Science.gov

Sample records for additional valuable information

  1. Solving transportation problems; Automated monitoring system provides valuable information

    SciTech Connect

    Dillavou, J. )

    1989-07-01

    Montana-Dakota Utilities Co. is a public utility with electric and natural gas distribution systems. Its natural gas distribution operation serves more than 175,000 customers in a 168,000-sq-mile service area. Serving such a large geographical area with the required daily nomination and usage reporting conditions of the transportation contracts posed many potential problems from an operation point of view. MDU solved these problems by implementing a fully automated system. The Metretek data collection system is described in this paper. It provides MDU with the volume information required to balance and bill the transportation accounts as well as monitor end-use transportation customer requirements on a timely basis.

  2. Feeding rate as valuable information in primate feeding ecology.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Naofumi

    2009-04-01

    In this review I outline studies on wild non-human primates using information on feeding rate, which is defined as the food intake per minute on a dry-weight basis; further, I summarize the significance of feeding rate in primate feeding ecology. The optimal foraging theory has addressed three aspects of animal feeding: (1) optimal food patch choice, (2) optimal time allocation to different patches, and (3) optimal food choice. In order to gain a better understanding of these three aspects, the feeding rate itself or its relevance indices (e.g., rates of calorie and protein intake) could be appropriate measures to assess the quality of food and food patches. Moreover, the feeding rate plays an essential role in estimation of total food intake, because it varies greatly for different food items and the feeding time is not a precise measure. The feeding rate could also vary across individuals who simultaneously feed on the same food items in the same food patch. Body size-dependent and rank-dependent differences in the feeding rate sometimes cause individuals to take strategic behavioral options. In the closing remarks, I discuss the usefulness of even limited data on feeding rate obtained under adverse observational conditions in understanding primate feeding ecology.

  3. Recovery of valuable metals from electroplating sludge with reducing additives via vitrification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ruth; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Zih-Yi; Wang, Jian-Wen; Lin, Chitsan; Kuo, Yi-Ming

    2013-11-15

    In this study, vitrification was applied to treat Ni-Cu electroplating sludge. The sludge was mixed with additives (limestone:cullet = 4:6) and then heated to 1450 °C. The cooled product could be separated into slag and ingot. An atomic absorption spectrometer was used to determine the metal levels of specimens and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests, whereas the crystalline and surface characteristics were examined using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. With a glassy structure, the slag was mainly composed of Ca, Si, and Mg. The TCLP results of slags met the Taiwan regulated standards, suggesting that slag can be used for recycling purposes. With the aid of additives, the crystalline phase of slag was transformed form CaMgSiO4 into CsSiO3. The ingots were mainly composed of Ni (563,000-693,800 mg/kg), Cu (79,900-87,400 mg/kg), and Fe (35,000-43,600 mg/kg) (target metals) due the gravity separation during vitrification. At appropriate additives/sludge ratios (>0.2), >95% of target metals gathered in the ingot as a recoverable form (Ni-Fe alloy). The high Ni level of slag suggests that the ingot can be used as the raw materials for smelters or the additives for steel making. Therefore, the vitrification approach of this study is a promising technology to recover valuable metals from Ni-Cu electroplating sludge.

  4. Excretion of stable isotopes in man: A valuable source of information on trace metal kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Fennessey, P.V.; Miller, L.V.; Westcott, J.E.; Kindstrand, L.; Hambidge, K.M. )

    1991-03-15

    The analysis of individual fecal samples collected for at least ten days following an oral dose of {sup 70}Zn provides data on transit time, absorption and the excretion of isotope that has been absorbed and then secreted back into the lumen of the intestine. The analysis of data from more than 80 human studies where enriched Zn stable isotopes were given orally has provided a valuable data base on Zn kinetics. A plot of enrichment in the fecal samples as a function of time reveals the average time of maximum appearance as well as the time limit needed for elimination of unabsorbed isotope. A plot of cumulative enrichment as a function of time reveals information on both absorption and secretion rate of absorbed isotope. This data base provides investigators with new information that they can use to optimize their data collection schemes and serves as a model for the study of other trace metals.

  5. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  6. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  7. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  8. Western scrub-jays allocate longer observation time to more valuable information.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Arii; Grodzinski, Uri; Clayton, Nicola S

    2014-07-01

    When humans mentally reconstruct past events and imagine future scenarios, their subjective experience of mentally time travelling is accompanied by the awareness of doing so. Despite recent popularity of studying episodic memory in animals, such phenomenological consciousness has been extremely difficult to demonstrate without agreed behavioural markers of consciousness in non-linguistic subjects. We presented western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) with a task requiring them to allocate observing time between two peepholes to see food being hidden in either of two compartments, one where observing the hiding location was necessary to later relocate the food, and another where food could easily be found without watching. Jays first separately experienced these consequences of possessing information in each compartment and subsequently, once given a choice, made more looks and spent more time looking into the compartment where information was necessary than into the compartment where it was unnecessary. Thus, the jays can collect information to solve a future problem. Moreover, they can differentiate sources of information according to their potential value and modify behaviour to efficiently collect important, usable information. This is the first evidence of metacognition in a species that passes the behavioural criteria for both retrospective and prospective mental time travel.

  9. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE (Eff. Jan. 10, 2011) Content Requirements... notices, the CPSC shall include in the Database any additional information it determines to be in...

  10. Uniform Additivity in Classical and Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Andrew; Li, Ke; Smith, Graeme

    2017-01-01

    Information theory quantifies the optimal rates of resource interconversions, usually in terms of entropies. However, nonadditivity often makes evaluating entropic formulas intractable. In a few auspicious cases, additivity allows a full characterization of optimal rates. We study uniform additivity of formulas, which is easily evaluated and captures all known additive quantum formulas. Our complete characterization of uniform additivity exposes an intriguing new additive quantity and identifies a remarkable coincidence—the classical and quantum uniformly additive functions with one auxiliary variable are identical.

  11. College-Bound Digest. Valuable Information from Prominent Educators for All College-Bound Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    Information for students, counselors, and parents to help in the evaluation of options and opportunities available for most college-bound students is presented in 17 articles. Titles and authors include the following: "Getting the Most from Your High School Counselor" (James Warfield); "The Use of the SAT at Selective Colleges"…

  12. Warning Readers to Avoid Irrelevant Information: When Being Vague Might Be Valuable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peshkam, Annie; Mensink, Michael C.; Putnam, Adam L.; Rapp, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Students are often provided with instructions that are intended to influence their attention to particular sections or elements of their reading materials. To date, the bulk of the work on such prereading instructions has focused on drawing reader attention to relevant text information. In the current project, we examined whether instructions…

  13. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  14. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  15. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.116 Section 1010.116 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION LAND REGISTRATION (REGULATION J) Reporting Requirements § 1010.116 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) Will there be a property owners' association for...

  16. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.116 Section 1010.116 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION LAND REGISTRATION (REGULATION J) Reporting Requirements § 1010.116 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) Will there be a property owners' association for...

  17. Mining biomedical images towards valuable information retrieval in biomedical and life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Zeeshan, Saman; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical images are helpful sources for the scientists and practitioners in drawing significant hypotheses, exemplifying approaches and describing experimental results in published biomedical literature. In last decades, there has been an enormous increase in the amount of heterogeneous biomedical image production and publication, which results in a need for bioimaging platforms for feature extraction and analysis of text and content in biomedical images to take advantage in implementing effective information retrieval systems. In this review, we summarize technologies related to data mining of figures. We describe and compare the potential of different approaches in terms of their developmental aspects, used methodologies, produced results, achieved accuracies and limitations. Our comparative conclusions include current challenges for bioimaging software with selective image mining, embedded text extraction and processing of complex natural language queries. PMID:27538578

  18. Valuable water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In some places, money flows with water. Studying both the water quality and property values around 22 lakes in south-central Maine, Kevin Boyle and Holly James of the University of Maine and Roy Bouchard of the Maine Department of Environmental Protection have found that good water quality makes waterfront property even more valuable. To gauge water quality, the researchers used Secchi disks to measure the clarity of the water at depth. They also reviewed 543 lakefront property sales between 1990 and 1994 to determine how values correlated with changing water conditions. The group also considered such factors as lake frontage, sizes of the houses and lots, and size of the lake.

  19. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.116 Section 1710.116 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  20. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.216 Section 1710.216 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  1. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  2. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  3. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  4. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  5. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  6. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.116 Section 1710.116 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND...

  7. 27 CFR 41.197 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., § 41.197 was revised, effective Aug. 26, 2013 through Aug. 26, 2016. ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 41.197 Section 41.197 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...

  8. 18 CFR 33.10 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 33.10 Section 33.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS UNDER FEDERAL POWER ACT SECTION...

  9. [Information about phosphorus additives and nutritional counseling].

    PubMed

    Kido, Shinsuke; Nomura, Kengo; Sasaki, Shohei; Shiozaki, Yuji; Segawa, Hiroko; Tatsumi, Sawako

    2012-10-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is a common disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) , and may result in hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy. Hyperphosphatemia also may contribute to deterioration vascular calcification and increase mortality. Hence, correction and prevention of hyperphosphatemia is a main component of the management of CKD. This goal is usually approached both by administering phosphorus binders and by restricting dietary phosphorus (P) intake. Dietary intake of phosphorus (P) is derived largely from foods with high protein content or food additives and is an important determinant of P balance in patient with CKD. Food additives (PO4) can dramatically increase the amount of P consumed in the daily diet, especially because P is more readily absorbed in its inorganic form. In addition, information about the P content and type in prepared foods is often unavailable or misleading. Therefore, during dietary counseling of patients with CKD, we recommended that they consider both the absolute dietary P content and the P-to-protein ratio of foods and meals including food additives.

  10. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Service (BSS) in Appendix 30 of the ITU Radio Regulations (RR) and associated feeder-link plans in Appendix 30A of the ITU RR, if the system has technical characteristics differing from those specified in... provide the Commission with the information required by Appendix 4 of the ITU RR for advance...

  11. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... Administrations. (c) In the Direct Broadcast Satellite service, applicants and licensees shall also provide the Commission with all information it requires in order to modify the Appendix 30 Broadcasting-Satellite...

  12. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... Administrations. (c) In the Direct Broadcast Satellite service, applicants and licensees shall also provide the Commission with all information it requires in order to modify the Appendix 30 Broadcasting-Satellite...

  13. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... Administrations. (c) In the Direct Broadcast Satellite service, applicants and licensees shall also provide the Commission with all information it requires in order to modify the Appendix 30 Broadcasting-Satellite...

  14. How to retrieve additional information from the multiplicity distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilk, Grzegorz; Włodarczyk, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Multiplicity distributions (MDs) P(N) measured in multiparticle production processes are most frequently described by the negative binomial distribution (NBD). However, with increasing collision energy some systematic discrepancies have become more and more apparent. They are usually attributed to the possible multi-source structure of the production process and described using a multi-NBD form of the MD. We investigate the possibility of keeping a single NBD but with its parameters depending on the multiplicity N. This is done by modifying the widely known clan model of particle production leading to the NBD form of P(N). This is then confronted with the approach based on the so-called cascade-stochastic formalism which is based on different types of recurrence relations defining P(N). We demonstrate that a combination of both approaches allows the retrieval of additional valuable information from the MDs, namely the oscillatory behavior of the counting statistics apparently visible in the high energy data.

  15. College-Bound Digest. Valuable Information from Prominent Educators for all College-Bound Students. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    Information for students, counselors, and parents to help in the evaluation of options and opportunities available for most college-bound students is presented in 20 articles. Titles and authors are as follows: "Getting the Most from Your High School Counselor" (James Warfield); "The Use of the SAT at Selective Colleges" (Judith Gatlin); "Tips on…

  16. Highly sensitive monitoring of chest wall dynamics and acoustics provides diverse valuable information for evaluating ventilation and diagnosing pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Pesin, Jimy; Faingersh, Anna; Waisman, Dan; Landesberg, Amir

    2014-06-15

    Current practice of monitoring lung ventilation in neonatal intensive care units, utilizing endotracheal tube pressure and flow, end-tidal CO2, arterial O2 saturation from pulse oximetry, and hemodynamic indexes, fails to account for asymmetric pathologies and to allow for early detection of deteriorating ventilation. This study investigated the utility of bilateral measurements of chest wall dynamics and sounds, in providing early detection of changes in the mechanics and distribution of lung ventilation. Nine healthy New Zealand rabbits were ventilated at a constant pressure, while miniature accelerometers were attached to each side of the chest. Slowly progressing pneumothorax was induced by injecting 1 ml/min air into the pleural space on either side of the chest. The end of the experiment (tPTX) was defined when arterial O2 saturation from pulse oximetry dropped <90% or when vigorous spontaneous breathing began, since it represents the time of clinical detection using common methods. Consistent and significant changes were observed in 15 of the chest dynamics parameters. The most meaningful temporal changes were noted for features extracted from subsonic dynamics (<10 Hz), e.g., tidal amplitude, energy, and autoregressive poles. Features from the high-frequency band (10-200 Hz), e.g., energy and entropy, exhibited smaller but significant changes. At 70% tPTX, identification of asymmetric ventilation was attained for all animals. Side identification of the pneumothorax was achieved at 50% tPTX, within a 95% confidence interval. Diagnosis was, on average, 34.1 ± 18.8 min before tPTX. In conclusion, bilateral monitoring of the chest dynamics and acoustics provide novel information that is sensitive to asymmetric changes in ventilation, enabling early detection and localization of pneumothorax.

  17. 10 CFR 71.39 - Requirement for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement for additional information. 71.39 Section 71.39 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Application for Package Approval § 71.39 Requirement for additional information. The...

  18. 78 FR 75568 - Notice of Request for Additional Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Notice of Request for Additional Information The Commission gives notice that it has formally requested that the parties to the below listed agreement provide additional information pursuant to 46 U.S.C. 40304(d). This action prevents the...

  19. Is there more valuable information in PWI datasets for a voxel-wise acute ischemic stroke tissue outcome prediction than what is represented by typical perfusion maps?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkert, Nils Daniel; Siemonsen, Susanne; Dalski, Michael; Verleger, Tobias; Kemmling, Andre; Fiehler, Jens

    2014-03-01

    The acute ischemic stroke is a leading cause for death and disability in the industry nations. In case of a present acute ischemic stroke, the prediction of the future tissue outcome is of high interest for the clinicians as it can be used to support therapy decision making. Within this context, it has already been shown that the voxel-wise multi-parametric tissue outcome prediction leads to more promising results compared to single channel perfusion map thresholding. Most previously published multi-parametric predictions employ information from perfusion maps derived from perfusion-weighted MRI together with other image sequences such as diffusion-weighted MRI. However, it remains unclear if the typically calculated perfusion maps used for this purpose really include all valuable information from the PWI dataset for an optimal tissue outcome prediction. To investigate this problem in more detail, two different methods to predict tissue outcome using a k-nearest-neighbor approach were developed in this work and evaluated based on 18 datasets of acute stroke patients with known tissue outcome. The first method integrates apparent diffusion coefficient and perfusion parameter (Tmax, MTT, CBV, CBF) information for the voxel-wise prediction, while the second method employs also apparent diffusion coefficient information but the complete perfusion information in terms of the voxel-wise residue functions instead of the perfusion parameter maps for the voxel-wise prediction. Overall, the comparison of the results of the two prediction methods for the 18 patients using a leave-one-out cross validation revealed no considerable differences. Quantitatively, the parameter-based prediction of tissue outcome led to a mean Dice coefficient of 0.474, while the prediction using the residue functions led to a mean Dice coefficient of 0.461. Thus, it may be concluded from the results of this study that the perfusion parameter maps typically derived from PWI datasets include all

  20. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  1. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  2. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  3. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  4. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  5. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Samples; additional information. 71.4 Section 71.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic...

  6. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Samples; additional information. 71.4 Section 71.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic...

  7. Educating Tomorrow's Valuable Citizen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstyn, Joan N., Ed.

    This collection of essays by various authors discusses the dilemmas that face those who would educate tomorrow's valuable citizens and describes the day-to-day commitment needed to maintain a community. The book gives guidelines for action through examples of current programs that provide a forum for civic discussion and public consensus on the…

  8. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  9. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases §...

  10. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  11. 25 CFR 215.17 - Additional information required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information required. 215.17 Section 215.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING... interested in lead and zinc mining leases, or land under the jurisdiction of the Quapaw Indian Agency,...

  12. 38 CFR 39.3 - Decisionmakers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decisionmakers, notifications, and additional information. 39.3 Section 39.3 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT...

  13. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  14. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  15. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  16. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  17. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  18. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39 Section 2570.39 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF...

  19. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39 Section 2570.39 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF...

  20. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39 Section 2570.39 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF...

  1. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  2. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  3. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  4. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  5. 46 CFR 535.606 - Requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requests for additional information. 535.606 Section 535.606 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984...

  6. Censored data treatment using additional information in intelligent medical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkova, Z. N.

    2015-11-01

    Statistical procedures are a very important and significant part of modern intelligent medical systems. They are used for proceeding, mining and analysis of different types of the data about patients and their diseases; help to make various decisions, regarding the diagnosis, treatment, medication or surgery, etc. In many cases the data can be censored or incomplete. It is a well-known fact that censorship considerably reduces the efficiency of statistical procedures. In this paper the author makes a brief review of the approaches which allow improvement of the procedures using additional information, and describes a modified estimation of an unknown cumulative distribution function involving additional information about a quantile which is known exactly. The additional information is used by applying a projection of a classical estimator to a set of estimators with certain properties. The Kaplan-Meier estimator is considered as an estimator of the unknown cumulative distribution function, the properties of the modified estimator are investigated for a case of a single right censorship by means of simulations.

  7. Modeling of capacitance transients of thin-film solar cells: A valuable tool to gain information on perturbing layers or interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lauwaert, Johan Van Puyvelde, Lisanne; Vrielinck, Henk; Lauwaert, Jeroen; Thybaut, Joris W.

    2014-02-03

    Thin-film electronic and photovoltaic devices often comprise, in addition to the anticipated p-n junctions, additional non-ideal ohmic contacts between layers. This may give rise to additional signals in capacitance spectroscopy techniques that are not directly related to defects in the structure. In this paper, we present a fitting algorithm for transient signals arising from such an additional junction. The fitting results are in excellent agreement with the diode characteristics extracted from static measurements on individual components. Finally, the algorithm is applied for determining the barriers associated with anomalous signals reported for selected CuIn{sub 1–x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells.

  8. 31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., such environmental information from the MDB (e.g., environmental chapters from project feasibility studies or environmental data sheets) which contains this environmental analysis. The MDB Office...

  9. 76 FR 34639 - Notice of Proposed Additional Information Collection: Advisory Committee and Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Notice of Proposed Additional Information Collection: Advisory Committee and Research and Promotion... approved information collection of the Advisory Committee and Research and Promotion Background Information... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Advisory Committee and Research and Promotion Background Information....

  10. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fall within an exemption to the Act's openness requirement and the Commission also has determined that... availability of NRC records under the Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act of 1974 may be obtained...

  11. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  12. 77 FR 39573 - Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose Property and Interests in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose... Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is publishing additional indentifying information... on June 1, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Assistant Director, Sanctions...

  13. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hotline (800-426-4791). (b) Ending in the report due by July 1, 2001, a system which detects arsenic at... system that detects arsenic above 0.005 mg/L and up to and including 0.010 mg/L: (1) Must include in its report a short informational statement about arsenic, using language such as: While your drinking...

  14. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hotline (800-426-4791). (b) Ending in the report due by July 1, 2001, a system which detects arsenic at... system that detects arsenic above 0.005 mg/L and up to and including 0.010 mg/L: (1) Must include in its report a short informational statement about arsenic, using language such as: While your drinking...

  15. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... consultation with the Primacy Agency. (c) A system which detects nitrate at levels above 5 mg/l, but below the MCL: (1) Must include a short informational statement about the impacts of nitrate on children using language such as: Nitrate in drinking water at levels above 10 ppm is a health risk for infants of...

  16. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consultation with the Primacy Agency. (c) A system which detects nitrate at levels above 5 mg/l, but below the MCL: (1) Must include a short informational statement about the impacts of nitrate on children using language such as: Nitrate in drinking water at levels above 10 ppm is a health risk for infants of...

  17. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... consultation with the Primacy Agency. (c) A system which detects nitrate at levels above 5 mg/l, but below the MCL: (1) Must include a short informational statement about the impacts of nitrate on children using language such as: Nitrate in drinking water at levels above 10 ppm is a health risk for infants of...

  18. SNP Markers as Additional Information to Resolve Complex Kinship Cases

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, M. Lurdes; Fondevila, Manuel; Laréu, Maria Victoria; Medeiros, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background DNA profiling with sets of highly polymorphic autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers has been applied in various aspects of human identification in forensic casework for nearly 20 years. However, in some cases of complex kinship investigation, the information provided by the conventionally used STR markers is not enough, often resulting in low likelihood ratio (LR) calculations. In these cases, it becomes necessary to increment the number of loci under analysis to reach adequate LRs. Recently, it has been proposed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be used as a supportive tool to STR typing, eventually even replacing the methods/markers now employed. Methods In this work, we describe the results obtained in 7 revised complex paternity cases when applying a battery of STRs, as well as 52 human identification SNPs (SNPforID 52plex identification panel) using a SNaPshot methodology followed by capillary electrophoresis. Results Our results show that the analysis of SNPs, as complement to STR typing in forensic casework applications, would at least increase by a factor of 4 total PI values and correspondent Essen-Möller's W value. Conclusions We demonstrated that SNP genotyping could be a key complement to STR information in challenging casework of disputed paternity, such as close relative individualization or complex pedigrees subject to endogamous relations. PMID:26733770

  19. 78 FR 77119 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2011 Renewable Fuel Standards-- Petition for International Aggregate Compliance Approach AGENCY... to submit an information collection request (ICR), ``Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives:...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional information on mine map. 75.1200-1... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-1 Additional information on mine map. Additional information required to be shown on mine maps under § 75.1200...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional information on mine map. 75.1200-1... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-1 Additional information on mine map. Additional information required to be shown on mine maps under § 75.1200...

  2. Inclusion of Additional Plant Species and Trait Information in Dynamic Vegetation Modeling of Arctic Tundra and Boreal Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euskirchen, E. S.; Patil, V.; Roach, J.; Griffith, B.; McGuire, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) have been developed to model the ecophysiological characteristics of plant functional types in terrestrial ecosystems. They have frequently been used to answer questions pertaining to processes such as disturbance, plant succession, and community composition under historical and future climate scenarios. While DVMs have proved useful in these types of applications, it has often been questioned if additional detail, such as including plant dynamics at the species-level and/or including species-specific traits would make these models more accurate and/or broadly applicable. A sub-question associated with this issue is, 'How many species, or what degree of functional diversity, should we incorporate to sustain ecosystem function in modeled ecosystems?' Here, we focus on how the inclusion of additional plant species and trait information may strengthen dynamic vegetation modeling in applications pertaining to: (1) forage for caribou in northern Alaska, (2) above- and belowground carbon storage in the boreal forest and lake margin wetlands of interior Alaska, and (3) arctic tundra and boreal forest leaf phenology. While the inclusion of additional information generally proved valuable in these three applications, this additional detail depends on field data that may not always be available and may also result in increased computational complexity. Therefore, it is important to assess these possible limitations against the perceived need for additional plant species and trait information in the development and application of dynamic vegetation models.

  3. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... prospective traffic base; (3) System-wide plans to maintain equipment and rights-of-way at current or improved... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating....

  4. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... prospective traffic base; (3) System-wide plans to maintain equipment and rights-of-way at current or improved... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating....

  5. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... additional information or documentary material. 2.20 Section 2.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE... material, or recommend such modification to the responsible Assistant Director of the Bureau of Competition... investigation. A request for additional information or documentary material may be modified only in...

  6. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information and ITU cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information and ITU cost recovery....111 Additional information and ITU cost recovery. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any... interference caused by radio stations authorized by other Administrations is guaranteed unless ITU...

  7. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating. Each application submitted by Applicants not having a recent credit rating from one or more nationally...

  8. 33 CFR 148.107 - What additional information may be required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... What additional information may be required? (a) The Commandant (CG-5), in coordination with MARAD, may... analysis, explanation, or other information he or she deems necessary. (b) The Commandant (CG-5) may... (CG-5) may set a deadline for receiving the information. (1) If the applicant states that the...

  9. 33 CFR 148.107 - What additional information may be required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... What additional information may be required? (a) The Commandant (CG-5), in coordination with MARAD, may... analysis, explanation, or other information he or she deems necessary. (b) The Commandant (CG-5) may... (CG-5) may set a deadline for receiving the information. (1) If the applicant states that the...

  10. 75 FR 77645 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping AGENCY: Food and Drug... certification of color additives manufactured for use in foods, drugs, cosmetics or medical devices in the... of information technology. Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping--21 CFR Part...

  11. Defense Health Care: Additional Information Needed about Mental Health Provider Staffing Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    DEFENSE HEALTH CARE Additional Information Needed about Mental Health Provider Staffing Needs Report to the...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Health Care: Additional Information Needed about Mental ...Z39-18 Page i GAO-15-184 DOD Mental Health Staffing Letter 1 Background 4 DOD and the Military Services Have Increased the

  12. 78 FR 52803 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... OMB under the PRA and displays a currently valid OMB Control Number. In addition, notwithstanding any... collection of information that does not display a valid Control Number. See 5 CFR 1320.5(a) and 1320.6. The DOL obtains OMB approval for this information collection under Control Number 1218-0237....

  13. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers.

  14. 24 CFR 1710.200 - Instructions for Statement of Record, Additional Information and Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Instructions for Statement of Record, Additional Information and Documentation. 1710.200 Section 1710.200 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR...

  15. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  16. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  17. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  18. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  19. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  20. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requests for additional information or documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976...

  1. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requests for additional information or documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976...

  2. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requests for additional information or documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976...

  3. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  4. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  5. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  6. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  7. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  8. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requests for additional information or documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976...

  9. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... reserve existing transmission capacity needed for native load growth and network transmission...

  10. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... reserve existing transmission capacity needed for native load growth and network transmission...

  11. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... reserve existing transmission capacity needed for native load growth and network transmission...

  12. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... applicable emission limit and the continuous opacity or that the emission monitoring system meets...

  13. 17 CFR 229.1118 - (Item 1118) Reports and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1118) Reports and additional information. 229.1118 Section 229.1118 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING FORMS UNDER SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT...

  14. 17 CFR 229.1118 - (Item 1118) Reports and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false (Item 1118) Reports and additional information. 229.1118 Section 229.1118 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING FORMS UNDER SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT...

  15. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT,...

  16. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  17. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  18. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  19. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I submit with my APD? You must include the following with the APD: (a) Rated capacities of the drilling...

  20. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I submit with my APD? You must include the following with the APD: (a) Rated capacities of the drilling...

  1. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I submit with my APD? You must include the following with the APD: (a) Rated capacities of the drilling...

  2. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I submit with my APD? You must include the following with the APD: (a) Rated capacities of the drilling rig and...

  3. 38 CFR 61.15 - Capital grants-obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Capital grants-obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants. 61.15 Section 61.15 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM...

  4. 38 CFR 61.15 - Obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants. 61.15 Section 61.15 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.15...

  5. 38 CFR 61.15 - Obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants. 61.15 Section 61.15 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.15...

  6. 38 CFR 61.15 - Capital grants-obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Capital grants-obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants. 61.15 Section 61.15 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM...

  7. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... entities that provides inputs to electricity products and one or more merging entities that...

  8. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... entities that provides inputs to electricity products and one or more merging entities that...

  9. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... entities that provides inputs to electricity products and one or more merging entities that...

  10. PAT-1 safety analysis report addendum author responses to request for additional information.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Schmale, David T.; Kalan, Robert J.; Akin, Lili A.; Miller, David Russell; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki; Lopez, Carlos; Harding, David Cameron; Jones, Perry L.; Morrow, Charles W.

    2010-09-01

    The Plutonium Air Transportable Package, Model PAT-1, is certified under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) per Certificate of Compliance (CoC) USA/0361B(U)F-96 (currently Revision 9). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) submitted SAND Report SAND2009-5822 to NRC that documented the incorporation of plutonium (Pu) metal as a new payload for the PAT-1 package. NRC responded with a Request for Additional Information (RAI), identifying information needed in connection with its review of the application. The purpose of this SAND report is to provide the authors responses to each RAI. SAND Report SAND2010-6106 containing the proposed changes to the Addendum is provided separately.

  11. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public... Space Integrated Workplace § 102-79.111 Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? The GSA Office of Governmentwide Policy provides additional guidance in...

  12. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public... Space Integrated Workplace § 102-79.111 Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? The GSA Office of Governmentwide Policy provides additional guidance in...

  13. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public... Space Integrated Workplace § 102-79.111 Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? The GSA Office of Governmentwide Policy provides additional guidance in...

  14. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public... Space Integrated Workplace § 102-79.111 Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? The GSA Office of Governmentwide Policy provides additional guidance in...

  15. Emerging Technologies in the Built Environment: Geographic Information Science (GIS), 3D Printing, and Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1: Geographic information systems emerged as a computer application in the late 1960s, led in part by projects at ORNL. The concept of a GIS has shifted through time in response to new applications and new technologies, and is now part of a much larger world of geospatial technology. This presentation discusses the relationship of GIS and estimating hourly and seasonal energy consumption profiles in the building sector at spatial scales down to the individual parcel. The method combines annual building energy simulations for city-specific prototypical buildings and commonly available geospatial data in a GIS framework. Abstract 2: This presentation focuses on 3D printing technologies and how they have rapidly evolved over the past couple of years. At a basic level, 3D printing produces physical models quickly and easily from 3D CAD, BIM (Building Information Models), and other digital data. Many AEC firms have adopted 3D printing as part of commercial building design development and project delivery. This presentation includes an overview of 3D printing, discusses its current use in building design, and talks about its future in relation to the HVAC industry. Abstract 3: This presentation discusses additive manufacturing and how it is revolutionizing the design of commercial and residential facilities. Additive manufacturing utilizes a broad range of direct manufacturing technologies, including electron beam melting, ultrasonic, extrusion, and laser metal deposition for rapid prototyping. While there is some overlap with the 3D printing talk, this presentation focuses on the materials aspect of additive manufacturing and also some of the more advanced technologies involved with rapid prototyping. These technologies include design of carbon fiber composites, lightweight metals processing, transient field processing, and more.

  16. Prepositioned Stocks: Additional Information and a Consistent Definition Would Make DOD’s Annual Report More Useful

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    PREPOSITIONED STOCKS Additional Information and a Consistent Definition Would Make DOD’s Annual Report More Useful...COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prepositioned Stocks: Additional Information and a Consistent Definition Would Make DOD’s...STOCKS Additional Information and a Consistent Definition Would Make DOD’s Annual Report More Useful Why GAO Did This Study DOD prepositions stocks

  17. What Is Valuable and Unique about the Educational Psychologist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Rebecca; Roberts, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a small-scale piece of research identifying which aspects of the EP role are considered valuable by SENCos and by EPs themselves. In addition, both groups were asked to identify whether they felt these aspects were uniquely offered by EPs or whether other professionals offered similar or identical services. The differences…

  18. 77 FR 31068 - Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose Property and Interests in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Information Technology AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Technology,'' whose property and interests in property are blocked. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Information Technology,'' (the ``Order'') pursuant to, inter alia, the International Emergency Economic...

  19. 77 FR 67655 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ...) Moderate Category: For a food additive petition without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or...) Complex Category: For a food additive petition with complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, and/or... investigational food additive file without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or safety issues,...

  20. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora)

    PubMed Central

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Hunyadi, András; Ablett, Jonathan; Lương, Hào Văn; Fred Naggs; Asami, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909) were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and Gudeodiscus messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and Plectopylis fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n.) on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese Gudeodiscus phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of Gudeodiscus phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time. PMID:25632253

  1. 75 FR 78950 - Availability of Additional Information for the Proposed Rulemaking for Colorado's Attainment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... provided, unless the comment includes information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or... contact information unless you provide it in the body of your comment. If you send an e-mail comment... information in the body of your comment and with any disk or CD-ROM you submit. If EPA cannot read...

  2. Additional information is not ignored: New evidence for information integration and inhibition in take-the-best decisions.

    PubMed

    Dummel, Sebastian; Rummel, Jan; Voss, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Ignoring information when making a decision is at the heart of the take-the-best (TTB) strategy, according to which decision makers only consider information about the most valid cue (TTB-relevant) and ignore less valid cues (TTB-irrelevant). Results of four experiments, however, show that participants do not ignore information when cues are easily available (Experiments 1a, 1b, and 3) or when task instructions emphasize decision accuracy (Experiment 2). In all four experiments we found that the consistency between the TTB-relevant cue and a supposedly TTB-irrelevant cue systematically affected decision times and confidence ratings of even those participants whose choices were consistently driven by only the TTB-relevant cue. In Experiments 1a and 1b, we also found that these participants were more likely to ignore information when cues had to be acquired sequentially, suggesting that whether or not participants ignore information depends on information availability. Experiment 2 further showed that different task instructions (emphasizing decision accuracy vs. speed) affect whether or not participants ignore information. Finally, Experiment 3 addressed the question of how participants process information that, according to TTB, is considered irrelevant for their choices. We find first evidence that participants who consistently make choices in line with TTB inhibit information about a TTB-irrelevant cue when this information conflicts with their decisions. Findings are considered and discussed in relation to current models of decision making.

  3. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Additive... application for registration submitted by the manufacturer of a designated fuel additive shall include the..., percentage by weight, and method of analysis of each element in the additive are required provided,...

  4. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fuel additive will be sold, offered for sale, or introduced into commerce, and the fuel additive manufacturer's recommended range of concentration and purpose-in-use for each such type of fuel. (e) Such other... (e) of this section as provided in § 79.5(b). (g) Assurances that the additive manufacturer will...

  5. 36 CFR 1290.2 - Scope of additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... describe the agency's: (1) Records policies and schedules; (2) Filing systems and organization; (3) Storage... Act; and (6) Reclassification to a higher level, transfer, destruction, or other information...

  6. 41 CFR 102-75.140 - In addition to the title report, and all necessary environmental information and certifications...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 102-75.140 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In addition to the title report, and all necessary environmental information and certifications, what information must...

  7. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  8. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  9. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. 121.317 Section 121.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (l) of this section... paragraph (l) of this section, the “Fasten Seat Belt” sign shall be turned on during any movement on...

  10. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. 121.317 Section 121.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (l) of this section... paragraph (l) of this section, the “Fasten Seat Belt” sign shall be turned on during any movement on...

  11. Recycled Cell Phones - A Treasure Trove of Valuable Metals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Daniel E.

    2006-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fact Sheet examines the potential value of recycling the metals found in obsolete cell phones. Cell phones seem ubiquitous in the United States and commonplace throughout most of the world. There were approximately 1 billion cell phones in use worldwide in 2002. In the United States, the number of cell phone subscribers increased from 340,000 in 1985 to 180 million in 2004. Worldwide, cell phone sales have increased from slightly more than 100 million units per year in 1997 to an estimated 779 million units per year in 2005. Cell phone sales are projected to exceed 1 billion units per year in 2009, with an estimated 2.6 billion cell phones in use by the end of that year. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimated that, by 2005, as many as 130 million cell phones would be retired annually in the United States. The nonprofit organization INFORM, Inc., anticipated that, by 2005, a total of 500 million obsolete cell phones would have accumulated in consumers' desk drawers, store rooms, or other storage, awaiting disposal. Typically, cell phones are used for only 1 1/2 years before being replaced. Less than 1 percent of the millions of cell phones retired and discarded annually are recycled. When large numbers of cell phones become obsolete, large quantities of valuable metals end up either in storage or in landfills. The amount of metals potentially recoverable would make a significant addition to total metals recovered from recycling in the United States and would supplement virgin metals derived from mining.

  12. 36 CFR 1290.2 - Scope of additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY ASSASSINATION RECORDS COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.2 Scope of... Act; and (6) Reclassification to a higher level, transfer, destruction, or other information...

  13. 21 CFR 803.12 - Where and how do I submit reports and additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE REPORTING General Provisions § 803.12 Where and how do... information required under this part to FDA, CDRH, Medical Device Reporting, P.O. Box 3002, Rockville,...

  14. 21 CFR 803.12 - Where and how do I submit reports and additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE REPORTING General Provisions § 803.12 Where and how do... information required under this part to FDA, CDRH, Medical Device Reporting, P.O. Box 3002, Rockville,...

  15. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... has been abandoned and they no longer represent a trade secret or confidential commercial or financial... studies and tests of a color additive on animals and humans and all studies and tests on a color...

  16. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... has been abandoned and they no longer represent a trade secret or confidential commercial or financial... studies and tests of a color additive on animals and humans and all studies and tests on a color...

  17. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... established in § 20.61 of this chapter. (6) All records showing the Food and Drug Administration's testing of... studies and tests of a color additive on animals and humans and all studies and tests on a color...

