quintana, Maria Inês; de Mello, Marcelo Feijó; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; de Jesus Mari, Jair; Andreoli, Sergio Baxter

    2014-01-01

    Background Tonic Immobility is a temporary state of motor inhibition in situations involving extreme fear. The first scale developed for its assessment was the 10-item Tonic Immobility Scale (TIS). However, there are still few studies on its structural (dimensional) validity. The objective of this study was to reassess the factor structure of the TIS applied to representative samples exposed to general trauma of two Brazilian mega-cities. Methods The sample comprised 3,223 participants reporting at least one traumatic experience. In São Paulo (n = 2,148), a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) first tested the originally proposed two-dimensional structure. This was followed by sequential Exploratory Structural Equation Models to identify the best fitting model, and subsequently tested in Rio de Janeiro (n = 1,075) via CFA. Alternative reduced versions were further explored using the aggregate sample. Model-based Item Response Theory (IRT) location parameters were also investigated. Results An absence of factor-based convergent and discriminant validity rejected the original proposition. However, the one-dimensional structure still held several residual correlations. Further exploration indicated the sustainability of reduced versions with seven (alternative A) and six (alternative B) items. Both presented excellent fit and no relevant residual item correlation. According to the IRT location parameters, items in alternative B covered a wider range of the latent trait. The Loevinger's H scalability coefficients underscored this pattern. Conclusions The original model did not hold. A one-factor solution was the most tenable in both large samples, but with significant item residual correlations, indicating that content redundancies persisted. Further reduced and simplified versions of the TIS proved promising. Although studies are yet to be carried out in other settings, it is the authors' impression that the restricted versions of the TIS are already apt for

  6. Concurrent Validity Data for the Uzgiris and Hunt Scales and the Bayley Mental Scale: Additional Evidence on the Dunst Age Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, David; And Others

    1988-01-01

    When administered to 34 infants with handicaps, Bayley Scale mental age scores were an average of 2.1 months higher than Estimated Developmental Ages (EDA's) calculated from the Uzgiris and Hunt Scales. The EDA's were significantly and positively related to Bayley mental age, and sensorimotor play emerged as the best single correlate. (Author/JDD)

  7. Proposed Modifications to the Conceptual Model of Coaching Efficacy and Additional Validity Evidence for the Coaching Efficacy Scale II-High School Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas; Feltz, Deborah; Chase, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether theoretically relevant sources of coaching efficacy could predict the measures derived from the Coaching Efficacy Scale II-High School Teams (CES II-HST). Data were collected from head coaches of high school teams in the United States (N = 799). The analytic framework was a multiple-group…

  8. Validity Evidence for FASTHUG-MAIDENS, a Mnemonic for Identifying Drug-Related Problems in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Sarah C; Mabasa, Vincent H; Malyuk, Douglas L; Perrott, Jerrold L

    2013-01-01

    Background The mnemonic FASTHUG (Feeding, Analgesia, Sedation, Thromboembolic prophylaxis, Head of bed elevation, stress Ulcer prophylaxis, Glucose control) was developed by intensive care unit (ICU) physicians to ensure that key aspects of care are addressed during each patient encounter. Because this tool does not specifically target pharmacotherapy assessments, a modified version, FASTHUG-MAIDENS, was created, by changing the H to mean Hypoactive or Hyperactive delirium and adding M for Medication reconciliation; A for Antibiotics or Anti-infectives; I for Indications for medications; D for drug Dosing; E for Electrolytes, hematology, and other laboratory tests; N for No drug interactions, allergies, duplication, or side effects; and S for Stop dates. Objective: To validate the use of FASTHUG-MAIDENS as a tool for identifying drug-related problems (DRPs) in the ICU. Methods: This randomized, prospective validation study took place between January and May 2011 in the ICUs of 4 hospitals: 2 community-level ICUs and 2 tertiary referral ICUs. Each ICU had a dedicated ICU pharmacist and one or more pharmacy residents completing an ICU rotation as part of their pharmacy practice residency (total of 6 residents). The 6 pharmacy residents were randomly assigned to assess patients admitted to the ICU using FASTHUG-MAIDENS or standard monitoring practice. The mean proportion of DRPs per patient encounter identified by the residents (relative to DRPs identified by the ICU pharmacists) was the primary outcome, and the proportion of total DRPs identified in each group was assessed as a secondary end point. Results: Pharmacy residents using the FASTHUG-MAIDENS mnemonic identified a significantly greater mean proportion of DRPs per patient encounter (73.2% versus 52.4%, p = 0.008) and a greater proportion of total DRPs (77.1% versus 52.5%, p < 0.001) than those assessing patients according to standard monitoring practice. Conclusion: In this sample, the mnemonic FASTHUG

  9. Validating a widely used measure of frailty: are all sub-components necessary? Evidence from the Whitehall II cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bouillon, Kim; Sabia, Severine; Jokela, Markus; Gale, Catharine R; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Shipley, Martin J; Kivimäki, Mika; Batty, G David

    2013-08-01

    There is growing interest in the measurement of frailty in older age. The most widely used measure (Fried) characterizes this syndrome using five components: exhaustion, physical activity, walking speed, grip strength, and weight loss. These components overlap, raising the possibility of using fewer, and therefore making the device more time- and cost-efficient. The analytic sample was 5,169 individuals (1,419 women) from the British Whitehall II cohort study, aged 55 to 79 years in 2007-2009. Hospitalization data were accessed through English national records (mean follow-up 15.2 months). Age- and sex-adjusted Cox models showed that all components were significantly associated with hospitalization, the hazard ratios (HR) ranging from 1.18 (95 % confidence interval = 0.98, 1.41) for grip strength to 1.60 (1.35, 1.90) for usual walking speed. Some attenuation of these effects was apparent following mutual adjustment for frailty components, but the rank order of the strength of association remained unchanged. We observed a dose-response relationship between the number of frailty components and the risk for hospitalization [1 component-HR = 1.10 (0.96, 1.26); 2-HR = 1.52 (1.26, 1.83); 3-5-HR = 2.41 (1.84, 3.16), P trend <0.0001]. A concordance index used to evaluate the predictive power for hospital admissions of individual components and the full scale was modest in magnitude (range 0.57 to 0.58). Our results support the validity of the multi-component frailty measure, but the predictive performance of the measure is poor. PMID:22772579

  10. Additional Evidence for Morpho-Dimensional Tooth Crown Variation in a New Indonesian H. erectus Sample from the Sangiran Dome (Central Java)

    PubMed Central

    Zanolli, Clément

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports fifteen human fossil dental remains found during the last two decades in the Sangiran Dome area, in Central Java, Indonesia. Among this sample, only one of the specimens had already been briefly described, with the other fourteen remaining unreported. Seven of the fifteen isolated teeth were found in a secured stratigraphic context in the late Lower-early Middle Pleistocene Kabuh Formation. The remaining elements were surface finds which, based on coincidental sources of information, were inferred as coming from the Kabuh Formation. Mainly constituted of permanent molars, but also including one upper incisor and one upper premolar, this dental sample brings additional evidence for a marked degree of size variation and time-related structural reduction in Javanese H. erectus. This is notably expressed by a significant decrease of the mesiodistal diameter, frequently associated to the reduction or even loss of the lower molar distal cusp (hypoconulid) and to a more square occlusal outline. In addition to the hypoconulid reduction or loss, this new sample also exhibits a low frequency of the occlusal Y-groove pattern, with a dominance of the X and, to a lesser extent, of the+patterns. This combination is rare in the Lower and early Middle Pleistocene paleoanthropological record, including in the early Javanese dental assemblage from the Sangiran Dome. On the other hand, similar dental features are found in Chinese H. erectus and in H. heidelbergensis. As a whole, this new record confirms the complex nature of the intermittent exchanges that occurred between continental and insular Southeast Asia through the Pleistocene. PMID:23843996

  11. Additional evidence for morpho-dimensional tooth crown variation in a New Indonesian H. erectus sample from the Sangiran Dome (Central Java).

    PubMed

    Zanolli, Clément

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports fifteen human fossil dental remains found during the last two decades in the Sangiran Dome area, in Central Java, Indonesia. Among this sample, only one of the specimens had already been briefly described, with the other fourteen remaining unreported. Seven of the fifteen isolated teeth were found in a secured stratigraphic context in the late Lower-early Middle Pleistocene Kabuh Formation. The remaining elements were surface finds which, based on coincidental sources of information, were inferred as coming from the Kabuh Formation. Mainly constituted of permanent molars, but also including one upper incisor and one upper premolar, this dental sample brings additional evidence for a marked degree of size variation and time-related structural reduction in Javanese H. erectus. This is notably expressed by a significant decrease of the mesiodistal diameter, frequently associated to the reduction or even loss of the lower molar distal cusp (hypoconulid) and to a more square occlusal outline. In addition to the hypoconulid reduction or loss, this new sample also exhibits a low frequency of the occlusal Y-groove pattern, with a dominance of the X and, to a lesser extent, of the+patterns. This combination is rare in the Lower and early Middle Pleistocene paleoanthropological record, including in the early Javanese dental assemblage from the Sangiran Dome. On the other hand, similar dental features are found in Chinese H. erectus and in H. heidelbergensis. As a whole, this new record confirms the complex nature of the intermittent exchanges that occurred between continental and insular Southeast Asia through the Pleistocene. PMID:23843996

  12. Additional enhancer copies, with intact cdx binding sites, anteriorize Hoxa-7/lacZ expression in mouse embryos: evidence in keeping with an instructional cdx gradient.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, Stephen J; Cockley, Adam; Drage, Deborah

    2004-09-01

    Expression of a Hoxa-7/lacZ reporter construct in transgenic mouse embryos is shifted anteriorly when the upstream enhancer is multimerized. The shift occurs in spinal ganglia, neurectoderm and in both paraxial and lateral plate mesoderms. Much of the multimer effect is inhibited by destruction of a single caudal (cdx) binding motif in the additional copies of the enhancer. These observations are in agreement with earlier enhancer multimerization analyses made for Hoxb-8 (Charite et al., 1998). Our findings therefore provide further evidence that the anterior limit of a Hox gene's expression domain is normally dependent upon and is determined by, the dosage of transcription factor(s) which bind to its enhancer element(s) and that these factors may be, or must include, the cdx proteins. We consider these findings in terms of both instructional (morphogen-like) gradient and timing models for the establishment of Hox gene expression domains. Enhancer multimerization results in an earlier onset of Hoxa-7/lacZ activity in the embryo. In neurectoderm at 8.7 days and in mesoderm at 10.5 days, the anterior boundaries of expression are located posterior to those seen at some earlier stages of development. We discuss how these findings are in keeping with a model where Hox expression boundaries become set along instructional cdx gradients, formed by cdx decay in cells moving away from the primitive streak region. PMID:15470633

  13. Additional Evidence that Juvenile Oyster Disease Is Caused by a Member of the Roseobacter Group and Colonization of Nonaffected Animals by Stappia stellulata-Like Strains†

    PubMed Central

    Boettcher, Katherine J.; Barber, Bruce J.; Singer, John T.

    2000-01-01

    Juvenile oyster disease (JOD) causes significant annual mortalities of hatchery-produced Eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, cultured in the Northeast. We have reported that a novel species of the α-proteobacteria Roseobacter group (designated CVSP) was numerically dominant in JOD-affected animals sampled during the 1997 epizootic on the Damariscotta River, Maine. In this study we report the isolation of CVSP bacteria from JOD-affected oysters during three separate epizootics in 1998. These bacteria were not detected in nonaffected oysters at the enzootic site, nor in animals raised at a JOD-free site. Animals raised at the JOD enzootic site that were unaffected by JOD were stably and persistently colonized by Stappia stellulata-like strains. These isolates (designated M1) inhibited the growth of CVSP bacteria in a disk-diffusion assay and thus may have prevented colonization of these animals by CVSP bacteria in situ. Laboratory-maintained C. virginica injected with CVSP bacteria experienced statistically significant elevated mortalities compared to controls, and CVSP bacteria were recovered from these animals during the mortality events. Together, these results provide additional evidence that CVSP bacteria are the etiological agent of JOD. Further, there are no other descriptions of specific marine α-proteobacteria that have been successfully cultivated from a defined animal host. Thus, this system presents an opportunity to investigate both bacterial and host factors involved in the establishment of such associations and the role of the invertebrate host in the ecology of these marine α-proteobacteria. PMID:10966410

  14. Validity Evidence based on Internal Structure of Scores of the Emotional Quotient-Inventory: Youth Version Short (EQ-i: YV-S) in a Spanish Sample.

    PubMed

    Esnaola, Igor; Freeman, John; Sarasa, Marta; Fernández-Zabala, Arantza; Axpe, Inge

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the reliability and validity evidence of scores on the Spanish version of EQ-i: YV-S in Spanish adolescents. The total sample was comprised of 508 participants from Grades 7 to 12, 241 males (47.4%) and 267 females (52.6%), each of whom completed the questionnaires on two separate occasions. Three [intrapersonal (α = .83, CR = .86, and McDonald Omega = .86), stress management (α = .83, CR = .86, and McDonald Omega = .85) and adaptability (α = .82, CR = .85, and McDonald Omega = .85)] of the four scales had acceptable internal consistency. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were used with FACTOR and EQS version 6.1 software to examine validity evidence based on internal structure drawn from the scores on the EQ-i: YV-S, supporting the multidimensionality of the questionnaire. Three models were tested; the best fit to the data was the hierarchical model (S-Bχ2 / df = 2.11, CFI = .93 and RMSEA = .047), which hypothesized that the four specific factors (interpersonal, intrapersonal, stress management, and adaptability) were explained with a second-order factor, Emotional-Social-Intelligence (ESI). Finally, significant positive correlations were found between general self-concept and EQ-i: YV-S [interpersonal (r = .153, p < .001), intrapersonal (r = .235, p < .001), stress management (r = .145, p < .001), adaptability (r = .311, p < .001) and ESI (r = .360, p < .001)]; ESI showed significant direct power prediction of the general self-concept (.52) as demonstrated through structural equation modeling. PMID:26972848

  15. Evidence for validity of five secondary data sources for enumerating retail food outlets in seven American Indian Communities in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most studies on the local food environment have used secondary sources to describe the food environment, such as government food registries or commercial listings (e.g., Reference USA). Most of the studies exploring evidence for validity of secondary retail food data have used on-site verification and have not conducted analysis by data source (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA) or by food outlet type (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA for convenience stores). Few studies have explored the food environment in American Indian communities. To advance the science on measuring the food environment, we conducted direct, on-site observations of a wide range of food outlets in multiple American Indian communities, without a list guiding the field observations, and then compared our findings to several types of secondary data. Methods Food outlets located within seven State Designated Tribal Statistical Areas in North Carolina (NC) were gathered from online Yellow Pages, Reference USA, Dun & Bradstreet, local health departments, and the NC Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. All TIGER/Line 2009 roads (>1,500 miles) were driven in six of the more rural tribal areas and, for the largest tribe, all roads in two of its cities were driven. Sensitivity, positive predictive value, concordance, and kappa statistics were calculated to compare secondary data sources to primary data. Results 699 food outlets were identified during primary data collection. Match rate for primary data and secondary data differed by type of food outlet observed, with the highest match rates found for grocery stores (97%), general merchandise stores (96%), and restaurants (91%). Reference USA exhibited almost perfect sensitivity (0.89). Local health department data had substantial sensitivity (0.66) and was almost perfect when focusing only on restaurants (0.91). Positive predictive value was substantial for Reference USA (0.67) and moderate for local health department data (0

  16. Enhancing the ecological validity of tests of lateralization and hemispheric interaction: Evidence from fixated displays of letters or symbols of varying complexity.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Andrew J; Upshaw, Jennifer N; Macaulay, Georgia M; Rutherford, Barbara J

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments expand upon behavioural evidence of interactions among lateralization, hemispheric interaction, and task complexity with findings from an ecologically valid procedure. Target displays of letters or symbols were presented at fixation in go/no-go matching tasks of physical or categorical identity. Simultaneously with the target, a distractor appeared in the left visual field or right visual field to weight processing of the target to the hemisphere ipsilateral to the distractor, or the distractor did not appear at all. Comparison of the respective distractor-present trials with distractor-absent trials measures the relative costs or benefits of hemispheric interaction. Both experiments found that 3-item displays were processed faster and more accurately than displays of 5 items, suggesting they are relatively simple. Accuracy to the simple tasks showed left-hemisphere lateralization in the lexical task, right-hemisphere lateralization in the spatial task, a cost of hemispheric interaction compared to the advantaged hemisphere, and a benefit of hemispheric interaction compared to the less-advantaged hemisphere, suggesting that the contributions of the less-advantaged hemisphere interfere with processing, and that the advantaged hemisphere controls the lion's share. In contrast, 5-item displays for physical match in both experiments showed a significant benefit to accuracy of hemispheric interaction compared to the left hemisphere, an insignificant benefit compared to the right hemisphere, no lateralization, no cost of hemispheric interaction, and a consequence to performance that was more costly to the hemisphere that had been advantaged in simple tasks, suggesting that the advantaged hemisphere relinquishes control as tasks become more complex and complementary processing results from both increased collaboration and decreased lateralization between the hemispheres. The findings expand upon behavioural evidence, converge with imaging evidence, and

  17. Validating continuous digital light processing (cDLP) additive manufacturing accuracy and tissue engineering utility of a dye-initiator package.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jonathan; Wang, Martha O; Thompson, Paul; Busso, Mallory; Belle, Vaijayantee; Mammoser, Nicole; Kim, Kyobum; Fisher, John P; Siblani, Ali; Xu, Yueshuo; Welter, Jean F; Lennon, Donald P; Sun, Jiayang; Caplan, Arnold I; Dean, David

    2014-03-01

    This study tested the accuracy of tissue engineering scaffold rendering via the continuous digital light processing (cDLP) light-based additive manufacturing technology. High accuracy (i.e., <50 µm) allows the designed performance of features relevant to three scale spaces: cell-scaffold, scaffold-tissue, and tissue-organ interactions. The biodegradable polymer poly (propylene fumarate) was used to render highly accurate scaffolds through the use of a dye-initiator package, TiO2 and bis (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phenylphosphine oxide. This dye-initiator package facilitates high accuracy in the Z dimension. Linear, round, and right-angle features were measured to gauge accuracy. Most features showed accuracies between 5.4-15% of the design. However, one feature, an 800 µm diameter circular pore, exhibited a 35.7% average reduction of patency. Light scattered in the x, y directions by the dye may have reduced this feature's accuracy. Our new fine-grained understanding of accuracy could be used to make further improvements by including corrections in the scaffold design software. Successful cell attachment occurred with both canine and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Highly accurate cDLP scaffold rendering is critical to the design of scaffolds that both guide bone regeneration and that fully resorb. Scaffold resorption must occur for regenerated bone to be remodeled and, thereby, achieve optimal strength. PMID:24429508

  18. Investigating Attitudes toward Physical Education: Validation across Two Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Corinne Baron; Mercier, Kevin; Phillips, Sharon R.

