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Sample records for additional war risk

  1. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104 Additional war risk insurance. Owners or charterers...

  2. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104 Additional war risk insurance. Owners or charterers...

  3. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104 Additional war risk insurance. Owners or charterers...

  4. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104 Additional war risk insurance. Owners or charterers...

  5. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104 Additional war risk insurance. Owners or charterers...

  6. 46 CFR 308.204 - Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.204 Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance. Owners or charterers may obtain, on an excess basis, additional war...

  7. 46 CFR 308.204 - Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.204 Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance. Owners or charterers may obtain, on an excess basis, additional war...

  8. 46 CFR 308.204 - Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.204 Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance. Owners or charterers may obtain, on an excess basis, additional war...

  9. 46 CFR 308.204 - Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.204 Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance. Owners or charterers may obtain, on an excess basis, additional war...

  10. 46 CFR 308.204 - Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.204 Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance. Owners or charterers may obtain, on an excess basis, additional war...

  11. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  12. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  13. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  14. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  15. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  16. Children and war: risk, resilience, and recovery.

    PubMed

    Werner, Emmy E

    2012-05-01

    This article reviews and reflects on studies that have explored the effects of war on children around the world. Most are cross-sectional and based on self-reports. They describe a range of mental health problems, related to dose effects and to the negative impact of being a victim or witness of violent acts, threats to and loss of loved ones, prolonged parental absence, and forced displacement. The more recent the exposure to war, and the older the child, the higher was the likelihood of reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Especially vulnerable to long-term emotional distress were child soldiers, children who were raped, and children who had been forcibly displaced. In adulthood, war-traumatized children displayed significantly increased risks for a wide range of medical conditions, especially cardiovascular diseases. Among protective factors that moderated the impact of war-related adversities in children were a strong bond between the primary caregiver and the child, the social support of teachers and peers, and a shared sense of values. Among the few documented intervention studies for children of war, school-based interventions, implemented by teachers or locally trained paraprofessionals, proved to be a feasible and low-cost alternative to individual or group therapy. More longitudinal research with multiple informants is needed to document the trajectories of risk and resilience in war-affected children, to assess their long-term development and mental health, and to identify effective treatment approaches. PMID:22559130

  17. 46 CFR 308.409 - Standard form of War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance Policy, Form MA-283.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard form of War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance... TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance § 308.409 Standard form of War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance Policy, Form MA-283. The standard form of War Risk...

  18. 46 CFR 308.207 - War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. 308... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.207 War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. The standard form of war risk protection and indemnity insurance policy, Form...

  19. 46 CFR 308.207 - War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. 308... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.207 War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. The standard form of war risk protection and indemnity insurance policy, Form...

  20. 46 CFR 308.207 - War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. 308... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.207 War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. The standard form of war risk protection and indemnity insurance policy, Form...

  1. 46 CFR 308.207 - War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. 308... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.207 War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. The standard form of war risk protection and indemnity insurance policy, Form...

  2. 46 CFR 308.551 - War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.551 War risk insurance... American War Risk Agency or MARAD....

  3. 46 CFR 308.207 - War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. 308... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.207 War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. The standard form of war risk protection and indemnity insurance policy, Form...

  4. 46 CFR 308.306 - Second Seamen's War Risk Policy, Form MA-242.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Second Seamen's War Risk Policy, Form MA-242. 308.306... RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.306 Second Seamen's War Risk Policy, Form MA-242. (a) The standard form of Second Seamen's War Risk Policy Form MA-242, may be obtained from...

  5. 46 CFR 308.306 - Second Seamen's War Risk Policy, Form MA-242.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Second Seamen's War Risk Policy, Form MA-242. 308.306... RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.306 Second Seamen's War Risk Policy, Form MA-242. The standard form of Second Seamen's War Risk Policy Form MA-242, may be obtained from...

  6. 46 CFR 308.306 - Second Seamen's War Risk Policy, Form MA-242.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Second Seamen's War Risk Policy, Form MA-242. 308.306... RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.306 Second Seamen's War Risk Policy, Form MA-242. (a) The standard form of Second Seamen's War Risk Policy Form MA-242, may be obtained from...

  7. 46 CFR 308.306 - Second Seamen's War Risk Policy, Form MA-242.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Second Seamen's War Risk Policy, Form MA-242. 308.306... RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.306 Second Seamen's War Risk Policy, Form MA-242. (a) The standard form of Second Seamen's War Risk Policy Form MA-242, may be obtained from...

  8. 46 CFR 308.306 - Second Seamen's War Risk Policy, Form MA-242.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Second Seamen's War Risk Policy, Form MA-242. 308.306 Section 308.306 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.306 Second Seamen's War Risk Policy, Form...

  9. The continuing risk of nuclear war.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Climate change and nuclear war are currently the most dangerous challenges to human civilisation and survival. The effects of climate change are now sufficient to persuade many governments to take effective measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Today there are about 27,000 nuclear warheads, many at least ten times more powerful than the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs, and a meaningful medical response to a nuclear attack is impossible. Nevertheless, the threat of nuclear war does not raise public concern, and indeed the nuclear-weapon states are upgrading their capability. The only effective preventive measure is the abolition of nuclear weapons. Steps towards this include: a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty, for the nuclear weapon states to observe their obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, and for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty to enter into force. The ultimate need is for a Nuclear Weapons Convention; International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War have launched an International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear weapons (ICAN) to promote a NWC. PMID:17987978

  10. 46 CFR 308.409 - Standard form of War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance Policy, Form MA-283.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Policy, Form MA-283. 308.409 Section 308.409 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... of War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance Policy, Form MA-283. The standard form of War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance Policy, Form MA-283 may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency or MARAD....

  11. 46 CFR 308.409 - Standard form of War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance Policy, Form MA-283.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Policy, Form MA-283. 308.409 Section 308.409 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... of War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance Policy, Form MA-283. The standard form of War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance Policy, Form MA-283 may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency or MARAD....

  12. 46 CFR 308.409 - Standard form of War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance Policy, Form MA-283.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Policy, Form MA-283. 308.409 Section 308.409 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... of War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance Policy, Form MA-283. The standard form of War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance Policy, Form MA-283 may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency or MARAD....

  13. 46 CFR 308.8 - War risk insurance underwriting agency agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false War risk insurance underwriting agency agreement. 308.8 Section 308.8 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE General § 308.8 War risk insurance underwriting agency agreement. Standard form MA-355...

  14. 46 CFR 308.8 - War risk insurance underwriting agency agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false War risk insurance underwriting agency agreement. 308.8 Section 308.8 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE General § 308.8 War risk insurance underwriting agency agreement. Standard form MA-355...

  15. 46 CFR 308.8 - War risk insurance underwriting agency agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false War risk insurance underwriting agency agreement. 308.8 Section 308.8 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE General § 308.8 War risk insurance underwriting agency agreement. Standard form...

  16. 46 CFR 308.8 - War risk insurance underwriting agency agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false War risk insurance underwriting agency agreement. 308.8 Section 308.8 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE General § 308.8 War risk insurance underwriting agency agreement. Standard form MA-355...

  17. 46 CFR 308.8 - War risk insurance underwriting agency agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk insurance underwriting agency agreement. 308.8 Section 308.8 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE General § 308.8 War risk insurance underwriting agency agreement. Standard form MA-355...

  18. Risk and the social construction of 'Gulf War Syndrome'.

    PubMed

    Durodié, Bill

    2006-04-29

    Fifteen years since the events that are held by some to have caused it, Gulf War Syndrome continues to exercise the mind and energies of numerous researchers across the world, as well as those who purport to be its victims and their advocates in the media, law and politics. But it may be that the search for a scientific or medical solution to this issue was misguided in the first place, for Gulf War Syndrome, if there is such an entity, appears to have much in common with other 'illnesses of modernity', whose roots are more socially and culturally driven than what doctors would conventionally consider to be diseases. The reasons for this are complex, but derive from our contemporary proclivity to understand humanity as being frail and vulnerable in an age marked by an exaggerated perception of risk and a growing use of the 'politics of fear'. It is the breakdown of social solidarities across the twentieth century that has facilitated this process.Unfortunately, as this paper explores, our inability to understand the social origins of self-hood and illness, combined with a growing cynicism towards all sources of authority, whether political, scientific, medical or corporate, has produced a powerful demand for blame and retribution deriving from a resolute few who continue to oppose all of the evidence raised against them.Sadly, this analysis suggests that Gulf War Syndrome is likely to prove only one of numerous such instances that are likely to emerge over the coming years. PMID:16687271

  19. 46 CFR 308.409 - Standard form of War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance Policy, Form MA-283.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Policy, Form MA-283. 308.409 Section 308.409 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... of War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance Policy, Form MA-283. The standard form of War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance Policy, Form MA-283 may be obtained from MARAD's underwriting agent or MARAD....

  20. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) Strain

    PubMed Central

    Fazan, Rubens; Silva, Carlos Alberto A.; Oliveira, José Antônio Cortes; Salgado, Helio Cesar; Montano, Nicola; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Risk factors for life-threatening cardiovascular events were evaluated in an experimental model of epilepsy, the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strain. Methods We used long-term ECG recordings in conscious, one year old, WAR and Wistar control counterparts to evaluate spontaneous arrhythmias and heart rate variability, a tool to assess autonomic cardiac control. Ventricular function was also evaluated using the pressure-volume conductance system in anesthetized rats. Results Basal RR interval (RRi) was similar between WAR and Wistar rats (188±5 vs 199±6 ms). RRi variability strongly suggests that WAR present an autonomic imbalance with sympathetic overactivity, which is an isolated risk factor for cardiovascular events. Anesthetized WAR showed lower arterial pressure (92±3 vs 115±5 mmHg) and exhibited indices of systolic dysfunction, such as higher ventricle end-diastolic pressure (9.2±0.6 vs 5.6±1 mmHg) and volume (137±9 vs 68±9 μL) as well as lower rate of increase in ventricular pressure (5266±602 vs 7320±538 mmHg.s-1). Indices of diastolic cardiac function, such as lower rate of decrease in ventricular pressure (-5014±780 vs -7766±998 mmHg.s-1) and a higher slope of the linear relationship between end-diastolic pressure and volume (0.078±0.011 vs 0.036±0.011 mmHg.μL), were also found in WAR as compared to Wistar control rats. Moreover, Wistar rats had 3 to 6 ventricular ectopic beats, whereas WAR showed 15 to 30 ectopic beats out of the 20,000 beats analyzed in each rat. Conclusions The autonomic imbalance observed previously at younger age is also present in aged WAR and, additionally, a cardiac dysfunction was also observed in the rats. These findings make this experimental model of epilepsy a valuable tool to study risk factors for cardiovascular events in epilepsy. PMID:26029918

  1. 78 FR 77203 - Agency Requests for Renewal of a Previously Approved Information Collection(s): War Risk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... Agency Requests for Renewal of a Previously Approved Information Collection(s): War Risk Insurance... participation in the war risk insurance program. We are required to publish this notice in the Federal Register... office. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: OMB Control Number: 2133-0011. Title: War Risk Insurance,...

  2. Protective Factors and Risk Modification of Violence in Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Elbogen, Eric B.; Johnson, Sally C.; Wagner, H. Ryan; Newton, Virginia M.; Timko, Christine; Vasterling, Jennifer J.; Beckham, Jean C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective After returning home, a subset of Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans report engaging in aggression toward others. This study is the first to identify variables empirically related to decreased risk of community violence among Veterans. Method The authors conducted a national survey from July 2009 to April 2010 in which participants were randomly drawn from over one million U. S. military service members who served after September 11, 2001. Data were colleceted from a total of 1388 Iraq and Afghanistan War era and theater veterans. The final sample included veterans from all 50 states and all military branches. Results One-third of survey respondents self-identified committing an act of aggression toward others during the past year, mostly involving minor aggressive behavior. Younger age, criminal arrest record, combat exposure, probable posttraumatic stress disorder, and alcohol misuse were positively related to violence toward others. Multivariate analyses showed that stable living situation and the perception of having control over one’s life were associated with reduced odds of severe violence. Greater resilience, perceiving positive social support, and having money to cover basic needs were linked to reduced odds of other physically aggression. Conclusion The study identifies aggression as a problem for a subset of Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans who endorsed few protective factors. Data revealed that protective factors added incremental value to statistical modeling of violence, even when controlling for robust risk factors. The data indicate that, in addition to clinical interventions directed at treating mental health and substance abuse problems, psychosocial rehabilitation approaches aimed at improving domains of basic functioning and psychological well-being may also be effective in modifying risk and reducing violence among veterans. PMID:22795217

  3. The Life-Long Mortality Risks Of World War II Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Glen H.; Brown, James Scott; Martin, Leslie R.; Friedman, Howard W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This longitudinal study of American veterans investigated the mortality risks of five World War II military experiences (i.e., combat exposure) and their variation among veterans in the post-war years. Methods The male subjects (N=854) are members of the Stanford-Terman study, and 38 percent served in World War II. Cox models (proportional hazards regressions) compared the relative mortality risk associated with each military experience. Results Overseas duty, service in the Pacific and exposure to combat significantly increased the mortality risks of veterans in the study. Individual differences in education, mental health in 1950, and age at entry into the military, as well as personality factors made no difference in these results. Conclusions A gradient is observable such that active duty on the home front, followed by overseas duty, service in the Pacific, and combat exposure markedly increased the risk of relatively early mortality. Potential linking mechanisms include heavy drinking. PMID:20161074

  4. Refining Breast Cancer Risk Stratification: Additional Genes, Additional Information.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Allison W; Antoniou, Antonis C; Domchek, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic technology have enabled far more rapid, less expensive sequencing of multiple genes than was possible only a few years ago. Advances in bioinformatics also facilitate the interpretation of large amounts of genomic data. New strategies for cancer genetic risk assessment include multiplex sequencing panels of 5 to more than 100 genes (in which rare mutations are often associated with at least two times the average risk of developing breast cancer) and panels of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), combinations of which are generally associated with more modest cancer risks (more than twofold). Although these new multiple-gene panel tests are used in oncology practice, questions remain about the clinical validity and the clinical utility of their results. To translate this increasingly complex genetic information for clinical use, cancer risk prediction tools are under development that consider the joint effects of all susceptibility genes, together with other established breast cancer risk factors. Risk-adapted screening and prevention protocols are underway, with ongoing refinement as genetic knowledge grows. Priority areas for future research include the clinical validity and clinical utility of emerging genetic tests; the accuracy of developing cancer risk prediction models; and the long-term outcomes of risk-adapted screening and prevention protocols, in terms of patients' experiences and survival. PMID:27249685

  5. Treating Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans with PTSD Who Are at High Risk for Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakupcak, Matthew; Varra, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans diagnosed with psychiatric disorders commit suicide at a higher rate than the general population (Kang & Bullman, 2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been identified as a risk factor for suicide in veterans (Bullman & Kang, 1994) and is the most common mental disorder among Iraq and Afghanistan…

  6. Tsunami, War, and Cumulative Risk in the Lives of Sri Lankan Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catani, Claudia; Gewirtz, Abigail H.; Wieling, Elizabeth; Schauer, Elizabeth; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the impact of children's exposure to natural disaster against the backdrop of exposure to other traumatic events and psychosocial risks. One thousand three hundred ninety-eight Sri Lankan children aged 9-15 years were interviewed in 4 cross-sectional studies about exposure to traumatic life events related to the war, the…

  7. 46 CFR 308.551 - War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321. 308.551 Section 308.551 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321. The standard form of clearing agency agreement, Form...

  8. 46 CFR 308.551 - War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321. 308.551 Section 308.551 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321. The standard form of clearing agency agreement, Form...

  9. 46 CFR 308.551 - War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321. 308.551 Section 308.551 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321. The standard form of clearing agency agreement, Form...

  10. 46 CFR 308.551 - War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321. 308.551 Section 308.551 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321. The standard form of clearing agency agreement, Form...

  11. Risk factors for DSM 5 PTSD symptoms in Israeli civilians during the Gaza war

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Sharon; Weinberg, Michael; Or-Chen, Keren; Harel, Hila

    2015-01-01

    Background In light of the current modifications presented in the diagnostic criteria of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the DSM 5, this study aimed at revalidating well-known PTSD risk factors, including gender, peritraumatic dissociation, social support, level of threat, and trait tendency for forgiveness. Method Five hundred and one Israeli civilians were assessed during real-time exposure to missile and rocket fire at the eruption of the Gaza war. Assessments took place approximately one to 2 weeks after the beginning of this military operation, relying on web administration of the study, which allowed simultaneous data collection from respondents in the three regions in Israel that were under attack. Results A structural equation model design revealed that higher levels of forgiveness toward situations were associated with fewer PTSD symptoms, whereas peritraumatic dissociation and high levels of objective and subjective threat were positively associated with PTSD symptoms. Additionally, females were at higher risk for PTSD symptoms than males. Conclusions The findings of this study provide further evidence for the importance of directing preventive attention to those vulnerable to the development of elevated levels of PTSD symptoms. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25905028

  12. Risk, citizenship, and public discourse: coeval dialogues on war and health in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Leslie A

    2006-01-01

    This article is about September 11, 2001, and its narrated effects on the lives of nine street-involved women in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside. I outline the locations from which they spoke about war and health: as consumers and economic agents whose bodies are linked to transnational economic processes; as residents in a local community of shared knowledge and practices; and as marginalized citizens of a nation-state. I hope to emphasize the value of engaging research subjects in coeval dialogues that work against essentializing, state-sanctioned discourses narrated in the context of armed conflict and a public health crisis. To women drug users in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside, the "War against Terror" evokes particular sites of knowledge: the body, the local community, and transnational processes. Their repertoires of war stimulate questions about citizenship and perceptions of risk, challenging dominating medical and political discourses that tend to temporally and spatially localize their engagement with the world. PMID:17101508

  13. Risk-Based Ranking Experiences for Cold War Legacy Facilities in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, James G.

    2003-05-01

    Over the past two decades, a number of government agencies in the United States have faced increasing public scrutiny for their efforts to address the wide range of potential environmental issues related to Cold War legacies. Risk-based ranking was selected as a means of defining the relative importance of issues. Ambitious facility-wide risk-based ranking applications were undertaken. However, although facility-wide risk-based ranking efforts can build invaluable understanding of the potential issues related to Cold War legacies, conducting such efforts is difficult because of the potentially enormous scope and the potentially strong institutional barriers. The U.S. experience is that such efforts are worth undertaking to start building a knowledge base and infrastructure that are based on a thorough understanding of risk. In both the East and the West, the legacy of the Cold War includes a wide range of potential environmental issues associated with large industrial complexes of weapon production facilities. The responsible agencies or ministries are required to make decisions that could benefit greatly from information on the relative importance of these potential issues. Facility-wide risk-based ranking of potential health and environmental issues is one means to help these decision makers. The initial U.S. risk-based ranking applications described in this chapter were “ground-breaking” in that they defined new methodologies and approaches to meet the challenges. Many of these approaches fit the designation of a population-centred risk assessment. These U.S. activities parallel efforts that are just beginning for similar facilities in the countries of the former Soviet Union. As described below, conducting a facility-wide risk-based ranking has special challenges and potential pitfalls. Little guidance exists to conduct major risk-based rankings. For those considering undertaking such efforts, the material contained in this chapter should be useful

  14. The psychological impact of the Israel-Hezbollah War on Jews and Arabs in Israel: the impact of risk and resilience factors.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Patrick A; Canetti-Nisim, Daphna; Galea, Sandro; Johnson, Robert J; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2008-10-01

    Although there is abundant evidence that mass traumas are associated with adverse mental health consequences, few studies have used nationally representative samples to examine the impact of war on civilians, and none have examined the impact of the Israel-Hezbollah War, which involved unprecedented levels of civilian trauma exposure from July 12 to August 14, 2006. The aims of this study were to document probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), determined by the PTSD Symptom Scale and self-reported functional impairment, in Jewish and Arab residents of Israel immediately after the Israel-Hezbollah War and to assess potential risk and resilience factors. A telephone survey was conducted August 15-October 5, 2006, following the cessation of rocket attacks. Stratified random sampling methods yielded a nationally representative population sample of 1200 adult Israeli residents. The rate of probable PTSD was 7.2%. Higher risk of probable PTSD was associated with being a woman, recent trauma exposure, economic loss, and higher psychosocial resource loss. Lower risk of probable PTSD was associated with higher education. The results suggest that economic and psychosocial resource loss, in addition to trauma exposure, have an impact on post-trauma functioning. Thus, interventions that bolster these resources might prove effective in alleviating civilian psychopathology during war. PMID:18667263

  15. Risk and the social construction of ‘Gulf War Syndrome’

    PubMed Central

    Durodié, Bill

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen years since the events that are held by some to have caused it, Gulf War Syndrome continues to exercise the mind and energies of numerous researchers across the world, as well as those who purport to be its victims and their advocates in the media, law and politics. But it may be that the search for a scientific or medical solution to this issue was misguided in the first place, for Gulf War Syndrome, if there is such an entity, appears to have much in common with other ‘illnesses of modernity’, whose roots are more socially and culturally driven than what doctors would conventionally consider to be diseases. The reasons for this are complex, but derive from our contemporary proclivity to understand humanity as being frail and vulnerable in an age marked by an exaggerated perception of risk and a growing use of the ‘politics of fear’. It is the breakdown of social solidarities across the twentieth century that has facilitated this process. Unfortunately, as this paper explores, our inability to understand the social origins of self-hood and illness, combined with a growing cynicism towards all sources of authority, whether political, scientific, medical or corporate, has produced a powerful demand for blame and retribution deriving from a resolute few who continue to oppose all of the evidence raised against them. Sadly, this analysis suggests that Gulf War Syndrome is likely to prove only one of numerous such instances that are likely to emerge over the coming years. PMID:16687271

  16. Child development in the context of disaster, war, and terrorism: pathways of risk and resilience.

    PubMed

    Masten, Ann S; Narayan, Angela J

    2012-01-01

    This review highlights progress over the past decade in research on the effects of mass trauma experiences on children and youth, focusing on natural disasters, war, and terrorism. Conceptual advances are reviewed in terms of prevailing risk and resilience frameworks that guide basic and translational research. Recent evidence on common components of these models is evaluated, including dose effects, mediators and moderators, and the individual or contextual differences that predict risk or resilience. New research horizons with profound implications for health and well-being are discussed, particularly in relation to plausible models for biological embedding of extreme stress. Strong consistencies are noted in this literature, suggesting guidelines for disaster preparedness and response. At the same time, there is a notable shortage of evidence on effective interventions for child and youth victims. Practical and theory-informative research on strategies to protect children and youth victims and promote their resilience is a global priority. PMID:21943168

  17. Nuclear war: Opposing viewpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Szumski, B.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents opposing viewpoints on nuclear war. Topics discussed include: how nuclear would begin; would humanity survive; would civil defense work; will an arms agreement work; and can space weapons reduce the risk of nuclear war.

  18. Occupational career and risk of mortality among US Civil War veterans.

    PubMed

    Su, Dejun

    2009-08-01

    Previous studies have extended the traditional framework on occupational disparities in health by examining mortality differentials from a career perspective. Few studies, however, have examined the relation between career and mortality in a historical U.S. population. This study explores the relation between occupational career and risk of mortality in old age among 7096 Union Army veterans who fought the American Civil War in the 1860s. Occupational mobility was commonplace among the veterans in the postbellum period, with 54% of them changing occupations from the time of enlistment to 1900. Among veterans who were farmers at enlistment, 46% of them changed to a non-farming occupation by the time of 1900. Results from the Cox Proportional Hazard analysis suggest that relative to the average mortality risk of the sample, being a farmer at enlistment or circa 1900 are both associated with a lower risk of mortality in old age, although the effect is more salient for veterans who were farmers at enlistment. Occupational immobility for manual labors poses a serious threat to chance of survival in old age. These findings still hold after adjusting for the effects of selected variables characterizing risk exposures during early life, wartime, and old age. The robustness of the survival advantage associated with being a farmer at enlistment highlights the importance of socioeconomic conditions early in life in chance of survival at older ages. PMID:19552993

  19. Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Additivity-Based Approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Powerpoint presentation includes additivity-based chemical mixture risk assessment methods. Basic concepts, theory and example calculations are included. Several slides discuss the use of "common adverse outcomes" in analyzing phthalate mixtures.

  20. The Psychological Impact of Forced Displacement and Related Risk Factors on Eastern Congolese Adolescents Affected by War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mels, Cindy; Derluyn, Ilse; Broekaert, Eric; Rosseel, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Background: While the current knowledge base on the mental health effects of displacement is mainly limited to refugees residing in industrialised countries, this paper examines the impact of war-induced displacement and related risk factors on the mental health of Eastern Congolese adolescents, and compares currently internally displaced…

  1. The Cold War legacy of regulatory risk analysis: The Atomic Energy Commission and radiation safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boland, Joseph B.

    From its inception in 1946 the Atomic Energy Commission pioneered the use of risk analysis as a mode of regulatory rationality and political rhetoric, yet historical treatments of risk analysis nearly always overlook the important role it played in the administration of atomic energy during the early Cold War. How this absence from history has been achieved and why it characterizes most historical accounts are the subjects of Chapter II. From there, this study goes on to develop the thesis that the advent of the atomic bomb was a world-shattering event that forced the Truman administration to choose between two novel alternatives: (1) movement towards global governance based initially on cooperative control of atomic energy or (2) unsparing pursuit of nuclear superiority. I refer to these as nuclear internationalism and nuclear nationalism, respectively. Each defined a social risk hierarchy. With the triumph of nuclear nationalism, nuclear annihilation was designated the greatest risk and a strong nuclear defense the primary means of prevention. The AEC's mission in the 1950s consisted of the rapid development of a nuclear arsenal, continual improvements in weapons technologies, and the promotion of nuclear power. The agency developed a risk-based regulatory framework through its dominant position within the National Committee on Radiation Protection. It embraced a technocratic model of risk analysis whose articulation and application it controlled, largely in secret. It used this to undergird a public rhetoric of reassurance and risk minimization. In practice, safety officials adjusted exposure levels within often wide parameters and with considerable fluidity in order to prevent safety concerns from interfering with operations. Secrecy, the political climate of the time, and a lack of accountability enabled the agency to meld technical assessments with social value judgments in a manner reflective of nuclear nationalism's risk hierarchy. In the late fifties

  2. 46 CFR 308.502 - Additional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional insurance. 308.502 Section 308.502 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.502 Additional insurance. The assured may place increased value...

  3. 46 CFR 308.502 - Additional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional insurance. 308.502 Section 308.502 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.502 Additional insurance. The assured may place increased value...

  4. 46 CFR 308.502 - Additional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional insurance. 308.502 Section 308.502 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.502 Additional insurance. The assured may place increased value...

  5. Accidental nuclear war: Modifications to superpower arsenals and to procedures for handling them could substantially reduce the risk of unintended Armageddon

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, B.G.; Kendall, H.W.

    1990-12-01

    If nuclear war breaks out in the coming decade or two, it will probably be by accident. The threat of a cold-blooded, calculated first strike is vanishing, but beneath the calm surface of constructive diplomacy among the traditional nuclear rivals lurks the danger of unpremeditated use of nuclear weapons. The accidental, unauthorized or inadvertent use of these weapons has become the most plausible path to nuclear war. Both superpowers, as well as France, Great Britain and China - long-standing members of the nuclear club - are potential sources of accidental missile launch. The emergence of fledgling nuclear powers such as India, Pakistan and Israel - some armed with ballistic missiles - pushes nuclear safeguards even closer to the top of the international security agenda. The chances of unwanted nuclear war would be reduced significantly if tamper proof, coded locks were installed on all nuclear weapons and if methods were put in place to disarm nuclear forces even after launch. In addition, the US and the Soviet Union should reduce their reliance on the dangerous policy of launch on warning and reduce the launch readiness of their nuclear forces. The social and political upheavals in the Soviet Union underscore fears of unintended nuclear war. Civil turmoil raises the possibility that rebellious ethnic groups or splinter organizations could capture nuclear weapons. Other, deeper fault lines run through the whole of Soviet society and may be capable of cracking the foundations of its nuclear command system. Although the US faces no such civil unrest, the country's system of nuclear command carries some risk that nuclear weapons might be used contrary to the intentions of legitimate authorities.

  6. Details for Manuscript Number SSM-D-07-01092R2 “The Psychological Impact of the Israel-Hezbollah War on Jews and Arabs in Israel: The Impact of Risk and Resilience Factors”

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Sandro; Canetti-Nisim, Daphna; Johnson, Robert J; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2008-01-01

    Although there is abundant evidence that mass traumas are associated with adverse mental health consequences, few studies have used nationally representative samples to examine the impact of war on civilians, and none have examined the impact of the Israel-Hezbollah War, which involved unprecedented levels of civilian trauma exposure from July 12-August 14, 2006. The aims of this study were to document probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), determined by the PTSD Symptom Scale and self-reported functional impairment, in Jewish and Arab residents of Israel immediately after the Israel-Hezbollah War and to assess potential risk and resilience factors. A telephone survey was conducted August 15-October 5, 2006, following the cessation of rocket attacks. Stratified random sampling methods yielded a nationally representative population sample of 1,200 adult Israeli residents. The rate of probable PTSD was 7.2%. Higher risk of probable PTSD was associated with being a woman, recent trauma exposure, economic loss, and higher psychosocial resource loss. Lower risk of probable PTSD was associated with higher education. The results suggest that economic and psychosocial resource loss, in addition to trauma exposure, have an impact on post-trauma functioning. Thus, interventions that bolster these resources might prove effective in alleviating civilian psychopathology during war. PMID:18667263

  7. Family Risk and Resilience in the Context of War and Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley M.

    2010-01-01

    War and terrorism are exerting increasing force on world affairs, with growing implications for families and the scholars who study them. In this review, I consider the implications of mass violence for families, with particular emphasis on families with members serving in the U.S. military and families around the world who live where mass…

  8. The Swiss "Willensnation" at Risk: Teachers in the Cultural Gap during the First World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brühwiler, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    As a neutral and multilingual country, Switzerland struggled with major domestic political conflicts during the First World War due to the two cultures of the French-speaking and German-speaking parts of the country. The divided cultural loyalties ("fossé moral", "Röstigraben"), consisting of Swiss-Germans supporting Germany…

  9. [Effect of the war and postwar events on risk behavior in middle-school students].

    PubMed

    Jakić, Marijana; Jarić-Klinovski, Zdenka; Leko, Vesna; Jakić, Marko

    2003-01-01

    Risky behaviour of young people is related to their individual features as well as to the influence of parents, dominant friends and social circumstances. This paper presents results of a survey on highschool students risky behaviours (smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, sexual activity) in respect with war events (loss of one or both parents, or of another close relative, moving) and post-war events (loss of job of one or both parents). Five years after the war had ended, 1009 students of the last class of 5 gymnasiums and 4 trade schools (girls 42.22%, boys 57.78%) aged from 15 to 19 years (17.50 +/- 0.70 years) were examined. The students who had moved because of war events consumed alcohol more frequently than those who had not changed the place of living (chi 2-test = 5.34; p < 0.01). Those students who experienced a loss of a parent, or of both parents, or of another close relative for the war reasons, were not found to behave more riskily in respect with smoking (chi 2-test = 0.004; p > 0.05), alcohol (chi 2-test = 0.04; p > 0.05) and drug abuse (chi 2-test = 0.03; p > 0.05), nor sexual activity (chi 2-test = 0.09; p > 0.05). Neither the loss of job of one or both parents had an influence on the risky behaviours (chi 2-test(smoking) = 1.26, p > 0.05; chi 2-test(alchol abuse) = 0.01, p > 0.05; chi 2-test(drug abuse) = 1.26, p > 0.05; chi 2-test(sexual activity) = 2.97, p > 0.05). The results obtained indicate only a partial influence of the war and the post-war events on the risky behaviours in highschool students. The reason for such low influence could be found perhaps in a relatively short duration of those events, or on the special motivations provoked by them. PMID:15209025

  10. Insomnia Severity, Subjective Sleep Quality, and Risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Veterans With Gulf War Illness.

    PubMed

    Chao, Linda L; Abadjian, Linda R; Esparza, Iva L; Reeb, Rosemary

    2016-09-01

    Despite the fact that sleep disturbances are common in veterans with Gulf War Illness (GWI), there has been a paucity of published sleep studies in this veteran population to date. Therefore, the present study examined subjective sleep quality (assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), insomnia severity (assessed with the Insomnia Severity Index), and risk for obstructive sleep apnea (assessed with the STOP questionnaire) in 98 Gulf War veterans. Veterans with GWI, defined either by the Kansas or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria, had greater risk for obstructive sleep apnea (i.e., higher STOP scores) than veterans without GWI. This difference persisted even after accounting for potentially confounding demographic (e.g., age, gender) and clinical variables. Veterans with GWI, defined by either the Kansas or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria, also had significantly greater insomnia severity and poorer sleep quality than veterans without GWI (p < 0.05), even after accounting for potentially confounding variables. Furthermore, there were significant, positive correlations between insomnia severity, subjective sleep quality, and GWI symptom severity (p ≤ 0.01). In stepwise linear regression models, insomnia severity significantly predicted GWI status over and above demographic and clinical variables. Together these findings provide good rationale for treating sleep disturbances in the management of GWI. PMID:27612364

  11. Healthcare utilization and mortality among veterans of the Gulf War

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Gregory C; Kang, Han K

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted an extensive search for published works concerning healthcare utilization and mortality among Gulf War veterans of the Coalition forces who served during the1990–1991 Gulf War. Reports concerning the health experience of US, UK, Canadian, Saudi and Australian veterans were reviewed. This report summarizes 15 years of observations and research in four categories: Gulf War veteran healthcare registry studies, hospitalization studies, outpatient studies and mortality studies. A total of 149 728 (19.8%) of 756 373 US, UK, Canadian and Australian Gulf War veterans received health registry evaluations revealing a vast number of symptoms and clinical conditions but no suggestion that a new unique illness was associated with service during the Gulf War. Additionally, no Gulf War exposure was uniquely implicated as a cause for post-war morbidity. Numerous large, controlled studies of US Gulf War veterans' hospitalizations, often involving more than a million veterans, have been conducted. They revealed an increased post-war risk for mental health diagnoses, multi-symptom conditions and musculoskeletal disorders. Again, these data failed to demonstrate that Gulf War veterans suffered from a unique Gulf War-related illness. The sparsely available ambulatory care reports documented that respiratory and gastrointestinal complaints were quite common during deployment. Using perhaps the most reliable data, controlled mortality studies have revealed that Gulf War veterans were at increased risk of injuries, especially those due to vehicular accidents. In general, healthcare utilization data are now exhausted. These findings have now been incorporated into preventive measures in support of current military forces. With a few diagnostic exceptions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, mental disorders and cancer, it now seems time to cease examining Gulf War veteran morbidity and to direct future research efforts to preventing illness among current and

  12. Additional risk of end-of-the-pipe geoengineering technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohle, Martin

    2014-05-01

    qualitatively from the known successes. They do not tackle the initial cause, namely the carbon-dioxide inputs that are too high. This is their additional specific risk. 'The acceptability of geoengineering will be determined as much by social, legal and political issues as by scientific and technical factors', conclude Adam Corner and Nick Pidgeon (2010) when reviewing social and ethical implications of geoengineering the climate. It is to debate in that context that most geoengineering technologies are 'end of the pipe technologies', what involves an additional specific risk. Should these technologies be part of the toolbox to tackle anthropogenic climate change? Adam Corner and Nick Pidgeon 2010, Geoengineering the climate: The social and ethical implications, Environment Vol. 52.