  18. Design of portable valuables touch alarm circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Biqing; Li, Zhao

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, the name of the alarm is portable touch burglar alarm. It not only has the advantages of high sensitivity, small size and light weight, but it is easy on the trigger, the circuit is simple and easy to be implemented, besides, it works stably. This alarm is featured with simple design, convenient use, strong flexibility and reliable performance, thus it can be installed on the door or window and even can be carried on human's body. When the human body touches the metal valuables that need to be protected, the device will start the alarm equipment so as to make the bell keep ringing, and the alarm sound stops until the power is cut off.

  19. Twenty-five additional cases of trisomy 9 mosaic: Birth information, medical conditions, and developmental status.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Deborah A; Campbell, Emily

    2015-05-01

    Limited literature exists on children and adults diagnosed with the mosaic form of trisomy 9. Data from the Tracking Rare Incidence Syndromes (TRIS) project has provided physical characteristics and medical conditions for 14 individuals. This article provides TRIS Survey results of 25 additional cases at two data points (birth and survey completion) as well as developmental status. Results confirmed a number of phenotypic features and medical conditions. In addition, a number of cardiac anomalies were reported along with feeding and respiratory difficulties in the immediate postnatal period. In addition, developmental status data indicated a range in functioning level up to skills in the 36 and 48-month range. Strengths were also noted across the sample in language and communication, fine motor and social-emotional development. Implications for professionals caring for children with this genetic condition are offered.

  20. 21 CFR 803.12 - Where and how do I submit reports and additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... information? 803.12 Section 803.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... health emergency, this can be brought to FDA's attention by contacting the FDA Office of Emergency Operations (HFA-615), Office of Crisis Management, Office of the Commissioner, at 301-443-1240, followed...

  1. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... lavatory a sign or placard that reads: “Federal law provides for a penalty of up to $2,000 for tampering..., no person may operate an airplane unless it is equipped with passenger information signs that meet... signs must be constructed so that the crewmembers can turn them on and off. (b) Except as provided...

  2. 49 CFR 40.331 - To what additional parties must employers and service agents release information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Confidentiality and... information about that employee's drug or alcohol tests to an identified person, you must provide the... for this part and DOT agency drug and alcohol program functions. (2) All written, printed,...

  3. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared: Part VI--Various Additional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on tests evaluating nine microcomputer software packages designed for information storage and retrieval: BRS-Search, dtSearch, InfoBank, Micro-OPC, Q&A, STN-PFS, Strix, TINman, and ZYindex. Tables and narrative evaluations detail results related to security, hardware, user features, search capability, indexing, input, maintenance of files,…

  4. 13 CFR 126.403 - May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... information from a HUBZone SBC? 126.403 Section 126.403 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... HUBZone SBC? (a) At the discretion of the D/HUB, SBA has the right to require that a HUBZone SBC submit... adverse inference from the failure of a HUBZone SBC to cooperate with a program examination or...

  5. 29 CFR 2590.702-1 - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diabetes. A begins to experience excessive sweating, thirst, and fatigue. A's physician examines A and... adult onset diabetes mellitus (Type 2 diabetes). (ii) Conclusion. In this Example 1, A has been... involved. The diagnosis is not based principally on genetic information. Thus, Type 2 diabetes...

  6. 45 CFR 146.122 - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... diabetes. A begins to experience excessive sweating, thirst, and fatigue. A's physician examines A and... adult onset diabetes mellitus (Type 2 diabetes). (ii) Conclusion. In this Example 1, A has been... involved. The diagnosis is not based principally on genetic information. Thus, Type 2 diabetes...

  7. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  8. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  9. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  10. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  11. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  12. Facing Facts: Can the Face-Name Mnemonic Strategy Accommodate Additional Factual Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Russell N.; Levin, Joel R.

    2012-01-01

    In 3 experiments, undergraduates used their own best method (control) or an "imposed" face-name mnemonic strategy to associate 18 caricatured faces, names, and additional facts. On all immediate tests (prompted by the faces), and on the delayed tests of Experiments 2a and 2b combined, mnemonic students statistically outperformed control students…

  13. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... will be accepted in lieu thereof; (2) In the case of an additive for engine oil, only the name..., that a percentage figure combining the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen may be provided... any 1975 or subsequent model year vehicle or engine, or that the manufacturer has obtained a...

  14. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... will be accepted in lieu thereof; (2) In the case of an additive for engine oil, only the name..., that a percentage figure combining the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen may be provided... any 1975 or subsequent model year vehicle or engine, or that the manufacturer has obtained a...

  15. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... will be accepted in lieu thereof; (2) In the case of an additive for engine oil, only the name..., that a percentage figure combining the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen may be provided... any 1975 or subsequent model year vehicle or engine, or that the manufacturer has obtained a...

  16. 77 FR 58911 - Additional Identifying Information for One (1) Individual Designated Pursuant to Executive Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process'' (the ``Order''). DATES: The addition by the Director of... sanctions on persons who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. The President identified in the... Middle East peace ] process; or (2) assist in, sponsor, or provide financial, material, or...

  17. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    PubMed

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future.

  18. Time is more valuable than money.

    PubMed

    Munson, M

    2001-01-01

    ABSTRACT Marcia Munson, a feminist, gay rights, and environmental activist for the last thirty years, has chosen to reserve a significant portion of her life for doing volunteer work by living simply and working part time at the IRS (Internal Revenue Service). While choosing to retain the simple lifestyle of the "70s in order to pursue her activist dreams, the author recognizes that the "70s model of self-funded activism no longer works today. During the 1970s, volunteers were often able to support their projects with funds from their own pockets, or could scrape by on small salaries provided by CETA grants and work-study money. In the 1980s, fundraising events to raise money gained popularity. By the 1990s, many non-profit organizations operated primarily with paid staff, and the main volunteer activity had become raising money. Looking back at "70s activism, Munson points out that the services of a skilled, experienced volunteer can be as valuable as money to an organization.

  19. 24 CFR 903.9 - May HUD request additional information in the Annual Plan of a troubled PHA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May HUD request additional information in the Annual Plan of a troubled PHA? 903.9 Section 903.9 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC...

  20. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  1. 12 CFR 390.128 - If the FDIC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 390.128 Section 390.128 Banks and Banking... additional information to complete my application, how will it process my application? (a) You may use the... will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial 15-day period and...

  2. 12 CFR 116.220 - If the OCC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 116.220 Section 116.220 Banks and Banking... Treatment § 116.220 If the OCC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... that it has extended the period before the end of the initial 15-day period and will briefly...

  3. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  4. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued)...

  5. A new species of Neparholaspis (Acari: Parholaspididae) from Russia, with additional information on Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960.

    PubMed

    Marchenko, Irina I

    2016-08-23

    Neparholaspis dubatolovi sp. nov. is described and illustrated from adult females and males collected from litter and moss in montane forest in north-eastern Sikhote-Alin Ridge in the Far East of Russia. Additional morphological information and illustrations of Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960 are provided, based on examination of a paratype. A key to the world species of Neparholaspis is provided.

  6. 76 FR 80377 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Additional On-Site Data Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Additional On-Site Data Collection for the... HCV programs. The proposed data collection will take place through site visits to up to 30 PHAs and... the PHA. The results of the site visits will be used to identify PHAs to participate in a...

  7. Tautomers of a Fluorescent G Surrogate and Their Distinct Photophysics Provide Additional Information Channels.

    PubMed

    Sholokh, Marianna; Improta, Roberto; Mori, Mattia; Sharma, Rajhans; Kenfack, Cyril; Shin, Dongwon; Voltz, Karine; Stote, Roland H; Zaporozhets, Olga A; Botta, Maurizio; Tor, Yitzhak; Mély, Yves

    2016-07-04

    Thienoguanosine ((th) G) is an isomorphic nucleoside analogue acting as a faithful fluorescent substitute of G, with respectable quantum yield in oligonucleotides. Photophysical analysis of (th) G reveals the existence of two ground-state tautomers with significantly shifted absorption and emission wavelengths, and high quantum yield in buffer. Using (TD)-DFT calculations, the tautomers were identified as the H1 and H3 keto-amino tautomers. When incorporated into the loop of (-)PBS, the (-)DNA copy of the HIV-1 primer binding site, both tautomers are observed and show differential sensitivity to protein binding. The red-shifted H1 tautomer is strongly favored in matched (-)/(+)PBS duplexes, while the relative emission of the H3 tautomer can be used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. These tautomers and their distinct environmental sensitivity provide unprecedented information channels for analyzing G residues in oligonucleotides and their complexes.

  8. Tautomers of a Fluorescent G Surrogate and Their Distinct Photophysics Provide Additional Information Channels

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajhans; Kenfack, Cyril; Shin, Dongwon; Voltz, Karine; Stote, Roland H.; Zaporozhets, Olga A.; Botta, Maurizio; Tor, Yitzhak; Mély, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Thienoguanosine (thG) is an isomorphic nucleoside analogue acting as a faithful fluorescent substitute of G, with respectable quantum yield in oligonucleotides. Photophysical analysis of thG reveals the existence of two ground-state tautomers with significantly shifted absorption and emission wavelengths, and high quantum yield in buffer. Using (TD)-DFT calculations, the tautomers were identified as the H1 and H3 keto-amino tautomers. When incorporated into the loop of (−)PBS, the (−)DNA copy of the HIV-1 primer binding site, both tautomers are observed and show differential sensitivity to protein binding. The red-shifted H1 tautomer is strongly favored in matched (−)/(+)PBS duplexes, while the relative emission of the H3 tautomer can be used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. These tautomers and their distinct environmental sensitivity provide unprecedented information channels for analyzing G residues in oligonucleotides and their complexes. PMID:27273741

  9. An Internet compendium of analytical methods and spectroscopic information for monomers and additives used in food packaging plastics.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, J; Simoneau, C; Cote, D; Boenke, A

    2000-10-01

    An internet website (http:¿cpf.jrc.it/smt/) has been produced as a means of dissemination of methods of analysis and supporting spectroscopic information on monomers and additives used for food contact materials (principally packaging). The site which is aimed primarily at assisting food control laboratories in the European Union contains analytical information on monomers, starting substances and additives used in the manufacture of plastics materials. A searchable index is provided giving PM and CAS numbers for each of 255 substances. For each substance a data sheet gives regulatory information, chemical structures, physico-chemical information and background information on the use of the substance in particular plastics, and the food packaging applications. For monomers and starting substances (155 compounds) the infra-red and mass spectra are provided, and for additives (100 compounds); additionally proton NMR are available for about 50% of the entries. Where analytical methods have been developed for determining these substances as residual amounts in plastics or as trace amounts in food simulants these methods are also on the website. All information is provided in portable document file (PDF) format which means that high quality copies can be readily printed, using freely available Adobe Acrobat Reader software. The website will in future be maintained and up-dated by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) as new substances are authorized for use by the European Commission (DG-ENTR formerly DGIII). Where analytical laboratories (food control or other) require reference substances these can be obtained free-of-charge from a reference collection housed at the JRC and maintained in conjunction with this website compendium.

  10. Movement and Learning: A Valuable Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens-Smith, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the relatedness between movement and learning for students. The process of learning involves basic nerve cells that transmit information and create numerous neural connections essential to learning. One way to increase learning is to encourage creation of more synaptic connections in the brain through…

  11. Electronic Cash Registers Are Valuable Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Edward, Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Electronic cash registers can perform functions ranging from simple change and tax computation to sophisticated merchandise accounting and inventory control information and records. The manager needs to outline the needed capabilities such as capacity, programmability, and servicing availability. User comments suggest varied benefits, uses, and…

  12. Bioactives from fruit processing wastes: Green approaches to valuable chemicals.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Jhumur; Singh, Ramkrishna; Vijayaraghavan, R; MacFarlane, Douglas; Patti, Antonio F; Arora, Amit

    2017-06-15

    Fruit processing industries contribute more than 0.5billion tonnes of waste worldwide. The global availability of this feedstock and its untapped potential has encouraged researchers to perform detailed studies on value-addition potential of fruit processing waste (FPW). Compared to general food or other biomass derived waste, FPW are found to be selective and concentrated in nature. The peels, pomace and seed fractions of FPW could potentially be a good feedstock for recovery of bioactive compounds such as pectin, lipids, flavonoids, dietary fibres etc. A novel bio-refinery approach would aim to produce a wider range of valuable chemicals from FPW. The wastes from majority of the extraction processes may further be used as renewable sources for production of biofuels. The literature on value addition to fruit derived waste is diverse. This paper presents a review of fruit waste derived bioactives. The financial challenges encountered in existing methods are also discussed.

  13. Supra-additive contribution of shape and surface information to individual face discrimination as revealed by fast periodic visual stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dzhelyova, Milena; Rossion, Bruno

    2014-12-24

    Face perception depends on two main sources of information--shape and surface cues. Behavioral studies suggest that both of them contribute roughly equally to discrimination of individual faces, with only a small advantage provided by their combination. However, it is difficult to quantify the respective contribution of each source of information to the visual representation of individual faces with explicit behavioral measures. To address this issue, facial morphs were created that varied in shape only, surface only, or both. Electrocephalogram (EEG) were recorded from 10 participants during visual stimulation at a fast periodic rate, in which the same face was presented four times consecutively and the fifth face (the oddball) varied along one of the morphed dimensions. Individual face discrimination was indexed by the periodic EEG response at the oddball rate (e.g., 5.88 Hz/5 = 1.18 Hz). While shape information was discriminated mainly at right occipitotemporal electrode sites, surface information was coded more bilaterally and provided a larger response overall. Most importantly, shape and surface changes alone were associated with much weaker responses than when both sources of information were combined in the stimulus, revealing a supra-additive effect. These observations suggest that the two kinds of information combine nonlinearly to provide a full individual face representation, face identity being more than the sum of the contribution of shape and surface cues.

  14. Website Use and Effects of Online Information About Tobacco Additives Among the Dutch General Population: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Crutzen, Rik; Kienhuis, Anne S; Talhout, Reinskje; de Vries, Hein

    2017-01-01

    Background As a legal obligation, the Dutch government publishes online information about tobacco additives to make sure that it is publicly available. Little is known about the influence this website (”tabakinfo”) has on visitors and how the website is evaluated by them. Objective This study assesses how visitors use the website and its effect on their knowledge, risk perception, attitude, and smoking behavior. The study will also assess how the website is evaluated by visitors using a sample of the Dutch general population, including smokers and nonsmokers. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted, recruiting participants from an online panel. At baseline, participants (N=672) were asked to fill out an online questionnaire about tobacco additives. Next, participants were randomly allocated to either one of two experimental groups and invited to visit the website providing information about tobacco additives (either with or without a database containing product-specific information) or to a control group that had no access to the website. After 3 months, follow-up measurements took place. Results At follow-up (n=492), no statistically significant differences were found for knowledge, risk perception, attitude, or smoking behavior between the intervention and control groups. Website visits were positively related to younger participants (B=–0.07, 95% CI –0.12 to –0.01; t11=–2.43, P=.02) and having a low risk perception toward tobacco additives (B=–0.32, 95% CI –0.63 to –0.02; t11=–2.07, P=.04). In comparison, having a lower education (B=–0.67, 95% CI –1.14 to –0.17; t11=–2.65, P=.01) was a significant predictor for making less use of the website. Furthermore, the website was evaluated less positively by smokers compared to nonsmokers (t324=–3.55, P<.001), and males compared to females (t324=–2.21, P=.02). Conclusions The website did not change perceptions of tobacco additives or smoking behavior. Further research is

  15. Succession planning: valuable process or pointless exercise?

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2006-01-01

    Succession planning is the process of identifying people who could presently move into key positions or could do so after specifically targeted development occurs. The process identifies the better people in the organization and takes a consistent approach to assembling, analyzing, and retaining information about potential leaders and planning for their further development. At its simplest level, it is the development of a backup and potential successor to each manager; at its most formal, it is a documented plan for management succession at all levels in the organization. Strongly supportive of a policy of development and promotion from within the organization, succession planning also represents a proactive posture in respect to inevitable management turnover. In these days of rapid change in health care, no modern organization that expects to keep up with increasing competition can afford to drift-or even let a single department drift-although replacements are recruited for managers who resign, retire, or otherwise leave. On numerous occasions, however, all of the effort expended in succession planning seems wasted when potential successors either leave the organization or fail to live up to expectations, prompting one to wonder whether succession planning is little more than a pointless exercise.

  16. [Rad-Esito: new informational additions in the integration of content of hospital discharge cards for acute patients].

    PubMed

    Rini, F; Piscioneri, C; Consolante, C; Fara, G M

    2009-01-01

    Since the January 2008 the tracking of additional information about hospital discharge card's content has been activated in Latium. The new data, noticed by RAD-Esito card, regard the hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction, femoral neck fracture and coronary artery bypass surgery. This study's objective has been to evaluate the quality of the data collected with the new card, at the end of the 1st semester of experimentation, concerning two institutes of care of Latium, the Casilino Polyclinic (ASL Rome B) and the Anzio-Nettuno hospital (Assembled Hospitals, ASL Rome H). Furthermore, any significant correlation's existence between a few variables for acute myocardial infarction and femoral fracture with the mortality rate and the average hospitalization period has been statistically verified. This study's preliminary results show how the integration of the hospital informative flow with the new clinical variables will be able to allow the promotion of the quality in the coding of the diagnosis and procedures, according to the current international innovations. This additional information will also be able to support the regional appropriateness and outcome of the treatments evaluation programs.

  17. Individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis are able to use additional sensory information to reduce postural sway.

    PubMed

    Cunha, B P; Alouche, S R; Araujo, I M G; Freitas, S M S F

    2012-03-28

    The present study aimed to investigate whether stroke survivals are able to use the additional somatosensory information provided by the light touch to reduce their postural sway during the upright stance. Eight individuals, naturally right-handed pre-stroke, and eight healthy age-matched adults stood as quiet as possible on a force plate during 35s. Participants performed two trials for each visual condition (eyes open and closed) and somatosensory condition (with and without the right or left index fingertip touching an instrumented rigid and fixed bar). When participants touched the bar, they were asked to apply less than 1N of vertical force. The postural sway was assessed by the center of pressure (COP) displacement area, mean amplitude and velocity. In addition, the mean and standard deviation of the force vertically applied on the bar during the trials with touch were assessed. The averaged values of COP area, amplitude and velocity were greater for stroke individuals compared to healthy adults during all visual and somatosensory conditions. For both groups, the values of all variables increased when participants stood with eyes closed and reduced when they touched the bar regardless of the side of the touch. Overall, the results suggested that, as healthy individuals, persons with post-stroke hemiparesis are able to use the additional somatosensory information provided by the light touch to reduce the postural sway.

  18. Using Hairy Roots for Production of Valuable Plant Secondary Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li

    2015-01-01

    Plants synthesize a wide variety of natural products, which are traditionally termed secondary metabolites and, more recently, coined specialized metabolites. While these chemical compounds are employed by plants for interactions with their environment, humans have long since explored and exploited plant secondary metabolites for medicinal and practical uses. Due to the tissue-specific and low-abundance accumulation of these metabolites, alternative means of production in systems other than intact plants are sought after. To this end, hairy root culture presents an excellent platform for producing valuable secondary metabolites. This chapter will focus on several major groups of secondary metabolites that are manufactured by hairy roots established from different plant species. Additionally, the methods for preservations of hairy roots will also be reviewed.

  19. Recovery of valuable materials from waste liquid crystal display panel.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Gao, Song; Duan, Huabo; Liu, Lili

    2009-07-01

    Associated with the rapid development of the information and electronic industry, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have been increasingly sold as displays. However, during the discarding at their end-of-life stage, significant environmental hazards, impacts on health and a loss of resources may occur, if the scraps are not managed in an appropriate way. In order to improve the efficiency of the recovery of valuable materials from waste LCDs panel in an environmentally sound manner, this study presents a combined recycling technology process on the basis of manual dismantling and chemical treatment of LCDs. Three key processes of this technology have been studied, including the separation of LCD polarizing film by thermal shock method the removal of liquid crystals between the glass substrates by the ultrasonic cleaning, and the recovery of indium metal from glass by dissolution. The results show that valuable materials (e.g. indium) and harmful substances (e.g. liquid crystals) could be efficiently recovered or separated through above-mentioned combined technology. The optimal conditions are: (1) the peak temperature of thermal shock to separate polarizing film, ranges from 230 to 240 degrees C, where pyrolysis could be avoided; (2) the ultrasonic-assisted cleaning was most efficient at a frequency of 40 KHz (P = 40 W) and the exposure of the substrate to industrial detergents for 10 min; and (3) indium separation from glass in a mix of concentrated hydrochloric acid at 38% and nitric acid at 69% (HCl:HNO(3):H(2)O = 45:5:50, volume ratio). The indium separation process was conducted with an exposure time of 30 min at a constant temperature of 60 degrees C.

  20. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  1. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  2. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  3. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  4. Technologies for Extracting Valuable Metals and Compounds from Geothermal Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Stephen

    2014-04-30

    Materials is evaluating other products with greater commercial value. Potassium Silicotitanates, zeolites and other sorbents were evaluated as potential reagents for the extraction of potassium from geothermal brines and production of potassium chloride (potash). It was found that zeolites were effective at removing potassium but the capacity of the zeolites and the form that the potassium is in does not have economic potential. Iron-silica by-product The conversion of iron-silica by-product produced during silica management operations into more valuable materials was studied at the laboratory scale. Results indicate that it is technically feasible to convert the iron-silica by-product into ferric chloride and ferric sulfate solutions which are precursors to a ferric phosphate product. However, additional work to purify the solutions is required to determine the commercial viability of this process. Conclusion Simbol Materials is in the process of designing its first commercial plant based on the technology developed to the pilot scale during this project. The investment in the commercial plant is hundreds of millions of dollars, and construction of the commercial plant will generate hundreds of jobs. Plant construction will be completed in 2016 and the first lithium products will be shipped in 2017. The plant will have a lithium carbonate equivalent production capacity of 15,000 tonnes per year. The gross revenues from the project are expected to be approximately $ 80 to 100 million annually. During this development program Simbol grew from a company of about 10 people to over 60 people today. Simbol is expected to employ more than 100 people once the plant is constructed. Simbol Materials’ business is scalable in the Imperial Valley region because there are eleven geothermal power plants already in operation, which allows Simbol to expand its business from one plant to multiple plants. Additionally, the scope of the resource is vast in terms of potential products such

  5. Anti-Müllerian Hormone: A Valuable Addition to the Toolbox of the Pediatric Endocrinologist

    PubMed Central

    Josso, Nathalie; Rey, Rodolfo A.; Picard, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), secreted by immature Sertoli cells, provokes the regression of male fetal Müllerian ducts. FSH stimulates AMH production; during puberty, AMH is downregulated by intratesticular testosterone and meiotic germ cells. In boys, AMH determination is useful in the clinical setting. Serum AMH, which is low in infants with congenital central hypogonadism, increases with FSH treatment. AMH is also low in patients with primary hypogonadism, for instance in Down syndrome, from early postnatal life and in Klinefelter syndrome from midpuberty. In boys with nonpalpable gonads, AMH determination, without the need for a stimulation test, is useful to distinguish between bilaterally abdominal gonads and anorchism. In patients with disorders of sex development (DSD), serum AMH determination helps as a first line test to orientate the etiologic diagnosis: low AMH is indicative of dysgenetic DSD whereas normal AMH is suggestive of androgen synthesis or action defects. Finally, in patients with persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS), undetectable serum AMH drives the genetic search to mutations in the AMH gene, whereas normal or high AMH is indicative of an end organ defect due to AMH receptor gene defects. PMID:24382961

  6. Cystoscopy in cattle--a valuable additional tool for clinical examination.

    PubMed

    Franz, Sonja; Winter, Petra; Baumgartner, W

    2004-01-01

    Based on the findings of physical examination and on laboratory findings the urinary bladder of 23 cows was examined endoscopically in order to investigate the application of cystoscopy in cattle. The endoscopic findings of all examined cows were compared with the findings of physical examination and the results of macroscopic and microscopic urinalysis and the bacteriological culture of the urine. By physical examination only 3 cows were diagnosed to have urinary tract disease, whereas all other cows were suspected of having an urinary tract disease. Bacteriological culture of the urine revealed Corynebacterium renale and Escherichia coli infection in 18 cows, while the remaining 5 cows were negative. By cystoscopy catarrhal cystitis was diagnosed in 2 cases, haemorrhagic cystitis in 5 cases, and fibrinous-purulent and fibrinous-haemorrhagic cystitis in 13 cases. Three cows showed no pathological changes of the urinary bladder mucosa by endoscopic examination. Cystoscopy facilitates diagnosis through the direct visualisation of mucosal lesions and makes it possible to give a more accurate prognosis based upon the findings.

  7. On the additional information content of hyperspectral remote sensing data for estimating ecosystem carbon dioxde and energy exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hammerle, Albin; Tomelleri, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    Radiation reflected back from an ecosystem carries a spectral signature resulting from the interaction of radiation with the vegetation canopy and the underlying soil and thus allows drawing conclusions about the structure and functioning of an ecosystem. When this information is linked to a model of the leaf CO2 exchange, the ecosystem-scale CO2 exchange can be simulated. A well-known and very simplistic example for this approach is the light-use efficiency (LUE) model proposed by Monteith which links the flux of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation times a LUE parameter, both of which may be estimated based on remote sensing data, to predict the ecosystem gross photosynthesis. Here we explore the ability of a more elaborate approach by using near-surface remote sensing of hyperspectral reflected radiation, eddy covariance CO2 and energy flux measurements and a coupled radiative transfer and soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) model. Our main objective is to understand to what degree the joint assimilation of hyperspectral reflected radiation and eddy covariance flux measurements into the model helps to better constrain model parameters. To this end we use the SCOPE model, a combination of the well-known PROSAIL model and a SVAT model, and the Bayesian inversion algorithm DREAM. In order to explicitly link reflectance in the visible light and the leaf CO2 exchange, a novel parameterisation of the maximum carboxylation capacity parameter (Vcmax) on the leaf a+b chlorophyll content parameter of PROSAIL is introduced. Results are discussed with respect to the additional information content the hyperspectral data yield for simulating canopy photosynthesis.

  8. Adiponectin Provides Additional Information to Conventional Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Assessing the Risk of Atherosclerosis in Both Genders

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Kim, Sung-Kyung; Choi, Ho-June; Choi, Soo-In; Cha, So-Youn; Koh, Sang-Baek

    2013-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the relation between adiponectin and atherosclerosis in both genders, and investigated whether adiponectin provides useful additional information for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. Methods We measured serum adiponectin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors in 1033 subjects (454 men, 579 women) from the Korean Genomic Rural Cohort study. Carotid intima–media-thickness (CIMT) was used as measure of atherosclerosis. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using multiple logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC), the category-free net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were calculated. Results After adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as age, waist circumference, smoking history, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance, the ORs (95%CI) of the third tertile adiponectin group were 0.42 (0.25–0.72) in men and 0.47 (0.29–0.75) in women. The area under the curve (AUC) on the ROC analysis increased significantly by 0.025 in men and 0.022 in women when adiponectin was added to the logistic model of conventional cardiovascular risk factors (AUC in men: 0.655 to 0.680, p = 0.038; AUC in women: 0.654 to 0.676, p = 0.041). The NRI was 0.32 (95%CI: 0.13–0.50, p<0.001), and the IDI was 0.03 (95%CI: 0.01–0.04, p<0.001) for men. For women, the category-free NRI was 0.18 (95%CI: 0.02–0.34, p = 0.031) and the IDI was 0.003 (95%CI: −0.002–0.008, p = 0.189). Conclusion Adiponectin and atherosclerosis were significantly related in both genders, and these relationships were independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, adiponectin provided additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors regarding the risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:24116054

  9. New Therapies Offer Valuable Options for Patients with Melanoma

    Cancer.gov

    Two phase III clinical trials of new therapies for patients with metastatic melanoma presented in June at the 2011 ASCO conference confirmed that vemurafenib and ipilimumab (Yervoy™) offer valuable new options for the disease.

  10. HISTORICAL ANALYSIS, A VALUABLE TOOL IN COMMUNITY-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A historical analysis of the ecological consequences of development can be a valuable tool in community-based environmental protection. These studies can engage the public in environmental issues and lead to informed decision making. Historical studies provide an understanding of...

  11. Whey-derived valuable products obtained by microbial fermentation.

    PubMed

    Pescuma, Micaela; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2015-08-01

    Whey, the main by-product of the cheese industry, is considered as an important pollutant due to its high chemical and biological oxygen demand. Whey, often considered as waste, has high nutritional value and can be used to obtain value-added products, although some of them need expensive enzymatic synthesis. An economical alternative to transform whey into valuable products is through bacterial or yeast fermentations and by accumulation during algae growth. Fermentative processes can be applied either to produce individual compounds or to formulate new foods and beverages. In the first case, a considerable amount of research has been directed to obtain biofuels able to replace those derived from petrol. In addition, the possibility of replacing petrol-derived plastics by biodegradable polymers synthesized during bacterial fermentation of whey has been sought. Further, the ability of different organisms to produce metabolites commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries (i.e., lactic acid, lactobionic acid, polysaccharides, etc.) using whey as growth substrate has been studied. On the other hand, new low-cost functional whey-based foods and beverages leveraging the high nutritional quality of whey have been formulated, highlighting the health-promoting effects of fermented whey-derived products. This review aims to gather the multiple uses of whey as sustainable raw material for the production of individual compounds, foods, and beverages by microbial fermentation. This is the first work to give an overview on the microbial transformation of whey as raw material into a large repertoire of industrially relevant foods and products.

  12. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  13. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  14. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  15. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  16. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  17. Fact Sheets and Additional information Regarding the 2012 Particulate Matter (PM) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find tools for particulate matter, maps of nonattainment areas, an overview of the proposal, and information on designations, monitoring and permitting requirements and a presentation on the 2012 PM NAAQS revision.

  18. Wildlife as valuable natural resources vs. intolerable pests: A suburban wildlife management model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Deblinger, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Management of wildlife in suburban environments involves a complex set of interactions between both human and wildlife populations. Managers need additional tools, such as models, that can help them assess the status of wildlife populations, devise and apply management programs, and convey this information to other professionals and the public. We present a model that conceptualizes how some wildlife populations can fluctuate between extremely low (rare, threatened, or endangered status) and extremely high (overabundant) numbers over time. Changes in wildlife abundance can induce changes in human perceptions, which continually redefine species as a valuable resource to be protected versus a pest to be controlled. Management programs thatincorporate a number of approaches and promote more stable populations of wildlife avoid the problems of the resource versus pest transformation, are less costly to society, and encourage more positive and less negative interactions between humans and wildlife. We presenta case example of the beaver Castor canadensis in Massachusetts to illustrate how this model functions and can be applied. ?? 2005 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.

  19. Teachers Talking about Writing Assessment: Valuable Professional Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that the engagement of teachers in collaborative discussions about assessment can provide a fruitful context for valuable professional learning. It is of interest to those who provide Continuous Professional Development (CPD) opportunities for teachers and teachers themselves. It looks particularly at the value of writing…

  20. Field Trips as Valuable Learning Experiences in Geography Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakowka, Amy Richmond

    2012-01-01

    Field trips have been acknowledged as valuable learning experiences in geography. This article uses Kolb's (1984) experiential learning model to discuss how students learn and how field trips can help enhance learning. Using Kolb's experiential learning theory as a guide in the design of field trips helps ensure that field trips contribute to…

  1. Processing time of addition or withdrawal of single or combined balance-stabilizing haptic and visual information

    PubMed Central

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Crisafulli, Oscar; Sozzi, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the integration time of haptic and visual input and their interaction during stance stabilization. Eleven subjects performed four tandem-stance conditions (60 trials each). Vision, touch, and both vision and touch were added and withdrawn. Furthermore, vision was replaced with touch and vice versa. Body sway, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus activity were measured. Following addition or withdrawal of vision or touch, an integration time period elapsed before the earliest changes in sway were observed. Thereafter, sway varied exponentially to a new steady-state while reweighting occurred. Latencies of sway changes on sensory addition ranged from 0.6 to 1.5 s across subjects, consistently longer for touch than vision, and were regularly preceded by changes in muscle activity. Addition of vision and touch simultaneously shortened the latencies with respect to vision or touch separately, suggesting cooperation between sensory modalities. Latencies following withdrawal of vision or touch or both simultaneously were shorter than following addition. When vision was replaced with touch or vice versa, adding one modality did not interfere with the effect of withdrawal of the other, suggesting that integration of withdrawal and addition were performed in parallel. The time course of the reweighting process to reach the new steady-state was also shorter on withdrawal than addition. The effects of different sensory inputs on posture stabilization illustrate the operation of a time-consuming, possibly supraspinal process that integrates and fuses modalities for accurate balance control. This study also shows the facilitatory interaction of visual and haptic inputs in integration and reweighting of stance-stabilizing inputs. PMID:26334013

  2. 33 CFR 148.108 - What if a Federal or State agency or other interested party requests additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... must state briefly why the information is needed. (c) The Commandant (CG-5) must receive the request... decision on whether or not to approve the license application. (d) The Commandant (CG-5) will consider... the application process. (e) The Commandant (CG-5) may discuss the recommendation with...

  3. 33 CFR 148.108 - What if a Federal or State agency or other interested party requests additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must state briefly why the information is needed. (c) The Commandant (CG-5) must receive the request... decision on whether or not to approve the license application. (d) The Commandant (CG-5) will consider... the application process. (e) The Commandant (CG-5) may discuss the recommendation with...

  4. Space Takes Time: Concentration Dependent Output Codes from Primary Olfactory Networks Rapidly Provide Additional Information at Defined Discrimination Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kevin C.; Bradley, Samual; Chapman, Phillip D.; Staudacher, Erich M.; Tiede, Regina; Schachtner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    As odor concentration increases, primary olfactory network representations expand in spatial distribution, temporal complexity and duration. However, the direct relationship between concentration dependent odor representations and the psychophysical thresholds of detection and discrimination is poorly understood. This relationship is absolutely critical as thresholds signify transition points whereby representations become meaningful to the organism. Here, we matched stimulus protocols for psychophysical assays and intracellular recordings of antennal lobe (AL) projection neurons (PNs) in the moth Manduca sexta to directly compare psychophysical thresholds and the output representations they elicit. We first behaviorally identified odor detection and discrimination thresholds across an odor dilution series for a panel of structurally similar odors. We then characterized spatiotemporal spiking patterns across a population of individually filled and identified AL PNs in response to those odors at concentrations below, at, and above identified thresholds. Using spatial and spatiotemporal based analyses we observed that each stimulus produced unique representations, even at sub-threshold concentrations. Mean response latency did not decrease and the percent glomerular activation did not increase with concentration until undiluted odor. Furthermore, correlations between spatial patterns for odor decreased, but only significantly with undiluted odor. Using time-integrated Euclidean distance (ED) measures, we determined that added spatiotemporal information was present at the discrimination but not detection threshold. This added information was evidenced by an increase in integrated distance between the sub-detection and discrimination threshold concentrations (of the same odor) that was not present in comparison of the sub-detection and detection threshold. After consideration of delays for information to reach the AL we find that it takes ~120–140 ms for the AL to

  5. Valuable human capital: the aging health care worker.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2006-01-01

    With the workforce growing older and the supply of younger workers diminishing, it is critical for health care managers to understand the factors necessary to capitalize on their vintage employees. Retaining this segment of the workforce has a multitude of benefits including the preservation of valuable intellectual capital, which is necessary to ensure that health care organizations maintain their competitive advantage in the consumer-driven market. Retaining the aging employee is possible if health care managers learn the motivators and training differences associated with this category of the workforce. These employees should be considered a valuable resource of human capital because without their extensive expertise, intense loyalty and work ethic, and superior customer service skills, health care organizations could suffer severe economic repercussions in the near future.

  6. Fish Lipids as a Valuable Source of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merdzhanova, Albena; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Dobreva, Diana A.; Makedonski, Lyubomir

    2017-03-01

    This article presents information about omega-3 (h-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents in a broad range of commercially important fish species available on Bulgarian fish markets. The aim is to raise consumers' awareness and encourage them to eat fish. Fish species from the Black Sea coast have relatively high proportion of n-3 PUFAs, of which more than 80% is by EPf (eicosapentaenoic acid, C 20:5 n-3) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, C 22:6 n-3). Extensive epidemiological studies show that fish consumption is inversely associated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), stroke and the functioning of the brain. About 0.5 g of omega-3 (EPA+DHA) a day or two savings of oily fish a week are required to reduce the risk of death from CVD. PUFAs needs should be satisfied not only with food additives but with fish lipids containing food.

  7. Impedance inversion: A valuable tool in geological interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, P.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Impedance inversion is a newly evolving geophysical technique that offers the explorationist an additional method for understanding and predicting lateral and vertical lithological changes in the subsurface. Its true significance to the interpretation of complex geology and to reservoir delineation is now being realized and the technique is likely to become a vital exploration tool in the 1990s. Using the case study of an oil prospect in the Bredasdorp basin, offshore South Africa, computer-generated high-resolution color impedance inversion plots show lateral lithological changes across an intricate channel complex and reservoir zone. Borehole information from two wells drilled through the reservoir zone are correlated with the impedance inversion data. These combination displays illustrate the importance of conducting impedance inversion programs on prospective targets. The display further illustrates their usefulness when calculating stepout wells or primary well-site positions, especially in wildcat areas where little or no borehole data is available.