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control have suggested that physical education plays a role in promoting healthy lifestyles. Prior research suggests a link between attitudes toward physical education and physical activity outside school. The current study provides additional evidence of construct validity through a validation across two instruments…

  19. Cross-Validation of the Quick Word Test as an Estimator of Adult Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotelueschen, Arden; McQuarrie, Duncan

    1970-01-01

    This report provides additional evidence that the Quick Word Test (Level 2, Form AM) is valid for estimating adult mental ability as defined by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. The validation sample is also described to facilitate use of the conversion table developed in the cross-validation analysis. (Author/LY)

  20. Validating Automated Speaking Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Jared; Van Moere, Alistair; Cheng, Jian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents evidence that supports the valid use of scores from fully automatic tests of spoken language ability to indicate a person's effectiveness in spoken communication. The paper reviews the constructs, scoring, and the concurrent validity evidence of "facility-in-L2" tests, a family of automated spoken language tests in Spanish,…

  1. Agreeing on Validity Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    Kane (this issue) presents a comprehensive review of validity theory and reminds us that the focus of validation is on test score interpretations and use. In reacting to his article, I support the argument-based approach to validity and all of the major points regarding validation made by Dr. Kane. In addition, I call for a simpler, three-step…

  2. Development and Validation of a Measure of Irrational Belief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.; Schutte, Nicola S.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the development of a 20-item measure of irrational belief that asks only about irrational belief and not about anxiety reactions. Two studies of the scale produced evidence that it has good internal consistency and good test retest reliability. Three additional studies of the scale found evidence of validity. (Author/NB)

  3. Evidence for validity of a national physician and patient-reported, cross-sectional survey in China and UK: the Disease Specific Programme

    PubMed Central

    Babineaux, S M; Curtis, B; Holbrook, T; Milligan, G; Piercy, J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Diabetes represents a significant challenge for Chinese healthcare providers. Healthcare decision-making is generally based on many data sources, including randomised controlled and real-world studies; however, good-quality data from Chinese diabetes patients are scarce. We performed an initial validation to assess the representativeness of one source of real-world data—the Diabetes Adelphi Disease Specific Programme (DSP) in China. Setting China, UK. Participants The Chinese DSP included 2060 patients with previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) sampled by 200 physicians. The reference Chinese population comprised 238 639 patients with previously diagnosed T2DM. The UK DSP contained 1481 patients with T2DM sampled by 125 physicians; the reference UK population comprised 289 patients with diabetes. Primary and secondary outcomes The primary outcome was comparison of unweighted China DSP and reference data for sex, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), patients achieving glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)<7%, total cholesterol, coronary heart disease and dyslipidaemia. The secondary outcome was comparison of weighted UK DSP and reference data for BMI, BP, mean HbA1c, total cholesterol, smoking and insulin status. Results Comparison of unweighted China DSP and reference data revealed statistical equivalence for BMI, systolic BP, proportion of patients achieving HbA1c <7%, total cholesterol, coronary heart disease and dyslipidaemia. Sex, age, diabetes duration, diastolic BP and mean HbA1c level were not equivalent, although differences were generally small. Weighting of data did not substantially affect the results. A similar pattern was observed for UK data. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the methodology used for the China and UK parts of the Diabetes DSP produces representative samples that are comparable with other independent sources of patient treatment outcomes data, which may ultimately inform public health decision

  4. Detection of Codeine, Morphine, 6-Monoacetylmorphine, and Meconin in Human Umbilical Cord Tissue: Method Validation and Evidence of In Utero Heroin Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Mary; Jones, Brian; Sulaiman, Kristin; Plate, Charles; Lewis, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Heroin abuse is a significant public health issue and is on the rise because of the unintended consequences of strengthening controls for nonmedical use of prescription pain killers. Included in this trend is an increase in opiate exposed newborns that are particularly vulnerable to a number of negative health outcomes. Methods: After presenting a fully validated liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric method for codeine, morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, and meconin, a metabolite of the heroin contaminant noscapine, we compared the outcome of 46 authentic umbilical specimens with the results generated using a previous less sensitive method that did not include meconin. Additionally, we provided a summary of opiate finding from a year-long survey of specimens received into a commercial reference laboratory. Results: The limits of detection for all 4 compounds were 0.1 ng/g, the limit of quantitation was 0.2 ng/g, and the assay was linear from 0.2 to 10.0 ng/g. Of the 46 comparative specimens, this method improved the identification of heroin exposure from 2 to 5, and the year-long survey identified 86 heroin-exposed newborns with 11 of them identified by the sole identification of meconin. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that a more sensitive analytical platform and the inclusion of meconin in the opiates assay improved the ability to distinguish between in utero heroin exposure and maternal administration of codeine or morphine. PMID:24901495

  5. Evidence-Based Design for Project-Based Learning: A Case Study for a 50,000 SF Addition Dedicated to the New Tech Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moretti, Richard D.; Conte, Philip R.

    2012-01-01

    The Seaford School District, Seaford, Delaware, determined that a component of their "reinvention" of Seaford High School would be the creation of a New Tech Academy, affiliated with the New Tech Network and housed in an addition to that building. The New Tech Network, headquartered in Napa, California, is a rapidly growing association of New Tech…

  6. Accuracy of subjective and objective handwriting assessment for differentiating Parkinson's disease from tremulous subjects without evidence of dopaminergic deficits (SWEDDs): an FP-CIT-validated study.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, N P S; Wang, L; Gontu, V; Grosset, D G; Bain, P G

    2012-11-01

    Handwriting examinations are commonly performed in the analysis of tremor and Parkinson's disease (PD). We analyzed the accuracy of subjective and objective assessment of handwriting samples for distinguishing 27 PD cases, 22 with tremulous PD, and five with akinetic-rigid PD, from 39 movement-disorder patients with normal presynaptic dopamine imaging (subjects without evidence of dopamine deficiency or SWEDDs; 31 with dystonic tremor (DT), six indeterminate tremor syndrome, one essential tremor, one vascular parkinsonism). All handwriting analysis was performed blind to clinical details. Subjective classification was made as: (1) micrographia, (2) normal, or (3) macrographia. In addition, a range of objective metrices were measured on standardized handwriting specimens. Subjective assessments found micrographia more frequently in PD than SWEDDs (p = 0.0352) and in akinetic-rigid than tremulous PD (p = 0.0259). Macrographia was predominantly seen in patients with dystonic tremor and not other diagnoses (p = 0.007). Micrographia had a mean sensitivity of 55 % and specificity of 84 % for distinguishing PD from SWEDDs and mean sensitivity of 90 % and specificity of 55 % for distinguishing akinetic-rigid PD from tremulous PD. Macrographia had a sensitivity of 26 % and specificity of 96 % for distinguishing DT from all other diagnoses. The best of the objective metrices increased sensitivity for the distinction of SWEDDs from PD with a reduction in specificity. We conclude that micrographia is more indicative of PD than SWEDDs and more characteristic of akinetic-rigid than tremulous PD. In addition, macrographia strongly suggests a diagnosis of dystonic tremor. PMID:22532169

  7. On the Assessment of Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Amotivation in Education: Evidence on the Concurrent and Construct Validity of the Academic Motivation Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallerand, Robert J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Studied concurrent and construct validities of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) (English translation of a scale developed in French) with 107 male and 110 female junior college students in Montreal (Canada) who completed the AMS and other motivation assessments. Findings support both concurrent and construct validity of the AMS. (SLD)

  8. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  9. Genome-wide association study identifies variants at CLU and PICALM associated with Alzheimer's disease, and shows evidence for additional susceptibility genes

    PubMed Central

    Harold, Denise; Abraham, Richard; Hollingworth, Paul; Sims, Rebecca; Gerrish, Amy; Hamshere, Marian; Singh Pahwa, Jaspreet; Moskvina, Valentina; Dowzell, Kimberley; Williams, Amy; Jones, Nicola; Thomas, Charlene; Stretton, Alexandra; Morgan, Angharad; Lovestone, Simon; Powell, John; Proitsi, Petroula; Lupton, Michelle K; Brayne, Carol; Rubinsztein, David C.; Gill, Michael; Lawlor, Brian; Lynch, Aoibhinn; Morgan, Kevin; Brown, Kristelle; Passmore, Peter; Craig, David; McGuinness, Bernadette; Todd, Stephen; Holmes, Clive; Mann, David; Smith, A. David; Love, Seth; Kehoe, Patrick G.; Hardy, John; Mead, Simon; Fox, Nick; Rossor, Martin; Collinge, John; Maier, Wolfgang; Jessen, Frank; Schürmann, Britta; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Heuser, Isabella; Kornhuber, Johannes; Wiltfang, Jens; Dichgans, Martin; Frölich, Lutz; Hampel, Harald; Hüll, Michael; Rujescu, Dan; Goate, Alison; Kauwe, John S.K.; Cruchaga, Carlos; Nowotny, Petra; Morris, John C.; Mayo, Kevin; Sleegers, Kristel; Bettens, Karolien; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter; van Broeckhoven, Christine; Livingston, Gill; Bass, Nicholas J.; Gurling, Hugh; McQuillin, Andrew; Gwilliam, Rhian; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shaw, Christopher E.; Tsolaki, Magda; Singleton, Andrew; Guerreiro, Rita; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Klopp, Norman; Wichmann, H-Erich; Carrasquillo, Minerva M.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Younkin, Steven G.; Holmans, Peter; O'Donovan, Michael; Owen, Michael J.; Williams, Julie

    2010-01-01

    We undertook a two-stage genome-wide association study of Alzheimer's disease involving over 16,000 individuals. In stage 1 (3,941 cases and 7,848 controls), we replicated the established association with the APOE locus (most significant SNP: rs2075650, p= 1.8×10−157) and observed genome-wide significant association with SNPs at two novel loci: rs11136000 in the CLU or APOJ gene (p= 1.4×10−9) and rs3851179, a SNP 5′ to the PICALM gene (p= 1.9×10−8). Both novel associations were supported in stage 2 (2,023 cases and 2,340 controls), producing compelling evidence for association with AD in the combined dataset (rs11136000: p= 8.5×10−10, odds ratio= 0.86; rs3851179: p= 1.3×10−9, odds ratio= 0.86). We also observed more variants associated at p< 1×10−5 than expected by chance (p=7.5×10−6), including polymorphisms at the BIN1, DAB1 and CR1 loci. PMID:19734902

  10. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  11. Sub-meter desiccation crack patterns imaged by Curiosity at Gale Crater on Mars shed additional light on former lakes evident from examined outcrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallet, B.; Sletten, R. S.; Mangold, N.; Oehler, D. Z.; Williams, R. M. E.; Bish, D. L.; Heydari, E.; Rubin, D. M.; Rowland, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Small-scale desiccation crack patterns (mudcrack-like arrays of uniform ~0.1 to 1 m polygonal domains separated by linear or curving cracks in exposed bedding) imaged by Curiosity in Gale Crater, Mars complement a wealth of diverse data obtained from exposures of sedimentary rocks that point to deposition "in fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine environments" including an "intracrater lake system likely [to have] existed intermittently for thousands to millions of years …"(e.g. Grotzinger et al., 2015, Science, submitted). We interpret these mudcrack-like patterns, found on many of the bedrock exposures imaged by Curiosity, as desiccation cracks that developed either of two ways: 1) at the soft sediment-air interface like common mudcracks, or 2) at or below the sediment-water interface by synaeresis or diastasis (involving differential compaction). In the context of recent studies of terrestrial mudcracks, and cracks formed experimentally in various wet powders as they loose moisture, these desiccation features reflect diverse aspects of the formative environment. If they formed as mudcracks, some of the lakes were shallow enough to permit the recurrent drying and wetting that can lead to the geometric regularity characteristic of several of sets of mudcracks. Moreover, the water likely contained little suspended sediment otherwise the mudcracks would be buried too rapidly for the crack pattern to persist and to mature into regular polygonal patterns. The preservation of these desiccation crack patterns does not require, but does not exclude, deep burial and exhumation. Although invisible from satellite because of their size, a multitude of Mastcam and Navcam images reveals these informative features in considerable detail. These images complement much evidence, mostly from HiRISE data from several regions, suggesting that potential desiccation polygons on larger scales may be more common on the surface of Mars than generally recognized.

  12. Cytogenetics of nine species of mediterranean blennies and additional evidence for an unusual multiple sex-chromosome system in Parablennius tentacularis (Perciformes, Blenniidae).

    PubMed

    Caputo, V; Machella, N; Nisi-Cerioni, P; Olmo, E

    2001-01-01

    The chromosomal complements of nine species of Blenniidae (Aidablennius sphylnx, Blennius ocellaris, Lypophris adriaticus, L. pavo, L. trigloides, Parcablennius gattorugine, P. ponticus, P. sanguinolentus, P. tentacularis) from the Adriatic Sea were analysed with several banding methods and in-situ hybridization. In all species, the diploid set consists of 48 mostly acrocentric chromosomes and has a similar location (terminal centromeric) of NORs, except for L. pavo (interstitial pericentric) and P. ponticus (terminal on the long arm). There are major differences in karyotype with regard to the amount and distribution of heterochromatin. Parablennius tentacularis shows a distinctive sex-chromosome system involving 2n = 48 males with a large totally heterochromatic Y chromosome, and males with 2n = 47. This difference is likely to be the consequence of a translocation of an autosome on the original Y. This finding constitutes an additional instance of the great variability in origins of multiple sex chromosome systems in vertebrates. PMID:11272790

  13. Oblique Fault Systems Crossing the Seattle Basin: Seismic and Aeromagnetic Evidence for Additional Shallow Fault Systems in the Central Puget Lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keranen, K. M.; Mace, C.

    2011-12-01

    Upper-plate seismicity in the Puget Lowland is more broadly distributed than mapped fault systems and presents a conundrum for understanding the active tectonics of the region. Although many previous studies have mapped faulting in the Puget Lowland from subsurface geophysical data, many of these efforts have focused specifically on mapping the structure of the Seattle Fault Zone and the South Whidbey Island Fault. The thick glacial sediments and extensive water bodies may conceal additional active faults away from these major structures. To extend the results of the previous work, we mapped fault networks and patterns of sediment deposition in Quaternary sediments broadly throughout the central Puget Lowland using a combination of existing multi-channel seismic reflection datasets with widely distributed profiles and aeromagnetic data. We identify a NE-SW zone of high-angle faulting and shallow sediment deformation crossing the Seattle Uplift and the Seattle Basin that segments the Seattle Fault Zone (SFZ), offsetting aeromagnetic anomalies along the SFZ by 1.2 km in a dextral sense. Aeromagnetic lineations trace the NE-SW trend of deformation across the Seattle Uplift and connect deformation within the Puget Sound and the Hood Canal. Two additional zones of faulting trend NW-SE and cut through the Seattle Basin and the Kingston Arch, respectively. We also interpreted five regional seismic horizons, representing erosional unconformities, throughout our dataset, and created sediment thickness maps for each time interval. The thickness maps reveal changing patterns of sediment deposition through time, possibly controlled by changes in the regional pattern of deformation. Holocene sediment deposition shows strong control by the oblique fault systems. These oblique fault structures may be partially responsible for the wide distribution of seismicity within the central Puget Lowland.

  14. Additive genetic variation in resistance traits of an exotic pine species: little evidence for constraints on evolution of resistance against native herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, X; Zas, R; Sampedro, L

    2013-01-01

    The apparent failure of invasions by alien pines in Europe has been explained by the co-occurrence of native pine congeners supporting herbivores that might easily recognize the new plants as hosts. Previous studies have reported that exotic pines show reduced tolerance and capacity to induce resistance to those native herbivores. We hypothesize that limited genetic variation in resistance to native herbivores and the existence of evolutionary trade-offs between growth and resistance could represent additional potential constraints on the evolution of invasiveness of exotic pines outside their natural range. In this paper, we examined genetic variation for constitutive and induced chemical defences (measured as non-volatile resin in the stem and total phenolics in the needles) and resistance to two major native generalist herbivores of pines in cafeteria bioassays (the phloem-feeder Hylobius abietis and the defoliator Thaumetopoea pityocampa) using half-sib families drawn from a sample of the population of Pinus radiata introduced to Spain in the mid-19th century. We found (i) significant genetic variation, with moderate-to-high narrow-sense heritabilities for both the production of constitutive non-volatile resin and induced total phenolics, and for constitutive resistance against T. pityocampa in bioassays, (ii) no evolutionary trade-offs between plant resistance and growth traits or between the production of different quantitative chemical defences and (iii) a positive genetic correlation between constitutive resistance to the two studied herbivores. Overall, results of our study indicate that the exotic pine P. radiata has limited genetic constraints on the evolution of resistance against herbivores in its introduced range, suggesting that, at least in terms of interactions with these enemies, this pine species has potential to become invasive in the future. PMID:23232833

  15. Additive genetic variation in resistance traits of an exotic pine species: little evidence for constraints on evolution of resistance against native herbivores.