  13. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  14. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  15. Refuse and the ‘Risk Society’: The Political Ecology of Risk in Inter-war Britain

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Timothy; Bulmer, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article responds to current critiques of Ulrich Beck's ‘risk society’ thesis by historians of science and medicine. Those who have engaged with the concept of risk society have been content to accept the fundamental categories of Beck's analysis. In contrast, we argue that Beck's risk society thesis underplays two key themes. First, the role of capitalist social relations as the driver of technological change and the transformation of everyday life; and second, the ways in which hegemonic discourses of risk can be appropriated and transformed by counter-hegemonic forces. In place of ‘risk society’, we propose an approach based upon a ‘political ecology of risk’, which emphasises the social relations that are fundamental to the everyday politics of environmental health. PMID:24771975

  16. Estimates of radiological risk from depleted uranium weapons in war scenarios.

    PubMed

    Durante, Marco; Pugliese, Mariagabriella

    2002-01-01

    Several weapons used during the recent conflict in Yugoslavia contain depleted uranium, including missiles and armor-piercing incendiary rounds. Health concern is related to the use of these weapons, because of the heavy-metal toxicity and radioactivity of uranium. Although chemical toxicity is considered the more important source of health risk related to uranium, radiation exposure has been allegedly related to cancers among veterans of the Balkan conflict, and uranium munitions are a possible source of contamination in the environment. Actual measurements of radioactive contamination are needed to assess the risk. In this paper, a computer simulation is proposed to estimate radiological risk related to different exposure scenarios. Dose caused by inhalation of radioactive aerosols and ground contamination induced by Tomahawk missile impact are simulated using a Gaussian plume model (HOTSPOT code). Environmental contamination and committed dose to the population resident in contaminated areas are predicted by a food-web model (RESRAD code). Small values of committed effective dose equivalent appear to be associated with missile impacts (50-y CEDE < 5 mSv), or population exposure by water-independent pathways (50-y CEDE < 80 mSv). The greatest hazard is related to the water contamination in conditions of effective leaching of uranium in the groundwater (50-y CEDE < 400 mSv). Even in this worst case scenario, the chemical toxicity largely predominates over radiological risk. These computer simulations suggest that little radiological risk is associated to the use of depleted uranium weapons. PMID:11768794

  17. Deployment Exposures and Long-term Health Risks: The Shadow of War.

    PubMed

    Baird, Coleen

    2016-01-01

    The victory in Operations Desert Shield/Desert Storm has been "shadowed" by long-term health concerns among returning troops. During Operations Iraqi Freedom, New Dawn, and Enduring Freedom, the Department of the Army and Department of Defense implemented recommendations of the Institute of Medicine relating to environmental exposure assessment, hazard response, documentation of exposures, and risk assessment using environmental sampling data to evaluate potential health risks among deployed troops. Recommendations regarding risk communication proved more difficult to implement, however. Exposure to particulate matter and airborne hazards including burn pit emissions and chemical warfare agents have received attention from service members, the media, and in some cases, Congress. A combination of lack of clear and consistent messages, imperfect and sometimes seemingly contradictory science, and strong perceptions suggest that questions related to these exposures and their potential long-term health effects will persist. PMID:27215887

  18. Use of additive dentistry decreases risk by minimizing reduction.

    PubMed

    Palmer, K Michael

    2012-05-01

    This case required enhancement of esthetics and reduction of long-term risk of pathologic tooth wear and decay, as well as minimizing erosion caused by innate and environmental influences. The author weighed patient expectations, diet, treatment of teeth, and age to create a treatment plan that would conserve tooth structure while accomplishing the goals of the case. The patient's dentition was restored utilizing intact enamel, adhesive dentistry, and etchable ceramic materials that require less than 1 mm of occlusal reduction without a significant loss of strength. In this case, opening the vertical dimension of occlusion--which was done to increase the height of both the maxillary and mandibular arches, in keeping with the patient's esthetic desires--eliminated the need to remove excessive amounts of healthy tooth structure and facilitated treatment of the occlusal dysfunction. PMID:22616217

  19. Health Risk Behaviors of Afghanistan and Iraq War Veterans Attending College

    PubMed Central

    Widome, Rachel; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Gulden, Ashley; Fu, Steven S.; Lust, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The population military veterans attending college is rapidly growing as veterans return from Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF). We sought to describe patterns of student veterans’ health-related behaviors and how they might differ from their non-veteran peers. Design We analyzed data from the 2008 Boynton College Student Health Survey (CSHS). Setting CSHS participants completed an anonymous online survey. Subjects The CSHS sampled students (n=8,651) attending public, private, two-, and four-year postsecondary educational institutions in Minnesota. Measures The CSHS included items on substance use (including alcohol and tobacco), safety, nutrition, and physical activity. Analysis We described demographics of OEF/OIF veteran, non-OEF/OIF veteran, and non-veteran students and used poisson regression to compute adjusted relative risks (ARR) with 95% confidence intervals to characterize associations between veteran status and health behaviors. Results After controlling for demographics, veteran students reported more safety-, tobacco-, and alcohol-related risk behaviors compared to non-veteran students. For instance, compared to the non-veteran reference group, the ARR for past year smokeless tobacco use and physical fighting among for OEF/OIF veterans was 1.76 [CI: 1.31–2.35] and 1.48 [CI: 1.22–1.79] respectively. Veteran and non-veteran students display similar weight-related behaviors, though OEF/OIF veteran students were more likely to engage in strengthening exercises. Conclusions There are specific health risk behaviors which are particularly relevant for veterans attending postsecondary institutions. As veterans enroll in postsecondary education there is a unique window of opportunity for health promotion in this population. PMID:22040391

  20. War and first onset of suicidality: the role of mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Karam, E. G.; Salamoun, M. M.; Mneimneh, Z. N.; Fayyad, J. A.; Karam, A. N.; Hajjar, R.; Dimassi, H.; Nock, M. K.; Kessler, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicide rates increase following periods of war; however, the mechanism through which this occurs is not known. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the associations of war exposure, mental disorders, and subsequent suicidal behavior. Method A national sample of Lebanese adults was administered the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to collect data on lifetime prevalence and age of onset of suicide ideation, plan, and attempt, and mental disorders, in addition to information about exposure to stressors associated with the 1975–1989 Lebanon war. Results The onset of suicide ideation, plan, and attempt was associated with female gender, younger age, post-war period, major depression, impulse-control disorders, and social phobia. The effect of post-war period on each type of suicide outcome was largely explained by the post-war onset of mental disorders. Finally, the conjunction of having a prior impulse-control disorder and either being a civilian in a terror region or witnessing war-related stressors was associated with especially high risk of suicide attempt. Conclusions The association of war with increased risk of suicidality appears to be partially explained by the emergence of mental disorders in the context of war. Exposure to war may exacerbate disinhibition among those who have prior impulse-control disorders, thus magnifying the association of mental disorders with suicidality. PMID:22370047

  1. Risks and opportunities for psychology's contribution to the war on cancer.

    PubMed

    Croyle, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of American Psychologist reviews a broad, diverse, and growing research literature that has established the discipline as an essential source of evidence concerning cancer prevention and control. Nevertheless, the history of psychological science that is intended to inform cancer control suggests a number of risks going forward that could attenuate the impact of this work. Fortunately, the field also faces new opportunities to contribute more substantially, especially if psychologists engage the broader biomedical and public health communities through rigorous, relevant, multilevel research that is informed by current knowledge of the disease and its treatment, the skills required to participate in large-scale trans-disciplinary team science, and an appreciation of the economic, organizational, and policy context of cancer control at the local and national levels. PMID:25730727

  2. Affiliation buffers stress: cumulative genetic risk in oxytocin–vasopressin genes combines with early caregiving to predict PTSD in war-exposed young children

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, R; Vengrober, A; Ebstein, R P

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is shaped by the interaction between genetic vulnerability and early caregiving experiences; yet, caregiving has typically been assessed by adult retrospective accounts. Here, we employed a prospective longitudinal design with real-time observations of early caregiving combined with assessment of genetic liability along the axis of vasopressin–oxytocin (OT) gene pathways to test G × E contributions to PTSD. Participants were 232 young Israeli children (1.5–5 years) and their parents, including 148 living in zones of continuous war and 84 controls. A cumulative genetic risk factor was computed for each family member by summing five risk alleles across three genes (OXTR, CD38 and AVPR1a) previously associated with psychopathology, sociality and caregiving. Child PTSD was diagnosed and mother–child interactions were observed in multiple contexts. In middle childhood (7–8 years), child psychopathology was re-evaluated. War exposure increased propensity to develop Axis-I disorder by threefold: 60% of exposed children displayed a psychiatric disorder by middle childhood and 62% of those showed several comorbid disorders. On the other hand, maternal sensitive support reduced risk for psychopathology. G × E effect was found for child genetic risk: in the context of war exposure, greater genetic risk on the vasopressin–OT pathway increased propensity for psychopathology. Among exposed children, chronicity of PTSD from early to middle childhood was related to higher child, maternal and paternal genetic risk, low maternal support and greater initial avoidance symptoms. Child avoidance was predicted by low maternal support and reduced mother–child reciprocity. These findings underscore the saliency of both genetic and behavioral facets of the human affiliation system in shaping vulnerability to PTSD as well as providing an underlying mechanism of post-traumatic resilience. PMID:24618689

  3. 42 CFR 417.442 - Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of additional benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of... Medicare Contract § 417.442 Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of additional benefits. (a) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a risk HMO or CMP must, during...

  4. 42 CFR 417.442 - Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of additional benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of... Medicare Contract § 417.442 Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of additional benefits. (a) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a risk HMO or CMP must, during...

  5. Public risk perception of food additives and food scares. The case in Suzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Linhai; Zhong, Yingqi; Shan, Lijie; Qin, Wei

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the factors affecting public risk perception of food additive safety and possible resulting food scares using a survey conducted in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. The model was proposed based on literature relating to the role of risk perception and information perception of public purchase intention under food scares. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for data analysis. The results showed that attitude towards behavior, subjective norm and information perception exerted moderate to high effect on food scares, and the effects were also mediated by risk perceptions of additive safety. Significant covariance was observed between attitudes toward behavior, subjective norm and information perception. Establishing an effective mechanism of food safety risk communication, releasing information of government supervision on food safety in a timely manner, curbing misleading media reports on public food safety risk, and enhancing public knowledge of the food additives are key to the development and implementation of food safety risk management policies by the Chinese government. PMID:23831014

  6. Survivors of the war in the Northern Kosovo: violence exposure, risk factors and public health effects of an ethnic conflict

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this population-based study was to assess the long-lasting effects of ethnic conflict on health and well-being (with a focus on injury and persistent pain) at family and community level. We have also investigated possible risk factors for victimisation during the conflict and factors contributing to healing. Methods We conducted a district-level cross-sectional cluster survey of 1,115 households with a population of 6,845. Interviews were carried out in Mitrovicë district in Northern Kosovo from September to October 2008, using standardised questionnaire to collect lifetime violence exposure, lifestyle factors and health information on individual and household. Results Ethnic Albanians made up 95% of the sample population. Crude mortality and under-five mortality rate was not high in 2008. Over 90% of families had been exposed to at least two categories of violence and human rights violations, and 493 individuals from 341 families reported torture experiences. During the two weeks before the survey, 20% of individuals had suffered physical or mental pain. There were differences in pain complaints according to gender and age, and whether people had been injured within 12 months, had lifetime exposure to violence-related injury, or had been tortured. Patterns of social and political participation in a family could affect the proportion of family members complaining of pain. The proportion of family members with pain complaints was related to a decline in the household income (coef = 9.31, 95% CI = 6.16-12.46, P < 0.001) and the fact of borrowing money (coef = 6.11, 95% CI = 2.91-9.30, P < 0.001) because of an injured person in the household. Families that were affiliated with the Kosovo Liberation Army, or had participated in a protest before or during the war, were likely to be targeted by Serbian paramilitary and law enforcement agencies. Conclusions Mitrovicë district is currently characterised by a low level of violence, but the effects of

  7. Fine-mapping in the MHC region accounts for 18% additional genetic risk for celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Pulit, Sara L.; Trynka, Gosia; Hunt, Karen A.; Romanos, Jihane; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; van Heel, David A.; Wijmenga, Cisca; de Bakker, Paul I.W.

    2015-01-01

    Although dietary gluten is the trigger, celiac disease risk is strongly influenced by genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. We fine-mapped the MHC association signal to identify additional risk factors independent of the HLA-DQ alleles and observed five novel associations that account for 18% of the genetic risk. Together with the 57 known non-MHC loci, genetic variation can now explain up to 48% of celiac disease heritability. PMID:25894500

  8. Preventing nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.

    1981-03-01

    By focusing on military hardware, we ignore the human side of the nuclear war problem and how we think about nuclear weapons. Three sets of assumptions are examined: our goals, the means of pursuing these goals, and how to allocate responsibility. The quest for power and peace, for example, will not be attained by a war of mutual destruction. The assumption that every problem has a military solution forecloses diplomacy and negotiation, approaches that require understanding and reconciling different interests. With no military solution, a new security system should be one of shared responsibility in which each person will seize opportunities that help to educate the public, lead to wiser decisions, and reduce the risk of war. (DCK)

  9. Are major behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors for mortality additive or multiplicative in their effects?

    PubMed

    Mehta, Neil; Preston, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    All individuals are subject to multiple risk factors for mortality. In this paper, we consider the nature of interactions between certain major sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors associated with all-cause mortality in the United States. We develop the formal logic pertaining to two forms of interaction between risk factors, additive and multiplicative relations. We then consider the general circumstances in which additive or multiplicative relations might be expected. We argue that expectations about interactions among socio-demographic variables, and their relation to behavioral variables, have been stated in terms of additivity. However, the statistical models typically used to estimate the relation between risk factors and mortality assume that risk factors act multiplicatively. We examine empirically the nature of interactions among five major risk factors associated with all-cause mortality: smoking, obesity, race, sex, and educational attainment. Data were drawn from the cross-sectional NHANES III (1988-1994) and NHANES 1999-2010 surveys, linked to death records through December 31, 2011. Our analytic sample comprised 35,604 respondents and 5369 deaths. We find that obesity is additive with each of the remaining four variables. We speculate that its additivity is a reflection of the fact that obese status is generally achieved later in life. For all pairings of socio-demographic variables, risks are multiplicative. For survival chances, it is much more dangerous to be poorly educated if you are black or if you are male. And it is much riskier to be a male if you are black. These traits, established at birth or during childhood, literally result in deadly combinations. We conclude that the identification of interactions among risk factors can cast valuable light on the nature of the process being studied. It also has public health implications by identifying especially vulnerable groups and by properly identifying the proportion of deaths

  10. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers. PMID:25951078

  11. The War Against Pests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ray F.

    1973-01-01

    Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)

  12. [World War II 50th Anniversary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeniffer, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This edition of "Loblolly," a periodical published by Texas high school students, commemorates the 50th anniversary of World War II. The volume features remembrances of the War by veterans of Panola County, Texas. In addition to transcriptions of conversations with veterans, reproductions of photographs--some from the war period, some from more…

  13. Rutherford's war

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John

    2016-02-01

    Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.

  14. Understanding the effect of deployment on the risk of fatal motor vehicle crashes: a nested case-control study of fatalities in Gulf War era veterans, 1991-1995.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Tomoko I; Debakey, Samar F; Bellis, Kimberly S; Kang, Han K; Cowan, David N; Lincoln, Andrew E; Gackstetter, Gary D

    2006-05-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are an important cause of morbidity and premature loss of life among military personnel during peacetime and particularly following combat. A nested case-control study of fatal MVC occurring between 1991 and 1995 was conducted in a cohort of Gulf War era veterans. Cases were validated MVC deaths in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Controls were selected using risk set sampling by gender and year of case ascertainment in a 10:1 ratio. Preliminary results, consistent with previous reports of increased fatal MVC risk among returning combat veterans, showed a crude odds ratio of 1.45 (95% confidence interval 1.27-1.65). Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to identify important independent predictors, as well as to quantify the influence of deployment on a risk profile for fatal MVC. Because of significant interaction between deployment and inpatient diagnosis of substance abuse, the final model was stratified by deployment status. Results suggest that demographic, military, and behavioral characteristics of deployed healthy warriors are similar to the risk profile for fatal MVC. In addition to young, single, high school-educated, enlisted male personnel, those who served during times of ground combat, particularly in infantry, gun crews, or seamanship occupations, should be targeted for preventive interventions. PMID:16405857

  15. Complex Factors in the Etiology of Gulf War Illness: Wartime Exposures and Risk Factors in Veteran Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Sastre, Antonio; Gerkovich, Mary M.; Cook, Mary R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: At least one-fourth of U.S. veterans who served in the 1990–1991 Gulf War are affected by the chronic symptomatic illness known as Gulf War illness (GWI). Clear determination of the causes of GWI has been hindered by many factors, including limitations in how epidemiologic studies have assessed the impact of the complex deployment environment on veterans’ health. Objective: We sought to address GWI etiologic questions by evaluating the association of symptomatic illness with characteristics of veterans’ deployment. Methods: We compared veteran-reported wartime experiences in a population-based sample of 304 Gulf War veterans: 144 cases who met preestablished criteria for GWI and 160 controls. Veteran subgroups and confounding among deployment variables were considered in the analyses. Results: Deployment experiences and the prevalence of GWI differed significantly by veterans’ location in theater. Among personnel who were in Iraq or Kuwait, where all battles took place, GWI was most strongly associated with using pyridostigmine bromide pills [odds ratio (OR) = 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7, 7.4] and being within 1 mile of an exploding SCUD missile (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.5, 6.1). For veterans who remained in support areas, GWI was significantly associated only with personal pesticide use, with increased prevalence (OR = 12.7; 95% CI: 2.6, 61.5) in the relatively small subgroup that wore pesticide-treated uniforms, nearly all of whom also used skin pesticides. Combat service was not significantly associated with GWI. Conclusions: Findings support a role for a limited number of wartime exposures in the etiology of GWI, which differed in importance with the deployment milieu in which veterans served. PMID:21930452

  16. Depressive symptoms and other risk factors predicting suicide in middle-aged men: a prospective cohort study among Korean Vietnam War veterans

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background. Few studies have prospectively examined whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are associated with a higher risk of suicide death in individuals other than high-risk populations such as psychiatric patients and individuals with self-harm histories. The purpose of the study is to prospectively examine whether depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are associated with greater risk of suicide death and whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are independent predictors of suicide in general-risk populations. Another aim is to evaluate the sensitivity of the BDI for predicting suicide death. Methods. 10,238 Korean Vietnam War veterans (mean age: 56.3 years) who participated in two surveys in 2001 were followed up for suicide mortality over 7.5 years. Results. 41 men died by suicide. Severely depressed participants had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 3.4; 95% CI [1.5–7.7]) of suicide than non-to-moderately depressed ones. Higher suicide risk was associated with more severe depressive symptoms (p for trend = 0.009). After adjustment for depressive symptoms and other factors, very poor health, low education, and past drinking were associated with higher suicide risk, while good health, body mass index, and marital status were not associated with suicide. The sensitivity at the cut-off score of 31 for detecting suicide was higher during the earlier 3.5 years of the follow-up (75%; 95% CI [50–90]) than during the latter 4 years (60%; 95% CI [41–76]). Conclusions. Depressive symptoms are a strong independent predictor and very poor health, low education, and drinking status may be independent predictors of future suicide. The BDI may have acceptable diagnostic properties as a risk assessment tool for identifying people with depression and suicidal potential among middle-aged men. PMID:26157634

  17. Depressive symptoms and other risk factors predicting suicide in middle-aged men: a prospective cohort study among Korean Vietnam War veterans.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background. Few studies have prospectively examined whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are associated with a higher risk of suicide death in individuals other than high-risk populations such as psychiatric patients and individuals with self-harm histories. The purpose of the study is to prospectively examine whether depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are associated with greater risk of suicide death and whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are independent predictors of suicide in general-risk populations. Another aim is to evaluate the sensitivity of the BDI for predicting suicide death. Methods. 10,238 Korean Vietnam War veterans (mean age: 56.3 years) who participated in two surveys in 2001 were followed up for suicide mortality over 7.5 years. Results. 41 men died by suicide. Severely depressed participants had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 3.4; 95% CI [1.5-7.7]) of suicide than non-to-moderately depressed ones. Higher suicide risk was associated with more severe depressive symptoms (p for trend = 0.009). After adjustment for depressive symptoms and other factors, very poor health, low education, and past drinking were associated with higher suicide risk, while good health, body mass index, and marital status were not associated with suicide. The sensitivity at the cut-off score of 31 for detecting suicide was higher during the earlier 3.5 years of the follow-up (75%; 95% CI [50-90]) than during the latter 4 years (60%; 95% CI [41-76]). Conclusions. Depressive symptoms are a strong independent predictor and very poor health, low education, and drinking status may be independent predictors of future suicide. The BDI may have acceptable diagnostic properties as a risk assessment tool for identifying people with depression and suicidal potential among middle-aged men. PMID:26157634

  18. Water Wars

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder rolesmore » and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.« less

  19. Water Wars

    SciTech Connect

    Clark-Casey, Justin

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder roles and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.

  20. Widespread non-additive and interaction effects within HLA loci modulate the risk of autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Tobias L.; Deutsch, Aaron J.; Han, Buhm; Hu, Xinli; Okada, Yukinori; Eyre, Stephen; Knapp, Michael; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Abecasis, Goncalo; Becker, Jessica; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Chen, Wei-Min; Franke, Andre; Gladman, Dafna D.; Gockel, Ines; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Martin, Javier; Nair, Rajan P.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rahman, Proton; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Stuart, Philip E.; Tsoi, Lam C.; Van Heel, David A.; Worthington, Jane; Wouters, Mira M.; Klareskog, Lars; Elder, James T.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Schumacher, Johannes; Rich, Stephen S.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes confer strong risk for autoimmune diseases on a log-additive scale. Here we speculated that differences in autoantigen binding repertoires between a heterozygote’s two expressed HLA variants may result in additional non-additive risk effects. We tested non-additive disease contributions of classical HLA alleles in patients and matched controls for five common autoimmune diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA, Ncases=5,337), type 1 diabetes (T1D, Ncases=5,567), psoriasis vulgaris (Ncases=3,089), idiopathic achalasia (Ncases=727), and celiac disease (Ncases=11,115). In four out of five diseases, we observed highly significant non-additive dominance effects (RA: P=2.5×1012; T1D: P=2.4×10−10; psoriasis: P=5.9×10−6; celiac disease: P=1.2×10−87). In three of these diseases, the dominance effects were explained by interactions between specific classical HLA alleles (RA: P=1.8×10−3; T1D: P=8.6×1027; celiac disease: P=6.0×10−100). These interactions generally increased disease risk and explained moderate but significant fractions of phenotypic variance (RA: 1.4%, T1D: 4.0%, and celiac disease: 4.1%, beyond a simple additive model). PMID:26258845

  1. 42 CFR 417.442 - Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of additional benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of additional benefits. 417.442 Section 417.442 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS,...

  2. 42 CFR 417.442 - Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of additional benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of additional benefits. 417.442 Section 417.442 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS,...

  3. Cardiovascular risk assessment: addition of CKD and race to the Framingham equation

    PubMed Central

    Drawz, Paul E.; Baraniuk, Sarah; Davis, Barry R.; Brown, Clinton D.; Colon, Pedro J.; Cujyet, Aloysius B.; Dart, Richard A.; Graumlich, James F.; Henriquez, Mario A.; Moloo, Jamaluddin; Sakalayen, Mohammed G.; Simmons, Debra L.; Stanford, Carol; Sweeney, Mary Ellen; Wong, Nathan D.; Rahman, Mahboob

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims The value of the Framingham equation in predicting cardiovascular risk in African Americans and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unclear. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether the addition of CKD and race to the Framingham equation improves risk stratification in hypertensive patients. Methods Participants in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) were studied. Those randomized to doxazosin, age greater than 74 years, and those with a history of coronary heart disease (CHD) were excluded. Two risk stratification models were developed using Cox proportional hazards models in a two-thirds developmental sample. The first model included the traditional Framingham risk factors. The second model included the traditional risk factors plus CKD, defined by eGFR categories, and stratification by race (Black vs. Non-Black). The primary outcome was a composite of fatal CHD, nonfatal MI, coronary revascularization, and hospitalized angina. Results There were a total of 19,811 eligible subjects. In the validation cohort, there was no difference in C-statistics between the Framingham equation and the ALLHAT model including CKD and race. This was consistent across subgroups by race and gender and among those with CKD. One exception was among Non-Black women where the C-statistic was higher for the Framingham equation (0.68 vs 0.65, P=0.02). Additionally, net reclassification improvement was not significant for any subgroup based on race and gender, ranging from −5.5% to 4.4%. Conclusion The addition of CKD status and stratification by race does not improve risk prediction in high-risk hypertensive patients. PMID:23194494

  4. Improving coeliac disease risk prediction by testing non-HLA variants additional to HLA variants

    PubMed Central

    Romanos, Jihane; Rosén, Anna; Kumar, Vinod; Trynka, Gosia; Franke, Lude; Szperl, Agata; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; van Diemen, Cleo C; Kanninga, Roan; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A; Steck, Andrea; Eisenbarth, Georges; van Heel, David A; Cukrowska, Bozena; Bruno, Valentina; Mazzilli, Maria Cristina; Núñez, Concepcion; Bilbao, Jose Ramon; Mearin, M Luisa; Barisani, Donatella; Rewers, Marian; Norris, Jill M; Ivarsson, Anneli; Boezen, H Marieke; Liu, Edwin; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of coeliac disease (CD) patients are not being properly diagnosed and therefore remain untreated, leading to a greater risk of developing CD-associated complications. The major genetic risk heterodimer, HLA-DQ2 and DQ8, is already used clinically to help exclude disease. However, approximately 40% of the population carry these alleles and the majority never develop CD. Objective We explored whether CD risk prediction can be improved by adding non-HLA-susceptible variants to common HLA testing. Design We developed an average weighted genetic risk score with 10, 26 and 57 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 2675 cases and 2815 controls and assessed the improvement in risk prediction provided by the non-HLA SNP. Moreover, we assessed the transferability of the genetic risk model with 26 non-HLA variants to a nested case–control population (n=1709) and a prospective cohort (n=1245) and then tested how well this model predicted CD outcome for 985 independent individuals. Results Adding 57 non-HLA variants to HLA testing showed a statistically significant improvement compared to scores from models based on HLA only, HLA plus 10 SNP and HLA plus 26 SNP. With 57 non-HLA variants, the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve reached 0.854 compared to 0.823 for HLA only, and 11.1% of individuals were reclassified to a more accurate risk group. We show that the risk model with HLA plus 26 SNP is useful in independent populations. Conclusions Predicting risk with 57 additional non-HLA variants improved the identification of potential CD patients. This demonstrates a possible role for combined HLA and non-HLA genetic testing in diagnostic work for CD. PMID:23704318

  5. Possible effects of protracted exposure on the additivity of risks from space radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. B.

    1996-01-01

    Conventional radiation risk assessments are presently based on the additivity assumption. This assumption states that risks from individual components of a complex radiation field involving many different types of radiation can be added to yield the total risk of the complex radiation field. If the assumption is not correct, the summations and integrations performed to obtain the presently quoted risk estimates are not appropriate. This problem is particularly important in the area of space radiation risk evaluation because of the many different types of high- and low-LET radiation present in the galactic cosmic ray environment. For both low- and high-LET radiations at low enough dose rates, the present convention is that the addivity assumption holds. Mathematically, the total risk, Rtot is assumed to be Rtot = summation (i) Ri where the summation runs over the different types of radiation present. If the total dose (or fluence) from each component is such that the interaction between biological lesions caused by separate single track traversals is negligible within a given cell, it is presently considered to be reasonable to accept the additivity assumption. However, when the exposure is protracted over many cell doubling times (as will be the case for extended missions to the moon or Mars), the possibility exists that radiation effects that depend on multiple cellular events over a long time period, such as is probably the case in radiation-induced carcinogenesis, may not be additive in the above sense and the exposure interval may have to be included in the evaluation procedure. It is shown, however, that "inverse" dose-rate effects are not expected from intermediate LET radiations arising from the galactic cosmic ray environment due to the "sensitive-window-in-the-cell-cycle" hypothesis.

  6. The Forgotten War: Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Dan B.; Kaufman, Burton I.

    1990-01-01

    Evaluates the coverage of the Korean War in 12 high school history textbooks. Lists the books, and reviews the coverage of each in the areas of: total coverage and illustrations; Korean war background; causes of the War; the Truman response; waging the War; the Truman-MacArthur controversy; and the results of the War. (GG)

  7. A large cross-sectional study of health attitudes, knowledge, behaviour and risks in the post-war Croatian population (the First Croatian Health Project).

    PubMed

    Turek, S; Rudan, I; Smolej-Narancić, N; Szirovicza, L; Cubrilo-Turek, M; Zerjavić-Hrabak, V; Rak-Kaić, A; Vrhovski-Hebrang, D; Prebeg, Z; Ljubicić, M; Janićijević, B; Rudan, P

    2001-06-01

    As the liberation of occupied Croatian territories ended the war in the country in 1995, the Ministry of Health and Croatian Health Insurance Institute have agreed to create the new framework for developing a long-term strategy of public health planning, prevention and intervention. They provided financial resources to develop the First Croatian Health Project, the rest of the support coming from the World Bank loan and the National Institute of Public Health. A large cross-sectional study was designed aiming to assess health attitudes, knowledge, behaviour and risks in the post-war Croatian population. The large field study was carried out by the Institute for Anthropological Research with technical support from the National Institute of Public Health. The field study was completed between 1995-1997. It included about 10,000 adult volunteers from all 21 Croatian counties. The geographic distribution of the sample covered both coastal and continental areas of Croatia and included rural and urban environments. The specific measurements included antropometry (body mass index and blood pressure). From each examinee a blood sample was collected from which the levels of total plasma cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL-cholesterol (High Density Lipoprotein), LDL-cholesterol (Low Density Lipoprotein), lipoprotein Lp(a), and haemostatic risk factor fibrinogen (F) were determined. The detailed data were collected on the general knowledge and attitudes on health issues, followed by specific investigation of smoking history, alcohol consumption, nutrition habits, physical activity, family history of chronic non-communicable diseases and occupational exposures. From the initial database a targeted sample of 5,840 persons of both sexes, aged 18-65, was created corresponding by age, sex and geographic distribution to the general Croatian population. This paper summarises and discusses the main findings of the project within this representative sample of Croatian population

  8. Behavioral, Ventilatory and Thermoregulatory Responses to Hypercapnia and Hypoxia in the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) Strain

    PubMed Central

    Giusti, Humberto; Oliveira, José Antonio; Glass, Mogens Lesner; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the behavioral, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses elicited by acute exposure to both hypercapnic and hypoxic environments in Wistar audiogenic rats (WARs). The WAR strain represents a genetic animal model of epilepsy. Methods Behavioral analyses were performed using neuroethological methods, and flowcharts were constructed to illustrate behavioral findings. The body plethysmography method was used to obtain pulmonary ventilation (VE) measurements, and body temperature (Tb) measurements were taken via temperature sensors implanted in the abdominal cavities of the animals. Results No significant difference was observed between the WAR and Wistar control group with respect to the thermoregulatory response elicited by exposure to both acute hypercapnia and acute hypoxia (p>0.05). However, we found that the VE of WARs was attenuated relative to that of Wistar control animals during exposure to both hypercapnic (WAR: 133 ± 11% vs. Wistar: 243 ± 23%, p<0.01) and hypoxic conditions (WAR: 138 ± 8% vs. Wistar: 177 ± 8%; p<0.01). In addition, we noted that this ventilatory attenuation was followed by alterations in the behavioral responses of these animals. Conclusions Our results indicate that WARs, a genetic model of epilepsy, have important alterations in their ability to compensate for changes in levels of various arterial blood gasses. WARs present an attenuated ventilatory response to an increased PaCO2 or decreased PaO2, coupled to behavioral changes, which make them a suitable model to further study respiratory risks associated to epilepsy. PMID:27149672

  9. Status of Environmental Management Initiatives to Accelerate the Reduction of Environmental Risks and Challenges Posed by the Legacy of the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years of nuclear weapons production and energy research in the United States during the Cold War generated large amounts of radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), excess plutonium and uranium, thousands of contaminated facilities, and contaminated soil and groundwater. During most of that half century, the Nation did not have the environmental regulatory structure or nuclear waste cleanup technologies that exist today. The result was a legacy of nuclear waste that was stored and disposed of in ways now considered unacceptable. Cleaning up and ultimately disposing of these wastes is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In 1989, DOE established the Office of Environmental Management (EM) to solve the large scale and technically challenging risks posed by the world's largest nuclear cleanup. This required EM to build a new nuclear cleanup infrastructure, assemble and train a technically specialized workforce, and develop the technologies and tools required to safely decontaminate, disassemble, stabilize, disposition, and remediate unique radiation hazards. The sites where nuclear activities produced legacy waste and contamination include the original Manhattan Project sites--Los Alamos, New Mexico; Hanford, Washington; and Oak Ridge, Tennessee--as well as major Cold War sites, such as Savannah River Site, South Carolina; the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho; Rocky Flats Plant, Colorado; and Fernald, Ohio. Today EM has responsibility for nuclear cleanup activities at 21 sites covering more than two million acres in 13 states, and employs more than 30,000 Federal and contractor employees, including scientists, engineers and hazardous waste technicians. This cleanup poses unique, technically complex problems, which must be solved under the most hazardous of conditions, and which will require billions of dollars a year for several more decades. The EM program focus during its first 10 years was on managing the most urgent risks and

  10. MTHFR homozygous mutation and additional risk factors for cerebral infarction in a large Italian family.

    PubMed

    Del Balzo, Francesca; Spalice, Alberto; Perla, Massimo; Properzi, Enrico; Iannetti, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Several cases with cerebral infarctions associated with the C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have been reported. Given the large number of asymptomatic individuals with the MTHFR mutation, additional risk factors for cerebral infarction should be considered. This study describes a large family with the MTHFR mutation and a combination of heterozygous factor V Leiden mutations and different additional exogenous and endogenous thrombogenic risk factors. Psychomotor retardation and a left fronto-insular infarct associated with the MTHFR mutation together with diminished factor VII and low level of protein C was documented in the first patient. In the second patient, generalized epilepsy and a malacic area in the right nucleus lenticularis was associated with the MTHFR mutation and a low level of protein C. In the third patient, right hemiparesis and a left fronto-temporal porencephalic cyst were documented, together with the MTHFR mutation and hyperhomocysteinemia. An extensive search of additional circumstantial and genetic thrombogenic risk factors should be useful for prophylaxis and prognosis of infants with cerebral infarctions associated with the MTHFR mutation and of their related family members. PMID:19068258

  11. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Health Risk Behaviors among Afghanistan and Iraq War Veterans Attending College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widome, Rachel; Kehle, Shannon M.; Carlson, Kathleen F.; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Gulden, Ashley; Lust, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine if post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with health risk behaviors among Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans attending college. Method: Using 2008 Boynton College Student Health Survey data, we tested associations between self-reported PTSD diagnosis and self-reported risk behaviors…

  12. Estimation of radiation risk in presence of classical additive and Berkson multiplicative errors in exposure doses.

    PubMed

    Masiuk, S V; Shklyar, S V; Kukush, A G; Carroll, R J; Kovgan, L N; Likhtarov, I A

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the influence of measurement errors in exposure doses in a regression model with binary response is studied. Recently, it has been recognized that uncertainty in exposure dose is characterized by errors of two types: classical additive errors and Berkson multiplicative errors. The combination of classical additive and Berkson multiplicative errors has not been considered in the literature previously. In a simulation study based on data from radio-epidemiological research of thyroid cancer in Ukraine caused by the Chornobyl accident, it is shown that ignoring measurement errors in doses leads to overestimation of background prevalence and underestimation of excess relative risk. In the work, several methods to reduce these biases are proposed. They are new regression calibration, an additive version of efficient SIMEX, and novel corrected score methods. PMID:26795191

  13. Risk assessment of additives through soft drinks and nectars consumption on Portuguese population: a 2010 survey.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Janina S G; Silva, Liliana S O; Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether the Portuguese population is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, aspartame, caffeine, benzoic and sorbic acid through an assessment of dietary intake of additives and specific consumption of four types of beverages, traditional soft drinks and soft drinks based on mineral waters, energetic drinks, and nectars. The highest mean levels of additives were found for caffeine in energetic drinks, 293.5mg/L, for saccharin in traditional soft drinks, 18.4 mg/L, for acesulfame-K and aspartame in nectars, with 88.2 and 97.8 mg/L, respectively, for benzoic acid in traditional soft drinks, 125.7 mg/L, and for sorbic acid in soft drinks based on mineral water, 166.5 mg/L. Traditional soft drinks presented the highest acceptable daily intake percentages (ADIs%) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, benzoic and sorbic acid and similar value for saccharin (0.5%) when compared with soft drinks based on mineral water, 0.7%, 0.08%, 7.3%, and 1.92% versus 0.2%, 0.053%, 0.6%, and 0.28%, respectively. However for saccharin the highest percentage of ADI was obtained for nectars, 0.9%, in comparison with both types of soft drinks, 0.5%. Therefore, it is concluded that the Portuguese population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for the studied additives. PMID:24036138

  14. Additive genetic risk from five serotonin system polymorphisms interacts with interpersonal stress to predict depression.

    PubMed

    Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Stroud, Catherine B; Mineka, Susan; Zinbarg, Richard E; Adam, Emma K; Redei, Eva E; Hammen, Constance; Craske, Michelle G

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral genetic research supports polygenic models of depression in which many genetic variations each contribute a small amount of risk, and prevailing diathesis-stress models suggest gene-environment interactions (G×E). Multilocus profile scores of additive risk offer an approach that is consistent with polygenic models of depression risk. In a first demonstration of this approach in a G×E predicting depression, we created an additive multilocus profile score from 5 serotonin system polymorphisms (1 each in the genes HTR1A, HTR2A, HTR2C, and 2 in TPH2). Analyses focused on 2 forms of interpersonal stress as environmental risk factors. Using 5 years of longitudinal diagnostic and life stress interviews from 387 emerging young adults in the Youth Emotion Project, survival analyses show that this multilocus profile score interacts with major interpersonal stressful life events to predict major depressive episode onsets (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.815, p = .007). Simultaneously, there was a significant protective effect of the profile score without a recent event (HR = 0.83, p = .030). The G×E effect with interpersonal chronic stress was not significant (HR = 1.15, p = .165). Finally, effect sizes for genetic factors examined ignoring stress suggested such an approach could lead to overlooking or misinterpreting genetic effects. Both the G×E effect and the protective simple main effect were replicated in a sample of early adolescent girls (N = 105). We discuss potential benefits of the multilocus genetic profile score approach and caveats for future research. PMID:26595467

  15. Epidemiological study of suicide in the Republic of Croatia -- comparison of war and post-war periods and areas directly and indirectly affected by war.

    PubMed

    Grubisić-Ilić, Mirjana; Kozarić-Kovacić, Dragica; Grubisić, Frane; Kovacić, Zrnka

    2002-09-01

    We examined the differences in the suicide characteristics between areas directly and indirectly affected by war activities and in war and post-war periods according to the following variables: suicide rate, sex, age and method of suicide. Analysis was done on 5349 suicides committed in the period 1993-1998 (war and post-war years). The suicide rates in the Republic of Croatia oscillated in the pre-war, war and post-war periods (1985-2000) but without significant differences. In the areas directly affected by war, the suicide rate was significantly lower than in other areas during the study period 1993-1998 (chi-square = 10.3245; P = 0.0017). The number of suicides in both sexes declined in the areas directly affected by war-more in men than in women; the difference between sexes was statistically significant (chi-square = 3.6697; P = 0.055). Middle- and old-aged people were the population with high suicide risk in both areas (t = 1.76; P = 0.078). There were significant differences in the methods of suicides between war and non-war areas (chi-square = 108.8473; P = 0.001). Firearms or explosive devices were the methods used more significantly for suicides in the areas directly affected by war than in other areas, whereas hanging was more frequently used in the areas indirectly affected by war. PMID:12381495

  16. Vietnam: Historians at War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should not have fought,…

  17. War and Children's Mortality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton-Ford, Steve; Houston, Paula; Hamill, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Examines impact of war on young children's mortality in 137 countries. Finds that years recently at war (1990-5) interact with years previously at war (1946-89) to elevate mortality rates. Religious composition interacts with years recently at war to reduce effect. Controlling for women's literacy and access to safe water eliminates effect for…

  18. Relative Importance and Additive Effects of Maternal and Infant Risk Factors on Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; James, Kristina; Escobar, Gabriel; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Li, Sherian Xu; Carroll, Kecia N.; Walsh, Eileen; Mitchel, Edward; Das, Suman; Kumar, Rajesh; Yu, Chang; Dupont, William D.; Hartert, Tina V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma. Methods We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma) cohort. The individual and cumulative impact of maternal urinary tract infections (UTI) during pregnancy, maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS), mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and older siblings at home, on the risk of childhood asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response effect on childhood asthma risk was assessed for continuous risk factors: number of maternal UTIs during pregnancy, courses of infant antibiotics, and number of older siblings at home. We further assessed and compared the relative importance of these exposures on the asthma risk. In a subgroup of children for whom maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy information was available, the effect of maternal antibiotic use on the risk of childhood asthma was estimated. Results Among 136,098 singleton birth infants, 13.29% developed asthma. In both univariate and adjusted analyses, maternal UTI during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.25; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.02, 1.07 for every additional UTI) and infant antibiotic use (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.20, 1.22; AOR 1.16, 95%CI 1.15, 1.17 for every additional course) were associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, while having older siblings at home (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.91, 0.93; AOR 0.85, 95%CI 0.84, 0.87 for each additional sibling) was associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with vaginal

  19. THE COMBINED CARCINOGENIC RISK FOR EXPOSURE TO MIXTURES OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS MAY BE LESS THAN ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Combined Carcinogenic Risk for Exposure to Mixtures of Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products May be Less Than Additive

    Risk assessment methods for chemical mixtures in drinking water are not well defined. Current default risk assessments for chemical mixtures assume...