  8. Providing additional information about the benefits of statins in a leaflet for patients with coronary heart disease: a qualitative study of the impact on attitudes and beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Rebecca; Raynor, David K; MacDonald, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact of providing additional information about the potential benefits of simvastatin in a patient leaflet on attitudes and beliefs. Design Interview-based study using a generic qualitative approach and framework analysis. Participants 21 participants receiving a prescription for simvastatin were recruited from a general practitioner practice (from a total of 120). 8 participants were women; the age range was 55–92. Intervention Participants were provided with leaflets showing one of 3 types of additional benefit information: (1) textual statement, (2) number needed to treat (NNT) or (3) natural frequency. Semistructured interviews explored patient's attitudes and beliefs. Results A descriptive narrative of preferences for format suggested patients prefer textual as opposed to numerical benefit information. Significant barriers to the acceptance of numerical benefit information included difficulty in understanding the numbers. Patients overestimated the benefits of statins and expressed surprise at the numerical information. Conclusions Textual information was preferred but numerical information, in particular in the form of a natural frequency, may help patients make judgements about their medicines. NNTs were found to be very difficult to understand. This raises the prospect that some patients might reject medicines because of disappointment with the perceived low benefits of their medicines. The self-reported impact on behaviour appeared minimal with reports of intentions to ‘do what the doctor tells me’. Further research is needed to explore the impact of such statements on people who are yet to be prescribed a statin. PMID:27913558

  9. EPA evaluation of the SYNERGY-1 fuel additive under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1981-06-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'SYNERGY-1' device under provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. This additive is intended to improve fuel economy and exhaust emission levels of two and four cycle gasoline fueled engines.

  10. Improve Quality of Life - additional criteria for health and social care information technology acceptance in an ageing world.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Reversing the rising cost of health and social systems is needed in ageing developed and developing countries. A new model of ageing is advocated by the World Health Organization. This new model asks for more personal health accountability and a more integrated approach on care and preventive cure. Information systems and technologies can play an important role in supporting the changes needed in order to have better and more sustainable health and social care systems. Using value and results for patients as criteria by which systems are accepted by users and by organizations can contribute to a value based competition in health and social care systems. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology is presented, and the pertinence of adding an extension to the theory in order capture Quality of Life improvements expectations is explored.

  11. Separate information required for nuclear and subnuclear localization: additional complexity in localizing an enzyme shared by mitochondria and nuclei.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, A M; Joyce, P B; Hopper, A K; Martin, N C

    1992-01-01

    The TRM1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae codes for a tRNA modification enzyme, N2,N2-dimethylguanosine-specific tRNA methyltransferase (m2(2)Gtase), shared by mitochondria and nuclei. Immunofluorescent staining at the nuclear periphery demonstrates that m2(2)Gtase localizes at or near the nuclear membrane. In determining sequences necessary for targeting the enzyme to nuclei and mitochondria, we found that information required to deliver the enzyme to the nucleus is not sufficient for its correct subnuclear localization. We also determined that mislocalizing the enzyme from the nucleus to the cytoplasm does not destroy its biological function. This change in location was caused by altering a sequence similar to other known nuclear targeting signals (KKSKKKRC), suggesting that shared enzymes are likely to use the same import pathway as proteins that localize only to the nucleus. As with other well-characterized mitochondrial proteins, the mitochondrial import of the shared methyltransferase depends on amino-terminal amino acids, and removal of the first 48 amino acids prevents its import into mitochondria. While this truncated protein is still imported into nuclei, the immunofluorescent staining is uniform throughout rather than at the nuclear periphery, a staining pattern identical to that described for a fusion protein consisting of the first 213 amino acids of m2(2)Gtase in frame with beta-galactosidase. As both of these proteins together contain the entire m2(2)Gtase coding region, the information necessary for association with the nuclear periphery must be more complex than the short linear sequence necessary for nuclear localization. Images PMID:1448094

  12. Music therapy: a valuable adjunct in the oncology setting.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Emily M; Mahon, Suzanne M

    2011-08-01

    Music therapy is the supervised and therapeutic use of music by a credentialed therapist to promote positive clinical outcomes. It can be a valuable form of complementary medicine in the oncology setting to decrease patient stress and anxiety, relieve pain and nausea, provide distraction, alleviate depression, and promote the expression of feelings. The music therapist assesses the patient and consults other members of the multidisciplinary team to create a therapeutic treatment plan. Music therapists design music sessions based on patients' needs and their intended therapeutic goals. Patients can participate actively or passively in individual or group sessions. Only a credentialed music therapist can provide safe and beneficial music therapy interventions.

  13. Mammaglobin, a Valuable Diagnostic Marker for Metastatic Breast Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Spaulding, Betsy; Sienko, Anna; Liang, Yiaoming; Li, Hongbao; Nielsen, Gitte; Yub Gong, Gyung; Ro, Jae Y.; “Jim” Zhai, Qihui

    2009-01-01

    Identification of metastasis and occult micrometastases of breast cancer demands sensitive and specific diagnostic markers. In this study, we assessed the utility of a mouse monoclonal antibody to human mammaglobin for one such purpose. Immunohistochemical stains were performed on paraffin-embedded sections from a total of 284 cases, which consisted of primary breast invasive carcinomas (41 cases) with matched metastases to ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes, metastatic breast carcinoma to liver (1 case) and kidney (1 case), non-breast neoplasms (161 cases), and normal human tissues (39 cases). The results showed 31 of the 41 cases of primary breast cancer with axillary lymph node metastases were positive for mammaglobin (76%). In the meantime, we documented expression of mammaglobin in occasional cases of endometrial carcinoma (17%). Our data further validated that mammaglobin is a valuable diagnostic marker for metastatic carcinoma of breast origin, although endometrial carcinoma should be considered as a major differential diagnosis. PMID:19158935

  14. Microcomputer authoring systems: valuable tools for health educators.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, M F; Whiteside, J A

    Writing courseware with the aid of an authoring system is a bold step that can bring together the health education content expert and the power of the microcomputer. The microcomputer can be programmed to present essential knowledge to students in a low pressure setting, specifically geared to their levels of comprehension and rates of progression. Microcomputer-based simulations and patient management problems seem suited to the task helping students develop adequate problem-solving skills in health education (Lewis, 1983; Peterson, 1984). Furthermore, many lecture hours can be replaced by an infinitely patient tutor with which students can interact at their convenience. Creating self-study materials delivered via microcomputer is also a step toward providing the most effective type of learning experiences for individual students. Despite the fact that putting authoring systems in the hands of well-informed content specialists may meet a number of pressing needs in health education, there is one drawback. Authoring systems have a built-in pedagogical structure that, to some extent, dictates the design of the lesson. However, spending time in the evaluation process prior to purchase will enable educators to identify a system that can be used to develop courseware that very closely matches the desires of the author. Integrating microcomputer courseware into health education courses is certainly an attractive solution to some of the educational problems faced in health education today. An authoring system can be used to develop courseware that can substituted for lectures on basic concepts. In addition, students will have more opportunities to develop the ability to apply, in problem-solving situations, the factual knowledge they are learning before they are responsible for making judgments in real-life situations. The time is ripe, then, for health educators to investigate how authoring systems can help them utilize the technology of the microcomputer to improve

  15. Side Streams of Plant Food Processing As a Source of Valuable Compounds: Selected Examples.

    PubMed

    Schieber, Andreas

    2017-02-28

    Industrial processing of plant-derived raw materials generates enormous amounts of by-products. On one hand, these by-products constitute a serious disposal issue because they often emerge seasonally and are prone to microbial decay. On the other hand, they are an abundant source of valuable compounds, in particular secondary plant metabolites and cell wall materials, which may be recovered and used to functionalize foods and replace synthetic additives with ingredients of natural origin. This review covers 150 references and presents select studies performed between 2001 and 2016 on the recovery, characterization, and application of valuable constituents from grape pomace, apple pomace, potato peels, tomato pomace, carrot pomace, onion peels, by-products of citrus, mango, banana, and pineapple processing, side streams of olive oil production, and cereal by-products. The criteria used were economic importance, amounts generated, relevance of side streams as a source of valuable compounds, and reviews already published. Despite a plethora of studies carried out on the utilization of side streams, relatively few processes have yet found industrial application.

  16. Brewer's spent grain: a valuable feedstock for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Mussatto, Solange I

    2014-05-01

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG) is the most abundant by-product generated from the beer-brewing process, representing approximately 85% of the total by-products obtained. This material is basically constituted by the barley grain husks obtained as solid residue after the wort production. Since BSG is rich in sugars and proteins, the main and quickest alternative for elimination of this industrial by-product has been as animal feed. However, BSG is a raw material of interest for application in different areas because of its low cost, large availability throughout the year and valuable chemical composition. In the last decade, many efforts have been directed towards the reuse of BSG, taking into account the incentive that has been given to recycle the wastes and by-products generated by industrial activities. Currently, many interesting and advantageous methods for application of BSG in foods, in energy production and in chemical and biotechnological processes have been reported. The present study presents and discusses the most recent perspectives for BSG application in such areas.

  17. A valuable product from a construction and demolition facility

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, S.G.

    1997-12-31

    A Construction and Demolition (C and D) Facility in Northeast Florida produces a manufactured soil that is a by-product of recycling operations. Upon arrival at the facility, the incoming material is separated into concrete and non-concrete materials. The non-concrete material passes through several screen and conveyor line stations to remove deleterious and unsuitable materials. The remaining material becomes the final product known as recycled soil product. The consistency of the material is similar to soil mixed with some mulch. Present uses of the material include daily landfill cover and fill material (exclusive of top cover) at construction sites, road base preparation and landscaping material. In order to determine if the material was safe to be used in places where it may come in contact with the public or sensitive environments, several analytical tests for metals and volatile organic compounds were performed. The material was determined to be within applicable standards for all parameters sampled and the product is expected to be approved for unrestricted use. This former waste material has been proven to be a valuable commodity again.

  18. Pilot programs offer valuable insight into competitive future

    SciTech Connect

    Warkentin, D.

    1997-03-01

    Retail wheeling pilot programs have quickly become the touchstone upon which utilities and other power suppliers can attempt to determine how their customers, as well as their competitors` customers, are going to react once full-scale customer choice becomes a reality. So important is the gauging of customer reaction to the whole notion of choice that there is little wonder why so many states have already initiated pilots or have passed retail wheeling pilot legislation. An intriguing question, then, revolves around the answer to the question, do pilot programs really mimic reality? This seems important because if pilots actually do help gauge a true retail wheeling scenario, then why don`t all states take part? It seems as though the investment would be well worth the effort. John Belgiovine, Plum Street Energy Marketing regional sales manager, agrees. Belgiovine said there is little doubt that pilots are a great idea and that while nothing but the true thing can actually be reality, he does feel pilot programs offer the closest thing to reality that utilities have right now - and that should be reason enough to invest in them. Utilities as well as marketers and other power suppliers participating in retail wheeling pilots - that is, being on a list of power suppliers that customers can choose from - are proving invaluable, he said. `We`re participating, as are others, to learn what customers want and then to answer some of their questions.` For energy marketers, Belgiovine said, there are particularly valuable learning lessons attached to pilots. The kinds of questions customers ask in regard to switching from a utility supplier to an alternative supplier (such as an energy marketer) and also learning what customers will expect in the competitive future would otherwise be a missing link were it not for pilots.

  19. Space photography - A valuable tool for surface mine planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumbaugh, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    Some plausible advantages of remote sensing from orbit in inventorying of strip-mined land areas are noted, but heavy emphasis is placed on the limitations of such information at the present state of the art, in this application, and on the different types of information extracted from high-resolution imagery by experts of differing backgrounds. Skylab multispectral sensors are described and land use categories encountered in strip mining are catalogued. While oversell of remote sensing applied to strip mining land use inventory is deprecated, planning ahead for effective use of Space Shuttle in this area in the coming years is encouraged.

  20. [Underreporting of tuberculosis in the Information System on Notifiable Diseases (SINAN): primary default and case detection from additional data sources using probabilistic record linkage].

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; Andrade, Vanusa de Lemos; Oliveira, Gisele Pinto de

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze underreporting of tuberculosis (TB) cases in the Information System on Notifiable Diseases (SINAN), based on the following data sources: Mortality Information System (SIM), Registry and Follow-up Book for TB Case Treatment (LPATB), and Laboratory Registry Book (LRLAB). Probabilistic record linkage was used between the SIM (2007-2008) and SINAN (2002-2008). A search was conducted in LPATB and LRLAB (2007-2008) for cases not recorded in SINAN. There were 125 deaths, of which 44.8% were not recorded in SINAN. In LPATB, 58 cases (5.1%) were in treatment and were not reported in SINAN. LRLAB showed 32 smear-positive cases not reported to SINAN and without treatment, representing primary default. Addition of the retrieved cases, led to a 14.6% increase in the incidence rate in 2007 and 11.6% in 2008. Underreporting of deaths from or with TB in the Mortality Information System and primary default revealed difficulties in access to adequate and timely treatment, calling for rethinking of strategies to detect cases for timely treatment.

  1. Geographic Information System Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Chad; Casad, Christopher; Floriano, Luis G.; Hill, Tracie; Johnson, Rashida K.; Locklear, J. Mark; Penn, Stephen; Rhoulac, Tori; Shay, Adam H.; Taylor, Antone; Thorpe, Karina

    1995-01-01

    Data was collected in order to further NASA Langley Research Center's Geographic Information System(GIS). Information on LaRC's communication, electrical, and facility configurations was collected. Existing data was corrected through verification, resulting in more accurate databases. In addition, Global Positioning System(GPS) points were used in order to accurately impose buildings on digitized images. Overall, this project will help the Imaging and CADD Technology Team (ICTT) prove GIS to be a valuable resource for LaRC.

  2. MIT Mints a Valuable New Form of Academic Currency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has invented or improved many world-changing things--radar, information theory, and synthetic self-replicating molecules, to name a few. Last month the university announced, to mild fanfare, an invention that could be similarly transformative, this time for higher education itself. It is called MITx.…

  3. Cathodoluminescence Petrography: A Valuable Tool for Teaching and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Otto C.

    1981-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence is visible light emitted from a specimen when it is bombarded with electrons. A technique known as cathodoluminescence petrography can provide information especially useful in studies or courses related to mineralogy and petrology. The technique is briefly presented, along with examples to illustrate typical results. (Author/WB)

  4. IT Certification: Still Valuable after All These Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venator, John

    2006-01-01

    Though the rapid evolution of technology makes it difficult to pinpoint "the next big thing," the outlook for information technology (IT) employment appears to be promising. In fact, several categories of IT jobs currently face shortages of qualified workers, a troubling trend that is projected to get worse over the next five to seven years. These…

  5. Investigating Engineering Practice Is Valuable for Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goold, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    While engineering mathematics curricula often prescribe a fixed body of mathematical knowledge, this study takes a different approach; second-year engineering students are additionally required to investigate and document an aspect of mathematics used in engineering practice. A qualitative approach is used to evaluate the impact that students'…

  6. Turn your fee schedule into a valuable management tool.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Michael C

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a method of performing a fee schedule analysis that will give you some important management information and tools. By using the methodology described in this article to set your fees, you will confirm that your fees are sufficient, assess your cash flow position, determine the approximate value of your accounts receivable, and estimate the collectible amounts of any new services being considered.

  7. Using Psychodynamic Interaction as a Valuable Source of Information in Social Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    This article will address the issue of using understandings of psychodynamic interrelations as a means to grasp how social and cultural dynamics are processed individually and collectively in narratives. I apply the two theoretically distinct concepts of inter- and intrasubjectivity to gain insight into how social and cultural dynamics are…

  8. How to gather useful and valuable information from protein binding measurements using Langmuir lipid monolayers.

    PubMed

    Boisselier, Élodie; Demers, Éric; Cantin, Line; Salesse, Christian

    2017-03-18

    This review presents data on the influence of various experimental parameters on the binding of proteins onto Langmuir lipid monolayers. The users of the Langmuir methodology are often unaware of the importance of choosing appropriate experimental conditions to validate the data acquired with this method. The protein Retinitis pigmentosa 2 (RP2) has been used throughout this review to illustrate the influence of these experimental parameters on the data gathered with Langmuir monolayers. The methods detailed in this review include the determination of protein binding parameters from the measurement of adsorption isotherms, infrared spectra of the protein in solution and in monolayers, ellipsometric isotherms and fluorescence micrographs.

  9. Radiomics in Head and Neck Cancer: Extracting Valuable Information from Data beyond Recognition.

    PubMed

    Scheckenbach, Kathrin; Colter, Lena; Wagenmann, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In oncology, biomarkers that describe the characteristics of a malignancy on different levels (clinical, histological, molecular) and the patient's outcome and treatment response are increasingly integrated into the clinical routine. Extensive screening tools, "omics," offer incredible opportunities and vast amounts of data. During the last years, the field of "omics" gained a new promising partner, the "radiomics." Based on radiological imaging, multiple features can be extracted and linked to clinical, genomic, and histopathological data from other sources. Extracted traits describe radiological intensity, shape and texture characteristics and can be analyzed on routinely performed images. These specific radiomic markers and patterns are currently developed for multiple tumor entities, and first studies for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck have been initiated.

  10. College-Bound Digest. Valuable Information from Prominent Educators for all College-Bound Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    This monograph about the college selection process is desigend to help students explore choices and options. It contains 20 articles, designed to complement the counselor's guidance efforts. These are: (1) "Getting the Most from Your High School Counselor," (James Warfield); (2) "The Use of the SAT at Selective Colleges,"…

  11. Wrestling with Data: Learning Network Grapples with How to Gather and Analyze Valuable Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Harriette Thurber

    2012-01-01

    As facilitator, the author noted some trepidation in the room as the eight secondary principals from Eugene (Oregon.) School District 4J quietly discussed questions that surfaced through their hopes and fears exercise. Could the practice of visiting classrooms together help them to better lead instruction in their buildings? Would this process…

  12. Geographic exposure modeling: a valuable extension of geographic information systems for use in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Beyea, J

    1999-01-01

    Geographic modeling of individual exposures using air pollution modeling techniques can help in both the design of environmental epidemiologic studies and in the assignment of measures that delineate regions that receive the highest exposure in space and time. Geographic modeling can help in the interpretation of environmental sampling data associated with airborne concentration or deposition, and can act as a sophisticated interpolator for such data, allowing values to be assigned to locations between points where the data have actually been collected. Recent advances allow for quantification of the uncertainty in a geographic model and the resulting impact on estimates of association, variability, and study power. In this paper we present the terminology and methodology of geographic modeling, describe applications to date in the field of epidemiology, and evaluate the potential of this relatively new tool. PMID:10229717

  13. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1953-01-01

    Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

  14. Nanotechnology: A Valuable Strategy to Improve Bacteriocin Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Fahim, Hazem A.; Khairalla, Ahmed S.; El-Gendy, Ahmed O.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriocins are proteinaceous antibacterial compounds, produced by diverse bacteria, which have been successfully used as: (i) food biopreservative; (ii) anti-biofilm agents; and (iii) additives or alternatives to the currently existing antibiotics, to minimize the risk of emergence of resistant strains. However, there are several limitations that challenge the use of bacteriocins as biopreservatives/antibacterial agents. One of the most promising avenues to overcome these limitations is the use of nanoformulations. This review highlights the practical difficulties with using bacteriocins to control pathogenic microorganisms, and provides an overview on the role of nanotechnology in improving the antimicrobial activity and the physicochemical properties of these peptides. PMID:27695440

  15. The Mock Trial: Revisiting a Valuable Training Strategy.

    PubMed

    Glancy, Graham D

    2016-03-01

    The number of forensic psychiatrists has increased dramatically over the past 40 years. With this welcome development has also come some challenges for educating future generations of practitioners, specifically the greater demands on training programs and the need to divide practice hours among a larger pool of individuals. Junior trainees and experienced practitioners alike can benefit by supplementing work experience with well-designed, theoretically informed simulations. In this article, the theoretical perspectives of simulation, deliberate practice, and experiential education are discussed and linked to the design of mock trials, a form of simulation used to teach the essential skill of expert testimony. My argument is that, by explicitly linking the mock trial to learning theory, its efficacy and range of application can be increased. I provide recommendations for effective design and application.

  16. Propagation of Valuable North Sumatera Benzoin Trees (Styrax Sp) Using Macrocutting Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilowati, A.; Hartini, K. S.; Rachmat, H. H.; Alvaroby, M.

    2017-03-01

    Kemenyan known as Sumatran benzoin is North Sumatera local species that produce high valuable rosin and prospective export comodities. However, sustainability of Sumatran benzoin production has many constraints such as instability of resin production, lack information of propagation technique and traditional management system. Until now, comprehensive information for Sumatran benzoin propagation system still not determined yet. The objectives of this research were (1) to get information about propagation technique of Sumatran benzoin and its suitable growing medium and 2) to get information on adventitious root formation in Sumatran benzoin cuttings. Cutting materials (Toba benzoin and Durame benzoin) were originated from 1 year old seedling propagated by seed. Media used were combination of sand : rice husk (1:0 v/v; 1/1 v/v). Results showed that interaction between media and benzoin species significantly affected primer and secondary root lenght. While planting medium significantly improved secondary root length and number. Benzoin species significantly affected primary and secondary root lenght, and secondary root number.

  17. GMO quantification: valuable experience and insights for the future.

    PubMed

    Milavec, Mojca; Dobnik, David; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing; Gruden, Kristina; Zel, Jana

    2014-10-01

    Cultivation and marketing of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been unevenly adopted worldwide. To facilitate international trade and to provide information to consumers, labelling requirements have been set up in many countries. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is currently the method of choice for detection, identification and quantification of GMOs. This has been critically assessed and the requirements for the method performance have been set. Nevertheless, there are challenges that should still be highlighted, such as measuring the quantity and quality of DNA, and determining the qPCR efficiency, possible sequence mismatches, characteristics of taxon-specific genes and appropriate units of measurement, as these remain potential sources of measurement uncertainty. To overcome these problems and to cope with the continuous increase in the number and variety of GMOs, new approaches are needed. Statistical strategies of quantification have already been proposed and expanded with the development of digital PCR. The first attempts have been made to use new generation sequencing also for quantitative purposes, although accurate quantification of the contents of GMOs using this technology is still a challenge for the future, and especially for mixed samples. New approaches are needed also for the quantification of stacks, and for potential quantification of organisms produced by new plant breeding techniques.

  18. New, Highly Valuable Services in the Heliophysics Data Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, D.

    2011-12-01

    The HP data environment has matured greatly during the past ten years, with new and old data becoming easily discovered, accessed, and used, and with new tools and products making data exploration and analysis much more effective. The services and capabilities I have come to value most are: (1) finding most HP datasets and how to access them with a simple interface; (2) bringing data directly into analysis and display applications using (invisible) web services; (3) browsing datasets using everything from general web access tools, to specific sets of prepared survey plots, to movie makers for solar image browsing; (4) running simulations on request; and (5) finding and downloading journal articles and their abstracts, references, etc. I will illustrate the use of all these in a recent research project on the origin of the slow solar wind. The current tools have also made it possible to quickly reproduce significant aspects of others' research to check results, and to find context information for many studies.

  19. Analogies in medicine: valuable for learning, reasoning, remembering and naming.

    PubMed

    Pena, Gil Patrus; Andrade-Filho, José de Souza

    2010-10-01

    Analogies are important tools in human reasoning and learning, for resolving problems and providing arguments, and are extensively used in medicine. Analogy and similarity involve a structural alignment or mapping between domains. This cognitive mechanism can be used to make inferences and learn new abstractions. Through analogies, we try to explain a knowledge to be achieved (the target), with pieces of information already familiar to the learner (the source), keeping in mind the constraints of similarity, structure and purpose. The purpose of this essay is to examine the use of analogies in medicine. We provide a brief review of the theoretical basis of analogical reasoning. This theoretical background is discussed in the light of actual examples of analogies retrieved from medical literature. In medicine, analogies have long been used to explain several physiologic and pathologic processes. Besides deeper structural relations, superficial attribute similarity is extensively used in many medical specialties. These attribute similarities are important in naming, categorizing and classifying, and play a role as learning and memorizing tools. Analogies also serve as basis for medical nomenclature. The choice of the source of analogies is highly dependent on cultural background, and may derive from ancient or diverse cultures. Learning by analogies may thus require research on culture diversity in order to establish an adequate justification and to comprehend the purpose of an analogy.

  20. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  1. Parasites as valuable stock markers for fisheries in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Lester, R J G; Moore, B R

    2015-01-01

    Over 30 studies in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands region have collected and analysed parasite data to determine the ranges of individual fish, many leading to conclusions about stock delineation. Parasites used as biological tags have included both those known to have long residence times in the fish and those thought to be relatively transient. In many cases the parasitological conclusions have been supported by other methods especially analysis of the chemical constituents of otoliths, and to a lesser extent, genetic data. In analysing parasite data, authors have applied multiple different statistical methodologies, including summary statistics, and univariate and multivariate approaches. Recently, a growing number of researchers have found non-parametric methods, such as analysis of similarities and cluster analysis, to be valuable. Future studies into the residence times, life cycles and geographical distributions of parasites together with more robust analytical methods will yield much important information to clarify stock structures in the area.

  2. Quinagolide--a valuable treatment option for hyperprolactinaemia.

    PubMed

    Barlier, Anne; Jaquet, Philippe

    2006-02-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia is characterised by gonadal dysfunction, including infertility and reduced libido and, if left untreated, is associated with an increased risk of long-term complications, such as osteoporosis. The first-line therapy for patients with hyperprolactinaemia is pharmacological intervention with a dopamine agonist. Currently, there are three dopamine agonists available for hyperprolactinaemia therapy: bromocriptine, quinagolide and cabergoline. Bromocriptine has a long history of use; however, a range of 5-18% of patients are reported to show bromocriptine resistance, with only partial lowering of plasma prolactin levels and an absence of tumour shrinkage. The newer dopamine agonists, quinagolide and cabergoline, offer improved efficacy over bromocriptine, with a lower incidence of adverse events. Quinagolide and cabergoline have also demonstrated efficacy in many patients intolerant or resistant to bromocriptine. Thus, the selection of dopamine agonists available provides more than one option for pharmacological intervention of hyperprolactinaemia. This review discusses the clinical use of quinagolide in comparison to other dopamine agonists for hyperprolactinaemia therapy. Quinagolide may improve patient compliance to treatment owing to its reduced side effect profile, simple and rapid titration over just 7 days, once-daily dosing regimen and easy to use starter pack (available in some countries). Quinagolide offers an additional benefit for patients wishing to become pregnant, as it can be used until the point of confirmation of pregnancy. Therefore, as a well tolerated and effective therapy, with a simple dosing regimen, quinagolide should be considered as a first-line therapy in the treatment of hyperprolactinaemia.

  3. Pioglitazone: a valuable component of combination therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Papanas, Nikolaos; Katsiki, Niki; Hatzitolios, Apostolos I; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2011-07-01

    Several classes of drugs have been developed to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Pioglitazone is now the only thiazolidinedione approved for the treatment of T2DM and can be administered in combination with metformin, sulfonylureas, exenatide, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors or insulin. It improves glycemic control with an extremely low incidence of hypoglycemia. In addition to reducing insulin resistance, it may also improve pancreatic beta-cell secretory function. Moreover, it exhibits a variety of favorable pleiotropic effects. The latter include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, vasoprotective, antihypertensive and hypolipidemic actions. Finally, this agent has been shown to improve experimental diabetic neuropathy and alleviate neuropathic pain, as well as decreasing urinary albumin excretion in patients with diabetes. Thus, pioglitazone emerges as a valuable hypoglycemic agent for combination therapy in T2DM. Importantly, however, patients should be appropriately selected, especially to avoid those with heart failure, in order to minimize adverse events attributable to water retention.

  4. BPI-ANCA Provides Additional Clinical Information to Anti-Pseudomonas Serology: Results from a Cohort of 117 Swedish Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ulrika; Carlsson, Malin; Hellmark, Thomas; Segelmark, Mårten

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) have worse prognosis compared with patients who are not. BPI-ANCA is an anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody against BPI (bactericidal/permeability increasing protein) correlating with P. aeruginosa colonization and adverse long time prognosis. Whether it provides additional information as compared to standard anti-P. aeruginosa serology tests is not known. 117 nontransplanted CF patients at the CF centre in Lund, Sweden, were followed prospectively for ten years. Bacterial colonisation was classified according to the Leeds criteria. IgA BPI-ANCA was compared with assays for antibodies against alkaline protease (AP), Elastase (ELA), and Exotoxin A (ExoA). Lung function and patient outcome, alive, lung transplanted, or dead, were registered. BPI-ANCA showed the highest correlation with lung function impairment with an r-value of 0.44. Forty-eight of the 117 patients were chronically colonized with P. aeruginosa. Twenty of these patients experienced an adverse outcome. Receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis revealed that this could be predicted by BPI-ANCA (AUC = 0.77), (p = 0.002) to a better degree compared with serology tests. BPI-ANCA correlates better with lung function impairment and long time prognosis than anti-P. aeruginosa serology and has similar ability to identify patients with chronic P. aeruginosa.

  5. From linked open data to molecular interaction: studying selectivity trends for ligands of the human serotonin and dopamine transporter† †The authors declare no competing interests. ‡ ‡Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6md00207b Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Hellsberg, Eva; Viereck, Michael; Ecker, Gerhard F.

    2016-01-01

    Retrieval of congeneric and consistent SAR data sets for protein targets of interest is still a laborious task to do if no appropriate in-house data set is available. However, combining integrated open data sources (such as the Open PHACTS Discovery Platform) with workflow tools now offers the possibility of querying across multiple domains and tailoring the search to the given research question. Starting from two phylogenetically related protein targets of interest (the human serotonin and dopamine transporters), the whole chemical compound space was explored by implementing a scaffold-based clustering of compounds possessing biological measurements for both targets. In addition, potential hERG blocking liabilities were included. The workflow allowed studying the selectivity trends of scaffold series, identifying potentially harmful compound series, and performing SAR, docking studies and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for a consistent data set of 56 cathinones. This delivered useful insights into driving determinants for hDAT selectivity over hSERT. With respect to the scaffold-based analyses it should be noted that the cathinone data set could be retrieved only when Murcko scaffold analyses were combined with similarity searches such as a common substructure search. PMID:27891211

  6. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  7. Cleaning of waste smelter slags and recovery of valuable metals by pressure oxidative leaching.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunjiao; Perederiy, Ilya; Papangelakis, Vladimiros G

    2008-04-01

    Huge quantities of slag, a waste solid product of pyrometallurgical operations by the metals industry are dumped continuously around the world, posing a potential environmental threat due to entrained values of base metals and sulfur. High temperature pressure oxidative acid leaching of nickel smelter slags was investigated as a process to facilitate slag cleaning and selective dissolution of base metals for economic recovery. Five key parameters, namely temperature, acid addition, oxygen overpressure, solids loading and particle size, were examined on the process performance. Base metal recoveries, acid and oxygen consumptions were accurately measured, and ferrous/ferric iron concentrations were also determined. A highly selective leaching of valuable metals with extractions of >99% for nickel and cobalt, >97% for copper, >91% for zinc and <2.2% for iron was successfully achieved for 20 wt.% acid addition and 25% solids loading at 200-300 kPa O(2) overpressure at 250 degrees C in 2h. The acid consumption was measured to be 38.5 kg H(2)SO(4)/t slag and the oxygen consumption was determined as 84 kg O(2)/t slag which is consistent with the estimated theoretical oxygen consumption. The as-produced residue containing less than 0.01% of base metals, hematite and virtually zero sulfidic sulfur seems to be suitable for safe disposal. The process seems to be able to claim economic recovery of base metals from slags and is reliable and feasible.

  8. Circulating tumor cells in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients: a valuable prognostic and predictive biomarker

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was initiated to investigate the prognostic significance of circulating tumor cell (CTC) enumeration and the predictive value of CTC HER2 expression for efficient anti-HER2 therapy in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients. Methods Sixty HER2-positive MBC patients were enrolled in the present study. Before the initiation of systemic treatment, CTCs from 7.5 ml of blood were analyzed using the CellSearch system. The progression-free survival (PFS) of the patients was estimated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Results CTCs were detected in 45% (27/60) of the patients, who had shorter median PFS than those without CTCs (2.5 vs. 7.5 months, P = 0.0125). Furthermore, referring to the standard HER2 testing that uses immunohistochemistry (IHC), we proposed a CTC HER2-positive criterion, defined as >30% of CTCs over-expressing HER2. Among patients undergoing anti-HER2 therapy, those with HER2-positive CTCs had longer PFS (8.8 vs. 2.5 months, P = 0.002). Among patients with HER2-positive CTCs, the median PFS for those receiving anti-HER2 therapy was significantly longer than those who were not (8.8 vs. 1.5 months, P = 0.001). Notably, up to 52% (14/27) of the HER2-positive patients were CTC HER2-negative, and anti-HER2 therapy did not significantly improve the median PFS in these patients (2.5 vs. 0.9 months, P = 0.499). Conclusions Our findings underscore the necessity of a comprehensive CTC analysis, which may provide valuable prognostic and predictive information for optimizing individually tailored therapies in HER2-positive MBC patients. To test this idea, additional large cohort, multi-center and prospective clinical trials are needed. PMID:23617715

  9. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  10. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  11. Genetic evaluation of the breeding population of a valuable reforestation conifer Platycladus orientalis (Cupressaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yuqing; Ma, Yongpeng; Wang, Shun; Hu, Xian-Ge; Huang, Li-Sha; Li, Yue; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Platycladus orientalis, a widespread conifer with long lifespan and significant adaptability. It is much used in reforestation in north China and commonly planted in central Asia. With the increasing demand for plantation forest in central to north China, breeding programs are progressively established for this species. Efficient use of breeding resources requires good understanding of the genetic value of the founder breeding materials. This study investigated the distribution of genetic variation in 192 elite trees collected for the breeding program for the central range of the species. We developed first set of 27 polymorphic EST-derived SSR loci for the species from transcriptome/genome data. After examination of amplification quality, 10 loci were used to evaluate the genetic variation in the breeding population. We found moderate genetic diversity (average He = 0.348) and low population differentiation (Fst = 0.011). Extensive admixture and no significant geographic population structure characterized this set of collections. Our analyses of the diversity and population structure are important steps toward a long-term sustainable deployment of the species and provide valuable genetic information for conservation and breeding applications. PMID:27721449

  12. Genetic evaluation of the breeding population of a valuable reforestation conifer Platycladus orientalis (Cupressaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yuqing; Ma, Yongpeng; Wang, Shun; Hu, Xian-Ge; Huang, Li-Sha; Li, Yue; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Platycladus orientalis, a widespread conifer with long lifespan and significant adaptability. It is much used in reforestation in north China and commonly planted in central Asia. With the increasing demand for plantation forest in central to north China, breeding programs are progressively established for this species. Efficient use of breeding resources requires good understanding of the genetic value of the founder breeding materials. This study investigated the distribution of genetic variation in 192 elite trees collected for the breeding program for the central range of the species. We developed first set of 27 polymorphic EST-derived SSR loci for the species from transcriptome/genome data. After examination of amplification quality, 10 loci were used to evaluate the genetic variation in the breeding population. We found moderate genetic diversity (average He = 0.348) and low population differentiation (Fst = 0.011). Extensive admixture and no significant geographic population structure characterized this set of collections. Our analyses of the diversity and population structure are important steps toward a long-term sustainable deployment of the species and provide valuable genetic information for conservation and breeding applications.

  13. Human DDX3 protein is a valuable target to develop broad spectrum antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Brai, Annalaura; Fazi, Roberta; Tintori, Cristina; Zamperini, Claudio; Bugli, Francesca; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Stigliano, Egidio; Esté, José; Badia, Roger; Franco, Sandra; Martinez, Javier P.; Meyerhans, Andreas; Saladini, Francesco; Zazzi, Maurizio; Garbelli, Anna; Botta, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Targeting a host factor essential for the replication of different viruses but not for the cells offers a higher genetic barrier to the development of resistance, may simplify therapy regimens for coinfections, and facilitates management of emerging viral diseases. DEAD-box polypeptide 3 (DDX3) is a human host factor required for the replication of several DNA and RNA viruses, including some of the most challenging human pathogens currently circulating, such as HIV-1, Hepatitis C virus, Dengue virus, and West Nile virus. Herein, we showed for the first time, to our knowledge, that the inhibition of DDX3 by a small molecule could be successfully exploited for the development of a broad spectrum antiviral agent. In addition to the multiple antiviral activities, hit compound 16d retained full activity against drug-resistant HIV-1 strains in the absence of cellular toxicity. Pharmacokinetics and toxicity studies in rats confirmed a good safety profile and bioavailability of 16d. Thus, DDX3 is here validated as a valuable therapeutic target. PMID:27118832

  14. Determination of triterpenic acids and screening for valuable secondary metabolites in Salvia sp. suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Kümmritz, Sibylle; Haas, Christiane; Pavlov, Atanas I; Geib, Doris; Ulber, Roland; Bley, Thomas; Steingroewer, Juliane

    2014-01-01

    Plant in vitro cultures are a prospective alternative for biochemicals production, for example the triterpenes oleanolic and ursolic acid present in plants and cell cultures of Salvia sp. Our objective was to develop a suitable analysis protocol for evaluation of triterpenic acid yield in plant raw material and in vitro cultures supporting selection processes. Moreover, valuable bioactive compounds had to be revealed. Thus, different strategies enhancing the separation for a sensitive and effective HPLC-UV method were investigated and the developed method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limits of detection and quantification. A baseline separation of these isomers enabled detection limits of below 0.4 microg/mL and quantification limits of about 1.2 microg/mL. Over the tested concentration range a good linearity was observed (R2 > 0.9999). The variations in the method were below 6% for intra- and inter-day assays of concentration. Recoveries were between 85-98% for both compounds using ethanol as extraction solvent. Additionally, metabolite profiling of cell suspension culture extracts by GC-MS has shown the production variability of different plant metabolites and especially the presence of plant phenols and sterols. These studies provide a method suitable for screening plant and cell culture productivity of triterpenic acids and highlighted interesting co-products of plant cell cultures.