    PubMed

    Moreira, X; Zas, R; Sampedro, L

    2013-05-01

    The apparent failure of invasions by alien pines in Europe has been explained by the co-occurrence of native pine congeners supporting herbivores that might easily recognize the new plants as hosts. Previous studies have reported that exotic pines show reduced tolerance and capacity to induce resistance to those native herbivores. We hypothesize that limited genetic variation in resistance to native herbivores and the existence of evolutionary trade-offs between growth and resistance could represent additional potential constraints on the evolution of invasiveness of exotic pines outside their natural range. In this paper, we examined genetic variation for constitutive and induced chemical defences (measured as non-volatile resin in the stem and total phenolics in the needles) and resistance to two major native generalist herbivores of pines in cafeteria bioassays (the phloem-feeder Hylobius abietis and the defoliator Thaumetopoea pityocampa) using half-sib families drawn from a sample of the population of Pinus radiata introduced to Spain in the mid-19th century. We found (i) significant genetic variation, with moderate-to-high narrow-sense heritabilities for both the production of constitutive non-volatile resin and induced total phenolics, and for constitutive resistance against T. pityocampa in bioassays, (ii) no evolutionary trade-offs between plant resistance and growth traits or between the production of different quantitative chemical defences and (iii) a positive genetic correlation between constitutive resistance to the two studied herbivores. Overall, results of our study indicate that the exotic pine P. radiata has limited genetic constraints on the evolution of resistance against herbivores in its introduced range, suggesting that, at least in terms of interactions with these enemies, this pine species has potential to become invasive in the future. PMID:23232833

  16. Mechanistic validation.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Stephens, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Validation of new approaches in regulatory toxicology is commonly defined as the independent assessment of the reproducibility and relevance (the scientific basis and predictive capacity) of a test for a particular purpose. In large ring trials, the emphasis to date has been mainly on reproducibility and predictive capacity (comparison to the traditional test) with less attention given to the scientific or mechanistic basis. Assessing predictive capacity is difficult for novel approaches (which are based on mechanism), such as pathways of toxicity or the complex networks within the organism (systems toxicology). This is highly relevant for implementing Toxicology for the 21st Century, either by high-throughput testing in the ToxCast/Tox21 project or omics-based testing in the Human Toxome Project. This article explores the mostly neglected assessment of a test's scientific basis, which moves mechanism and causality to the foreground when validating/qualifying tests. Such mechanistic validation faces the problem of establishing causality in complex systems. However, pragmatic adaptations of the Bradford Hill criteria, as well as bioinformatic tools, are emerging. As critical infrastructures of the organism are perturbed by a toxic mechanism we argue that by focusing on the target of toxicity and its vulnerability, in addition to the way it is perturbed, we can anchor the identification of the mechanism and its verification. PMID:23665802

  17. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  18. Viability of Construct Validity of the Speaking Modules of International Language Examinations (IELTS vs. TOEFL iBT): Evidence from Iranian Test-Takers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahedi, Keivan; Shamsaee, Saeedeh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the viability of the construct validity of the speaking modules of two internationally recognized language proficiency examinations, namely IELTS and TOEFL iBT. High-stake standardized tests play a crucial and decisive role in determining the future academic life of many people. Overall obtained scores…

  19. Sixteen-Item Anxiety Sensitivity Index: Confirmatory Factor Analytic Evidence, Internal Consistency, and Construct Validity in a Young Adult Sample from the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vujanovic, Anka A.; Arrindell, Willem A.; Bernstein, Amit; Norton, Peter J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation examined the factor structure, internal consistency, and construct validity of the 16-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; Reiss Peterson, Gursky, & McNally 1986) in a young adult sample (n = 420) from the Netherlands. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to comparatively evaluate two-factor, three-factor, and…

  20. Emotional Arousal and Regulation: Further Evidence of the Validity of the "How I Feel" Questionnaire for Use with School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciucci, Enrica; Baroncelli, Andrea; Grazzani, Ilaria; Ornaghi, Veronica; Caprin, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The ability to understand and manage emotional experience is critical to children's health. This study confirmed the validity of the How I Feel (HIF) Questionnaire, a measure of children's emotional arousal and regulation, exploring its associations with measures of emotional and social functioning. Methods: The sample was comprised of…

  1. New Evidence on the Validity of the Arnett Caregiver Interaction Scale: Results from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, Nicole; Gordon, Rachel A.; Fujimoto, Ken; Kaestner, Robert; Korenman, Sanders

    2013-01-01

    The Arnett Caregiver Interaction Scale (CIS) has been widely used in research studies to measure the quality of caregiver-child interactions. The scale was modeled on a well-established theory of parenting, but there are few psychometric studies of its validity. We applied factor analyses and item response theory methods to assess the psychometric…

  2. Measuring Quality in Rural Kindergarten Classrooms: Reliability and Validity Evidence for the Classroom Assessment Scoring System, Kindergarten-Third Grade (CLASS K-3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandilos, Lia E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the structural validity and stability of scores on a measure of global classroom quality, the Classroom Assessment Scoring System, Kindergarten-Third Grade (CLASS K-3; Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008). Using data from a sample of 417 kindergarten classrooms in the rural Southern and Mid-Atlantic…

  3. Construct Validity of the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) Self-Report of Personality: Evidence from Adolescents Referred to Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Robert; Smenner, Lindsey

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigate the construct validity of the Behavior Assessment System for Children Self-Report of Personality (BASC-SRP; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1998). A sample of 970 adolescents (16-18 years) with histories of disruptive behavior problems and truancy complete the SRP; a subsample of 290 adolescents also completed the Minnesota…

  4. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  5. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  6. Evidence of Factorial Validity of Parental Knowledge, Control and Solicitation, and Adolescent Disclosure Scales: When the Ordered Nature of Likert Scales Matters

    PubMed Central

    Lionetti, Francesca; Keijsers, Loes; Dellagiulia, Antonio; Pastore, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    For evaluating monitoring and parent-adolescent communication, a set of scales addressing parental knowledge, control and solicitation, and adolescent disclosure was proposed by Kerr and Stattin (2000). Although these scales have been widely disseminated, their psychometric proprieties have often been found to be unsatisfactory, raising questions about their validity. The current study examines whether their poor psychometric properties, which are mainly attributed to the relatively poor conceptual quality of the items, could have been caused by the use of less-than-optimal analytical estimation methods. A cross-validation approach is used on a sample of 1071 adolescents. Maximum likelihood (ML) is compared with the diagonal weighted least squares (DWLS) method, which is suitable for Likert scales. The results of the DWLS approach lead to a more optimal fit than that obtained using ML estimation. The DWLS methodology may represent a useful option for researchers using these scales because it corrects for their unreliability. PMID:27445909

  7. Is Parental Alienation Disorder a Valid Concept? Not According to Scientific Evidence. A Review of "Parental Alienation, DSM-5 and ICD-11" by William Bernet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepiton, M. Brianna; Alvis, Lindsey J.; Allen, Kenneth; Logid, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews a recent book arguing how a concept known as parental alienation syndrome--now parental alienation disorder--should be included in official psychiatric/psychological and medical classification diagnostic manuals. Anecdotal cases and opinion are presented as research and scientific evidence, and stories are presented as…

  8. Competent in Evidence-Based Practice (EBP): Validation of a Measurement Tool that Measures EBP Self-Efficacy and Task Value in Speech-Language Therapy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spek, B.; Wieringa-de Waard, M.; Lucas, C.; van Dijk, N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Worldwide speech-language therapy (SLT) students are educated in evidence-based practice (EBP). For students to use EBP in their future day-to-day clinical practice, they must value EBP as positive and must feel confident in using it. For curricula developers it is therefore important to know the impact their teaching has on these…

  9. A Response-to-Intervention Approach to Decreasing Early Literacy Differences in First Graders from Different Socioeconomic Backgrounds: Evidence for the Intervention Validity of the DIBELS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagans, Kristi S.

    2008-01-01

    Federal legislation mandates that local education agencies provide quality, evidence-based supplemental educational services to struggling learners. Nowhere is this more salient than in underperforming schools serving children from low-income backgrounds who are at risk for developing learning problems. The study described in this article…

  10. Development and Validation of a Measurement Scale to Analyze the Environment for Evidence-Based Medicine Learning and Practice by Medical Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mi, Fangqiong

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of residency programs are instituting curricula to include the component of evidence-based medicine (EBM) principles and process. However, these curricula may not be able to achieve the optimal learning outcomes, perhaps because various contextual factors are often overlooked when EBM training is being designed, developed, and…

  11. Evidence of non-extractable florfenicol residues: development and validation of a confirmatory method for total florfenicol content in kidney by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Dermot; Cantley, Margaret; Walker, Matthew; Crooks, Steven; Kennedy, David; Elliott, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    The parent compound florfenicol (FF) is a broad-spectrum antibacterial compound licensed in the UK for use in cattle, pigs and the aquaculture industry. The analysis of porcine tissues in this study demonstrates that significant amounts of solvent non-extractable FF-related residues are present in incurred tissues (kidney and muscle) from treated animals. The results indicate that methods based on solvent extraction alone may carry a significant risk of reporting false-negative results. The use of a strong acid hydrolysis step prior to solvent extraction of tissue samples is necessary for an accurate estimate of the total tissue FF content. A robust and sensitive method for the determination of total FF residue content in kidney samples by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated. This method covers the synthetic amphenicol drug FF and its metabolites, measured as the marker residue florfenicol amine (FFA) as per Commission Regulation (EU) No. 37/2010. Non-extractable and intermediate metabolites are converted to the hydrolysis product FFA, and then partitioned into ethyl acetate. Extracts are solvent exchanged prior to a dispersive solid-phase extraction step, then analysed using an alkaline reverse-phase gradient separation by UPLC-MS/MS. The method was validated around the maximum residue levels (MRLs) set out in Regulation (EU) No. 37/2010 for bovine kidney in accordance with Commission Decision No. 2002/657/EC. The following method performance characteristics were assessed during a single laboratory validation study: selectivity, specificity, sensitivity, linearity, matrix effects, accuracy and precision (decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) were determined). PMID:27053017

  12. "May I Buy a Pack of Marlboros, Please?" A Systematic Review of Evidence to Improve the Validity and Impact of Youth Undercover Buy Inspections

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joseph G. L.; Gregory, Kyle R.; Baker, Hannah M.; Ranney, Leah M.; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2016-01-01

    Most smokers become addicted to tobacco products before they are legally able to purchase these products. We systematically reviewed the literature on protocols to assess underage purchase and their ecological validity. We conducted a systematic search in May 2015 in PubMed and PsycINFO. We independently screened records for inclusion. We conducted a narrative review and examined implications of two types of legal authority for protocols that govern underage buy enforcement in the United States: criminal (state-level laws prohibiting sales to youth) and administrative (federal regulations prohibiting sales to youth). Ten studies experimentally assessed underage buy protocols and 44 studies assessed the association between youth characteristics and tobacco sales. Protocols that mimicked real-world youth behaviors were consistently associated with substantially greater likelihood of a sale to a youth. Many of the tested protocols appear to be designed for compliance with criminal law rather than administrative enforcement in ways that limited ecological validity. This may be due to concerns about entrapment. For administrative enforcement in particular, entrapment may be less of an issue than commonly thought. Commonly used underage buy protocols poorly represent the reality of youths' access to tobacco from retailers. Compliance check programs should allow youth to present themselves naturally and attempt to match the community’s demographic makeup. PMID:27050671

  13. "May I Buy a Pack of Marlboros, Please?" A Systematic Review of Evidence to Improve the Validity and Impact of Youth Undercover Buy Inspections.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph G L; Gregory, Kyle R; Baker, Hannah M; Ranney, Leah M; Goldstein, Adam O

    2016-01-01

    Most smokers become addicted to tobacco products before they are legally able to purchase these products. We systematically reviewed the literature on protocols to assess underage purchase and their ecological validity. We conducted a systematic search in May 2015 in PubMed and PsycINFO. We independently screened records for inclusion. We conducted a narrative review and examined implications of two types of legal authority for protocols that govern underage buy enforcement in the United States: criminal (state-level laws prohibiting sales to youth) and administrative (federal regulations prohibiting sales to youth). Ten studies experimentally assessed underage buy protocols and 44 studies assessed the association between youth characteristics and tobacco sales. Protocols that mimicked real-world youth behaviors were consistently associated with substantially greater likelihood of a sale to a youth. Many of the tested protocols appear to be designed for compliance with criminal law rather than administrative enforcement in ways that limited ecological validity. This may be due to concerns about entrapment. For administrative enforcement in particular, entrapment may be less of an issue than commonly thought. Commonly used underage buy protocols poorly represent the reality of youths' access to tobacco from retailers. Compliance check programs should allow youth to present themselves naturally and attempt to match the community's demographic makeup. PMID:27050671

  14. Northern Territory perspectives on heart failure with comorbidities – understanding trial validity and exploring collaborative opportunities to broaden the evidence base.

    PubMed

    Iyngkaran, P; Majoni, W; Cass, A; Sanders, Prashanthan; Ronco, C; Brady, S; Kangaharan, N; Ilton, M; Hare, D L; Thomas, M C

    2015-06-01

    Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is an ambulatory care sensitive condition, associated with significant morbidity and mortality, rarely with cure. Outpatient based pharmacological management represents the main and most important aspect of care, and is usually lifelong. This narrative styled opinion review looks at the pharmacological agents recommended in the guidelines in context of the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. We explore the concept of validity, a term used to describe the basis of standardising a particular trial or study and the population to which it is applicable. We aim to highlight the problems of the current guidelines based approach. We also present alternatives that could utilise the core principles from major trials, while incorporating regional considerations, which could benefit clients living in the NT and remote Australia. PMID:25637942

  15. Validating a 1-D SVAT model in a range of USA and Australian ecosystems: evidence towards its use as a tool to study Earth's system interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, G. P.; North, M. R.; Ireland, G.; Srivastava, P. K.; Rendall, D. V.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the validation of the SimSphere SVAT model conducted at different ecosystem types in the USA and Australia. Specific focus was given to examining the models' ability in predicting Shortwave Incoming Solar Radiation (Rg), Net Radiation (Rnet), Latent Heat (LE), Sensible Heat (H), Air Temperature at 1.3 m (Tair 1.3 m) and Air Temperature at 50 m (Tair 50 m). Model predictions were compared against corresponding in situ measurements acquired for a total of 72 selected days of the year 2011 obtained from 8 sites belonging to the AmeriFlux (USA) and OzFlux (Australia) monitoring networks. Selected sites were representative of a variety of environmental, biome and climatic conditions, to allow for the inclusion of contrasting conditions in the model evaluation. The application of the model confirmed its high capability in representing the multifarious and complex interactions of the Earth system. Comparisons showed a good agreement between modelled and measured fluxes, especially for the days with smoothed daily flux trends. A good to excellent agreement between the model predictions and the in situ measurements was reported, particularly so for the LE, H, T1.3 m and T 50 m parameters (RMSD = 39.47, 55.06 W m-2, 3.23, 3.77 °C respectively). A systematic underestimation of Rg and Rnet (RMSD = 67.83, 58.69 W m-2, MBE = 67.83, 58.69 W m-2 respectively) was also found. Highest simulation accuracies were obtained for the open woodland savannah and mulga woodland sites for most of the compared parameters. Very high values of the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index were also reported for all parameters ranging from 0.720 to 0.998, suggesting a very good model representation of the observations. To our knowledge, this study presents the first comprehensive validation of SimSphere, particularly so in USA and Australian ecosystem types. Findings are important and timely, given the rapidly expanding use of this model worldwide both as an educational and research

  16. A valid option for asthma control: Clinical evidence on efficacy and safety of fluticasone propionate/formoterol combination in a single inhaler.

    PubMed

    Latorre, M; Paggiaro, P; Canonica, W; Foschino, M P; Papi, A

    2015-10-01

    A good level of asthma control improves the quality of life of asthmatic patients and may prevent future risk in term of exacerbations and decline of pulmonary function. However, in a real-life setting, several factors contribute to generally low compliance to the treatment. A rapid-onset, long-lasting medication with few adverse effects may contribute to improve adherence to therapy, along with an effective patient education and a good physician-patient communication. Many clinical studies demonstrated the comparable efficacy of the new fluticasone propionate/formoterol (FP/F) combination in a single inhaler to other combinations of inhaled corticosteroids and β2agonists and the superiority of FP/F as compared to its individual components. Also the safety profile of this combination was encouraging in all studies, even at higher doses. By effectively and safely targeting both airway inflammation and smooth muscle dysfunction, the two pathological facets of asthma, and allowing the patient to adapt dose strength, FP/F combination in a single device represents a valid option to improve asthma control in patients with different levels of asthma severity. PMID:26278189

  17. Validation of survivability validation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, T.A. )

    1993-05-01

    Issues associated with the validation of survivability protocols are discussed. Both empirical and analytical approaches to protocol validation are included. The use of hybrid simulations (hardware-in-the-loop, scene generators, software generators, man-in-the-loop, etc.) for the validation of survivability protocols is discussed.