  20. Suicide among War Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Rozanov, Vsevolod; Carli, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles. PMID:22851956

  1. Common genetic variants, acting additively, are a major source of risk for autism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are early onset neurodevelopmental syndromes typified by impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication, accompanied by restricted and repetitive behaviors. While rare and especially de novo genetic variation are known to affect liability, whether common genetic polymorphism plays a substantial role is an open question and the relative contribution of genes and environment is contentious. It is probable that the relative contributions of rare and common variation, as well as environment, differs between ASD families having only a single affected individual (simplex) versus multiplex families who have two or more affected individuals. Methods By using quantitative genetics techniques and the contrast of ASD subjects to controls, we estimate what portion of liability can be explained by additive genetic effects, known as narrow-sense heritability. We evaluate relatives of ASD subjects using the same methods to evaluate the assumptions of the additive model and partition families by simplex/multiplex status to determine how heritability changes with status. Results By analyzing common variation throughout the genome, we show that common genetic polymorphism exerts substantial additive genetic effects on ASD liability and that simplex/multiplex family status has an impact on the identified composition of that risk. As a fraction of the total variation in liability, the estimated narrow-sense heritability exceeds 60% for ASD individuals from multiplex families and is approximately 40% for simplex families. By analyzing parents, unaffected siblings and alleles not transmitted from parents to their affected children, we conclude that the data for simplex ASD families follow the expectation for additive models closely. The data from multiplex families deviate somewhat from an additive model, possibly due to parental assortative mating. Conclusions Our results, when viewed in the context of results from genome

  2. Additive Genetic Variation in Schizophrenia Risk Is Shared by Populations of African and European Descent

    PubMed Central

    de Candia, Teresa R.; Lee, S. Hong; Yang, Jian; Browning, Brian L.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Hewitt, John K.; Goddard, Michael E.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Posthuma, Danielle; Visscher, Peter M.; Wray, Naomi R.; Keller, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the extent to which the proportion of schizophrenia’s additive genetic variation tagged by SNPs is shared by populations of European and African descent, we analyzed the largest combined African descent (AD [n = 2,142]) and European descent (ED [n = 4,990]) schizophrenia case-control genome-wide association study (GWAS) data set available, the Molecular Genetics of Schizophrenia (MGS) data set. We show how a method that uses genomic similarities at measured SNPs to estimate the additive genetic correlation (SNP correlation [SNP-rg]) between traits can be extended to estimate SNP-rg for the same trait between ethnicities. We estimated SNP-rg for schizophrenia between the MGS ED and MGS AD samples to be 0.66 (SE = 0.23), which is significantly different from 0 (p(SNP-rg = 0) = 0.0003), but not 1 (p(SNP-rg = 1) = 0.26). We re-estimated SNP-rg between an independent ED data set (n = 6,665) and the MGS AD sample to be 0.61 (SE = 0.21, p(SNP-rg = 0) = 0.0003, p(SNP-rg = 1) = 0.16). These results suggest that many schizophrenia risk alleles are shared across ethnic groups and predate African-European divergence. PMID:23954163

  3. CHARACTERIZE AGGREGATE AND CUMULATIVE RISK TO MANAGE RISK TO HUMANS EXPOSED TO MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS: DOSE ADDITIVITY FOR PESTICIDE MIXTURES: BEHAVIORAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SUMMARY: The Agency’s default assumption for the cumulative assessment of the risk of mixtures is additivity based on either single-chemical potency (dose addition) or single-chemical effects (effect addition). NTD is developing models to accurately predict effects of complex mix...

  4. The addition of whole soy flour to cafeteria diet reduces metabolic risk markers in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Soybean is termed a functional food because it contains bioactive compounds. However, its effects are not well known under unbalanced diet conditions. This work is aimed at evaluating the effect of adding whole soy flour to a cafeteria diet on intestinal histomorphometry, metabolic risk and toxicity markers in rats. Methods In this study, 30 male adult Wistar rats were used, distributed among three groups (n = 10): AIN-93 M diet, cafeteria diet (CAF) and cafeteria diet with soy flour (CAFS), for 56 days. The following parameters were measured: food intake; weight gain; serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS); humidity and lipid fecal content; weight and fat of the liver. The villous height, the crypt depth and the thickness of the duodenal and ileal circular and longitudinal muscle layers of the animals were also measured. Results There was a significant reduction in the food intake in the CAF group. The CAFS showed lower serum concentrations of triglycerides and serum TBARS and a lower percentage of hepatic fat, with a corresponding increase in thickness of the intestinal muscle layers. In the CAF group, an increase in the HbA1c, ALT, lipid excretion, liver TBARS and crypt depth, was observed associated with lower HDL-c and villous height. The addition of soy did not promote any change in these parameters. Conclusions The inclusion of whole soy flour in a high-fat diet may be helpful in reducing some markers of metabolic risk; however, more studies are required to clarify its effects on unbalanced diets. PMID:24119309

  5. Early Korean War Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Raymond S. H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the themes of the war front news reported in certain South Korean and United States newspapers during the first 16 days of the Korean War; attempts to determine significant differences in the themes of war front news between the Korean and United States papers. (Author/GT)

  6. Science and War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Alex

    1985-01-01

    Provides a wide-ranging survey of relations between war, science, and technology from the days of the American colonies to the Vietnam War, indicating that the overall impact of science and technology on war has been overstated by historians in many fields. Includes military histories that science/technology historians have not used. (JN)

  7. Risk assessment for the combinational effects of food color additives: neural progenitor cells and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Mikyung; Park, Hee Ra; Kim, So Jung; Kim, Min-Sun; Kong, Kyoung Hye; Kim, Hyun Soo; Gong, Ein Ji; Kim, Mi Eun; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung Mu; Lee, Jaewon

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, the Korea Food and Drug Administration reported that combinations of dietary colors such as allura red AC (R40), tartrazine (Y4), sunset yellow FCF (Y5), amaranth (R2), and brilliant blue FCF (B1) are widely used in food manufacturing. Although individual tar food colors are controlled based on acceptable daily intake (ADI), there is no apparent information available for how combinations of these additives affect food safety. In the current study, the potencies of single and combination use of R40, Y4, Y5, R2, and B1 were examined on neural progenitor cell (NPC) toxicity, a biomarker for developmental stage, and neurogenesis, indicative of adult central nervous system (CNS) functions. R40 and R2 reduced NPC proliferation and viability in mouse multipotent NPC, in the developing CNS model. Among several combinations tested in mouse model, combination of Y4 and B1 at 1000-fold higher than average daily intake in Korea significantly decreased numbers of newly generated cells in adult mouse hippocampus, indicating potent adverse actions on hippocampal neurogenesis. However, other combinations including R40 and R2 did not affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Evidence indicates that single and combination use of most tar food colors may be safe with respect to risk using developmental NPC and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the response to excessively high dose combination of Y4 and B1 is suggestive of synergistic effects to suppress proliferation of NPC in adult hippocampus. Data indicated that combinations of tar colors may adversely affect both developmental and adult hippocampal neurogenesis; thus, further extensive studies are required to assess the safety of these additive combinations. PMID:20077213

  8. Serum Total Bilirubin Levels Provide Additive Risk Information over the Framingham Risk Score for Identifying Asymptomatic Diabetic Patients at Higher Risk for Coronary Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Leem, Jaechan; Koh, Eun Hee; Jang, Jung Eun; Woo, Chang-Yun; Oh, Jin Sun; Lee, Min Jung; Kang, Joon-Won; Lim, Tae-Hwan; Jung, Chang Hee; Lee, Woo Je; Park, Joong-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) is often delayed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Serum total bilirubin levels are inversely associated with CAD. However, no studies have examined whether this can be used as a biochemical marker for identifying asymptomatic diabetic patients at higher risk for having obstructive CAD. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 460 consecutive asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes. All patients underwent coronary computed tomographic angiography, and their serum total bilirubin levels were measured. Obstructive CAD was defined as ≥50% diameter stenosis in at least one coronary artery. Results Serum total bilirubin tertiles showed an inverse association with the prevalence of obstructive CAD. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for the highest versus the lowest tertile of total bilirubin was 0.227 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.130 to 0.398), and an increment of 1 µmol/L in serum total bilirubin level was associated with a 14.6% decrease in obstructive CAD after adjustment for confounding variables. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the area under the curve for the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) plus serum total bilirubin level was 0.712 (95% CI, 0.668 to 0.753), which is significantly greater than that of the FRS alone (P=0.0028). Conclusion Serum total bilirubin level is inversely associated with obstructive CAD and provides additive risk information over the FRS. Serum total bilirubin may be helpful for identifying asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes who are at higher risk for obstructive CAD. PMID:26566499

  9. The risk of stillbirth and infant death by each additional week of expectant management stratified by maternal age

    PubMed Central

    Page, Jessica M.; Snowden, Jonathan M.; Cheng, Yvonne W.; Doss, Amy; Rosenstein, Melissa G.; Caughey, Aaron B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to examine fetal/infant mortality by gestational age at term stratified by maternal age. STUDY DESIGN A retrospective cohort study was conducted using 2005 US national birth certificate data. For each week of term gestation, the risk of mortality associated with delivery was compared with composite mortality risk of expectant management. The expectant management measure included stillbirth and infant death. This expectant management risk was calculated to estimate the composite mortality risk with remaining pregnant an additional week by combining the risk of stillbirth during the additional week of pregnancy and infant death risk following delivery at the next week. Maternal age was stratified by 35 years or more compared with women younger than 35 years as well as subgroup analyses of younger than 20, 20–34, 35–39, or 40 years old or older. RESULTS The fetal/infant mortality risk of expectant management is greater than the risk of infant death at 39 weeks’ gestation in women 35 years old or older (15.2 vs 10.9 of 10,000, P < .05). In women younger than 35 years old, the risk of expectant management also exceeded that of infant death at 39 weeks (21.3 vs 18.8 of 10,000, P < .05). For women younger than 35 years old, the overall expectant management risk is influenced by higher infant death risk and does not rise significantly until 41 weeks compared with women 35 years old or older in which it increased at 40 weeks. CONCLUSION Risk varies by maternal age, and delivery at 39 weeks minimizes fetal/infant mortality for both groups, although the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater in older women. PMID:23707677

  10. Increased Risk of Additional Cancers Among Patients with Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, James D.; Ma, Grace L.; Baumgartner, Joel M.; Madlensky, Lisa; Burgoyne, Adam M.; Tang, Chih-Min; Martinez, Maria Elena; Sicklick, Jason K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are considered non-hereditary or sporadic. However, single-institution studies suggest that GIST patients develop additional malignancies with increased frequencies. We hypothesized that we could gain greater insight into possible associations between GIST and other malignancies using a national cancer database inquiry. Methods Patients diagnosed with GIST (2001–2011) in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database were included. Standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to quantify cancer risks incurred by GIST patients before and after GIST diagnoses, respectively, when compared with the general U.S. population. Results Of 6,112 GIST patients, 1,047 (17.1%) had additional cancers. There were significant increases in overall cancer rates: 44% (SPR=1.44) before diagnosis and 66% (SIR=1.66) after GIST diagnoses. Malignancies with significantly increased occurrence both before/after diagnoses included other sarcomas (SPR=5.24/SIR=4.02), neuroendocrine-carcinoid tumors (SPR=3.56/SIR=4.79), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (SPR=1.69/SIR=1.76), and colorectal adenocarcinoma (SPR=1.51/SIR=2.16). Esophageal adenocarcinoma (SPR=12.0), bladder adenocarcinoma (SPR=7.51), melanoma (SPR=1.46), and prostate adenocarcinoma (SPR=1.20) were significantly more common only before GIST. Ovarian carcinoma (SIR=8.72), small intestine adenocarcinoma (SIR=5.89), papillary thyroid cancer (SIR=5.16), renal cell carcinoma (SIR=4.46), hepatobiliary adenocarcinomas (SIR=3.10), gastric adenocarcinoma (SIR=2.70), pancreatic adenocarcinoma (SIR=2.03), uterine adenocarcinoma (SIR=1.96), non-small cell lung cancer (SIR=1.74), and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (SIR=1.65) were significantly more common only after GIST. Conclusion This is the first population-based study to characterize the associations and temporal relationships between GIST and other cancers, both by site and

  11. Adverse health consequences of the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2015-01-01

    The 40th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War is a useful time to review the adverse health consequences of that war and to identify and address serious problems related to armed conflict, such as the protection of noncombatant civilians. More than 58,000 U.S. servicemembers died during the war and more than 150,000 were wounded. Many suffered from posttraumatic stress disorders and other mental disorders and from the long-term consequences of physical injuries. However, morbidity and mortality, although difficult to determine precisely, was substantially higher among the Vietnamese people, with at least two million of them dying during the course of the war. In addition, more than one million Vietnamese were forced to migrate during the war and its aftermath, including many "boat people" who died at sea during attempts to flee. Wars continue to kill and injure large numbers of noncombatant civilians and continue to damage the health-supporting infrastructure of society, expose civilians to toxic chemicals, forcibly displace many people, and divert resources away from services to benefit noncombatant civilians. Health professionals can play important roles in promoting the protection of noncombatant civilians during war and helping to prevent war and create a culture of peace. PMID:26754766

  12. Vulnerability to high risk sexual behaviour (HRSB) following exposure to war trauma as seen in post-conflict communities in eastern uganda: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Much of the literature on the relationship between conflict-related trauma and high risk sexual behaviour (HRSB) often focuses on refugees and not mass in-country displaced people due to armed conflicts. There is paucity of research about contexts underlying HRSB and HIV/AIDS in conflict and post-conflict communities in Uganda. Understanding factors that underpin vulnerability to HRSB in post-conflict communities is vital in designing HIV/AIDS prevention interventions. We explored the socio-cultural factors, social interactions, socio-cultural practices, social norms and social network structures that underlie war trauma and vulnerability to HRSB in a post-conflict population. Methods We did a cross-sectional qualitative study of 3 sub-counties in Katakwi district and 1 in Amuria in Uganda between March and May 2009. We collected data using 8 FGDs, 32 key informant interviews and 16 in-depth interviews. We tape-recorded and transcribed the data. We followed thematic analysis principles to manage, analyse and interpret the data. We constantly identified and compared themes and sub-themes in the dataset as we read the transcripts. We used illuminating verbatim quotations to illustrate major findings. Results The commonly identified HRSB behaviours include; transactional sex, sexual predation, multiple partners, early marriages and forced marriages. Breakdown of the social structure due to conflict had resulted in economic destruction and a perceived soaring of vulnerable people whose propensity to HRSB is high. Dishonour of sexual sanctity through transactional sex and practices like incest mirrored the consequence of exposure to conflict. HRSB was associated with concentration of people in camps where idleness and unemployment were the norm. Reports of girls and women who had been victims of rape and defilement by men with guns were common. Many people were known to have started to display persistent worries, hopelessness, and suicidal ideas and to abuse

  13. To Win a Nuclear War: The Pentagon's secret war plans

    SciTech Connect

    Kaku, M.; Axelrod, D.

    1986-01-01

    Kaku and Axelrod trace the evolution of the strategies and technologies of nuclear war planning, and the personalities of the planners, through post-war foreign policy from the Berlin Crisis to Star Wars. To Win a Nuclear War takes readers beyond the details of the costs of nuclear attack into the attitudes of war planners and Presidents from Eisenhower to Reagan.

  14. [Risk hidden in the small print? : Some food additives may trigger pseudoallergic reactions].

    PubMed

    Zuberbier, Torsten; Hengstenberg, Claudine

    2016-06-01

    Some food additives may trigger pseudoallergenic reactions. However, the prevalence of such an overreaction is - despite the increasing number of food additives - rather low in the general population. The most common triggers of pseudoallergic reactions to food are naturally occurring ingredients. However, symptoms in patients with chronic urticaria should improve significantly on a pseudoallergen-free diet. In addition, some studies indicate that certain food additives may also have an impact on the symptoms of patients with neurodermatitis and asthma. PMID:27173908

  15. How to interpret a small increase in AUC with an additional risk prediction marker: Decision analysis comes through

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Stuart G.; Schuit, Ewoud; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Pencina, Michael J.; Vickers, Andew; Moons, Karel G. M.; Mol, Ben W.J.; Lindeman, Karen S.

    2014-01-01

    An important question in the evaluation of an additional risk prediction marker is how to interpret a small increase in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Many researchers believe that a change in AUC is a poor metric because it increases only slightly with the addition of a marker with a large odds ratio. Because it is not possible on purely statistical grounds to choose between the odds ratio and AUC, we invoke decision analysis, which incorporates costs and benefits. For example a timely estimate of the risk of later non-elective operative delivery can help a woman in labor decide if she wants an early elective cesarean section to avoid greater complications from possible later non-elective operative delivery. A basic risk prediction model for later non-elective operative delivery involves only antepartum markers. Because adding intrapartum markers to this risk prediction model increases AUC by 0.02, we questioned whether this small improvement is worthwhile. A key decision-analytic quantity is the risk threshold, here the risk of later non-elective operative delivery at which a patient would be indifferent between an early elective cesarean section and usual care. For a range of risk thresholds, we found that an increase in the net benefit of risk prediction requires collecting intrapartum marker data on 68 to 124 women for every correct prediction of later non-elective operative delivery. Because data collection is non-invasive, this test tradeoff of 68 to 124 is clinically acceptable, indicating the value of adding intrapartum markers to the risk prediction model. PMID:24825728

  16. USING DOSE ADDITION TO ESTIMATE CUMULATIVE RISKS FROM EXPOSURES TO MULTIPLE CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 requires the EPA to consider the cumulative risk from exposure to multiple chemicals that have a common mechanism of toxicity. Three methods, hazard index (HI), point-of-departure index (PODI), and toxicity equivalence factor (TEF), ...

  17. [Food additives and genetically modified food--a risk for allergic patients?].

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, B

    1999-04-01

    Adverse reactions to food and food additives must be classified according to pathogenic criteria. It is necessary to strictly differentiate between an allergy, triggered by a substance-specific immunological mechanism, and an intolerance, in which no specific immune reaction can be established. In contrast to views expressed in the media, by laymen and patients, adverse reactions to additives are less frequent than is believed. Due to frequently "alternative" methods of examination, an allergy to food additives is often wrongly blamed as the cause of a wide variety of symptoms and illness. Diagnosing an allergy or intolerance to additives normally involves carrying out double-blind, placebo-controlled oral provocation tests with food additives. Allergic reactions to food additives occur particularly against additives which are organic in origin. In principle, it is possible that during the manufacture of genetically modified plants and food, proteins are transferred which potentially create allergies. However, legislation exists both in the USA (Federal Drug Administration, FDA) and in Switzerland (Ordinance on the approval process for GM food, GM food additives and GM accessory agents for processing) which require a careful analysis before a genetically modified product is launched, particularly where foreign genes are introduced. Products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) as additives must be declared. In addition, the source of the foreign protein must be identified. The "Round-up ready" (RR) soya flour introduced in Switzerland is no different from natural soya flour in terms of its allergenic potential. Genetically modified food can be a blessing for allergic individuals if gene technology were to succeed in removing the allergen (e.g. such possibilities exist for rice). The same caution shown towards genetically modified food might also be advisable for foreign food in our diet. Luckily, the immune system of the digestive tract in healthy people

  18. Workbook to End War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia, PA. Peace Literature Service.

    A workbook, written for use in local churches and synagogues, suggests projects and programs for concerned individuals who wish to contribute to an effort to end war. An introduction presents the rationale of the workbook, the creation of a network to end war, and ways in which groups and individuals can become involved in this endeavor. A chapter…

  19. Economics of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solman, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The author describes and elaborates on how to use his public-television reports on the costs of the war in Iraq to teach economics. He shows how the Iraq war can provide economics instructors with an example for discussing cost-benefit analysis and opportunity costs in class. (Contains 4 notes.)

  20. In Time of War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Patti Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of libraries, particularly public libraries, in times of war. Discusses similarities between responses after World War Two and the September 11, 2001 attacks; government restrictions on information; American Library Association responses, including propaganda and libraries; and the library and the community. (LRW)

  1. War Literature. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on Stephen Crane's poems about war and his novel "The Red Badge of Courage," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Crane examined war-related themes in prose and poetry; that close study of a poem for oral presentation helps readers see meaning or techniques not noted earlier; and that not all readers…

  2. SCOPE 28: Environmental consequences of nuclear war. Volume II. Ecological and agricultural effects

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, M.A.; Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Harwell, C.C.; Grover, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the environmental and biological impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include ecological principles relevant to nuclear war, the vulnerability of ecological systems to the climatic effects of nuclear war, additional potential effects of nuclear war on ecological systems, the potential effects of nuclear war on agricultural productivity, food availability after nuclear war, experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the integration of effects on human populations.

  3. Central hemodynamics in risk assessment strategies: additive value over and above brachial blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Yannoutsos, Alexandra; Rinaldi, Elisa R; Zhang, Yi; Protogerou, Athanassios D; Safar, Michel E; Blacher, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Although the clinical relevance of brachial blood pressure (BP) measurement for cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification is nowadays widely accepted, this approach can nevertheless present several limitations. Pulse pressure (PP) amplification accounts for the notable increase in PP from central to peripheral arterial sites. Target organs are more greatly exposed to central hemodynamic changes than peripheral organs. The pathophysiological significance of local BP pulsatility, which has a role in the pathogenesis of target organ damage in both the macro- and the microcirculation, may therefore not be accurately captured by brachial BP as traditionally evaluated with cuff measurements. The predictive value of central systolic BP and PP over brachial BP for major clinical outcomes has been demonstrated in the general population, in elderly adults and in patients at high CV risk, irrespective of the invasive or non-invasive methods used to assess central BP. Aortic stiffness, timing and intensity of wave reflections, and cardiac performance appear as major factors influencing central PP. Great emphasis has been placed on the role of aortic stiffness, disturbed arterial wave reflections and their intercorrelation in the pathophysiological mechanisms of CV diseases as well as on their capacity to predict target organ damage and clinical events. Comorbidities and age-related changes, together with gender-related specificities of arterial and cardiac parameters, are known to affect the predictive ability of central hemodynamics on individual CV risk. PMID:25341861

  4. War experiences and psychotic symptoms among former child soldiers in Northern Uganda: the mediating role of post-war hardships – the WAYS Study

    PubMed Central

    Amone-P’Olak, Kennedy; Otim, Balaam Nyeko; Opio, George; Ovuga, Emilio; Meiser-Stedman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Psychotic symptoms have been associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and war experiences. However, the relationships between types of war experiences, the onset and course of psychotic symptoms, and post-war hardships in child soldiers have not been investigated. This study assessed whether various types of war experiences contribute to psychotic symptoms differently and whether post-war hardships mediated the relationship between war experiences and later psychotic symptoms. In an ongoing longitudinal cohort study (the War-Affected Youths Survey), 539 (61% male) former child soldiers were assessed for psychotic symptoms, post-war hardships, and previous war experiences. Regression analyses were used to assess the contribution of different types of war experiences on psychotic symptoms and the mediating role of post-war hardships in the relations between previous war experiences and psychotic symptoms. The findings yielded ‘witnessing violence’, ‘deaths and bereavement’, ‘involvement in hostilities’, and ‘sexual abuse’ as types of war experiences that significantly and independently predict psychotic symptoms. Exposure to war experiences was related to psychotic symptoms through post-war hardships (β = .18, 95% confidence interval = [0.10, 0.25]) accounting for 50% of the variance in their relationship. The direct relation between previous war experiences and psychotic symptoms attenuated but remained significant (β = .18, 95% confidence interval = [0.12, 0.26]). Types of war experiences should be considered when evaluating risks for psychotic symptoms in the course of providing emergency humanitarian services in post-conflict settings. Interventions should consider post-war hardships as key determinants of psychotic symptoms among war-affected youths. PMID:24718435

  5. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    2006-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by quality-control failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen expressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians. PMID:16910351

  6. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    2009-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by qualitycontrol failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen ex-pressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians. PMID:19364084

  7. Nationalism, Nuclear Policy and Children in Cold War America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Theorizes the place of children in America's "Cold War Consensus" of the 1950s-60s. Counterposes dominant Cold War images of abstract, generic children (inevitably white middle class) to actual children most vulnerable to risks associated with nuclear weapons production and testing. Concludes that in various ways, these children were all perceived…

  8. War zone paediatrics in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    1996-08-01

    Children are particularly vulnerable to injury and death in two types of 20th century conflicts; terrorist attack and civil war. This account describes some first-hand experiences of the aftermath of the Rwandan Civil War of 1994. Events leading to the conflict are described, eye witness accounts of child trauma during the war are recorded and the medical problems (currently ongoing) affecting children are described. Over a period of 3 months from April to June 1994, between half and one million Rwandese, a significant proportion of them women and children, were murdered in brutal hand-to-hand killing, dying from close-quarter gunshot and machete slaughter. Nearly half of the population became refugees in neighbouring countries or displaced persons in their own land. UNAMIR II, the United Nations Emergency Humanitarian Response, grew to some 7000 persons by May 1995. Medical aid was provided by emergency medical contingents from the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia, the latter through its Australian Medical Support Force, providing the definitive emergency medical infrastructure from August 1994. In the consequent post-war civil and social disruption, children suffered from burns, cholera and from motor vehicle trauma. Ongoing landmine blasts continue to affect children and adolescents especially. A new International humanitarian code to build a time-expiry device into landmines and other similar ordinance is urgently required as the post-conflict ongoing disasters in Rwanda, Afghanistan and Cambodia illustrate. Current problems affecting children include an increasing risk of HIV infection, trauma and the special humanitarian needs of thousands of orphans. PMID:8844531

  9. Arrest Histories of High-Risk Gay and Bisexual Men in Miami: Unexpected Additional Evidence For Syndemic Theory†

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Steven P.

    2009-01-01

    Gay and bisexual men continue to suffer the highest burden of HIV/AIDS in the U.S. Since the beginning of the epidemic, substance abuse has been shown to be one of the strongest predictors of sexual risk behaviors and seroconversion among this population. Recent research has focused on additional aspects of health risk disparities among gay and bisexual men, including depression and other mental health problems, childhood sexual abuse, and adult victimization, suggesting that these men are impacted by a syndemic of health risks. The involvement of gay and bisexual men with the criminal justice system is largely absent from the literature. This article describes the nature, extent and predictors of the arrest histories of a sample of gay and bisexual substance users at very high risk for HIV infection and/or transmission. These histories are surprisingly extensive, and are strongly associated with poverty, severe mental distress, substance abuse and dependence, and victimization. The involvement of gay and bisexual men in the criminal justice system deserves a stronger research focus because of the unique challenges facing such men and also because arrests are yet another marker for a host of health risks among them. PMID:19283955

  10. Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

    Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

  11. When the Drug War Hits the Fan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Thomas B.

    1991-01-01

    A growing number of experts and ordinary citizens are realizing that our current drug policies are immoral, wasteful, inefficient, un-American, and more harmful than beneficial. The Drug War places U.S. liberties, communities, and children at risk. A sidebar outlines drug abuse lies promulgated by the media. Another sidebar provides seven…

  12. Physical and Mental Health Costs of Traumatic War Experiences Among Civil War Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Judith; Silver, Roxane Cohen; Prause, JoAnn

    2006-01-01

    Context Hundreds of thousands of soldiers face exposure to combat during wars across the globe. The health impact of traumatic war experiences has not been adequately assessed across the lifetime of these veterans. Objective Identify the role of traumatic war experiences in predicting post-war nervous and physical disease and mortality using archival data from military and medical records of veterans from the Civil War. Design An archival examination of military and medical records of Civil War veterans was conducted. Degree of trauma experienced (POW experience, percentage of company killed, being wounded, early age at enlistment), signs of lifetime physician-diagnosed disease, and age at death were recorded. Setting and Participants US Pension board surgeons conducted standardized medical examinations of Civil War veterans over their post-war lifetimes. Military records of 17,700 Civil War veterans were matched to post-war medical records. Main Outcome Measures Signs of physician-diagnosed disease including cardiac, gastrointestinal (GI), and nervous disease, and number of unique ailments within each disease; mortality. Results Military trauma was related to signs of disease and mortality. Greater percentage of company killed was associated with signs of post-war cardiac and GI disease (IRR=1.34, p<.02), co-morbid nervous and physical disease (IRR=1.51, p<.005), and greater number of unique ailments within each disease (IRR=1.14, p<.01). Younger soldiers (≤18 years old), compared to older enlistees (> 30 years old), showed higher mortality risk (HR=1.52, p<.005), signs of co-morbid nervous and physical disease (IRR=1.93, p<.005), and a greater number of unique ailments within each disease (IRR=1.32, p<.005), controlling for length of time lived and other covariates. Conclusions Greater exposure to death of military comrades and younger exposure to war trauma was related to signs of physician-diagnosed cardiac, GI and nervous disease, and a greater number of

  13. Children and war.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    2003-04-01

    Children bear disproportionate consequences of armed conflict. The 21st century continues to see patterns of children enmeshed in international violence between opposing combatant forces, as victims of terrorist warfare, and, perhaps most tragically of all, as victims of civil wars. Innocent children so often are the victims of high-energy wounding from military ordinance. They sustain high-energy tissue damage and massive burns - injuries that are not commonly seen in civilian populations. Children have also been deliberately targeted victims in genocidal civil wars in Africa in the past decade, and hundreds of thousands have been killed and maimed in the context of close-quarter, hand-to-hand assaults of great ferocity. Paediatricians serve as uniformed military surgeons and as civilian doctors in both international and civil wars, and have a significant strategic role to play as advocates for the rights and welfare of children in the context of the evolving 'Laws of War'. One chronic legacy of contemporary warfare is blast injury to children from landmines. Such blasts leave children without feet or lower limbs, with genital injuries, blindness and deafness. This pattern of injury has become one of the post-civil war syndromes encountered by all intensivists and surgeons serving in four of the world's continents. The continued advocacy for the international ban on the manufacture, commerce and military use of antipersonnel landmines is a part of all paediatricians' obligation to promote the ethos of the Laws of War. Post-traumatic stress disorder remains an undertreated legacy of children who have been trapped in the shot and shell of battle as well as those displaced as refugees. An urgent, unfocused and unmet challenge has been the increase in, and plight of, child soldiers themselves. A new class of combatant comprises these children, who also become enmeshed in the triad of anarchic civil war, light-weight weaponry and drug or alcohol addiction. The

  14. Addition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors to sulphonylureas and risk of hypoglycaemia: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Nicholas; Arnaud, Mickael; Robinson, Philip; Raschi, Emanuel; De Ponti, Fabrizio; Bégaud, Bernard; Pariente, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify the risk of hypoglycaemia associated with the concomitant use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and sulphonylureas compared with placebo and sulphonylureas. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, ISI Web of Science, SCOPUS, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and clinicaltrial.gov were searched without any language restriction. Study selection Placebo controlled randomised trials comprising at least 50 participants with type 2 diabetes treated with DPP-4 inhibitors and sulphonylureas. Review methods Risk of bias in each trial was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. The risk ratio of hypoglycaemia with 95% confidence intervals was computed for each study and then pooled using fixed effect models (Mantel Haenszel method) or random effect models, when appropriate. Subgroup analyses were also performed (eg, dose of DPP-4 inhibitors). The number needed to harm (NNH) was estimated according to treatment duration. Results 10 studies were included, representing a total of 6546 participants (4020 received DPP-4 inhibitors plus sulphonylureas, 2526 placebo plus sulphonylureas). The risk ratio of hypoglycaemia was 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.29 to 1.80). The NNH was 17 (95% confidence interval 11 to 30) for a treatment duration of six months or less, 15 (9 to 26) for 6.1 to 12 months, and 8 (5 to 15) for more than one year. In subgroup analysis, no difference was found between full and low doses of DPP-4 inhibitors: the risk ratio related to full dose DPP-4 inhibitors was 1.66 (1.34 to 2.06), whereas the increased risk ratio related to low dose DPP-4 inhibitors did not reach statistical significance (1.33, 0.92 to 1.94). Conclusions Addition of DPP-4 inhibitors to sulphonylurea to treat people with type 2 diabetes is associated with a 50% increased risk of hypoglycaemia and to one excess case of hypoglycaemia for every 17 patients in the first six months of treatment. This

  15. A pilot study of a family focused, psychosocial intervention with war-exposed youth at risk of attack and abduction in north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Branham, Lindsay; Shannon, Ciarán; Betancourt, Theresa S; Dempster, Martin; McMullen, John

    2014-07-01

    Rural communities in the Haut-Uele Province of northern Democratic Republic of Congo live in constant danger of attack and/or abduction by units of the Lord's Resistance Army operating in the region. This pilot study sought to develop and evaluate a community-participative psychosocial intervention involving life skills and relaxation training and Mobile Cinema screenings with this war-affected population living under current threat. 159 war-affected children and young people (aged 7-18) from the villages of Kiliwa and Li-May in north-eastern DR Congo took part in this study. In total, 22% of participants had been abduction previously while 73% had a family member abducted. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions, internalising problems, conduct problems and pro-social behaviour were assessed by blinded interviewers at pre- and post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Participants were randomised (with an accompanying caregiver) to 8 sessions of a group-based, community-participative, psychosocial intervention (n=79) carried out by supervised local, lay facilitators or a wait-list control group (n=80). Average seminar attendance rates were high: 88% for participants and 84% for caregivers. Drop-out was low: 97% of participants were assessed at post-intervention and 88% at 3 month follow-up. At post-test, participants reported significantly fewer symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions compared to controls (Cohen's d=0.40). At 3 month follow up, large improvements in internalising symptoms and moderate improvements in pro-social scores were reported, with caregivers noting a moderate to large decline in conduct problems among the young people. Trial Registration clinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT01542398. PMID:24636358

  16. Additive Synergism between Asbestos and Smoking in Lung Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ngamwong, Yuwadee; Tangamornsuksan, Wimonchat; Lohitnavy, Ornrat; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Scholfield, C. Norman; Reisfeld, Brad; Lohitnavy, Manupat

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and asbestos exposure are important risks for lung cancer. Several epidemiological studies have linked asbestos exposure and smoking to lung cancer. To reconcile and unify these results, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a quantitative estimate of the increased risk of lung cancer associated with asbestos exposure and cigarette smoking and to classify their interaction. Five electronic databases were searched from inception to May, 2015 for observational studies on lung cancer. All case-control (N = 10) and cohort (N = 7) studies were included in the analysis. We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs), relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model for the association of asbestos exposure and smoking with lung cancer. Lung cancer patients who were not exposed to asbestos and non-smoking (A-S-) were compared with; (i) asbestos-exposed and non-smoking (A+S-), (ii) non-exposure to asbestos and smoking (A-S+), and (iii) asbestos-exposed and smoking (A+S+). Our meta-analysis showed a significant difference in risk of developing lung cancer among asbestos exposed and/or smoking workers compared to controls (A-S-), odds ratios for the disease (95% CI) were (i) 1.70 (A+S-, 1.31–2.21), (ii) 5.65; (A-S+, 3.38–9.42), (iii) 8.70 (A+S+, 5.8–13.10). The additive interaction index of synergy was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.26–1.77) and the multiplicative index = 0.91 (95% CI = 0.63–1.30). Corresponding values for cohort studies were 1.11 (95% CI = 1.00–1.28) and 0.51 (95% CI = 0.31–0.85). Our results point to an additive synergism for lung cancer with co-exposure of asbestos and cigarette smoking. Assessments of industrial health risks should take smoking and other airborne health risks when setting occupational asbestos exposure limits. PMID:26274395

  17. Major histocompatibility complex harbors widespread genotypic variability of non-additive risk of rheumatoid arthritis including epistasis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Bowes, John; Plant, Darren; Viatte, Sebastien; Yarwood, Annie; Massey, Jonathan; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variability based genome-wide association studies (vGWASs) can identify potentially interacting loci without prior knowledge of the interacting factors. We report a two-stage approach to make vGWAS applicable to diseases: firstly using a mixed model approach to partition dichotomous phenotypes into additive risk and non-additive environmental residuals on the liability scale and secondly using the Levene's (Brown-Forsythe) test to assess equality of the residual variances across genotype groups per marker. We found widespread significant (P < 2.5e-05) vGWAS signals within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) across all three study cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis. We further identified 10 epistatic interactions between the vGWAS signals independent of the MHC additive effects, each with a weak effect but jointly explained 1.9% of phenotypic variance. PTPN22 was also identified in the discovery cohort but replicated in only one independent cohort. Combining the three cohorts boosted power of vGWAS and additionally identified TYK2 and ANKRD55. Both PTPN22 and TYK2 had evidence of interactions reported elsewhere. We conclude that vGWAS can help discover interacting loci for complex diseases but require large samples to find additional signals. PMID:27109064

  18. Major histocompatibility complex harbors widespread genotypic variability of non-additive risk of rheumatoid arthritis including epistasis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Bowes, John; Plant, Darren; Viatte, Sebastien; Yarwood, Annie; Massey, Jonathan; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variability based genome-wide association studies (vGWASs) can identify potentially interacting loci without prior knowledge of the interacting factors. We report a two-stage approach to make vGWAS applicable to diseases: firstly using a mixed model approach to partition dichotomous phenotypes into additive risk and non-additive environmental residuals on the liability scale and secondly using the Levene’s (Brown-Forsythe) test to assess equality of the residual variances across genotype groups per marker. We found widespread significant (P < 2.5e-05) vGWAS signals within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) across all three study cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis. We further identified 10 epistatic interactions between the vGWAS signals independent of the MHC additive effects, each with a weak effect but jointly explained 1.9% of phenotypic variance. PTPN22 was also identified in the discovery cohort but replicated in only one independent cohort. Combining the three cohorts boosted power of vGWAS and additionally identified TYK2 and ANKRD55. Both PTPN22 and TYK2 had evidence of interactions reported elsewhere. We conclude that vGWAS can help discover interacting loci for complex diseases but require large samples to find additional signals. PMID:27109064

  19. Genetic predisposition to coronary heart disease and stroke using an additive genetic risk score: a population-based study in Greece

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To determine the extent to which the risk for incident coronary heart disease (CHD) increases in relation to a genetic risk score (GRS) that additively integrates the influence of high-risk alleles in nine documented single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for CHD, and to examine whether t...

  20. Life without war.

    PubMed

    Fry, Douglas P

    2012-05-18

    An emerging evolutionary perspective suggests that nature and human nature are less "red in tooth and claw" than generally acknowledged by a competition-based view of the biological world. War is not always present in human societies. Peace systems, defined as groups of neighboring societies that do not make war on each other, exist on different continents. A comparison of three peace systems--the Upper Xingu River basin tribes of Brazil, the Iroquois Confederacy of upper New York State, and the European Union--highlight six features hypothesized to be important in the creation and maintenance of intersocietal peace: (i) an overarching social identity, (ii) interconnections among subgroups, (iii) interdependence, (iv) nonwarring values, (v) symbolism and ceremonies that reinforce peace, and (vi) superordinate institutions for conflict management. The existence of peace systems demonstrates that it is possible to create social systems free of war. PMID:22605769

  1. War Damage Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    During and after the Persian Gulf war, hundreds of "oil lakes" were created in Kuwait by oil released from damaged wells. The lakes are a hazard to the Kuwait atmosphere, soil and ground water and must be carefully monitored. Boston University Center for Remote Sensing, assisted by other organizations, has accurately mapped the lakes using Landsat and Spot imagery. The war damage included the formation of over 300 oil lakes, oil pollution and sand dune movement. Total damage area is over 5,400 square kilometers - 30 percent of Kuwait's total surface area.