  15. [Longterm treatment of COPD with theophylline--still a valuable option?].

    PubMed

    Wettengel, R

    2003-10-01

    In the last decade the interest of pneumologists and therapeutic research has been focused on COPD. The increasing morbidity and mortality world wide and the important socio-economic impact challenged to improve the therapeutic options. New indications like LABA and newly introduced drugs like tiotropium may help to ameliorate symptoms, ICS potentially help to protect against exacerbations and to suppress components of the inflammatory process even in COPD. A reappraisal of the place of theophylline in the stepwise approach to treat these patients seems to be useful. This report reviews its effects as bronchodilator and the well documented additive effects in combination with betaadrenergics and anticholinergics. Further desirable actions of theophylline on the sensation of dyspnoea and on exercise capacity, on respiratory muscle function and on the cardiovascular performance are discussed but no definite conclusions can be made about the clinical utility of these effects. Given that patients are carefully selected in terms of benefit and side effects theophylline may remain a valuable therapeutic option.

  16. Glycosyltransferases and Transpeptidases/Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Valuable Targets for New Antibacterials

    PubMed Central

    Sauvage, Eric; Terrak, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Peptidoglycan (PG) is an essential macromolecular sacculus surrounding most bacteria. It is assembled by the glycosyltransferase (GT) and transpeptidase (TP) activities of multimodular penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) within multiprotein complex machineries. Both activities are essential for the synthesis of a functional stress-bearing PG shell. Although good progress has been made in terms of the functional and structural understanding of GT, finding a clinically useful antibiotic against them has been challenging until now. In contrast, the TP/PBP module has been successfully targeted by β-lactam derivatives, but the extensive use of these antibiotics has selected resistant bacterial strains that employ a wide variety of mechanisms to escape the lethal action of these antibiotics. In addition to traditional β-lactams, other classes of molecules (non-β-lactams) that inhibit PBPs are now emerging, opening new perspectives for tackling the resistance problem while taking advantage of these valuable targets, for which a wealth of structural and functional knowledge has been accumulated. The overall evidence shows that PBPs are part of multiprotein machineries whose activities are modulated by cofactors. Perturbation of these systems could lead to lethal effects. Developing screening strategies to take advantage of these mechanisms could lead to new inhibitors of PG assembly. In this paper, we present a general background on the GTs and TPs/PBPs, a survey of recent issues of bacterial resistance and a review of recent works describing new inhibitors of these enzymes. PMID:27025527

  17. Glycosyltransferases and Transpeptidases/Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Valuable Targets for New Antibacterials.

    PubMed

    Sauvage, Eric; Terrak, Mohammed

    2016-02-17

    Peptidoglycan (PG) is an essential macromolecular sacculus surrounding most bacteria. It is assembled by the glycosyltransferase (GT) and transpeptidase (TP) activities of multimodular penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) within multiprotein complex machineries. Both activities are essential for the synthesis of a functional stress-bearing PG shell. Although good progress has been made in terms of the functional and structural understanding of GT, finding a clinically useful antibiotic against them has been challenging until now. In contrast, the TP/PBP module has been successfully targeted by β-lactam derivatives, but the extensive use of these antibiotics has selected resistant bacterial strains that employ a wide variety of mechanisms to escape the lethal action of these antibiotics. In addition to traditional β-lactams, other classes of molecules (non-β-lactams) that inhibit PBPs are now emerging, opening new perspectives for tackling the resistance problem while taking advantage of these valuable targets, for which a wealth of structural and functional knowledge has been accumulated. The overall evidence shows that PBPs are part of multiprotein machineries whose activities are modulated by cofactors. Perturbation of these systems could lead to lethal effects. Developing screening strategies to take advantage of these mechanisms could lead to new inhibitors of PG assembly. In this paper, we present a general background on the GTs and TPs/PBPs, a survey of recent issues of bacterial resistance and a review of recent works describing new inhibitors of these enzymes.

  18. Environmental Assessment for the Construction of an Addition to USSOCOM Command and Control Facility, an Information Technology Facility, and a Permanent Parking Lot MacDill AFB, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    In addition, since the site is larger than one acre in area, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Phase II Storm water...Clean Air Act (CAA), as amended in 1977 and 1990, provides the basis for regulating air pollution to the atmosphere. The United States Environmental...Protection Agency (USEPA) set air quality standards for six “criteria” pollutants : carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), sulfur

  19. Two new endemic species of Ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae) from the dry forest of northwestern Peru and additional information on Ameiva concolor Ruthven, 1924.

    PubMed

    Koch, Claudia; Venegas, Pablo J; Rödder, Dennis; Flecks, Morris; Böhme, Wolfgang

    2013-12-04

    We describe two new species of Ameiva Meyer, 1795 from the dry forest of the Northern Peruvian Andes. The new species Ameiva nodam sp. nov. and Ameiva aggerecusans sp. nov. share a divided frontal plate and are differentiated from each other and from their congeners based on genetic (12S and 16S rRNA genes) and morphological characteristics. A. nodam sp. nov. has dilated postbrachials, a maximum known snout-vent length of 101 mm, 10 longitudinal rows of ventral plates, 86-113 midbody granules, 25-35 lamellae under the fourth toe, and a color pattern with 5 longitudinal yellow stripes on the dorsum. Ameiva aggerecusans sp. nov. has not or only hardly dilated postbrachials, a maximum known snout-vent length of 99.3 mm, 10-12 longitudinal rows of ventral plates, 73-92 midbody granules, 31-39 lamellae under the fourth toe, and the females and juveniles of the species normally exhibit a cream-colored vertebral stripe on a dark dorsum ground color. We provide information on the intraspecific variation and distribution of A. concolor. Furthermore, we provide information on the environmental niches of the taxa and test for niche conservatism. 

  20. Proposal for including what is valuable to ecosystems in environmental assessments.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D E

    2001-07-15

    Assessment scientists and managers depend on social values to identify the goals that will be used to guide environmental assessments. These goals are commonly identified by examining the vested interests of the various social groups that are stakeholders in a region. However, knowledge about what people value represents only part of the information needed to identify comprehensive assessment goals for environmental systems that include both economic and ecological components and processes. All parties also need to understand what is valuable to ecosystems because that determines the ecological patterns and processes that prevail in the long run. The competition among alternate system designs for available energy determines the viability of the choices that people make for their environment. Ecosystems that prevail in competition use the process of self-organization to create system designs that maximize the use of ever-changing sources of available energy. The efficacy of ecosystem designs can be evaluated using the maximum empower principle, which states that ecosystems evolve toward designs that maximize empower (energy use per unit time). Energy is an accounting quantity that normalizes the different kinds of energy developed in a system so that they may be compared. The counter-intuitive and sometimes controversial results that come from energy analyses are illustrated by examining three environmental problems on the interface between ecology and economics. A process for identifying and using social and ecosystem values to guide environmental assessments is proposed using a conceptual energy systems model that shows how these processes might interact within a region. The probability of realizing a given change in system empower production is suggested as a decision criterion that can be used by managers to evaluate the efficacy of alternatives.

  1. Valuable compounds from sewage sludge by thermal hydrolysis and wet oxidation. A review.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Iglesias, Octavio; Urrea, José Luis; Oulego, Paula; Collado, Sergio; Díaz, Mario

    2017-04-15

    Sewage sludge is considered a costly waste, whose benefit has received a lot of attention for decades. In this sense, a variety of promising technologies, such as thermal hydrolysis and wet oxidation, are currently employed. Thermal hydrolysis is used as a pretreatment step ahead of anaerobic digestion processes and wet oxidation is intended for the solubilization and partial oxidation of the sludge. Such processes could be utilized for solubilizing polysaccharides, lipids, fragments of them and phosphorus (thermal hydrolysis) or for generating carboxylic acids (wet oxidation). This article compiles the available information on the production of valuable chemicals by these techniques and comments on their main features. Temperature, reaction duration times and sludge characteristics influence the experimental results significantly, but only the first two variables have been thoroughly studied. For thermal hydrolysis, a rise of temperature led to an increase in the solubilized biomolecules, but also to a greater decomposition of proteins and undesirable reactions of carbohydrates with themselves or with proteins. At constant temperature, the amounts of substances that can be recovered tend to become time independent after several minutes. Diluted and activated sludges seem to be more readily hydrolyzable than the thickened and primary ones. For wet oxidation, the dependence of the production of carboxylic acids with temperature and time is not simple: their concentration can increase, decrease or go through a maximum. At high temperatures, acetic acid is the main carboxylic acid obtained. Concentrated, fermented and secondary sludge seem to be more suitable for yielding higher amounts of acid than diluted, undigested and primary ones.

  2. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay identifies additional copy number changes compared with R-band karyotype and provide more accuracy prognostic information in myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zefeng; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Jinqin; Li, Bing; Fang, Liwei; Zhang, Hongli; Pan, Lijuan; Hu, Naibo; Qu, Shiqiang; Cai, Wenyu; Ru, Kun; Jia, Yujiao; Huang, Gang; Xiao, Zhijian

    2017-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis provides important diagnostic and prognostic information for patients with Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and plays an essential role in the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay is a recently developed technique to identify targeted cytogenetic aberrations in MDS patients. In the present study, we evaluated the results obtained using an MLPA assay in 437 patients with MDS to determine the efficacy of MLPA analysis. Using R-banding karyotyping, 45% (197/437) of MDS patients had chromosomal abnormalities, whereas MLPA analysis detected that 35% (153/437) of MDS cases contained at least one copy-number variations (CNVs) .2/5 individuals (40%) with R-band karyotype failures had trisomy 8 detected using only MLPA. Clonal cytogenetic abnormalities were detected in 20/235 (8.5%) MDS patients with a normal R-band karyotype, and 12/20 (60%) of those patients were reclassified into a higher-risk IPSS-R prognostic category. When sequencing and cytogenetics were combined, the fraction of patients with MDS-related oncogenic lesions increased to 87.3% (233/267 cases). MLPA analysis determined that the median OS of patients with a normal karyotype (n=218) was 65 months compared with 27 months in cases with an aberrant karyotype (P=0.002) in 240 patients with normal or failed karyotypes by R-banding karyotyping. The high-resolution MPLA assay is an efficient and reliable method that can be used in conjunction with R-band karyotyping to detect chromosomal abnormalities in patients with suspected MDS. MLPA may also provide more accurate prognostic information. PMID:27906673

  3. Literacy and Informational Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decarie, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Informational interviews are valuable tools for improving writing, editing, and interviewing skills, and they are also extremely valuable in improving the soft skills that are valued by employers, such as confidence, adaptability, the ability to set and keep deadlines, the ability to manage risk, and so on. These soft skills, this article argues,…

  4. Landslides and fortified settlements as valuable geoheritage sites in the Moldavian Plateau, North-Eastern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculita, Mihai; Bucci, Francesco; Santangelo, Michele; Ciprian Margarint, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    Landslides are widespread natural phenomena that shape the earth surface. As such, they are part of the environment where people live, playing an important role as natural hazard, but also making a place peculiar for its specific morphology. Nowadays, like in the past, people living in hilly to mountainous areas have always had to face landslides. In the Eastern Carpathians lowlands, landslides have carved a landscape with inaccessible escarpments tens of meters high, providing old populations with panoramic and naturally defensive places to build their settlements. This interaction produced an association of landslide morphologies and archaeological remains that is unique in Romaina. In this study, we present the case of chalcolitic and thraco-getic (6.5 ka BP to 500 BP) fortified settlements, for which landslides provided a favorable place for their construction on one hand, and acted as a natural hazard on the other hand. In the Moldavian Plateau, North-Eastern Romania, more than 50 sites were identified on structural plateaus bounded by wide scarps of Pleistocene landslides, on cuesta ridges bounded by scarps of Holocene landslides, or situated on hillslopes, on erosional remnants of landslide bodies. For nine out of the 50 sites, we produced accurate geomorphological landslide inventories, mapping more than 500 landslides starting from high resolution LiDAR DEM derived images. Such inventories provide information on landslide type and relative ages (very old, old, recent landslides) based on the morphological appearance of each slope failure. Analysis of the relations between the sites hosting the fortified settlements, their archaeological remains and very old landslides distribution, provides evidences that landslide scarps and their deposits were used by these populations as defensive sites. In particular, the scarps were used as natural walls, allowing to save material and manpower required to erect walls on the gentle and open parts of the sites. Besides

  5. NGSI student activities in open source information analysis in support of the training program of the U.S. DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the additional protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, M Analisa; Uribe, Eva C; Sandoval, Marisa N; Boyer, Brian D; Stevens, Rebecca S

    2009-01-01

    In 2008 a joint team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) consisting of specialists in training of IAEA inspectors in the use of complementary access activities formulated a training program to prepare the U.S. Doe laboratories for the entry into force of the Additional Protocol. As a major part of the support of the activity, LANL summer interns provided open source information analysis to the LANL-BNL mock inspection team. They were a part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative's (NGSI) summer intern program aimed at producing the next generation of safeguards specialists. This paper describes how they used open source information to 'backstop' the LANL-BNL team's effort to construct meaningful Additional Protocol Complementary Access training scenarios for each of the three DOE laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  6. Nontraditional carbon reducing agents in smelting FMn78B ferromanganese and valuable manganese slag

    SciTech Connect

    P.A. Kravchenko; O.N. Sezonenko; O.L. Bespalov; S.N. Kornienko; S.D. Belikov; M.I. Gasik

    2008-09-15

    The smelting of FeMn78B ferromanganese (0.7% P) by a flux-free method, with the production of valuable slag (36-38% Mn), is considered in the case where some of the coke nuts are replaced by anthracite and sometimes by long-flame coal.

  7. QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS: A USELESS PAPER EXERCISE OR VALUABLE AID?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two perspectives on the fundamental question "Are quality assurance project plans (QAPPS) a useless paper exercise or a valuable aid?" will be explored. These perspectives include those of a Branch Chief (i.e., the supervisor/manager) and an active researcher. As a Branch Chief, ...

  8. Valuable and Professional Orientations as a Social and Psychological Resource of Development of a Modern Worker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeer, Evald F.; Bragina, Iuliia

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the researched problem is caused by the fact that at present there is the sharpest shortage of highly skilled personnel at the Russian enterprises and, therefore, studying of features of valuable and professional orientations of representatives of working professions is of special interest. The purpose of the article consists in…

  9. Adsorption of valuable metals from leachates of mobile phone wastes using biopolymers and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Zazycki, Maria A; Tanabe, Eduardo H; Bertuol, Daniel A; Dotto, Guilherme L

    2017-03-01

    In this work, chitin (CTN), chitosan (CTS) and activated carbon (AC) were used as adsorbents to recover valuable metals from leachates of mobile phone wastes. The mobile phone wastes (contactors) were collected and characterized. The valuable metals were extracted by thiourea leaching. The adsorption of valuable metals from leachates was studied according to the kinetic and equilibrium viewpoints. It was found that the contactors were composed by Au, Ni, Cu and Sn. The thiourea leaching provided extraction percentages of 68.6% for Au, 22.1% for Ni and 2.8% for Cu. Sn was not extracted. The leachate presented 17.5 mg L(-1) of Au, 324.9 mg L(-1) of Ni and 573.1 mg L(-1) of Cu. The adsorption was fast, being the equilibrium attained within 120 min. The adsorption of Au, Ni and Cu onto CTN and AC followed the Langmuir model, while, the adsorption of these metals onto CTS, followed the Freundlich model. Removal percentages higher than 95% were obtained for all metals, depending of the type and amount of adsorbent. It was demonstrated that the adsorption onto chitin, chitosan and activated carbon can be an alternative to recover valuable metals from leachates of mobile phone wastes.

  10. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  11. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  12. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the right to exercise, any control over the Association because of voting rights or placement of... any of the following general areas: Lot marketing and advertising, rendering of lot services, and...

  13. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... developer exercise, or have the right to exercise, any control over the Association because of voting rights... environment, land sales, securities sales, construction or sale of homes or home improvements, consumer fraud... subdivision. (d) Resale or exchange program. (1) Are there restrictions which might hinder lot owners in...

  14. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements..., when will it be formed? Who is responsible for its formation? (2) Does the developer exercise, or have the right to exercise, any control over the Association because of voting rights or placement...

  15. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... land but only the right to use it for a certain period of time.” (f) Equal opportunity in lot sales... the right to exercise, any control over the Association because of voting rights or placement of... Statements of Record and amendments need not be listed.) (2) Has the developer, the owner of the land,...

  16. 303d Impaired Waters Additional Information

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    For ATTAINS 303(d) geospatial data, the Table of Available Cycles in the RAD lists the most recent ATTAINS cycle for which GIS data are available for each state. Page includes a fact sheet and pollution category summary document.

  17. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of any membership agreement or similar document. (b) Price range, type of sales and marketing. (1... marketing to be used for the subdivision. The description should include, but need not be limited to... will be furnished transportation from distant cities to the subdivision; (iv) Whether mass...

  18. Sustainable production of valuable compound 3-succinoyl-pyridine by genetically engineering Pseudomonas putida using the tobacco waste.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Ping; Tang, Hongzhi

    2015-11-17

    Treatment of solid and liquid tobacco wastes with high nicotine content remains a longstanding challenge. Here, we explored an environmentally friendly approach to replace tobacco waste disposal with resource recovery by genetically engineering Pseudomonas putida. The biosynthesis of 3-succinoyl-pyridine (SP), a precursor in the production of hypotensive agents, from the tobacco waste was developed using whole cells of the engineered Pseudomonas strain, S16dspm. Under optimal conditions in fed-batch biotransformation, the final concentrations of product SP reached 9.8 g/L and 8.9 g/L from aqueous nicotine solution and crude suspension of the tobacco waste, respectively. In addition, the crystal compound SP produced from aqueous nicotine of the tobacco waste in batch biotransformation was of high purity and its isolation yield on nicotine was 54.2%. This study shows a promising route for processing environmental wastes as raw materials in order to produce valuable compounds.

  19. Residues from the thermal conversion of waste from the meat industry as a source of valuable macro- and micronutrients.

    PubMed

    Staroń, Paweł; Kowalski, Zygmunt; Staroń, Anita; Seidlerová, Jana; Banach, Marcin

    2016-03-01

    The increased consumption of meat (including poultry) observed over the last decade has led to the intensification of its production. With the production increase, the amount of generated waste also increases. Appropriate disposal of waste from the meat industry will significantly reduce the amount of such waste and its negative impact on the environment. The paper presents a method for the thermal neutralisation of feathers, poultry litter and meat and bone meal (MBM). Waste incineration was carried out in a stationary electric furnace, at a temperature varying in the range of 600-900°C. The resulting ashes were characterised by a high percentage of phosphorus (30-170 g/kg ash), calcium (20-360 g/kg ash) and other valuable macro- and micronutrients like copper, iron, manganese and zinc. The ashes produced during the thermal treatment are safe in terms of sanitary and can be used as additives enriching the fertilisers and soil improvers.

  20. Sustainable production of valuable compound 3-succinoyl-pyridine by genetically engineering Pseudomonas putida using the tobacco waste

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Ping; Tang, Hongzhi

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of solid and liquid tobacco wastes with high nicotine content remains a longstanding challenge. Here, we explored an environmentally friendly approach to replace tobacco waste disposal with resource recovery by genetically engineering Pseudomonas putida. The biosynthesis of 3-succinoyl-pyridine (SP), a precursor in the production of hypotensive agents, from the tobacco waste was developed using whole cells of the engineered Pseudomonas strain, S16dspm. Under optimal conditions in fed-batch biotransformation, the final concentrations of product SP reached 9.8 g/L and 8.9 g/L from aqueous nicotine solution and crude suspension of the tobacco waste, respectively. In addition, the crystal compound SP produced from aqueous nicotine of the tobacco waste in batch biotransformation was of high purity and its isolation yield on nicotine was 54.2%. This study shows a promising route for processing environmental wastes as raw materials in order to produce valuable compounds. PMID:26574178

  1. Recovery of valuable materials from spent NIMH batteries using spouted bed elutriation.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Eduardo H; Schlemmer, Diego F; Aguiar, Mônica L; Dotto, Guilherme L; Bertuol, Daniel A

    2016-04-15

    In recent years, a great increase in the generation of spent batteries occurred. Then, efficient recycling ways and correct disposal of hazardous wastes are necessary. An alternative to recover the valuable materials from spent NiMH batteries is the spouted bed elutriation. The aim of this study was to apply the mechanical processing (grinding and sieving) followed by spouted bed elutriation to separate the valuable materials present in spent NiMH batteries. The results of the manual characterization showed that about 62 wt.% of the batteries are composed by positive and negative electrodes. After the mechanical separation processes (grinding, sieving and spouted bed elutriation), three different fractions were obtained: 24.21 wt.% of metals, 28.20 wt.% of polymers and 42.00 wt.% of powder (the positive and negative electrodes). It was demonstrated that the different materials present in the spent NiMH batteries can be efficiently separated using a simple and inexpensive mechanical processing.

  2. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) by-products and their valuable components: a review.

    PubMed

    Jahurul, M H A; Zaidul, I S M; Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Nyam, Kar-Lin; Norulaini, N A N; Sahena, F; Mohd Omar, A K

    2015-09-15

    The large amount of waste produced by the food industries causes serious environmental problems and also results in economic losses if not utilized effectively. Different research reports have revealed that food industry by-products can be good sources of potentially valuable bioactive compounds. As such, the mango juice industry uses only the edible portions of the mangoes, and a considerable amount of peels and seeds are discarded as industrial waste. These mango by-products come from the tropical or subtropical fruit processing industries. Mango by-products, especially seeds and peels, are considered to be cheap sources of valuable food and nutraceutical ingredients. The main uses of natural food ingredients derived from mango by-products are presented and discussed, and the mainstream sectors of application for these by-products, such as in the food, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries, are highlighted.

  3. Recovery of Valuable Chlorosilane Intermediates by a Novel Waste Conversion Process

    SciTech Connect

    J. Ashley Brinson

    2002-06-20

    From 1994 to 2001, Dow Corning studied a waste recycling process to recover direct process residues (DPR) resulting from the production of silicone precursors. Over the course of eight years, Dow Corning constructed and operated a pilot plant, a small scale commercial plant, and a full scale plant. The process reacts DPR with hydrogen and chlorosilane monomers at high temperature and high pressure. The process converted 85% of the DPR to valuable chlorosilane monomers such as dimethyldichlorosilane and methyldichlorosilane. When feeding methyltrichlorosilane, the process converted 30% of the MeSiCl3 to other monomers. Alternate co-feed monomers were tested. By converting waste DPR to valuable intermediates, the technology significantly reduces waste from the basic silicones manufacturing process.

  4. Production of Fatty Acid-derived valuable chemicals in synthetic microbes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ai-Qun; Pratomo Juwono, Nina Kurniasih; Leong, Susanna Su Jan; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid derivatives, such as hydroxy fatty acids, fatty alcohols, fatty acid methyl/ethyl esters, and fatty alka(e)nes, have a wide range of industrial applications including plastics, lubricants, and fuels. Currently, these chemicals are obtained mainly through chemical synthesis, which is complex and costly, and their availability from natural biological sources is extremely limited. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms has provided a platform for effective production of these valuable biochemicals. Notably, synthetic biology-based metabolic engineering strategies have been extensively applied to refactor microorganisms for improved biochemical production. Here, we reviewed: (i) the current status of metabolic engineering of microbes that produce fatty acid-derived valuable chemicals, and (ii) the recent progress of synthetic biology approaches that assist metabolic engineering, such as mRNA secondary structure engineering, sensor-regulator system, regulatable expression system, ultrasensitive input/output control system, and computer science-based design of complex gene circuits. Furthermore, key challenges and strategies were discussed. Finally, we concluded that synthetic biology provides useful metabolic engineering strategies for economically viable production of fatty acid-derived valuable chemicals in engineered microbes.

  5. Production of Fatty Acid-Derived Valuable Chemicals in Synthetic Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ai-Qun; Pratomo Juwono, Nina Kurniasih; Leong, Susanna Su Jan; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid derivatives, such as hydroxy fatty acids, fatty alcohols, fatty acid methyl/ethyl esters, and fatty alka(e)nes, have a wide range of industrial applications including plastics, lubricants, and fuels. Currently, these chemicals are obtained mainly through chemical synthesis, which is complex and costly, and their availability from natural biological sources is extremely limited. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms has provided a platform for effective production of these valuable biochemicals. Notably, synthetic biology-based metabolic engineering strategies have been extensively applied to refactor microorganisms for improved biochemical production. Here, we reviewed: (i) the current status of metabolic engineering of microbes that produce fatty acid-derived valuable chemicals, and (ii) the recent progress of synthetic biology approaches that assist metabolic engineering, such as mRNA secondary structure engineering, sensor-regulator system, regulatable expression system, ultrasensitive input/output control system, and computer science-based design of complex gene circuits. Furthermore, key challenges and strategies were discussed. Finally, we concluded that synthetic biology provides useful metabolic engineering strategies for economically viable production of fatty acid-derived valuable chemicals in engineered microbes. PMID:25566540

  6. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  7. Simultaneous capturing of RGB and additional band images using hybrid color filter array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, Daisuke; Monno, Yusuke; Tanaka, Masayuki; Okutomi, Masatoshi

    2014-03-01

    Extra band information in addition to the RGB, such as the near-infrared (NIR) and the ultra-violet, is valuable for many applications. In this paper, we propose a novel color filter array (CFA), which we call "hybrid CFA," and a demosaicking algorithm for the simultaneous capturing of the RGB and the additional band images. Our proposed hybrid CFA and demosaicking algorithm do not rely on any specific correlation between the RGB and the additional band. Therefore, the additional band can be arbitrarily decided by users. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed demosaicking algorithm with the proposed hybrid CFA can provide the additional band image while keeping the RGB image almost the same quality as the image acquired by using the standard Bayer CFA.

  8. [Changes in correlations between commercially valuable characters of the sable Martes zibellina L. during artificial selection].

    PubMed

    Kashtanov, S N; Labeznyĭ, O E; Imasheva, A G

    2008-11-01

    A farm population of the sable Martes zibellina L. has been selected for darker coat color during 40 years. Correlations between fitness characters and correlations of these characters with the selected character have been monitored. Correlation analysis has shown that the female fertility in the first year of reproduction is a promising predictor of how valuable the female will be for further breeding. Artificial directional selection has been shown to change the correlations that have been formed in natural populations of the sable. The relationship of this phenomenon with a decrease in the overall fitness during selection that has been observed in the sable population is discussed.

  9. Recovery of Valuable Chlorosilane Intermediates by a Novel Waste Conversion Process, Phase IIIB (Progress)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt E. Anderson

    2000-03-31

    From June 1998 through September 1999, direct process residue (DPR, a waste byproduct) hydrogenolysis has been studied at a large pilot plant within Dow Corning's Carrollton, KY, facility. The system reacts filtered DPR with chlorosilane monomers at high temperature and pressure. The process routinely demonstrates DPR conversions from 59% to 89% on a monthly basis. The reaction product contains high concentrations of valuable monomers such as dimethyldichlorosilane and methyldichlorosilane. An expansion of the current unit's capacity is planned to be on-line by the end of CY2000. Furthermore, a larger DPR hydrogenolysis reactor based on these results is being designed for operation in Europe at Dow Corning's Barry, Wales, site.

  10. Microsatellite markers from the 'South American fruit fly' Anastrepha fraterculus: a valuable tool for population genetic analysis and SIT applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann is a horticultural pest which causes significant economic losses in the fruit-producing areas of the American continent and limits the access of products to international markets. The use of environmentally friendly control strategies against this pest is constrained due to the limited knowledge of its population structure. Results We developed microsatellite markers for A. fraterculus from four genomic libraries, which were enriched in CA, CAA, GA and CAT microsatellite motifs. Fifty microsatellite regions were evaluated and 14 loci were selected for population genetics studies. Genotypes of 122 individuals sampled from four A. fraterculus populations were analyzed. The level of polymorphism ranged from three to 13 alleles per locus and the mean expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.60 to 0.64. Comparison between allelic and genotypic frequencies showed significant differences among all pairs of populations. Conclusions This novel set of microsatellite markers provides valuable information for the description of genetic variability and population structure of wild populations and laboratory strains of A. fraterculus. This information will be used to identify and characterize candidate strains suitable to implement effective pest control strategies and might represent a first step towards having a more comprehensive knowledge about the genetics of this pest. PMID:25471285

  11. A GIS-based Spatial Decision Support System for environmentally valuable areas in the context of sustainable development of Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubacka, Marta

    2013-04-01

    actions consisting mainly in the agricultural economy. Versatile relief, diversified geological formations as well as the depth of depositing ground water and the risk of flooding have impact on diversified possibilities of the land use. Intensive agricultural economy at large field area and forestry constitute the major human activity at the area of the Park. The criteria which may be in the form of factors (e.g. soil with much agricultural suitability or very low slopes) or limitations (e.g. soils with little agricultural suitability, forest areas in close vicinity of water bodies) constitute the grounds for taking a decision on determining the areas for agricultural economy. The thesis presents the possibilities which Geographic Information Systems provide at the stage of taking spatial decisions at environmentally valuable areas. The pressure on environmentally valuable areas is growing all over the world and it may be assumed that spatial conflicts between the development of agricultural areas and the natural environment will intensify. Spatial planning is the best possibilities of reducing and mitigating this pressure. This process should take into consideration the provisions of the European Landscape Convention which is the basic instrument for landscape preservation and nature protection.

  12. Membrane process for separating contaminant anions from aqueous solutions of valuable metal anions

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Laferty, J.M.

    1980-11-18

    An aqueous solution of at least one valuable oxyanion containing molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium, or uranium is refined to lower the content of contaminant anions such as PO/sub 4//sup -3/, SO/sub 4//sup -2/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, Cl/sup -/, ClO/sub 3//sup -/, and ClO/sub 4//sup -/, by subjecting the solution to electrolysis at a ph of from 0.5 to 4.0 between a cation-permselective membrane and an anion-permselective membrane having tertiary amine or quaternary ammonium anion exchange groups, to cause contaminant anions to pass from the solution into the anolyte. Ammonium molybdates, tungstates, vanadates, and uranates are formed from the thus-refined solution by subjecting it to a second stage of electrolysis at a ph of at least 7 between a cation-permselective membrane and an anion-permselective membrane to cause valuable oxyanions to pass from the solution into an anolyte which comprises an aqueous solution of ammonia and to form the desired ammonium compound.

  13. Extraction of valuable compounds from mangosteen pericarps by hydrothermal assisted sonication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machmudah, Siti; Lestari, Sarah Duta; Shiddiqi, Qifni Yasa'Ash; Widiyastuti, Winardi, Sugeng; Wahyudiono, Kanda, Hideki; Goto, Motonobu

    2015-12-01

    Valuable compounds, such as xanthone and phenolic compounds, from mangosteen pericarps was extracted by hydrothermal treatment at temperatures of 120-160 °C and pressures of 5 MPa using batch and semi-batch extractor. This method is a simple and environmentally friendly extraction method requiring no chemicals other than water. Under these conditions, there is possibility for the formation of phenolic compounds from mangosteen pericarps from decomposition of bounds between lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose via autohydrolysis. In order to increase the amount of extracted valuable compounds, sonication pre-treament was performed prior to the hydrothermal extraction process. 30 min of sonication pre-treatment could increase significantly the amount of xanthone and phenolic compounds mangosteen pericarps extraction. In batch-system, the xanthone recovery approach to 100 % at 160 °C with 30 min sonication pre-treatment for 150 min extraction time. Under semi-batch process, the total phenolic compounds in the extract was 217 mg/g sample at 160 °C with 30 min sonication pre-treatment for 150 min total extraction time. The results revealed that hydrothermal extraction assisted sonication pre-treatment is applicable method for the isolation of polyphenolic compounds from other types of biomass and may lead to an advanced plant biomass components extraction technology.

  14. An alternative approach to recovering valuable metals from zinc phosphating sludge.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yi-Ming

    2012-01-30

    This study used a vitrification process (with good potential for commercialization) to recover valuable metals from Zn phosphating sludge. The involved vitrification process achieves two major goals: it transformed hazardous Zn phosphating sludge into inert slag and it concentrated Fe (83.5%) and Zn (92.8%) into ingot and fine particulate-phase material, respectively. The Fe content in the ingot was 278,000 mg/kg, making the ingot a potential raw material for iron making. The fine particulate-phase material (collected from flue gas) contained abundant Zn (544,000 mg/kg) in the form of ZnO. The content (67.7%) of ZnO was high, so it can be directly sold to refineries. The recovered coarse particulate-phase material, with insufficient amount of ZnO, can be recycled as a feeding material for Zn re-concentration. Therefore, the vitrification process can not only treat hazardous materials but also effectively recover valuable metals.

  15. A new strategy for controlling invasive weeds: selecting valuable native plants to defeat them

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weihua; Luo, Jianning; Tian, Xingshan; Soon Chow, Wah; Sun, Zhongyu; Zhang, Taijie; Peng, Shaolin; Peng, Changlian

    2015-01-01

    To explore replacement control of the invasive weed Ipomoea cairica, we studied the competitive effects of two valuable natives, Pueraria lobata and Paederia scandens, on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of I. cairica, in pot and field experiments. When I. cairica was planted in pots with P. lobata or P. scandens, its total biomass decreased by 68.7% and 45.8%, and its stem length by 33.3% and 34.1%, respectively. The two natives depressed growth of the weed by their strong effects on its photosynthetic characteristics, including suppression of leaf biomass and the abundance of the CO2-fixing enzyme RUBISCO. The field experiment demonstrated that sowing seeds of P. lobata or P. scandens in plots where the weed had been largely cleared produced 11.8-fold or 2.5-fold as much leaf biomass of the two natives, respectively, as the weed. Replacement control by valuable native species is potentially a feasible and sustainable means of suppressing I. cairica. PMID:26047489

  16. A new strategy for controlling invasive weeds: selecting valuable native plants to defeat them.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihua; Luo, Jianning; Tian, Xingshan; Soon Chow, Wah; Sun, Zhongyu; Zhang, Taijie; Peng, Shaolin; Peng, Changlian

    2015-06-05

    To explore replacement control of the invasive weed Ipomoea cairica, we studied the competitive effects of two valuable natives, Pueraria lobata and Paederia scandens, on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of I. cairica, in pot and field experiments. When I. cairica was planted in pots with P. lobata or P. scandens, its total biomass decreased by 68.7% and 45.8%, and its stem length by 33.3% and 34.1%, respectively. The two natives depressed growth of the weed by their strong effects on its photosynthetic characteristics, including suppression of leaf biomass and the abundance of the CO2-fixing enzyme RUBISCO. The field experiment demonstrated that sowing seeds of P. lobata or P. scandens in plots where the weed had been largely cleared produced 11.8-fold or 2.5-fold as much leaf biomass of the two natives, respectively, as the weed. Replacement control by valuable native species is potentially a feasible and sustainable means of suppressing I. cairica.

  17. Preparation of aluminium-magnesium alloys and some valuable salts from used beverage cans.

    PubMed

    Rabah, Mahmoud A

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to recover standard aluminium-magnesium alloy(s) and some valuable salts from used beverage cans (UBCs). The suggested method updated the current recycling technology by augmenting removal of the coating paint, decreasing magnesium loss during melting process and improving hydrochloric acid leaching of the formed slag. Iron impurity present in the leaching solution, was removed by oxidation using oxygen gas or hydrogen peroxide and filtered as goethite. Results obtained revealed that a mixture of methyl ethyl ketone/dimethyl formamide entirely removes the paint coating at room temperature. The process compares favorably to the current methods involving firing or swell peeling. The coating decomposes to titanium dioxide by heating at 750 degrees C for 30 min. Standard compositions of Al-Mg alloys are formulated using secondary magnesium. The extent of recovery (R) of these alloy(s) is a function of the melting time and temperature and type of the flux. The maximum (R) value amounts to 94.4%. Sodium borate/chloride mix decreases magnesium loss to a minimum. The extent of leaching valuable salts from the slag increases with increasing the molarity, stoichiometric ratio and leaching temperature of the acid used. Removal of iron is a function of the potential of the oxidation process. Stannous chloride has been recovered from the recovered and dried salts by distillation at 700-750 degrees C.