  18. Validating an Alternate Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Evelyn; Arnold, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the validity of one state's alternate assessment portfolio system using the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and National Council on Measurement in Education's Standards for Psychological and Educational Testing. The results indicate serious shortcomings in the evidence for content,…

  19. Food additives and environmental chemicals as sources of childhood behavior disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, B.

    1982-01-01

    The Feingold hypothesis postulates that many children who exhibit disturbed behavior improve on a diet devoid of certain food additives. Its validity has been examined on the basis of controlled trails. The total evidence, although not wholly consistent, nevertheless suggests that the hypothesis is, in principle, correct. Such a conclusion poses difficult problems and new issues for etiology, treatment, toxicology, and regulation.

  20. Validity of Therapist Self-Report Ratings of Fidelity to Evidence-Based Practices for Adolescent Behavior Problems: Correspondence between Therapists and Observers

    PubMed Central

    Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Lichvar, Emily; Bobek, Molly; Henderson, Craig E.

    2016-01-01

    Developing therapist-report fidelity tools to support quality delivery of evidence-based practices in usual care is a top priority for implementation science. This study tested the reliability and accuracy of two groups of community therapists who reported on their use of family therapy (FT) and motivational interviewing/cognitive-behavioral therapy (MI/CBT) interventions during routine treatment of inner-city adolescents with conduct and substance use problems. Study cases (n = 45) were randomized into two conditions: (a) Routine Family Therapy (RFT), consisting of a single site that featured family therapy as its standard of care for behavioral treatment; or (b) Treatment As Usual (TAU), consisting of five sites that featured non-family approaches. Therapists and trained observational raters provided FT and MI/CBT adherence ratings on 157 sessions (104 RFT, 53 TAU). Overall therapist reliability was adequate for averaged FT ratings (ICC = .66) but almost non-existent for MI/CBT (ICC = .06); moreover, both RFT and TAU therapists were more reliable in reporting on FT than on MI/CBT. Both groups of therapists overestimated the extent to which they implemented FT and MI/CBT interventions. Results offer support for the feasibility of using existing therapist-report methods to anchor quality assurance procedures for FT interventions in real-world settings, though not for MI/CBT. PMID:24711046

  1. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  2. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  3. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  4. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  5. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  6. First evidence for substrate channeling between proline catabolic enzymes: a validation of domain fusion analysis for predicting protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Nikhilesh; Arentson, Benjamin W; Luo, Min; Tanner, John J; Becker, Donald F

    2015-01-23

    Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) dehydrogenase (P5CDH) catalyze the four-electron oxidation of proline to glutamate via the intermediates P5C and l-glutamate-γ-semialdehyde (GSA). In Gram-negative bacteria, PRODH and P5CDH are fused together in the bifunctional enzyme proline utilization A (PutA) whereas in other organisms PRODH and P5CDH are expressed as separate monofunctional enzymes. Substrate channeling has previously been shown for bifunctional PutAs, but whether the monofunctional enzymes utilize an analogous channeling mechanism has not been examined. Here, we report the first evidence of substrate channeling in a PRODH-P5CDH two-enzyme pair. Kinetic data for the coupled reaction of PRODH and P5CDH from Thermus thermophilus are consistent with a substrate channeling mechanism, as the approach to steady-state formation of NADH does not fit a non-channeling two-enzyme model. Furthermore, inactive P5CDH and PRODH mutants inhibit NADH production and increase trapping of the P5C intermediate in coupled assays of wild-type PRODH-P5CDH enzyme pairs, indicating that the mutants disrupt PRODH-P5CDH channeling interactions. A dissociation constant of 3 μm was estimated for a putative PRODH-P5CDH complex by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Interestingly, P5CDH binding to PRODH was only observed when PRODH was immobilized with the top face of its (βα)8 barrel exposed. Using the known x-ray crystal structures of PRODH and P5CDH from T. thermophilus, a model was built for a proposed PRODH-P5CDH enzyme channeling complex. The structural model predicts that the core channeling pathway of bifunctional PutA enzymes is conserved in monofunctional PRODH-P5CDH enzyme pairs. PMID:25492892

  7. Reconstructing Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Pamela A.

    2007-01-01

    In response to Lissitz and Samuelsen (2007), the author reconstructs the historical arguments for the more comprehensive unitary concept of validity and the principles of scientific inquiry underlying it. Her response is organized in terms of four questions: (a) How did validity in educational measurement come to be conceptualized as unitary, and…

  8. The forensic validity of visual analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbacher, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    The wider use of visualization and visual analytics in wide ranging fields has led to the need for visual analytics capabilities to be legally admissible, especially when applied to digital forensics. This brings the need to consider legal implications when performing visual analytics, an issue not traditionally examined in visualization and visual analytics techniques and research. While digital data is generally admissible under the Federal Rules of Evidence [10][21], a comprehensive validation of the digital evidence is considered prudent. A comprehensive validation requires validation of the digital data under rules for authentication, hearsay, best evidence rule, and privilege. Additional issues with digital data arise when exploring digital data related to admissibility and the validity of what information was examined, to what extent, and whether the analysis process was sufficiently covered by a search warrant. For instance, a search warrant generally covers very narrow requirements as to what law enforcement is allowed to examine and acquire during an investigation. When searching a hard drive for child pornography, how admissible is evidence of an unrelated crime, i.e. drug dealing. This is further complicated by the concept of "in plain view". When performing an analysis of a hard drive what would be considered "in plain view" when analyzing a hard drive. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the issues of digital forensics and the related issues as they apply to visual analytics and identify how visual analytics techniques fit into the digital forensics analysis process, how visual analytics techniques can improve the legal admissibility of digital data, and identify what research is needed to further improve this process. The goal of this paper is to open up consideration of legal ramifications among the visualization community; the author is not a lawyer and the discussions are not meant to be inclusive of all differences in laws between states and

  9. Development and validation of a dynamic range-extended LC-MS/MS multi-analyte method for 11 different postmortem matrices for redistribution studies applying solvent calibration and additional (13)C isotope monitoring.

    PubMed

    Staeheli, Sandra N; Poetzsch, Michael; Kraemer, Thomas; Steuer, Andrea E

    2015-11-01

    Postmortem redistribution (PMR) is one of numerous problems in postmortem toxicology making correct interpretation of measured drug concentrations difficult or even impossible. Time-dependent PMR in peripheral blood and especially in tissue samples is still under-explored. For further investigation, an easy applicable method for the simultaneous quantitation of over 80 forensically relevant compounds in 11 different postmortem matrices should be developed and validated overcoming the challenges of high inter-matrix and intra-matrix concentration variances. Biopsy samples (20 mg) or body fluids (20 μL) were spiked with an analyte mix and deuterated internal standards, extracted by liquid-liquid extraction, and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). For highest applicability, an easy solvent calibration was used. Furthermore, time-consuming dilution of high concentration samples showing detector saturation was circumvented by two overlapping calibration curves using (12)C isotope monitoring for low concentrations and (13)C isotopes for high concentration, respectively. The method was validated according to international guidelines with modifications. Matrix effects and extraction efficiency were strongly matrix and analyte dependent. In general, brain and adipose tissue produced the highest matrix effects, whereas cerebrospinal fluid showed the least matrix effects. Accuracy and precision results were rather matrix independent with some exceptions. Despite using an external solvent calibration, the accuracy requirements were fulfilled for 66 to 81 % of the 83 analytes. Depending on the matrix, 75-93 % of the analytes showed intra-day precisions at <20 %. (12)C and (13)C calibrations gave comparable results and proved to be a useful tool in expanding the dynamic range. PMID:26396081

  10. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  11. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  12. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  13. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  14. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  15. A Further Validation of the Minnesota Borderline Personality Disorder Scale

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Elizabeth, E.; Cummings, Jenna, R.; Bornovalova, Marina A.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Racine, Sarah E.; Keel, Pamela K.; Sisk, Cheryl, L.; Neale, Michael; Boker, Steven; Burt, Alexandra S.; Klump, Kelly L.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research indicates that Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is well conceptualized as a dimensional construct that can be represented using normal personality traits. A previous study successfully developed and validated a BPD measure embedded within a normal trait measure, the Minnesota Borderline Personality Disorder Scale (MBPD). The current study performed a further validation of the MBPD by examining its convergent validity, external correlates, and heritability in a sample of 429 female twins. The MBPD correlated strongly with the SCID-II screener for BPD and moderately with external correlates. Moreover, the MBPD and SCID-II screener exhibited very similar patterns of external correlations. Additionally, results indicated that the genetic and environmental influences on MBPD overlap with the genetic and environmental influences on the SCID-II screener, which suggests that these scales are measuring the same construct. This data provide further evidence for the construct validity of the MBPD. PMID:24364505

  16. A further validation of the Minnesota Borderline Personality Disorder Scale.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Elizabeth C; Cummings, Jenna R; Bornovalova, Marina A; Hopwood, Christopher J; Racine, Sarah E; Keel, Pamela K; Sisk, Cheryl L; Neale, Michael; Boker, Steven; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L

    2014-04-01

    Previous research indicates that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is well conceptualized as a dimensional construct that can be represented using normal personality traits. A previous study successfully developed and validated a BPD measure embedded within a normal trait measure, the Minnesota Borderline Personality Disorder Scale (MBPD). The current study performed a further validation of the MBPD by examining its convergent validity, external correlates, and heritability in a sample of 429 female twins. The MBPD correlated strongly with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II) screener for BPD and moderately with external correlates. Moreover, the MBPD and SCID-II screener exhibited very similar patterns of external correlations. Additionally, results indicated that the genetic and environmental influences on MBPD overlap with the genetic and environmental influences on the SCID-II screener, which suggests that these scales are measuring the same construct. These data provide further evidence for the construct validity of the MBPD. PMID:24364505

  17. EOS Terra Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David

    1999-01-01

    The EOS Terra mission will be launched in July 1999. This mission has great relevance to the atmospheric radiation community and global change issues. Terra instruments include ASTER, CERES, MISR, MODIS and MOPITT. In addition to the fundamental radiance data sets, numerous global science data products will be generated, including various Earth radiation budget, cloud and aerosol parameters, as well as land surface, terrestrial ecology, ocean color, and atmospheric chemistry parameters. Significant investments have been made in on-board calibration to ensure the quality of the radiance observations. A key component of the Terra mission is the validation of the science data products. This is essential for a mission focused on global change issues and the underlying processes. The Terra algorithms have been subject to extensive pre-launch testing with field data whenever possible. Intensive efforts will be made to validate the Terra data products after launch. These include validation of instrument calibration (vicarious calibration) experiments, instrument and cross-platform comparisons, routine collection of high quality correlative data from ground-based networks, such as AERONET, and intensive sites, such as the SGP ARM site, as well as a variety field experiments, cruises, etc. Airborne simulator instruments have been developed for the field experiment and underflight activities including the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS), AirMISR, MASTER (MODIS-ASTER), and MOPITT-A. All are integrated on the NASA ER-2, though low altitude platforms are more typically used for MASTER. MATR is an additional sensor used for MOPITT algorithm development and validation. The intensive validation activities planned for the first year of the Terra mission will be described with emphasis on derived geophysical parameters of most relevance to the atmospheric radiation community. Detailed information about the EOS Terra validation Program can be found on the EOS Validation program

  18. Observational Evidence for Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Edwin R., Jr.; Childers, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the development of the concept of atomicity and some of the many which can be used to establish its validity. Chemical evidence, evidence from crystals, Faraday's law of electrolysis, and Avogadro's number are among the areas which show how the concept originally developed from a purely philosophical idea. (JN)

  19. Evidence-based medicine and levels of evidence.

    PubMed

    Wallace, David K

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is the practice of making medical decisions based on evidence gained from applying the scientific method. Published studies are evaluated using three key questions: "Are the results valid?"; "What are the results?"; and "Can the results be applied to my patients?" The hierarchy of study methods for obtaining evidence is, in order from least to most useful: laboratory research, editorials, case reports and series, case-control studies, cohort studies, and randomized clinical trials. Retrospective case series can suffer from problems such as selection of a biased sample, mixing of treatment effects, and lack of control group. Randomized clinical trials (and meta-analyses of multiple trials) provide the highest level of evidence because randomization limits confounding and prevents bias of treatment assignment. In addition, randomized trials have standardization of interventions, prospective data collection, and masked outcome measures. Although every question cannot be addressed by a randomized clinical trial, the best available evidence should be sought and used to guide treatments. PMID:21061876

  20. Validation of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Luc J.; Carron, Albert V.; Eys, Mark A.; Loughead, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the validity evidence of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire (CSCQ). To accomplish this task, convergent, discriminant, and known-group difference validity were examined, along with factorial validity via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Child athletes (N = 290, M[subscript age] = 10.73 plus or…

  1. Do College Student Surveys Have Any Validity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Using standards established for validation research, I review the theory and evidence underlying the validity argument of the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). I use the NSSE because it is the preeminent survey of college students, arguing that if it lacks validity, then so do almost all other college student surveys. I find that it…

  2. Validity for What? The Peril of Overclarifying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin R.

    2012-01-01

    As Paul Newton so ably demonstrates, the concept of validity is both important and problematic. Over the last several decades, a consensus definition of validity has emerged; the current edition of "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" notes, "Validity refers to the degree to which evidence and theory support the interpretations of…

  3. Model Validation Status Review

    SciTech Connect

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-11-28

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M&O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and

  4. Verification and validation benchmarks.

    SciTech Connect

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2007-02-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V&V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V&V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the level of

  5. Alignment validation

    SciTech Connect

    ALICE; ATLAS; CMS; LHCb; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-06

    The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under constructionat CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector andthe muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignmentinformation is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments.

  6. SANSMIC Validation.

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Paula D.; Rudeen, David Keith; Lord, David L.

    2014-08-01

    SANSMIC is solution mining software that was developed and utilized by SNL in its role as geotechnical advisor to the US DOE SPR for planning purposes. Three SANSMIC leach modes - withdrawal, direct, and reverse leach - have been revalidated with multiple test cases for each mode. The withdrawal mode was validated using high quality data from recent leach activity while the direct and reverse modes utilized data from historical cavern completion reports. Withdrawal results compared very well with observed data, including the location and size of shelves due to string breaks with relative leached volume differences ranging from 6 - 10% and relative radius differences from 1.5 - 3%. Profile comparisons for the direct mode were very good with relative leached volume differences ranging from 6 - 12% and relative radius differences from 5 - 7%. First, second, and third reverse configurations were simulated in order to validate SANSMIC over a range of relative hanging string and OBI locations. The first-reverse was simulated reasonably well with relative leached volume differences ranging from 1 - 9% and relative radius differences from 5 - 12%. The second-reverse mode showed the largest discrepancies in leach profile. Leached volume differences ranged from 8 - 12% and relative radius differences from 1 - 10%. In the third-reverse, relative leached volume differences ranged from 10 - 13% and relative radius differences were %7E4 %. Comparisons to historical reports were quite good, indicating that SANSMIC is essentially the same as documented and validated in the early 1980's.

  7. 49 CFR 1522.103 - Requirements for validation firms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for validation firms. 1522.103...-APPROVED VALIDATION FIRMS AND VALIDATORS TSA-Approved Validation Firms and Validators for the Certified Cargo Screening Program § 1522.103 Requirements for validation firms. In addition to the...

  8. Validation Testing of the Rational Behavior Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Victor L.; Shorkey, Clayton T.