  2. United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War: Nuclear War Course Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Briefly describes 46 courses on nuclear war available from United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War (UCAM). These courses are currently being or have been taught at colleges/universities, addressing effects of nuclear war, arms race history, new weapons, and past arms control efforts. Syllabi (with assignments/reading lists) are available from UCAM.…

  3. Subjective quality of life in war-affected populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to traumatic war events may lead to a reduction in quality of life for many years. Research suggests that these impairments may be associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms; however, wars also have a profound impact on social conditions. Systematic studies utilising subjective quality of life (SQOL) measures are particularly rare and research in post-conflict settings is scarce. Whether social factors independently affect SQOL after war in addition to symptoms has not been explored in large scale studies. Method War-affected community samples were recruited through a random-walk technique in five Balkan countries and through registers and networking in three Western European countries. The interviews were carried out on average 8 years after the war in the Balkans. SQOL was assessed on Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life - MANSA. We explored the impact of war events, posttraumatic stress symptoms and post-war environment on SQOL. Results We interviewed 3313 Balkan residents and 854 refugees in Western Europe. The MANSA mean score was 4.8 (SD = 0.9) for the Balkan sample and 4.7 (SD = 0.9) for refugees. In both samples participants were explicitly dissatisfied with their employment and financial situation. Posttraumatic stress symptoms had a strong negative impact on SQOL. Traumatic war events were directly linked with lower SQOL in Balkan residents. The post-war environment influenced SQOL in both groups: unemployment was associated with lower SQOL and recent contacts with friends with higher SQOL. Experiencing more migration-related stressors was linked to poorer SQOL in refugees. Conclusion Both posttraumatic stress symptoms and aspects of the post-war environment independently influence SQOL in war-affected populations. Aid programmes to improve wellbeing following the traumatic war events should include both treatment of posttraumatic symptoms and social interventions. PMID:23819629

  4. Increased bioclogging and corrosion risk by sulfate addition during iodine recovery at a natural gas production plant.

    PubMed

    Lim, Choon-Ping; Zhao, Dan; Takase, Yuta; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Tomoko; Tomoe, Yasuyoshi; Tanji, Yasunori

    2011-02-01

    Iodine recovery at a natural gas production plant in Japan involved the addition of sulfuric acid for pH adjustment, resulting in an additional about 200 mg/L of sulfate in the waste brine after iodine recovery. Bioclogging occurred at the waste brine injection well, causing a decrease in well injectivity. To examine the factors that contribute to bioclogging, an on-site experiment was conducted by amending 10 L of brine with different conditions and then incubating the brine for 5 months under open air. The control case was exposed to open air but did not receive additional chemicals. When sulfate addition was coupled with low iodine, there was a drastic increase in the total amount of accumulated biomass (and subsequently the risk of bioclogging) that was nearly six times higher than the control. The bioclogging-associated corrosion rate of carbon steel was 84.5 μm/year, which is four times higher than that observed under other conditions. Analysis of the microbial communities by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the additional sulfate established a sulfur cycle and induced the growth of phototrophic bacteria, including cyanobacteria and purple bacteria. In the presence of sulfate and low iodine levels, cyanobacteria and purple bacteria bloomed, and the accumulation of abundant biomass may have created a more conducive environment for anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria. It is believed that the higher corrosion rate was caused by a differential aeration cell that was established by the heterogeneous distribution of the biomass that covered the surface of the test coupons. PMID:20922384

  5. Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Charles S.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

  6. Meat and bone meal and mineral feed additives may increase the risk of oral prion disease transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; McKenzie, Debbie; Pedersen, Joel A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2011-01-01

    Ingestion of prion-contaminated materials is postulated to be a primary route of prion disease transmission. Binding of prions to soil (micro)particles dramatically enhances peroral disease transmission relative to unbound prions, and it was hypothesized that micrometer-sized particles present in other consumed materials may affect prion disease transmission via the oral route of exposure. Small, insoluble particles are present in many substances, including soil, human foods, pharmaceuticals, and animal feeds. It is known that meat and bone meal (MBM), a feed additive believed responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), contains particles smaller than 20 μm and that the pathogenic prion protein binds to MBM. The potentiation of disease transmission via the oral route by exposure to MBM or three micrometer-sized mineral feed additives was determined. Data showed that when the disease agent was bound to any of the tested materials, the penetrance of disease was increased compared to unbound prions. Our data suggest that in feed or other prion-contaminated substances consumed by animals or, potentially, humans, the addition of MBM or the presence of microparticles could heighten risks of prion disease acquisition.

  7. Meat and bone meal and mineral feed additives may increase the risk of oral prion disease transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; McKenzie, D.; Pedersen, J.A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2011-01-01

    Ingestion of prion-contaminated materials is postulated to be a primary route of prion disease transmission. Binding of prions to soil (micro)particles dramatically enhances peroral disease transmission relative to unbound prions, and it was hypothesized that micrometer-sized particles present in other consumed materials may affect prion disease transmission via the oral route of exposure. Small, insoluble particles are present in many substances, including soil, human foods, pharmaceuticals, and animal feeds. It is known that meat and bone meal (MBM), a feed additive believed responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), contains particles smaller than 20 ??m and that the pathogenic prion protein binds to MBM. The potentiation of disease transmission via the oral route by exposure to MBM or three micrometer-sized mineral feed additives was determined. Data showed that when the disease agent was bound to any of the tested materials, the penetrance of disease was increased compared to unbound prions. Our data suggest that in feed or other prion-contaminated substances consumed by animals or, potentially, humans, the addition of MBM or the presence of microparticles could heighten risks of prion disease acquisition. Copyright ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  8. Intergenerational effects of war trauma among Palestinian families mediated via psychological maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Palosaari, Esa; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir; Diab, Marwan

    2013-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that intergenerational effects of parents' war trauma on offspring's attachment and mental health are mediated by psychological maltreatment. Two hundred and forty children and their parents were sampled from a war-prone area, Gaza, Palestine. The parents reported the number and type of traumatic experiences of war they had had during their lifetime before the child's birth and during a current war when the child was 10-12 years old. The children reported their war traumas, experiences of psychological maltreatment, attachment security, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTSS), depression, and aggression. The direct and indirect intergenerational effects of war trauma were tested in structural equation models. The hypotheses were confirmed for father's past war exposure, and disconfirmed for mother's war exposure. The father's past war trauma had a negative association with attachment security and positive association with the child's mental health problems mediated by increased psychological maltreatment. In contrast, the mother's past war trauma had a negative association with the child's depression via decreased psychological maltreatment. The mother's current war trauma had a negative association with the child's depression and aggression via decreased psychological maltreatment. Among fathers, past war exposure should be considered as a risk factor for psychological maltreatment of children and the associated attachment insecurity and mental health problems. Among mothers, war exposure as such could be given less clinical attention than PTSS in the prevention of psychological maltreatment of children. PMID:23768956

  9. Nuclear weapons and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, C.; McCally, M.; Abraham, H.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

  10. Effects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    von Hippel, F.

    1983-01-01

    The author reviews the subject rising the following topics and subtopics: I. Nuclear explosions: heat, nuclear radiation, and radioactive fallout; II. Effects: radiation sickness, burns, blast injuries, and equivalent areas of death; III. Nuclear war: battlefield, regional, intercontinental - counterforce, and intercontinental - counter-city and industry. There are two appendices. 34 references, 32 figures.

  11. The Math Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1990s, the teaching of mathematics became the subject of heated controversies known as the math wars. The immediate origins of the conflicts can be traced to the "reform" stimulated by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics." Traditionalists fear that reform-oriented,…

  12. Waging War on Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closing the Gap, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Focusing on the theme of violence, this newsletter issue includes information about resources for violence information, a list of funding and grant agencies, conference information, and the following brief articles: (1) Waging War on Violence; (2) Minority Health Perspective (Clay Simpson); (3) Inmates Learn Alternatives to Violence; (4) National…

  13. Grading the War Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdick, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the emotional and psychological complexities of responding to personal narratives when the focus is war. The author teaches at a community college and she always begins her semester with a narrative assignment for the usual reasons: students write better when they write what they know; teachers should scaffold writing…

  14. Recent Cold War Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  15. War, Terrorism, and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRanieri, Joseph T.; Clements, Paul T.; Clark, Kathleen; Kuhn, Douglas Wolcik; Manno, Martin S.

    2004-01-01

    Many caregivers are encountering the issue of communicating with children and adolescents about current world events, specifically war and terrorism. As health care providers, it is important to raise awareness of how children may understand, interpret, and respond to related fears and concerns. Although honesty and reassurance are clearly the…

  16. Education and War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Elizabeth E., Ed.; Miller, Rebecca B., Ed.; Tieken, Mara Casey, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This book examines the complex and varied relations between educational institutions and societies at war. Drawn from the pages of the "Harvard Educational Review," the essays provide multiple perspectives on how educational institutions support and oppose wartime efforts. As the editors of the volume note, the book reveals how people swept up in…

  17. Stabilizing Star Wars

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, A.M.; Barkenbus, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    An orderly replacement of offensive with defensive nuclear weapons is part of the defense-protected build-down (DPB) strategy described by Weinberg and Barkenbus. Differing from the administration's Star Wars approach by relying on interceptor missiles rather than costly and unproven lasers and particle beams, the plan also calls for a simultaneous freeze on offensive weapons. (DCK)

  18. Cold War Propaganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Briefly discusses the development of Cold War propaganda in the United States, Canada, and the USSR after 1947. Presents two movie reviews and a Canadian magazine advertisement of the period which illustrate the harshness of propaganda used by both sides in the immediate postwar years. (GEA)

  19. End the Math Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Matt; Dempsey, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    In 1999, Richard Lee Colvin published an article in "The School Administrator" titled "Math Wars: Tradition vs. Real-World Applications" that described the pendulum swing of mathematics education reform. On one side are those who advocate for computational fluency, with a step-by-step emphasis on numbers and skills and the…

  20. Nuclear War and Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that science-related material on nuclear war be included in introductory courses. Lists nuclear war topics for physics, psychology, sociology, biology/ecology, chemistry, geography, geology/meteorology, mathematics, and medical science. Also lists 11 lectures on nuclear physics which include nuclear war topics. (JN)

  1. Iowa and World War I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the children's quarterly magazine, "The Goldfinch," focuses on World War I. A brief discussion of how the United States came to enter the War is followed by a discussion of propaganda. An article on the use of posters to encourage citizens to participate in the war effort is illustrated with reproductions of several of these posters.…

  2. The Technological Culture of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, Joelien

    2008-01-01

    The article proceeds from the argument that war is a social institution and not a historical inevitability of human interaction, that is, war can be "unlearned." This process involves deconstructing/dismantling war as an institution in society. An important step in this process is to understand the philosophical and cultural bases on which…

  3. Alternatives to War in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that human history is a story of paradoxes: cooperation and conflict, war and peace. States that, throughout history, various individuals and groups have sought alternatives to war. Describes attempts to keep the peace, to manage conflict, and to initiate social reforms that eliminate the causes of war. (CFR)

  4. The Great War: Online Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncanson, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites about World War I. Includes: (1) general Web sites; (2) Web sites with information during the war; (3) Web sites with information about post-World War I; (4) Web sites that provide photos, sound files of speeches, and propaganda posters; and (5) Web sites with lesson plans. (CMK)

  5. Traumatic war stressors and psychiatric symptoms among World War II, Korean, and Vietnam War veterans.

    PubMed

    Fontana, A; Rosenheck, R

    1994-03-01

    Three hypotheses regarding symptoms of war-related posttraumatic stress disorder and general psychiatric distress were tested: that symptoms are more severe the more severe the traumatic exposure, regardless of the war in question; that symptoms are less severe the older the veterans' age; and that symptom levels differ across sociocultural cohorts. A total of 5,138 war zone veterans who were seeking treatment from specialized Veterans Affairs outpatient clinical teams made up the sample: 320 World War II, 199 Korean War, and 4,619 Vietnam War veterans. All hypotheses were supported significantly. The similarity of relationships between traumatic exposure and symptoms across wars testifies to the generality of these experiences. Furthermore, the results suggest the operation of significant effects due both to aging and to cohort differences in sociocultural attitudes toward the stigma of mental illness and the popularity of the wars. PMID:8185865

  6. Childhood maltreatment in adult offspring of Portuguese war veterans with and without PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Aida; Sales, Luisa; Cardoso, Rui M.; Kleber, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Background The colonial war that Portugal was involved in between 1961 and 1974 had a significant impact on veterans and their families. However, it is unclear what the consequences of this war are, in particular with regard to levels of childhood maltreatment (CM) in offspring. Objective Our study aims to analyze the influences of fathers’ war exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on the offspring's CM and simultaneously test the hypothesis of the intergenerational transmission of father–child CM. Method Cross-sectional data were collected, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire—Short Form, from 203 adult children and 117 fathers. Subjects were distributed according to three conditions based on the father's war exposure status: did not participate in war, or non-war-exposed (NW); participated in war, or war-exposed (W); and war-exposed with PTSD diagnosis (WP). The data were examined using correlations, variance/covariance, and regression analyses. Results Children of war veterans with PTSD reported more emotional and physical neglect, while their fathers reported increased emotional and physical abuse exposure during their own childhood. Significant father–child CM correlations were found in the war veteran group but less in the war veteran with PTSD group. Father CM predicted 16% of offspring CM of children of war veterans. Conclusions The father's war-related PTSD might be a risk factor for offspring neglect but potentially a protective one for the father–child abuse transmission. War-exposed fathers without PTSD did transmit their own CM experiences more often. Therefore, father's war exposure and father's war PTSD may each be important variables to take into account in the study of intergenerational transmission of CM. PMID:24505510

  7. War Finance: Economic and Historic Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boldt, David J.; Kassis, Mary Mathewes

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a historical review of how the U.S. government has funded its participation in major wars during the past 150 years. They focus attention on five conflicts--the Civil War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War. Those conflicts were funded in different ways, with each funding method…

  8. Compensating for cold war cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Parascandola, Mark J

    2002-01-01

    Although the Cold War has ended, thousands of workers involved in nuclear weapons production are still living with the adverse health effects of working with radioactive materials, beryllium, and silica. After a series of court battles, the U.S. government passed the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Act in October 2000 to financially assist workers whose health has been compromised by these occupational exposures. Now work is underway to set out guidelines for determining which workers will be compensated. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has been assigned the task of developing a model that can scientifically make these determinations, a heavy task considering the controversies that lie in estimating low-level radiation risks and the inadequate worker exposure records kept at many of the plants. PMID:12117658

  9. Effects of war exposure on Air Force personnel’s mental health, job burnout and other organizational related outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Vinokur, Amiram D.; Pierce, Penny F.; Lewandowski-Romps, Lisa; Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal data from a stratified representative sample of U.S. Air Force personnel (N = 1009) deployed to the wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other locations were analyzed in this study. Using structural equation models, we examined the effects of war exposure on traumatic experiences, Post Traumatic Stress (PTS) symptoms, resource loss, and on subsequent functioning, perceived health, and on job and organizationally relevant outcomes. The job and organizational outcomes included job burnout, job involvement, job strain, job satisfaction, work-family conflict, organizational commitment, deployment readiness, and intention to reenlist. We found that deployment to the theater of the war increased risk of exposure to trauma, which in turn, predicted elevated PTS symptoms and resource loss. PTS symptoms predicted later loss of resources and deterioration in perceived health and functioning. In turn, resource loss predicted negative job and organizational outcomes. Exposure to trauma fully mediated the effects of deployment to the theater of war on PTS symptoms and resource loss and had additional significant indirect effects on several job and organizational relevant outcomes. For returning veterans, deployment to the theater of war, exposure to trauma, PTS symptoms, and resource loss represents a ‘cascading’ chain of events that over time results in a decline of health and functioning as well as in adverse job and organizationally relevant outcomes that may affect organizational effectiveness. PMID:21280941

  10. Campaigning in a Changing Information Environment: The Anti-war and Peace Movement in Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillan, Kevin; Pickerill, Jenny; Webster, Frank

    This article reports a research project concerned with Information War (Robins and Webster, 1999; Webster 2003, 2006; Pickerill and Webster 2006). It stresses that, in privileged areas of the world, war is now fought generally at a distance, with little direct risk to citizens of these nations. Yet these populations experience war in much expanded mediated ways, so much so that perceptions of threat may be disproportionate during a period of declining armed conflict. The significance of mediation in war is thereby heightened, making this central to the conduct of Information War.

  11. War curbs oil exports by Iran and Iraq

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-29

    A discussion of the effects of the war between Iran and Iraq on oil exports from the area covers damage (extent unknown) to the Abadan, Iran, and Basra, Iraq, oil refineries, to the Iraqi petrochemical complex under construction at Basra, to oil export terminals at Kharg Island and Mina-al-Bakr, and to other oil facilities; war-caused reductions in oil production, refining, shipping, and export, estimated at 2.05-3.35 million bbl/day; the possible effects of the war on OPEC's decisions concerning oil production and pricing; the significance of the Strait of Hormuz for the export of oil by several countries in addition to the belligerents; the U.S. and non-Communist oil stocks which might enable the world to avoid an oil shortage if the war is ended in the near future; and the long-term effects of the war on Iran's and Iraq's oil industries.

  12. Impact of World War I on Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2015-01-01

    Mention chemistry and the Great "War to End all Wars" in the same sentence, and nearly everybody who ever had a history class will nod sorrowfully and say,"Yes, poison gases." True enough, and Fritz Haber, who led the development of them for the Central Powers, was the one German scientist whom Rutherford never forgave or spoke to again. Such substances (not all really gaseous, and something like 50 have been tried) were used by both sides from 1915 onward, killed about 90,000 people (about 1% of the total), maimed many more, and arguably loosened constraints on future uses of chemical weapons in other wars, prison camps, and terrorist actions. But the war was not determined by them and could have been fought without them. On the other hand, the sudden blockading of ports and termination of most international trade forced Germany (etc) to expand very quickly processes for fixing nitrogen for explosives and for fertilizers in lieu of Chilean guano (yes there is also a Haber process for that). They needed in addition to find domestic replacements for rubber (for tires, hoses, and gas masks) and liquid fuels for tanks and aircraft. The Allies, for their part, had been heavily dependent on German dyestuffs, optical-quality glass for binoculars, and phosphates (fertilizer again). Production facilities for derivatives of coal tars, cottonseed oil, etc. were of necessity scaled up rapidly. And once people have learned to do these things, there is no way to have them be forgotten. The same is, of course, true of the nuclear weapons of World War II and of whatever biological and/or cybernetic entities prove to be essential in the next war.

  13. WAR & Military Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Pols, Hans; Oak, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Involvement in warfare can have dramatic consequences for the mental health and well-being of military personnel. During the 20th century, US military psychiatrists tried to deal with these consequences while contributing to the military goal of preserving manpower and reducing the debilitating impact of psychiatric syndromes by implementing screening programs to detect factors that predispose individuals to mental disorders, providing early intervention strategies for acute war-related syndromes, and treating long-term psychiatric disability after deployment. The success of screening has proven disappointing, the effects of treatment near the front lines are unclear, and the results of treatment for chronic postwar syndromes are mixed. After the Persian Gulf War, a number of military physicians made innovative proposals for a population-based approach, anchored in primary care instead of specialty-based care. This approach appears to hold the most promise for the future. PMID:17971561

  14. Stories of pre-war, war and exile: Bosnian refugee children in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Goldin, S; Levin, L; Persson, L A; Hägglof, B

    2001-01-01

    While standardized questionnaires produce counts of isolated events, a semi-structured interview derives a story, a complex narrative in time and place. Ninety Bosnian refugee children and adolescents (ages 1-20), resettled in Sweden, were assessed in a semi-structured clinical interview designed to identify and offer support to children at risk. A family-child account of traumatic exposure was analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Type-stories or clusters of experience were identified for three distinct periods: prior to war, during war, and after war in exile. The extent of trauma-stress exposure during each of these periods proved unrelated. Pre-war experience presented as preponderantly good and safe. Differences in child exposure during war and exile could be understood in relation to identifiable socio-demographic factors; particularly ethnic background, social class, child age and family size. Further, the stories derived cast light on the equity of Swedish refugee reception, exposing both egalitarian and discriminatory tendencies. PMID:11339342

  15. Randomised Controlled Feasibility Trial of an Evidence-Informed Behavioural Intervention for Obese Adults with Additional Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sniehotta, Falko F.; Dombrowski, Stephan U.; Avenell, Alison; Johnston, Marie; McDonald, Suzanne; Murchie, Peter; Ramsay, Craig R.; Robertson, Kim; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Background Interventions for dietary and physical activity changes in obese adults may be less effective for participants with additional obesity-related risk factors and co-morbidities than for otherwise healthy individuals. This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of the recruitment, allocation, measurement, retention and intervention procedures of a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve physical activity and dietary practices amongst obese adults with additional obesity related risk factors. Method Pilot single centre open-labelled outcome assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial of obese (Body Mass Index (BMI)≥30 kg/m2) adults (age≥18 y) with obesity related co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension. Participants were randomly allocated to a manual-based group intervention or a leaflet control condition in accordance to a 2∶1 allocation ratio. Primary outcome was acceptability and feasibility of trial procedures, secondary outcomes included measures of body composition, physical activity, food intake and psychological process measures. Results Out of 806 potentially eligible individuals identified through list searches in two primary care general medical practices N = 81 participants (63% female; mean-age = 56.56(11.44); mean-BMI = 36.73(6.06)) with 2.35(1.47) co-morbidities were randomised. Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) was the only significant predictor of providing consent to take part in the study (higher chances of consent for invitees with lower levels of deprivation). Participant flowcharts, qualitative and quantitative feedback suggested good acceptance and feasibility of intervention procedures but 34.6% of randomised participants were lost to follow-up due to overly high measurement burden and sub-optimal retention procedures. Participants in the intervention group showed positive trends for most psychological, behavioural and body

  16. War on fear

    PubMed Central

    Burney, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the processes through which civilian fear was turned into a practicable investigative object in the inter-war period and the opening stages of the Second World War, and how it was invested with significance at the level of science and of public policy. Its focus is on a single historical actor, Solly Zuckerman, and on his early war work for the Ministry of Home Security-funded Extra Mural Unit based in Oxford’s Department of Anatomy (OEMU). It examines the process by which Zuckerman forged a working relationship with fear in the 1930s, and how he translated this work to questions of home front anxiety in his role as an operational research officer. In doing so it demonstrates the persistent work applied to the problem: by highlighting it as an ongoing research project, and suggesting links between seemingly disparate research objects (e.g. the phenomenon of ‘blast’ exposure as physical and physiological trauma), the article aims to show how civilian ‘nerve’ emerged from within a highly specific analytical and operational matrix which itself had complex foundations. PMID:23626409

  17. Hazard and risk assessment of a nanoparticulate cerium oxide-based diesel fuel additive - a case study.

    PubMed

    Park, Barry; Donaldson, Kenneth; Duffin, Rodger; Tran, Lang; Kelly, Frank; Mudway, Ian; Morin, Jean-Paul; Guest, Robert; Jenkinson, Peter; Samaras, Zissis; Giannouli, Myrsini; Kouridis, Haris; Martin, Patricia

    2008-04-01

    Envirox is a scientifically and commercially proven diesel fuel combustion catalyst based on nanoparticulate cerium oxide and has been demonstrated to reduce fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions (CO(2)), and particulate emissions when added to diesel at levels of 5 mg/L. Studies have confirmed the adverse effects of particulates on respiratory and cardiac health, and while the use of Envirox contributes to a reduction in the particulate content in the air, it is necessary to demonstrate that the addition of Envirox does not alter the intrinsic toxicity of particles emitted in the exhaust. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety in use of Envirox by addressing the classical risk paradigm. Hazard assessment has been addressed by examining a range of in vitro cell and cell-free endpoints to assess the toxicity of cerium oxide nanoparticles as well as particulates emitted from engines using Envirox. Exposure assessment has taken data from modeling studies and from airborne monitoring sites in London and Newcastle adjacent to routes where vehicles using Envirox passed. Data have demonstrated that for the exposure levels measured, the estimated internal dose for a referential human in a chronic exposure situation is much lower than the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) in the in vitro toxicity studies. Exposure to nano-size cerium oxide as a result of the addition of Envirox to diesel fuel at the current levels of exposure in ambient air is therefore unlikely to lead to pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation, which are the precursors for respiratory and cardiac health problems. PMID:18444008

  18. Hemolysate-mediated platelet aggregation: an additional risk mechanism contributing to thrombosis of continuous flow ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phat L; Pietropaolo, Maria-Grazia; Valerio, Lorenzo; Brengle, William; Wong, Raymond K; Kazui, Toshinobu; Khalpey, Zain I; Redaelli, Alberto; Sheriff, Jawaad; Bluestein, Danny; Slepian, Marvin J

    2016-07-01

    Despite the clinical success and growth in the utilization of continuous flow ventricular assist devices (cfVADs) for the treatment of advanced heart failure, hemolysis and thrombosis remain major limitations. Inadequate and/or ineffective anticoagulation regimens, combined with high pump speed and non-physiological flow patterns, can result in hemolysis which often is accompanied by pump thrombosis. An unexpected increase in cfVADs thrombosis was reported by multiple major VAD implanting centers in 2014, highlighting the association of hemolysis and a rise in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) presaging thrombotic events. It is well established that thrombotic complications arise from the abnormal shear stresses generated by cfVADs. What remains unknown is the link between cfVAD-associated hemolysis and pump thrombosis. Can hemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs) contribute to platelet aggregation, thereby, facilitating prothrombotic complications in cfVADs? Herein, we examine the effect of RBC-hemolysate and selected major constituents, i.e., lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and plasma free hemoglobin (pHb) on platelet aggregation, utilizing electrical resistance aggregometry. Our hypothesis is that elements of RBCs, released as a result of shear-mediated hemolysis, will contribute to platelet aggregation. We show that RBC hemolysate and pHb, but not LDH, are direct contributors to platelet aggregation, posing an additional risk mechanism for cfVAD thrombosis. PMID:26590166

  19. Hearing impairment and tinnitus: prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes in US service members and veterans deployed to the Iraq and Afghanistan wars.

    PubMed

    Theodoroff, Sarah M; Lewis, M Samantha; Folmer, Robert L; Henry, James A; Carlson, Kathleen F

    2015-01-01

    Hearing loss and tinnitus are the 2 most prevalent service-connected disabilities among veterans in the United States. Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn have been exposed to multiple hazards associated with these conditions, such as blasts/explosions, ototoxic chemicals, and most notably high levels of noise. We conducted a systematic literature review of evidence on 1) prevalence of, 2) risk and protective factors for, and 3) functional and quality-of-life outcomes of hearing impairment and tinnitus in US Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn veterans and military personnel. We identified studies published from 2001 through 2013 using PubMed, PsycINFO, REHABDATA, Cochrane Library, pearling, and expert recommendation. Peer-reviewed English language articles describing studies of 30 or more adults were included if they informed one or more key questions. A total of 839 titles/abstracts were reviewed for relevance by investigators trained in critical analysis of literature; 14 studies met inclusion criteria. Of these, 13 studies presented data on prevalence and 4 on risk/protective factors, respectively. There were no included studies reporting on outcomes. Findings from this systematic review will help inform clinicians, researchers, and policy makers on future resource and research needs pertaining to hearing impairment and tinnitus in this newest generation of veterans. PMID:25600417

  20. [Sequential traumatization, trauma-related disorders and psychotherapeutic approaches in war-traumatized adult refugees and asylum seekers in Germany].

    PubMed

    Böttche, Maria; Heeke, Carina; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2016-05-01

    The impact of war and violence on the mental and physical health of the civilian population is immense. Traumatization is often experienced sequentially, which leads to a higher risk for developing trauma-related disorders (PTSD, depression, chronic pain).Refugees traumatized by war experience specific stressors related to their status of residence (e. g., application hearing, length of the asylum procedure). Together with limited access to health care, these constitute additional risk factors for developing somatic and psychological illnesses.Adequate treatment for this highly vulnerable group requires a multimodal approach facilitated by translators. According to the S3 guidelines (S3-Richtlinien), trauma-adapted psychotherapeutic treatment has to be complemented by the activities of social workers, by medical treatment, and by legal advice. PMID:27072498

  1. Effect of war on fertility: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Abu-Musa, Antoine A; Kobeissi, Loulou; Hannoun, Antoine B; Inhorn, Marcia C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the existing literature on the effect of war on female and male fertility. A MEDLINE search for studies that included participants defined as infertile because they were unsuccessful in achieving a pregnancy after a year and studies that assessed the effect of war on semen parameters and menstrual dysfunction were performed. Twenty articles were included in this review. For female fertility, studies showed that women who were prisoners of war or who were living in areas exposed to bombardment had increased risk of menstrual abnormalities. For male fertility, the results were conflicting. The Vietnam War was not associated with difficulty in conception although one study revealed a decrease in sperm characteristics. Studies of male US and Danish 1990/91 Gulf war veterans showed no evidence of reduced fertility; however, studies of UK and Australian veterans reported increased risk of infertility. The Lebanese and Slovenian civil wars were associated with a decrease in sperm parameters. Exposure to mustard gas was also associated with abnormal semen parameters; however, exposure to depleted uranium had no effect on semen characteristics. Most of the studies examined had major limitations including recall bias and small number of cases included. PMID:18644222

  2. The stress of war and breast cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    Korda-Vidić, Vesna; Vasilj, Ivan; Babić, Dragan

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 94.000 persons were killed or disappeared and about 1.8 million people were forced to flee from their homes during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, from April 1992 to December 1995. The Dayton Peace Agreement, signed on November 21, 1995, ended the war. Life and health conditions of the population in B&H characterized with severe disorders caused by severe war and post-war traumatic events. The aim of this work is to establish the connection between breast cancer in women and stress caused by traumatic experiences during the war in B&H. We performed this study of pairs at the Clinic for Oncology, University Clinical Hospital Mostar, from November 2008 to March 2009. Two hundred women from Herzegovina region participated in this research. The study group consisted of 100 women with diagnosed breast cancer. The control group consisted of 100 women without breast cancer diagnosis, of the same age and living in the same area. We have found that women with breast cancer had statistically considerably more war traumatic experiences and thus more stress than the women in control group (p=0.000). The following conclusions are also noteworthy: 39% of women in the study group were under the ages of 50, when diagnosed breast cancer. Only one woman got psychosocially care within breast cancer treatment. High middle age of physiological loss of period (≥50), longer fertile period, as well as the smoking habit are breast cancer risk factors statistically more present. Women with breast cancer have experienced more stress due to significantly more war traumatic experiences, so that war-related stress considered a risk factor. PMID:26657984

  3. Positive autoantibodies to ZnT8 indicate elevated risk for additional autoimmune conditions in patients with Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Fichna, Marta; Rogowicz-Frontczak, Anita; Żurawek, Magdalena; Fichna, Piotr; Gryczyńska, Maria; Zozulińska-Ziółkiewicz, Dorota; Ruchała, Marek

    2016-07-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) associates with exceptional susceptibility to develop other autoimmune conditions, including type 1 diabetes (T1D), marked by positive serum autoantibodies to insulin (IAA), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) and insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA-2A). Zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8) is a new T1D autoantigen, encoded by the SLC30A8 gene. Its polymorphic variant rs13266634C/T seems associated with the occurrence of serum ZnT8 antibodies (ZnT8A). This study was designed to determine the prevalence of serum ZnT8A and their clinical implication in 140 AAD patients. Other beta cell and thyroid-specific autoantibodies were also investigated, and ZnT8A results were confronted with the rs13266634 genotype. ZnT8A were detectable in 8.5 %, GADA in 20.7 %, IA-2A in 5.7 %, IAA in 1.6 % and various anti-thyroid antibodies in 7.1-67.8 % individuals. Type 1 diabetes was found in 10 % AAD patients. ZnT8A were positive in 57.1 % of T1D patients and 3.4 % non-diabetic AAD. Analysis of ZnT8A enabled to identify autoimmunity in two (14.3 %) T1D individuals previously classified as autoantibody-negative. ZnT8A-positive patients revealed significantly higher number of autoimmune conditions (p < 0.001), increased prevalence of T1D (p < 0.001) and other beta cell-specific autoantibodies. Carriers of the rs13266634 T-allele displayed increased frequency (p = 0.006) and higher titres of ZnT8A (p = 0.002). Our study demonstrates high incidence of ZnT8A in AAD patients. ZnT8A are associated with coexisting T1D and predictive of T1D in non-diabetic subjects. Moreover, positive ZnT8A in AAD indicate elevated risk for additional autoimmune conditions. Autoantibodies to beta cell antigens, comprising ZnT8, could be included in routine screening panels in AAD. PMID:26972575

  4. Getting the Civil War Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…

  5. War, Peace, and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Barrie, Ed.

    Written for editors, reporters, and researchers, this publication contains background information on war and peace. Included are newspaper articles, essays, and excerpts from radio commentaries. The information is intended to help journalists provide more accurate coverage of war-and-peace issues, in particular more accurate coverage of the Soviet…

  6. Behavior, society, and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Tetlock, P.E.; Husbands, J.L.; Jervis, R.; Stern, P.C.; Tilly, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains chapters on the following topics related to nuclear arms and nuclear war: crisis decision making; behavioral aspects of negotiations on mutual security; democracy, public opinion, and nuclear weapons; the case of wars; A review of theories; methodological themes and variations.

  7. Teaching War Literature, Teaching Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Janet M.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores literature taught in three different courses and the peace education approaches used for each, including epics in literature courses, Vietnam War literature, and literature of anger and hope. The author recommends the teaching of war literature as an essential part of a peace education curriculum. Devastating events such as…

  8. Primary Sources Enliven Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2011-01-01

    Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War,…

  9. A first screening and risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and additives in personal care products in waste water, sludge, recipient water and sediment from Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland.

    PubMed

    Huber, Sandra; Remberger, Mikael; Kaj, Lennart; Schlabach, Martin; Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn Ó; Vester, Jette; Arnórsson, Mímir; Mortensen, Inge; Schwartson, Richard; Dam, Maria

    2016-08-15

    A screening of a broad range of pharmaceuticals and additives in personal care products (PPCPs) in sub-arctic locations of the Faroe Islands (FO), Iceland (IS) and Greenland (GL) was conducted. In total 36 pharmaceuticals including some metabolites, and seven additives in personal care products were investigated in influent and effluent waters as well as sludge of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and in water and sediment of recipients. Concentrations and distribution patterns for PPCPs discharged via sewage lines (SLs) to the marine environment were assessed. Of the 36 pharmaceuticals or metabolites analysed 33 were found close to or above the limit of detection (LOD) in all or a part of the samples. All of the seven investigated additives in personal care products were detected above the LOD. Some of the analysed PPCPs occurred in every or almost every sample. Among these were diclofenac, ibuprofen, lidocaine, naproxen, metformin, citalopram, venlafaxine, amiloride, furosemide, metoprolol, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and cetrimonium salt (ATAC-C16). Additionally, the study encompasses ecotoxicological risk assessment of 2/3 of the analysed PPCPs in recipient and diluted effluent waters. For candesartan only a small margin to levels with inacceptable risks was observed in diluted effluent waters at two locations (FO). Chronical risks for aquatic organisms staying and/or living around WWTP effluent pipe-outlets were indicated for 17β-estradiol and estriol in the three countries. Additives in PCPs were found to pose the largest risk to the aquatic environment. The surfactants CAPB and ATAC-C16 were found in concentrations resulting in risk factors up to 375 for CAPB and 165 for ATAC-C16 in recipients for diluted effluents from Iggia, Nuuk (GL) and Torshavn (FO) respectively. These results demonstrates a potentially high ecological risk stemming from discharge of surfactants as used in household and industrial detergents as well as additives in personal care

  10. Additive influence of genetic predisposition and conventional risk factors in the incidence of coronary heart disease: a population-based study in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Yiannakouris, Nikos; Katsoulis, Michail; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Ordovas, Jose M; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Objectives An additive genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary heart disease (CHD) has previously been associated with incident CHD in the population-based Greek European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In this study, we explore GRS-‘environment’ joint actions on CHD for several conventional cardiovascular risk factors (ConvRFs), including smoking, hypertension, type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), body mass index (BMI), physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Design A case–control study. Setting The general Greek population of the EPIC study. Participants and outcome measures 477 patients with medically confirmed incident CHD and 1271 controls participated in this study. We estimated the ORs for CHD by dividing participants at higher or lower GRS and, alternatively, at higher or lower ConvRF, and calculated the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) as a measure of deviation from additivity. Results The joint presence of higher GRS and higher risk ConvRF was in all instances associated with an increased risk of CHD, compared with the joint presence of lower GRS and lower risk ConvRF. The OR (95% CI) was 1.7 (1.2 to 2.4) for smoking, 2.7 (1.9 to 3.8) for hypertension, 4.1 (2.8 to 6.1) for T2DM, 1.9 (1.4 to 2.5) for lower physical activity, 2.0 (1.3 to 3.2) for high BMI and 1.5 (1.1 to 2.1) for poor adherence to the Mediterranean diet. In all instances, RERI values were fairly small and not statistically significant, suggesting that the GRS and the ConvRFs do not have effects beyond additivity. Conclusions Genetic predisposition to CHD, operationalised through a multilocus GRS, and ConvRFs have essentially additive effects on CHD risk. PMID:24500614

  11. Kepler's "War on Mars"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, William; Orchiston, W.; Stephenson, F. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an interpretation of how Johannes Kepler changed the study of astronomy. We propose that in his metaphorical "War on Mars,” the Astronomia Nova, Kepler used a revolutionary rhetoric to bring about the usurpation of seventeenth-century astronomy. We discuss how Kepler approached the well-established conceptual framework within which the hypotheses of Ptolemy, Copernicus and Tycho Brahe functioned, and how he sought comprehensive physical principles that could determine the true cause and form of the known Universe. We examine Kepler's need to redefine reality and his use of rhetoric in shaping his astronomical argument for a new astronomy, and we show that his new `laws’ represent a fusion of physics and geometry based upon astronomical observations. We suggest that although Kepler may have believed in and defended some Copernican ideas, his innovative Astronomia Nova opened up a whole new vista for international astronomy.

  12. Water and wars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    In “Challenging the Rhetoric of Water Wars” (Eos, In Brief, September 5, 2000, p. 410) Randy Showstack reported on the speech given by Minister Kader Asmal upon receiving the 2000 Stockholm Water Prize. This prize was well deserved for the tremendous progress South Africa has made under Minister Asmal's leadership in addressing basic water needs after apartheid. Indeed, I was one of his nominators for this prize and am an ardent fan of his bold programs. But his remarks about water-related conflicts need to be qualified. In his speech, Minister Asmal noted that water scarcity is a “crisis of biblical proportion,” but also suggested “there is not a shred of evidence” to back up arguments that there are water “wars.”

  13. Global Famine after a Regional Nuclear War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, A.; Xia, L.; Mills, M. J.; Stenke, A.; Helfand, I.

    2014-12-01

    A regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan, using 100 15-kt atomic bombs, could inject 5 Tg of soot into the upper troposphere from fires started in urban and industrial areas. Simulations by three different general circulation models, GISS ModelE, WACCM, and SOCOL, all agree that global surface temperature would decrease by 1 to 2°C for 5 to 10 years, and have major impacts on precipitation and solar radiation reaching Earth's surface. Local summer climate changes over land would be larger. Using the DSSAT crop simulation model forced by these three global climate model simulations, we investigate the impacts on agricultural production in China, the largest grain producer in the world. In the first year after the regional nuclear war, a cooler, drier, and darker environment would reduce annual rice production by 23 Mt (24%), maize production by 41 Mt (23%), and wheat production by 23 Mt (50%). This reduction of food availability would continue, with gradually decreasing amplitude, for more than a decade. Results from simulations in other major grain producing regions produce similar results. Thus a nuclear war using much less than 1% of the current global arsenal could produce a global food crisis and put a billion people at risk of famine.