  18. Valuable nutrients and functional bioactives in different parts of olive (Olea europaea L.)-a review.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Rahele; Anwar, Farooq; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    The Olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a native of the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia, is now widely cultivated in many other parts of the world for production of olive oil and table olives. Olive is a rich source of valuable nutrients and bioactives of medicinal and therapeutic interest. Olive fruit contains appreciable concentration, 1-3% of fresh pulp weight, of hydrophilic (phenolic acids, phenolic alchohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids) and lipophilic (cresols) phenolic compounds that are known to possess multiple biological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, cardiotonic, laxative, and antiplatelet. Other important compounds present in olive fruit are pectin, organic acids, and pigments. Virgin olive oil (VOO), extracted mechanically from the fruit, is also very popular for its nutritive and health-promoting potential, especially against cardiovascular disorders due to the presence of high levels of monounsaturates and other valuable minor components such as phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, chlorophyll and squalene. The cultivar, area of production, harvest time, and the processing techniques employed are some of the factors shown to influence the composition of olive fruit and olive oil. This review focuses comprehensively on the nutrients and high-value bioactives profile as well as medicinal and functional aspects of different parts of olives and its byproducts. Various factors affecting the composition of this food commodity of medicinal value are also discussed.

  19. A new strategy for controlling invasive weeds: selecting valuable native plants to defeat them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weihua; Luo, Jianning; Tian, Xingshan; Soon Chow, Wah; Sun, Zhongyu; Zhang, Taijie; Peng, Shaolin; Peng, Changlian

    2015-06-01

    To explore replacement control of the invasive weed Ipomoea cairica, we studied the competitive effects of two valuable natives, Pueraria lobata and Paederia scandens, on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of I. cairica, in pot and field experiments. When I. cairica was planted in pots with P. lobata or P. scandens, its total biomass decreased by 68.7% and 45.8%, and its stem length by 33.3% and 34.1%, respectively. The two natives depressed growth of the weed by their strong effects on its photosynthetic characteristics, including suppression of leaf biomass and the abundance of the CO2-fixing enzyme RUBISCO. The field experiment demonstrated that sowing seeds of P. lobata or P. scandens in plots where the weed had been largely cleared produced 11.8-fold or 2.5-fold as much leaf biomass of the two natives, respectively, as the weed. Replacement control by valuable native species is potentially a feasible and sustainable means of suppressing I. cairica.

  20. The untapped potential of the GENSAT mice-A valuable resource for developmental biology.

    PubMed

    Condie, Brian G

    2016-05-01

    Gene Expression Nervous System Atlas (GENSAT) transgenic mice express EGFP, tdTomato, or Cre recombinase in a wide range of cell types. The mice and the bacterial artificial chromosome transgenes are available from repositories (MMRRC or CHORI), thereby making these resources readily available to the research community. This resource of 1,386 transgenic lines was developed and validated for neuroscience research. However, GENSAT mice have many potential applications in other contexts including studies of development outside of the CNS. The cell type-specific expression of fluorescent proteins in these mice has been used to identify cells in living embryos, in living embryo explants, and in stem or progenitor cell populations in postnatal tissues. The large number of fluorescent protein driver lines generated by GENSAT greatly expands the range of cell type markers that can be used for live cell sorting. In addition, the GENSAT project has generated 278 new Cre driver lines. This review provides an overview of the GENSAT lines and information for identifying lines that may be useful for a particular application. I also provide a review of the few published cases in which GENSAT mice have been used for studies of embryonic development or analysis of stem/progenitor cells in nonneural tissues. genesis 54:245-256, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effect of physical characteristics on bioleaching using indigenous acidophilic bacteria for recovering the valuable resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wi, D.; Kim, B.; Cho, K.; Choi, N.; Park, C.

    2011-12-01

    Bioleaching technology which is based on the ability of bacteria to transform solid compounds into soluble or extractable elements that can be recovered, has developed rapidly in recent decades for its advantages, such as mild reaction, low energy consumption, simple process, environmentally friendly and suitable for low-grade mine tailing and residues. This study investigated the bioleaching efficiency of copper matte under batch experimental conditions (various mineral particle size) using the indigenous acidophilic bacteria collected from acidic hot spring in Hatchnobaru, Japan. We conducted the batch experiments at three different mineral particle sizes: 0.06, 0.16 and 1.12mm. The results showed that the pH in the bacteria inoculating sample increased than initial condition, possibly due to buffer effects by phosphate ions in growth medium. After 22 days from incubation the leached accumulation content of Cu was 0.06 mm - 1,197 mg/L, 0.16 mm - 970 mg/L and 1.12 mm - 704 mg/L. Additionally, through SEM analysis we found of gypsum formed crystals which coated the copper matte surface 6 days after inoculation in 1.12mm case. This study informs basic knowledge when bacteria apply to eco-/economic resources utilization studies including the biomining and the recycling of mine waste system.

  2. Additive Manufacturing Design Considerations for Liquid Engine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, Dave; Hissam, Andy; Baker, Kevin; Rice, Darron

    2014-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Systems Department has gained significant experience in the last year designing, building, and testing liquid engine components using additive manufacturing. The department has developed valve, duct, turbo-machinery, and combustion device components using this technology. Many valuable lessons were learned during this process. These lessons will be the focus of this presentation. We will present criteria for selecting part candidates for additive manufacturing. Some part characteristics are 'tailor made' for this process. Selecting the right parts for the process is the first step to maximizing productivity gains. We will also present specific lessons we learned about feature geometry that can and cannot be produced using additive manufacturing machines. Most liquid engine components were made using a two-step process. The base part was made using additive manufacturing and then traditional machining processes were used to produce the final part. The presentation will describe design accommodations needed to make the base part and lessons we learned about which features could be built directly and which require the final machine process. Tolerance capabilities, surface finish, and material thickness allowances will also be covered. Additive Manufacturing can produce internal passages that cannot be made using traditional approaches. It can also eliminate a significant amount of manpower by reducing part count and leveraging model-based design and analysis techniques. Information will be shared about performance enhancements and design efficiencies we experienced for certain categories of engine parts.

  3. Rehabilitation — a valuable consideration in acute and chronic neck and low back pain in addition to standard chiropractic management: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Mizel, Dennis H

    1999-01-01

    A case of chronic neck and low back pain, resistant to standard chiropractic management of manipulation/adjustment and verbal exercise instruction is presented. Identification of psychosocial factors and deconditioning, with a subsequent three month program of in-office rehabilitation including supervised progressive/resistance exercises and behavioural therapy was administered in conjunction with spinal manipulation/adjustment and passive modalities. The program proved effective in reducing the patient’s neck and low back pain. The beneficial effect of supervised exercises and behavioural therapy in patient management is illustrated.

  4. Randomized pilot study and qualitative evaluation of a clinical decision support system for brain tumour diagnosis based on SV ¹H MRS: evaluation as an additional information procedure for novice radiologists.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Carlos; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Alberich-Bayarri, Angel; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan M

    2014-02-01

    The results of a randomized pilot study and qualitative evaluation of the clinical decision support system Curiam BT are reported. We evaluated the system's feasibility and potential value as a radiological information procedure complementary to magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assist novice radiologists in diagnosing brain tumours using MR spectroscopy (1.5 and 3.0T). Fifty-five cases were analysed at three hospitals according to four non-exclusive diagnostic questions. Our results show that Curiam BT improved the diagnostic accuracy in all the four questions. Additionally, we discuss the findings of the users' feedback about the system, and the further work to optimize it for real environments and to conduct a large clinical trial.

  5. A statistical approach based on substitution of macronutrients provides additional information to models analyzing single dietary factors in relation to type 2 diabetes in danish adults: the Inter99 study.

    PubMed

    Faerch, Kristine; Lau, Cathrine; Tetens, Inge; Pedersen, Oluf Borbye; Jørgensen, Torben; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Glümer, Charlotte

    2005-05-01

    Most studies analyzing diet-disease relations focus on single dietary factors rather than combining different nutrients into the same statistical model. The objective of this study was to identify dietary factors associated with the probability of having diabetes identified by screening (SDM) in Danish men and women aged 30-60 y. A specific objective was to examine whether an alternative statistical approach could provide additional information to already existing statistical approaches used in nutritional epidemiology. Baseline data from the Danish population-based Inter99 study were used. The dietary intake of 262 individuals with SDM was compared with that of 4627 individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) using 2 different types of multiple logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. The first model included single dietary factors, whereas the second model was based on substitution of macronutrients. In the models with single dietary factors, high intakes of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and coffee were inversely associated with SDM (P < 0.01), whereas high intakes of total fat and saturated fat were positively associated with SDM (P < 0.05). A modest U-shaped association was found between alcohol consumption and SDM (P = 0.10) [corrected] Results from the substitution model showed that when 3% of energy (En%) as carbohydrate replaced 3 En% fat or alcohol, the probability of having SDM decreased by 9 and 10%, respectively (P < 0.01) [corrected] No other macronutrient substitutions resulted in significant associations. Hence, the statistical approach based on substitution of macronutrients provided additional information to the model analyzing single dietary factors.

  6. Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms for production of valuable bioactive metabolites.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2004-01-01

    Mushrooms are abundant sources of a wide range of useful natural products. Nowadays, commercial mushroom products are from mushrooms collected from field cultivation, which is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on cost compared with existing technology. Increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this new technology will certainly facilitate expansion. This article outlines the major valuable metabolites produced by mushroom cultivation and advances in submerged culture of mushrooms, taking Ganoderma lucidum, a popular folk and an oriental medicine used to treat many diseases, as a typical example. Our latest data on mushroom cultivation for efficient production of bioactive ganoderic acids and Ganoderma polysaccharides in bioreactors are presented.

  7. Valuable security features in a competitive banking environment: does security attract criminals instead of customers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brongers, J. D.

    1991-10-01

    This paper highlights the problems a Dutch bank has in choosing the security measures it takes for valuable documents. The various types of fraud for which the security measures are intended are dealt with. The magnitude of fraud and its subsequent effects are examined, leading to the conclusion that security is necessary for more than just financial reasons. Security procedures and measures that are possible elsewhere are examined. After that, the application of security possibilities to value documents will be elaborated on, particularly from the point of view of effectiveness and costs. It is assumed that security and science can serve the interests of the criminal and consequently, to some extent, harm the interests of the bank and its customers

  8. Recovery of Cu and valuable metals from E-waste using thermal plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrasinovic, Aleksandar; Pershin, Larry; Wen, John Z.; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2011-08-01

    A thermal plasma treatment was employed for economical recovery of valuable metals from e-waste. Cu-clad plates that simulated circuit boards were fed at the bottom of the reactor and treated with a plasma jet at temperatures between 385 and 840°C. Organic components of the Cu-clad plates were decomposed and contributed to the increased temperature of the offgas. Due to the low temperatures at the base of the reactor, the analyzed samples did not show losses characteristic for the plasma processes such as evaporation or metal oxidation. After plasma treatment, Cu foils were separated from the fiber glass and other solid residues allowing a complete recovery. Solid residues of the plates at the bottom of the reactor were crunched into small particles, allowing easy recycling or use as construction material.

  9. Redundancy in neutron activation analysis: A valuable tool in assuring analytical quality

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, R.R.

    1996-12-31

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has become widely used and is extremely valuable for the certification of standard reference materials (SRMs) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This is due to a number of reasons. First, NAA has essentially no significant sources of error in common with the other analytical techniques used at NIST to measure inorganic concentrations. This is important because most certified elemental concentrations are derived from the data determined by two (and occasionally more) independent analytical techniques. Two or more techniques are used for SRM certification because, although each technique has previously been evaluated and shown to be accurate, unexpected problems can arise, especially when analyzing new matrices. Another reason for the use of NAA for SRM certification is the potential of this technique for accuracy. The SRM measurements with estimated accuracies of 1 to 2% (at essentially 95% confidence intervals) are routinely made at NIST using NAA.

  10. Interferon-γ, a valuable surrogate marker of Plasmodium falciparum pre-erythrocytic stages protective immunity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Immunity against the pre-erythrocytic stages of malaria is the most promising, as it is strong and fully sterilizing. Yet, the underlying immune effectors against the human Plasmodium falciparum pre-erythrocytic stages remain surprisingly poorly known and have been little explored, which in turn prevents any rational vaccine progress. Evidence that has been gathered in vitro and in vivo, in higher primates and in humans, is reviewed here, emphasizing the significant role of IFN-γ, either as a critical immune mediator or at least as a valuable surrogate marker of protection. One may hope that these results will trigger investigations in volunteers immunized either by optimally irradiated or over-irradiated sporozoites, to quickly delineate better surrogates of protection, which are essential for the development of a successful malaria vaccine. PMID:21303495

  11. Fermentation of glycerol and production of valuable chemical and biofuel molecules.

    PubMed

    Mattam, Anu Jose; Clomburg, James M; Gonzalez, Ramon; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2013-06-01

    Glycerol has attracted the attention of scientific and industrial communities due to its generation in bulk quantities as a byproduct of biofuel industries. With the rapid growth of these industries in recent years, glycerol is frequently treated as a very low-value byproduct or even a waste product with a disposal cost associated to it. Glycerol is not only abundant and inexpensive but also can generate more reducing equivalents than glucose or xylose. This unique characteristic of glycerol offers a tremendous opportunity for its biological conversion to valuable products at higher yield. This review focuses on research efforts to utilize glycerol as a carbon source for the production of a variety of fuels and chemicals by both native and metabolically engineered microorganisms.

  12. Stressing conditions as tools to boost the biosynthesis of valuable plant natural products.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Fernanda Gomes; Horta, Lívia Pereira; de Oliveira Faria, Raquel; Stehmann, Joao Renato; Modolo, Luzia Valentina

    2014-01-01

    There is a consensus that plants are great sources of metabolites with a broad variety of functions. This is particularly important because plants cannot run away from environmental conditions that can threat their existence. The numerous biological activities exhibited by plant natural products prompted humanity to use such substances or their derivatives for the treatment and/or prevention of diseases. The more we know the flora around the world the higher is the chance to find new lead compounds for the design of more potent drugs or nutraceuticals. This review first deals with Brazilian flora, contextualizing the most studied medicinal species and related patents. It also describes a compilation of relevant works based on the use of stress conditions to enhance the biosynthesis of valuable metabolites in cell cultures, tissue cultures (hairy roots) and whole plants by using native or crop plants around the world.

  13. Potential of duckweed in the conversion of wastewater nutrients to valuable biomass: a pilot-scale comparison with water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yonggui; Fang, Yang; Jin, Yanling; Huang, Jun; Bao, Shu; Fu, Tian; He, Zhiming; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Hai

    2014-07-01

    The application potential of duckweed (Lemna japonica 0234) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) were compared in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment systems for more than one year. The results indicated duckweed had the same total nitrogen (TN) recovery rate as water hyacinth (0.4 g/m(2)/d) and a slightly lower total phosphorus (TP) recovery rate (approximately 0.1g/m(2)/d) even though its biomass production was half that of water hyacinth. The higher content of crude protein (33.34%), amino acids (25.80%), starch (40.19%), phosphorus (1.24%), flavonoids (2.91%) and lower fiber content provided duckweed with more advantages in resource utilization. Additionally, microbial community discovered by 454 pyrosequencing indicated that less nitrifying bacteria and more nitrogen-fixing bacteria in rhizosphere of duckweed provided it with higher nitrogen recovery efficiency (60%) than water hyacinth (47%). Under the presented condition, duckweed has more application advantages than water hyacinth because it more effectively converted the wastewater nutrients into valuable biomass.

  14. Complete chloroplast genome of a valuable medicinal plant, Huperzia serrata (Lycopodiaceae), and comparison with its congener1

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhi-You; Zhang, Hong-Rui; Shrestha, Nawal; Zhang, Xian-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Here we report the complete chloroplast genome of the important medicinal species Huperzia serrata (Lycopodiaceae) and compare it to the chloroplast genome of the congeneric species H. lucidula. Methods and Results: The whole chloroplast genome of H. serrata was sequenced using an Illumina platform and assembled with Geneious version R9.0.5. The genome size of H. serrata was 154,176 bp, with 36.3% GC content. The complete chloroplast genome contained 120 unique genes, including 86 coding genes, four rRNA genes, and 30 tRNA genes. Comparison with the chloroplast genome of H. lucidula revealed three highly variable regions (rps16-chlB, ycf12-trnR, and ycf1) between these two species and 252 mutation events including 27 insertion/deletion polymorphisms and 225 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Ninety-two SNPs were identified in the gene-coding regions. In addition, 18 microsatellite sites were found, which can potentially be used in phylogeographic studies. Conclusions: The complete chloroplast genome of H. serrata is reported here, and will be a valuable genome resource for further phylogenetic, evolutionary, and medical studies of medicinal plants in the genus Huperzia. PMID:27843724

  15. Remote Sensing: A valuable tool in the Forest Service decision making process. [in Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, F. L.

    1975-01-01

    Forest Service studies for integrating remotely sensed data into existing information systems highlight a need to: (1) re-examine present methods of collecting and organizing data, (2) develop an integrated information system for rapidly processing and interpreting data, (3) apply existing technological tools in new ways, and (4) provide accurate and timely information for making right management decisions. The Forest Service developed an integrated information system using remote sensors, microdensitometers, computer hardware and software, and interactive accessories. Their efforts substantially reduce the time it takes for collecting and processing data.

  16. Formal Provenance Representation of the Data and Information Supporting the National Climate Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2014-01-01

    The Global Change Information System (GCIS) provides a framework for the formal representation of structured metadata about data and information about global change. The pilot deployment of the system supports the National Climate Assessment (NCA), a major report of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). A consumer of that report can use the system to browse and explore that supporting information. Additionally, capturing that information into a structured data model and presenting it in standard formats through well defined open inter- faces, including query interfaces suitable for data mining and linking with other databases, the information becomes valuable for other analytic uses as well.

  17. Classification of public lands valuable for geothermal steam and associated geothermal resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godwin, Larry H.; Haigler, L.B.; Rioux, R.L.; White, D.E.; Muffler, L.J.; Wayland, R.G.

    1971-01-01

    The Organic Act of 1879 (43 U.S.C. 31) that established the U.S. Geological Survey provided, among other things, for the classification of the public lands and for the examination of the geological structure, mineral sources, and products of the national domain. In order to provide uniform executive action in classifying public lands, standards for determining which lands are valuable for mineral resources, for example, leasable mineral lands, or for other products are prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey. This report presents the classification standards for determining which Federal lands are classifiable as geothermal steam and associated geothermal resources lands under the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 (84 Star. 1566). The concept of a geothermal resources province is established for classification of lands for the purpose of retention in Federal ownership of rights to geothermal resources upon disposal of Federal lands. A geothermal resources province is defined as an area in which higher than normal temperatures are likely to occur with depth and in which there is a reasonable possibility of finding reservoir rocks that will yield steam or heated fluids to wells. The determination of a 'known geothermal resources area' is made after careful evaluation of the available geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data and any evidence derived from nearby discoveries, competitive interests, and other indicia. The initial classification required by the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 is presented.

  18. P-Cresyl Sulfate Is a Valuable Predictor of Clinical Outcomes in Pre-ESRD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Jui; Pan, Chi-Feng; Chuang, Chih-Kuang; Sun, Fang-Ju; Wang, Duen-Jen; Chen, Han-Hsiang; Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Wu, Chih-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims. Previous studies have reported p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) was related to endothelial dysfunction and adverse clinical effect. We investigate the adverse effects of PCS on clinical outcomes in a chronic kidney disease (CKD) cohort study. Methods. 72 predialysis patients were enrolled from a single medical center. Serum biochemistry data and PCS were measured. The clinical outcomes including cardiovascular event, all-cause mortality, and dialysis event were recorded during a 3-year follow-up. Results. After adjusting other independent variables, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed age (HR: 1.12, P = 0.01), cardiovascular disease history (HR: 6.28, P = 0.02), and PCS (HR: 1.12, P = 0.02) were independently associated with cardiovascular event; age (HR: 0.91, P < 0.01), serum albumin (HR: 0.03, P < 0.01), and PCS level (HR: 1.17, P < 0.01) reached significant correlation with dialysis event. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with higher serum p-cresyl sulfate (>6 mg/L) were significantly associated with cardiovascular and dialysis event (log rank P = 0.03, log rank P < 0.01, resp.). Conclusion. Our study shows serum PCS could be a valuable marker in predicting cardiovascular event and renal function progression in CKD patients without dialysis. PMID:24592393

  19. Leaching capacity of metals-metalloids and recovery of valuable materials from waste LCDs.

    PubMed

    Savvilotidou, Vasiliki; Hahladakis, John N; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of Directive 2012/19/EU which is related to WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment), also known as "e-waste", is to contribute to their sustainable production and consumption that would most possibly be achieved by their recovery, recycling and reuse. Under this perspective, the present study focused on the recovery of valuable materials, metals and metalloids from LCDs (Liquid Crystal Displays). Indium (In), arsenic (As) and stibium (Sb) were selected to be examined for their Leaching Capacity (R) from waste LCDs. Indium was selected mainly due to its rarity and preciousness, As due to its high toxicity and wide use in LCDs and Sb due to its recent application as arsenic's replacement to improve the optimal clarity of a LCD screen. The experimental procedure included disassembly of screens along with removal and recovery of polarizers via thermal shock, cutting, pulverization and digestion of the shredded material and finally leaching evaluation of the aforementioned elements. Leaching tests were conducted under various temperatures, using various solid:liquid (S/L) ratios and solvents (acid mixtures), to determine the optimal conditions for obtaining the maximum leaching capacities. The examined elements exhibited different leaching behaviors, mainly due to the considerable diversity in their inherent characteristic properties. Indium demonstrated the highest recovery percentages (approximately 60%), while the recovery of As and Sb was unsuccessful, obtaining poor leaching percentages (0.16% and 0.5%, respectively).

  20. Intrathecal IgG Synthesis: A Resistant and Valuable Target for Future Multiple Sclerosis Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Bonnan, Mickael

    2015-01-01

    Intrathecal IgG synthesis is a key biological feature of multiple sclerosis (MS). When acquired early, it persists over time. A growing body of evidence suggests that intrathecal Ig-secreting cells may be pathogenic either by a direct action of toxic IgG or by locally secreting bystander toxic products. Intrathecal IgG synthesis depends on the presence of CNS lymphoid organs, which are strongly linked at anatomical level to cortical subpial lesions and at clinical level to the impairment slope in progressive MS. As a consequence, targeting CNS lymphoid lesions could be a valuable new target in MS, especially during the progressive phase. As intrathecal IgGs are end-products of these lymphoid lesions, intrathecal IgG synthesis may be considered as a specific marker of the persistence of these inflammatory lesions. Here we review the effect upon intrathecal IgG synthesis of all drugs ever used in MS. Except for steroids, all these therapeutic strategies, including rituximab, failed to decrease intrathecal IgG synthesis, with the exception of a questionable incomplete action of natalizumab. Thus, IgG synthesis is a robust marker of persistent intrathecal inflammation and its complete normalization should be one of the goals in future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25653878

  1. Evaluation of residual shale oil as feedstocks for valuable carbon materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, Y.Q.; Derbyshire, F.J.

    1995-12-01

    Oil shale is one of the largest fossil fuel resources. One of the disadvantages of oil shale liquids is high nitrogen content, especially in high boiling fractions, which causes difficulties in their upgrading to premium quality products. Our earlier studies showed that nitrogen-rich asphalthene fractions of residual shale oils could be used successfully to produce carbon fibers and activated carbon fibers with novel properties. In this study, the maltene fraction (low concentration of nitrogen), was examined as a potential starting material for the production of valuable carbon materials (e.g. mesophase pitch, needle coke), through studies of carbonization behaviors. At normal pressure, carbonizations of the maltene fraction and the parent residue produced porous carbons with isotropic texture, and yields of 8 and 26 wt%, respectively. Pressurized carbonization (at 700 kPa) was found to allow the development of excellent flow texture from the maltene fraction, at a yield of 34 wt%, indicating that this fraction ({approximately}50 wt% of residual shale oils) can be used for the production of premium cokes.

  2. The cost of being valuable: predictors of extinction risk in marine invertebrates exploited as luxury seafood.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Steven W; Polidoro, Beth A; Hamel, Jean-François; Gamboa, Ruth U; Mercier, Annie

    2014-04-22

    Extinction risk has been linked to biological and anthropogenic variables. Prediction of extinction risk in valuable fauna may not follow mainstream drivers when species are exploited for international markets. We use results from an International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List assessment of extinction risk in all 377 known species of sea cucumber within the order Aspidochirotida, many of which are exploited worldwide as luxury seafood for Asian markets. Extinction risk was primarily driven by high market value, compounded by accessibility and familiarity (well known) in the marketplace. Extinction risk in marine animals often relates closely to body size and small geographical range but our study shows a clear exception. Conservation must not lose sight of common species, especially those of high value. Greater human population density and poorer economies in the geographical ranges of endangered species illustrate that anthropogenic variables can also predict extinction risks in marine animals. Local-level regulatory measures must prevent opportunistic exploitation of high-value species. Trade agreements, for example CITES, may aid conservation but will depend on international technical support to low-income tropical countries. The high proportion of data deficient species also stresses a need for research on the ecology and population demographics of unglamorous invertebrates.

  3. Valuable ingredients and feed toxicity evaluation of Microcystis aeruginosa acidolysis product in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qing; Xu, Yudi; Vanogtrop, Floris; Guo, Qijin; Liu, Guofeng; Yan, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    This research studied the extraction from Microcystis aeruginosa using hydrochloric acid method as a potentially valuable protein resource from eutrophic lakes. Amino acid composition, residual algal toxins, and heavy metals of the acidolysis product were studied. After 18 h of hydrochloric acid treatment, the product of M. aeruginosa contained 17 amino acids, 51.34% of total amino acid requirements, and 30.25% of the livestock and poultry essential amino acid (Eaa). The residual microcystin-LR (MC-LR) was 0.94 µg kg−1, which was less than WHO drinking water limit of microcystins. The removal ratio of microcystins was higher than 99.99% during the process of hydrolysis. The concentration of heavy metals of the product was in compliance with feed standards. Furthermore, using Horn’s method, Mouse Micronucleus Test and Sperm Shape Abnormality Test were conducted to study the forage safety of the product. Half lethal dose (LD50) of acidolysis product in mice was >9.09 g kg−1 body weight, actually belonging to non-toxic grade. Every dose treatment did not significantly increase activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT). The results of both micronucleus test and sperm shape abnormality test were negative, which suggested the product with no mutagenicity and sperm malformation effects. This study indicated that the acidolysis product of M. aeruginosa was safe to be used as a feed ingredient. PMID:25649189

  4. Non-fermented and fermented jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Mart.) pomaces as valuable sources of functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Dias, Maria Inês; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ramirez Asquieri, Eduardo; Berrios, José De J

    2016-10-01

    Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora. Mart) is a highly perishable fruit native to Brazil, which is consumed both fresh and industrially processed in the form of juices, jams, wines and distilled liqueurs. This processing generates a large amount of waste by-products, which represent approximately 50% of the fruit weight. The by-products are of interest for obtaining valuable bioactive compounds that could be used as nutraceuticals or functional ingredients. In this study, fermented and non-fermented jabuticaba pomaces were studied regarding their hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds, as well as their antioxidant properties, including: soluble sugars, organic acids and tocopherols (using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to refraction index, diode array and fluorescence detector, respectively); phenolics and anthocyanins, (using liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection, and mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization); and fatty acids (using gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection). The analytical data demonstrated that jabuticaba pomaces are a rich source of bioactive compounds such as tocopherols, polyunsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds (namely hydrolyzable tannins and anthocyanins) with antioxidant potential. Therefore, jabuticaba pomace may have good potential as a functional ingredient in the fabrication of human foods and animal feed.

  5. Intensified recovery of valuable products from whey by use of ultrasound in processing steps - A review.

    PubMed

    Gajendragadkar, Chinmay N; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-09-01

    The current review focuses on the analysis of different aspects related to intensified recovery of possible valuable products from cheese whey using ultrasound. Ultrasound can be used for process intensification in processing steps such as pre-treatment, ultrafiltration, spray drying and crystallization. The combination of low-frequency, high intensity ultrasound with the pre-heat treatment minimizes the thickening or gelling of protein containing whey solutions. These characteristics of whey after the ultrasound assisted pretreatment helps in improving the efficacy of ultrafiltration used for separation and also helps in preventing the blockage of orifice of spray dryer atomizing device. Further, the heat stability of whey proteins is increased. In the subsequent processing step, use of ultrasound assisted atomization helps to reduce the treatment times as well as yield better quality whey protein concentrate (WPC) powder. After the removal of proteins from the whey, lactose is a major constituent remaining in the solution which can be efficiently recovered by sonocrystallization based on the use of anti-solvent as ethanol. The scale-up parameters to be considered during designing the process for large scale applications are also discussed along with analysis of various reactor designs. Overall, it appears that use of ultrasound can give significant process intensification benefits that can be harnessed even at commercial scale applications.

  6. Recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries by ultrasonic-assisted leaching process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Zhai, Longyu; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Lu, Jun; Chen, Renjie; Wu, Feng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-09-01

    The anticipated significant use of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for energy storage applications in electric grid modernization and vehicle electrification shall generate a large quantity of solid waste that could become potential environmental hazards and waste natural resources. Recycling of the major components from spent LIBs is, therefore, considered desirable to prevent environmental pollution and to recycle valuable metals. This study reports on the application of ultrasonic-assisted technology to the leaching of cobalt and lithium from the cathode active materials of spent LIBs. Three acids were tested for the leaching process: two inorganic acids (H2SO4 and HCl) and one organic acid (citric acid, C6H8O7·H2O). The results show that the leaching of Co and Li is more efficient with citric acid than with the two inorganic acids. More than 96% Co and nearly 100% Li were recovered from spent LIBs. The optimal leaching conditions were 0.5 M citric acid with 0.55 M H2O2, a solid-to-liquid ratio of 25 g L-1, a temperature of 60 °C, leaching time of 5 h, and ultrasonic power of 90 W. The high leaching efficiency is mainly ascribed to the unique cavitation action of the ultrasonic waves. This ultrasonic-assisted leaching process with organic acid is not only effective but also environmentally friendly.

  7. An Efficient and Improved Methodology for the Screening of Industrially Valuable Xylano-Pectino-Cellulolytic Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Avtar; Kaur, Amanjot; Dua, Anita; Mahajan, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    Xylano-pectino-cellulolytic enzymes are valuable enzymes of the industrial sector. In our earlier study, we have reported a novel and cost effective methodology for the qualitative screening of cellulase-free xylano-pectinolytic microorganisms by replacing the commercial, highly expensive substrates with agricultural residues, but the microorganisms with xylanolytic, pectinolytic, cellulolytic, xylano-pectinolytic, xylano-cellulolytic, pectino-cellulolytic, and xylano-pectino-cellulolytic potential were obtained. The probability of getting the desired combination was low, so efforts were made to further improve this cost effective methodology for obtaining the high yield of the microbes capable of producing desired combination of enzymes. By inclusion of multiple enrichment steps in sequence, using only practically low cost substrates and without any nutrient media till primary screening stage, this improved novel protocol for screening gave only the desired microorganisms with xylano-pectino-cellulolytic activity. Using this rapid, efficient, cost effective, and improved methodology, microbes with required combination of enzymes can be obtained and the probability of getting the desired microorganisms is cent percent. This is the first report presenting the methodology for the isolation of xylano-pectino-cellulolytic positive microorganisms at low cost and consuming less time. PMID:25692034

  8. Hyponatremia is the valuable manifestation for initiating diagnosis of hypopituitarism in elderly.

    PubMed

    Asano, Tomoko; Aoki, Atsushi; Sasaki, Masami; Ikoma, Aki; Kakei, Masahumi; Kawakami, Masanobu; Ishikawa, San-e

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine clinical features of hypopituitarism in elderly subjects. Thirty-one elderly patients with hypopituitarism were enrolled. They were 19 males and 12 females, with the ages of 70.7±5.4 years ranging from 62 to 80 years. High prevalence of hyponatremia (80.6%) and hypoglycemia (29.0%) was found, and it was totally different from that in hypopituitarism from general population. There were two groups of hyponatremia derived from their clinical courses, namely, acute deterioration of hyponatremia and chronically persistent hyponatremia. Analysis for deficient hormones clearly showed that ACTH deficiency was highly found in 30 of 31 patients. There was no difference in serum cortisol levels between the hyponatremic and normonatremic patients. Despite hypoosmolality, plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) was apparently high in the hyponatremic patients compared with in the normonatremic ones. The present study indicates that hyponatremia is the valuable finding for initiating diagnosis of hypopituitarism, and that augmented release of AVP may be involved in developing hyponatremia in elderly patients with hypopituitarism.

  9. Undecylenic acid: a valuable and physiologically active renewable building block from castor oil.

    PubMed

    Van der Steen, Marijke; Stevens, Christian V

    2009-01-01

    A lot of attention is currently being paid to the transition to a biobased economy. In this movement, most efforts concentrate on the development of bioenergy applications including bioethanol, biodiesel, thermochemical conversion of biomass, and others. However, in the energy sector other nonbiomass alternatives are known, whereas no valuable alternatives are available when thinking about chemical building blocks. Therefore, it is also essential to develop new routes for the synthesis of bio-based chemicals and materials derived thereof. Such intermediates can originate either from plants or from animals. Castor oil is a non-edible oil extracted from the seeds of the castor bean plant Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), which grows in tropical and subtropical areas. Globally, around one million tons of castor seeds are produced every year, the leading producing areas being India, PR China, and Brazil.2 10-Undecenoic acid or undecylenic acid is a fatty acid derived from castor oil that, owing to its bifunctional nature, has many possibilities to develop sustainable applications.

  10. Optimized Jasmonic Acid Production by Lasiodiplodia theobromae Reveals Formation of Valuable Plant Secondary Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Felipe; Haroth, Sven; Feussner, Kirstin; Meldau, Dorothea; Rekhter, Dmitrij; Ischebeck, Till; Brodhun, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonic acid is a plant hormone that can be produced by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae via submerged fermentation. From a biotechnological perspective jasmonic acid is a valuable feedstock as its derivatives serve as important ingredients in different cosmetic products and in the future it may be used for pharmaceutical applications. The objective of this work was to improve the production of jasmonic acid by L. theobromae strain 2334. We observed that jasmonic acid formation is dependent on the culture volume. Moreover, cultures grown in medium containing potassium nitrate as nitrogen source produced higher amounts of jasmonic acid than analogous cultures supplemented with ammonium nitrate. When cultivated under optimal conditions for jasmonic acid production, L. theobromae secreted several secondary metabolites known from plants into the medium. Among those we found 3-oxo-2-(pent-2-enyl)-cyclopentane-1-butanoic acid (OPC-4) and hydroxy-jasmonic acid derivatives, respectively, suggesting that fungal jasmonate metabolism may involve similar reaction steps as that of plants. To characterize fungal growth and jasmonic acid-formation, we established a mathematical model describing both processes. This model may form the basis of industrial upscaling attempts. Importantly, it showed that jasmonic acid-formation is not associated to fungal growth. Therefore, this finding suggests that jasmonic acid, despite its enormous amount being produced upon fungal development, serves merely as secondary metabolite. PMID:27907207

  11. Leaching of valuable elements from thermal power plant bottom ash using a thermo-hydrometallurgical process.

    PubMed

    Bojinova, Darinka; Teodosieva, Ralitsa

    2016-06-01

    The solid industrial wastes generated from thermal power plants (TPPs) can be considered as renewable secondary sources for recovery of valuable metals. This study presents the results from investigations that integrated a thermo-hydro-metallurgical method for treatment of bottom ash obtained from the Enel Maritsa East 3 TPP in Bulgaria. Leaching was performed with 20, 30 and 40 wt% sulphuric acid, respectively, in an autoclave at 100(o)C, 120(o)C and 140(o)C for 120, 240, 360 and 480 min, at a constant value of the liquid/solid ratio. After autoclaving, the samples (suspensions) were diluted with a constant value of water and stirring at 50(o)C for 60 min. On the basis of the experimental data the leaching efficiency (α) of the elements in the liquid phase after filtration was estimated. The leaching of aluminium increases significantly with increasing of the temperature, reaching the maximum value of 70 wt%. The highest leaching efficiency values for the other elements are as follows: Fe (86.4%), Ca (86.6%), Na (86.6%), Ni (83.3%) and Zn (83.3%). The maximum value of leaching for Mg, K, Mn, Cu and Cr is in the interval of 46-70%.