    1978-01-01

    The validity of the Rational Behavior Inventory was investigated by examining its relationship with four other measures of personality in addition to class standing and age. Results supported the validity of the measure. (JKS)

  9. Lessons Learned about the Utility of Social Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strain, Phillip S.; Barton, Erin E.; Dunlap, Glen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the link between evidence-based practice and social validity by describing five examples from our own research where social validity measures resulted in data that were essential to both a clinical and research agenda on evidence-based practice. Social validity data are reviewed in the context of behavioral skill training…

  10. EOS Terra Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David

    2000-01-01

    The EOS Terra mission will be launched in July 1999. This mission has great relevance to the atmospheric radiation community and global change issues. Terra instruments include Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multi-Angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). In addition to the fundamental radiance data sets, numerous global science data products will be generated, including various Earth radiation budget, cloud and aerosol parameters, as well as land surface, terrestrial ecology, ocean color, and atmospheric chemistry parameters. Significant investments have been made in on-board calibration to ensure the quality of the radiance observations. A key component of the Terra mission is the validation of the science data products. This is essential for a mission focused on global change issues and the underlying processes. The Terra algorithms have been subject to extensive pre-launch testing with field data whenever possible. Intensive efforts will be made to validate the Terra data products after launch. These include validation of instrument calibration (vicarious calibration) experiments, instrument and cross-platform comparisons, routine collection of high quality correlative data from ground-based networks, such as AERONET, and intensive sites, such as the SGP ARM site, as well as a variety field experiments, cruises, etc. Airborne simulator instruments have been developed for the field experiment and underflight activities including the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) AirMISR, MASTER (MODIS-ASTER), and MOPITT-A. All are integrated on the NASA ER-2 though low altitude platforms are more typically used for MASTER. MATR is an additional sensor used for MOPITT algorithm development and validation. The intensive validation activities planned for the first year of the Terra

  11. A Validation of the Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors: Patterns in Rural and Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Menzies, Holly M.; Oakes, Wendy P.; Lambert, Warren; Cox, Meredith; Hankins, Katy

    2012-01-01

    We report findings of two studies, one conducted in a rural school district (N = 982) and a second conducted in an urban district (N = 1,079), offering additional evidence of the reliability and validity of a revised instrument, the Student Risk Screening Scale-Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE), to accurately detect internalizing and…

  12. From Construct Validity to Theory Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haig, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Lee Cronbach once expressed the view that all roads lead to construct validity. In looking to clarify the consensus definition of validity, and its place in assessment, Newton is also led to the troublesome idea of construct validity. To be sure, he addresses other validity issues, but in this commentary, I will restrict my attention to construct…

  13. A 660-Kb Deletion with Antagonistic Effects on Fertility and Milk Production Segregates at High Frequency in Nordic Red Cattle: Additional Evidence for the Common Occurrence of Balancing Selection in Livestock

    PubMed Central

    Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Sahana, Goutam; Charlier, Carole; Iso-Touru, Terhi; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Karim, Latifa; Nielsen, Ulrik Sander; Panitz, Frank; Aamand, Gert Pedersen; Schulman, Nina; Georges, Michel; Vilkki, Johanna; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Druet, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In dairy cattle, the widespread use of artificial insemination has resulted in increased selection intensity, which has led to spectacular increase in productivity. However, cow fertility has concomitantly severely declined. It is generally assumed that this reduction is primarily due to the negative energy balance of high-producing cows at the peak of lactation. We herein describe the fine-mapping of a major fertility QTL in Nordic Red cattle, and identify a 660-kb deletion encompassing four genes as the causative variant. We show that the deletion is a recessive embryonically lethal mutation. This probably results from the loss of RNASEH2B, which is known to cause embryonic death in mice. Despite its dramatic effect on fertility, 13%, 23% and 32% of the animals carry the deletion in Danish, Swedish and Finnish Red Cattle, respectively. To explain this, we searched for favorable effects on other traits and found that the deletion has strong positive effects on milk yield. This study demonstrates that embryonic lethal mutations account for a non-negligible fraction of the decline in fertility of domestic cattle, and that associated positive effects on milk yield may account for part of the negative genetic correlation. Our study adds to the evidence that structural variants contribute to animal phenotypic variation, and that balancing selection might be more common in livestock species than previously appreciated. PMID:24391517

  14. Validating the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS) in child welfare organizations.

    PubMed

    Ehrhart, Mark G; Torres, Elisa M; Wright, Lisa A; Martinez, Sandra Y; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in child welfare settings and growing recognition of the importance of the organizational environment, and the organization's climate in particular, for how employees perceive and support EBP implementation. Recently, Ehrhart, Aarons, and Farahnak (2014) reported on the development and validation of a measure of EBP implementation climate, the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS), in a sample of mental health clinicians. The ICS consists of 18 items and measures six critical dimensions of implementation climate: focus on EBP, educational support for EBP, recognition for EBP, rewards for EBP, selection or EBP, and selection for openness. The goal of the current study is to extend this work by providing evidence for the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the ICS in a sample of child welfare service providers. Survey data were collected from 215 child welfare providers across three states, 12 organizations, and 43 teams. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated good fit to the six-factor model and the alpha reliabilities for the overall measure and its subscales was acceptable. In addition, there was general support for the invariance of the factor structure across the child welfare and mental health sectors. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the ICS measure for use in child welfare service organizations. PMID:26563643

  15. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  16. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  17. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  18. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  19. High performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) - Evidence for the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material and a bismaleimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, R. H.; Soucek, M. D.; Chang, A. C.; Partos, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, the concept and demonstration of a new versatile synthetic reaction for making a large number of high-performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) were reported. The synthesis shows promise for providing polymers having an attractive combination of easy processability, good toughness, respectable high temperature mechanical performance, and excellent thermo-oxidative stability. The new chemistry involves the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material with a bismaleimide or benzoquinone. In order to clarify the reaction mechanism, model compound studies were undertaken in solutions as well as in the solid state. The reaction products were purified by flash chromatography and characterized by conventional analytical techniques including NMR, FT-IR, UV-visible, mass spectroscopy, and high pressure liquid chromatography. The results are presented of the model compound studies which strongly support the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated compound and a bismaleimide or benzoquinone.

  20. Promoting Rigorous Validation Practice: An Applied Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Camara, Wayne J.

    2012-01-01

    As researchers at a testing organization concerned with the appropriate uses and validity evidence for our assessments, we provide an applied perspective related to the issues raised in the focus article. Newton's proposal for elaborating the consensus definition of validity is offered with the intention to reduce the risks of inadequate…

  1. Thinking and Creative Styles: A Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Vendramini, Claudette Maria Medeiros; Oakland, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The validity evidences of thinking and creative styles were analyzed. Two studies are reported, one analyzing the dimensionality of creative styles and the other verifying their external validity. Participants were Brazilians, 1,752 in the first study (55% women) and 128 in the second study (53% women), among whom 45% had demonstrated creative…

  2. Construct Validation in Counseling Psychology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, William T.; Warbasse, Rosalia E.; Chu, Erica Y.

    2006-01-01

    Counseling psychology researchers devote little attention to theory-based measurement validation, as evidenced by cursory mention of validity issues in the method and discussion sections of published research reports. Especially, many researchers appear unaware of the limitations of correlations between pairs of self-report measures as evidence of…

  3. Clarifying the Consensus Definition of Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    The 1999 "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" defines validity as the degree to which evidence and theory support the interpretations of test scores entailed by proposed uses of tests. Although quite explicit, there are ways in which this definition lacks precision, consistency, and clarity. The history of validity has taught us…

  4. How valid are commercially available medical simulators?

    PubMed Central

    Stunt, JJ; Wulms, PH; Kerkhoffs, GM; Dankelman, J; van Dijk, CN; Tuijthof, GJM

    2014-01-01

    Background Since simulators offer important advantages, they are increasingly used in medical education and medical skills training that require physical actions. A wide variety of simulators have become commercially available. It is of high importance that evidence is provided that training on these simulators can actually improve clinical performance on live patients. Therefore, the aim of this review is to determine the availability of different types of simulators and the evidence of their validation, to offer insight regarding which simulators are suitable to use in the clinical setting as a training modality. Summary Four hundred and thirty-three commercially available simulators were found, from which 405 (94%) were physical models. One hundred and thirty validation studies evaluated 35 (8%) commercially available medical simulators for levels of validity ranging from face to predictive validity. Solely simulators that are used for surgical skills training were validated for the highest validity level (predictive validity). Twenty-four (37%) simulators that give objective feedback had been validated. Studies that tested more powerful levels of validity (concurrent and predictive validity) were methodologically stronger than studies that tested more elementary levels of validity (face, content, and construct validity). Conclusion Ninety-three point five percent of the commercially available simulators are not known to be tested for validity. Although the importance of (a high level of) validation depends on the difficulty level of skills training and possible consequences when skills are insufficient, it is advisable for medical professionals, trainees, medical educators, and companies who manufacture medical simulators to critically judge the available medical simulators for proper validation. This way adequate, safe, and affordable medical psychomotor skills training can be achieved. PMID:25342926

  5. 31 CFR 360.23 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 360.23 Section 360.23 Money... BONDS, SERIES I Judicial Proceedings § 360.23 Evidence. (a) General. To establish the validity of... must be supported by appropriate evidence of appointment and qualification. The evidence must...

  6. 31 CFR 315.23 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 315.23 Section 315.23 Money... Caveats Permitted § 315.23 Evidence. (a) General. To establish the validity of judicial proceedings... supported by appropriate evidence of appointment and qualification. The evidence must be certified by...

  7. Validation Evidence for the Elementary School Version of the MUSIC® Model of Academic Motivation Inventory (Pruebas de validación para el Modelo MUSIC® de Inventario de Motivación Educativa para Escuela Primaria)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Brett D.; Sigmon, Miranda L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of our study was to assess whether the Elementary School version of the MUSIC® Model of Academic Motivation Inventory was valid for use with elementary students in classrooms with regular classroom teachers and student teachers enrolled in a university teacher preparation program. Method: The participants included 535…

  8. The Asian American values scale--multidimensional: development, reliability, and validity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bryan K; Li, Lisa C; Ng, Gladys F

    2005-08-01

    The development of the 42-item Asian American Values Scale-Multidimensional (AAVS-M) is presented. In Study 1, data from 163 Asian American respondents were subjected to a principal components analysis, which reduced the initial set of 180 items to 42 items divided into 5 components: collectivism, conformity to norms, emotional self-control, family recognition through achievement, and humility. The data also revealed initial evidence of the AAVS-M total and subscale scores' reliability and validity. In Study 2, data from 189 Asian American respondents were subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis, which supported a hierarchical factor structure underlying the AAVS-M. Additional reliability and validity evidence of AAVS-M total and subscale scores were found. In Study 3, data from 38 Asian American respondents yielded evidence of AAVS-M total and subscale scores' test-retest reliability. PMID:16117587

  9. Construct Validity and Case Validity in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teglasi, Hedwig; Nebbergall, Allison Joan; Newman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Clinical assessment relies on both "construct validity", which focuses on the accuracy of conclusions about a psychological phenomenon drawn from responses to a measure, and "case validity", which focuses on the synthesis of the full range of psychological phenomena pertaining to the concern or question at hand. Whereas construct validity is…

  10. Contemporary Test Validity in Theory and Practice: A Primer for Discipline-Based Education Researchers.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Todd D; Marbach-Ad, Gili

    2016-01-01

    Most discipline-based education researchers (DBERs) were formally trained in the methods of scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry, and physics, rather than social science disciplines such as psychology and education. As a result, DBERs may have never taken specific courses in the social science research methodology--either quantitative or qualitative--on which their scholarship often relies so heavily. One particular aspect of (quantitative) social science research that differs markedly from disciplines such as biology and chemistry is the instrumentation used to quantify phenomena. In response, this Research Methods essay offers a contemporary social science perspective on test validity and the validation process. The instructional piece explores the concepts of test validity, the validation process, validity evidence, and key threats to validity. The essay also includes an in-depth example of a validity argument and validation approach for a test of student argument analysis. In addition to DBERs, this essay should benefit practitioners (e.g., lab directors, faculty members) in the development, evaluation, and/or selection of instruments for their work assessing students or evaluating pedagogical innovations. PMID:26903498

  11. Contemporary Test Validity in Theory and Practice: A Primer for Discipline-Based Education Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Todd D.; Marbach-Ad, Gili

    2016-01-01

    Most discipline-based education researchers (DBERs) were formally trained in the methods of scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry, and physics, rather than social science disciplines such as psychology and education. As a result, DBERs may have never taken specific courses in the social science research methodology—either quantitative or qualitative—on which their scholarship often relies so heavily. One particular aspect of (quantitative) social science research that differs markedly from disciplines such as biology and chemistry is the instrumentation used to quantify phenomena. In response, this Research Methods essay offers a contemporary social science perspective on test validity and the validation process. The instructional piece explores the concepts of test validity, the validation process, validity evidence, and key threats to validity. The essay also includes an in-depth example of a validity argument and validation approach for a test of student argument analysis. In addition to DBERs, this essay should benefit practitioners (e.g., lab directors, faculty members) in the development, evaluation, and/or selection of instruments for their work assessing students or evaluating pedagogical innovations. PMID:26903498

  12. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  13. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  14. The 2014 Sandia Verification and Validation Challenge: Problem statement

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hu, Kenneth; Orient, George

    2016-01-18

    This paper presents a case study in utilizing information from experiments, models, and verification and validation (V&V) to support a decision. It consists of a simple system with data and models provided, plus a safety requirement to assess. The goal is to pose a problem that is flexible enough to allow challengers to demonstrate a variety of approaches, but constrained enough to focus attention on a theme. This was accomplished by providing a good deal of background information in addition to the data, models, and code, but directing the participants' activities with specific deliverables. In this challenge, the theme ismore » how to gather and present evidence about the quality of model predictions, in order to support a decision. This case study formed the basis of the 2014 Sandia V&V Challenge Workshop and this resulting special edition of the ASME Journal of Verification, Validation, and Uncertainty Quantification.« less

  15. The dispositional flow scale-2 as a measure of autotelic personality: an examination of criterion-related validity.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jarrod A; Keiser, Heidi N; Skarin, Evan M; Ross, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    The Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2; Jackson & Eklund, 2002) may be one of the most promising measures for assessing Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) construct of "autotelic personality." Despite strong internal validity, external validity of the DFS-2 remains open. We used 2 methods to provide evidence for external validity: (1) multiple-time assessments of experience sampling (1,856 entries generated over 7 days) to derive aggregate indices of criterion validity; and (2) single-time assessments of flow and personality for additional criterion-related validity. For single-time assessments of flow, we used a modified version of the Flow Questionnaire (Csikszentmihalyi & Larson, 1984). To assess personality, we included a measure of the Five-factor traits using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992). A path model of NEO domains, DFS-2 global scores, and experience sampling aggregates fit the data well. PMID:24624959

  16. Validation of the Impostor Phenomenon among Managers.

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, Sonja; Bechtoldt, Myriam N; Leonhardt, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Following up on earlier investigations, the present research aims at validating the construct impostor phenomenon by taking other personality correlates into account and to examine whether the impostor phenomenon is a construct in its own right. In addition, gender effects as well as associations with dispositional working styles and strain are examined. In an online study we surveyed a sample of N = 242 individuals occupying leadership positions in different sectors. Confirmatory factor analyses provide empirical evidence for the discriminant validity of the impostor phenomenon. In accord with earlier studies we show that the impostor phenomenon is accompanied by higher levels of anxiety, dysphoric moods, emotional instability, a generally negative self-evaluation, and perfectionism. The study does not reveal any gender differences concerning the impostor phenomenon. With respect to working styles, persons with an impostor self-concept tend to show perfectionist as well as procrastinating behaviors. Moreover, they report being more stressed and strained by their work. In sum, the findings show that the impostor phenomenon constitutes a dysfunctional personality style. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:27313554

  17. Validation of the Impostor Phenomenon among Managers

    PubMed Central

    Rohrmann, Sonja; Bechtoldt, Myriam N.; Leonhardt, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Following up on earlier investigations, the present research aims at validating the construct impostor phenomenon by taking other personality correlates into account and to examine whether the impostor phenomenon is a construct in its own right. In addition, gender effects as well as associations with dispositional working styles and strain are examined. In an online study we surveyed a sample of N = 242 individuals occupying leadership positions in different sectors. Confirmatory factor analyses provide empirical evidence for the discriminant validity of the impostor phenomenon. In accord with earlier studies we show that the impostor phenomenon is accompanied by higher levels of anxiety, dysphoric moods, emotional instability, a generally negative self-evaluation, and perfectionism. The study does not reveal any gender differences concerning the impostor phenomenon. With respect to working styles, persons with an impostor self-concept tend to show perfectionist as well as procrastinating behaviors. Moreover, they report being more stressed and strained by their work. In sum, the findings show that the impostor phenomenon constitutes a dysfunctional personality style. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:27313554

  18. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  19. Excavator Design Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pholsiri, Chalongrath; English, James; Seberino, Charles; Lim, Yi-Je

    2010-01-01

    The Excavator Design Validation tool verifies excavator designs by automatically generating control systems and modeling their performance in an accurate simulation of their expected environment. Part of this software design includes interfacing with human operations that can be included in simulation-based studies and validation. This is essential for assessing productivity, versatility, and reliability. This software combines automatic control system generation from CAD (computer-aided design) models, rapid validation of complex mechanism designs, and detailed models of the environment including soil, dust, temperature, remote supervision, and communication latency to create a system of high value. Unique algorithms have been created for controlling and simulating complex robotic mechanisms automatically from just a CAD description. These algorithms are implemented as a commercial cross-platform C++ software toolkit that is configurable using the Extensible Markup Language (XML). The algorithms work with virtually any mobile robotic mechanisms using module descriptions that adhere to the XML standard. In addition, high-fidelity, real-time physics-based simulation algorithms have also been developed that include models of internal forces and the forces produced when a mechanism interacts with the outside world. This capability is combined with an innovative organization for simulation algorithms, new regolith simulation methods, and a unique control and study architecture to make powerful tools with the potential to transform the way NASA verifies and compares excavator designs. Energid's Actin software has been leveraged for this design validation. The architecture includes parametric and Monte Carlo studies tailored for validation of excavator designs and their control by remote human operators. It also includes the ability to interface with third-party software and human-input devices. Two types of simulation models have been adapted: high-fidelity discrete

  20. Evidence for Past Life on Early Mars: How the Evidence Stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; McKay, David S.; Romanek, Christopher; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2004-06-01

    Martian Meteorite ALH84001 contains four unusual features which have been interpreted as possible signatures of relic biogenic activity. After six years of intense study by the world's scientific community, the current status of the biogenic hypothesis is reviewed and shown to still be valid. Furthermore additional features have been observed in two younger Martian meteorites. The strongest argument for possible evidence of biogenic activity within the ALH84001 meteorite is the presence of truncated hexa-octahedral magnetite crystals which are only known on Earth to be the products of biology.