  14. The unfought chemical war

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, K. )

    1991-12-01

    In December 1943, in the middle of the scorching northern Australia summer, a young Australian commando, Tom Mitchell, sweated in his respirator and gas-protective clothing as he got ready to take part in a mustard-gas experiment. He grimly watched six US aircraft, B-24 Liberators, drop bombs filled with mustard gas on Brook Island, near Innisfail in the state of Queensland. Ten minutes later, Mitchell was rushing around the island to tend sampling equipment. But a few hours later, he and another Australian soldier were ordered back onto the island - this time, stripped of their respirators and protective clothing. They were forced to camp on the island from dusk to dawn in ordinary clothing without any safety equipment. Mitchell now suffers from lung and heart disease. Last year, nearly 47 years after he was burned, Mitchell settled with the Australian government for $25,000 (Australian). Publicity over his lawsuit, filed in 1981, along with revelations made in a documentary film broadcast in Australia in 1989, has prompted thousands of other Australian survivors of chemical-warfare tests to ask the Australian Department of Veterans Affairs for disability benefits. Veterans of chemical-warfare tests are also breaking their silence in the United States and Canada, stepping forward to seek compensation for their injuries. The impetus behind the US revelations came from a campaign begun in 1989 by Cong. Porter Goss, a Florida Republican, to win benefits for four participants in US Navy mustard-gas tests. During a flurry of publicity in mid-June 1991, the Department of Veterans Affairs announced that it was relaxing its rules to make it easier for World War 2 mustard-gas victims to collect benefits. In Canada, an information hot line run by the Department of National Defense in 1988 and a 1989 book by John Bryden, Deadly Allies: Canada's Secret War 1937-1947, brought the tests to national attention.

  15. War and domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Colson, E

    1995-01-01

    A longterm study (begun in 1956) of the people of four villages in Gwembe District in Zambia provides information on deaths due to Rhodesian action or to Zimbabwean freedom fighters and on deaths due to domestic violence (which is likely to have been underreported because it is considered shameful). During the decade of the 1970s, one woman and three men died from Rhodesian action and 5 women were killed by kinsmen (two husbands, two sons, and one brother). The police left the kin to settle the case of the sister killed by the brother. One man who killed his mother persuaded a younger, unmarried kinsman to be charged and punished in his stead; another left the community. One of the men who killed his wife was released because of his age (he paid damages to his children in accordance with matrilineal tradition); the other was released for lack of evidence. Battered women usually do not press charges against their husbands but may leave them and, if young, marry again. In some cases, battered women seeking divorce have also won compensation for broken bones. Domestic violence may have been especially prevalent in this period because the economic situation deteriorated, men could not find work, and the Rhodesian war added stress and disrupted the local transportation system. In response, men began to drink more heavily and male violence directed against women and men brewed along with locally-produced alcohol. Domestic violence may be exacerbated when men use women as an outlet for their anger and frustration in stressful times of war. PMID:12295013

  16. Epigenetic Alterations Associated with War Trauma and Childhood Maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Ramo-Fernández, Laura; Schneider, Anna; Wilker, Sarah; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2015-10-01

    Survivors of war trauma or childhood maltreatment are at increased risk for trauma-spectrum disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In addition, traumatic stress has been associated with alterations in the neuroendocrine and the immune system, enhancing the risk for physical diseases. Traumatic experiences might even affect psychological as well as biological parameters in the next generation, i.e. traumatic stress might have transgenerational effects. This article outlines how epigenetic processes, which represent a pivotal biological mechanism for dynamic adaptation to environmental challenges, might contribute to the explanation of the long-lasting and transgenerational effects of trauma. In particular, epigenetic alterations in genes regulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis as well as the immune system have been observed in survivors of childhood and adult trauma. These changes could result in enduring alterations of the stress response as well as the physical health risk. Furthermore, the effects of parental trauma could be transmitted to the next generation by parental distress and the pre- and postnatal environment, as well as by epigenetic marks transmitted via the germline. While epigenetic research has a high potential of advancing our understanding of the consequences of trauma, the findings have to be interpreted with caution, as epigenetics only represent one piece of a complex puzzle of interacting biological and environmental factors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26358541

  17. The benefits of an additional worker are task-dependent: assessing low-back injury risks during prefabricated (panelized) wall construction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunwook; Nussbaum, Maury A; Jia, Bochen

    2012-09-01

    Team manual material handling is a common practice in residential construction where prefabricated building components (e.g., wall panels) are increasingly used. As part of a larger effort to enable proactive control of ergonomic exposures among workers handling panels, this study explored the effects of additional workers on injury risks during team-based panel erection tasks, specifically by quantifying how injury risks are affected by increasing the number of workers (by one, above the nominal or most common number). Twenty-four participants completed panel erection tasks with and without an additional worker under different panel mass and size conditions. Four risk assessment methods were employed that emphasized the low back. Though including an additional worker generally reduced injury risk across several panel masses and sizes, the magnitude of these benefits varied depending on the specific task and exhibited somewhat high variability within a given task. These results suggest that a simple, generalizable recommendation regarding team-based panel erection tasks is not warranted. Rather, a more systems-level approach accounting for both injury risk and productivity (a strength of panelized wall systems) should be undertaken. PMID:22226545

  18. Girls and war: an extra vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Black, M

    1998-01-01

    It is no longer possible to consider the raping of girls as an isolated atrocity of war. In Uganda, guerrilla forces have kidnapped 6000-10,000 children and have forced the "most desirable" girls to become "wives" of warlords. Girls who manage to escape are deeply traumatized and suffer ill health as well as possible social ostracism. In refugee camps, recognition that adolescent girls face special risks of rape and of engaging in the informal prostitution that may expose them to HIV/AIDS has led to the introduction of new measures to increase female security. Families in refugee camps in Burundi and Somalia protect female honor by submitting their daughters to very early marriage, which also abuses the girls' rights. Girls conscripted to military groups are forced to transport materials, cook, or help loot villages. In conditions of war, even girls who remain at home protected by their families must assume extra responsibilities, especially if men go off to fight leaving women with the agricultural and livestock burdens. Girls will be the first children withdrawn from school to help keep the household afloat. Girls and women are also expected to tend those wounded by the very war that destroys the health care services that are vital to meet women's reproductive needs. Efforts are being made to identify rape as a specific war crime, and these efforts should be extended to the kidnapping and forced recruitment of children into combat roles. Moral codes must be reestablished, even if they are only nominal at present. PMID:12321764

  19. Were There "Additional Foreseeable Risks" in the SUPPORT Study? Lessons Not Learned from the ARDSnet Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Henry J; Dreyfuss, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Even though the interventions were adapted from standard clinical practice, the way they were provided meant that the care given infants in the study was distinctly different from standard care, with different risk profiles. Parents should have been informed about those differences. PMID:25530226

  20. Inaccuracy of Self-Evaluation as Additional Variable for Prediction of Students at Risk of Failing First-Year Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potgieter, Marietjie; Ackermann, Mia; Fletcher, Lizelle

    2010-01-01

    Early identification of students at risk of failing first-year chemistry allows timely intervention. Cognitive factors alone are insufficient predictors for success; however, non cognitive factors are usually difficult to measure. We have explored the use of demographic and performance variables, as well as the accuracy of self-evaluation as an…

  1. Cognitive Processes that Account for Mental Addition Fluency Differences between Children Typically Achieving in Arithmetic and Children At-Risk for Failure in Arithmetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Derek H.; Hutchinson, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether processing speed, short-term memory, and working memory accounted for the differential mental addition fluency between children typically achieving in arithmetic (TA) and children at-risk for failure in arithmetic (AR). Further, we drew attention to fluency differences in simple (e.g., 5 + 3) and complex (e.g., 16 +…

  2. Additive influence of genetic predisposition and conventional risk factors in the incidence of coronary heart disease: a population-based study in Greece

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An additive genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary heart disease (CHD) has previously been associated with incident CHD in the population-based Greek European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In this study, we explore GRS-‘environment’ joint actions on CHD for severa...

  3. Medical problems of survivors of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, H.L.; Von Kaenel, W.E.

    1981-11-01

    The nature of the medical problems that may confront survivors of a nuclear war are discussed with emphasis on infection and the spread of communicable disease. Factors which will increase the risk and severity of infection include: radiation, trauma and burns, malnutrition and starvation, dehydration, exposure, and hardship. Factors which will increase the spread of disease include: crowded shelter conditions, poor sanitation, insects, corpses, free-roaming diseased animals. Shortages of physicians, the destruction of laboratories, and the general disorganization sure to follow the attack will also contribute to the problems. The authors recommend further study in this area. (JMT)

  4. Mass trauma: disasters, terrorism, and war.

    PubMed

    Chrisman, Allan K; Dougherty, Joseph G

    2014-04-01

    Disasters, war, and terrorism expose millions of children globally to mass trauma with increasing frequency and severity. The clinical impact of such exposure is influenced by a child's social ecology, which is understood in a risk and resilience framework. Research findings informed by developmental systems theory and the related core principles of contemporary developmental psychopathology are reviewed. Their application to the recent recommendations for interventions based on evolving public health models of community resilience are discussed along with practical clinical tools for individual response. PMID:24656579

  5. Smoking and polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolism and DNA repair genes are additive risk factors affecting bladder cancer in Northern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Rouissi, Kamel; Ouerhani, Slah; Hamrita, Bechr; Bougatef, Karim; Marrakchi, Raja; Cherif, Mohamed; Ben Slama, Mohamed Riadh; Bouzouita, Mohamed; Chebil, Mohamed; Ben Ammar Elgaaied, Amel

    2011-12-01

    Cancer epidemiology has undergone marked development since the nineteen-fifties. One of the most spectacular and specific contributions was the demonstration of the massive effect of smoking and genetic polymorphisms on the occurrence of bladder cancer. The tobacco carcinogens are metabolized by various xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, such as the super-families of N-acetyltransferases (NAT) and glutathione S-transferases (GST). DNA repair is essential to an individual's ability to respond to damage caused by tobacco carcinogens. Alterations in DNA repair genes may affect cancer risk by influencing individual susceptibility to this environmental exposure. Polymorphisms in NAT2, GST and DNA repair genes alter the ability of these enzymes to metabolize carcinogens or to repair alterations caused by this process. We have conducted a case-control study to assess the role of smoking, slow NAT2 variants, GSTM1 and GSTT1 null, and XPC, XPD, XPG nucleotide excision-repair (NER) genotypes in bladder cancer development in North Tunisia. Taken alone, each gene unless NAT2 did not appear to be a factor affecting bladder cancer susceptibility. For the NAT2 slow acetylator genotypes, the NAT2*5/*7 diplotype was found to have a 7-fold increased risk to develop bladder cancer (OR = 7.14; 95% CI: 1.30-51.41). However, in tobacco consumers, we have shown that Null GSTM1, Wild GSTT1, Slow NAT2, XPC (CC) and XPG (CC) are genetic risk factors for the disease. When combined together in susceptible individuals compared to protected individuals these risk factors give an elevated OR (OR = 61). So, we have shown a strong cumulative effect of tobacco and different combinations of studied genetic risk factors which lead to a great susceptibility to bladder cancer. PMID:21647780

  6. Reproductive health of Gulf War veterans.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Patricia; Maconochie, Noreen; Ryan, Margaret

    2006-04-29

    In this review we summarize the scientific literature on reproductive health following deployment to the first Gulf war by armed service personnel. All the studies examined had methodological limitations, making interpretation difficult. Nonetheless we conclude that for male veterans there is no strong or consistent evidence to date for an effect of service in the first Gulf war on the risk of major, clearly defined, birth defects or stillbirth in offspring conceived after deployment. Effects on specific rare defects cannot be excluded at this stage since none of the studies had the statistical power to examine them. For miscarriage and infertility, there is some evidence of small increased risks associated with service, but the role of bias is likely to be strong. For female veterans, there is insufficient information to make robust conclusions, although the weight of evidence to date does not indicate any major problem associated specifically with deployment to the Gulf. None of the studies have been able to examine risk according particular exposures, and so possible associations with specific exposures for smaller groups of exposed veterans cannot be excluded. We suggest that the way forward to address the question of veterans' reproductive health with confidence in the future is prospective surveillance following deployment. Anything less will result in further problems of interpretation and continued anxiety for parents, as well as prospective parents, in the armed forces. PMID:16687262

  7. Reproductive health of Gulf War veterans

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Patricia; Maconochie, Noreen; Ryan, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    In this review we summarize the scientific literature on reproductive health following deployment to the first Gulf war by armed service personnel. All the studies examined had methodological limitations, making interpretation difficult. Nonetheless we conclude that for male veterans there is no strong or consistent evidence to date for an effect of service in the first Gulf war on the risk of major, clearly defined, birth defects or stillbirth in offspring conceived after deployment. Effects on specific rare defects cannot be excluded at this stage since none of the studies had the statistical power to examine them. For miscarriage and infertility, there is some evidence of small increased risks associated with service, but the role of bias is likely to be strong. For female veterans, there is insufficient information to make robust conclusions, although the weight of evidence to date does not indicate any major problem associated specifically with deployment to the Gulf. None of the studies have been able to examine risk according particular exposures, and so possible associations with specific exposures for smaller groups of exposed veterans cannot be excluded. We suggest that the way forward to address the question of veterans' reproductive health with confidence in the future is prospective surveillance following deployment. Anything less will result in further problems of interpretation and continued anxiety for parents, as well as prospective parents, in the armed forces. PMID:16687262

  8. Civil war: is it all about disease and xenophobia? A comment on Letendre, Fincher & Thornhill.

    PubMed

    Hendrix, Cullen S; Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede

    2012-02-01

    Letendre, Fincher & Thornhill (2010) argue that pathogen intensity provides the ultimate explanation for why some countries are more prone to civil war than others. They argue that the economic and political factors highlighted in previous research on civil war are largely caused by underlying differences in pathogen intensity, and contend that disease proneness increases the risk of civil war through its effects on resource competition and xenophobia. They present empirical evidence that they interpret as consistent with their argument: a statistically significant correlation between pathogen intensity and civil war onset. In this comment, we raise concerns over their interpretation of the empirical evidence and their proposed causal mechanisms. We find that the data provide stronger evidence for the reverse causal relationship, namely that civil war causes disease to become more prevalent. This finding is consistent with the literatures on the public health effects of civil war as well as research on state capacity and public health. PMID:21707908

  9. War and Peace: Toys, Teachers, and Tots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Arleen; And Others

    War play is play with a toy that initiates violence or play that involves the imitation of war. War play can involve: (1) the use of toys based on television cartoon shows to imitate the action in the cartoons; (2) play with replicas of war paraphernalia or manipulatives shaped into guns; and (3) dramatic play. The negative effects on children…

  10. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  11. Lessons on the Cold War. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Susan J.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the end of the Cold War requires teachers to change their teaching methods and content. Presents six lessons, most with three individual student activities, that trace the Cold War from the pre-World War I era through the end of the Vietnam War. (CFR)

  12. American Women and the Great War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumenil, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the idealized images of women during World War I. Features the use of posters and propaganda during the war. Focuses on voluntary activities in which women participated, the fight for women's suffrage during the war, and the effect of the war on women working. Includes poster reproductions. (CMK)

  13. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  14. Hawks, doves, and owls: An agenda for avoiding nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, G.T.; Carnesale, A.; Nye, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book explores five paths toward nuclear conflict, concentrating on how changes in forces, technology, and political life affect the way events might travel down each path. The authors suggest ways to move the world back from danger. Their agenda is an extensive list of detailed policy recommendations to reduce the risk of nuclear war.

  15. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Toon, Owen B.; Robock, Alan; Turco, Richard P.

    2014-05-09

    A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

  16. Rockets in World War I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    World War I enlisted rockets once again for military purposes. French pilots rigged rockets to the wing struts of their airplanes and aimed them at enemy observation balloons filled with highly inflammable hydrogen.

  17. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Robock, Alan; Turco, Richard P.

    2014-05-01

    A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

  18. How Much War Should Be Included in a Course on World War II?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Donald G.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that end of Cold War increases need for students to understand causes and aftermath of World War II. Recommends spending less time on military aspects of the war and more time on the economic, social, and cultural impact of total war. Provides a selected list of resources to be used in a college level course on the war. (CFR)

  19. Additive Effects of the Risk Alleles of PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 on Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Zhipeng; Wang, Kai; Wang, Zhaowen; Sun, Xing; Zhong, Lin; Deng, Guilong; Song, Guohe; Sun, Baining; Peng, Zhihai; Liu, Wanqing

    2016-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have identified that variants in or near PNPLA3, NCAN, GCKR, LYPLAL1, and TM6SF2 are significantly associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in multiple ethnic groups. Studies on their impact on NAFLD in Han Chinese are still limited. In this study, we examined the relevance of these variants to NAFLD in a community-based Han Chinese population and further explored their potential joint effect on NAFLD. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (PNPLA3 rs738409, rs2294918, NCAN rs2228603, GCKR rs780094, LYPLAL1 rs12137855, and TM6SF2 rs58542926) previously identified in genome-wide analyses, to be associated with NAFLD were genotyped in 384 NAFLD patients and 384 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. We found two out of the six polymorphisms, PNPLA3 rs738409 (OR = 1.52, 95%CI: 1.19–1.96; P = 0.00087) and TM6SF2 rs58542926 (OR = 2.11, 95%CI: 1.34–3.39; P = 0.0016) are independently associated with NAFLD after adjustment for the effects of age, gender, and BMI. Our analysis further demonstrated the strong additive effects of the risk alleles of PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 with an overall significance between the number of risk alleles and NAFLD (OR = 1.64, 95%CI: 1.34–2.01; P = 1.4 × 10-6). The OR for NAFLD increased in an additive manner, with an average increase in OR of 1.52 per additional risk allele. Our results confirmed that the PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 variants were the most significant risk alleles for NAFLD in Chinese population. Therefore, genotyping these two genetic risk factors may help identify individuals with the highest risk of NAFLD. PMID:27532011

  20. Prevention of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-10-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death. (DCK)

  1. Star Wars software debate

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, W.

    1986-02-01

    David L. Parnas, Landsdowne Professor of Computer Science at the University of Victoria resigned from the SDI Organization's Panel on Computing in Support of Battle Management on June 28, 1985. Parnas, with 20 years of research on software engineering plus 8 years of work on military aircraft real-time software, says the software portion of SDI cannot be built error-free and he doesn't expect the next 20 years of research to change that fact. Since Parnas resigned, there have been several public debates on Star Wars software questions. In November 1985 the SDIO panel from which Parnas resigned released a draft of its report, reflecting its effort to critics of the project. While one might think that errors could be entirely eliminated with enough care and checking, most software professionals believe there will always be some residue of errors in a system of this size and complexity. The general line of the critics' argument is that the larger the amount of software in a single, unified system, the higher the percentage of errors it will contain. Proponents counter that the one very large system can be divided into a number of smaller, relatively independent pieces, thus reducing the proportionate number of errors in each separate piece. This approach is in turn countered by those who point to the intricate relations between these pieces, which themselves contribute to error.

  2. Neurology in the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam. PMID:27035455

  3. Intrauterine diabetic environment confers risks for type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in the offspring, in addition to genetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Dabelea, D; Pettitt, D J

    2001-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that offspring whose mothers had type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are more likely to develop type 2 DM, impaired glucose tolerance, and obesity at an early age than offspring whose fathers had DM. Exposure to the diabetic intrauterine environment has been shown to be an important risk factor for all these conditions. To what extent transmission of type 2 DM from mother to offspring is the effect of genetic inheritance and to what extent it is the long-term consequence of exposure to maternal hyperglycemia is still uncertain. There are, of course, interactions between the diabetic intrauterine environment and genetics. Several data in experimental animals as well as in humans suggest, however, that exposure of the fetus to the mother's DM confers a risk for type 2 DM and obesity that is above any genetically transmitted susceptibility. In the Pima Indian population much of the increase in childhood type 2 DM can be attributed to the diabetic intrauterine environment. This suggests that intensive glucose control during pregnancy might have extended beneficial effects, contributing to a decrease in the prevalence of childhood type 2 DM. PMID:11592564

  4. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.

    2009-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to be academically at-risk at entry to first grade. Analyses accounted for clustering effects, covariates, baselines of effortful control measures, and prior levels of achievement. Even with such conservative statistical controls, interactive effects were found for task accuracy and positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement. Results suggest that task accuracy served as a protective factor so that children with high task accuracy performed well academically despite not having positive teacher-student relationships. Further, positive teacher-student relationships served as a compensatory factor so that children with low task accuracy performed just as well as those with high task accuracy if they were paired with a positive and supportive teacher. Importantly, results indicate that the influence of positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement was most pronounced for students with low effortful control on tasks that require fine motor skills, accuracy, and attention-related skills. Study results have implications for narrowing achievement disparities for academically at-risk children. PMID:20161421

  5. Intensifying instruction: Does additional instructional time make a difference for the most at-risk first graders?

    PubMed

    Harn, Beth A; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia; Roberts, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Research is clear on the benefit of early intervention efforts and the importance of intensive instructional supports; however, understanding which features to intensify is less clear. General intervention features of group size, instructional delivery, and time are areas schools can consider manipulating to intensify instruction. Also, each of these features can vary along a continuum making them easier or more challenging for schools to implement. What is unclear is if implementing very intensive interventions early in school (first grade), which require significantly more school resources, provides accordingly accelerated student learning. This article investigates the role of intensifying instructional time for the most at-risk first graders in schools implementing research-based instructional and assessment practices within multitiered instructional support systems. Results indicate that students receiving more intensive intervention made significantly more progress across a range of early reading measures. Intervention features, limitations, recommendations for practice, and implications for treatment resisters are discussed. PMID:18354932

  6. World War I: an air war of consequence.

    PubMed

    Hallion, Richard P

    2014-06-01

    On December 17, 1903, the brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright flew the world's first successful airplane, following this with the first military airplane in 1908. (The 1908 Flyer was built by the brothers in response to a 1907 requirements specification for a 2-place aircraft capable of flying at 40 mph and able to be broken down and transported in a horse-drawn wagon. Technically, since it crashed during its demonstration program and was not formally delivered to the Army, it never became Army property. But the trials had been so impressive that the Army ordered a second, delivered in 1909.) Just six years later, Europe erupted in a general war. Often portrayed as a sideshow to the war on land and sea, the air war heralded the advent of mechanized warfare, the airplane being one of four great technological advances--the submarine, the tank, and radio communication--that, together, revolutionized military affairs. Aircraft reconnaissance influenced the conduct of military operations from the war's earliest days, and airborne observers routinely governed the fall of artillery barrages, crucially important in an artillery-dominant war. PMID:24961713

  7. Vascular Surgery in World War II: The Shift to Repairing Arteries.

    PubMed

    Barr, Justin; Cherry, Kenneth J; Rich, Norman M

    2016-03-01

    Vascular surgery in World War II has long been defined by DeBakey and Simeone's classic 1946 article describing arterial repair as exceedingly rare. They argued ligation was and should be the standard surgical response to arterial trauma in war. We returned to and analyzed the original records of World War II military medical units housed in the National Archives and other repositories in addition to consulting published accounts to determine the American practice of vascular surgery in World War II. This research demonstrates a clear shift from ligation to arterial repair occurring among American military surgeons in the last 6 months of the war in the European Theater of Operations. These conclusions not only highlight the role of war as a catalyst for surgical change but also point to the dangers of inaccurate history in stymieing such advances. PMID:25719811

  8. Epidemiology of violence and war.

    PubMed

    Cvjetanović, B

    2000-06-01

    The magnitude of the threat that violence and war pose to the health, the quality of life, and the very survival of humanity is obvious. A number of scientific disciplines have provided, each through its own methodology, insights into the causation, genesis, and dynamics of violence and war. Although epidemiological and psychological methodologies received priority, the multidisciplinary approach to this problem seems to be the most appropriate. This essay attempts to approach holistically the study of epidemiology of violence and war and the ways of preventing these severe problems of the contemporary society. Conceptual models of the causative mechanisms and dynamics of violence and war, mapping the various psychic, social, and environmental factors, are presented. These models, besides advancing abstract ideas, also provide a concrete framework for determining and exploring the interactions and dynamics of the factors and processes which lead to violence and war. The types of interventions outlined for control and prevention are intended to make an impact upon "critical points" within the dynamics of the process which produces violence and war, and are conceived to be implemented on both the national and international level. The importance of family, community, and school influences is considered, but the role of international organizations, including the United Nations, and other governmental and non-governmental organizations is also stressed. Discussion is focused on the factors which favour peace and hamper aggression, on "internationalization" and global society versus xenophobia and nationalism. The conclusions state that there is sufficient knowhow to devise and implement a reasonable and effective international programme for the control and prevention of violence and war, provided there is adequate public and political willingness and support. PMID:10895528

  9. The threat of nuclear war: Some responses

    PubMed Central

    Marcattilio, A. J. M.; Nevin, John A.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of nuclear holocaust threatens the very existence of the world community. Biologists, earth scientists, educators, lawyers, philosophers, physicists, physicians, and social scientists have addressed the problem from their special perspectives, and have had substantial impact on the public. Behavior analysts, however, have not as a whole contributed a great deal to the goal of preventing nuclear catastrophe. We argue that the threat of nuclear war is primarily a behavioral problem, and present an analysis of that problem. In addition, we address the difficulty of implementing behavioral interventions that would contribute to the survival of the World. PMID:22478648

  10. The medical profession and nuclear war. A social history.

    PubMed

    Day, B; Waitzkin, H

    1985-08-01

    Since World War II, individual physicians and medical organizations in the United States have cooperated with the federal government in preparing for nuclear war. While most physicians have maintained a neutral stance, a minority have resisted federal policies. Health professionals participated actively at the wartime laboratories that developed the atomic bomb and in the medical research that followed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Professional organizations helped with civil defense planning for nuclear conflict during the Cold War of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Medical resistance to nuclear war began in the same period, gained wide attention with the growth of Physicians for Social Responsibility in the early 1960s, declined during the Vietnam War, and vastly increased in the early 1980s. Activism by health professionals usually has responded to government policies that have increased the perceived risk of nuclear conflict. The recent return of civil defense planning has stimulated opposition in medical circles. Ambiguities of medical professionalism limit the scope of activism in the nuclear arena. These ambiguities concern the interplay of organized medicine and government, tensions between science and politics, and the difficulties of day-to-day work in medicine while the arms race continues. PMID:3892071

  11. Medical profession and nuclear war: a social history

    SciTech Connect

    Day, B.; Waitzkin, H.

    1985-08-02

    Since World War II, individual physicians and medical organizations in the US have cooperated with the federal government in preparing for nuclear war. While most physicians have maintained a neutral stance, a minority have resisted federal policies. Health professionals participated actively at the wartime laboratories that developed the atomic bomb and in the medical research that followed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Professional organizations helped with civil defense planning for nuclear conflict during the Cold War of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Medical resistance to nuclear war began in the same period, gained wide attention with the growth of Physicians for Social Responsibility in the early 1960s, declined during the Vietnam War, and vastly increased in the early 1980s. Activism by health professionals usually has responded to government policies that have increased the perceived risk of nuclear conflict. The recent return of civil defense planning has stimulated opposition in medical circles. Ambiguities of medical professionalism limit the scope of activism in the nuclear arena. These ambiguities concern the interplay of organized medicine and government, tensions between science and politics, and the difficulties of day-to-day work in medicine while the arms race continues.

  12. Encyclopedia of Youth and War: Young People as Participants and Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrow, Victoria

    This encyclopedia provides comprehensive information on youth and war. Beginning with the 30 Years' War in the 17th century and ending with the conflicts in Bosnia and Kosovo, the encyclopedia covers children and youth from birth to age 18, with additional materials on young adults from 18 to 24 years of age. The encyclopedia includes over 300…

  13. Astronomers in the Chemist's War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.

  14. Soil Cd availability to Indian mustard and environmental risk following EDTA addition to Cd-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Jiang, X J; Luo, Y M; Zhao, Q G; Baker, A J M; Christie, P; Wong, M H

    2003-02-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of EDTA on the extractability of Cd in the soil and uptake of Cd by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). Twenty levels of soil Cd concentration ranging from 10 to 200 mg kg(-1) were produced by spiking aliquots of a clay loam paddy soil with Cd(NO3)2. One week before the plants were harvested EDTA was applied to pots in which the soil had been spiked with 20, 40, 60...200 mg Cd kg(-1). The EDTA was added at the rate calculated to complex with all of the Cd added at the 200 mg kg(-1) level. Control pots spiked with 10, 30, 50... 190 mg Cd kg(-1) received no EDTA. The plants were harvested after 42 days' growth. Soil water- and NH4NO3-extractable Cd fractions increased rapidly following EDTA application. Root Cd concentrations decreased after EDTA application, but shoot concentrations increased when the soil Cd levels were >130 mg kg(-1) and Cd toxicity symptoms were observed. The increases in soil solution Cd induced by EDTA did not increase plant total Cd uptake but appeared to stimulate the translocation of the metal from roots to shoots when the plants appeared to be under Cd toxicity stress. The results are discussed in relation to the possible mechanisms by which EDTA may change the solubility and bioavailability of Cd in the soil and the potential for plant uptake and environmental risk due to leaching losses to groundwater. PMID:12688496

  15. War rape, natality and genocide.

    PubMed

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth. PMID:21941691

  16. Nuclear War. The moral dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Child, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    U.S. nuclear policy has become the target of increasing criticism during the past decade. Critics often argue that the use of nuclear weapons would be irrational, would destroy humankind, and thus could not serve any rational policy goal. Other critics point to the immortality of the use of nuclear weapons. Both groups condemn U.S. military policy. In Nuclear War, James Child considers and rejects both these lines of criticism. He argues that a policy of deterrence can be both rational and moral; that U.S. nuclear policy is, on balance, based on rational and moral foundations. Child examines near-term consequences of a nuclear war and finds them ghastly but not unthinkable or incomparable to the havoc produced by previous wars. He also analyzes long-term consequences, such as those proposed by the ''nuclear winter'' theory, and finds the fear of total annihilation of humankind to be unfounded.

  17. An approach towards risk assessment for the use of a synergistic metallic diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, S. L.; Richards, P. J.

    The motivations for legislation to set diesel emissions limits requiring the use of diesel particulate filters (DPF) are summarised. If the DPF is to be used, demonstration of regeneration (combustion of collected carbonaceous material) without additional emission problems is important. Potential metal emissions resulting from use of a synergistic Fe/Sr fuel-borne DPF regeneration catalyst are evaluated. Measurements over legislated drive cycle estimate the metals to comprise 1-2% of the solid material emitted, and the DPF to collect >99% of such material. Diesel particulate matter is used as a marker, and from existing air quality and emission inventory measurements, maximum conceivable increases of <1 ng m -3 and <250 pg m -3 for iron and strontium, respectively, are calculated. From environmental assessment levels, derived from occupational exposure limits, these are not significant. For humans, daily ingress of airborne Sr is estimated at 3.5 ng. This is small compared to the known Sr contents of lungs, blood and the daily diet. In the context of reductions of other metals, particulate matter and pollutant emissions, the overall assessment is that the use of these metals to enable use of a DPF allows significant net environmental benefit to be obtained.

  18. War and the demographic trap.

    PubMed

    Last, J M

    1993-08-28

    Advice is offered on alleviating environmental damage and the suffering of women and children from the effects of war. It is postured that the demographic trap, which was described by King and Elliott, is responsible for environmental stress and many wars. The surface cause may be identified as ideology, politics, or ethnicity, but as in the case of Bosnia, the "ethnic cleansing" makes farmland available to sustain expanding Serbian or Croatian populations. If the land is environmentally damaged by war, then there is little hope of sustainable development. Conflicts in many countries have driven people to urban areas or periurban slums because of displacement and the failure of subsistence economics. Mortality from wars has reached more than a 100 million since the early 1990s. A comparable number have died indirectly from famine and disease associated with the disruption of agriculture and infrastructure from wars. Since 1945, 66-75% of mortality victims have been civilians, of whom 15 million have been women and children. In 1993, there were at least 30 conflicts ongoing throughout the world. Not all of these conflicts are as "ferocious" as the Bosnian conflict, but these "so called low intensity wars" nonetheless disrupt and kill. The manifestations of the demographic trap can be alleviated through interventions that focus on multisectoral aid and conflict resolution. There must be a cooperative effort on the part of health workers, agricultural scientists, mediators, and development personnel. Unfortunately, the amount of development assistance from Europe and America has been reduced in recent years. The recession has affected the provision of international aid. African nations, in particular, have been affected, yet these countries remain the neediest in the world. It would appear that aid agencies have given up hope that the demographic trap can be closed. Population growth must be limited, as the only hope for relieving environmental stress, ecological

  19. Additive and interaction effects at three amino acid positions in HLA-DQ and HLA-DR molecules drive type 1 diabetes risk

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xinli; Deutsch, Aaron J; Lenz, Tobias L; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Han, Buhm; Chen, Wei-Min; Howson, Joanna M M; Todd, John A; de Bakker, Paul I W; Rich, Stephen S; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes accounts for one-half of the genetic risk in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Amino acid changes in the HLA-DR and HLA-DQ molecules mediate most of the risk, but extensive linkage disequilibrium complicates the localization of independent effects. Using 18,832 case-control samples, we localized the signal to 3 amino acid positions in HLA-DQ and HLA-DR. HLA-DQβ1 position 57 (previously known; P = 1 × 10−1,355) by itself explained 15.2% of the total phenotypic variance. Independent effects at HLA-DRβ1 positions 13 (P = 1 × 10−721) and 71 (P = 1 × 10−95) increased the proportion of variance explained to 26.9%. The three positions together explained 90% of the phenotypic variance in the HLA-DRB1–HLA-DQA1–HLA-DQB1 locus. Additionally, we observed significant interactions for 11 of 21 pairs of common HLA-DRB1–HLA-DQA1–HLA-DQB1 haplotypes (P = 1.6 × 10−64). HLA-DRβ1 positions 13 and 71 implicate the P4 pocket in the antigen-binding groove, thus pointing to another critical protein structure for T1D risk, in addition to the HLA-DQ P9 pocket. PMID:26168013

  20. Glut, war slow Mideast activity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-20

    Oilpatch activity in the Middle East has been on the slow side recently, and with a heated-up war between Iran and Iraq throwing off violent sparks around the Arabian Gulf, it's difficult to keep one's mind on business-as-usual. The article deals with the rising cost of insurance for shipping because of the war and the effects on drilling, production and the environment (oil spills). The development and production of offshore oil and gas in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates is also discussed.

  1. Risk of adverse events with bevacizumab addition to therapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Xi-Xi; Xu, Ren-Ai; Yu-Ping, Li; Yang, Han

    2016-01-01

    Background Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor ligand, has shown survival benefits in the treatment of many types of malignant tumors, including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the risk of the most clinically relevant adverse events related to bevacizumab in advanced NSCLC. Methods Databases from PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library up to August 2015, were searched to identify relevant studies. We included prospective randomized controlled Phase II/III clinical trials that compared therapy with or without bevacizumab for advanced NSCLC. Summary relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random effects or fixed effects according to the heterogeneity among included trials. Results A total of 3,745 patients from nine clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. Summary RRs showed a statistically significant bevacizumab-associated increased risk in three of the adverse outcomes studied: proteinuria (RR =7.55), hypertension (RR =5.34), and hemorrhagic events (RR =2.61). No statistically significant differences were found for gastrointestinal perforation (P=0.60), arterial and venous thromboembolic events (P=0.35 and P=0.92, respectively), or fatal events (P=0.29). Conclusion The addition of bevacizumab to therapy in advanced NSCLC did significantly increase the risk of proteinuria, hypertension, and hemorrhagic events but not arterial/venous thromboembolic events, gastrointestinal perforation, or fatal adverse events. PMID:27143937

  2. Improving nutrient management practices in agriculture: The role of risk-based beliefs in understanding farmers' attitudes toward taking additional action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robyn S.; Howard, Gregory; Burnett, Elizabeth A.

    2014-08-01

    A recent increase in the amount of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) entering the western Lake Erie basin is likely due to increased spring storm events in combination with issues related to fertilizer application and timing. These factors in combination with warmer lake temperatures have amplified the spread of toxic algal blooms. We assessed the attitudes of farmers in northwest Ohio toward taking at least one additional action to reduce nutrient loss on their farm. Specifically, we (1) identified to what extent farm and farmer characteristics (e.g., age, gross farm sales) as well as risk-based beliefs (e.g., efficacy, risk perception) influenced attitudes, and (2) assessed how these characteristics and beliefs differ in their predictive ability based on unobservable latent classes of farmers. Risk perception, or a belief that negative impacts to profit and water quality from nutrient loss were likely, was the most consistent predictor of farmer attitudes. Response efficacy, or a belief that taking action on one's farm made a difference, was found to significantly influence attitudes, although this belief was particularly salient for the minority class of farmers who were older and more motivated by profit. Communication efforts should focus on the negative impacts of nutrient loss to both the farm (i.e., profit) and the natural environment (i.e., water quality) to raise individual perceived risk among the majority, while the minority need higher perceived efficacy or more specific information about the economic effectiveness of particular recommended practices.

  3. Cirrhosis mortality among former American prisoners of war of World War II and the Korean conflict: results of a 50-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Page, W F; Miller, R N

    2000-10-01

    In our earlier, 30-year follow-up of American prisoners of war (POWs) of World War II and the Korean conflict, we found evidence of increased cirrhosis mortality. Using federal records, we have now extended our follow-up to 50 years (42 years for Korean conflict veterans) and have used proportional hazards analysis to compare the mortality experience of POWs with that of controls. Compared with their controls, World War II POWs had a 32% higher risk of cirrhosis mortality (statistically significant), and mortality risk was higher in the first 30 years of follow-up and also among those aged 51 years and older. Korean POWs had roughly the same risk of cirrhosis mortality as their controls. Neither self-reported data on alcohol consumption nor supplemental morbidity data satisfactorily explained the differences in risk between POWs and controls, although there was evidence that POWs tended to have higher rates of hepatitis, helminthiasis, and nutritional deprivation. PMID:11050876

  4. Global climatic effects of a nuclear war: An interdisciplinary problem

    SciTech Connect

    Ghan, S.J.

    1988-05-01

    In summary, an elucidation of the global-scale response to a nuclear war is a problem of great breadth, involving many of the sub-disciplines of aerosol physics, meteorology, oceanography, atmospheric chemistry and ecology. As diverse as these fields are, communication between the sub-disciplines has been remarkably effective, with two major interdisciplinary reports published in the last few years. It is my belief that, in addition to addressing the global-scale implications of a nuclear war, the global effects effort also serves as an excellent example of an interdisciplinary research program. 23 refs.