  12. The cost of being valuable: predictors of extinction risk in marine invertebrates exploited as luxury seafood

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Steven W.; Polidoro, Beth A.; Hamel, Jean-François; Gamboa, Ruth U.; Mercier, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Extinction risk has been linked to biological and anthropogenic variables. Prediction of extinction risk in valuable fauna may not follow mainstream drivers when species are exploited for international markets. We use results from an International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List assessment of extinction risk in all 377 known species of sea cucumber within the order Aspidochirotida, many of which are exploited worldwide as luxury seafood for Asian markets. Extinction risk was primarily driven by high market value, compounded by accessibility and familiarity (well known) in the marketplace. Extinction risk in marine animals often relates closely to body size and small geographical range but our study shows a clear exception. Conservation must not lose sight of common species, especially those of high value. Greater human population density and poorer economies in the geographical ranges of endangered species illustrate that anthropogenic variables can also predict extinction risks in marine animals. Local-level regulatory measures must prevent opportunistic exploitation of high-value species. Trade agreements, for example CITES, may aid conservation but will depend on international technical support to low-income tropical countries. The high proportion of data deficient species also stresses a need for research on the ecology and population demographics of unglamorous invertebrates. PMID:24598425

  13. Nonlinear responses in salt marsh functioning to increased nitrogen addition.

    PubMed

    Vivanco, Lucía; Irvine, Irina C; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2015-04-01

    Salt marshes provide storm protection to shorelines, sequester carbon (C), and mitigate coastal eutrophication. These valuable coastal ecosystems are confronted with increasing nitrogen (N) inputs from anthropogenic sources, such as agricultural runoff, wastewater, and atmospheric deposition. To inform predictions of salt marsh functioning and sustainability in the future, we characterized the response of a variety of plant, microbial, and sediment responses to a seven-level gradient of N addition in three Californian salt marshes after 7 and 14 months of N addition. The marshes showed variable responses to the experimental N gradient that can be grouped as neutral (root biomass, sediment respiration, potential carbon mineralization, and potential net nitrification), linear (increasing methane flux, decreasing potential net N mineralization, and increasing sediment inorganic N), and nonlinear (saturating aboveground plant biomass and leaf N content, and exponentially increasing sediment inorganic and organic N). The three salt marshes showed quantitative differences in most ecosystem properties and processes rates; however, the form of the response curves to N addition were generally consistent across the three marshes, indicating that the responses observed may be applicable to other marshes in the region. Only for sediment properties (inorganic and organic N pool) did the shape of the response differ significantly between marshes. Overall, the study suggests salt marshes are limited in their ability to sequester C and N with future increases in N, even without further losses in marsh area.

  14. Production of 7-O-methyl aromadendrin, a medicinally valuable flavonoid, in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Malla, Sailesh; Koffas, Mattheos A G; Kazlauskas, Romas J; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2012-02-01

    7-O-Methyl aromadendrin (7-OMA) is an aglycone moiety of one of the important flavonoid-glycosides found in several plants, such as Populus alba and Eucalyptus maculata, with various medicinal applications. To produce such valuable natural flavonoids in large quantity, an Escherichia coli cell factory has been developed to employ various plant biosynthetic pathways. Here, we report the generation of 7-OMA from its precursor, p-coumaric acid, in E. coli for the first time. Primarily, naringenin (NRN) (flavanone) synthesis was achieved by feeding p-coumaric acid and reconstructing the plant biosynthetic pathway by introducing the following structural genes: 4-coumarate-coenzyme A (CoA) ligase from Petroselinum crispum, chalcone synthase from Petunia hybrida, and chalcone isomerase from Medicago sativa. In order to increase the availability of malonyl-CoA, a critical precursor of 7-OMA, genes for the acyl-CoA carboxylase α and β subunits (nfa9890 and nfa9940), biotin ligase (nfa9950), and acetyl-CoA synthetase (nfa3550) from Nocardia farcinica were also introduced. Thus, produced NRN was hydroxylated at position 3 by flavanone-3-hydroxylase from Arabidopsis thaliana, which was further methylated at position 7 to produce 7-OMA in the presence of 7-O-methyltransferase from Streptomyces avermitilis. Dihydrokaempferol (DHK) (aromadendrin) and sakuranetin (SKN) were produced as intermediate products. Overexpression of the genes for flavanone biosynthesis and modification pathways, along with malonyl-CoA overproduction in E. coli, produced 2.7 mg/liter (8.9 μM) 7-OMA upon supplementation with 500 μM p-coumaric acid in 24 h, whereas the strain expressing only the flavanone modification enzymes yielded 30 mg/liter (99.2 μM) 7-OMA from 500 μM NRN in 24 h.

  15. Mammary epithelial cells isolated from milk are a valuable, non-invasive source of mammary transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Boutinaud, Marion; Herve, Lucile; Lollivier, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Milk is produced in the udder by mammary epithelial cells (MEC). Milk contains MEC, which are gradually exfoliated from the epithelium during lactation. Isolation of MEC from milk using immunomagnetic separation may be a useful non-invasive method to investigate transcriptional regulations in ruminants’ udder. This review aims to describe the process of isolating MEC from milk, to provide an overview on the studies that use this method to analyze gene expression by qRT PCR and to evaluate the validity of this method by analyzing and comparing the results between studies. In several goat and cow studies, consistent reductions in alpha-lactalbumin mRNA levels during once-daily milking (ODM) and in SLC2A1 mRNA level during feed restriction are observed. The effect of ODM on alpha-lactalbumin mRNA level was similarly observed in milk isolated MEC and mammary biopsy. Moreover, we and others showed decreasing alpha-lactalbumin and increasing BAX mRNA levels with advanced stages of lactation in dairy cows and buffalo. The relevance of using the milk-isolated MEC method to analyze mammary gene expression is proven, as the transcript variations were also consistent with milk yield and composition variations under the effect of different factors such as prolactin inhibition or photoperiod. However, the RNA from milk-isolated MEC is particularly sensitive to degradation. This could explain the differences obtained between milk-isolated MEC and mammary biopsy in two studies where gene expression was compared using qRT-PCR or RNA Sequencing analyses. As a conclusion, when the RNA quality is conserved, MEC isolated from milk are a valuable, non-invasive source of mammary mRNA to study various factors that impact milk yield and composition (ODM, feeding level, endocrine status, photoperiod modulation, and stage of lactation). PMID:26579195

  16. Feasible conversion of solid waste bauxite tailings into highly crystalline 4A zeolite with valuable application

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Dongyang; Wang, Zhendong; Guo, Min; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jingbo

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Concept to convert waste to valuable product is carried out in this study. • An industrially feasible and cost-effective approach was developed and optimized. • Highly crystalline and well-defined zeolite was produced under moderate conditions. • The zeolite derived from the bauxite tailings displayed high ion exchange capacity. • Bauxite tailings have potential application in heavy metal ions adsorbent. - Abstract: Bauxite tailings are a major type of solid wastes generated in the flotation process. The waste by-products caused significant environmental impact. To lessen this hazardous effect from poisonous mine tailings, a feasible and cost-effective solution was conceived and implemented. Our approach focused on reutilization of the bauxite tailings by converting it to 4A zeolite for reuse in diverse applications. Three steps were involved in the bauxite conversion: wet-chemistry, alkali fusion, and crystallization to remove impurities and to prepare porous 4A zeolite. It was found that the cubic 4A zeolite was single phase, in high purity, with high crystallinity and well-defined structure. Importantly, the 4A zeolite displayed maximum calcium ion exchange capacity averaged at 296 mg CaCO{sub 3}/g, comparable to commercially-available zeolite (310 mg CaCO{sub 3}/g) exchange capacity. Base on the optimal synthesis condition, the reaction yield of zeolite 4A from bauxite tailings achieved to about 38.43%, hence, this study will provide a new paradigm for remediation of bauxite tailings, further mitigating the environmental and health care concerns, particularly in the mainland of PR China.

  17. Catalytic Conversion of Carbon-Containing Compounds into Valuable Chemicals and Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhuo

    Conversion of carbon-containing compounds, especially C1 compounds such as carbon dioxide and methane, to valuable chemicals and fuels will hopefully address concerns over decreasing supplies of fossil fuels and mitigate the eects of greenhouse gas emissions on global climate change. Many challenges, however, remain to be addressed before these technologies may be adopted on an industrial scale. Chiefly, catalysts must be developed to activate carbon-containing compounds from their thermodynamically stable ground states, using hydrogen, electrons, or heat as energy sources. We chose as model catalytic systems: 1) Metathesis of ethene and 2-butene; 2) Methane dehydrogenation and carbon dioxide hydrogenation. We developed three computational methodologies to study these processes across a range of length and time scales. First, we investigated how electronic structure affects the properties and reactivity of these catalyst systems; by computing the partial electronic density of states, electronic localization function, and excess spin density, we showed how redox supports, such as ceria, promote electron transfer reactions. We applied this to the studies of methane activation and carbon dioxide activation. Second, we developed a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach to calculate energies of activation at nite temperatures, based on the Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi principle and the Nudged Elastic Band method. Third, we developed an approach to numerically compute heat capacities and other thermodynamic properties on extended catalytic systems that are comparable in accuracy and precision to methods that have been well-developed for gas-phase molecules. We applied these to the studies of metathesis propagation and carbon dioxide hydrogenation. We gained mechanistic, thermodynamic, and kinetic insight into the elementary steps that comprise larger reaction networks of interest to the broader catalysis community. Ultimately, these theoretical and computational predictions

  18. Mitigating Contextual Uncertainties With Valuable Changeability Analysis in the Multi-Epoch Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Tug tradespace: propulsion type, fuel mass, manipulator capability, and Design for Changeability ( DFC ) level. In this case, DFC level is implemented...as a mass penalty on the satellite and serves as an enabler of improved or additional change mechanisms. Think of DFC as the inclusion of extra...design features or margin, at an additional cost, for example. DFC is implemented in three levels (0,1,2) and the associated change mechanisms are

  19. The U.S. Culture Collection Network Lays the Foundation for Progress in Preservation of Valuable Microbial Resources.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Kevin; Alvarez, Anne; Bennett, Rick; Bokati, Deepak; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Brown, Daniel; Bull, Carolee T; Coffey, Michael; Dreaden, Tyler; Duke, Clifford; Dye, Greg; Ehmke, Erin; Eversole, Kellye; Fenstermacher, Kristi; Geiser, David; Glaeser, Jessie A; Greene, Stephanie; Gribble, Lisa; Griffith, M Patrick; Hanser, Kathryn; Humber, Richard; Johnson, Barbara W; Kermode, Anthony; Krichevsky, Micah; Laudon, Matt; Leach, Jan; Leslie, John; May, Meghan; Melcher, Ulrich; Nobles, David; Fonseca, Natalia Risso; Robinson, Sara; Ryan, Matthew; Scott, James; Silflow, Carolyn; Vidaver, Anne; Webb, Kimberly M; Wertz, John E; Yentsch, Sara; Zehr, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    The U.S. Culture Collection Network was formed in 2012 by a group of culture collection scientists and stakeholders in order to continue the progress established previously through efforts of an ad hoc group. The network is supported by a Research Coordination Network grant from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and has the goals of promoting interaction among collections, encouraging the adoption of best practices, and protecting endangered or orphaned collections. After prior meetings to discuss best practices, shared data, and synergy with genome programs, the network held a meeting at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) in Fort Collins, Colorado in October 2015 specifically to discuss collections that are vulnerable because of changes in funding programs, or are at risk of loss because of retirement or lack of funding. The meeting allowed collection curators who had already backed up their resources at the USDA NCGRP to visit the site, and brought collection owners, managers, and stakeholders together. Eight formal collections have established off-site backups with the USDA-ARS, ensuring that key material will be preserved for future research. All of the collections with backup at the NCGRP are public distributing collections including U.S. NSF-supported genetic stock centers, USDA-ARS collections, and university-supported collections. Facing the retirement of several pioneering researchers, the community discussed the value of preserving personal research collections and agreed that a mechanism to preserve these valuable collections was essential to any future national culture collection system. Additional input from curators of plant and animal collections emphasized that collections of every kind face similar challenges in developing long-range plans for sustainability.

  20. Investigation of intervertebral disc degeneration using multivariate FTIR spectroscopic imaging† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5fd00160a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Mirte; Detiger, Suzanne E. L.; Helder, Marco N.; Smit, Theo H.; Le Maitre, Christine L.; Sammon, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally tissue samples are analysed using protein or enzyme specific stains on serial sections to build up a picture of the distribution of components contained within them. In this study we investigated the potential of multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to deconvolute 2nd derivative spectra of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopic images measured in transflectance mode of goat and human paraffin embedded intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue sections, to see if this methodology can provide analogous information to that provided by immunohistochemical stains and bioassays but from a single section. MCR-ALS analysis of non-degenerate and enzymatically in vivo degenerated goat IVDs reveals five matrix components displaying distribution maps matching histological stains for collagen, elastin and proteoglycan (PG), as well as immunohistochemical stains for collagen type I and II. Interestingly, two components exhibiting characteristic spectral and distribution profiles of proteoglycans were found, and relative component/tissue maps of these components (labelled PG1 and PG2) showed distinct distributions in non-degenerate versus mildly degenerate goat samples. MCR-ALS analysis of human IVD sections resulted in comparable spectral profiles to those observed in the goat samples, highlighting the inter species transferability of the presented methodology. Multivariate FTIR image analysis of a set of 43 goat IVD sections allowed the extraction of semi-quantitative information from component/tissue gradients taken across the IVD width of collagen type I, collagen type II, PG1 and PG2. Regional component/tissue parameters were calculated and significant correlations were found between histological grades of degeneration and PG parameters (PG1: p = 0.0003, PG2: p < 0.0001); glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content and PGs (PG1: p = 0.0055, PG2: p = 0.0001); and MRI T2* measurements and PGs (PG1: p = 0.0021, PG2: p < 0.0001). Additionally

  1. Phytomining of valuable metals from waste incineration residues using hyperaccumulator plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenkranz, Theresa; Kisser, Johannes; Gattringer, Heinz; Iordanopoulos-Kisser, Monika; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Worldwide the availability of primary sources of certain economically important metals is decreasing, resulting in high supply risks and increasing prices for this materials. Therefore, an alternative way of retrieving these high valuable technical metals is the recycling and use of anthropogenic secondary sources, such as waste incineration residues. Phytomining offers an environmentally sound and cheap technology to recover such metals from secondary sources. Thus, the aim of our research work is to investigate the potential of phytomining from waste incineration slags by growing metal hyperaccumulating plants on this substrates and use the metal enriched biomass as a bio-ore. As a first stage, material from Vienna's waste incineration plants was sampled and analyzed. Residues from municipal wastes as well as residues from hazardous waste incineration and sewage sludge incineration were analyzed. In general, the slags can be characterized by a very high pH, high salinity and high heavy metal concentrations. Our work is targeting the so-called critical raw materials defined by the European Commission in 2014. Thus, the target metal species in our project are amongst others cobalt, chromium, antimony, tungsten, gallium, nickel and selected rare earth elements. This elements are present in the slags at moderate to low concentrations. In order to optimize the substrate for plant growth the high pH and salt content as well as the low nitrogen content in the slags need to be controlled. Thus, different combinations of amendments, mainly from the waste industry, as well as different acidifying agents were tested for conditioning the substrate. Washing the slags with diluted nitric acid turned out to be effective for lowering the pH. The acid treated substrate in combination with material from mechanical biological waste treatment and biochar, is currently under investigation in a greenhouse pot experiment. The experimental setup consists of a full factorial design

  2. Old river beds under urbanization pressure. Can we protect valuable aquatic ecosystems within the cities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorska, Daria; Sikorski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    Old river channels are valuable ecosystems in the scale of whole Europe. Protected as Natura 2000 habitats they are characterized by high biodiversity and provide various ecosystem services. River regulation, eutrophication or lack of annual flooding result in an impoverishment and disappearance of these habitats. Moreover they are subjected to severe pressure from uncontrolled expansion of the cities. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with urbanization mostly contributing to impoverishment of the vegetation associated with the old channels and to identify landscape characteristics favouring high diversity and naturalness. We were seeking for indices that could be implemented in spatial management for preservation of these ecosystems. Vegetation inventory of 28 lakes, being former river Vistula beds near Warsaw was held. The lakes were located in an urban-rural gradient from the city centre, suburban zone to rural areas. Mapping of vegetation was performed for aquatic vegetation, rushes and vegetation of the shores (321 relevés). Human pressure was assessed on the basis of landscape composition of the lakes neighbourhood, characteristic features of the reservoir and water physio-chemical properties. High diversity and naturalness of the vegetation associated with former Vistula River beds was proved. Effects of the human pressure in the vegetation composition were recognized in high share of alien species and impoverishment of native plants. Composition was dependant on the intensity of human pressure in the neighbourhood and was mostly related to percentage of built-up areas and road density. Selected measures allowed to explain not more than 30% of plants composition variation which implies strong effect of local factors. Vegetation composition of former river beds changed significantly along urban-rural gradient, though the trend could be noted only to the city border. Several protection activities were proposed favouring high

  3. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  4. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  5. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  6. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  7. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  8. Effective Communication and Creating Professional Learning Communities Is a Valuable Practice for Superintendents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Ann Toler; Newsome, Edward, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    As the chief executive officer, the superintendent must demonstrate high quality performance at every level in order to impact student achievement. In order to be an effective superintendent, the individual must have knowledge and skills in educational leadership and be able to articulate information clearly and precisely about the school…

  9. Recovering Valuable Phosphates: Chemical Biotechnology as a Problem Solver for the Environment.

    PubMed

    Heinzelmann, Elsbeth

    2015-01-01

    Researchers from the HES-SO Valais/Wallis have demonstrated how to extract phosphate from sewage sludge on the laboratory scale using renewable energy sources from a microbial fuel cell. The mobilized phosphate barely contains heavy metals and can be used to produce fertilizer of marketable quality. The necessary energy comes from a sewage treatment plant and causes no additional costs.

  10. Combined thermal treatments of industrial wastes for the elimination of toxic elements and the concentration of valuable metals

    SciTech Connect

    Menad, N.; Djona, M.; Allain, E.; Gaballah, I. |||

    1995-12-31

    Thermal treatments of five different types of non-ferrous metallurgical wastes, under controlled atmosphere, were carried out at temperatures lower than 800 C. The aim of these treatments was to reduce the toxic elements content and to increase that of valuable metals in the residue. Best results were obtained by their treatments in air or hydrogen or successively both of them. Simple treatments using air or hydrogen of three samples allowed the elimination of more than 95% of their toxic elements and almost doubled their valuable metals` concentration. For the rest two samples, combined treatment was necessary for their efficient decontamination and the concentration of valuable metals, in the treatment`s residue, to a reasonable value. Most of the solids issued from these treatments can be recycled in the current non-ferrous metallurgical processes.

  11. A Method Using Epoch-Era Analysis to Identify Valuable Changeability in System Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    2005) published a paper summarizing unifying principles behind designing for changeability ( DfC ) in engineering. In addition to covering the motivation...changeability of designs and not of the designing process. According to DfC , robustness is the ability of a system to withstand environmental changes... DfC ): Principles to enable changes in systems throughout their entire lifecycle,” Systems Engineering, vol. 8, 2005, pp. 342-359. Hastings, D.E

  12. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  13. Decreasing Cloudiness Over China: An Updated Analysis Examining Additional Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, D.P.

    2000-01-14

    As preparation of the IPCC's Third Assessment Report takes place, one of the many observed climate variables of key interest is cloud amount. For several nations of the world, there exist records of surface-observed cloud amount dating back to the middle of the 20th Century or earlier, offering valuable information on variations and trends. Studies using such databases include Sun and Groisman (1999) and Kaiser and Razuvaev (1995) for the former Soviet Union, Angel1 et al. (1984) for the United States, Henderson-Sellers (1986) for Europe, Jones and Henderson-Sellers (1992) for Australia, and Kaiser (1998) for China. The findings of Kaiser (1998) differ from the other studies in that much of China appears to have experienced decreased cloudiness over recent decades (1954-1994), whereas the other land regions for the most part show evidence of increasing cloud cover. This paper expands on Kaiser (1998) by analyzing trends in additional meteorological variables for Chi na [station pressure (p), water vapor pressure (e), and relative humidity (rh)] and extending the total cloud amount (N) analysis an additional two years (through 1996).

  14. Inter-rater reliability (IRR): A Valuable Metric for Qualitative Research | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Most people who do qualitative research, which analyzes non-numerical information, such as interviews, open-ended questionnaires, and observations, know that it includes a lot of coding. Coding is a standardized process of classifying qualitative data (i.e., non-numerical data) by using one unified model, or “coding scheme,” to analyze numerous sets of data. Coding aims to reduce subjective opinion and analysis of qualitative data, and instead ensure a more objective analytical process with limited bias in results. 

  15. Valuable Radiographic Tool for Odontogenic Jaw Keratocyst Diagnosis and Surgical Planning

    PubMed Central

    Lai, R-F; Li, Z-J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical use of cone beam computed tomography in the diagnosis of patients with odontogenic jaw keratocyst and to guide computer-aided surgical treatment planning. Methods: Imaging, image processing, and visualization technologies were used to produce clear diagnosis, provide proper treatment, and formulate favourable prognosis. Cone beam computed tomography was used to collect medical information including site, extent, shape, and other characteristic features of a patient with large odontogenic jaw keratocyst. Results: The imaging technique produced excellent results in imaging, image processing and threedimensional (3D) visualization. Conclusion: The 3D digital reconstruction model of the odontogenic jaw keratocyst was shown intuitively. PMID:25429483

  16. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  17. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  18. Factors mediating co-occurrence of an economically valuable introduced fish and its native frog prey.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Rosemary; Pope, Karen; Lawler, Sharon

    2014-06-01

    Habitat characteristics mediate predator-prey coexistence in many ecological systems but are seldom considered in species introductions. When economically important introduced predators are stocked despite known negative impacts on native species, understanding the role of refuges, landscape configurations, and community interactions can inform habitat management plans. We measured these factors in basins with introduced trout (Salmonidae) and the Cascades frog (Rana cascadae) to determine, which are responsible for observed patterns of co-occurrence of this economically important predator and its native prey. Large, vegetated shallows were strongly correlated to co-occurrence, and R. cascadae larvae occur in shallower water when fish are present, presumably to escape predation. The number of nearby breeding sites of R. cascadae was also correlated to co-occurrence, but only when the western toad (Anaxyrus boreas) was present. Because A. boreas larvae are unpalatable to fish and resemble R. cascadae, they may provide protection from trout via Batesian mimicry. Although rescue-effect dispersal from nearby populations may maintain co-occurrence, within-lake factors proved more important for predicting co-occurrence. Learning which factors allow co-occurrence between economically important introduced species and their native prey enables managers to make better-informed stocking decisions.

  19. Valuable Features in Mobile Health Apps for Patients and Consumers: Content Analysis of Apps and User Ratings

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The explosion of mobile phones with app capabilities coupled with increased expectations of the patient-consumers’ role in managing their care presents a unique opportunity to use mobile health (mHealth) apps. Objectives The aim of this paper is to identify the features and characteristics most-valued by patient-consumers (“users”) that contribute positively to the rating of an app. Methods A collection of 234 apps associated with reputable health organizations found in the medical, health, and fitness categories of the Apple iTunes store and Google Play marketplace was assessed manually for the presence of 12 app features and characteristics. Regression analysis was used to determine which, if any, contributed positively to a user’s rating of the app. Results Analysis of these 12 features explained 9.3% (R 2=.093 n=234, P<.001) of the variation in an app’s rating, with only 5 reaching statistical significance. Of the 5 reaching statistical significance, plan or orders, export of data, usability, and cost contributed positively to a user’s rating, while the tracker feature detracted from it. Conclusions These findings suggest that users appreciate features that save time over current methods and identify an app as valuable when it is simple and intuitive to use, provides specific instructions to better manage a condition, and shares data with designated individuals. Although tracking is a core function of most health apps, this feature may detract from a user’s experience when not executed properly. Further investigation into mHealth app features is worthwhile given the inability of the most common features to explain a large portion of an app’s rating. In the future, studies should focus on one category in the app store, specific diseases, or desired behavior change, and methods should include measuring the quality of each feature, both through manual assessment and evaluation of user reviews. Additional investigations into understanding

  20. Rare and Valuable Government Documents: A Resource Packet on Identification, Preservation, and Security Issues for Government Documents Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Jim, Comp.; And Others

    This packet serves as an introduction to and overview of the complex issue of identification and preservation of rare government documents. It is intended as a starting point, not a comprehensive guide, for all questions about government documents. Part 1 is a selective bibliography of resources to identify rare and valuable documents (50 sources)…

  1. Pathway-based network modeling finds hidden genes in shRNA screen for regulators of acute lymphoblastic leukemia† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6ib00040a Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jennifer L.; Dalin, Simona; Gosline, Sara; Hemann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Data integration stands to improve interpretation of RNAi screens which, as a result of off-target effects, typically yield numerous gene hits of which only a few validate. These off-target effects can result from seed matches to unintended gene targets (reagent-based) or cellular pathways, which can compensate for gene perturbations (biology-based). We focus on the biology-based effects and use network modeling tools to discover pathways de novo around RNAi hits. By looking at hits in a functional context, we can uncover novel biology not identified from any individual ‘omics measurement. We leverage multiple ‘omic measurements using the Simultaneous Analysis of Multiple Networks (SAMNet) computational framework to model a genome scale shRNA screen investigating Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) progression in vivo. Our network model is enriched for cellular processes associated with hematopoietic differentiation and homeostasis even though none of the individual ‘omic sets showed this enrichment. The model identifies genes associated with the TGF-beta pathway and predicts a role in ALL progression for many genes without this functional annotation. We further experimentally validate the hidden genes – Wwp1, a ubiquitin ligase, and Hgs, a multi-vesicular body associated protein – for their role in ALL progression. Our ALL pathway model includes genes with roles in multiple types of leukemia and roles in hematological development. We identify a tumor suppressor role for Wwp1 in ALL progression. This work demonstrates that network integration approaches can compensate for off-target effects, and that these methods can uncover novel biology retroactively on existing screening data. We anticipate that this framework will be valuable to multiple functional genomic technologies – siRNA, shRNA, and CRISPR – generally, and will improve the utility of functional genomic studies. PMID:27315426

  2. The Technology-Enabled Patient Advocate: A Valuable Emerging Healthcare Partner.

    PubMed

    Kent, Susan M; Yellowlees, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. healthcare system is changing and is becoming more patient-centered and technology-supported, with greater emphasis on population health outcomes and team-based care. The roles of healthcare providers are changing, and new healthcare roles are developing such as that of the patient advocate. This article reviews the history of this type of role, the changes that have taken place over time, the technological innovations in service delivery that further enable the role, and how the role could increasingly be developed in the future. Logical future extensions of the current typical patient advocate are the appearance of a virtual or avatar-driven care navigator, using telemedicine and related information technologies, as healthcare provision moves increasingly in a hybrid direction, with care being given both in-person and online.

  3. Technology transfer opportunities: new development: computerized field manual provides valuable resource for hydrologic investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapel, Paul

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is known throughout the world for conducting quality scientific investigation is hydrologic environments. Proper and consistent field techniques have been an integral part of this good research. Over the past few decades, the USGS has developed and published detailed, standard protocols for conducting studies in most aspects of the hydrologic environment. These protocols have been published in a number of diverse documents. The wealth of information contained in these diverse documents can benefit other scientists in industry, government, and academia that are involved in conducting hydrologic studies. Scientists at the USGS have brought together many of the most important of the field protocols in a user-friendly, graphical-interfaced field manual that will be useful in both the field and in the office. This electronic field manual can assist hydrologists and other scientists in conducting and documenting their field activities in a manner that is recognized standard throughout the hydrologic community.

  4. Alzheimer's Disease: Prototype of Cognitive Deterioration, Valuable Lessons to Understand Human Cognition.

    PubMed

    Noroozian, Maryam

    2016-02-01

    It is important for neurologists to become more familiar with neuropsychological evaluation for Alzheimer disease. The growth of this method in research, as an available, inexpensive, and noninvasive diagnostic approach, which can be administered even by non-specialist-trained examiners, makes this knowledge more necessary than ever. Such knowledge has a basic role in planning national programs in primary health care systems for prevention and early detection of Alzheimer disease. This is more crucial in developing countries, which have higher rates of dementia prevalence along with cardiovascular risk factors, lack of public knowledge about dementia, and limited social support. In addition compared to the neurological hard signs which are tangible and measurable, the concept of cognition seems to be more difficult for the neurologists to evaluate and for the students to understand. Dementia in general and Alzheimer's disease as the prototype of cognitive disorders specifically, play an important role to explore all domains of human cognition through its symptomatology and neuropsychological deficits.

  5. Micro-emultocrit technique: a valuable tool for determination of critical HLB value of emulsions.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Janus P F; Fernandes, Leonardo L; Formiga, Fábio R; Reis, Michael F; Júnior, Toshiyuiky Nagashima; Soares, Luiz A L; Egito, E Socrates T

    2006-03-10

    The aim of this work was to develop a methodology for rapid determination of the critical hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value of lipophilic fractions of emulsions. The emulsions were prepared by the spontaneous emulsification process with HLB value from 4.3 to 16.7. The preparations were stored at 2 different temperatures (25 degrees C and 4 degrees C) and their physicochemical behavior was evaluated by the micro-emultocrit technique and the long-term stability study. The experimental data show a reverse relationship between HLB values of the surfactant mixtures and emulsion stability. A close correlation between the results for both stability procedures was observed, suggesting the use of micro-emultocrit to predict stabilities of such systems. In addition, it was found that the critical HLB of the Mygliol 812 was 15.367.

  6. High condylectomy procedure: a valuable resource for surgical management of the mandibular condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Santos, Darklilson; De Melo, Willian Morais; Souza, Francisley Avila; de Moura, Walter Leal; Cravinhos, Julio César de Paulo

    2013-07-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is an overdevelopment of the condyle, which may manifest unilaterally or bilaterally. This pathological condition can lead to facial asymmetry, malocclusion, and dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint. The etiology and pathogenesis of condylar hyperplasia remain uncertain, but it has been suggested that its etiology may be associated with hormonal factors, trauma, and hereditary hypervascularity, affecting both genders. The diagnosis is made by clinical examination, and radiological imaging, and additionally, bone scintigraphy, is a fundamental resource for determining whether the affected condyle shows active growth. Patients with active condylar hyperplasia management have better results when they are subjected to the high condylectomy procedure. The authors report a case in a 20-year-old female subject with unilateral active condylar hyperplasia who was treated by high condylectomy. The patient has been followed up for 4 years without signs of recurrence and with good functional stability of the occlusion.

  7. Energy and valuable material by-product from firing Estonian oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Hanni, R.

    1996-12-31

    Power plants of Eesti Energia burn Estonian oil shale, known geologically as kukersite, to produce electrical and heat energy. The burnt shale, or oil shale ash, secondary product is collected and stored in increasing quantities. It is a high calcium content material with a low particle size range. Limited investment and international support have minimized development; however, some possibilities for the use of the ash have been found with consequent improvement to the environment. This paper describes different ways in which this burnt ash may be used. In particular, research has shown that it is most effective as an addition to Portland cement production. An Estonian Standard for the use of burnt shale in the production of rapid hardening portland cement and shale Portland cement has been developed. Characteristic data for burnt shale and burnt shale cellular concrete, collation of shale Portland cement and ordinary Portland cements are given.

  8. New Caledonia: A 'Hot Spot' for Valuable Chemodiversity. Part 1: Gymnosperms.

    PubMed

    Coulerie, Paul; Poullain, Cyril

    2015-06-01

    The flora of New Caledonia encompasses more than 3,000 species and almost 80% of them are endemic. New Caledonia is considered as a 'hot spot' for biodiversity. With the current global loss of biodiversity, and the fact that several drugs and pesticides are becoming obsolete, there is an urgent need to increase sampling and research on new natural products. In this context, we review the chemical information available on New Caledonian native flora from economical perspectives. We expect that a better knowledge of the economic potential will encourage the plantation of native plants for the development of a sustainable economy which will participate in the conservation of biodiversity. In the first part of this review, we discuss the results reported in 18 scientific articles on the chemicals isolated from 23 endemic conifers of New Caledonia. Several bioactive and original products, such as neocallitropsene or libocedrins, have been isolated from these conifers. This review also highlights several groups, such as Podocarpus spp., that are unexplored in New Caledonia despite the fact that they have been described in other countries to contain a wide range of original bioactive compounds. Those plants are considered as priority for future chemical investigations.

  9. Quantitative PCR is a valuable tool to monitor performance of DNA-encoded chemical library selections.

    PubMed

    Li, Yizhou; Zimmermann, Gunther; Scheuermann, Jörg; Neri, Dario

    2017-02-21

    Phage-display libraries and DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DECL) represent useful tools for the isolation of specific binding molecules out of large combinatorial sets of compounds. In both methods, specific binders are recovered at the end of affinity capture procedures, using target proteins of interest immobilized on a solid support. However, while the efficiency of phage-display selections is routinely quantified by counting the phage titer before and after the affinity capture step, no similar quantification procedures have been reported for the characterization of DNA-encoded chemical library selections. In this article, we describe the potential and limitations of quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods for the evaluation of selection efficiency, using a combinatorial chemical library with more than 35 million compounds. In the experimental conditions chosen for the selections, a quantification of DNA input/recovery over five orders of magnitude could be performed, revealing a successful enrichment of abundant binders, which could be confirmed by DNA sequencing. qPCR provides rapid information about the performance of selections, thus facilitating the optimization of experimental conditions.

  10. The valuable use of Microsoft Kinect™ sensor 3D kinematic in the rehabilitation process in basketball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braidot, Ariel; Favaretto, Guillermo; Frisoli, Melisa; Gemignani, Diego; Gumpel, Gustavo; Massuh, Roberto; Rayan, Josefina; Turin, Matías

    2016-04-01

    Subjects who practice sports either as professionals or amateurs, have a high incidence of knee injuries. There are a few publications that show studies from a kinematic point of view of lateral-structure-knee injuries, including meniscal (meniscal tears or chondral injury), without anterior cruciate ligament rupture. The use of standard motion capture systems for measuring outdoors sport is hard to implement due to many operative reasons. Recently released, the Microsoft Kinect™ is a sensor that was developed to track movements for gaming purposes and has seen an increased use in clinical applications. The fact that this device is a simple and portable tool allows the acquisition of data of sport common movements in the field. The development and testing of a set of protocols for 3D kinematic measurement using the Microsoft Kinect™ system is presented in this paper. The 3D kinematic evaluation algorithms were developed from information available and with the use of Microsoft’s Software Development Kit 1.8 (SDK). Along with this, an algorithm for calculating the lower limb joints angles was implemented. Thirty healthy adult volunteers were measured, using five different recording protocols for sport characteristic gestures which involve high knee injury risk in athletes.

  11. Brain mechanisms of valuable scientific problem finding inspired by heuristic knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dandan, Tong; Wenfu, Li; Tianen, Dai; Nusbaum, Howard C; Jiang, Qiu; Qinglin, Zhang

    2013-08-01

    Heuristics through the application of heuristic knowledge to the creation of imitation devices may be one of the most common processes in scientific innovation. In particular, heuristics suggests that innovation includes the automatic activation of heuristic knowledge and formation of novel associations between heuristic knowledge and problem situations. In this study, 76 scientific innovation problem situations were selected as materials. Among these, 36 contain related heuristic knowledge and 40 have no such information. Through functional magnetic resonance imaging, the learning-testing paradigm was used to explore the brain mechanisms of scientific problem finding inspired by heuristic knowledge. Participants were asked to find a problem on the basis of a given innovation problem situation. Two scenarios were presented: finding scientific problems with related heuristic knowledge and finding conventional problems without related heuristic knowledge. The authors assumed that the regions in the brain significantly activated by the finding scientific problems with related heuristic knowledge condition compared with the finding normal problems without related heuristic knowledge condition are relevant to the brain mechanisms of scientific problem finding inspired by heuristic knowledge. The first scenario more significantly activated the left precuneus and left angular gyrus than did the second scenario. These findings suggest that the precuneus is relevant to the successful storage and retrieval of heuristic knowledge and that the left angular gyrus is involved in the formation of novel associations between heuristic knowledge and problem situations for finding scientific problems.

  12. The WRKY Transcription Factor Family in Citrus: Valuable and Useful Candidate Genes for Citrus Breeding.

    PubMed

    Ayadi, M; Hanana, M; Kharrat, N; Merchaoui, H; Marzoug, R Ben; Lauvergeat, V; Rebaï, A; Mzid, R

    2016-10-01

    WRKY transcription factors belong to a large family of plant transcriptional regulators whose members have been reported to be involved in a wide range of biological roles including plant development, adaptation to environmental constraints and response to several diseases. However, little or poor information is available about WRKY's in Citrus. The recent release of completely assembled genomes sequences of Citrus sinensis and Citrus clementina and the availability of ESTs sequences from other citrus species allowed us to perform a genome survey for Citrus WRKY proteins. In the present study, we identified 100 WRKY members from C. sinensis (51), C. clementina (48) and Citrus unshiu (1), and analyzed their chromosomal distribution, gene structure, gene duplication, syntenic relation and phylogenetic analysis. A phylogenetic tree of 100 Citrus WRKY sequences with their orthologs from Arabidopsis has distinguished seven groups. The CsWRKY genes were distributed across all ten sweet orange chromosomes. A comprehensive approach and an integrative analysis of Citrus WRKY gene expression revealed variable profiles of expression within tissues and stress conditions indicating functional diversification. Thus, candidate Citrus WRKY genes have been proposed as potentially involved in fruit acidification, essential oil biosynthesis and abiotic/biotic stress tolerance. Our results provided essential prerequisites for further WRKY genes cloning and functional analysis with an aim of citrus crop improvement.