  1. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  2. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  3. Cognitive Effects of Greek Affiliation in College: Additional Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascarella, Ernest T.; Flowers, Lamont; Whitt, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research published in this journal found broad-based negative effects of Greek affiliation on standardized measures of cognitive development after 1 year of college. Following the same sample, and employing essentially the same research design and analytic model, the present study found that the negative effects of Greek affiliation were…

  4. Interspeaker Variation in Habitual Speaking Rate: Additional Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsao, Ying-Chiao; Weismer, Gary; Iqbal, Kamran

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that talkers previously classified by Y.-C. Tsao and G. Weismer (1997) as habitually fast versus habitually slow would show differences in the way they manipulated articulation rate across the rate continuum. Method: Thirty talkers previously classified by Tsao and Weismer (1997)…

  5. Additional evidence of nuclear emissions during acoustic cavitation.

    PubMed

    Taleyarkhan, R P; Cho, J S; West, C D; Lahey, R T; Nigmatulin, R I; Block, R C

    2004-03-01

    Time spectra of neutron and sonoluminescence emissions were measured in cavitation experiments with chilled deuterated acetone. Statistically significant neutron and gamma ray emissions were measured with a calibrated liquid-scintillation detector, and sonoluminescence emissions were measured with a photomultiplier tube. The neutron and sonoluminescence emissions were found to be time correlated over the time of significant bubble cluster dynamics. The neutron emission energy was less than 2.5 MeV and the neutron emission rate was up to approximately 4 x 10(5) n/s. Measurements of tritium production were also performed and these data implied a neutron emission rate due to D-D fusion which agreed with what was measured. In contrast, control experiments using normal acetone did not result in statistically significant tritium activity, or neutron or gamma ray emissions. PMID:15089363

  6. Validity of Childhood Career Development Scale Scores in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stead, Graham B.; Schultheiss, Donna E. Palladino

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide evidence of the construct and concurrent validity of the Childhood Career Development Scale's (CCDS) scores among South African primary school children. Using a sample of 808 children in grades four through seven, evidence for the CCDS's construct validity was provided using confirmatory factor analysis,…

  7. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  8. Validating for Use and Interpretation: A Mixed Methods Contribution Illustrated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morell, Linda; Tan, Rachael Jin Bee

    2009-01-01

    Researchers in the areas of psychology and education strive to understand the intersections among validity, educational measurement, and cognitive theory. Guided by a mixed model conceptual framework, this study investigates how respondents' opinions inform the validation argument. Validity evidence for a science assessment was collected through…

  9. Internal Construct Validity of the Career Skills Assessment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Donald A.

    The primary purpose of this study was to provide evidence for or against the construct validity of the Career Skills Assessment Program (CSAP) instrument. A secondary purpose was to present a systematic procedure for carrying out internal construct validity studies in any testing instrument. Construct validation using confirmatory factor analysis…

  10. Validity of the SAT® for Predicting First-Year Grades: 2010 SAT Validity Sample. Statistical Report 2013-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Brian F.; Mattern, Krista D.

    2013-01-01

    The continued accumulation of validity evidence for the core uses of educational assessments is critical to ensure that proper inferences will be made for those core purposes. To that end, the College Board has continued to follow previous cohorts of college students and this report provides updated validity evidence for using the SAT to predict…

  11. Validation of Helicopter Gear Condition Indicators Using Seeded Fault Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula; Brandon, E. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    A "seeded fault test" in support of a rotorcraft condition based maintenance program (CBM), is an experiment in which a component is tested with a known fault while health monitoring data is collected. These tests are performed at operating conditions comparable to operating conditions the component would be exposed to while installed on the aircraft. Performance of seeded fault tests is one method used to provide evidence that a Health Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) can replace current maintenance practices required for aircraft airworthiness. Actual in-service experience of the HUMS detecting a component fault is another validation method. This paper will discuss a hybrid validation approach that combines in service-data with seeded fault tests. For this approach, existing in-service HUMS flight data from a naturally occurring component fault will be used to define a component seeded fault test. An example, using spiral bevel gears as the targeted component, will be presented. Since the U.S. Army has begun to develop standards for using seeded fault tests for HUMS validation, the hybrid approach will be mapped to the steps defined within their Aeronautical Design Standard Handbook for CBM. This paper will step through their defined processes, and identify additional steps that may be required when using component test rig fault tests to demonstrate helicopter CI performance. The discussion within this paper will provide the reader with a better appreciation for the challenges faced when defining a seeded fault test for HUMS validation.

  12. Aura Science and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, E.; Schoeberl, M.; Douglass, A.; Anderson, J.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The EOS-Aura Mission is designed to answer three basic questions concerning the Earth's atmosphere: 1) Is ozone recovering as predicted, 2) is air quality getting worse, and 3) how is climate changing? Aura's four instruments work synergistically and are dedicated to answering these questions. These questions relate to NASA Earth Science Enterprise's overall strategic questions, which seek to understand the consequences of climate change for human civilization and determine if these changes can be predicted. NASA supports an ongoing research and analysis program, which is conducted independently and in support of satellite missions. The research program conducts several on-going field campaigns employing aircraft, balloons, and ground based systems. These campaigns have focused on exploring processes in the tropics, high latitudes, and continental outflow to explain the chemistry and transport in the troposphere and stratosphere and how these regions interact. NASA is now studying how the Aura mission and requirements of the research and analysis program might be merged to achieve its strategic goals related to global atmospheric chemistry changes. In addition, NASA field campaign resources will be folded into Aura's validation requirements. Aura validation requires correlative measurements throughout the troposphere and stratosphere under a range of observing and geophysical conditions. Because of the recent launches of Envisat and other smaller international chemistry satellites, the NASA program plans to collaborate with European space agencies in developing a series of campaigns that will provide continuity between those satellites missions and Aura.

  13. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  14. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  15. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  16. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  17. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  18. Cost Validation Using PRICE H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, John; Kwan, Eric; Wood, Milana

    2011-01-01

    PRICE H was introduced into the JPL cost estimation tool set circa 2003. It became more available at JPL when IPAO funded the NASA-wide site license for all NASA centers. PRICE H was mainly used as one of the cost tools to validate proposal grassroots cost estimates. Program offices at JPL view PRICE H as an additional crosscheck to Team X (JPL Concurrent Engineering Design Center) estimates. PRICE H became widely accepted ca, 2007 at JPL when the program offices moved away from grassroots cost estimation for Step 1 proposals. PRICE H is now one of the key cost tools used for cost validation, cost trades, and independent cost estimates.

  19. 8 CFR 1240.46 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 1240.46 Section 1240.46 Aliens....46 Evidence. (a) Sufficiency. A determination of deportability shall not be valid unless it is found by clear, unequivocal, and convincing evidence that the facts alleged as grounds for deportation...

  20. 31 CFR 353.23 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 353.23 Section 353.23 Money... BONDS, SERIES EE AND HH Judicial Proceedings § 353.23 Evidence. (a) General. To establish the validity... insolvent's estate must be supported by appropriate evidence of appointment and qualification. The...

  1. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  2. Evidence-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Sackett, D L

    1997-02-01

    clinically important information about diagnosis, prognosis, therapy, and other clinical and health care issues, and in which we (1) convert these information needs into answerable questions; (2) track down, with maximum efficiency, the best evidence with which to answer them (whether from the clinical examination, the diagnostic laboratory from research evidence, or other sources); (3) critically appraise that evidence for its validity (closeness to the truth) and usefulness (clinical applicability); (4) integrate this appraisal with our clinical expertise and apply it in practice; and (5) evaluate our performance. PMID:9190027

  3. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  4. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  5. Validation of A Trust In Medical Technology Instrument

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A patient’s trusting attitude towards technology used in their medical care may be a predictor of acceptance or rejection of the technology and, by extension, the physician. The aim of this study was to rigorously determine the validity of an instrument for measuring patients’ trust in medical technology. Instrument validity was established based on a framework, which included test and data evidence for validity assessment. The framework for validity assessment evaluates the instrument on content, substantive, structural, generalizability, external and consequential aspects of validity. The results of the current study show that the instrument is reliable and valid for assessing a patient’s trust in obstetric medical technology. PMID:20189163

  6. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  7. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  8. Critical validation studies of neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Gruzelier, John; Egner, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    The field of neurofeedback training has proceeded largely without validation. In this article the authors review studies directed at validating sensory motor rhythm, beta and alpha-theta protocols for improving attention, memory, and music performance in healthy participants. Importantly, benefits were demonstrable with cognitive and neurophysiologic measures that were predicted on the basis of regression models of learning to enhance sensory motor rhythm and beta activity. The first evidence of operant control over the alpha-theta ratio is provided, together with remarkable improvements in artistic aspects of music performance equivalent to two class grades in conservatory students. These are initial steps in providing a much needed scientific basis to neurofeedback. PMID:15564053

  9. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation

    PubMed Central

    Petrides, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures’ convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment. PMID:27409773

  10. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation.

    PubMed

    Siegling, Alex B; Petrides, K V

    2016-01-01

    This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures' convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment. PMID:27409773

  11. Assessing Students' Understanding of Macroevolution: Concerns regarding the validity of the MUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novick, Laura R.; Catley, Kefyn M.

    2012-11-01

    In a recent article, Nadelson and Southerland (2010. Development and preliminary evaluation of the Measure of Understanding of Macroevolution: Introducing the MUM. The Journal of Experimental Education, 78, 151-190) reported on their development of a multiple-choice concept inventory intended to assess college students' understanding of macroevolutionary concepts, the Measure of Understanding Macroevolution (MUM). Given that the only existing evolution inventories assess understanding of natural selection, a microevolutionary concept, a valid assessment of students' understanding of macroevolution would be a welcome and necessary addition to the field of science education. Although the conceptual framework underlying Nadelson and Southerland's test is promising, we believe the test has serious shortcomings with respect to validity evidence for the construct being tested. We argue and provide evidence that these problems are serious enough that the MUM should not be used in its current form to measure students' understanding of macroevolution.

  12. Land Product Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisette, Jeffrey; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Land Product Validation (LPV) subgroup of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Working Group on Calibration and Validation was formed in 2000. Goals of the LPV subgroup are: 1) to increase the quality and economy of global satellite product validation via developing and promoting international standards and protocols for field sampling, scaling, error budgeting, data exchange and product evaluation; 2) to advocate mission-long validation programs for current and future earth observing satellites.

  13. Influence of stellar multiplicity on planet formation. I. Evidence of suppressed planet formation due to stellar companions within 20 au and validation of four planets from the Kepler multiple planet candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ji; Fischer, Debra A.; Xie, Ji-Wei; Barclay, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The planet occurrence rate for multiple stars is important in two aspects. First, almost half of stellar systems in the solar neighborhood are multiple systems. Second, the comparison of the planet occurrence rate for multiple stars to that for single stars sheds light on the influence of stellar multiplicity on planet formation and evolution. We developed a method of distinguishing planet occurrence rates for single and multiple stars. From a sample of 138 bright (K{sub P} < 13.5) Kepler multi-planet candidate systems, we compared the stellar multiplicity rate of these planet host stars to that of field stars. Using dynamical stability analyses and archival Doppler measurements, we find that the stellar multiplicity rate of planet host stars is significantly lower than field stars for semimajor axes less than 20 AU, suggesting that planet formation and evolution are suppressed by the presence of a close-in companion star at these separations. The influence of stellar multiplicity at larger separations is uncertain because of search incompleteness due to a limited Doppler observation time baseline and a lack of high-resolution imaging observation. We calculated the planet confidence for the sample of multi-planet candidates and find that the planet confidences for KOI 82.01, KOI 115.01, KOI 282.01, and KOI 1781.02 are higher than 99.7% and thus validate the planetary nature of these four planet candidates. This sample of bright Kepler multi-planet candidates with refined stellar and orbital parameters, planet confidence estimation, and nearby stellar companion identification offers a well-characterized sample for future theoretical and observational study.

  14. The Concept of Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsboom, Denny; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.; van Heerden, Jaap

    2004-01-01

    This article advances a simple conception of test validity: A test is valid for measuring an attribute if (a) the attribute exists and (b) variations in the attribute causally produce variation in the measurement outcomes. This conception is shown to diverge from current validity theory in several respects. In particular, the emphasis in the…

  15. Cross-Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langmuir, Charles R.

    1954-01-01

    Cross-validation in relation to choosing the best tests and selecting the best items in tests is discussed. Cross-validation demonstrated whether a decision derived from one set of data is truly effective when this decision is applied to another independent, but relevant, sample of people. Cross-validation is particularly important after…

  16. Validity, Responsibility, and Aporia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author problematizes external, objectified, oversimplified, and mechanical approaches to validity in qualitative research, which endorse simplistic and reductionist views of knowledge and data. Instead of promoting one generalizable definition or operational criteria for validity, the author's "deconstructive validity work"…

  17. The Iowa Validation Site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing can be used to observe the land surface hydrologic cycle, but the quantitative aspects of these observations are not well known. We present a small (1 km^2) experimental validation site, the Iowa Validation Site. Initially we have focused on validating remotely-sensed observations of ...

  18. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  19. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  20. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  1. [Biologically active food additives].

    PubMed

    Velichko, M A; Shevchenko, V P

    1998-07-01

    More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776

  2. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  3. Hydrocarbon fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, S.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes the method of fuel storage or combustion, wherein the fuel supply contains small amounts of water, the step of adding to the fuel supply an additive comprising a blend of a hydrophilic agent chosen from the group of ethylene glycol, n-butyl alcohol, and cellosolve in the range of 22-37% by weight; ethoxylated nonylphenol in the range of 26-35% by weight; nonylphenol polyethylene glycol ether in the range of 32-43% by weight.

  4. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  5. Job Embeddedness Demonstrates Incremental Validity When Predicting Turnover Intentions for Australian University Employees.

    PubMed

    Heritage, Brody; Gilbert, Jessica M; Roberts, Lynne D

    2016-01-01

    Job embeddedness is a construct that describes the manner in which employees can be enmeshed in their jobs, reducing their turnover intentions. Recent questions regarding the properties of quantitative job embeddedness measures, and their predictive utility, have been raised. Our study compared two competing reflective measures of job embeddedness, examining their convergent, criterion, and incremental validity, as a means of addressing these questions. Cross-sectional quantitative data from 246 Australian university employees (146 academic; 100 professional) was gathered. Our findings indicated that the two compared measures of job embeddedness were convergent when total scale scores were examined. Additionally, job embeddedness was capable of demonstrating criterion and incremental validity, predicting unique variance in turnover intention. However, this finding was not readily apparent with one of the compared job embeddedness measures, which demonstrated comparatively weaker evidence of validity. We discuss the theoretical and applied implications of these findings, noting that job embeddedness has a complementary place among established determinants of turnover intention. PMID:27199817

  6. Job Embeddedness Demonstrates Incremental Validity When Predicting Turnover Intentions for Australian University Employees

    PubMed Central

    Heritage, Brody; Gilbert, Jessica M.; Roberts, Lynne D.

    2016-01-01

    Job embeddedness is a construct that describes the manner in which employees can be enmeshed in their jobs, reducing their turnover intentions. Recent questions regarding the properties of quantitative job embeddedness measures, and their predictive utility, have been raised. Our study compared two competing reflective measures of job embeddedness, examining their convergent, criterion, and incremental validity, as a means of addressing these questions. Cross-sectional quantitative data from 246 Australian university employees (146 academic; 100 professional) was gathered. Our findings indicated that the two compared measures of job embeddedness were convergent when total scale scores were examined. Additionally, job embeddedness was capable of demonstrating criterion and incremental validity, predicting unique variance in turnover intention. However, this finding was not readily apparent with one of the compared job embeddedness measures, which demonstrated comparatively weaker evidence of validity. We discuss the theoretical and applied implications of these findings, noting that job embeddedness has a complementary place among established determinants of turnover intention. PMID:27199817

  7. Understanding the State of the Art for Measurement in Chemistry Education Research: Examining the Psychometric Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arjoon, Janelle A.; Xu, Xiaoying; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    education community are relatively new. Because psychometric evidence dictates the validity of interpretations made from test scores, gathering and reporting validity and reliability evidence is of utmost importance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate what…

  8. Validation and Invariance of Factor Structure of a National Licensing Examination across Gender and Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shudong; Witt, Elizabeth

    In the context of licensure testing, this study addressed the importance of supplementing the usual content-related validity evidence (job analysis) with empirical validation. Evidence supporting the validity and fairness of the Real Estate National Licensing Examination (RENSE) is provided. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with structural…

  9. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  10. Oil additive process

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

  11. Validity and psychometric properties of the measure of psychologically abusive behaviors among young women and women in distressed relationships.