  5. War, peace, and international politics. Fourth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, D.W. )

    1987-01-01

    We must conclude that war remains a major problem in the last quarter of the twentieth century. My intention in this book is to introduce you to international relations by focusing on this problem. War is not the only problem of international relations, and so this book does not exhaust the field. But war is a central problem, and the possibility of resort to war affects other aspects of international relations. Whatever else we may look at, we cannot avoid looking at war. In fact, in looking at war, we will touch on most of the other subjects important in international relations. War is conflict among states carried on by their armed forces. To distinguish war from border skirmishes and other minor incidents we usually say it must reach a certain magnitude (for example, at least 1,000 soldiers killed in battle over a year). It would be ideal if we could systematically study all the wars in the last hundred years, but such an exhaustive study would be out of place here. At the same time we cannot discuss such subjects as the cause of war or proposals for preventing it without some knowledge about actual wars. We must test theories against historical facts. What follows in Part I is a somewhat detailed history of seven wars (or groups of wars) fought in the last hundred years. These include the most destructive of the wars World War I (1914-1918), World War II (1939-1945), and the Korean War (1950-1953). By way of background to World War I, we will look at the wars of German unification (1864-1871), which preceded and in some ways prepared the way for it. To balance our account, we will also look at several recent wars India and Pakistan (1971), Uganda and Tanzania (1978-1979), and Cambodia, Vietnam, and China (1978-1980). After looking at some of the major wars of the last hundred years, we will look at what people have the about the causes of war in general.

  6. Lack of Benefit for the Addition of Androgen Deprivation Therapy to Dose-Escalated Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Intermediate- and High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Daniel; Kestin, Larry; Ye, Hong; Brabbins, Donald; Ghilezan, Michel; Gustafson, Gary; Vicini, Frank; Martinez, Alvaro

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Assessment of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) benefits for prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: From 1991 to 2004, 1,044 patients with intermediate- (n = 782) or high-risk (n = 262) prostate cancer were treated with dose-escalated RT at William Beaumont Hospital. Patients received external-beam RT (EBRT) alone, brachytherapy (high or low dose rate), or high dose rate brachytherapy plus pelvic EBRT. Intermediate-risk patients had Gleason score 7, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 10.0-19.9 ng/mL, or Stage T2b-T2c. High-risk patients had Gleason score 8-10, PSA {>=}20, or Stage T3. Patients were additionally divided specifically by Gleason score, presence of palpable disease, and PSA level to further define subgroups benefitting from ADT. Results: Median follow-up was 5 years; 420 patients received ADT + dose-escalated RT, and 624 received dose-escalated RT alone. For all patients, no advantages in any clinical endpoints at 8 years were associated with ADT administration. No differences in any endpoints were associated with ADT administration based on intermediate- vs. high-risk group or RT modality when analyzed separately. Patients with palpable disease plus Gleason {>=}8 demonstrated improved clinical failure rates and a trend toward improved survival with ADT. Intermediate-risk patients treated with brachytherapy alone had improved biochemical control when ADT was given. Conclusion: Benefits of ADT in the setting of dose-escalated RT remain poorly defined. This question must continue to be addressed in prospective study.

  7. Space technologies and the war in Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getsov, Petar

    The paper presents a description of the application of aerospace technologies during the war in Iraq. The specific instrumentation used by the USA and its allies in the field of communication, navigation, and control of weapons and ammunition to schedule war activities is presented. Conclusions are made on the ever growing application of space technologies in modern wars and their impact on the efficiency of decision-making at war times.

  8. Women and War, Children and War: Stretching the Bonds of Caregiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Abigail S.

    Many things stretch the bonds between caregiver and child, such as war, stress, and trauma. This paper reviews the literature on children who are in direct contact with war or indirect contact with war through television or others' conversations. It also describes the effects of war on children and their families, and children's psychological…

  9. 77 FR 43117 - Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... National Park Service Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study AGENCY... with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study will conduct a teleconference meeting on August 3, 2012. Members of...

  10. Ain't Gonna Study War No More? Explorations of War through Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia A.; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2009-01-01

    At the height of the Vietnam War, Down by the Riverside was transformed from a traditional folk song to a popular anti-war anthem. The raucous and repetitive chorus, "I ain't gonna study war no more ...," became a rallying cry for those who wanted nothing to do with the war and the pain and controversy that surrounded it. Although it seems…

  11. Iraq War mortality estimates: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Tapp, Christine; Burkle, Frederick M; Wilson, Kumanan; Takaro, Tim; Guyatt, Gordon H; Amad, Hani; Mills, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    Background In March 2003, the United States invaded Iraq. The subsequent number, rates, and causes of mortality in Iraq resulting from the war remain unclear, despite intense international attention. Understanding mortality estimates from modern warfare, where the majority of casualties are civilian, is of critical importance for public health and protection afforded under international humanitarian law. We aimed to review the studies, reports and counts on Iraqi deaths since the start of the war and assessed their methodological quality and results. Methods We performed a systematic search of 15 electronic databases from inception to January 2008. In addition, we conducted a non-structured search of 3 other databases, reviewed study reference lists and contacted subject matter experts. We included studies that provided estimates of Iraqi deaths based on primary research over a reported period of time since the invasion. We excluded studies that summarized mortality estimates and combined non-fatal injuries and also studies of specific sub-populations, e.g. under-5 mortality. We calculated crude and cause-specific mortality rates attributable to violence and average deaths per day for each study, where not already provided. Results Thirteen studies met the eligibility criteria. The studies used a wide range of methodologies, varying from sentinel-data collection to population-based surveys. Studies assessed as the highest quality, those using population-based methods, yielded the highest estimates. Average deaths per day ranged from 48 to 759. The cause-specific mortality rates attributable to violence ranged from 0.64 to 10.25 per 1,000 per year. Conclusion Our review indicates that, despite varying estimates, the mortality burden of the war and its sequelae on Iraq is large. The use of established epidemiological methods is rare. This review illustrates the pressing need to promote sound epidemiologic approaches to determining mortality estimates and to establish

  12. Young Children and War Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…

  13. War Is Not the Answer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besteman, Karst J.

    1989-01-01

    Concludes that a war on drugs is not the answer to the problem of drug abuse in the United States. Stresses that the hostile atmosphere generated by the overemphasis upon interdiction and enforcement of penalties undermines the healing and restoring efforts needed in reducing the individual's demand for drugs. (KO)

  14. Images of the Cold War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chomsky, Noam

    1989-01-01

    The conventional U.S. picture traces the Cold War to Soviet violation of wartime agreements, while the U.S.S.R. defends its actions as responses to American violations and foreign adventurism. An understanding of how ideology is shaped by national self-interest will help students see beyond propaganda and myth in interpreting past and current…

  15. Cold War Geopolitics: Embassy Locations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogeler, Ingolf

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that the geopolitics of the Cold War can be illustrated by the diplomatic ties among countries, particularly the superpowers and their respective allies. Describes a classroom project in which global patterns of embassy locations are examined and compared. Includes five maps and a chart indicating types of embassy locations. (CFR)

  16. The Revolutionary War. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchberg, Wendy

    Based on James Lincoln Collier and Christopher Collier's novel "My Brother Sam Is Dead," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that one way to learn about the past is to read historical novels; and that some people take one side or another in a war or other conflict, and some find themselves caught in the…

  17. The Civil War and Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This journal issue explores Iowa's participation in the U.S. Civil War and primarily focuses on what happened to the men, women, and children who remained at home. A number of social, political, and economic changes are examined, including: (1) the increased responsibilities of women and children; (2) the growth of abolitionism; (3) the role of…

  18. The Politics of Star Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Lee

    George Lucas's Star Wars trilogy is used as the basis for the creation of a political subtext arising from one of America's most enduring literary myths--the American Adam. That subtext, when translated into a modern political context, pinpoints two central issues to face this democracy in the coming years, as well as a national ambivalence about…

  19. Peace-keeping Forces: YA War Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe Chris

    2000-01-01

    Argues that good young adult books about war can help teenagers appreciate the blessings of peace and the horrors of war, and perhaps may inspire them to do what they can to preserve peace. Describes briefly 71 young adult war books worth reading. (SR)

  20. World War II Homefront: A Historiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Allan M.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)

  1. Fighting the War on Academic Terrorism. Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Sandra N.

    2005-01-01

    While the attention of the country is focused on the global and national war on terrorism, the war on academic terrorism is being waged in classrooms, infiltrating the gifted programs, and altering the outcomes derived for students participating in gifted programs. The war on academic terrorism is related to the broad areas of curriculum and…

  2. 76 FR 21223 - Civil War Sesquicentennial

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8654 of April 12, 2011 Civil War Sesquicentennial By the President of the... in an attack on Fort Sumter. These were the first shots of a civil war that would stretch across 4..., 2011, as the first day of the Civil War Sesquicentennial. I call upon all Americans to observe...

  3. Using Art as a Self-Regulating Tool in a War Situation: A Model for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huss, Ephrat; Sarid, Orly; Cwikel, Julie

    2010-01-01

    War poses a challenge for social workers, adding exposure to direct risk of personal harm to the general stress of social work practice. Artworks are frequently used in health care settings with people in high distress. This study had three goals: (1) to characterize the stressors of social workers living in a war zone, (2) to teach social workers…

  4. Apheresis and intravenous immunoglobulins used in addition to conventional therapy to treat high-risk pregnant antiphospholipid antibody syndrome patients. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ruffatti, Amelia; Favaro, Maria; Hoxha, Ariela; Zambon, Alessandra; Marson, Piero; Del Ross, Teresa; Calligaro, Antonia; Tonello, Marta; Nardelli, Giovanni B

    2016-06-01

    Pregnant women with triple antibody positive antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) who have had thrombosis or a history of early, severe pregnancy complications are generally considered at high risk of pregnancy loss. The objectives of this study were to investigate the efficacy and safety of a relatively new treatment protocol used in addition to conventional therapy in high-risk pregnant patients affected with primary APS. The study's two inclusion criteria were: (1) the presence of triple antiphospholipid positivity, (2) previous thrombosis and/or a history of one or more early, severe pregnancy complications. Eighteen pregnancies occurring between 2002 and 2015 in 14 APS patients, (mean age 34.8±3.6 SD) were monitored. All 14 (100%) patients had triple antiphospholipid positivity. In addition, six of them (42.8%) had a history of thrombosis, four (28.6%) had one or more previous early and severe pregnancy complications, and four (30.8%) met both clinical study criteria. The study protocol included weekly plasmapheresis or immunoadsorption and fortnightly 1g/kg intravenous immunoglobulins. Seventeen of the pregnancies (94.4%) produced live neonates, all born between the 26th and 37th weeks of gestation (mean 33.1±3.5 SD). One female (5.5%), born prematurely at 24 weeks, died of sepsis a week after birth. There were two cases (11.1%) of severe pregnancy complications. No treatment side effects were registered. Given the high live birth rate and the safety associated to it, the study protocol described here could be taken into consideration by medical teams treating high-risk APS pregnant patients. PMID:27088752

  5. A Risk Score with Additional Four Independent Factors to Predict the Incidence and Recovery from Metabolic Syndrome: Development and Validation in Large Japanese Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Obokata, Masaru; Negishi, Kazuaki; Ohyama, Yoshiaki; Okada, Haruka; Imai, Kunihiko; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Background Although many risk factors for Metabolic syndrome (MetS) have been reported, there is no clinical score that predicts its incidence. The purposes of this study were to create and validate a risk score for predicting both incidence and recovery from MetS in a large cohort. Methods Subjects without MetS at enrollment (n = 13,634) were randomly divided into 2 groups and followed to record incidence of MetS. We also examined recovery from it in rest 2,743 individuals with prevalent MetS. Results During median follow-up of 3.0 years, 878 subjects in the derivation and 757 in validation cohorts developed MetS. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified 12 independent variables from the derivation cohort and initial score for subsequent MetS was created, which showed good discrimination both in the derivation (c-statistics 0.82) and validation cohorts (0.83). The predictability of the initial score for recovery from MetS was tested in the 2,743 MetS population (906 subjects recovered from MetS), where nine variables (including age, sex, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, uric acid and five MetS diagnostic criteria constituents.) remained significant. Then, the final score was created using the nine variables. This score significantly predicted both the recovery from MetS (c-statistics 0.70, p<0.001, 78% sensitivity and 54% specificity) and incident MetS (c-statistics 0.80) with an incremental discriminative ability over the model derived from five factors used in the diagnosis of MetS (continuous net reclassification improvement: 0.35, p < 0.001 and integrated discrimination improvement: 0.01, p<0.001). Conclusions We identified four additional independent risk factors associated with subsequent MetS, developed and validated a risk score to predict both incident and recovery from MetS. PMID:26230621

  6. The effectiveness of power-generating complexes constructed on the basis of nuclear power plants combined with additional sources of energy determined taking risk factors into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Khrustalev, V. A.; Portyankin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of combining nuclear power plants equipped with water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER) with other sources of energy within unified power-generating complexes is analyzed. The use of such power-generating complexes makes it possible to achieve the necessary load pickup capability and flexibility in performing the mandatory selective primary and emergency control of load, as well as participation in passing the night minimums of electric load curves while retaining high values of the capacity utilization factor of the entire power-generating complex at higher levels of the steam-turbine part efficiency. Versions involving combined use of nuclear power plants with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units for generating electricity are considered. In view of the fact that hydrogen is an unsafe energy carrier, the use of which introduces additional elements of risk, a procedure for evaluating these risks under different conditions of implementing the fuel-and-hydrogen cycle at nuclear power plants is proposed. Risk accounting technique with the use of statistical data is considered, including the characteristics of hydrogen and gas pipelines, and the process pipelines equipment tightness loss occurrence rate. The expected intensities of fires and explosions at nuclear power plants fitted with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units are calculated. In estimating the damage inflicted by events (fires and explosions) occurred in nuclear power plant turbine buildings, the US statistical data were used. Conservative scenarios of fires and explosions of hydrogen-air mixtures in nuclear power plant turbine buildings are presented. Results from calculations of the introduced annual risk to the attained net annual profit ratio in commensurable versions are given. This ratio can be used in selecting projects characterized by the most technically attainable and socially acceptable safety.

  7. Considering population and war: a critical and neglected aspect of conflict studies

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, Bradley A.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyses the relationship between war and population. The impact of the growth and decline of population on important types of warfare—great power, small power, civil war as well as terrorism—is illustrated, with the objective in each case to be descriptive of risk. I find that population change has a significant impact on each, with the greatest causal impact on small power conflicts, civil war and upon terrorism. I conclude with some reasons for guarded optimism about the incorporation of population as a component of analysis in the discipline of international studies, and for the potential to devise new solutions to prevent conflict. PMID:19770157

  8. Contributions of psychology to war and peace.

    PubMed

    Christie, Daniel J; Montiel, Cristina J

    2013-10-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years ago, largely in reaction to the threat of nuclear war, some psychologists in the United States and around the world broke with the tradition of supporting war and began focusing their scholarship and activism on the prevention of war and promotion of peace. Today, peace psychology is a vibrant area of psychology, with theory and practice aimed at understanding, preventing, and mitigating both episodes of organized violence and the pernicious worldwide problem of structural violence. The growth, scope, and content of peace psychology are reviewed along with contributions to policies that promote peace, social justice, and human well-being. PMID:24128314

  9. Psychopathology in a Galaxy Far, Far Away: the Use of Star Wars' Dark Side in Teaching.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ryan C W; Friedman, Susan Hatters

    2015-12-01

    Star Wars is well known, timeless, universal, and incorporated into shared culture. Trainees have grown up with the movies, and based on their enduring popularity, attending psychiatrists are likely to have seen them too. This article highlights psychopathology from the Dark Side of Star Wars films which can be used in teaching. These include as follows: borderline and narcissistic personality traits, psychopathy, PTSD, partner violence risk, developmental stages, and of course Oedipal conflicts. PMID:25943902

  10. Decadal reduction of Chinese agriculture after a regional nuclear war

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Lili; Robock, Alan; Mills, Michael; Stenke, Andrea; Helfand, Ira

    2015-02-01

    A regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan could decrease global surface temperature by 1°C-2°C for 5-10 years and have major impacts on precipitation and solar radiation reaching Earth's surface. Using a crop simulation model forced by three global climate model simulations, we investigate the impacts on agricultural production in China, the largest grain producer in the world. In the first year after the regional nuclear war, a cooler, drier, and darker environment would reduce annual rice production by 30 megaton (Mt) (29%), maize production by 36 Mt (20%), and wheat production by 23 Mt (53%). With different agriculture management—no irrigation, auto irrigation, 200 kg/ha nitrogen fertilizer, and 10 days delayed planting date—simulated national crop production reduces 16%-26% for rice, 9%-20% for maize, and 32%-43% for wheat during 5 years after the nuclear war event. This reduction of food availability would continue, with gradually decreasing amplitude, for more than a decade. Assuming these impacts are indicative of those in other major grain producers, a nuclear war using much less than 1% of the current global arsenal could produce a global food crisis and put a billion people at risk of famine.

  11. Medical responsibility and thermonuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, C.; Jameton, A.

    1982-09-01

    The attention of physicians is being drawn to the issue of nuclear weapons and nuclear war, creating controversy about whether a political concern is appropriate for health care professionals. The use of nuclear weapons would incur human death and injury on a scale both unprecedented and unimaginable, and possibly damage the ecosphere far beyond the weapons' immediate effects. Medical supplies and facilities would be nonexistent; no meaningful medical response would be possible. A physician's responsibility to prevent nuclear war is based on the imperative to prevent a devastating incurable disease that cannot be treated. Such an imperative is consistent with the historic tradition of the social responsibility of health professionals, and can be justified by philosophical argument.

  12. [Endovascular surgery in the war].

    PubMed

    Reva, V A; Samokhvalov, I M

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth of medical technologies has led to implementation of endovascular methods of diagnosis and treatment into rapidly developing battlefield surgery. This work based on analysing all available current publications generalizes the data on using endovascular surgery in combat vascular injury. During the Korean war (1950-1953) American surgeons for the first time performed endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta - the first intravascular intervention carried out in a zone of combat operations. Half a century thereafter, with the beginning of the war in Afghanistan (2001) and in Iraq (2003) surgeons of central hospitals of the USA Armed Forces began performing delayed endovascular operations to the wounded. The development of technologies, advent of mobile angiographs made it possible to later on implement high-tech endovascular interventions in a zone of combat operations. At first, more often they performed implantation of cava filters, somewhat afterward - angioembolization of damaged accessory vessels, stenting and endovascular repair of major arteries. The first in the theatre of war endovascular prosthetic repair of the thoracic aorta for severe closed injury was performed in 2008. Russian experience of using endovascular surgery in combat injuries is limited to diagnostic angiography and regional intraarterial perfusion. Despite the advent of stationary angiographs in large hospitals of the RF Ministry of Defence in the early 1990s, endovascular operations for combat vascular injury are casuistic. Foreign experience in active implementation of endovascular technologies to treatment of war-time injuries has substantiated feasibility of using intravascular interventions in tertiary care military hospitals. Carrying out basic training courses on endovascular surgery should become an organic part of preparing multimodality general battlefield surgeons rendering care on the theatre of combat operations. PMID:26035580

  13. Youth mental health after civil war: the importance of daily stressors

    PubMed Central

    Newnham, Elizabeth A.; Pearson, Rebecca M.; Stein, Alan; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that post-conflict stressors in addition to war trauma play an important role in the development of psychopathology. Aims To investigate whether daily stressors mediate the association between war exposure and symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression among war-affected youth. Method Standardised assessments were conducted with 363 Sierra Leonean youth (26.7% female, mean age 20.9, s.d. = 3.38) 6 years post-war. Results The extent of war exposures was significantly associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms (P<0.05) and a significant proportion was explained by indirect pathways through daily stressors (0.089, 95% CI 0.04–0.138, P<0.001). In contrast, there was little evidence for an association from war exposure to depression scores (P = 0.127); rather any association was explained via indirect pathways through daily stressors (0.103, 95% CI 0.048–0.158, P<0.001). Conclusions Among war-affected youth, the association between war exposure and psychological distress was largely mediated by daily stressors, which have potential for modification with evidence-based intervention. PMID:25497299

  14. The War of Jenkins’ Ear

    PubMed Central

    Graboyes, Evan M.; Hullar, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective In 1731, Spanish sailors boarded the British brig Rebecca off the coast of Cuba and sliced off the left ear of its captain, Robert Jenkins. This traumatic auriculectomy was used as a pretext by the British to declare war on Spain in 1739, a conflict that is now known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear. Here, we examine the techniques available for auricular repair at the time of Jenkins’ injury and relate them to the historical events surrounding the incident. Methods Review of relevant original published manuscripts and monographs. Results Surgeons in the mid-18th century did not have experience with repair of traumatic total auriculectomies. Some contemporary surgeons favored auricular prostheses over surgical treatment. Methods for the reconstruction of partial defects were available, and most authors advocated a local post-auricular flap instead of a free tissue transfer. Techniques for repair of defects of the auricle lagged behind those for repair of the nose. Conclusion Limitations in care of traumatic auricular defects may have intensified the significance of Jenkins’ injury and helped lead to the War of Jenkins’ Ear, but conflict between Britain and Spain was probably unavoidable due to their conflicting commercial interests in the Caribbean. PMID:23444484

  15. Low absolute lymphocyte count and addition of rituximab confer high risk for interstitial pneumonia in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Chung; Liu, Chia-Jen; Liu, Chun-Yu; Pai, Jih-Tung; Hong, Ying-Chung; Teng, Hao-Wei; Hsiao, Liang-Tsai; Chao, Ta-Chung; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Hsu, Hui-Chi; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Chen, Po-Min; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai

    2011-10-01

    Several small-scale studies have reported pulmonary toxicity among patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy, though whether the use of rituximab predisposes to interstitial pneumonia (IP) remains unclear. This retrospective study was intended to identify the characteristics and risk factors of IP in patients with DLBCL. Between 2000 and 2009, 529 consecutive patients with DLBCL receiving first-line tri-weekly COP- or CHOP-based chemotherapy with or without rituximab were enrolled as subjects. IP was defined as diffuse pulmonary interstitial infiltrates found on computed tomography scans in conjunction with respiratory symptoms. IP was observed in 26 patients (4.9%), six of whom were confirmed with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. The median number of chemotherapy courses before IP was four cycles. Using multivariate analysis, absolute lymphocyte count less than 1×10(9)/l at diagnosis [odds ratio (OR) 2.75, p=0.014] and the addition of rituximab to chemotherapy (OR 4.56, p=0.003) were identified as independent risk factors for IP. In conclusion, the incidence of IP is increased in patients with DLBCL receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy. Specific subgroups with lymphopenia at diagnosis may justify close scrutiny to detect pulmonary complications. PMID:21647583

  16. Testing the Effects of the Addition of Videos to a Website Promoting Environmental Breast Cancer Risk Reduction Practices: Are Videos Worth It?

    PubMed Central

    Perrault, Evan K.; Silk, Kami J.

    2013-01-01

    Searching for ways to reach wider audiences in more comprehensible ways, health promotion agencies might add videos to their current web offerings. While potentially costly and time consuming to create, the effect of these videos on websites has not received much attention. This study translated research about the potential breast cancer risk for young girls associated with the household chemical PFOA into two websites mothers with young daughters were randomly assigned to view (website with videos vs. website without videos). Results revealed participants in the video condition found the advocated risk protective behaviors easier to perform and stated they were more likely to perform them than those in the non-video condition. Approximately 15 days after exposure, those in the video condition performed on average one more protective behavior than those in the non-video condition. Results also suggest that agencies’ efforts should focus on creating one quality video to place on a homepage, as video views declined the deeper people navigated into the site. Behaviors advocated should also be ones that can have lasting impacts with one-time actions, as effects wore away over time. Additional strategies are discussed for health promoters seeking to create videos to add to their current websites. PMID:25143661

  17. Western economies and the Gulf war

    SciTech Connect

    Rowen, H.S.

    1980-12-01

    A prolonged Iran/Iraq war could mean economic and even political-military disaster for western countries dependent on Persian Gulf oil. The percentage of gross national product loss that the US, western Europe, and Japan would suffer is estimated for three levels of interruption and illustrates how global effects can be felt even when direct imports are not involved. Although the US has few options for projecting power into the Gulf region, a long-run expansion of military capability is essential. The economic damage of continued disruptions can be eased by using more coal, nuclear power, and natural gas even if it means removing some environmental and economic barriers. A combination of financial incentives and additions to the strategic oil and gas storage would help, but important change will come from a reappraisal of our military position. (DCK)

  18. Role of neuroinflammation and sex hormones in war-related PTSD.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Cristhian; Barreto, George E; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Echeverria, Valentina

    2016-10-15

    The susceptibility to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is greatly influenced by both innate and environmental risk factors. One of these factors is gender, with women showing higher incidence of trauma-related mental health disorders than their male counterparts. The evidence so far links these differences in susceptibility or resilience to trauma to the neuroprotective actions of sex hormones in reducing neuroinflammation after severe stress exposure. In this review, we discuss the impact of war-related trauma on the incidence of PTSD in civilian and military populations as well as differences associated to gender in the incidence and recovery from PTSD. In addition, the mutually influencing role of inflammation, genetic, and sex hormones in modulating the consequences derived from exposure to traumatic events are discussed in light of current evidence. PMID:27216917

  19. Second Malignancies After Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Breast Cancer: Is There Increased Risk With Addition of Regional Radiation to Local Radiation?

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Sarah Nicole; Tyldesley, Scott; Li, Dongdong; Olson, Robert; McBride, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an increased risk of second malignancies (SM), particularly lung cancer, in early stage breast cancer patients treated with the addition of nodal fields to breast and/or chest wall radiation therapy (RT). Materials and Methods: Subjects were stage I/II female breast cancer patients 20 to 79 years of age, diagnosed between 1989 and 2005 and treated with adjuvant RT at our institution. Patients were included if they survived and did not have SM within 3 years of diagnosis. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to compare SM incidence to cancer incidence in the general sex- and age-matched populations. Secondary malignancy risks in patients treated with local RT (LRT) to the breast/chest wall were compared to those in patients treated with locoregional RT (LRRT) to the breast/chest wall and regional nodes, using multivariate regression analysis (MVA) to account for covariates. Results: The cohort included 12,836 patients with a median follow-up of 8.4 years. LRRT was used in 18% of patients. The SIR comparing patients treated with LRT to the general population was 1.29 (CI: 1.21-1.38). No statistically significant increased incidence of in-field malignancies (SIR, 1.04; CI: 0.87-1.23) and lung cancers (SIR, 1.06; CI: 0.88-1.26) was detected. The SIR comparing patients treated with LRRT to the general population was 1.39 (CI: 1.17-1.64). No statistically significant increased incidence of in-field malignancies (SIR, 1.26; CI: 0.77-1.94) and lung cancers (SIR, 1.27; CI: 0.76-1.98) was detected. On MVA comparing LRRT to LRT, the adjusted hazard ratio was 1.20 for in-field malignancies (CI: 0.68-2.16) and 1.26 for lung cancer (CI: 0.67-2.36). The excess attributable risk (EAR) to regional RT was 3.1 per 10,000 person years (CI: −8.7 to 9.9). Conclusions: No statistically significant increased risk of second malignancy was detected after LRRT relative to

  20. Reproductive health and pregnancy outcomes among French gulf war veterans

    PubMed Central

    Verret, Catherine; Jutand, Mathe-Aline; De Vigan, Catherine; Bégassat, Marion; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Brochard, Patrick; Salamon, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Background Since 1993, many studies on the health of Persian Gulf War veterans (PGWVs) have been undertaken. Some authors have concluded that an association exists between Gulf War service and reported infertility or miscarriage, but that effects on PGWV's children were limited. The present study's objective was to describe the reproductive outcome and health of offspring of French Gulf War veterans. Methods The French Study on the Persian Gulf War (PGW) and its Health Consequences is an exhaustive cross-sectional study on all French PGWVs conducted from 2002 to 2004. Data were collected by postal self-administered questionnaire. A case-control study nested in this cohort was conducted to evaluate the link between PGW-related exposures and fathering a child with a birth defect. Results In the present study, 9% of the 5,666 Gulf veterans who participated reported fertility disorders, and 12% of male veterans reported at least one miscarriage among their partners after the PGW. Overall, 4.2% of fathers reported at least one child with a birth defect conceived after the mission. No PGW-related exposure was associated with any birth defect in children fathered after the PGW mission. Concerning the reported health of children born after the PGW, 1.0% of children presented a pre-term delivery and 2.7% a birth defect. The main birth defects reported were musculoskeletal malformations (0.5%) and urinary system malformations (0.3%). Birth defect incidence in PGWV children conceived after the mission was similar to birth defect incidence described by the Paris Registry of Congenital Malformations, except for Down syndrome (PGWV children incidence was lower than Registry incidence). Conclusion This study did not highlight a high frequency of fertility disorders or miscarriage among French PGW veterans. We found no evidence for a link between paternal exposure during the Gulf War and increased risk of birth defects among French PGWV children. PMID:18442369

  1. Exploring Greenland: science and technology in Cold War settings.

    PubMed

    Heymann, Matthias; Knudsen, Henrik; Lolck, Maiken L; Nielsen, Henry; Nielsen, Kristian H; Ries, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a vacant spot in the Cold War history of science: the development of research activities in the physical environmental sciences and in nuclear science and technology in Greenland. In the post-war period, scientific exploration of the polar areas became a strategically important element in American and Soviet defence policy. Particularly geophysical fields like meteorology, geology, seismology, oceanography, and others profited greatly from military interest. While Denmark maintained formal sovereignty over Greenland, research activities were strongly dominated by U.S. military interests. This paper sets out to summarize the limited current state of knowledge about activities in the environmental physical sciences in Greenland and their entanglement with military, geopolitical, and colonial interests of both the USA and Denmark. We describe geophysical research in the Cold War in Greenland as a multidimensional colonial endeavour. In a period of decolonization after World War II, Greenland, being a Danish colony, became additionally colonized by the American military. Concurrently, in a period of emerging scientific internationalism, the U.S. military "colonized" geophysical research in the Arctic, which increasingly became subject to military directions, culture, and rules. PMID:22043659

  2. Evolutionary dynamics of a smoothed war of attrition game.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Swami; Killingback, Timothy

    2016-05-01

    In evolutionary game theory the War of Attrition game is intended to model animal contests which are decided by non-aggressive behavior, such as the length of time that a participant will persist in the contest. The classical War of Attrition game assumes that no errors are made in the implementation of an animal׳s strategy. However, it is inevitable in reality that such errors must sometimes occur. Here we introduce an extension of the classical War of Attrition game which includes the effect of errors in the implementation of an individual׳s strategy. This extension of the classical game has the important feature that the payoff is continuous, and as a consequence admits evolutionary behavior that is fundamentally different from that possible in the original game. We study the evolutionary dynamics of this new game in well-mixed populations both analytically using adaptive dynamics and through individual-based simulations, and show that there are a variety of possible outcomes, including simple monomorphic or dimorphic configurations which are evolutionarily stable and cannot occur in the classical War of Attrition game. In addition, we study the evolutionary dynamics of this extended game in a variety of spatially and socially structured populations, as represented by different complex network topologies, and show that similar outcomes can also occur in these situations. PMID:26903203

  3. Care and meaning in war zone nursing.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Ernestine Tina

    2009-12-01

    During the past century, nurses have served as caregivers for United States military personnel in every major theater of war. Military nurses in the war zone deliver patient care while working in austere conditions, and are under constant threat of personal danger. This article gives a historical overview of the role of nurses in war zones, followed by a review from the perspectives of environment, safety, the nature of injuries, and treatment of military personnel and civilians. PMID:19850184

  4. Risk.

    PubMed

    Cole, Stephen R; Hudgens, Michael G; Brookhart, M Alan; Westreich, Daniel

    2015-02-15

    The epidemiologist primarily studies transitions between states of health and disease. The purpose of the present article is to define a foundational parameter for such studies, namely risk. We begin simply and build to the setting in which there is more than 1 event type (i.e., competing risks or competing events), as well as more than 1 treatment or exposure level of interest. In the presence of competing events, the risks are a set of counterfactual cumulative incidence functions for each treatment. These risks can be depicted visually and summarized numerically. We use an example from the study of human immunodeficiency virus to illustrate concepts. PMID:25660080

  5. To win a nuclear war: The Pentagon's secret strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaku, M.; Axelrod, D.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides a survey of U.S. plans concerning nuclear war from 1945 through the present. The authors explain U.S. nuclear war plans and contingencies. They also trace the evolution of the strategies and technologies of nuclear war planning, and the personalities of the planners, through post-war foreign policy from the Berlin Crisis to Star wars.

  6. The long-term implications of war captivity for mortality and health.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Zahava; Greene, Talya; Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Zerach, Gadi; Benyamini, Yael; Ohry, Avi

    2014-10-01

    The current study aims to (1) assess the long-term impact of war captivity on mortality and various health aspects and (2) evaluate the potential mediating role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms. Israeli ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs) (N = 154) and a matched control group of combat veterans (N = 161) were assessed on health conditions and self-rated health 18 years post-war (1991: T1). The whole population of ex-POWs, and the T1 sample of controls were then contacted 35 years after the war (2008: T2), and invited to participate in a second wave of measurement (ex-POWs: N = 171; controls: N = 116) Captivity was implicated in premature mortality, more health-related conditions and worse self-rated health. PTSD and depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between war captivity and self-rated health, and partially mediated the relationship between war captivity and health conditions, and these effects were amplified with age. Aging ex-POWs who develop psychiatric symptomatology should be considered a high-risk group entering a high-risk period in the life cycle. It is important to monitor ex-POWs and provide them with appropriate medical and psychological treatment as they age. PMID:24165831

  7. Waging nuclear peace: The technology and politics of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, R.

    1985-01-01

    Since the explosions of the first atomic bombs, a large literature has appeared on the effects and risks of nuclear war. The most widely quoted recent publications have concentrated on the impossibility of any meaningful survival after a superpower nuclear exchange. By contrast, Dr. Ehrlich tries to show both sides of the various arguments involved. As a result, he undoubtedly succeeds in his avowed intention of angering both hawks and doves. He offers a critical analysis of most considerations apposite to the current nuclear-weapon impasse, including the nature of current nuclear arms, the possibility of limited nuclear war, the short-term and long-term effects of nuclear weapons, the value of civil defense, the importance of public opinion, and the feasibility of arms control.

  8. Does trauma type relate to posttraumatic growth after war? A pilot study of young Iraqi war survivors living in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, C; Magruder, K M; Koryürek, M M

    2016-02-01

    Positive personal gain after adverse life events and traumas is known as posttraumatic growth (PTG). Several factors are suggested to promote PTG after stressful events, including type of trauma, in addition to younger age and female gender. Although conflicting findings exist, studies suggest that there may be less growth associated with personal traumas (i.e., physical or sexual assault, accidents) and more growth associated with shared traumas (i.e., disasters, loss). We examined whether certain types of war-related traumas are associated with more PTG in a sample of 203 Iraqi students living in Turkey who had experienced severe war-related traumatic events. They were assessed in group sessions, using a self-report battery that included the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory and War Trauma Questionnaire. War experiences were categorized into three types of trauma: trauma to self, trauma to loved ones, and adversity. Growth was measured by the Turkish version of the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory. Adversity-type events positively predicted growth, whereas trauma to self predicted growth negatively. Males and females showed a different pattern of relationship with growth. Correlations of growth with younger age and adversity observed in females were not seen in males. Our results show that different trauma types may lead to differing levels of growth, and this difference may be more pronounced when gender is taken into account. PMID:26563890

  9. Design of the SHAPE-2 study: the effect of physical activity, in addition to weight loss, on biomarkers of postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity and overweight are two known risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. Former exercise intervention studies showed that physical activity influences sex hormone levels, known to be related to postmenopausal breast cancer, mainly when concordant loss of body weight was achieved. The question remains whether there is an additional beneficial effect of physical activity when weight loss is reached. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect attributable to exercise on postmenopausal breast cancer risk biomarkers, when equivalent weight loss is achieved compared with diet-induced weight loss. Design The SHAPE-2 study is a three-armed, multicentre trial. 243 sedentary, postmenopausal women who are overweight or obese (BMI 25–35 kg/m2) are enrolled. After a 4-6 week run-in period, wherein a baseline diet is prescribed, women are randomly allocated to (1) a diet group, (2) an exercise group or (3) a control group. The aim of both intervention groups is to lose an amount of 5–6 kg body weight in 10–14 weeks. The diet group follows an energy restricted diet and maintains the habitual physical activity level. The exercise group participates in a 16-week endurance and strength training programme of 4 hours per week. Furthermore, they are prescribed a moderate caloric restriction. The control group is asked to maintain body weight and continue the run-in baseline diet. Measurements include blood sampling, questionnaires, anthropometrics (weight, height, waist and hip circumference), maximal cycle exercise test (VO2peak), DEXA-scan (body composition) and abdominal MRI (subcutaneous and visceral fat). Primary outcomes are serum levels of oestradiol, oestrone, testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Discussion This study will give insight in the potential attributable effect of physical activity on breast cancer risk biomarkers and whether this effect is mediated by changes in body composition, in postmenopausal

  10. The Quotidianisation of the War in Everyday Life at German Schools during the First World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholz, Joachim; Berdelmann, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    The outbreak of the First World War had a powerful impact on German schools. Undoubtedly, schools were institutions of socialisation that did offer support to the war. Indeed, research has shown that a specific "war pedagogy" made an aggressive propaganda possible in the classroom. This research usually emphasises the enthusiasm for war…

  11. Winning the War: A Historical Analysis of the FFA during World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Kattlyn J.; Connors, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The United States' participation in World War II affected millions of men, women, and children, both at home and around the world. The war effort also affected the Future Farmers of America (FFA). FFA members, agriculture teachers, and national FFA officers all volunteered to serve their country during the war. Local FFA chapters and individual…

  12. Civil War Preservation Trust Two Week Curriculum for Teaching the Civil War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil War Preservation Trust, Washington, DC.

    The Civil War was perhaps the greatest turning point in U.S. history. The dual themes of slavery and power deeply divided the growing nation during the first half of the 19th century. The mission of the Civil War Preservation Trust (CWPT) is to preserve the significant Civil War battlefields by protecting the land and educating the public about…

  13. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the...

  14. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the...

  15. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the...

  16. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the...

  17. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the...

  18. Profiteering on the Iran-Iraq war

    SciTech Connect

    Brzoska, M.

    1987-06-01

    The military gear delivered from the US in the Iran-contra affair represents only a minor portion of arms sales to the combatants in the Iraq-Iran war. That war has now lasted more than six years and has deeply influenced the international arms market. Occurring during a period when other demand for arms has been relatively low, the war has nourished new suppliers and has revived both the legal and illegal private arms market. The erratic behavior of the USSR and the US, until recently by far the most important arms suppliers to the Third World, has pushed Iran and Iraq toward more commercially oriented sources, including many in the Third World. Both countries have had ample supplies of weapons during the war, and these weapons have served their purpose. Mainly because of its duration, the war already ranks third among post-World War II wars - after the Vietnam war and the Biafra war - in battlefield victims, with 300,000-500,000 casualties. The economic cost has risen to nearly $500 billion in weapons, destruction, and lost income. While it is hard to see anything but losers on the battlefield, the arms traffickers are profiting. Total Iranian arms imports since August 1980 have been higher than $10 billion, while Iraq has imported more than $30 billion worth. It is difficult to know whether making arms more difficult to obtain would have stopped the war, but judging from other recent wars, such as those between India and Pakistan, between Uganda and Tanzania, and in the Middle East, it seems likely that hostilities could have been stopped long ago. 12 references.