  13. Is Coasting Valuable in All Patients with Any Cause of Infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Tahereh; Jahangiri, Nadia; Eftekhari-Yazdi, Poopak; Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Akhoond, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the influence of coasting duration on the number and quality of oocytes and fertilization rate in male factor infertile women and those with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods In this prospective observational follow-up study, 114 patients undergoing coasting (53 women with male factor infertility and 61 women with PCOS) were evaluated at the Royan Institute Research Center, Iran, between 2010 and 2012. Results The results were analyzed according to the coasting periods of 1–4 days. In normal females, the number of oocytes retrieved was significantly reduced after the second day (p = 0.004). In addition, a statistically significant drop was observed in the number of metaphase II oocytes and fertilization rate after the third day (p = 0.006 and p = 0.006, respectively). No significant differences were observed in the number and quality of oocytes retrieved and fertilization rate with regard to coasting days in PCOS patients. Conclusion Coasting with duration of more than three days should be performed with caution in normal females who are at risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. PMID:27974954

  14. FACS selection of valuable mutant mouse round spermatids and strain rescue via round spermatid injection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lian; Zhou, Wei; Kong, Peng-Cheng; Wang, Mei-Shan; Zhu, Yan; Feng, Li-Xin; Chen, Xue-Jin; Jiang, Man-Xi

    2015-06-01

    Round spermatid injection (ROSI) into mammalian oocytes can result in the development of viable embryos and offspring. One current limitation to this technique is the identification of suitable round spermatids. In the current paper, round spermatids were selected from testicular cells with phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and ROSI was performed in two strains of mice. The rates of fertilization, embryonic development and offspring achieved were the same in all strains. Significantly, round spermatids selected by PCM and FACS were effectively used to rescue the infertile Pten-null mouse. The current results indicate that FACS selection of round spermatids can not only provide high-purity and viable round spermatids for use in ROSI, but also has no harmful effects on the developmental capacity of subsequently fertilized embryos. It was concluded that round spermatids selected by FACS are useful for mouse strain rederivation and rescue of infertile males; ROSI should be considered as a powerful addition to the armamentarium of assisted reproduction techniques applicable in the mouse.

  15. Bioleaching of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion mobile phone batteries using Aspergillus niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horeh, N. Bahaloo; Mousavi, S. M.; Shojaosadati, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a bio-hydrometallurgical route based on fungal activity of Aspergillus niger was evaluated for the detoxification and recovery of Cu, Li, Mn, Al, Co and Ni metals from spent lithium-ion phone mobile batteries under various conditions (one-step, two-step and spent medium bioleaching). The maximum recovery efficiency of 100% for Cu, 95% for Li, 70% for Mn, 65% for Al, 45% for Co, and 38% for Ni was obtained at a pulp density of 1% in spent medium bioleaching. The HPLC results indicated that citric acid in comparison with other detected organic acids (gluconic, oxalic and malic acid) had an important role in the effectiveness of bioleaching using A. niger. The results of FTIR, XRD and FE-SEM analysis of battery powder before and after bioleaching process confirmed that the fungal activities were quite effective. In addition, bioleaching achieved higher removal efficiency for heavy metals than the chemical leaching. This research demonstrated the great potential of bio-hydrometallurgical route to recover heavy metals from spent lithium-ion mobile phone batteries.

  16. Turning waste into valuable resource: potential of electric arc furnace dust as photocatalytic material.

    PubMed

    Sapiña, M; Jimenez-Relinque, E; Castellote, M

    2014-10-01

    This paper explores the potential of a hazardous waste of difficult management, electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), as photocatalytic material. Starting from a real waste coming from a Spanish steel factory, chemical, mineralogical, and optical characterizations have been carried out. Direct trials on EAFD and mortar containing this waste have been performed to evaluate its potential as photocatalyst itself and within a cementitious material. The analysis of photocatalytic properties has been done by two different methods: degradation of NO x and degradation of rhodamine (RhB). As a result, it can be said that EAFD exhibited photocatalytic activity for both configurations with UV and visible light, having the mortar enhanced photocatalytic activity for NO x with respect to the EAFD itself. Additionally, in direct trials on the EAFD, it has been able to degrade RhB even in the dark, which has been attributed to transfer of electrons between the adsorbed RhB and the conduction band of some oxides in the dust.

  17. Endoscopic procurement of allograft tympano-ossicular systems: valuable to replace the Schuknecht bone plug technique?

    PubMed

    Caremans, Jeroen; Hamans, Evert; Muylle, Ludo; Van de Heyning, Paul; Van Rompaey, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    Recently, our group demonstrated the technical feasibility of allograft tympano-ossicular systems (ATOS) procurement directly through the external auditory canal by using a rigid endoscope. This novel technique has several advantages compared to the traditional transcranial Schuknecht bone plug technique: it avoids contact with the dura mater, it is less time-consuming and it doesn't require a thorough reconstruction of the donor. In our tissue bank, we are currently transitioning from the transcranial procurement technique to the endoscopic procurement technique. The learning curve to master the endoscopic technique is steep but our preliminary results suggest that the percentage of good quality endoscopically procured ATOS is at least similar to the percentage of good quality transcranially procured ATOS dissected from the temporal bone plug. Additionally, the number of donations has increased significantly. By avoiding contact with the dura mater and therefore eliminating the risk of potential prion disease transmission, this technical evolution in procurement technique might allow dedicated tissue banks to (re-)introduce ATOS procurement and implantation.

  18. Lipophilic extracts from banana fruit residues: a source of valuable phytosterols.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lúcia; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D; Cordeiro, Nereida

    2008-10-22

    The chemical composition of the lipophilic extracts of unripe pulp and peel of banana fruit 'Dwarf Cavendish' was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fatty acids, sterols, and steryl esters are the major families of lipophilic components present in banana tissues, followed by diacylglycerols, steryl glucosides, long chain fatty alcohols, and aromatic compounds. Fatty acids are more abundant in the banana pulp (29-90% of the total amount of lipophilic extract), with linoleic, linolenic, and oleic acids as the major compounds of this family. In banana peel, sterols represent about 49-71% of the lipophilic extract with two triterpenic ketones (31-norcyclolaudenone and cycloeucalenone) as the major components. The detection of high amounts of steryl esters (469-24405 mg/kg) and diacylglycerols (119-878 mg/kg), mainly present in the banana peel extract, explains the increase in the abundance of fatty acids and sterols after alkaline hydrolysis. Several steryl glucosides were also found in significative amounts (273-888 mg/kg), particularly in banana pulp (888 mg/kg). The high content of sterols (and their derivatives) in the 'Dwarf Cavendish' fruit can open new strategies for the valorization of the banana residues as a potential source of high-value phytochemicals with nutraceutical and functional food additive applications.

  19. Olive Pomace, a Source for Valuable Arabinan-Rich Pectic Polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, Manuel A.; Cardoso, Susana M.; Lopes-da-Silva, José A.

    Cell wall polysaccharides account for nearly one third of olive pomace dry matter produced by the environment friendly biphasic system. These polysaccharides are mainly cellulose, glucuronoxylans, and arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharides, in equivalent proportions. The structural features of pectic polysaccharides are unique concerning the arabinan moiety due to the occurrence of a β-(1→5)-terminally-linked arabinose residue. This odd feature tends to disappear with olive ripening and can be used as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of the stage of ripening of this fruit, as well as a marker for the presence of olive pulp in matrices containing pectic polysaccharides samples. These pectic polysaccharides have the ability to form elastic gels with calcium. The critical gelling calcium and galacturonic acid concentrations are higher than that observed for commercial citrus low-methoxyl pectic material. Nevertheless, they present a syneresis occurring for much higher calcium concentration and, consequently, show a much larger zone in which homogeneous gels are formed. In addition, olive pomace pectic polysaccharides gels are more resistant to temperature than the low-methoxyl pectin/calcium gels. These properties show that olive pomace can be a potential source of gelling pectic material with useful properties for particular applications.

  20. Is dialdehyde starch a valuable cross-linking agent for collagen/elastin based materials?

    PubMed

    Skopinska-Wisniewska, J; Wegrzynowska-Drzymalska, K; Bajek, A; Maj, M; Sionkowska, A

    2016-04-01

    Collagen and elastin are the main structural proteins in mammal bodies. They provide mechanical support, strength, and elasticity to various organs and tissues, e.g. skin, tendons, arteries, and bones. They are readily available, biodegradable, biocompatible and they stimulate cell growth. The physicochemical properties of collagen and elastin-based materials can be modified by cross-linking. Glutaraldehyde is one of the most efficient cross-linking agents. However, the unreacted molecules can be released from the material and cause cytotoxic reactions. Thus, the aim of our work was to investigate the influence of a safer, macromolecular cross-linking agent--dialdehyde starch (DAS). The properties of hydrogels based on collagen/elastin mixtures (95/5, 90/10) containing 5 and 10% of DAS and neutralized via dialysis against deionized water were tested. The homogenous, transparent, stiff hydrogels were obtained. The DAS addition causes the formation of intermolecular cross-linking bonds but does not affect the secondary structure of the proteins. As a result, the thermal stability, mechanical strength, and, surprisingly, swelling ability increased. At the same time, the surface properties test and in vitro study show that the materials are attractive for 3T3 cells. Moreover, the materials containing 10% of DAS are more resistant to enzymatic degradation.

  1. Effects of lignin structure on hydrodeoxygenation reactivity of pine wood lignin to valuable chemicals

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hongliang; Ben, Haoxi; Southeast Univ., Nanjing; ...

    2017-01-05

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of two dilute acid flow through pretreated softwood lignin samples, including residual lignin in pretreated solid residues (ReL) and recovered insoluble lignin in pretreated liquid (RISL), with apparent different physical and chemical structures, was comprehensively studied. A combination of catalysts (HY zeolite and Ru/Al2O3) was employed to investigate the effects of lignin structures, especially condensed structures, on the HDO upgrading process. Results indicated that the condensed structure and short side chains in lignin hindered its HDO conversion under different reaction conditions, including catalyst loading and composition, hydrogen pressure, and reaction time. In addition to lignin structure, HY zeolitemore » was found crucial for lignin depolymerization, while Ru/Al2O3 and relatively high hydrogen pressure (4 MPa) were necessary for upgrading unstable oxy-compounds to cyclohexanes at high selectivity (>95 wt %). Since the lignin structure essentially affects its reactivity during HDO conversion, the yield and selectivity of HDO products can be predicted by detailed characterization of the lignin structure. Furthermore, the insights gained from this study in the fundamental reaction mechanisms based on the lignin structure will facilitate upgrading of lignin to high-value products for applications in the production of both fuels and chemicals.« less

  2. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  3. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  4. 32 CFR 2001.24 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Markings § 2001.24 Additional requirements. (a) Marking prohibitions. Markings other than “Top Secret... the marking, “This Document Contains (indicate country of origin) Information.” Agencies may also.... If the fact that information is foreign government information must be concealed, the...

  5. Population Response Profiles in Early Visual Cortex Are Biased in Favor of More Valuable Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Saproo, Sameer

    2010-01-01

    Voluntary and stimulus-driven shifts of attention can modulate the representation of behaviorally relevant stimuli in early areas of visual cortex. In turn, attended items are processed faster and more accurately, facilitating the selection of appropriate behavioral responses. Information processing is also strongly influenced by past experience and recent studies indicate that the learned value of a stimulus can influence relatively late stages of decision making such as the process of selecting a motor response. However, the learned value of a stimulus can also influence the magnitude of cortical responses in early sensory areas such as V1 and S1. These early effects of stimulus value are presumed to improve the quality of sensory representations; however, the nature of these modulations is not clear. They could reflect nonspecific changes in response amplitude associated with changes in general arousal or they could reflect a bias in population responses so that high-value features are represented more robustly. To examine this issue, subjects performed a two-alternative forced choice paradigm with a variable-interval payoff schedule to dynamically manipulate the relative value of two stimuli defined by their orientation (one was rotated clockwise from vertical, the other counterclockwise). Activation levels in visual cortex were monitored using functional MRI and feature-selective voxel tuning functions while subjects performed the behavioral task. The results suggest that value not only modulates the relative amplitude of responses in early areas of human visual cortex, but also sharpens the response profile across the populations of feature-selective neurons that encode the critical stimulus feature (orientation). Moreover, changes in space- or feature-based attention cannot easily explain the results because representations of both the selected and the unselected stimuli underwent a similar feature-selective modulation. This sharpening in the population

  6. Geophysical exploration of historical mine dumps for the estimation of valuable residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Tina; Knieß, Rudolf; Noell, Ursula; Hupfer, Sarah; Kuhn, Kerstin; Günther, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Within the project ROBEHA, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (033R105) the economic potential of different abandoned dump sites for mine waste in the Harz Mountains was investigated. Two different mining dumps were geophysically and mineralogically analysed in order to characterize the mine dump structure and to estimate the volume of the potential recycling material. The geophysical methods comprised geoelectrics, radar, and spectral induced polarization (SIP). One about 100-year old mining dump containing residues from density separated Ag- and Sb-rich Pb (Zn)-gangue ores was investigated in detail. Like most small-scale mining waste disposal sites this investigated dump is very heterogeneously structured. Therefore, 27 geoelectrical profiles, more than 50 radar profiles, and several SIP profiles were measured and analysed. The results from the radar measurements, registered with the GSSI system and a shielded 200 MHz antenna, show the near surface boundary layer (down to 3-4 m beneath surface) of the waste residuals. These results can be used as pre-information for the inversion process of the geoelectrical data. The geoelectrical results reveal the mineral residues as layers with higher resistivities (> 300 Ohm*m) than the surrounding material. The SIP method found low phase signals (< 0.5°) for the residues. To estimate the volume of the potentially reusable material we analysed each geoelectrical profile and interpolated between the single profiles using the BERT algorithm. Taking into account the wooded areas of the mine dump and other parameters we get a first estimate for the volume of the residues but the economical viability and the environmental impact of the reworking of the dump still needs to be evaluated in detail. The results of the second mine dump, an abandoned Cu and Zn-rich slag heap, show that the slag residues are characterized by higher resistivities and higher phases. A localization of the slag residues which

  7. Landfill taxes and Enhanced Waste Management: Combining valuable practices with respect to future waste streams.

    PubMed

    Hoogmartens, Rob; Eyckmans, Johan; Van Passel, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Both landfill taxes and Enhanced Waste Management (EWM) practices can mitigate the scarcity issue of landfill capacity by respectively reducing landfilled waste volumes and valorising future waste streams. However, high landfill taxes might erode incentives for EWM, even though EWM creates value by valorising waste. Concentrating on Flanders (Belgium), the paper applies dynamic optimisation modelling techniques to analyse how landfill taxation and EWM can reinforce each other and how taxation schemes can be adjusted in order to foster sustainable and welfare maximising ways of processing future waste streams. Based on the Flemish simulation results, insights are offered that are generally applicable in international waste and resource management policy. As shown, the optimal Flemish landfill tax that optimises welfare in the no EWM scenario is higher than the one in the EWM scenario (93 against €50/ton). This difference should create incentives for applying EWM and is driven by the positive external effects that are generated by EWM practices. In Flanders, as the current landfill tax is slightly lower than these optimal levels, the choice that can be made is to further increase taxation levels or show complete commitment to EWM. A first generally applicable insight that was found points to the fact that it is not necessarily the case that the higher the landfill tax, the more effective waste management improvements can be realised. Other insights are about providing sufficient incentives for applying EMW practices and formulating appropriate pleas in support of technological development. By these insights, this paper should provide relevant information that can assist in triggering the transition towards a resource-efficient, circular economy in Europe.

  8. Discrete mathematical data analysis approach: a valuable assessment method for sustainable chemistry.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Kristina; Scherb, Hagen; Bruggemann, Rainer; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2013-06-01

    Sustainable/Green Chemistry is a chemical philosophy encouraging the design of products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. In this respect, metrical scientific disciplines like Chemometrics are important, because they indicate criteria for chemicals being hazardous or not. We demonstrated that sustainable principles in the disciplines Green Chemistry, Green Engineering, and Sustainability in Information Technology have main aspects in common. The use of non-hazardous chemicals or the more efficient use of chemical substances is one of these aspects. We take a closer look on the topic of the hazards of chemical substances. Our research focuses on data analyses concerning environmental chemicals named Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), which are found all over the world and pose a large risk to environment as well as to humans. The evaluation of the data is a major step in the elucidation of the danger of these chemicals. The data analysis method demonstrated here, is based on the theory of partially ordered sets and provides a generalized ranking. In our approach we investigate data sets of breast milk samples of women in Denmark, Finland, and Turkey which contained measurable levels of 20 POPs. The goal is twofold: On the one side the hazardous chemicals are to be identified and on the other side possible differences among the three nations should be detected, because in that case possible different uptake mechanisms may be supposed. The data analysis is performed by the free available software package PyHasse, written by the third author. We conclude that the data analysis method can well be applied for distinguishing between more or less dangerous existing chemicals. Furthermore, it should be used in sustainable chemistry in the same manner for detecting more and less sustainable chemicals.

  9. Inhibitors of the purine salvage pathway: a valuable approach for antiprotozoal chemotherapy?

    PubMed

    Berg, M; Van der Veken, P; Goeminne, A; Haemers, A; Augustyns, K

    2010-01-01

    For many years, the purine salvage pathway of parasitic protozoa has been regarded as an attractive chemotherapeutic target. Parasitic protozoa lack de novo synthesis and rely entirely on the purine salvage pathway to meet their purine demands. Because of the great phylogenetic difference between parasite and host, there are often sufficient distinctions that can be exploited to design specific inhibitors for the parasitic enzymes. As a result, this pathway has been thoroughly investigated over the last twenty years. It is only quite recently that the genome studies of Trypanosoma, Leishmania and Plasmodium have been published. Based on these genomic data however, the existence of by-pass mechanisms by other enzymes and transporter systems could be suggested. Taking into account such proposition, the question might arise as to whether inhibition of a single salvage enzyme will be able or not to cause parasite death or growth arrest. In this paper, the key enzymes in the purine salvage pathways of relevant pathogenic species from the genera Trypanosoma, Leishmania and Plasmodium are reviewed. Their potential as drug targets is critically evaluated and where possible, correlated to literature data on antiparasitic activity of their inhibitors. While many studies over the past ten years have yielded contradictory results, this review attempts to clarify these findings by discussing the latest elements of progress in the field. Additionally, as part of a broader discussion on substrate analogue types of inhibitors, special attention is paid to iminoribitol derivatives, serving as transition state analogues of nucleoside-processing enzymes and comprising the most potent inhibitors reported for purine salvage enzymes. More specifically, the development of three generations of immucillins and a newer series of N-(arylmethyl-) substituted iminoribitol derivatives will be discussed. Finally, this review also covers subversive substrates of salvage enzymes: compounds that

  10. Conversion of Japanese red pine wood (Pinus densiflora) into valuable chemicals under subcritical water conditions.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Feridoun Salak; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-11

    A comparative study on the decomposition of Japanese red pine wood under subcritical water conditions in the presence and absence of phosphate buffer was investigated in a batch-type reaction vessel. Since cellulose makes up more than 40-45% of the components found in most wood species, a series of experiments were also carried out using pure cellulose as a model for woody biomass. Several parameters such as temperature and residence time, as well as pH effects, were investigated in detail. The best temperature for decomposition and hydrolysis of pure cellulose was found around 270 degrees C. The effects of the initial pH of the solution which ranged from 1.5 to 6.5 were studied. It was found that the pH has a considerable effect on the hydrolysis and decomposition of the cellulose. Several products in the aqueous phase were identified and quantified. The conditions obtained from the subcritical water treatment of pure cellulose were applied for the Japanese red pine wood chips. As a result, even in the absence of acid catalyst, a large amount of wood sample was hydrolyzed in water; however, by using phosphate buffer at pH 2, there was an increase in the hydrolysis and dissolution of the wood chips. In addition to the water-soluble phase, acetone-soluble and water-acetone-insoluble phases were also isolated after subcritical water treatment (which can be attributed mainly to the degraded lignin, tar, and unreacted wood chips, respectively). The initial wood:acid ratio in the case of reactions catalyzed by phosphate buffer was also investigated. The results showed that this weight ratio can be as high as 3:1 without changing the catalytic activity. The size of the wood chips as one of the most important experimental parameters was also investigated.

  11. Is the lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea a valuable model for evaluating mercury induced oxidative stress?

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, N R; Nunes, M E M; Silva, D G C; Zemolin, A P P; Meinerz, D F; Cruz, L C; Pereira, A B; Rocha, J B T; Posser, T; Franco, J L

    2013-08-01

    Organic and inorganic forms of mercury are highly neurotoxic environmental contaminants. The exact mechanisms involved in mercury neurotoxicity are still unclear. Oxidative stress appears to play central role in this process. In this study, we aimed to validate an insect-based model for the investigation of oxidative stress during mercury poisoning of lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea. The advantages of using insects in basic toxicological studies include the easier handling, rapid proliferation/growing and absence of ethical issues, comparing to rodent-based models. Insects received solutions of HgCl2 (10, 20 and 40mgL(-1) in drinking water) for 7d. 24h after mercury exposure, animals were euthanized and head tissue samples were prepared for oxidative stress related biochemical determinations. Mercury exposure caused a concentration dependent decrease in survival rate. Cholinesterase activity was unchanged. Catalase activity was substantially impaired after mercury treatment 40mgL(-1). Likewise, GST had a significant decrease, comparing to control. Peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase activity was inhibited at concentrations of 20mgL(-1) and 40mgL(-1) comparing to control. These results were accompanied by decreased GSH levels and increased hydroperoxide and TBARS formation. In conclusion, our results show that mercuric compounds are able to induce oxidative stress signs in insect by modulating survival rate as well as inducing impairments on important antioxidant systems. In addition, our data demonstrates for the first time that Nauphoeta cinerea represents an interesting animal model to investigate mercury toxicity and indicates that the GSH and thioredoxin antioxidant systems plays central role in Hg induced toxicity in insects.

  12. CADDIS Recent Additions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Causal Analysis/Diagnosis Decision Information System, or CADDIS, is a website developed to help scientists and engineers in the Regions, States, and Tribes conduct causal assessments in aquatic systems.

  13. EMC Recent Additions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page has information about recent changes to promulgated and proposed test methods, perfomance specifications, and quality assurance procedures. It also includes updates and changes to all other approved and proposed test methods.

  14. Making Fieldwork Valuable: Designing fieldwork programmes to meet the needs of young geologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, Michael

    2016-04-01

    This work presents the culmination of many years' in designing and operating field courses for students studying Geology at post-16 level in the context of the British schooling system. Provided is a toolkit, and accompanying rationale, for the educators use when building a sustainable and manageable programme of fieldwork for young geologists. Many educators, particularly under the confines of new regulations have found the promise of increased paper work and accountability challenging and consequently field courses often play a peripheral, even non-existent role in the scheme of work for a large number of young geologists. The process of designing a suitable programme of field study must take account of the relevant stakeholders, chief among these are the views of students and staff but also those of parents, potential destination universities, exam boards and qualification accrediting groups. An audit of desired characteristics a programme of fieldwork would contain was completed using information gained through first hand research with students as well as in conversation with local universities. The results of this audit highlighted several confining factors ranging from the potential cost implications for school and parents, the extent to which content would support learning in class, and the feasibility of achieving all characteristics given limitations on staff and time. Student perceptions of the value of fieldwork were gauged through various means; group interviews were conducted during a number of academic years, field course evaluations were completed following excursions, and questionnaires were distributed at the close of the 2014-2015 academic year. Findings demonstrated that student perceptions of the benefits offered by fieldwork were several fold; chiefly students felt the inclusion of fieldwork was a very important motivator in their decision to study the subject and maintain curiosity in their studies, the belief that fieldwork acts as a

  15. Rationale for the sluggish oxidative addition of aryl halides to Au(i)† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 891201–891204 and 964933. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c3cc48914k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Livendahl, Madeleine; Goehry, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative addition of Csp2–Br or Csp2–I bonds to gold(i) does not take place even under very favorable intramolecular conditions that could form five- or six-membered gold(iii) metallacycles. DFT calculations reveal that although this process could be feasible thermodynamically, it is kinetically very sluggish. PMID:24382586

  16. Development of a 20-locus fluorescent multiplex system as a valuable tool for national DNA database.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xianhua; Guo, Fei; Jia, Fei; Jin, Ping; Sun, Zhu

    2013-02-01

    The multiplex system allows the detection of 19 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci [including all Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) STR loci as well as D2S1338, D6S1043, D12S391, D19S433, Penta D and Penta E] plus the sex-determining locus Amelogenin in a single reaction, comprising all STR loci in various commercial kits used in the China national DNA database (NDNAD). Primers are designed so that the amplicons are distributed ranging from 90 base pairs (bp) to 450 bp within a five-dye fluorescent design with the fifth dye reserved for the internal size standard. With 30 cycles, 125 pg to 2 ng DNA template showed optimal profiling result, while robust profiles could also be achieved by adjusting the cycle numbers for the DNA template beyond that optimal DNA input range. Mixture studies showed that 83% and 87% of minor alleles were detected at 9:1 and 1:9 ratios, respectively. When 4 ng of degraded DNA was digested by 2-min DNase and 1 ng undegraded DNA was added to 400 μM haematin, the complete profiles were still observed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based procedures were examined and optimized including the concentrations of primer set, magnesium and the Taq polymerase as well as volume, cycle number and annealing temperature. In addition, the system has been validated by 3000 bloodstain samples and 35 common case samples in line with the Chinese National Standards and Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) guidelines. The total probability of identity (TPI) can reach to 8×10(-24), where DNA database can be improved at the level of 10 million DNA profiles or more because the number of expected match is far from one person (4×10(-10)) and can be negligible. Further, our system also demonstrates its good performance in case samples and it will be an ideal tool for forensic DNA typing and databasing with potential application.

  17. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  18. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  19. Valuable chemicals by the enzymatic modification of molecules of natural origin: terpenoids, steroids, phenolics and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Groussin, Anne-Laure; Antoniotti, Sylvain

    2012-07-01

    A renewed interest for using natural organic molecules for the production of valuable chemicals is observed in current organic processes. Natural compounds provide the access to natural grade chemicals when submitted to physical treatments or biotechnological processes. Dealing with structurally complex molecules, they can provide complex core structures for hemisynthesis purposes, and in many instances they offer the advantage of providing sustainable processes when using renewable resources. These assets could be synergistic with the assets of biocatalytic processes, to end-up with efficient and sustainable processes in the organic synthesis of valuable products. In this review, we have gathered a selection of examples on the use of enzymes for the modification of molecules of natural origin being either purified compounds (terpenoids, steroids, phenolics) or mixtures (essential oils, natural extracts) to access fine chemicals or organic polymers.

  20. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  1. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  2. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. Supplement I. [Additional information on 38 items requested by KY/DNREP

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Jr., John F.

    1981-02-13

    In response to a letter from KY/DNREP, January 19, 1981, ICRC and DOE have prepared the enclosed supplement to the Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Permit Application for Air Contaminant Source for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Each of the 38 comments contained in the letter has been addressed in accordance with the discussions held in Frankfort on January 28, 1981, among representatives of KY/DNREP, EPA Region IV, US DOE, and ICRC. The questions raised involve requests for detailed information on the performance and reliability of proprietary equipment, back-up methods, monitoring plans for various pollutants, composition of wastes to flares, emissions estimates from particular operations, origin of baseline information, mathematical models, storage tanks, dusts, etc. (LTN)

  3. A new bush anole (Iguanidae, Polychrotinae, Polychrus) from the upper Marañon basin, Peru, with a redescription of Polychrus peruvianus (Noble, 1924) and additional information on Polychrus gutturosus Berthold, 1845

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Claudia; Venegas, Pablo J.; Garcia-Bravo, Antonio; Böhme, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We herein describe a new colorful species of Polychrus with a conspicuous sexual dimorphism from the dry forest of the northern portion of Región de La Libertad, Peru. The new species differs from all other Polychrus species, in that this species has very small dorsal scales and thus a higher number of scales around midbody and in the middorsal line from behind the occipital scales to the level of the posterior edge of the thigh. Furthermore, we redescribe Polychrus peruvianus whose original description is short and lacks information on intraspecific variation and sexual dimorphism. Also, we add some information on intraspecific variation and ecology of Polychrus gutturosus. Finally, we synonymize Polychrus spurrelli Boulenger with Polychrus gutturosus. PMID:22287882

  4. Observability analysis of biochemical process models as a valuable tool for the development of mechanistic soft sensors.

    PubMed

    Golabgir, Aydin; Hoch, Thomas; Zhariy, Mariya; Herwig, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    By enabling the estimation of difficult-to-measure target variables using available indirect measurements, mechanistic soft sensors have become important tools for various bioprocess monitoring and control scenarios. Despite promising higher process efficiencies and increased process understanding, widespread application of soft sensors has been stalled by uncertainty about the feasibility and reliability of their estimations given present process analytical constraints. Observability analysis can provide an indication of the possibility and reliability of soft sensor estimations by analyzing the structural properties of first-principle (mechanistic) models. In addition, it can provide a criteria for selection of suitable measurement methods with respect to their information content; thereby leading to successful implementation of soft sensors in bioprocess development and manufacturing environments. We demonstrate the utility of observability analysis for two classes of upstream bioprocesses: the processes involving growth and ethanol formation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the process of penicillin production by Penicillium chrysogenum. Results obtained from laboratory-scale cultivations in addition to in-silico experiments enable a comparison of theoretical aspects of observability analysis and the real-life performance of soft sensors. By taking the expected error of measurements provided to the soft sensor into account, an innovative scaling approach facilitates a higher degree of comparability of observability results among various measurement configurations and process conditions.

  5. Isothiourea-catalysed enantioselective pyrrolizine synthesis: synthetic and computational studies† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: NMR spectra, HPLC analysis and computational co-ordinates. Data available.12 CCDC 1483759. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c6ob01557c Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Daniel G.; Williamson, Patrick; Gayner, Emma R.; Musolino, Stefania F.; Kerr, Ryan W. F.; Taylor, James E.; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; O'Riordan, Timothy J. C.

    2016-01-01

    The catalytic enantioselective synthesis of a range of cis-pyrrolizine carboxylate derivatives with outstanding stereocontrol (14 examples, >95 : 5 dr, >98 : 2 er) through an isothiourea-catalyzed intramolecular Michael addition-lactonisation and ring-opening approach from the corresponding enone acid is reported. An optimised and straightforward three-step synthetic route to the enone acid starting materials from readily available pyrrole-2-carboxaldehydes is delineated, with benzotetramisole (5 mol%) proving the optimal catalyst for the enantioselective process. Ring-opening of the pyrrolizine dihydropyranone products with either MeOH or a range of amines leads to the desired products in excellent yield and enantioselectivity. Computation has been used to probe the factors leading to high stereocontrol, with the formation of the observed cis-steroisomer predicted to be kinetically and thermodynamically favoured. PMID:27489030

  6. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  7. Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells: improved stability, reproducibility and high efficiency† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ee03874j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Taisuke; Seo, Ji-Youn; Domanski, Konrad; Correa-Baena, Juan-Pablo; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Tress, Wolfgang; Abate, Antonio; Hagfeldt, Anders; Grätzel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Today's best perovskite solar cells use a mixture of formamidinium and methylammonium as the monovalent cations. With the addition of inorganic cesium, the resulting triple cation perovskite compositions are thermally more stable, contain less phase impurities and are less sensitive to processing conditions. This enables more reproducible device performances to reach a stabilized power output of 21.1% and ∼18% after 250 hours under operational conditions. These properties are key for the industrialization of perovskite photovoltaics. PMID:27478500

  8. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  9. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  10. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  11. Molecules in the mirror: how SERS backgrounds arise from the quantum method of images† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional derivation of eqn (5). See DOI: 10.1039/c4cp00093e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Stephen M.; Harris, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    The Raman coupling of light to molecular vibrations is strongly modified when they are placed near a plasmonic metal surface, with the appearance of a strong broad continuum background in addition to the normal surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) peaks. Using a quantum method of images approach, we produce a simple but quantitative explanation of the inevitable presence of the background, due to the resistive damping of the image molecule. This model thus suggests new strategies for enhancing the SERS peak to background ratio. PMID:24584480

  12. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  13. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  14. Information Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kritina L.; Thompson, Shelby G.; Sandor, Aniko; McCann, Robert S.; Kaiser, Mary K.; Adelstein, Barnard D.; Begault, Durand R.; Beutter, Brent R.; Stone, Leland S.; Godfroy, Martine

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. In addition to addressing display design issues associated with information formatting, style, layout, and interaction, the Information Presentation DRP is also working toward understanding the effects of extreme environments encountered in space travel on information processing. Work is also in progress to refine human factors-based design tools, such as human performance modeling, that will supplement traditional design techniques and help ensure that optimal information design is accomplished in the most cost-efficient manner. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within the Information Presentation DRP for FY10 are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. The poster will highlight completed and planned work for each subtask.

  15. Community coordination and information centers during the Persian Gulf war.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Z; Danon, Y L; Dycian, R; Shapiro, Y

    1991-01-01

    During a time of crisis, community information centers provide valuable data to the public and help to avoid confusion and misinformation. During the Persian Gulf war, Kupat Holim (sick fund of the General Federation of Labor) established a national casualty information center in Tel Aviv as well as numerous coordination and information centers throughout the country, which included district, geriatric, psychological and emergency centers, as well as one for new immigrants. These centers had not been planned in advance, but because of the obvious need, they were established in the few months prior to the outbreak of the war and during the war itself. The locations of the centers were publicized through the media. In this article we report on the different centers and their activities, and additional community measures are described. The plan of establishing information centers throughout the country proved itself a vital necessity and will be incorporated in future Kupat Holim plans for war or any other emergency situation.

  16. Techology and information for constructing Seto Ohashi Bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, Hideo

    This is a record of the Lecture at the 26th Annual Meeting on Information Science and Technology. The lecturer accomplished the foundation work of Seto Ohashi Bridges, which is the only one "Road and Railway Bridge" in the world. talked about construction technology of the Bridges, especially from the view points of technical information. It was the first experience in Japan to construct such a long bridge of over 1km span. In addition, there were big technical problems as follows: 1. To be equipped heavy and high speed railways, 2. to construct the footing foundation in the deep sea bed. Rearding the undersea construction, it was necessary to collect, organize and analyse the data for natural and social conditions. He states, that the study of the previous instances obatined from the literature search was very much valuable, and that information and the present condition must be considered simultaneously when such information is put into practical use.

  17. Our Valuable Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    1988-01-01

    Defines wetlands and lists several types of wetland habitat. Describes explorations that can be done with secondary school students including the baby boom, a food pyramid, and microenvironments. Includes a classroom poster with text on the variety of wetlands. (CW)

  18. Enamides: valuable organic substrates.

    PubMed

    Carbery, David R

    2008-10-07

    Enamides display a fine balance of stability and reactivity, which is now leading to their increasing use in organic synthesis. Enamides offer multiple opportunities for the inclusion of nitrogen based functionality into organic systems. Recent examples of these compounds as substrates are discussed in this article.

  19. Stop wasting valuable time.

    PubMed

    Mankins, Michael C

    2004-09-01

    Companies routinely squander their most precious resource--the time of their top executives. In the typical company, senior executives meet to discuss strategy for only three hours a month. And that time is poorly spent in diffuse discussions never even meant to result in any decision. The price of misused executive time is high. Delayed strategic decisions lead to overlooked waste and high costs, harmful cost reductions, missed new product and business development opportunities, and poor long-term investments. But a few deceptively simple changes in the way top management teams set agendas and structure team meetings can make an enormous difference in their effectiveness. Efficient companies use seven techniques to make the most of the time their top executives spend together. They keep strategy meetings separate from meetings focused on operations. They explore issues through written communications before they meet, so that meeting time is used solely for reaching decisions. In setting agendas, they rank the importance of each item according to its potential to create value for the company. They seek to get issues not only on, but also off, the agenda quickly, keeping to a clear implementation timetable. They make sure they have considered all viable alternatives before deciding a course of action. They use a common language and methodology for reaching decisions. And they insist that, once a decision is made, they stick to it--that there be no more debate or mere grudging compliance. Once leadership teams get the basics right, they can make more fundamental changes in the way they work together. Strategy making can be transformed from a series of fragmented and unproductive events into a streamlined, effective, and continuing management dialogue. In companies that have done this, management meetings aren't a necessary evil; they're a source of real competitive advantage.