    PubMed

    Follingstad, Diane R; Coker, Ann L; Lee, Eunkyung; Williams, Corrine M; Bush, Heather M; Mendiondo, Marta M

    2015-07-01

    The Measure of Psychologically Abusive Behaviors (MPAB) was developed recently to improve on prior scales. Two nationally solicited samples of women were utilized to further validate the MPAB through the use of a criterion group, factor analysis, and designation of a threshold for accurate classification. MPAB scores were twice as high in the criterion group (M = 38.75 vs. M = 18.85; F = 22.17). Using a cutpoint of 1, the sensitivity and specificity for MPAB were .725 and .628, respectively. Cronbach's alpha was .97 for both samples. These data provide additional evidence for the MPAB as valid and internally consistent. PMID:25926051

  12. Evidence based vaccinology.

    PubMed

    Nalin, David R

    2002-02-22

    Evidence based vaccinology (EBV) is the identification and use of the best evidence in making and implementing decisions during all of the stages of the life of a vaccine, including pre-licensure vaccine development and post-licensure manufacture and research, and utilization of the vaccine for disease control. Vaccines, unlike most pharmaceuticals, are in a continuous process of development both before and after licensure. Changes in biologics manufacturing technology and changes that vaccines induce in population and disease biology lead to periodic review of regimens (and sometimes dosage) based on changing immunologic data or public perceptions relevant to vaccine safety and effectiveness. EBV includes the use of evidence based medicine (EBM) both in clinical trials and in national disease containment programs. The rationale for EBV is that the highest evidentiary standards are required to maintain a rigorous scientific basis of vaccine quality control in manufacture and to ensure valid determination of vaccine efficacy, field effectiveness and safety profiles (including post-licensure safety monitoring), cost-benefit analyses, and risk:benefit ratios. EBV is increasingly based on statistically validated, clearly defined laboratory, manufacturing, clinical and epidemiological research methods and procedures, codified as good laboratory practices (GLP), good manufacturing practices (GMP), good clinical research practices (GCRP) and in clinical and public health practice (good vaccination practices, GVP). Implementation demands many data-driven decisions made by a spectrum of specialists pre- and post-licensure, and is essential to maintaining public confidence in vaccines. PMID:11858871

  13. Patient assessment: validation of a nursing instrument.

    PubMed

    Harris, R; Wilson-Barnett, J; Griffiths, P; Evans, A

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Byron Physical Assessment Framework (BPAF). The BPAF is a systems based checklist of physiological measurements, signs, and symptoms designed to structure and document the assessment of a patients physical condition by nursing staff. Initially the BPAF was refined using extensive literature review and expert opinion to improve the comprehensiveness and clarity for its intended purpose. As a result the content validity of the BPAF was supported. Inter-rater reliability between both expert-expert and novice-expert pairings was assessed. A total of 68 assessments were conducted by pairs of qualified nurses with patients on general medical and surgical wards and a nursing-led unit in one London Hospital. Reliability of the dichotomous data items of the BPAF was found to be generally good (kappa > 0.6) with only one item showing a poor reliability (kappa < 0.20). Reliability for continuous items such as pulse and respiratory rate was surprisingly low with evidence of large variation between raters in addition to systematic bias. With relatively little teaching, novice assessors were able to use the BPAF and achieve good inter-rater reliability with expert assessors although this was lower than the reliability of the expert diads. The utilisation of the BPAF to fulfil intended purpose was assessed by examining completed assessments and the outcome in terms of nurses' actions in light of new abnormal findings. Both were found to be fair, showing that the BPAF does affect the actions of nurses although it could be utilised more. PMID:9871820

  14. Substantial evidence of effect.

    PubMed

    Gould, A Lawrence

    2002-02-01

    Pressures for rapid drug development, especially for treatments that may affect public health significantly, drive a need to reconsider what is necessary to establish the "substantial evidence" of efficacy and safety required for regulatory approval. The concept of substantial evidence of effect can be stated fairly simply in principle, but its application to the evaluation of findings from real clinical drug development programs can be quite complicated and depend on circumstances relating to the population studied and the condition being treated. This paper discusses a number of considerations that arise in attempting to address this issue. These include confirmation of efficacy/safety as opposed to replication of results, the use of surrogates for the clinical outcome, ethical considerations, the use of trials aimed at demonstrating equivalence or noninferiority instead of superiority of a new drug, and the balance between benefits and risks. Recent developments such as the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines dealing with statistical principles and choice of control group, and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidances interpreting the 1998 Modernization Act identify useful alternative definitions of substantial evidence and also identify when a single study can be enough to demonstrate a clinically important effect. The primary difficulty with the use of noninferiority trials is the need to demonstrate assay sensitivity or validity, i.e., that the trial would have demonstrated the superiority of the active control treatment to placebo had the trial included a placebo group. Failure to demonstrate a significant difference between the presumed active treatments and an inactive control precludes a definitive conclusion of assay validity, but external evidence, e.g., from trials demonstrating the activity of the active control, may yet justify concluding that the trial was assay valid. Issues of interpretation of important unexpected

  15. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  16. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  17. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  18. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  19. Parental Academic Support: A Validity Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazer, Joseph P.; Thompson, Blair

    2016-01-01

    This study offers validity evidence for the Parental Academic Support Scale, a 16-item multidimensional measure that assesses support related to a child's academic performance, classroom behavior, preparation, hostile peer interactions, and health. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Parental Academic Support Scale (PASS) revealed a close model…

  20. Self-Construal Scales Lack Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; Bresnahan, Mary Jiang; Park, Hee Sun; Lapinski, Maria Knight; Wittenbaum, Gwen M.; Shearman, Sachiyo Morinaga; Lee, Sun Young; Chung, Donghun; Ohashi, Rie

    2003-01-01

    Reports a meta-analysis of published cross-cultural self-construal research. Notes that the results across studies suggests that the evidence for the predicted cultural differences is weak, inconsistent, or nonexistent. Concludes that catastrophic validity problems exist in research involving the use of self-construal scales in cross-cultural…

  1. An Argument Approach to Observation Protocol Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Courtney A.; Gitomer, Drew H.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Hamre, Bridget K.; Pianta, Robert C.; Qi, Yi

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a validity argument approach for use on observation protocols currently used to assess teacher quality for high-stakes personnel and professional development decisions. After defining the teaching quality domain, we articulate an interpretive argument for observation protocols. To illustrate the types of evidence that might…

  2. [Validation of the Russian language version of the SSQ questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Tufatulin, G Sh; Artyushkin, S A

    2016-01-01

    The Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ) is applied worldwide as a highly reliable tool for the characteristic of the quality of life and subjective sensations of the patients presenting with hearing impairment as well as for the estimation of the efficiency of hearing aids. The objective of the present study was to validate and adapt the Russian language version of the SSQ questionnaire (SSQrus) for its application in the audiological practice under conditions of this country. After the cultural and language adaptation of SSQrus, it was validated by means of repeat interviewing of three groups of the respondents (a total of 93 subjects with normal, moderately and severely impaired hearing). The results of the validation give evidence of the high reliability of the modified questionnaire. Specifically, high reproducibility of the data estimated from the results of the second interview has been demonstrated (r=0.85--0.99). High sensitivity of SSQruswas confirmed by the agreement between the results of the estimation (in scores) and the degree of the observed loss of hearing. The estimates obtained by the application of the SSQrus questionnaire are comparable with those reported by the foreign authors. It is concluded that the SSQrus questionnaire can be used in routine audiological practice as an additional diagnostic instrument for the estimation of hearing problems experienced by a patient, monitoring efficiency of therapy and surgical treatment of hearing impairment, improvement of hearing aids, and hearing dysfunction research. PMID:27213649

  3. Code inspection instructional validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Kay; Stancil, Shirley

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Data Systems Branch (SDSB) of the Flight Data Systems Division (FDSD) at Johnson Space Center contracted with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to validate the effectiveness of an interactive video course on the code inspection process. The purpose of this project was to determine if this course could be effective for teaching NASA analysts the process of code inspection. In addition, NASA was interested in the effectiveness of this unique type of instruction (Digital Video Interactive), for providing training on software processes. This study found the Carnegie Mellon course, 'A Cure for the Common Code', effective for teaching the process of code inspection. In addition, analysts prefer learning with this method of instruction, or this method in combination with other methods. As is, the course is definitely better than no course at all; however, findings indicate changes are needed. Following are conclusions of this study. (1) The course is instructionally effective. (2) The simulation has a positive effect on student's confidence in his ability to apply new knowledge. (3) Analysts like the course and prefer this method of training, or this method in combination with current methods of training in code inspection, over the way training is currently being conducted. (4) Analysts responded favorably to information presented through scenarios incorporating full motion video. (5) Some course content needs to be changed. (6) Some content needs to be added to the course. SwRI believes this study indicates interactive video instruction combined with simulation is effective for teaching software processes. Based on the conclusions of this study, SwRI has outlined seven options for NASA to consider. SwRI recommends the option which involves creation of new source code and data files, but uses much of the existing content and design from the current course. Although this option involves a significant software development effort, SwRI believes this option

  4. Transferring Evidence into Practice: What Evidence Summaries of Library and Information Studies Research Tell Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloda, Lorie A.; Koufogiannakis, Denise; Mallan, Katrine

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Critical appraisal is a crucial aspect of evidence-based practice. In order to determine whether research is valid, reliable and applicable, the evidence-based practice process advocates that published research be critically appraised. Between 2006 and 2008, the journal Evidence Based Library and Information Practice published 101…

  5. Mobile propeller dynamometer validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Mason Wade

    With growing interest in UAVs and OSU's interest in propeller performance and manufacturing, evaluating UAV propeller and propulsion system performance has become essential. In attempts to evaluate these propellers a mobile propeller dynamometer has been designed, built, and tested. The mobile dyno has been designed to be cost effective through the ability to load it into the back of a test vehicle to create simulated forward flight characteristics. This allows much larger propellers to be dynamically tested without the use of large and expensive wind tunnels. While evaluating the accuracy of the dyno, several improvements had to be made to get accurate results. The decisions made to design and improve the mobile propeller dyno will be discussed along with attempts to validate the dyno by comparing its results against known sources. Another large part of assuring the accuracy of the mobile dyno is determining if the test vehicle will influence the flow going into the propellers being tested. The flow into the propeller needs to be as smooth and uniform as possible. This is determined by characterizing the boundary layer and accelerated flow over the vehicle. This evaluation was accomplished with extensive vehicle aerodynamic measurements with the use of full-scale tests using a pitot-rake and the actual test vehicle. Additional tests were conducted in Oklahoma State University's low speed wind tunnel with a 1/8-scale model using qualitative flow visualization with smoke. Continuing research on the mobile dyno will be discussed, along with other potential uses for the dyno.

  6. Pharmacological and Chemical Effects of Cigarette Additives

    PubMed Central

    Rabinoff, Michael; Caskey, Nicholas; Rissling, Anthony; Park, Candice

    2007-01-01

    We investigated tobacco industry documents and other sources for evidence of possible pharmacological and chemical effects of tobacco additives. Our findings indicated that more than 100 of 599 documented cigarette additives have pharmacological actions that camouflage the odor of environmental tobacco smoke emitted from cigarettes, enhance or maintain nicotine delivery, could increase the addictiveness of cigarettes, and mask symptoms and illnesses associated with smoking behaviors. Whether such uses were specifically intended for these agents is unknown. Our results provide a clear rationale for regulatory control of tobacco additives. PMID:17666709

  7. Are validated outcome measures used in distal radial fractures truly valid?

    PubMed Central

    Nienhuis, R. W.; Bhandari, M.; Goslings, J. C.; Poolman, R. W.; Scholtes, V. A. B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are often used to evaluate the outcome of treatment in patients with distal radial fractures. Which PROM to select is often based on assessment of measurement properties, such as validity and reliability. Measurement properties are assessed in clinimetric studies, and results are often reviewed without considering the methodological quality of these studies. Our aim was to systematically review the methodological quality of clinimetric studies that evaluated measurement properties of PROMs used in patients with distal radial fractures, and to make recommendations for the selection of PROMs based on the level of evidence of each individual measurement property. Methods A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, EMbase, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases to identify relevant clinimetric studies. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of the studies on measurement properties, using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. Level of evidence (strong / moderate / limited / lacking) for each measurement property per PROM was determined by combining the methodological quality and the results of the different clinimetric studies. Results In all, 19 out of 1508 identified unique studies were included, in which 12 PROMs were rated. The Patient-rated wrist evaluation (PRWE) and the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH) were evaluated on most measurement properties. The evidence for the PRWE is moderate that its reliability, validity (content and hypothesis testing), and responsiveness are good. The evidence is limited that its internal consistency and cross-cultural validity are good, and its measurement error is acceptable. There is no evidence for its structural and criterion validity. The evidence for the DASH is moderate that its responsiveness is good. The evidence is limited that its reliability and the

  8. Toward Supersonic Retropropulsion CFD Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, Bil; Schauerhamer, D. Guy; Trumble, Kerry; Sozer, Emre; Barnhardt, Michael; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Edquist, Karl

    2011-01-01

    This paper begins the process of verifying and validating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes for supersonic retropropulsive flows. Four CFD codes (DPLR, FUN3D, OVERFLOW, and US3D) are used to perform various numerical and physical modeling studies toward the goal of comparing predictions with a wind tunnel experiment specifically designed to support CFD validation. Numerical studies run the gamut in rigor from code-to-code comparisons to observed order-of-accuracy tests. Results indicate that this complex flowfield, involving time-dependent shocks and vortex shedding, design order of accuracy is not clearly evident. Also explored is the extent of physical modeling necessary to predict the salient flowfield features found in high-speed Schlieren images and surface pressure measurements taken during the validation experiment. Physical modeling studies include geometric items such as wind tunnel wall and sting mount interference, as well as turbulence modeling that ranges from a RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) 2-equation model to DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) models. These studies indicate that tunnel wall interference is minimal for the cases investigated; model mounting hardware effects are confined to the aft end of the model; and sparse grid resolution and turbulence modeling can damp or entirely dissipate the unsteadiness of this self-excited flow.

  9. Concurrency revisited: increasing and compelling epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Mah, Timothy L; Shelton, James D

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sexual partnerships must necessarily lie at the root of a sexually transmitted epidemic. However, that overlapping or concurrent partnerships have played a pivotal role in the generalized epidemics of sub-Saharan Africa has been challenged. Much of the original proposition that concurrent partnerships play such a role focused on modelling, self-reported sexual behaviour data and ethnographic data. While each of these has definite merit, each also has had methodological limitations. Actually, more recent cross-national sexual behaviour data and improved modelling have strengthened these lines of evidence. However, heretofore the epidemiologic evidence has not been systematically brought to bear. Though assessing the epidemiologic evidence regarding concurrency has its challenges, a careful examination, especially of those studies that have assessed HIV incidence, clearly indicates a key role for concurrency.Such evidence includes: 1) the early and dramatic rise of HIV infection in generalized epidemics that can only arise from transmission through rapid sequential acute infections and thereby concurrency; 2) clear evidence from incidence studies that a major portion of transmission in the population occurs via concurrency both for concordant negative and discordant couples; 3) elevation in risk associated with partner's multiple partnering; 4) declines in HIV associated with declines in concurrency; 5) bursts and clustering of incident infections that indicate concurrency and acute infection play a key role in the propagation of epidemics; and 6) a lack of other plausible explanations, including serial monogamy and non-sexual transmission. While other factors, such as sexually transmitted infections, other infectious diseases, biological factors and HIV sub-type, likely play a role in enhancing transmission, it appears most plausible that these would amplify the role of concurrency rather than alter it. Additionally, critics of concurrency have not proposed

  10. Decision-Making, Science and Gasoline Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. W.; Small, M. C.

    2001-12-01

    Methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to serve two major purposes. The first use was as an octane-enhancer to replace organic lead, beginning in 1979. The second use, which began about 1992, was as a oxygenated additive to meet requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Generally, the amount of MTBE used for octane enhancement was lower than that required to meet CAAA requirements. An unintended consequence of MTBE use has been widespread groundwater contamination. The decision to use certain amounts of MTBE or other chemcials as gasoline additives is the outcome of economic, regulatory, policy, political, and scientific considerations. Decision makers ask questions such as "How do ground water impacts change with changing MTBE content? How many wells would be impacted? and What are the associated costs?" These are best answered through scientific inquiry, but many different approaches could be developed. Decision criteria include time, money, comprehensiveness, and complexity of the approach. Because results must be communicated to a non-technical audience, there is a trade off between the complexity of the approach and the ability to convince economists, lawyers and policy makers that results make sense. The question on MTBE content posed above was investigated using transport models, a release scenario and gasoline composition. Because of the inability of transport models to predict future concentrations, an approach was chosen to base comparative assessment on a calibrated model. By taking this approach, "generic" modeling with arbitrarily selected parameters was avoided and the validity of the simulation results rests upon relatively small extrapolations from the original calibrated models. A set of simulations was performed that assumed 3% (octane enhancement) and 11% (CAAA) MTBE in gasoline. The results were that ground water concentrations would be reduced in proportion to the reduction of MTBE in the fuel

  11. Adverse reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1986-01-01

    There are thousands of agents that are intentionally added to the food that we consume. These include preservatives, stabilizers, conditioners, thickeners, colorings, flavorings, sweeteners, antioxidants, etc. etc. Yet only a surprisingly small number have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Amongst all the additives, FD&C dyes have been most frequently associated with adverse reactions. Tartrazine is the most notorious of them all; however, critical review of the medical literature and current Scripps Clinic studies would indicate that tartrazine has been confirmed to be at best only occasionally associated with flares of urticaria or asthma. There is no convincing evidence in the literature of reactivity to the other azo or nonazo dyes. This can also be said of BHA/BHT, nitrites/nitrates and sorbates. Parabens have been shown to elicit IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions when used as pharmaceutical preservatives; however, as with the other additives noted above, ingested parabens have only occasionally been associated with adverse reactions. MSG, the cause of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' has only been linked to asthma in one report. Sulfiting agents used primarily as food fresheners and to control microbial growth in fermented beverages have been established as the cause of any where from mild to severe and even fatal reactions in at least 5% of the asthmatic population. Other reactions reported to follow sulfite ingestion include anaphylaxis, gastro intestinal complaints and dermatological eruptions. The prevalence of these non asthmatic reactions is unknown. The mechanism of sulfite sensitive asthma is also unknown but most likely involves hyperreactivity to inhale SO2 in the great majority of cases; however, there are reports of IgE mediated reactions and other sulfite sensitive asthmatics have been found with low levels of sulfite oxidase; necessary to oxidize endogenous sulfite to sulfate. PMID:3302664

  12. Development and Validation of a Multimedia-based Assessment of Scientific Inquiry Abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Che-Yu; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Jen, Tsung-Hau; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2015-09-01

    The potential of computer-based assessments for capturing complex learning outcomes has been discussed; however, relatively little is understood about how to leverage such potential for summative and accountability purposes. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a multimedia-based assessment of scientific inquiry abilities (MASIA) to cover a more comprehensive construct of inquiry abilities and target secondary school students in different grades while this potential is leveraged. We implemented five steps derived from the construct modeling approach to design MASIA. During the implementation, multiple sources of evidence were collected in the steps of pilot testing and Rasch modeling to support the validity of MASIA. Particularly, through the participation of 1,066 8th and 11th graders, MASIA showed satisfactory psychometric properties to discriminate students with different levels of inquiry abilities in 101 items in 29 tasks when Rasch models were applied. Additionally, the Wright map indicated that MASIA offered accurate information about students' inquiry abilities because of the comparability of the distributions of student abilities and item difficulties. The analysis results also suggested that MASIA offered precise measures of inquiry abilities when the components (questioning, experimenting, analyzing, and explaining) were regarded as a coherent construct. Finally, the increased mean difficulty thresholds of item responses along with three performance levels across all sub-abilities supported the alignment between our scoring rubrics and our inquiry framework. Together with other sources of validity in the pilot testing, the results offered evidence to support the validity of MASIA.