  19. From war on terror to war on weather? Rethinking humanitarianism in a new era of chronic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Munslow, Barry; O'Dempsey, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This special issue of Third World Quarterly makes a case for redirecting attention and resources away from the 'war on terror' and focussing as a matter of urgency on the causes and consequences of global climate change. Global climate change must be recognised as an issue of national and international security. Increased competition for scarce resources and migration are key factors in the propagation of many of today's chronic complex humanitarian emergencies. The relentless growth of megacities in natural disaster hotspots places unprecedented numbers of vulnerable people at risk of disease and death. The Earth's fragile ecosystem has reached a critical tipping point. Today's most urgent need is for a collective endeavour on the part of the international community to redirect resources, enterprise and creativity away from the war on terror and to earnestly redeploy these in seeking solutions to the far greater and increasingly imminent threats that confront us as a consequence of global climate change. PMID:21495286

  20. Women as prisoners of war.

    PubMed

    Skelton, W P; Skelton, N K

    1995-11-01

    American women are increasingly becoming involved in combat-related roles. Inevitably, our country will have several killed and taken prisoner. No National Academy of Science/National Research Council or VA study has ever been undertaken to examine the chronic sequelae of the experiences undergone by these captured women. This paper examines the after-effects of 3.5 years of incarceration on the 79 American women taken prisoner by the Japanese in the Philippines during World War II. Emphasis is given to their living conditions in a prisoner-of-war camp and their resulting long-term disabilities. Comparison of data reported in this paper with those of several epidemiological studies of male survivors of Philippine camps allows several novel points to be made. Overall, half of the women had a service-connected disability, exactly like the men. Furthermore, although the average degree of service-connected disability, 37%, is the same as that of the men, not one of the women in this study was service-connected for tuberculosis or peptic ulcer disease. This is a major finding, since, compared to age-matched combat controls, the men had a higher post-repatriation death rate for the first 7 years due to tuberculosis; likewise, peptic ulcer disease is so common in the male survivors that it is a presumptive service-connected disability. PMID:8538890

  1. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    PubMed

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons. PMID:10578588

  2. Cognitive dysfunctions associated with PTSD: evidence from World War II prisoners of war.

    PubMed

    Hart, John; Kimbrell, Timothy; Fauver, Peter; Cherry, Barbara J; Pitcock, Jeffery; Booe, Leroy Q; Tillman, Gail; Freeman, Thomas W

    2008-01-01

    The authors aim to delineate cognitive dysfunction associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by evaluating a well-defined cohort of former World War II prisoners of war (POWs) with documented trauma and minimal comorbidities. The authors studied a cross-sectional assessment of neuropsychological performance in former POWs with PTSD, PTSD with other psychiatric comorbidities, and those with no PTSD or psychiatric diagnoses. Participants who developed PTSD had average IQ, while those who did not develop PTSD after similar traumatic experiences had higher IQs than average (approximately 116). Those with PTSD performed significantly less well in tests of selective frontal lobe functions and psychomotor speed. In addition, PTSD patients with co-occurring psychiatric conditions experienced impairment in recognition memory for faces. Higher IQ appears to protect individuals who undergo a traumatic experience from developing long-term PTSD, while cognitive dysfunctions appear to develop with or subsequent to PTSD. These distinctions were supported by the negative and positive correlations of these cognitive dysfunctions with quantitative markers of trauma, respectively. There is a suggestion that some cognitive decrements occur in PTSD patients only when they have comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. PMID:18806234

  3. The Life of a Civil War Soldier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Barbara J.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan that is based on the Gettysburg National Military Park's "Life of a Civil War Soldier" traveling trunk program. Explains that this lesson offers a recipe for using a trunk to present the life of a Civil War soldier in the classroom. Includes activities and learning stations. (CMK)

  4. How Could a Beaver Start a War?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Students gain a better understanding of war and economics when the variables come alive through stories, artifacts, and paintings. In this article, the author describes a short story about the fur trade which can generate lots of student questions about the fur economics, the Eastern Woodland Indians, trade artifacts, and war. The author also…

  5. Girl's Schooling in War-Torn Somalia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A civil war has raged in Somalia since 1991. The civil war was the final blow to an already collapsed education system. Somalia has received little research and policy attention yet children, especially girls, are very vulnerable during times of conflict. The different gender roles, activities, and status in society create gender differentiated…

  6. Telling War Stories: The Things They Carry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, Paige; Warren, Mike

    2010-01-01

    This webtext reveals two modern-day methods for soldiers to share their war stories: 1) soldiers sharing their stories with cadets from West Point through a project linking veterans from the Global War on Terror with composition students; and 2) soldiers learning in online composition classrooms designed specifically for them.

  7. The Origins of the Cold War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Thomas G.

    1986-01-01

    Briefly reviews conventional reasoning about the start of the Cold War. Describes contemporary revisionist views of the Cold War and the reasons they arose. Maintains that American leaders exaggerated the Soviet ideological and military threat, spurring an American arms build-up which ultimately led to the present-day arms race. (JDH)

  8. Health and Civil War in Rural Burundi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundervoet, Tom; Verwimp, Philip; Akresh, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We combine household survey data with event data on the timing and location of armed conflicts to examine the impact of Burundi's civil war on children's health status. The identification strategy exploits exogenous variation in the war's timing across provinces and the exposure of children's birth cohorts to the fighting. After controlling for…

  9. "War of the Worlds" and the Editors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, G. Joseph

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of 1938 newspaper editorials about Orson Welles' notorious "War of the Worlds" broadcast reveals that they explained audience reaction on the grounds of gullibility, the ominous threat of war, and the technique of the broadcast, and that they offered radio a rather stern lecture on the relationship between freedom and responsibility.…

  10. Madonnas, Whores, and the Persian Gulf War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Maria F.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses reactions and attitudes of students in a women's studies course during the Gulf War. Contends that the imagery of war as a sexual, phallic event was a major topic of class discussion. Presents excerpts from teacher and student conversations. (CFR)

  11. War on Rats, 1972 Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Dept. of Environmental Services, Washington, DC.

    The City of Washington, D.C., with federal funding, declared war on one of the city's most pressing problems--rats. The War on Rats Program, in conjunction with Operation Clean Sweep, made a city-wide survey of rat infestations and recorded the areas of heavy rat infestation. After the problem areas had been identified, community organizations…

  12. World War II: A Technology Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagar, Suzy

    1990-01-01

    Presents a class activity on the history, causes, and consequences of World War II. Focuses on the development and deployment of the atomic bomb. Utilizes a Video Encyclopedia Program for historical background. Divides the class into groups that are responsible for researching and preparing a videotape on a World War II topic. (RW)

  13. Creative Chaos: Learning from the Yugoslavian War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to understand more about the continued learning process of those who have experienced negative life experiences. This paper focuses on the various issues of learning and living through war, specifically encounters from the war in former Yugoslavia. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to understand lessons learned by…

  14. Native Americans and the Civil War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Arrell Morgan

    1985-01-01

    Details combat and conflicts between Native Americans and settlers before, during, and following the Civil War. Shows how the involvement of tribes in the Civil War and Reconstruction diminished their martial power and made them certain marks for conquest and relegation to reservations. (JHZ)

  15. World War Two and the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boas, Jacob

    This resource book presents readings that could be used to teach about the Holocaust. The readings are brief and could be appropriate for middle school and high school students. Several photographs accompany the text. The volume has the following chapters: (1) "From War to War" (history of Germany from late 19th Century through the end of World…

  16. Intergenerational transmission of historical memories and social-distance attitudes in post-war second-generation Croatians.

    PubMed

    Svob, Connie; Brown, Norman R; Takšić, Vladimir; Katulić, Katarina; Žauhar, Valnea

    2016-08-01

    Intergenerational transmission of memory is a process by which biographical knowledge contributes to the construction of collective memory (representation of a shared past). We investigated the intergenerational transmission of war-related memories and social-distance attitudes in second-generation post-war Croatians. We compared 2 groups of young adults from (1) Eastern Croatia (extensively affected by the war) and (2) Western Croatia (affected relatively less by the war). Participants were asked to (a) recall the 10 most important events that occurred in one of their parents' lives, (b) estimate the calendar years of each, and (c) provide scale ratings on them. Additionally, (d) all participants completed a modified Bogardus Social Distance scale, as well as an (e) War Events Checklist for their parents' lives. There were several findings. First, approximately two-thirds of Eastern Croatians and one-half of Western Croatians reported war-related events from their parents' lives. Second, war-related memories impacted the second-generation's identity to a greater extent than did non-war-related memories; this effect was significantly greater in Eastern Croatians than in Western Croatians. Third, war-related events displayed markedly different mnemonic characteristics than non-war-related events. Fourth, the temporal distribution of events surrounding the war produced an upheaval bump, suggesting major transitions (e.g., war) contribute to the way collective memory is formed. And, finally, outright social ostracism and aggression toward out-groups were rarely expressed, independent of region. Nonetheless, social-distance scores were notably higher in Eastern Croatia than in Western Croatia. PMID:27025375

  17. Follow-up studies of world war II and Korean conflict prisoners. III. Mortality to January 1, 1976.

    PubMed

    Keehn, R J

    1980-02-01

    Mortality through 1975 in US Army veterans released from prisoner-of-war camps following World War II (Europe, Pacific) and the Korean conflict and in several non-prisoner groups is compared using death rates and standard mortality ratios. The World War II Pacific and Korean conflict experience reveal increased risk of dying among former prisoners which, though diminishing with time, persist for 9 and 13 years, respectively. Mortality from tuberculosis and from trauma contributes to the increase among Pacific ex-prisoners, while for Korea the increase is limited to trauma. An excess of deaths due to cirrhosis of the liver in all three former prisoner groups appeared from about the 10th follow-up year. While the reported mortality experience for World War II spans 30 calendar years and for Korea 22 years, no evidence of increased aging among former prisoners of war is seen in mortality from the chronic and degenerative diseases. PMID:7355882

  18. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  19. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  20. Rape in war: the humanitarian response

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Leslie; Schull, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Women and children are vulnerable to sexual violence in times of conflict, and the risk persists even after they have escaped the conflict area. The impact of rape goes far beyond the immediate effects of the physical attack and has long-lasting consequences. We describe the humanitarian community's response to sexual violence and rape in times of war and civil unrest by drawing on the experiences of Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders and other humanitarian agencies. Health care workers must have a keen awareness of the problem and be prepared to respond appropriately. This requires a comprehensive intervention protocol, including antibiotic prophylaxis, emergency contraception, referral for psychological support, and proper documentation and reporting procedures. Preventing widespread sexual violence requires increasing the security in refugee camps. It also requires speaking out and holding states accountable when violations of international law occur. The challenge is to remain alert to these often hidden, but extremely destructive, crimes in the midst of a chaotic emergency relief setting. PMID:11079062

  1. Crisis stability and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The authors summarize their viewpoint on and recommendations for strategic command and forces, and arms control and crisis stability. They pressent a study of the paths which might lead the superpowers from a crisis to nuclear war. This book examines the various arenas in which superpower crises may occur. The authors describe the strategies, command structures, and forces of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, paying particular attention to the ladder of alert postures and operations that their forces might mount as a crisis intensifies. They address the Middle East, with special emphasis on the confrontation between Syria and Israel, and the dangers posed by locally-owned chemical and nuclear weapons. The authors also consider the oceans and space.

  2. Some arguments in favor of a Myriophyllum aquaticum growth inhibition test in a water-sediment system as an additional test in risk assessment of herbicides.

    PubMed

    Tunić, Tanja; Knežević, Varja; Kerkez, Đurđa; Tubić, Aleksandra; Šunjka, Dragana; Lazić, Sanja; Brkić, Dragica; Teodorović, Ivana

    2015-09-01

    The present study compares the practicability, reproducibility, power, and sensitivity of a Myriophyllum aquaticum growth inhibition test in a water-sediment system with the recently accepted Myriophyllum spicatum test in an equivalent testing system and the standard Lemna sp. test. Special consideration was given to endpoints based on M. aquaticum control plant growth and variability of relative growth rate and yield: shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight, and root weight. Sensitivity analysis was based on tests performed with 3,5-dichlorophenol, atrazine, isoproturon, trifluralin, 2,4-dichlorophenoloxyacetic acid, and dicamba. Growth rates for average M. aquaticum control plants were 0.119 d(-1) and 0.112 d(-1), with average estimated doubling time 6.33 d and 6.74 d for relative growth rate fresh weight and shoot length, respectively. Intrinsic variability of M. aquaticum endpoints was low: 12.9%, 12.5%, and 17.8% for relative growth rate shoot length, relative growth rate fresh weight and yield fresh weight, respectively. The power of the test was fairly high. When the most sensitive endpoints were used for comparison, the 2 Myriophyllum species were similarly sensitive, more sensitive (in the case of auxin simulators), or at least equally sensitive as Lemna minor to other tested herbicides. The M. aquaticum 10-d test with a 7-d exposure period in a water-sediment system has acceptable sensitivity and can provide repeatable, reliable, and reproducible results; therefore, it should not be disregarded as a good and representative additional test in environmental risk assessment. PMID:25943248

  3. STAT4 Associates with SLE Through Two Independent Effects that Correlate with Gene Expression and Act Additively with IRF5 to Increase Risk

    PubMed Central

    Abelson, Anna-Karin; Delgado-Vega, Angélica M.; Kozyrev, Sergey V.; Sánchez, Elena; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Eriksson, Niclas; Wojcik, Jerome; Reddy, Prasad Linga; Lima, Guadalupe; D’Alfonso, Sandra; Migliaresi, Sergio; Baca, Vicente; Orozco, Lorena; Witte, Torsten; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Abderrahim, Hadi; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Gutiérrez, Carmen; Suárez, Ana; González-Escribano, Maria Francisca; Martin, Javier; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To confirm and define the genetic association of STAT4 and systemic lupus erythematosus, investigate the possibility of correlations with differential splicing and/or expression levels, and genetic interaction with IRF5. Methods 30 tag SNPs were genotyped in an independent set of Spanish cases and controls. SNPs surviving correction for multiple tests were genotyped in 5 new sets of cases and controls for replication. STAT4 cDNA was analyzed by 5’-RACE PCR and sequencing. Expression levels were measured by quantitative PCR. Results In the fine-mapping, four SNPs were significant after correction for multiple testing, with rs3821236 and rs3024866 as the strongest signals, followed by the previously associated rs7574865, and by rs1467199. Association was replicated in all cohorts. After conditional regression analyses, two major independent signals represented by SNPs rs3821236 and rs7574865, remained significant across the sets. These SNPs belong to separate haplotype blocks. High levels of STAT4 expression correlated with SNPs rs3821236, rs3024866 (both in the same haplotype block) and rs7574865 but not with other SNPs. We also detected transcription of alternative tissue-specific exons 1, indicating presence of tissue-specific promoters of potential importance in the expression of STAT4. No interaction with associated SNPs of IRF5 was observed using regression analysis. Conclusions These data confirm STAT4 as a susceptibility gene for SLE and suggest the presence of at least two functional variants affecting levels of STAT4. Our results also indicate that both genes STAT4 and IRF5 act additively to increase risk for SLE. PMID:19019891

  4. The hidden effects of child maltreatment in a war region: correlates of psychopathology in two generations living in Northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Olema, David Kani; Catani, Claudia; Ertl, Verena; Saile, Regina; Neuner, Frank

    2014-02-01

    Adverse life experiences are a major risk factor for psychopathology. Studies from industrialized countries have consistently shown the detrimental effects of child maltreatment on the mental health of the victims. Research in war-affected populations, however, has mostly been restricted to the psychological damage caused by the war. Both war trauma and child maltreatment have rarely been studied simultaneously. In a comparative study of 2 generations living in severely war-affected regions in Northern Uganda, we determined the relationship between both trauma types and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression, and suicide ideation. A total of 100 adolescents, 50 with and 50 without a history of abduction by the rebel army with both their parents (100 mothers and 100 fathers) living in camps in northern Uganda were interviewed. The study showed that both generations were severely affected by war and child maltreatment. Both trauma types were independently correlated with psychological disorders in the adolescent group. Only child maltreatment, however, not war violence, accounted for PTSD symptoms in the parent group (β = .253, p = .002). We conclude that, even in the context of severe war, the impact of child maltreatment on psychological disorders surpasses the damage of war trauma. PMID:24478246

  5. Long-term Disability Associated With War-related Experience Among Vietnam Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Robert; Salomon, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent combat operations have involved large numbers of personnel. Long-term health effects of military deployment remain largely unknown. Objectives: To examine patterns and trends in long-term disability among combat veterans and to relate disability to aspects of wartime experience. Participants: A total of 60,228 Australian military personnel deployed between 1962 and 1975 during the Vietnam War, and 82,877 military personnel who were not deployed overseas. Outcome Measures: Accepted physician-assessed disability claims were evaluated over follow-up periods up to 50 years after deployment, and compared with age-matched controls. Multivariable analysis was used to examine differences by service branch, rank, age, and deployment duration. Results: The steepest rise in disability incidence was observed among Vietnam veterans starting in the 1990s, around 20–30 years after deployment for most veterans. After 1994, when Statements of Principles were introduced to guide evaluation of disability claims, the hazard ratio for disability incidence was 1.53 (95% confidence interval, 1.32–1.77) compared with the prior period. By January 2011, after an average follow-up of 42.5 years, 69.7% (95% confidence interval, 69.4%–70.1%) of veterans had at least 1 war-related disability. Many veterans had multiple disabilities, with leading causes being eye and ear disorders (48.0%), mental health conditions (47.9%), and musculoskeletal disorders (18.4%). For specific categories of disability, relative risks for accepted claims among veterans compared with controls were highest for mental health disorders, at 22.9 (21.9–24.0) and lowest for injuries, at 1.5 (1.4–1.6) with a relative risk for any disability of 3.7 (3.7–3.8). Veterans with service of >1 year were 2.5 (2.2–2.7) times more likely to have a mental health disability than those who served <100 days, and 2.3 (2.1–2.5) times more likely to have other disabilities. Conclusions: Long-term effects of

  6. Star Wars debate: Strategic Defense Initiative and anti-satellite weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, N.

    1987-01-01

    President Reagan in the Star Wars speech of March 23, 1983, promised that the Star Wars defense make the world much safer and more peaceful. This dissertation attempts to examine his Star Wars commitment. The hypothesis of this dissertation is the Star Wars would rather enhance the probability of confrontation between the two superpowers. The hypothesis is assessed by several criteria: technological feasibility; compatibility with the ABM treaty; Soviet responses to the SDI program; implications for deterrence and arms control prospects; and implications for the security of NATO Europe. SDI's technological feasibility is very questionable, given that its defensive mission is not only to intercept all incoming warheads, but to overcome Soviet countermeasures and to survive ASAT attacks. SDI's implications for the security of NATO Europe are further negative. While SDI might be an attractive option to address the security dilemma deriving from NATO's conventional inferiority vis-a-vis the Warsaw Pact, it would enhance the probability of Soviet preemption, in light of the Soviet perception that the Pershing II deployment combined with SDI constitutes a US first-strike posture. The Star Wars defense would not make the world much safer and more peaceful, as promised, but rather render international peace and security more precarious and destabilized by increased mutual distrust, suspicion and risk of nuclear war.

  7. Additive benefit of higher testosterone levels and vitamin D plus calcium supplementation in regard to fall risk reduction among older men and women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both testosterone and vitamin D levels affect muscle and thus may also affect risk of falling. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between sex hormone levels and the risk of falling in older men and women. 199 men and 246 women age 65 or older living at home followed for 3 years...

  8. Wars2 is a determinant of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mao; Sips, Patrick; Khin, Ester; Rotival, Maxime; Sun, Ximing; Ahmed, Rizwan; Widjaja, Anissa Anindya; Schafer, Sebastian; Yusoff, Permeen; Choksi, Pervinder Kaur; Ko, Nicole Shi Jie; Singh, Manvendra K; Epstein, David; Guan, Yuguang; Houštěk, Josef; Mracek, Tomas; Nuskova, Hana; Mikell, Brittney; Tan, Jessie; Pesce, Francesco; Kolar, Frantisek; Bottolo, Leonardo; Mancini, Massimiliano; Hubner, Norbert; Pravenec, Michal; Petretto, Enrico; MacRae, Calum; Cook, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    Coronary flow (CF) measured ex vivo is largely determined by capillary density that reflects angiogenic vessel formation in the heart in vivo. Here we exploit this relationship and show that CF in the rat is influenced by a locus on rat chromosome 2 that is also associated with cardiac capillary density. Mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (Wars2), encoding an L53F protein variant within the ATP-binding motif, is prioritized as the candidate at the locus by integrating genomic data sets. WARS2(L53F) has low enzyme activity and inhibition of WARS2 in endothelial cells reduces angiogenesis. In the zebrafish, inhibition of wars2 results in trunk vessel deficiencies, disordered endocardial-myocardial contact and impaired heart function. Inhibition of Wars2 in the rat causes cardiac angiogenesis defects and diminished cardiac capillary density. Our data demonstrate a pro-angiogenic function for Wars2 both within and outside the heart that may have translational relevance given the association of WARS2 with common human diseases. PMID:27389904

  9. Wars2 is a determinant of angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mao; Sips, Patrick; Khin, Ester; Rotival, Maxime; Sun, Ximing; Ahmed, Rizwan; Widjaja, Anissa Anindya; Schafer, Sebastian; Yusoff, Permeen; Choksi, Pervinder Kaur; Ko, Nicole Shi Jie; Singh, Manvendra K.; Epstein, David; Guan, Yuguang; Houštěk, Josef; Mracek, Tomas; Nuskova, Hana; Mikell, Brittney; Tan, Jessie; Pesce, Francesco; Kolar, Frantisek; Bottolo, Leonardo; Mancini, Massimiliano; Hubner, Norbert; Pravenec, Michal; Petretto, Enrico; MacRae, Calum; Cook, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    Coronary flow (CF) measured ex vivo is largely determined by capillary density that reflects angiogenic vessel formation in the heart in vivo. Here we exploit this relationship and show that CF in the rat is influenced by a locus on rat chromosome 2 that is also associated with cardiac capillary density. Mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (Wars2), encoding an L53F protein variant within the ATP-binding motif, is prioritized as the candidate at the locus by integrating genomic data sets. WARS2(L53F) has low enzyme activity and inhibition of WARS2 in endothelial cells reduces angiogenesis. In the zebrafish, inhibition of wars2 results in trunk vessel deficiencies, disordered endocardial-myocardial contact and impaired heart function. Inhibition of Wars2 in the rat causes cardiac angiogenesis defects and diminished cardiac capillary density. Our data demonstrate a pro-angiogenic function for Wars2 both within and outside the heart that may have translational relevance given the association of WARS2 with common human diseases. PMID:27389904

  10. Does early intensive multifactorial therapy reduce modelled cardiovascular risk in individuals with screen-detected diabetes? Results from the ADDITION-Europe cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Black, J A; Sharp, S J; Wareham, N J; Sandbæk, A; Rutten, G E H M; Lauritzen, T; Khunti, K; Davies, M J; Borch-Johnsen, K; Griffin, S J; Simmons, R K

    2014-01-01

    Aims Little is known about the long-term effects of intensive multifactorial treatment early in the diabetes disease trajectory. In the absence of long-term data on hard outcomes, we described change in 10-year modelled cardiovascular risk in the 5 years following diagnosis, and quantified the impact of intensive treatment on 10-year modelled cardiovascular risk at 5 years. Methods In a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, parallel-group trial in Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK, 3057 people with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes were randomized by general practice to receive (1) routine care of diabetes according to national guidelines (1379 patients) or (2) intensive multifactorial target-driven management (1678 patients). Ten-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was calculated at baseline and 5 years using the UK Prospective Diabetes Study Risk Engine (version 3β). Results Among 2101 individuals with complete data at follow up (73.4%), 10-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was 27.3% (sd 13.9) at baseline and 21.3% (sd 13.8) at 5-year follow-up (intensive treatment group difference –6.9, sd 9.0; routine care group difference –5.0, sd 12.2). Modelled 10-year cardiovascular disease risk was lower in the intensive treatment group compared with the routine care group at 5 years, after adjustment for baseline cardiovascular disease risk and clustering (–2.0; 95% CI –3.1 to –0.9). Conclusions Despite increasing age and diabetes duration, there was a decline in modelled cardiovascular disease risk in the 5 years following diagnosis. Compared with routine care, 10-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was lower in the intensive treatment group at 5 years. Our results suggest that patients benefit from intensive treatment early in the diabetes disease trajectory, where the rate of cardiovascular disease risk progression may be slowed. PMID:24533664

  11. Infertility among male UK veterans of the 1990-1 Gulf war: reproductive cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Maconochie, Noreen; Doyle, Pat; Carson, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To examine the hypothesis that, theoretically at least, exposure to toxicants of the type present in the Gulf war could affect spermatogenesis, which might be observed as increased levels of infertility. Design Retrospective reproductive cohort analysis. Setting Male UK Gulf war veterans and matched comparison group of non-deployed servicemen, surveyed by postal questionnaire. Participants 42 818 completed questionnaires were returned, representing response rates of 53% for Gulf veterans and 42% for non-Gulf veterans; 10 465 Gulf veterans and 7376 non-Gulf veterans reported fathering or trying to father pregnancies after the Gulf war. Main outcome measures Failure to achieve conceptions (type I infertility) or live births (type II infertility) after the Gulf war, having tried for at least a year and consulted a doctor; time to conception among pregnancies fathered by men not reporting fertility problems. Results Risk of reported infertility was higher among Gulf war veterans than among non-Gulf veterans (odds ratio for type I infertility 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.89; type II 1.50, 1.18 to 1.89). This small effect was constant over time since the war and was observed whether or not the men had fathered pregnancies before the war. Results were similar when analyses were restricted to clinically confirmed diagnoses. Pregnancies fathered by Gulf veterans not reporting fertility problems also took longer to conceive (odds ratio for > 1 year 1.18, 1.04 to 1.34). Conclusions We found some evidence of an association between Gulf war service and reported infertility. Pregnancies fathered by Gulf veterans with no fertility problems also reportedly took longer to conceive. PMID:15253919

  12. War and Marriage: Assortative Mating and the World War II GI Bill.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Matthew F; McCarthy, T J; Moulton, Jeremy G; Page, Marianne E; Patel, Ankur J

    2015-10-01

    World War II and its subsequent GI Bill have been widely credited with playing a transformative role in American society, but there have been few quantitative analyses of these historical events' broad social effects. We exploit between-cohort variation in the probability of military service to investigate how WWII and the GI Bill altered the structure of marriage, and find that it had important spillover effects beyond its direct effect on men's educational attainment. Our results suggest that the additional education received by returning veterans caused them to "sort" into wives with significantly higher levels of education. This suggests an important mechanism by which socioeconomic status may be passed on to the next generation. PMID:26432797

  13. War casualties on the home front

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda J. Flinn

    2005-11-01

    On May 12, 1942, at Christopher coal mine No. 3 in Osage, West Virginia, a continent away from the frontlines of World War II, Superintendent Ed O'Neil saw the mine ventilation fan suddenly run backwards, propelled by a strong gust of air that tore the belt off the huge blower. The second shift mantrip of 115 coal miners, traversing the drift mouth for the 3:00 p.m. shift, ground to an uneasy halt. The article recounts the tragic consequences of this incident. It also tells of other events affecting coal miners during World War I and World War II.

  14. The causes and prevention of war

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.

    1987-01-01

    This book seeks to answer what has become a species-survival question: how can humankind reduce the role of large-scale violence in society. Based partially on the serious thought of past scholars and statesmen on the determinants of war and the conditions for peace, but mainly on the author's own studies and observations of world politics, a wide-ranging examination of both small-scale and international acts of violence are provided. The author realistically appraises the efforts and means of reducing the role of war in international relations and concludes by offering an integrated strategy to prevent and control war.

  15. Toward understanding the effects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, H.D.; White, G.F.

    1985-10-01

    The authors discuss the scientific justifications for studying the consequences of nuclear war. The consequences of nuclear war and nuclear winter - biotic impoverishment, climate change, pollution of the air, water, and soil - recapitulate in compressed time the patterns of ecological change humankind is even now imposing on the planet. By studying the biological consequences of nuclear war, important discoveries about the intricate nature of the global ecosystem may be made. Wiser management practices and more thorough appreciation of alterations in the physical and biological environment could results.

  16. Preventing Nuclear War: What Physicians Can Achieve

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Don G.

    1986-01-01

    On its fifth anniversary, the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The organization was conceived by two Boston cardiologists who joined with some Soviet colleagues to create an international forum for considering the medical consequences of and means for preventing nuclear war. This article by the organization's archivist documents its difficult progress yet remarkable growth. Overcoming serious obstacles has added to its strength and credibility: now involving organizations with 145,000 members in 41 countries, IPPNW has become the international voice of medicine's concern about nuclear war. PMID:21274253

  17. Perceptions of nuclear war. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrow, N.

    1987-05-01

    Mutual deterrence has been the keystone of U.S. nuclear strategic policy with respect to the Soviet Union. But for mutual deterrence to be viable, the perceptions of nuclear weapons and nuclear war must be shared by both nations. There are currently many misconceptions in the West about Soviet views of nuclear war. These misconceptions have been reinforced over the years by Soviet public pronouncements. Through an examination of the mindset of the Soviet people, Soviet doctrinal literature, and Soviet offensive and defensive systems, this paper provides compelling evidence for the way the Soviet Union really perceives nuclear war.

  18. An analysis of the risk of introduction of additional strains of the rust puccinia psidii Winter ('Ohi'a Rust) to Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loope, Lloyd; La Rosa, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    In April 2005, the rust fungus Puccinia psidii (most widely known as guava rust or eucalyptus rust) was found in Hawai'i. This was the first time this rust had been found outside the Neotropics (broadly-defined, including subtropical Florida, where the rust first established in the 1970s). First detected on a nursery-grown 'ohi'a plant, it became known as ''ohi'a rust'in Hawai'i. The rust spread rapidly and by August 2005 had been found throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. The rust probably reached Hawai'i via the live plant trade or via the foliage trade. In Hawai'i, the rust has infected three native plant species and at least eight non-native species. Effects have been substantial on the endangered endemic plant Eugenia koolauensis and the introduced rose apple, Syzygium jambos. Billions of yellow, asexual urediniospores are produced on rose apple, but a complete life cycle (involving sexual reproduction) has not yet been observed. The rust is autoecious (no alternate host known) on Myrtaceae. The strain introduced into Hawai'i is found sparingly on 'ohi'a (Metrosideros polymorpha), the dominant tree of Hawai'i's forests, with sporadic damage detected to date. The introduction of a rust strain that causes widespread damage to 'ohi'a would be catastrophic for Hawai'i's native biodiversity. Most imports of material potentially contaminated with rust are shipped to Hawai'i from Florida and California (from which P. psidii was reported in late 2005 by Mellano, 2006). Florida is known to have multiple strains. The identity of the strain or strains in California is unclear, but one of them is known to infect myrtle, Myrtus communis, a species commonly imported into Hawai'i. It is important to ecosystem conservation and commercial forestry that additional rust strains or genotypes be prevented from establishing in Hawai'i. The purpose of this analysis of risk is to evaluate the need for an interim rule by the Hawai'i Department of Agriculture to regulate plant

  19. [War trauma and PTSD among German war survivors. A comparison of former soldiers and women of World War II].

    PubMed

    Nandi, C; Weierstall, R; Huth, S; Knecht, J; Elbert, T

    2014-03-01

    Stressful war experiences can cause posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors. To what extent were the soldiers and young women of World War II affected by PTSD symptoms over the course of their lives? Do these men and women differ in the traumatic experiences and PTSD symptom severity? To investigate these questions 52 male and 20 female Germans aged 81-95 years were recruited through newspaper advertisements and notices and interviewed regarding war experiences and PTSD symptoms. Of the men 2% and 7% met the criteria for current and lifetime PTSD diagnoses, respectively, as compared to 10% and 30% of the women, respectively. Using multiple linear regression a dose-response relationship between the number of trauma types experienced and PTSD symptom severity could be demonstrated. The slope of the regression curve was steeper for women than for men. When controlling for the number of different traumatic experiences women reported a significantly higher severity of PTSD symptoms than men. It is presumed that this difference in severity of symptoms can be attributed to qualitative differences in the type of traumatic stress factors during the war. The present study provides evidence that even today people continue to be affected by PTSD symptoms due to events which occurred during World War II; therefore, during patient contact with this age group the war experiences specific to each individual need to be considered as potential moderators of symptoms. PMID:23695004

  20. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  1. Experience of human rights violations and subsequent mental disorders - a study following the war in the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Priebe, Stefan; Bogic, Marija; Ashcroft, Richard; Franciskovic, Tanja; Galeazzi, Gian Maria; Kucukalic, Abdulah; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Morina, Nexhmedin; Popovski, Mihajlo; Roughton, Michael; Schützwohl, Matthias; Ajdukovic, Dean

    2010-12-01

    War experiences are associated with substantially increased rates of mental disorders, particularly Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depression (MD). There is limited evidence on what type of war experiences have particularly strong associations with subsequent mental disorders. Our objective was to investigate the association of violations of human rights, as indicated in the 4th Geneva Convention, and other stressful war experiences with rates of PTSD and MD and symptom levels of intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal. In 2005/6, human rights violations and other war experiences, PTSD, post-traumatic stress symptoms and MD were assessed in war affected community samples in five Balkan countries (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Serbia) and refugees in three Western European countries (Germany, Italy, United Kingdom). The main outcome measures were the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. In total 3313 participants in the Balkans and 854 refugees were assessed. Participants reported on average 2.3 rights violations and 2.3 other stressful war experiences. 22.8% of the participants were diagnosed with current PTSD and also 22.8% had MD. Most war experiences significantly increased the risk for both PTSD and MD. When the number of rights violations and other stressful experiences were considered in one model, both were significantly associated with higher risks for PTSD and were significantly associated with higher levels of intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal. However, only the number of violations, and not of other stressful experiences, significantly increased the risk for MD. We conclude that different types of war experiences are associated with increased prevalence rates of PTSD and MD more than 5 years later. As compared to other stressful experiences, the experience of human rights violations similarly increases the risk of PTSD, but appears more important for MD. PMID

  2. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...= en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  3. A REMF's View of Viet Nam War Literature Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willson, David A.

    An academic librarian who is a Vietnam War veteran was inspired by the exemplary collection of Vietnam War literature at the Colorado State University Library to begin his own personal collection of mass market paperbacks dealing with the Vietnam War. Although Vietnam War fiction was common on the mass market racks in the mid 1980s, it has been…

  4. 38 CFR 3.2 - Periods of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Periods of war. 3.2..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.2 Periods of war. This section sets forth the beginning and ending dates of each war period beginning with the Indian wars. Note that the...

  5. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...= en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  6. 38 CFR 3.2 - Periods of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Periods of war. 3.2..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.2 Periods of war. This section sets forth the beginning and ending dates of each war period beginning with the Indian wars. Note that the...

  7. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...=en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  8. 38 CFR 3.2 - Periods of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Periods of war. 3.2..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.2 Periods of war. This section sets forth the beginning and ending dates of each war period beginning with the Indian wars. Note that the...

  9. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...=en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  10. 38 CFR 3.2 - Periods of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Periods of war. 3.2..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.2 Periods of war. This section sets forth the beginning and ending dates of each war period beginning with the Indian wars. Note that the...

  11. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...= en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  12. Middle School Students, Science Textbooks, Television and Nuclear War Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Mary

    The extent to which the issue of nuclear war technology is treated in middle-school science texts, and how students learn about nuclear war and war technology were studied. Five raters compared the most widely used textbooks for grades 6 and 7 to determine the amount of content on: (1) population growth; (2) world hunger; (3) war technology; (4)…

  13. Photojournalism: A Record of War. Learning Page Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricke, Chris; Ritz, Glenda

    Photography has been used to record war since the Crimean War in 1855. This lesson plan explores how and why war has been photographed and also gives students an opportunity to see the bias within the recording/reporting of war. The lesson plan: cites educational objectives; gives time required; recommends a grade level; notes curriculum fit; and…

  14. General Relativity During the Great War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2016-01-01

    Einstein's (and Hilbert's) equations saw light of day in the darkness of Berlin 1915, as is well known. Moving from this highlight to less conspicuous topics, we find Karl Schwarzschild's solution of those equations (1916) followed shortly by his death. On the observational and American front, Slipher's assemblage of galaxy radial velocities, begun in 1912 with M31, continued apace. Shapley was busily moving us out of the galactic center. Also at Mt. Wilson, Charles St. John looked for gravitational redshift in the solar spectrum in 1917 without firmly detecting it. Adams demonstrated the very low luminosities of Sirius B and 40 Eri B in 1914 (but his attempt at a redshift for the former came only in 1923). Perhaps least well known is that a handful of additional critical theoretical papers date from the war years and describe the Lense-Thirring effect, the Reissner-Nordstrom solution, and a charged solution with a cosmological constant (due to the even more obscure Friedrich Kottler). Some of these came out of neutral Holland, but Kottler served both at Ypres and on the Galician front. Interesting mixes of military service and relativistic contributions are also associated with the names of Friedmann, Le Lemaître, Weyl (of the tensor), Minkowski, Hubble, Flamm, Droste, and Kretschmann. Astronomers in neutral Denmark, Holland and (until 1917) the USA facilitated transmittal of astronomical observations and other news across the battle lines so that Schwarzschild received an obituary in Nature and Moseley one in Naturwissenschaften.

  15. "A Hedge against the Future": The Post-Cold War Rhetoric of Nuclear Weapons Modernization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Rhetoric has traditionally played an important role in constituting the nuclear future, yet that role has changed significantly since the declared end of the Cold War. Viewed from the perspectives of nuclear criticism and postmodern theories of risk and security, current rhetoric of US nuclear modernization demonstrates how contingencies of voice…

  16. Communal and Familial War-Related Stress Factors: The Case of the Palestinian Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srour, Roney W.; Srour, Anan

    2006-01-01

    The authors discuss traumatic familial and communal risk factors faced by the average Palestinian child during times of war. Unlike most research, which limits Palestinian children's experience to military-related traumatic events, this article attempts to illustrate their communal and familial contexts empirically. Sources studies were published…

  17. The anthropology of war and peace

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, P.R.; Pitt, D.

    1989-01-01

    Drawing parallels between tribal behavior and international relations to demonstrate that societies are not inherently aggressive but are led into conflict when pride or in-group pressures push people to fight, this profound look at the chilling reality of cold war and its arsenal of nuclear destruction offers valuable new insights into how prejudices and stereotypes contribute to what may seem like an inexorable drift to war. Yet the authors conclude that war is not inevitable, as they offer suggestions for an end to the arms race in, the nuclear age. Based on original research, this is a long overdue contribution to the study of war and peace in our time and a text for newly emerging courses on the subject.

  18. The Portable War Room Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Govers, Francis X., III; Fry, Mark

    1997-01-01

    The Portable War Room is an internal TASC project to research and develop a visualization and simulation environment to provide for decision makers the power to review the past, understand the present, and peer into the future.