  20. Iterative evaluation of a web-based health information resource.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Shepherd, Amy; Agunwamba, Amenah A; McCray, Alexa T

    2013-08-01

    This article presents the research process and methods used to evaluate and improve a web-based health information resource, called "Community Connect to Research," intended for the public. The research process was iterative and involved collaboration with many partners. Two formal evaluations were conducted in 2009 and 2010 using key informant interviews, usability interviews, focus groups, an online survey, and readability and suitability assessment tools. These methods provided users' perspectives on the overall design, content, and literacy demands of the website as well as valuable feedback on their interaction with the website. The authors subsequently redesigned Community Connect to Research, making significant improvements on the basis of what they learned from the evaluation. The second evaluation revealed that the redesign addressed many issues found in the first evaluation and identified additional areas of possible improvement. Overall, both evaluations suggested that participants believed that the website was useful and valuable, indicating that Community Connect to Research is a health information resource that provides patients and families with accessible, relevant, and high-quality information. Regular formal evaluation is an essential tool for effective ongoing enhancement of health information resources meant for the public.

  1. 32 CFR 2003.15 - Additional functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... President through the National Security Advisor, the ISCAP performs such additional advisory functions as... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION INTERAGENCY SECURITY CLASSIFICATION APPEALS PANEL...

  2. 32 CFR 2003.15 - Additional functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... President through the National Security Advisor, the ISCAP performs such additional advisory functions as... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION INTERAGENCY SECURITY CLASSIFICATION APPEALS PANEL...

  3. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  4. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  5. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  6. How health information is received by diabetic patients?

    PubMed Central

    Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Lalazaryan, Anasik; Rahimi, Alireza; Zadeh, Akbar Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of correct information-seeking behavior by the patients can provide health specialists and health information specialists with valuable information in improving health care. This study aimed to investigate the passive receipt and active seeking of health information by diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: A survey method was used in this research on 6426 diabetic patients of whom 362 patients were selected by a no percentage stratified random sampling. The Longo information-seeking behavior questionnaire was used to collect data and they were analyzed by SPSS 20 software. Results: The most common information source by diabetic patients was practitioners (3.12). The minimum usage among the information sources were from charity organizations and emergency phone lines with a usage of close to zero. The amount of health information gained passively from each source has the lowest average of 4.18 and usage of this information in making health decision has the highest average score of 5.83. Analysis of the data related to active seeking of information showed that knowledge of available medical information from each source has the lowest average score of 3.95 and ability in using the acquired information for making medical decisions has the highest average score of 5.28. The paired t-test showed that differences between passive information receipt (41.68) and active information seeking (39.20) considered as statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Because diabetic patients are more passive information receivers than active information seekers, the health information must be distributed by passive means to these patients. In addition, information-seeking behavior during different time periods should be investigated; to identify more effective distribution of health information. PMID:26261828

  7. Regulating the modulus of a chiral liquid crystal polymer network by light† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sm00114a Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kamlesh; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.; Broer, Dirk J.

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel way to modulate the elastic modulus of azobenzene containing liquid crystal networks (LCNs) by exposure to light. The elastic modulus can cycle between different levels by controlling the illumination conditions. Exposing the polymer network to UV light near the trans absorption band of azobenzene gives a small reduction of the glass transition temperature thereby lowering the modulus. The addition of blue light addressing the cis absorption band surprisingly amplifies this effect. The continuous oscillatory effects of the trans-to-cis isomerization of the azobenzene overrule the overall net cis conversion. The influence on the chain dynamics of the network is demonstrated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis which shows a large shift of the glass transition temperature and a modulus decrease by more than two orders of magnitude. The initial high modulus and the glassy state are recovered within a minute in the dark by switching off the light sources, despite the observation that azobenzene is still predominantly in its cis state. Based on these new findings, we are able to create a shape memory polymer LCN film at room temperature using light. PMID:26924678

  8. Recovery of valuable metals from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries using mild phosphoric acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangping; Ma, Hongrui; Luo, Chuanbao; Zhou, Tao

    2017-03-15

    Sustainable recycling of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) may be necessary to alleviate the depletion of strategic metal resources and potential risk of environmental pollution. Herein a hydrometallurgical process was proposed to explore the possibility for the recovery of valuable metals from the cathode materials (LiCoO2) of spent LIBs using phosphoric acid as both leaching and precipitating agent under mild leaching conditions. According to the leaching results, over 99% Co can be separated and recovered as Co3(PO4)2 in a short-cut process involved merely with leaching and filtrating, under the optimized leaching conditions of 40°C (T), 60min (t), 4 vol.% H2O2, 20mLg(-1) (L/S) and 0.7mol/L H3PO4. Then leaching kinetics was investigated based on the logarithmic rate kinetics model and the obtained results indicate that the leaching of Co and Li fits well with this model and the activation energies (Ea) for Co and Li are 7.3 and 10.2kJ/mol, respectively. Finally, it can be discovered from characterization results that the obtained product is 97.1% pure cobalt phosphate (Co3(PO4)2).

  9. Valuable Nutrients and Functional Bioactives in Different Parts of Olive (Olea europaea L.)—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Rahele; Anwar, Farooq; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    The Olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a native of the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia, is now widely cultivated in many other parts of the world for production of olive oil and table olives. Olive is a rich source of valuable nutrients and bioactives of medicinal and therapeutic interest. Olive fruit contains appreciable concentration, 1–3% of fresh pulp weight, of hydrophilic (phenolic acids, phenolic alchohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids) and lipophilic (cresols) phenolic compounds that are known to possess multiple biological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, cardiotonic, laxative, and antiplatelet. Other important compounds present in olive fruit are pectin, organic acids, and pigments. Virgin olive oil (VOO), extracted mechanically from the fruit, is also very popular for its nutritive and health-promoting potential, especially against cardiovascular disorders due to the presence of high levels of monounsaturates and other valuable minor components such as phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, chlorophyll and squalene. The cultivar, area of production, harvest time, and the processing techniques employed are some of the factors shown to influence the composition of olive fruit and olive oil. This review focuses comprehensively on the nutrients and high-value bioactives profile as well as medicinal and functional aspects of different parts of olives and its byproducts. Various factors affecting the composition of this food commodity of medicinal value are also discussed. PMID:22489153

  10. Recovery of Palm Oil and Valuable Material from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch by Sub-critical Water.

    PubMed

    Ahmad Kurnin, Nor Azrin; Shah Ismail, Mohd Halim; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Izhar, Shamsul

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is one of the solid wastes produced in huge volume by palm oil mill. Whilst it still contains valuable oil, approximately 22.6 million tons is generated annually and treated as solid waste. In this work, sub-critical water (sub-cw) was used to extract oil, sugar and tar from spikelet of EFB. The spikelet was treated with sub-cw between 180-280°C and a reaction time of 2 and 5 minutes. The highest yield of oil was 0.075 g-oil/g-dry EFB, obtained at 240°C and reaction time of 5 minutes. Astonishingly, oil that was extracted through this method was 84.5% of that obtained through Soxhlet method using hexane. Yield of oil extracted was strongly affected by the reaction temperature and time. Higher reaction temperature induces the dielectric constant of water towards the non-polar properties of solvent; thus increases the oil extraction capability. Meanwhile, the highest yield of sugar was 0.20 g-sugar/g-dry EFB obtained at 220°C. At this temperature, the ion product of water is high enough to enable maximum sub-critical water hydrolysis reaction. This study showed that oil and other valuable material can be recovered using water at sub-critical condition, and most attractive without the use of harmful organic solvent.

  11. Recovery of valuable metals from cathodic active material of spent lithium ion batteries: Leaching and kinetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Meshram, Pratima; Pandey, B D; Mankhand, T R

    2015-11-01

    This work is focussed on the processing of cathodic active material of spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs) to ensure resource recovery and minimize environmental degradation. The sulfuric acid leaching of metals was carried out for the recovery of all the valuable metals including nickel and manganese along with the frequently targeted metals like lithium and cobalt. The process parameters such as acid concentration, pulp density, time and temperature for the leaching of metals from the cathode powder containing 35.8% Co, 6.5% Li, 11.6% Mn and 10.06% Ni, were optimized. Results show the optimized leach recovery of 93.4% Li, 66.2% Co, 96.3% Ni and 50.2% Mn when the material was leached in 1M H2SO4 at 368 K and 50 g/L pulp density for 240 min. The need of a reductant for improved recovery of cobalt and manganese has been explained by the thermodynamic analysis (Eh-pH diagram) for these metals. Leaching of the valuable metals was found to follow the logarithmic rate law controlled by surface layer diffusion of the lixiviant reacting with the particles. The mode of leaching of the metals from the spent LIBs was further examined by chemical analysis of the samples at various stage of processing which was further corroborated by characterizing the untreated sample and the leach residues by XRD phase identification and the SEM-EDS studies.

  12. Bespoke contrast-matched diblock copolymer nanoparticles enable the rational design of highly transparent Pickering double emulsions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: GPC chromatograms, additional transmission electron micrographs, digital photographs, visible absorption spectra and laser diffraction data, further optical and fluorescence micrographs. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03856e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kate L.; Derry, Matthew J.; Warren, Nicholas J.; Ratcliffe, Liam P. D.; Williams, Clive N.; Brown, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    We report the preparation of highly transparent oil-in-water Pickering emulsions using contrast-matched organic nanoparticles. This is achieved via addition of judicious amounts of either sucrose or glycerol to an aqueous dispersion of poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)56–poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate)500 [PGMA–PTFEMA] diblock copolymer nanoparticles prior to high shear homogenization with an equal volume of n-dodecane. The resulting Pickering emulsions comprise polydisperse n-dodecane droplets of 20–100 μm diameter and exhibit up to 96% transmittance across the visible spectrum. In contrast, control experiments using non-contrast-matched poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)56–poly(benzyl methacrylate)300 [PGMA56–PBzMA300] diblock copolymer nanoparticles as a Pickering emulsifier only produced conventional highly turbid emulsions. Thus contrast-matching of the two immiscible phases is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the preparation of highly transparent Pickering emulsions: it is essential to use isorefractive nanoparticles in order to minimize light scattering. Furthermore, highly transparent oil-in-water-in-oil Pickering double emulsions can be obtained by homogenizing the contrast-matched oil-in-water Pickering emulsion prepared using the PGMA56–PTFEMA500 nanoparticles with a contrast-matched dispersion of hydrophobic poly(lauryl methacrylate)39–poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate)800 [PLMA39–PTFEMA800] diblock copolymer nanoparticles in n-dodecane. Finally, we show that an isorefractive oil-in-water Pickering emulsion enables fluorescence spectroscopy to be used to monitor the transport of water-insoluble small molecules (pyrene and benzophenone) between n-dodecane droplets. Such transport is significantly less efficient than that observed for the equivalent isorefractive surfactant-stabilized emulsion. Conventional turbid emulsions do not enable such a comparison to be made because the intense light scattering leads to

  13. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  14. A simple approach to obtain hybrid Au-loaded polymeric nanoparticles with a tunable metal load† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06850a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Luque-Michel, Edurne; Larrea, Ane; Lahuerta, Celia; Imbuluzqueta, Edurne; Arruebo, Manuel; Santamaría, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    A new strategy to nanoengineer multi-functional polymer–metal hybrid nanostructures is reported. By using this protocol the hurdles of most of the current developments concerning covalent and non-covalent attachment of polymers to preformed inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are overcome. The strategy is based on the in situ reduction of metal precursors using the polymeric nanoparticle as a nanoreactor. Gold nanoparticles and poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid), PLGA, are located in the core and shell, respectively. This novel technique enables the production of PLGA NPs smaller than 200 nm that bear either a single encapsulated Au NP or several smaller NPs with tunable sizes and a 100% loading efficiency. In situ reduction of Au ions inside the polymeric NPs was achieved on demand by using heat to activate the reductive effect of citrate ions. In addition, we show that the loading of the resulting Au NPs inside the PLGA NPs is highly dependent on the surfactant used. Electron microscopy, laser irradiation, UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy characterization techniques confirm the location of Au nanoparticles. These promising results indicate that these hybrid nanomaterials could be used in theranostic applications or as contrast agents in dark-field imaging and computed tomography. PMID:26612770

  15. A comprehensive characterization of simple sequence repeats in pepper genomes provides valuable resources for marker development in Capsicum

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jiaowen; Zhao, Zicheng; Li, Bo; Qin, Cheng; Wu, Zhiming; Trejo-Saavedra, Diana L.; Luo, Xirong; Cui, Junjie; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F.; Li, Shuaicheng; Hu, Kailin

    2016-01-01

    The sequences of the full set of pepper genomes including nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast are now available for use. However, the overall of simple sequence repeats (SSR) distribution in these genomes and their practical implications for molecular marker development in Capsicum have not yet been described. Here, an average of 868,047.50, 45.50 and 30.00 SSR loci were identified in the nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes of pepper, respectively. Subsequently, systematic comparisons of various species, genome types, motif lengths, repeat numbers and classified types were executed and discussed. In addition, a local database composed of 113,500 in silico unique SSR primer pairs was built using a homemade bioinformatics workflow. As a pilot study, 65 polymorphic markers were validated among a wide collection of 21 Capsicum genotypes with allele number and polymorphic information content value per marker raging from 2 to 6 and 0.05 to 0.64, respectively. Finally, a comparison of the clustering results with those of a previous study indicated the usability of the newly developed SSR markers. In summary, this first report on the comprehensive characterization of SSR motifs in pepper genomes and the very large set of SSR primer pairs will benefit various genetic studies in Capsicum. PMID:26739748

  16. Soybean genetic transformation: A valuable tool for the functional study of genes and the production of agronomically improved plants

    PubMed Central

    Homrich, Milena Schenkel; Wiebke-Strohm, Beatriz; Weber, Ricardo Luís Mayer; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria Helena

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic plants represent an invaluable tool for molecular, genetic, biochemical and physiological studies by gene overexpression or silencing, transposon-based mutagenesis, protein sub-cellular localization and/or promoter characterization as well as a breakthrough for breeding programs, allowing the production of novel and genetically diverse genotypes. However, the stable transformation of soybean cannot yet be considered to be routine because it depends on the ability to combine efficient transformation and regeneration techniques. Two methods have been used with relative success to produce completely and stably transformed plants: particle bombardment and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens system. In addition, transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes has been used as a powerful tool for functional studies. Most available information on gene function is based on heterologous expression systems. However, as the activity of many promoters or proteins frequently depends on specific interactions that only occur in homologous backgrounds, a final confirmation based on a homologous expression system is desirable. With respect to soybean biotech improvement, transgenic lines with agronomical, nutritional and pharmaceutical traits have been obtained, including herbicide-tolerant soybeans, which represented the principal biotech crop in 2011, occupying 47% of the global biotech area. PMID:23412849

  17. A comprehensive characterization of simple sequence repeats in pepper genomes provides valuable resources for marker development in Capsicum.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiaowen; Zhao, Zicheng; Li, Bo; Qin, Cheng; Wu, Zhiming; Trejo-Saavedra, Diana L; Luo, Xirong; Cui, Junjie; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F; Li, Shuaicheng; Hu, Kailin

    2016-01-07

    The sequences of the full set of pepper genomes including nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast are now available for use. However, the overall of simple sequence repeats (SSR) distribution in these genomes and their practical implications for molecular marker development in Capsicum have not yet been described. Here, an average of 868,047.50, 45.50 and 30.00 SSR loci were identified in the nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes of pepper, respectively. Subsequently, systematic comparisons of various species, genome types, motif lengths, repeat numbers and classified types were executed and discussed. In addition, a local database composed of 113,500 in silico unique SSR primer pairs was built using a homemade bioinformatics workflow. As a pilot study, 65 polymorphic markers were validated among a wide collection of 21 Capsicum genotypes with allele number and polymorphic information content value per marker raging from 2 to 6 and 0.05 to 0.64, respectively. Finally, a comparison of the clustering results with those of a previous study indicated the usability of the newly developed SSR markers. In summary, this first report on the comprehensive characterization of SSR motifs in pepper genomes and the very large set of SSR primer pairs will benefit various genetic studies in Capsicum.

  18. 75 FR 51444 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ..., CT. Contracting Activity: Department of Defense, Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA), Boston... 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, Virginia 22202-3259. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 6/4/2010 (75 FR 31768-31769); 6/11/2010 (75 FR 33270-33271); 6/...

  19. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  20. Metal organic framework synthesis in the presence of surfactants: towards hierarchical MOFs?† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4ce02324b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Dikhtiarenko, A.; Mayoral, A.; Tellez, C.; Coronas, J.; Kapteijn, F.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of synthesis pH and H2O/EtOH molar ratio on the textural properties of different aluminium trimesate metal organic frameworks (MOFs) prepared in the presence of the well-known cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at 120 °C was studied with the purpose of obtaining a MOF with hierarchical pore structure. Depending on the pH and the solvent used, different topologies were obtained (namely, MIL-96, MIL-100 and MIL-110). On the one hand, MIL-110 was obtained at lower temperatures than those commonly reported in the literature and without additives to control the pH; on the other hand, MIL-100 with crystallite sizes as small as 30 ± 10 nm could be easily synthesized in a mixture of H2O and EtOH with a H2O/EtOH molar ratio of 3.4 at pH 2.6 in the presence of CTAB. The resulting material displays a hierarchical porosity that combines the microporosity from the MOF and the non-ordered mesopores defined in between the MOF nanoparticles. Interestingly, the maximum of the pore size distribution could be varied between 3 and 33 nm. Finally, at pH 2.5 and using water as a solvent, platelets of MIL-96, a morphology never observed before for this MOF, were synthesized with a (001) preferential crystal orientation, the (001) plane running parallel to the bipyramidal cages of the MIL-96 topology. PMID:26246799

  1. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  2. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  3. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  4. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  5. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  6. Databases as an information service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of databases to information services, and the range of information services users and their needs for information is explored and discussed. It is argued that for database information to be valuable to a broad range of users, it is essential that access methods be provided that are relatively unstructured and natural to information services users who are interested in the information contained in databases, but who are not willing to learn and use traditional structured query languages. Unless this ease of use of databases is considered in the design and application process, the potential benefits from using database systems may not be realized.

  7. Organic oxalate as leachant and precipitant for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liang; Qiu, Keqiang

    2012-08-01

    Spent lithium-ion batteries containing lots of strategic resources such as cobalt and lithium are considered as an attractive secondary resource. In this work, an environmentally compatible process based on vacuum pyrolysis, oxalate leaching and precipitation is applied to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries. Oxalate is introduced as leaching reagent meanwhile as precipitant which leaches and precipitates cobalt from LiCoO(2) and CoO directly as CoC(2)O(4)·2H(2)O with 1.0 M oxalate solution at 80°C and solid/liquid ratio of 50 g L(-1) for 120 min. The reaction efficiency of more than 98% of LiCoO(2) can be achieved and cobalt and lithium can also be separated efficiently during the hydrometallurgical process. The combined process is simple and adequate for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Current and New Insights in the Sustainable and Green Recovery of Nutritionally Valuable Compounds from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Koubaa, Mohamed; Roselló-Soto, Elena; Šic Žlabur, Jana; Režek Jambrak, Anet; Brnčić, Mladen; Grimi, Nabil; Boussetta, Nadia; Barba, Francisco J

    2015-08-12

    The South American plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a great source of noncaloric sweeteners (steviol glycosides), mainly concentrated in its leaves, but also has important antioxidant compounds (vitamin C, polyphenols, chlorophylls, and carotenoids) and other important macro- and micronutrients such as folic acid and all of the essential amino acids except tryptophan. Traditionally, conventional methods have been used to recover nutritionally valuable compounds from plant food matrices. However, nowadays, the need for obtaining greener, sustainable, and viable processes has led both food industries and food scientists to develop new processes in full correspondence with the green extraction concept. This review focuses on some of the most promising nonconventional and emerging technologies, which may constitute a potential alternative to conventional methods or even could be combined to obtain a synergistic effect, thus reducing extraction time as well as solvent consumption and avoiding the use of toxic solvents.

  9. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  10. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  11. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  12. Entropy and information optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Francis T. S.

    2000-03-01

    In this paper we shall begin our discussion with the relationship between optics and humans, in which we see that light has indeed provided us with a very valuable source of information. A general optical communication concept is discussed, in which we see that a picture is indeed worth more than a thousand words. Based on Shannon's information theory, one can show that entropy and information can be simply traded. One of the most intriguing laws of thermodynamics must be the second law, in which we have found that there exists a profound relationship between the physical entropy and information. Without this relationship, information theory would be totally useless in physical science. By applying this relationship, Maxwell and diffraction-limited demons are discussed. And finally, samples of information optics are provided.

  13. Investigation of microstructure in additive manufactured Inconel 625 by spatially resolved neutron transmission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Gao, Yan; Dial, Laura C.; Grazzi, Francesco; Shinohara, Takenao

    2016-07-08

    Non-destructive testing techniques based on neutron imaging and diffraction can provide information on the internal structure of relatively thick metal samples (up to several cm), which are opaque to other conventional non-destructive methods. Spatially resolved neutron transmission spectroscopy is an extension of traditional neutron radiography, where multiple images are acquired simultaneously, each corresponding to a narrow range of energy. The analysis of transmission spectra enables studies of bulk microstructures at the spatial resolution comparable to the detector pixel. In this study we demonstrate the possibility of imaging (with ~100 μm resolution) distribution of some microstructure properties, such as residual strain, texture, voids and impurities in Inconel 625 samples manufactured with an additive manufacturing method called direct metal laser melting (DMLM). Although this imaging technique can be implemented only in a few large-scale facilities, it can be a valuable tool for optimization of additive manufacturing techniques and materials and for correlating bulk microstructure properties to manufacturing process parameters. Additionally, the experimental strain distribution can help validate finite element models which many industries use to predict the residual stress distributions in additive manufactured components.

  14. Investigation of microstructure in additive manufactured Inconel 625 by spatially resolved neutron transmission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tremsin, Anton S; Gao, Yan; Dial, Laura C; Grazzi, Francesco; Shinohara, Takenao

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive testing techniques based on neutron imaging and diffraction can provide information on the internal structure of relatively thick metal samples (up to several cm), which are opaque to other conventional non-destructive methods. Spatially resolved neutron transmission spectroscopy is an extension of traditional neutron radiography, where multiple images are acquired simultaneously, each corresponding to a narrow range of energy. The analysis of transmission spectra enables studies of bulk microstructures at the spatial resolution comparable to the detector pixel. In this study we demonstrate the possibility of imaging (with ~100 μm resolution) distribution of some microstructure properties, such as residual strain, texture, voids and impurities in Inconel 625 samples manufactured with an additive manufacturing method called direct metal laser melting (DMLM). Although this imaging technique can be implemented only in a few large-scale facilities, it can be a valuable tool for optimization of additive manufacturing techniques and materials and for correlating bulk microstructure properties to manufacturing process parameters. In addition, the experimental strain distribution can help validate finite element models which many industries use to predict the residual stress distributions in additive manufactured components.

  15. Investigation of microstructure in additive manufactured Inconel 625 by spatially resolved neutron transmission spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Gao, Yan; Dial, Laura C.; ...

    2016-07-08

    Non-destructive testing techniques based on neutron imaging and diffraction can provide information on the internal structure of relatively thick metal samples (up to several cm), which are opaque to other conventional non-destructive methods. Spatially resolved neutron transmission spectroscopy is an extension of traditional neutron radiography, where multiple images are acquired simultaneously, each corresponding to a narrow range of energy. The analysis of transmission spectra enables studies of bulk microstructures at the spatial resolution comparable to the detector pixel. In this study we demonstrate the possibility of imaging (with ~100 μm resolution) distribution of some microstructure properties, such as residual strain,more » texture, voids and impurities in Inconel 625 samples manufactured with an additive manufacturing method called direct metal laser melting (DMLM). Although this imaging technique can be implemented only in a few large-scale facilities, it can be a valuable tool for optimization of additive manufacturing techniques and materials and for correlating bulk microstructure properties to manufacturing process parameters. Additionally, the experimental strain distribution can help validate finite element models which many industries use to predict the residual stress distributions in additive manufactured components.« less

  16. Investigation of microstructure in additive manufactured Inconel 625 by spatially resolved neutron transmission spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Gao, Yan; Dial, Laura C.; Grazzi, Francesco; Shinohara, Takenao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Non-destructive testing techniques based on neutron imaging and diffraction can provide information on the internal structure of relatively thick metal samples (up to several cm), which are opaque to other conventional non-destructive methods. Spatially resolved neutron transmission spectroscopy is an extension of traditional neutron radiography, where multiple images are acquired simultaneously, each corresponding to a narrow range of energy. The analysis of transmission spectra enables studies of bulk microstructures at the spatial resolution comparable to the detector pixel. In this study we demonstrate the possibility of imaging (with ~100 μm resolution) distribution of some microstructure properties, such as residual strain, texture, voids and impurities in Inconel 625 samples manufactured with an additive manufacturing method called direct metal laser melting (DMLM). Although this imaging technique can be implemented only in a few large-scale facilities, it can be a valuable tool for optimization of additive manufacturing techniques and materials and for correlating bulk microstructure properties to manufacturing process parameters. In addition, the experimental strain distribution can help validate finite element models which many industries use to predict the residual stress distributions in additive manufactured components. PMID:27877885

  17. A Cleaner Process for Selective Recovery of Valuable Metals from Electronic Waste of Complex Mixtures of End-of-Life Electronic Products.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhi; Xiao, Y; Sietsma, J; Agterhuis, H; Yang, Y

    2015-07-07

    In recent years, recovery of metals from electronic waste within the European Union has become increasingly important due to potential supply risk of strategic raw material and environmental concerns. Electronic waste, especially a mixture of end-of-life electronic products from a variety of sources, is of inherently high complexity in composition, phase, and physiochemical properties. In this research, a closed-loop hydrometallurgical process was developed to recover valuable metals, i.e., copper and precious metals, from an industrially processed information and communication technology waste. A two-stage leaching design of this process was adopted in order to selectively extract copper and enrich precious metals. It was found that the recovery efficiency and extraction selectivity of copper both reached more than 95% by using ammonia-based leaching solutions. A new electrodeposition process has been proven feasible with 90% current efficiency during copper recovery, and the copper purity can reach 99.8 wt %. The residue from the first-stage leaching was screened into coarse and fine fractions. The coarse fraction was returned to be releached for further copper recovery. The fine fraction was treated in the second-stage leaching using sulfuric acid to further concentrate precious metals, which could achieve a 100% increase in their concentrations in the residue with negligible loss into the leaching solution. By a combination of different leaching steps and proper physical separation of light materials, this process can achieve closed-loop recycling of the waste with significant efficiency.

  18. Is quantitative diffusion-weighted MRI a valuable technique for the detection of changes in kidneys after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy?

    PubMed Central

    Hocaoglu, Elif; Inci, Ercan; Aydin, Sibel; Cesme, Dilek Hacer; Kalfazade, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability and the reliability of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the changes of kidneys occurring after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatment for renal stones. Materials and Methods A total of 32 patients who underwent ESWL treatment for renal stone disease between June and December 2011 were enrolled in this prospective study. Color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) and DWI were performed before and within 24 hours after ESWL. DWI was obtained with b factors of 0, 500 and 1000 s/mm2 at 1.5 T MRI. Each of Resistive index (RI) and ADC values were calculated from the three regions of renal upper, middle and lower zones for both of the affected and contralateral kidneys. Paired sample t test was used for statistical analyses. Results After ESWL, the treated kidneys had statistically significant lower ADC values in all different regions compared with previous renal images. The best discriminative parameter was signal intensity with a b value of 1000 s/mm2. The changes of DWI after ESWL were noteworthy in the middle of the treated kidney (p<0.01). There were no significant difference between RI values in all regions of treated and contralateral kidneys before and after treatment with ESWL (p>0.05). Conclusion DWI is a valuable technique enables the detection of changes in DWI after ESWL treatment that may provide useful information in prediction of renal damage by shock waves, even CDUS is normal. PMID:25928520

  19. Natural insect and plant micro-/nanostructsured surfaces: an excellent selection of valuable templates with superhydrophobic and self-cleaning properties.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Song Ha; Webb, Hayden K; Mahon, Peter J; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

    2014-09-02

    Insects and plants are two types of organisms that are widely separated on the evolutionary tree; for example, plants are mostly phototrophic organisms whilst insects are heterotrophic organisms. In order to cope with environmental stresses, their surfaces have developed cuticular layers that consist of highly sophisticated structures. These structures serve a number of purposes, and impart useful properties to these surfaces. These two groups of organisms are the only ones identified thus far that possess truly superhydrophobic and self-cleaning properties. These properties result from their micro- and nano-scale structures, comprised of three-dimensional wax formations. This review analyzes the surface topologies and surface chemistry of insects and plants in order to identify the features common to both organisms, with particular reference to their superhydrophobic and self-cleaning properties. This information will be valuable when determining the potential application of these surfaces in the design and manufacture of superhydrophobic and self-cleaning devices, including those that can be used in the manufacture of biomedical implants.

  20. Canine distemper virus antigen detection in external epithelia of recently vaccinated, sick dogs by fluorescence microscopy is a valuable prognostic indicator.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Sanjay; Neel, Tina

    2015-02-01

    Currently, there are no reliable predictors of the clinical outcomes of domesticated dogs that have been recently vaccinated against canine distemper virus (CDV) and develop respiratory disease. In this study, vaccinated dogs from Oklahoma City that were showing clinical signs of respiratory disease were evaluated for CDV antigen using a direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT). Clinical outcomes after standard symptomatic therapy for respiratory disease were recorded, and a statistical analysis of the results was performed. We present our study showing that CDV FAT results were predictive of clinical recovery (prognostic indicator, prospects of clinical recovery) among vaccinated dogs showing clinical signs of respiratory disease. Negative CDV FAT results equated to 80% chances of recovery after symptomatic therapy, compared to 55% chances of recovery when the CDV FAT results were positive. Based on the results of this study, we show that veterinarians can make better informed decisions about the clinical outcomes of suspected CDV cases, with 2-h turnaround times, by using the CDV FAT. Thus, antemortem examination with the CDV FAT on external epithelia of recently vaccinated, sick dogs is a clinically useful diagnostic test and valuable prognostic indicator for veterinarians. Application of the CDV FAT to these samples avoids unnecessary euthanasia of dogs with suspected CDV.

  1. Portable XRF as a valuable device for preliminary in situ pigment investigation of wooden inventory in the Trski Vrh Church in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnica, V.; Škarić, K.; Jembrih-Simbuerger, D.; Fazinić, S.; Jakšić, M.; Mudronja, D.; Pavličić, M.; Peranić, I.; Schreiner, M.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work was the investigation of pigments from the painted wooden inventory of the pilgrimage church of Saint Mary of Jerusalem in Trski Vrh one of the most beautiful late-baroque sacral ensembles in Croatia. Being an object of high relevance for the national cultural heritage, an extensive research on the wooden polychromy was undertaken in order to work out a proposal for a conservation treatment. It consists mainly of two painted and gilded layers (the original one from the 18th century and a later one from 1903), partly overpainted during periodic conservation treatments in the past. The approach was to carry out extensive preliminary in situ pigment investigations using a portable XRF (X-ray fluorescence) device, and only the problems not resolved by this method on site were further analyzed using sophisticated laboratory equipment. Therefore, the XRF results acted as a valuable guideline for subsequent targeted sampling actions, thus minimizing the sampling damage. Important questions not answered by XRF (identification of organic pigments, ultramarine, etc.) were subsequently resolved using additional ex situ laboratory methods, primarily μ-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) at the nuclear microprobe of the Rudjer Boskovic accelerator facility as well as μ-Raman spectroscopy at the Institute of the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna. It is shown that by the combination of these often complementary methods a thorough characterization of each pigment can be obtained, allowing for a proper strategy of the conservation treatment.

  2. The stage-specific in vitro efficacy of a malaria antigen cocktail provides valuable insights into the development of effective multi-stage vaccines.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Holger; Boes, Alexander; Kastilan, Robin; Kapelski, Stephanie; Edgue, Güven; Beiss, Veronique; Chubodova, Ivana; Scheuermayer, Matthias; Pradel, Gabriele; Schillberg, Stefan; Reimann, Andreas; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-10-01

    Multicomponent vaccines targeting different stages of Plasmodium falciparum represent a promising, holistic concept towards better malaria vaccines. Additionally, an effective vaccine candidate should demonstrate cross-strain specificity because many antigens are polymorphic, which can reduce vaccine efficacy. A cocktail of recombinant fusion proteins (VAMAX-Mix) featuring three diversity-covering variants of the blood-stage antigen PfAMA1, each combined with the conserved sexual-stage antigen Pfs25 and one of the pre-erythrocytic-stage antigens PfCSP_TSR or PfCelTOS, or the additional blood-stage antigen PfMSP1_19, was produced in Pichia pastoris and used to immunize rabbits. The immune sera and purified IgG were used to perform various assays determining antigen specific titers and in vitro efficacy against different parasite stages and strains. In functional in vitro assays we observed robust inhibition of blood-stage (up to 90%), and sexual-stage parasites (up to 100%) and biased inhibition of pre-erythrocytic parasites (0-40%). Cross-strain blood-stage efficacy was observed in erythrocyte invasion assays using four different P. falciparum strains. The quantification of antigen-specific IgGs allowed the determination of specific IC50 values. The significant difference in antigen-specific IC50 requirements, the direct correlation between antigen-specific IgG and the relative quantitative representation of antigens within the cocktail, provide valuable implementations for future multi-stage, multi-component vaccine designs.

  3. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 24 - Additional Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Section 24.2(a)(14) Household income (exclusions). Household income for purposes of this regulation does... owners and tenants to potential health or safety threats and to offer to temporarily relocate them while... the “geographic area” is not to be construed to be a small, limited area. Sections...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 24 - Additional Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Section 24.2(a)(14) Household income (exclusions). Household income for purposes of this regulation does... owners and tenants to potential health or safety threats and to offer to temporarily relocate them while... the “geographic area” is not to be construed to be a small, limited area. Sections...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 24 - Additional Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Section 24.2(a)(14) Household income (exclusions). Household income for purposes of this regulation does... owners and tenants to potential health or safety threats and to offer to temporarily relocate them while... the “geographic area” is not to be construed to be a small, limited area. Sections...

  6. 78 FR 8144 - Notice of Request for Additional Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... as Maersk Line; China Shipping Container Lines (Hong Kong) Company Limited and China Shipping Container Lines Company Limited (operating as a single carrier); CMA CGM, S.A.; COSCO Container Lines...; Orient Overseas Container Line Limited; Yangming Marine Transport Corp.; and Zim Integrated...

  7. 78 FR 76625 - Notice of Request for Additional Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    .... Moller-Maersk A/S; CMA CGM, S.A.; Atlantic Container Line; China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd; China Shipping Container Lines (Hong Kong) Co., Ltd.; Companhia Libra de Navegacao; Compania Libra de Navegacion... Overseas Container Line Limited; Yang Ming Marine Transport Corp.; and Zim Integrated Shipping...

  8. 12 CFR 980.7 - Examinations; requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Nothing in this part shall limit in any manner the right of the Finance Board to conduct any examination... new business activity, nothing in this part shall limit the right of the Finance Board at any time to... cooperative nature of the Bank System; and (v) Finance Board review of any contracts or agreements between...

  9. 49 CFR 260.27 - Additional information for loan guarantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Lender, Holder, or prospective Lender; (3) Brief statement of the circumstances and negotiations leading to the agreement by the Lender, Holder, or prospective Lender to make the loan; (4) Brief statement... officers; and. (5) Full and complete statement of all sums to be provided by the Lender or Holder, or to...

  10. 17 CFR 229.1011 - (Item 1011) Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., arrangement, understanding or relationship between the offeror or any of its executive officers, directors, controlling persons or subsidiaries and the subject company or any of its executive officers, directors, controlling persons or subsidiaries (other than any agreement, arrangement or understanding disclosed...

  11. 31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determine that a project would have a significant impact on the human environment, but that the level of... that: (i) A MDB project would have a significant impact on the human environment, and (ii) The MDB... than a full-fledged environmental impact assessment as defined by that MDB's own procedures,...

  12. APPENDIX C - ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON FLUSHING IN ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water residence time is an important determinant of the sensitivity of the response of estuaries and other water bodies to nutrient loading. A variety of terms such as residence time, flushing time, transit time, turnover time, and age are used to describe time scales for transpo...

  13. Additional information for impact response of the restart safety rods

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, W.W.F.

    1991-10-14

    WSRC-RP-91-677 studied the structural response of the safety rods under the conditions of brake failure and accidental release. It was concluded that the maximum impact loading to the safety rod is 6020 pounds based on conservative considerations that energy dissipation attributable to fluid resistance and reactor superstructure flexibility. The staffers of the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board reviewed the results and inquired about the extent of conservatism. By request of the RESTART team, I reassessed the impact force due to these conservative assumptions. This memorandum reports these assessments.

  14. 29 CFR 501.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT Administrative Proceedings Review of Administrative Law...

  15. 29 CFR 501.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT Administrative Proceedings Review of Administrative Law...

  16. 29 CFR 501.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT Administrative Proceedings Review of Administrative Law...

  17. 29 CFR 503.53 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY NONIMMIGRANT NON-AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 214(c)(1) OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT Administrative Proceedings Review of Administrative Law...

  18. 29 CFR 503.53 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY NONIMMIGRANT NON-AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 214(c)(1) OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT Administrative Proceedings Review of Administrative Law...

  19. 29 CFR 501.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT Administrative Proceedings Review of Administrative Law...

  20. 29 CFR 501.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT Administrative Proceedings Review of Administrative Law...