  13. Policy and Validity Prospects for Performance-Based Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This article describes performance-based assessment as expounded by its proponents, comments on these conceptions, reviews evidence regarding the technical quality of performance-based assessment, and considers its validity under various policy options. (JDD)

  14. Development and validation of a Coping with Discrimination Scale: factor structure, reliability, and validity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Meifen; Alvarez, Alvin N; Ku, Tsun-Yao; Russell, Daniel W; Bonett, Douglas G

    2010-07-01

    Four studies were conducted to develop and validate the Coping With Discrimination Scale (CDS). In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis (N = 328) identified 5 factors: Education/Advocacy, Internalization, Drug and Alcohol Use, Resistance, and Detachment, with internal consistency reliability estimates ranging from .72 to .90. In Study 2, a confirmatory factor analysis (N = 328) provided cross-validation of the 5-factor model as well as evidence for validity of the scale. The validity evidence was similar across racial groups and for males and females. In Study 3, the estimated 2-week test-retest reliabilities (N = 53) were between .48 and .85 for the 5 factors. Education/Advocacy, Internalization, Drug and Alcohol Use, and Detachment were positively associated with active coping, self-blame, substance use, and behavioral disengagement, respectively, providing further support for validity of the CDS. Finally, incremental validity evidence was obtained in Study 4 (N = 220), where it was shown that the CDS explained variance in outcome variables (i.e., depression, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and ethnic identity) that could not be explained by general coping strategies. PMID:21133583

  15. Reliability and Validity of Instruments for Assessing Perinatal Depression in African Settings: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Alexander C.; Scott, Jennifer A.; Hung, Kristin J.; Zhu, Jennifer Q.; Matthews, Lynn T.; Psaros, Christina; Tomlinson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background A major barrier to improving perinatal mental health in Africa is the lack of locally validated tools for identifying probable cases of perinatal depression or for measuring changes in depression symptom severity. We systematically reviewed the evidence on the reliability and validity of instruments to assess perinatal depression in African settings. Methods and Findings Of 1,027 records identified through searching 7 electronic databases, we reviewed 126 full-text reports. We included 25 unique studies, which were disseminated in 26 journal articles and 1 doctoral dissertation. These enrolled 12,544 women living in nine different North and sub-Saharan African countries. Only three studies (12%) used instruments developed specifically for use in a given cultural setting. Most studies provided evidence of criterion-related validity (20 [80%]) or reliability (15 [60%]), while fewer studies provided evidence of construct validity, content validity, or internal structure. The Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS), assessed in 16 studies (64%), was the most frequently used instrument in our sample. Ten studies estimated the internal consistency of the EPDS (median estimated coefficient alpha, 0.84; interquartile range, 0.71-0.87). For the 14 studies that estimated sensitivity and specificity for the EPDS, we constructed 2 x 2 tables for each cut-off score. Using a bivariate random-effects model, we estimated a pooled sensitivity of 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-0.99) and a pooled specificity of 0.77 (95% CI, 0.59-0.88) at a cut-off score of ≥9, with higher cut-off scores yielding greater specificity at the cost of lower sensitivity. Conclusions The EPDS can reliably and validly measure perinatal depression symptom severity or screen for probable postnatal depression in African countries, but more validation studies on other instruments are needed. In addition, more qualitative research is needed to adequately characterize local

  16. Synthesizing Quantitative Evidence for Evidence-based Nursing: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eui Geum

    2016-06-01

    As evidence-based practice has become an important issue in healthcare settings, the educational needs for knowledge and skills for the generation and utilization of healthcare evidence are increasing. Systematic review (SR), a way of evidence generation, is a synthesis of primary scientific evidence, which summarizes the best evidence on a specific clinical question using a transparent, a priori protocol driven approach. SR methodology requires a critical appraisal of primary studies, data extraction in a reliable and repeatable way, and examination for validity of the results. SRs are considered hierarchically as the highest form of evidence as they are a systematic search, identification, and summarization of the available evidence to answer a focused clinical question with particular attention to the methodological quality of studies or the credibility of opinion and text. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an overview of the fundamental knowledge, principals and processes in SR. The focus of this paper is on SR especially for the synthesis of quantitative data from primary research studies that examines the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. To activate evidence-based nursing care in various healthcare settings, the best and available scientific evidence are essential components. This paper will include some examples to promote understandings. PMID:27349664

  17. TES Validation Reports

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-06-30

    ... Reports: TES Data Versions: TES Validation Report Version 6.0 (PDF) R13 processing version; F07_10 file versions TES Validation Report Version 5.0 (PDF) R12 processing version; F06_08, F06_09 file ...

  18. A Validity Network Schema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinberg, David; McGrath, Joseph E.

    Numerous forms and meanings of validity have been developed to provide researchers with the opportunity to assess the many potential sources of ambiguity that exist in any research finding. A Validity Network Schema (VNS) developed by Brinberg & McGrath (1982) is extended and elaborated in order to describe the components of the research process…

  19. Five Data Validation Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkin, Mark G.

    2008-01-01

    Data-validation routines enable computer applications to test data to ensure their accuracy, completeness, and conformance to industry or proprietary standards. This paper presents five programming cases that require students to validate five different types of data: (1) simple user data entries, (2) UPC codes, (3) passwords, (4) ISBN numbers, and…

  20. SOSS ICN Model Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Zhifan

    2016-01-01

    Under the NASA-KAIA-KARI ATM research collaboration agreement, SOSS ICN Model has been developed for Incheon International Airport. This presentation describes the model validation work in the project. The presentation will show the results and analysis of the validation.

  1. Validating Analytical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)

  2. Validity and Reliability of the Clinical Competency Evaluation Instrument for Use among Physiotherapy Students

    PubMed Central

    Muhamad, Zailani; Ramli, Ayiesah; Amat, Salleh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the content validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability of the Clinical Competency Evaluation Instrument (CCEVI) in assessing the clinical performance of physiotherapy students. Methods: This study was carried out between June and September 2013 at University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A panel of 10 experts were identified to establish content validity by evaluating and rating each of the items used in the CCEVI with regards to their relevance in measuring students’ clinical competency. A total of 50 UKM undergraduate physiotherapy students were assessed throughout their clinical placement to determine the construct validity of these items. The instrument’s reliability was determined through a cross-sectional study involving a clinical performance assessment of 14 final-year undergraduate physiotherapy students. Results: The content validity index of the entire CCEVI was 0.91, while the proportion of agreement on the content validity indices ranged from 0.83–1.00. The CCEVI construct validity was established with factor loading of ≥0.6, while internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) overall was 0.97. Test-retest reliability of the CCEVI was confirmed with a Pearson’s correlation range of 0.91–0.97 and an intraclass coefficient correlation range of 0.95–0.98. Inter-rater reliability of the CCEVI domains ranged from 0.59 to 0.97 on initial and subsequent assessments. Conclusion: This pilot study confirmed the content validity of the CCEVI. It showed high internal consistency, thereby providing evidence that the CCEVI has moderate to excellent inter-rater reliability. However, additional refinement in the wording of the CCEVI items, particularly in the domains of safety and documentation, is recommended to further improve the validity and reliability of the instrument. PMID:26052461

  3. Evidence-based dentistry.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    Both panegyric and criticism of evidence-based dentistry tend to be clumsy because the concept is poorly defined. This analysis identifies several contributions to the profession that have been made under the EBD banner. Although the concept of clinicians integrating clinical epidemiology, the wisdom of their practices, and patients' values is powerful, its implementation has been distorted by a too heavy emphasis of computerized searches for research findings that meet the standards of academics. Although EBD advocates enjoy sharing anecdotal accounts of mistakes others have made, faulting others is not proof that one's own position is correct. There is no systematic, high-quality evidence that EBD is effective. The metaphor of a three-legged stool (evidence, experience, values, and integration) is used as an organizing principle. "Best evidence" has become a preoccupation among EBD enthusiasts. That overlong but thinly developed leg of the stool is critiqued from the perspectives of the criteria for evidence, the difference between internal and external validity, the relationship between evidence and decision making, the ambiguous meaning of "best," and the role of reasonable doubt. The strongest leg of the stool is clinical experience. Although bias exists in all observations (including searches for evidence), there are simple procedures that can be employed in practice to increase useful and objective evidence there, and there are dangers in delegating policy regarding allowable treatments to external groups. Patient and practitioner values are the shortest leg of the stool. As they are so little recognized, their integration in EBD is problematic and ethical tensions exist where paternalism privileges science over patient's self-determined best interests. Four potential approaches to integration are suggested, recognizing that there is virtually no literature on how the "seat" of the three-legged stool works or should work. It is likely that most dentists

  4. Validity of Structure, Coherence, and Quality Measures in Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Sharon L.; Fitzgerald, Jill

    1993-01-01

    Investigates convergent and divergent validity of inferences from selected measures of structure, coherence, and quality for compositions. Finds (1) strong support for validity of inferences from the structure measures, serious questions of inferences from coherence measures, and weak support for quality measures; (2) some evidence for the…

  5. Measuring Long-Distance Romantic Relationships: A Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole; Roberts, Amber

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated aspects of construct validity for the scores of a new long-distance romantic relationship measure. A single-factor structure of the long-distance romantic relationship index emerged, with convergent and discriminant evidence of external validity, high internal consistency reliability, and applied utility of the scores.…

  6. DISCOVER: Concurrent Validity, Gender Differences, and Identification of Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 257 Navajo Indians and Mexican American elementary students, used the Raven Progressive Matrices to examined the concurrent validity of the DISCOVER assessment. Results provided some evidence for concurrent validity and showed that, through the use of the DISCOVER assessment, 22.9 percent were identified as gifted. (Contains…

  7. Test Takers and the Validity of Score Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopriva, Rebecca J.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Perie, Marianne; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Clark, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that test takers are as integral to determining validity of test scores as defining target content and conditioning inferences on test use. A principled sustained attention to how students interact with assessment opportunities is essential, as is a principled sustained evaluation of evidence confirming the validity or calling…

  8. Validity of the Microcomputer Evaluation Screening and Assessment Aptitude Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janikowski, Timothy P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined validity of Microcomputer Evaluation Screening and Assessment (MESA) aptitude scores relative to General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) using multitrait-multimethod correlational analyses. Findings from 54 rehabilitation clients and 29 displaced workers revealed no evidence to support the construct validity of the MESA. (Author/NB)

  9. Validation of the Juhnke-Balkin Life Balance Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, R. J.; Balkin, Richard S.; Juhnke, Gerald A.

    2014-01-01

    Life balance is an important construct within the counseling profession. A validation study utilizing exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression was conducted on the Juhnke-Balkin Life Balance Inventory. Results from the study serve as evidence of validity for an assessment instrument designed to measure life balance.

  10. Practical Guidelines for Valid and Reliable Youth Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahar, Matthew T.; Rowe, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate measures of youth fitness are needed by researchers and practitioners. Evidence of validity and reliability are essential before results of youth fitness tests can be used to make sound decisions. This article describes a three-stage paradigm for validation research and provides guidance for conducting and understanding norm-referenced…

  11. "La Clave Profesional": Validation of a Vocational Guidance Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudarra, Maria J.; Lázaro Martínez, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The current study demonstrates empirical and cultural validity of "La Clave Profesional" (Spanish adaptation of Career Key, Jones's test based Holland's RIASEC model). The process of providing validity evidence also includes a reflection on personal and career development and examines the relationahsips between…

  12. Evaluating the Content Validity of Multistage-Adaptive Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crotts, Katrina; Sireci, Stephen G.; Zenisky, April

    2012-01-01

    Validity evidence based on test content is important for educational tests to demonstrate the degree to which they fulfill their purposes. Most content validity studies involve subject matter experts (SMEs) who rate items that comprise a test form. In computerized-adaptive testing, examinees take different sets of items and test "forms" do not…

  13. Differential Validity: A Problem with Tests or Criteria?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollmann, Thomas D.

    The evidence used in condemning a test as racially biased is usually a validity coefficient for one racial group that is significantly different from that of another racial group. However, both variables in the calculation of a validity coefficient should be examined to determine where the bias lies. A study was conducted to investigate the…

  14. Validation of gamma irradiator controls for quality and regulatory compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Rorry B.; Pinteric, Francis J. A.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1978 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has had both the legal authority and the Current Good Manufacturing Practice (CGMP) regulations in place to require irradiator owners who process medical devices to produce evidence of Irradiation Process Validation. One of the key components of Irradiation Process Validation is the validation of the irradiator controls. However, it is only recently that FDA audits have focused on this component of the process validation. What is Irradiator Control System Validation? What constitutes evidence of control? How do owners obtain evidence? What is the irradiator supplier's role in validation? How does the ISO 9000 Quality Standard relate to the FDA's CGMP requirement for evidence of Control System Validation? This paper presents answers to these questions based on the recent experiences of Nordion's engineering and product management staff who have worked with several US-based irradiator owners. This topic — Validation of Irradiator Controls — is a significant regulatory compliance and operations issue within the irradiator suppliers' and users' community.

  15. Validity and Use of the My Class Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Darrell L.; Fraser, Barry J.

    1981-01-01

    Presents evidence that attests to the potential usefulness of the MCI in science education research. Describes the first use of the MCI specifically in science education research and current research efforts that reveal satisfactory internal consistency, discriminant validity, and predictive validity of the MCI scales. (CS)

  16. Interpreting Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsart, Craig A.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity that allows students to experience the type of discovery process that paleontologists necessarily followed during the early dinosaur explorations. Students are read parts of a story taken from the "American Journal of Science" and interpret the evidence leading to the discovery of Triceratops and Stegosaurus. (PR)

  17. The Trojan Lifetime Champions Health Survey: Development, Validity, and Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, Shawn C.; Romano, Russell; Scholefield, Robin M.; Schroeder, E. Todd; Azen, Stanley P.; Salem, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Context Self-report questionnaires are an important method of evaluating lifespan health, exercise, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes among elite, competitive athletes. Few instruments, however, have undergone formal characterization of their psychometric properties within this population. Objective To evaluate the validity and reliability of a novel health and exercise questionnaire, the Trojan Lifetime Champions (TLC) Health Survey. Design Descriptive laboratory study. Setting A large National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Patients or Other Participants A total of 63 university alumni (age range, 24 to 84 years), including former varsity collegiate athletes and a control group of nonathletes. Intervention(s) Participants completed the TLC Health Survey twice at a mean interval of 23 days with randomization to the paper or electronic version of the instrument. Main Outcome Measure(s) Content validity, feasibility of administration, test-retest reliability, parallel-form reliability between paper and electronic forms, and estimates of systematic and typical error versus differences of clinical interest were assessed across a broad range of health, exercise, and HRQL measures. Results Correlation coefficients, including intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for continuous variables and κ agreement statistics for ordinal variables, for test-retest reliability averaged 0.86, 0.90, 0.80, and 0.74 for HRQL, lifetime health, recent health, and exercise variables, respectively. Correlation coefficients, again ICCs and κ, for parallel-form reliability (ie, equivalence) between paper and electronic versions averaged 0.90, 0.85, 0.85, and 0.81 for HRQL, lifetime health, recent health, and exercise variables, respectively. Typical measurement error was less than the a priori thresholds of clinical interest, and we found minimal evidence of systematic test-retest error. We found strong evidence of content validity, convergent

  18. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Computational Process and Material Modeling of Powder Bed additive manufacturing of IN 718. Optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling. Increase understanding of build properties. Increase reliability of builds. Decrease time to adoption of process for critical hardware. Potential to decrease post-build heat treatments. Conduct single-track and coupon builds at various build parameters. Record build parameter information and QM Meltpool data. Refine Applied Optimization powder bed AM process model using data. Report thermal modeling results. Conduct metallography of build samples. Calibrate STK models using metallography findings. Run STK models using AO thermal profiles and report STK modeling results. Validate modeling with additional build. Photodiode Intensity measurements highly linear with power input. Melt Pool Intensity highly correlated to Melt Pool Size. Melt Pool size and intensity increase with power. Applied Optimization will use data to develop powder bed additive manufacturing process model.

  19. PLCO Ovarian Phase III Validation Study — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Our preliminary data indicate that the performance of CA 125 as a screening test for ovarian cancer can be improved upon by additional biomarkers. With completion of one additional validation step, we will be ready to test the performance of a consensus marker panel in a phase III validation study. Given the original aims of the PLCO trial, we believe that the PLCO represents an ideal longitudinal cohort offering specimens for phase III validation of ovarian cancer biomarkers.

  20. The Core Self-Evaluation Scale: Further Construct Validation Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Donald G.; Pierce, Jon L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors empirically examined two operationalizations of the core self-evaluation construct: (a) the Judge, Erez, Bono, and Thoresen 12-item scale and (b) a composite measure of self-esteem, self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism.The study found that the composite scale relates more strongly than the shorter scale to performance,…