  19. The Cold War: A Yearbook Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graebner, William

    1986-01-01

    Shows how the photographs, valedictorian addresses, nicknames, cartoons and other material contained in high school yearbook can yield information regarding the world views of Americans at the start of the Cold War. (JDH)

  20. Climatic and biological consequences of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, H.D.

    1984-05-01

    Projecting comprehensively the climatic and biological consequences of nuclear war brings into question the perceived security ascribed to policies of deterrence, as well as the efficacy of civil preparedness measures, particularly relocation plans. It is presumed the probability that nuclear war will occur is low, but the potential consequences are so great that the issue must be given full attention. Nuclear war is the greatest environmental threat we face. Yet the problem should be solvable. It is especially important that environmentally concerned citizens and scientists apply their knowledge and understanding to the problem because many of the changes in environmental quality that concerns us today, such as air and water pollution by a host of organic and inorganic agents, represent the principle mechanism whereby life could be threatened in the aftermath of nuclear war. 29 references.

  1. War, terrorism and the public's health.

    PubMed

    Sidel, Victor W

    2008-01-01

    War and terrorism, which are inseparable, cause death and disability, profound psychological damage, environmental destruction, disruption of the health infrastructure, refugee crises, and increased interpersonal, self-directed and collective violence. Weapons systems such as weapons of mass destruction and landmines have their own specific devastating effects. Preparation for war and preparedness for terrorism bring constraints on civil liberties and human rights, increase militarism, and divert resources from health care and from other needed services. War and terrorism may be best prevented through addressing their causes, which include limited resources, injustice, poverty and ethnic and religious enmity, and through strengthening the United Nations and the treaties controlling specific weapons systems, particularly weapons of mass destruction. In particular, the United States should cease its interference in the internal affairs of other nations and its advocacy of unilateral pre-emptive war. PMID:18771191

  2. Cold-War Echoes in American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, Ira Jay

    1984-01-01

    The author believes a cold war ideology permeates our culture and poisons the minds of youth. The challenge to education is to awaken people to a historical and global perspective and raise public consciousness of the necessity for peace. (MD)

  3. An overview of war-related thermal injuries.

    PubMed

    Roeder, Rosiane Alfinito; Schulman, Carl I

    2010-07-01

    Thermal injuries have always been a source of morbidity and mortality in times of war. Historically, they constitute 5% to 20% of all injuries and approximately 4% mortality. Although burn patients constitute a small number of casualties, they consume a disproportionate amount of resources and require specialized care. The current conflicts in the Middle East report similar numbers for thermal injuries despite improvement in predeployment education to reduce noncombat-related burns, flame retardant military clothing, and decline of war patterns usually associated with increased thermal injuries. However, the increased use of improvised explosive devices and vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices presents a new source of potential thermal injury. Indeed, the burden of explosion-related burns has increased as has its associated Injury Severity Score. As has been the case in previous conflicts, most burns are hand and head burns. Although usually not life threatening, burns to hands and face lead to significant physical and psychologic morbidities. In this paper, we will review the currently available literature on war-related thermal injuries in Operation Iraqi and Operation Enduring Freedom. We will describe the epidemiology of burn injuries, prewar preparation to prevent and treat thermal injuries, and the assessment, triage, and final treatment of burn patients. In addition, we will discuss the associated physical and psychologic morbidities and, finally, the role of plastic surgeon in burn rehabilitation and reconstruction. PMID:20613571

  4. Winning the "Hundred Years' War"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voza, Luann

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, the first mathematical task for primary grade students to master is addition. Mastering addition facts is truly a positive experience. Then one turns to subtraction. After mastering addition facts, many students think that subtraction facts are a whole new set of facts to learn that have nothing to do with addition facts. They do…

  5. Gulf War Illness: Challenges Persist

    PubMed Central

    Nettleman, Mary

    2015-01-01

    It has been more than 20 years since the United States and coalition forces entered Kuwait and Iraq. Actual combat was of remarkably short duration: less than 1 week of sustained ground activity and 6 weeks of air missions. Thus, it was surprising when approximately 200,000 returning US veterans were affected by a chronic multi-symptom illness that came to be known as Gulf War Illness (GWI). There were many challenges in investigating GWI, not least of which was that it took several years before the condition was officially taken seriously. There were multiple exposures to potentially causal agents on and off the battlefield, but these exposures were documented incompletely if at all, leaving epidemiologists to rely on self-report for information. In the past 2 years, significant controversy has arisen over the future directions of the field. Despite these challenges, several studies have implicated exposure to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as pyridostigmine bromide in the genesis of the condition. The story of GWI can inform research into other conditions and guide future work on veterans' health. PMID:26330683

  6. Gulf War Illness: Challenges Persist.

    PubMed

    Nettleman, Mary

    2015-01-01

    It has been more than 20 years since the United States and coalition forces entered Kuwait and Iraq. Actual combat was of remarkably short duration: less than 1 week of sustained ground activity and 6 weeks of air missions. Thus, it was surprising when approximately 200,000 returning US veterans were affected by a chronic multi-symptom illness that came to be known as Gulf War Illness (GWI). There were many challenges in investigating GWI, not least of which was that it took several years before the condition was officially taken seriously. There were multiple exposures to potentially causal agents on and off the battlefield, but these exposures were documented incompletely if at all, leaving epidemiologists to rely on self-report for information. In the past 2 years, significant controversy has arisen over the future directions of the field. Despite these challenges, several studies have implicated exposure to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as pyridostigmine bromide in the genesis of the condition. The story of GWI can inform research into other conditions and guide future work on veterans' health. PMID:26330683

  7. Eye injuries associated with war games.

    PubMed

    Easterbrook, M; Pashby, T J

    1985-09-01

    War games, an outdoor activity combining recreation, military maneuvers and fantasy, are becoming a popular recreational sport. Increasing numbers of players are suffering eye injuries. In the last year 26 cases of serious eye injuries were reported to Canadian ophthalmologists; in 15 eyes vision was reduced to 6/24 or less. Although eyeguards are provided, all the injuries had occurred when the participants were not wearing them. Methods of preventing eye injuries in war games are discussed. PMID:4027807

  8. Delayed psychiatric sequelae among Falklands war veterans

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Gareth H.; Lovett, Jonathan W.T.

    1987-01-01

    The only published account to date of psychiatric complications among Falklands war veterans suggests that acute reactions are rare. Reported here are three cases of severe delayed reactions in Falklands veterans from South Wales. All three cases demonstrate a common pattern similar to that shown by Vietnam war veterans. Possible aetiological factors and prevention are discussed. It seems likely that relatives of combatants will also be affected and general practitioners are in a unique position to recognize and treat these problems. PMID:3668924

  9. War Peace Film Guide. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, John

    This filmography is a selective listing of 287 films dealing with the topics of war and peace for use with K-12 and college students and with adults. The annotated guide will be of use to anyone planning a world affairs program and of special value to those interested in the problem of war. A wide variety of subject areas are treated in the films.…

  10. Just war theory in the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.D.; Griesbach, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear deterrence. Topics considered include the morality of war, the normative alternatives to war, national defense in the nuclear age, the environment of nuclear deterrence (empirical factors and moral judgments), morality and nuclear weaponry, the morality of nuclear deterrence and national defense in a changing strategic environment, alternatives to nuclear deterrence, and strengthening broadcasting capabilities into the USSR (e.g., Radio Liberty and Voice of America).

  11. Mortality in Iraq Associated with the 2003–2011 War and Occupation: Findings from a National Cluster Sample Survey by the University Collaborative Iraq Mortality Study

    PubMed Central

    Hagopian, Amy; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Takaro, Tim K.; Esa Al Shatari, Sahar A.; Rajaratnam, Julie; Becker, Stan; Levin-Rector, Alison; Galway, Lindsay; Hadi Al-Yasseri, Berq J.; Weiss, William M.; Murray, Christopher J.; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous estimates of mortality in Iraq attributable to the 2003 invasion have been heterogeneous and controversial, and none were produced after 2006. The purpose of this research was to estimate direct and indirect deaths attributable to the war in Iraq between 2003 and 2011. Methods and Findings We conducted a survey of 2,000 randomly selected households throughout Iraq, using a two-stage cluster sampling method to ensure the sample of households was nationally representative. We asked every household head about births and deaths since 2001, and all household adults about mortality among their siblings. We used secondary data sources to correct for out-migration. From March 1, 2003, to June 30, 2011, the crude death rate in Iraq was 4.55 per 1,000 person-years (95% uncertainty interval 3.74–5.27), more than 0.5 times higher than the death rate during the 26-mo period preceding the war, resulting in approximately 405,000 (95% uncertainty interval 48,000–751,000) excess deaths attributable to the conflict. Among adults, the risk of death rose 0.7 times higher for women and 2.9 times higher for men between the pre-war period (January 1, 2001, to February 28, 2003) and the peak of the war (2005–2006). We estimate that more than 60% of excess deaths were directly attributable to violence, with the rest associated with the collapse of infrastructure and other indirect, but war-related, causes. We used secondary sources to estimate rates of death among emigrants. Those estimates suggest we missed at least 55,000 deaths that would have been reported by households had the households remained behind in Iraq, but which instead had migrated away. Only 24 households refused to participate in the study. An additional five households were not interviewed because of hostile or threatening behavior, for a 98.55% response rate. The reliance on outdated census data and the long recall period required of participants are limitations of our study. Conclusions Beyond

  12. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  13. The War (on Terror) on Alzheimer's.

    PubMed

    George, Daniel R; Whitehouse, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    In the decade following the tragedies of 9/11, a US-led "War on Terror" has coincided with a US-led "War on Alzheimer's disease". Not only has the rhetoric from these two wars overlapped and produced similar practical and conceptual problems, the campaigns have also become interwoven through the emerging public health issue of war-related head injuries, as well as a shared neglect for environmental contributions to human suffering. This article first explores similarities in the framing and prosecution of both wars, and then considers the long-term consequences of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and traumatic environmental injuries (TEI) in the context of a society facing the increased prevalence of dementia. Ultimately, it is argued that addressing the challenges of cognitive aging and preventing violent social conflict both require a vernacular of higher ideals and values--as well as new language patterns rising out of the ecological movement--to trump the more expedient war rhetoric that has disproportionately marked public discourse around terrorism and Alzheimer's disease during the past decade. PMID:24381043

  14. Children's conceptions of conventional and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    The general objective of this study was to investigate the development of the conceptions of conventional and nuclear war in the preadolescent and adolescent child. Subjects consisted of children in three age groups: 5-6, 9-10, and 13-14 year olds (N = 63) drawn from public and private schools in the metropolitan Los Angeles area. Children were administered an interview and supplementary measures. Parents were administered questionnaires examining related areas. The principal findings were as follows: (1) The development of the war concepts. Regarding the concept of conventional war, by the age of five or six, the child usually can recognize the word war and indicate that the word has to do with fighting between two or more parties. However, the notion of nationality is evidently not solidly grasped until around the ages of 8-11 years old. In this study, 45% of the 5 and 6 year olds were minimally aware of the concept of nuclear war. By the time the child reaches the age of 9 or 10, the proportion of those with minimal awareness rises to about 80%. By 13 and 14 years old, 100% are familiar with the concept. (2) Levels of Worry. Of the children aware of the subject of nuclear war, 76% indicated that they were very worried by its possibility.

  15. Long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members in Kosovar civilian war survivors.

    PubMed

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Reschke, Konrad; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to war-related experiences can comprise a broad variety of experiences and the very nature of certain war-related events has generally been neglected. To examine the long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members, the authors investigated the prevalence rates of major depressive episode (MDE), anxiety disorders, and quality of life among civilian war survivors with or without war-related death of first-degree family members 9 years after the war in Kosovo. Compared to participants without war-related death of family members, those who had experienced such loss had signficantly higher prevalence rates of MDE, posttraumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, and reported a lower quality of life 9 years after the war. These results indicate that bereaved civilian survivors of war experience significant mental health problems many years after the war. PMID:24501825

  16. Waves Forecasters in World War II (with a Brief Survey of Other Women Meteorologists in World War II).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, J. M.

    1995-11-01

    Out of the nearly 6000 U.S. military officers who were trained to be weather forecasters during World War II, there wore approximately 100 women. They were recruited into the Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES) by the U.S. Navy and underwent training with the military men in the so-called cadet program. Letters of reminiscence from six WAVES forecasters are combined with official navy correspondence, archival information from universities, and newspaper articles of the period to reconstruct the recruitment, training, duty assignments, and postwar careers of these women.With limited information, an effort has also been made to document the training of civilian women in the cadet program, and to estimate the number of women who served as forecasters in foreign countries during the war. The status of women in meteorology prior to the United States' entry into the war is examined as a backdrop to the study. Principal results of the study are as follows:1) The recruitment of WAVES forecasters was in response to extreme shortages of weather officers at the Naval Air Stations (NAS) in early 1943 as the war escalated.2) Those recruited to be WAVES forecasters had previous experience as math/science teachers and had a lower than average attrition rate in the demanding cadet program.3) The WAVES were assigned as NAS forecasters stateside, and there is some evidence that they were differentially treated in comparison to the male naval forecasters.4) In addition to the women forecasters in the WAVES, approximately 50 civilian women were trained in the cadet program under the sponsorship of the Civilian Aeronautics Administration and the U.S. Weather Bureau; England also recruited an estimated 50 women into weather forecasting during the latter stages of WWII.5) Of the 200 women who were trained to be forecasters, it is estimated that less than 10% remained in meteorology.

  17. Additional Evidence for the Reliability and Validity of the Student Risk Screening Scale at the High School Level: A Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy P.; Ennis, Robin Parks; Cox, Meredith Lucille; Schatschneider, Christopher; Lambert, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This study reports findings from a validation study of the Student Risk Screening Scale for use with 9th- through 12th-grade students (N = 1854) attending a rural fringe school. Results indicated high internal consistency, test-retest stability, and inter-rater reliability. Predictive validity was established across two academic years, with Spring…

  18. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  19. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  20. Are non-poor households always less vulnerable? The case of households exposed to protracted civil war in Southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Deng, Luka Biong

    2008-09-01

    Civil wars in Africa are now the leading contributory cause of vulnerability of rural communities. Understanding vulnerability during civil war is critical for humanitarian response and post-conflict rehabilitation planning. The lack of understanding of vulnerability has led existing studies to make sweeping generalizations, either by equating the dynamics of vulnerability during civil wars with vulnerability in other risk events, or by projecting people in the 'war zones' as unable to cope and subsequently becoming vulnerable. This paper is an attempt to gain a more nuanced understanding of the dynamics of vulnerability during protracted civil war. It shows that during civil war the non-poor are not necessarily less vulnerable than poor households. The idea that people caught up in civil war are all vulnerable is not supported by the findings of this paper. It shows that the 'standard' pattern of vulnerability to drought is similar to that during exogenous counter-insurgency warfare, while a different pattern of vulnerability to endogenous shocks is identified. PMID:18958910

  1. Cold War Paradigms and the Post-Cold War High School History Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAninch, Stuart A.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how Cold War ideological models provide a way to examine the U.S. role in world affairs. Discusses and compares on the writings of Paul Gagnon and Noam Chomsky on this topic. Concludes that students should stand outside both models to develop a meaningful perspective on the U.S. role during the Cold War. (CFR)

  2. Researching the Viet Nam War inside Viet Nam: U.S. Student Teachers Explore War Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadas, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    The author asserts that it is time for social studies teachers to engage students in a review of the rift between historical reality and mythology about Viet Nam, especially in light of recent comparisons that many have made between the Viet Nam War and the current situation in Iraq. Few teachers dealt with Viet Nam at the time of the war, and…

  3. Dialectical Disorientation in Vietnam War Films: Subversion of the Mythology of War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Karen; Downey, Sharon D.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the dynamics of "dialectical disorientation," a rhetorical form that creates ambiguity through confrontation between competitive but complementary orientations. Applies the form to the Vietnam War movies "The Deer Hunter,""Apocalypse Now,""Platoon," and "Full Metal Jacket." Observes that the films portray the war as destructive and…

  4. American military dentists as prisoners-of-war in the Pacific theatre during World War II.

    PubMed

    Bober-Moken, I G

    1994-03-01

    Fifty-three American Military dentists were held by the Japanese as Prisoners-of-War during World War II. Throughout 40 months of captivity these men served their fellow prisoners providing dental treatment in an austere environment with "jury-rigged" equipment and supplies. A brief overview of their experiences is presented in this paper. PMID:8061507

  5. Psychological Consequences of the World War II Prisoner of War Experience: Implications for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engdahl, Brian E.

    The Former Prisoners of War Act (1981) mandated complete health examinations for all interested prisoners of war (POWs). This paper reports on examinations of more than two-thirds of the POWs in the Minneapolis Veterans Administration Medical Center catchment area under the established POW protocol and special psychiatric examinations. The…

  6. The War and Post-War Impact on the Educational System of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreso, Adila Pasalic

    2008-01-01

    Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), much like other eastern-European countries, has faced a brief period of transition from the socialist system to capitalism. However, this was interrupted in BiH by a brutal war lasting four years. Social systems and infrastructure were damaged or destroyed, including education, which was harnessed during the war to…

  7. [Sanitary and epidemiological supply for the Russian Army during the First World War (1914-1918)].

    PubMed

    gorelova, L E; Loktev, A E

    2014-02-01

    At the beginning of the First World War the most typical diseases in the Russian Army were typhoid, typhus, diphtheria, cholera, smallpox and other infectious diseases. At the beginning of the First World War the level of infectious morbidity was significantly low, but further increased and pandemic risk arose. Servicemen were mostly ill with typhus, relapsing fever, flux, cholera, smallpox and typhoid. The highest mortality rate was registered in patients with cholera, typhus and typhoid. According the prewar deployment program of the Russian Army anti-epidemiologic facilities were established. By the end of war were established 110 sanitary-and-hygienic and 90 disinfection units. However, organization of anti-epidemiologic security was unsatisfactory. Due to lack of specialists and equipment anti-epidemiologic facilities of units were under strength. Commanders of sanitary units and sanitary service had not enough resources for operational service in the Forces and facilities of rear area. PMID:25046928

  8. Some aerodynamic discoveries and related NACA/NASA research programs following World War 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The World War 2 time period ushered in a new era in aeronautical research and development. The air conflict during the war highlighted the need of aircraft with agility, high speed, long range, large payload capability, and in addition, introduced a new concept in air warfare through the use of guided missiles. Following the war, the influx of foreign technology, primarily German, led to rapid advances in jet propulsion and speed, and a host of new problem areas associated with high-speed flight designs were revealed. The resolution of these problems led to a rash of new design concepts and many of the lessons learned, in principle, are still effective today. In addition to the technical lessons learned related to aircraft development programs, it might also be noted that some lessons involving the political and philosophical nature of aircraft development programs are worth attention.

  9. The strategic genius of Jonathan Letterman: the relevancy of the American Civil War to current health care policy makers.

    PubMed

    Place, Ronald J

    2015-03-01

    With expanding health insurance coverage, innovative technologies, improved diagnostic acumen, and pharmaceutical additions combining to increase life expectancy, quality of life, and concomitant costs, the American health care system is under significant stress. However, it pales in comparison to the challenges faced by health care leaders during the American Civil War. As we approach the 150th anniversary of the conclusion of that war, it is appropriate to review key strategic health care decisions faced by military leaders during the Civil War and how their resultant outcomes may provide an appropriate perspective for today's leaders. PMID:25735014

  10. [Clinical implications of the "war against cancer"].

    PubMed

    Rojas Miranda, Daniela; Fernández González, Loreto

    2015-03-01

    This article discusses the origin and implications of the "war on cancer" metaphor. Commonly present in mass media, the "war on cancer" notion circulates also among patients, their loved ones, their support networks, and oncological multidisciplinary teams. In our view when cancer is uprooted of its illness status, and conceptualized as an "enemy", myths about disease and those who suffer it (especially the idea of psychogenesis) are strengthened. Two topics in which the war metaphor is particularly problematic in the clinical context, are analyzed in depth. The first one is the relationship between the oncologic patient and his or her loved ones and support networks. When patients are insistently prompted to fight the disease and think positive, the expression of emotions associated to the adaptive process of receiving a diagnosis of cancer may be inhibited. Secondly, the war metaphor promotes an authoritarian view among the health teams and on the physician-patient relationship, undermining the patent's autonomy in the decision-making process, which may affect his global quality of life. Also, it encourages emotional isolation, concealment of psychiatric symptoms and conspiracies of silence. It is concluded that public policies to avoid the "war on" notion are required. Instead, education of the general population about wrong beliefs about cancer should be encouraged. PMID:26005822

  11. Proportionality, just war theory and weapons innovation.

    PubMed

    Forge, John

    2009-03-01

    Just wars are supposed to be proportional responses to aggression: the costs of war must not greatly exceed the benefits. This proportionality principle raises a corresponding 'interpretation problem': what are the costs and benefits of war, how are they to be determined, and a 'measurement problem': how are costs and benefits to be balanced? And it raises a problem about scope: how far into the future do the states of affairs to be measured stretch? It is argued here that weapons innovation always introduces costs, and that these costs cannot be determined in advance of going to war. Three examples, the atomic bomb, the AK-47 and the ancient Greek catapult, are given as examples. It is therefore argued that the proportionality principle is inapplicable prospectively. Some replies to the argument are discussed and rejected. Some more general defences of the proportionality principle are considered and also rejected. Finally, the significance of the argument for Just War Theory as a whole is discussed. PMID:18802788

  12. French Neurologists during World War I.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier; Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The Great War accelerated the development of neurological knowledge. Many neurological signs and syndromes, as well as new nosological entities such as war psychoneuroses, were described during the conflict. The period between 1914 and 1918 was the first time in which many neurologists were concentrated in wartime neurology centres and confronted with a number of neurological patients never seen before. This concentration led to the publication of papers concerning all fields of neurological sciences, and these reports pervaded scientific journals during the conflict and the post-war years. The careers of French neurologists during the war were highly varied. Some were mobilised, whilst others enlisted voluntarily. They worked as regiment physicians at the front or in wartime neurology centres at the front or at the rear. Others were academics who were already authoritative names in the field of neurology. Whilst they were too old to be officially mobilised, they nevertheless worked in their militarised neurology departments of civil hospitals. We present here the careers of a few French neurologists during the Great War, including Charles Foix (1882-1927), René Cruchet (1875-1959), Georges Guillain (1876-1961), Jean Lhermitte (1877-1959), Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), Gustave Roussy (1874-1948), and Paul Sollier (1861-1933). PMID:27035726

  13. Physics in WWI: Fighting the Acoustic War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevles, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    World War I was the first high-technology war, and when the United States began to prepare for it in 1915 the federal government turned to the storied inventor Thomas Edison. Edison formed a board that included industrial executives and engineers but only one physicist, its members holding that they wanted people who would do things and not just talk about them. However, in 1916, the nation's scientists managed to create a place for themselves in the preparedness effort by organizing the National Research Council under the National Academy of Sciences. Once the United States went to war, in April 1917, the NRC brought academic and industrial physicists together in efforts to detect incoming aircraft, submerged submarines, and the location of long-range artillery. The efforts employed devices that relied in the main on the detection and identification of sound waves from these weapons. The devices were passive responders, but they were marked by increasing sophistication and enabled the United States and its allies to prosecute an acoustic war. That branch of the war was militarily effective, overshadowed the work of Edison's group, and gained physicists high standing among leaders in both the military and industry.

  14. A risk haplotype of STAT4 for systemic lupus erythematosus is over-expressed, correlates with anti-dsDNA and shows additive effects with two risk alleles of IRF5

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Snaevar; Nordmark, Gunnel; Garnier, Sophie; Grundberg, Elin; Kwan, Tony; Nilsson, Olof; Eloranta, Maija-Leena; Gunnarsson, Iva; Svenungsson, Elisabet; Sturfelt, Gunnar; Bengtsson, Anders A.; Jönsen, Andreas; Truedsson, Lennart; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Eriksson, Catharina; Alm, Gunnar; Göring, Harald H.H.; Pastinen, Tomi; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Rönnblom, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the prototype autoimmune disease where genes regulated by type I interferon (IFN) are over-expressed and contribute to the disease pathogenesis. Because signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) plays a key role in the type I IFN receptor signaling, we performed a candidate gene study of a comprehensive set of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in STAT4 in Swedish patients with SLE. We found that 10 out of 53 analyzed SNPs in STAT4 were associated with SLE, with the strongest signal of association (P = 7.1 × 10−8) for two perfectly linked SNPs rs10181656 and rs7582694. The risk alleles of these 10 SNPs form a common risk haplotype for SLE (P = 1.7 × 10−5). According to conditional logistic regression analysis the SNP rs10181656 or rs7582694 accounts for all of the observed association signal. By quantitative analysis of the allelic expression of STAT4 we found that the risk allele of STAT4 was over-expressed in primary human cells of mesenchymal origin, but not in B-cells, and that the risk allele of STAT4 was over-expressed (P = 8.4 × 10−5) in cells carrying the risk haplotype for SLE compared with cells with a non-risk haplotype. The risk allele of the SNP rs7582694 in STAT4 correlated to production of anti-dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) antibodies and displayed a multiplicatively increased, 1.82-fold risk of SLE with two independent risk alleles of the IRF5 (interferon regulatory factor 5) gene. PMID:18579578

  15. Critical concerns in Iraq/Afghanistan war veteran-forensic interface: combat-related postdeployment criminal violence.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Shoba; Garrick, Thomas; McGuire, James; Smee, Daniel E; Dow, Daniel; Woehl, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Identifying whether there is a nexus between Iraq and Afghanistan combat injuries and civilian violence on return from deployment is complicated by differences in reactions of individuals to combat exposure, the overlapping effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the low base rate of civilian violence after combat exposure. Moreover, the overall prevalence of violence among returning Iraq and Afghanistan combat war veterans has not been well documented. Malingered symptoms and either exaggeration or outright fabrication of war zone exposure are challenges to rendering forensic opinions, with the risk reduced by accessing military documents that corroborate war zone duties and exposure. This article serves as a first step toward understanding what may potentiate violence among returning Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. We offer a systematic approach toward the purpose of forensic case formulation that addresses whether combat duty/war zone exposure and associated clinical conditions are linked to criminal violence on return to civilian life. PMID:23771940

  16. The "Standards Wars" in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clune, William H.

    1998-01-01

    Explores areas of agreement and disagreement in five articles on mathematics and science standards, highlighting active learning, teaching for understanding, and constructivism. The article notes that there is more than one right answer, but disagreement persists over applications, amateur problem solving, and the risk of junk math and science.…

  17. 1991 Gulf War Exposures and Adverse Birth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Arnetz, Bengt; Drutchas, Alexis; Sokol, Robert; Kruger, Michael; Jamil, Hikmet

    2014-01-01

    We studied 1991 Gulf War (GW)-related environmental exposures and adverse birth outcomes in Iraqis. A random cross-sectional sample of 307 Iraqi families that immigrated to the United States responded to a structured interview covering socioeconomics, lifestyle, environmental exposures, and birth outcome. Data per each family was collected either from the man or the woman in the respective family. The respondents were divided into those that resided in Iraq during and following the GW (post-GW, n=185) and those that had left before (pre-GW, n=122). The primary outcome was lifetime prevalence of adverse birth outcomes, ie, congenital anomalies, stillbirth, low birth weight, and preterm delivery and its relationship to GW exposures. Mean number of adverse birth outcomes increased from 3.43 (SD=2.11) in the pre-GW to 4.63 (SD=2.63) in the post-GW group (P<.001). Mean chemical (Ch) and nonchemical (NCh) environmental exposure scores increased from pre-GW scores of 0.38 units (SD=1.76) and 0.43 (SD=1.86), respectively, to post-GW scores of 5.65 units (SD=6.23) and 7.26 (SD =5.67), P <.001 between groups for both exposures. There was a significant dose-response relationship between Ch environmental exposure (P=.001), but not NCh exposure, and number of adverse birth outcomes. Exposure to burning oil pits and mustard gas increased the risks for specific adverse birth outcomes by 2 to 4 times. Results indicate that Gulf War Ch, but not NCh exposures are related to adverse birth outcomes. Pregnancies in women with a history of war exposures might benefit from more intensive observation. PMID:23584910

  18. War and deforestation in Sierra Leone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Robin; Miguel, Edward; Stanton, Charlotte

    2015-09-01

    The impact of armed conflict on the environment is of major public policy importance. We use a geographically disaggregated dataset of civil war violence together with satellite imagery of land cover to test whether war facilitated or prevented forest loss in Sierra Leone. The conflict data set allows us to establish where rebel groups were stationed and where battles and attacks occurred. The satellite data enables to us to monitor the change in forest cover (total, primary, and secondary) in all of Sierra Leone’s 151 chiefdoms, between 1990 (prior to the war) and 2000 (just prior to its end). The results suggest that conflict in Sierra Leone acted as a brake on local deforestation: conflict-ridden areas experienced significantly less forest loss relative to their more conflict-free counterparts.

  19. Nuclear war: the facts on our survival

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, P.

    1981-01-01

    Unless we reject the premise that a nuclear war can be waged rationally and one side can emerge victorious, a nuclear war could happen. Goodwin describes what will happen during and after a nuclear exchange. He describes the effects of heat and blast, and the effects and treatment of radiation exposure, then outlines simple protective steps individuals can take to improve their margin of safety. He describes a variety of civil defense and individual shelters that can be built, but questions how many will go to the necessary trouble. Photographs of Hiroshima and nuclear test sites illustrate the text. Public policy should focus first on sustaining deterrence and preventing war, according to Goodwin. 36 references, 40 figures, 4 tables. (DCK)

  20. Perceptions of conventional war: late adolescents' views.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, B W; Roscoe, B; Kennedy, D

    1988-01-01

    Late adolescents' views concerning conventional war were assessed in order to better understand the thinking of today's youth and to compare their views with those of early adolescents previously reported in the literature. Three hundred ninety-nine college undergraduates from two universities were surveyed regarding conventional warfare in general and United States military involvement in Latin America specifically. Results suggest that attitudes toward war were related to sex, socioeconomic status, and political affiliation. Although two-thirds of the respondents believed wars were sometimes needed, there was little support for United States military involvement in Latin America and much skepticism of President Reagan's honesty on the issue. Overall, late adolescents' views were less positive and less extreme than were those of early adolescents. PMID:3195377

  1. Adverse health consequences of the Iraq War.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2013-03-16

    The adverse health consequences of the Iraq War (2003-11) were profound. We conclude that at least 116,903 Iraqi non-combatants and more than 4800 coalition military personnel died over the 8-year course. Many Iraqi civilians were injured or became ill because of damage to the health-supporting infrastructure of the country, and about 5 million were displaced. More than 31,000 US military personnel were injured and a substantial percentage of those deployed suffered post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and other neuropsychological disorders and their concomitant psychosocial problems. Many family members of military personnel had psychological problems. Further review of the adverse health consequences of this war could help to minimise the adverse health consequences of, and help to prevent, future wars. PMID:23499043

  2. The Public Health Implications of Resource Wars

    PubMed Central

    Klare, Michael T.; Sidel, Victor W.

    2011-01-01

    Competition for resources between or within nations is likely to become an increasingly common cause of armed conflict. Competition for petroleum is especially likely to trigger armed conflict because petroleum is a highly valuable resource whose supply is destined to contract. Wars fought over petroleum and other resources can create public health concerns by causing morbidity and mortality, damaging societal infrastructure, diverting resources, uprooting people, and violating human rights. Public health workers and the organizations with which they are affiliated can help prevent resource wars and minimize their consequences by (1) promoting renewable energy and conservation, (2) documenting the impact of past and potential future resource wars, (3) protecting the human rights of affected noncombatant civilian populations during armed conflict, and (4) developing and advocating for policies that promote peaceful dispute resolution. PMID:21778501

  3. The environmental effects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1988-09-01

    Substantial environmental disruption will significantly add to the disastrous consequences caused by the direct thermal, blast, and radiological effects brought on by a major nuclear war. Local fallout could cover several percent of the Northern Hemisphere with potentially lethal doses. Smoke from post-nuclear fires could darken the skies and induce temperature decreases of tens of degrees in continental interiors. Stratospheric ozone could be significantly reduced due to nitric oxide injections and smoke-induced circulation changes. The environmental effects spread the consequences of a nuclear war to the world population, adding to the potentially large disruptive effects a further reason to avoid such a catastrophe. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Suicidal behavior in war veterans.

    PubMed

    Rice, Timothy R; Sher, Leo

    2012-05-01

    Military veterans represent a unique, heterogeneous population with suicide prevalence rates, risk factors and preventative management needs that differ from those of the rest of community. Veterans worldwide receive high proportions of their healthcare from community providers, and sensitivity to these distinct needs is required for optimized care. An overview of the recent prevalence-study literature, with a focus upon statistical design, is presented in order to provide a critical orientation within this field with high levels of popular media attention. Attention to psychiatric comorbidity, subthreshold symptomology, select signature disorders of contemporary conflicts (namely, post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury), and veteran life narratives before, within and beyond military service will guide our review of risk factor assessment and management strategies. This critical review of the literature provides an overview of this active field of neuropsychiatric research with a select focus upon these topics of special interest. PMID:22550989

  5. Zoology: War of the Worms.

    PubMed

    Telford, Maximilian J; Copley, Richard R

    2016-04-25

    The phylogenetic affinities of Xenacoelomorpha - the phylum comprising Xenoturbella bocki and acoelomorph worms - are debated. Two recent studies conclude they represent the earliest branching bilaterally symmetrical animals, but additional tests may be needed to confirm this notion. PMID:27115693

  6. War-wounded refugees: the types of injury and influence of disability on well-being and social integration.

    PubMed

    Hermansson, A C; Thyberg, M; Timpka, T

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the war injuries and investigate the influence of physical disability on well-being and social integration in a group of war-wounded refugees after two years in Sweden. A culturally heterogenous sample of 54 war-wounded refugees was investigated during hospitalization shortly after arrival, and after two years. Quantitative data were covered by physical examinations, interviews and questionnaires. In addition, qualitative data were collected within semi-structured interviews on both occasions. The major types of war injuries were: fractures (22%), traumatic amputations (17%), spinal cord injuries (17%), nerve injuries (11%), combinations of fractures and nerve injuries (9%), bilateral eye injuries (9%), brain injuries (7%), other injuries (7%). Regarding the type of injuries and medical complications, the group studied was representative of small unit operations of war with low access to early medical care. The degree of physical disability was not a salient factor for well-being and social integration after two years in Sweden. The losses and desires to be repatriated were apparent from the qualitative findings, as exemplified by three case reports. The findings of this study are in accordance with previous research on refugees and war-injured ex-combatants, but further multidisciplinary research is needed. The results also imply that resettlement countries should pay continuous attention to the broad needs of their war-wounded refugees. PMID:8953262

  7. "I Was My War; My War Was I": Vera Brittain, Autobiography and University Fiction during the Great War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Ann K.

    2016-01-01

    Applying the critical lenses of feminism, autographical theory and literary analysis, this essay performs a triple reading of Vera Brittain's multi-genre writings about gender, war,and university education. Focusing specifically on "The Dark Tide" (1923), "Testament of Youth" (1933) and "The Women of Oxford" (1960),…

  8. Public perspectives of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Herron, K.G.; Barke, R.P.

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of public perceptions of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment. Participants included 1,301 members of the general public, 1,155 randomly selected members of the Union of Concerned Scientists, and 1,226 employees randomly selected from the technical staffs of four DOE national laboratories. A majority of respondents from all three samples perceived the post-cold war security environment to pose increased likelihood of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and nuclear terrorism. Public perceptions of nuclear weapons threats, risks, utilities, and benefits were found to systematically affect nuclear weapons policy preferences in predictable ways. Highly significant relationships were also found between public trust and nuclear weapons policy preferences. As public trust and official government information about nuclear weapons increased, perceptions of nuclear weapons management risks decreased and perceptions of nuclear weapons utilities and benefits increased. A majority of respondents favored decreasing funding for: (1) developing and testing new nuclear weapons; (2) maintaining existing nuclear weapons, and (3) maintaining the ability to develop and improve nuclear weapons. Substantial support was found among all three groups for increasing funding for: (1) enhancing nuclear weapons safety; (2) training nuclear weapons personnel; (3) preventing nuclear proliferation; and (4) preventing nuclear terrorism. Most respondents considered nuclear weapons to be a persistent feature of the post-cold war security environment.

  9. From pogroms to "ethnic cleansing": meeting the needs of war affected children.

    PubMed

    Yule, W

    2000-09-01

    Children are both the direct and indirect targets during wars. They are directly affected by violence aimed at them and their families; they are indirectly affected by the distress caused to their families; they may be internally displaced or find themselves crossing borders as asylum seekers. Their experiences during and immediately after war militate against their developing in a safe, secure, and predictable environment. Their human rights are compromised and their mental health put at risk. Whether in the country at and after war, or in the country that offers refuge, children's mental health needs have to be properly assessed and met. In many cases, children may only require a sense of safety and support via their family and school. In other cases, they require more complicated psychosocial interventions that address the various stress reactions they manifest. This paper addresses these issues against the context of a major community-based programme in Mostar in Bosnia during the recent civil war there. It argues that we have reasonably good screening measures to identify children at high risk of developing mental health problems. It presents an hierarchical model of support and intervention whereby psychosocial help is delivered primarily through schools with only a small proportion of more complex needs being met by specially trained mental health professionals. There is a strong need to evaluate various methods of delivering help and to develop new ways of reaching needy children in a nonstigmatising way. PMID:11039682

  10. Correspondence Urging Bombing of Auschwitz during World War II. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondo, Richard A.; Schmael, Wynell Burroughs

    1993-01-01

    Presents a classroom lesson that utilizes primary sources about Auschwitz, the World War II Nazi concentration camp. Two letters confronting the issue of whether or not U.S. planes should bomb the camps are included. Recommends seven teaching strategies for the lesson and identifies additional resources. (CFR)

  11. Exploring Diversity at GCSE: Making a First World War Battlefields Visit Meaningful to All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philpott, Joanne; Guiney, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Having already reflected on ways of improving their students' understanding of historical diversity at Key Stage 3, Joanne Philpott and Daniel Guiney set themselves the challenge of extending this to post-14 students by means of fieldwork activities at First World War battlefields sites. In addition, they wanted to link the study of past diversity…

  12. Persons with Communication Disabilities in Natural Disasters, War, and/or Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Dolores E.

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 35 million people around the world have been displaced because of natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, or tsunamis. In addition, there are a number of persons who have been displaced or who have fled their homeland due to civil conflict or war. The WHO estimates that between…

  13. Psychological Aspects of Peace/War Issues: A Selective Bibliography. Peace Education Miniprints No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerstedt, Ake, Ed.

    Teachers can be more effective and efficient as peace educators, if they know about the typical conceptions and other psychological prerequisites of their students. In addition, psychological components are important in most conflict and war situations. This bibliography provides examples of publications containing studies or discussion related to…

  14. 54. VIEW OF MEMORIAL TO SERVICEMEN OF WORLD WAR I ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. VIEW OF MEMORIAL TO SERVICEMEN OF WORLD WAR I AND WORLD WAR II, LOOKING WEST 56/43A - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  15. ANALYZING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS WITH THE WAR ALGORITHM: REVIEW AND UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will review uses of the WAR algorithm and current developments and possible future directions. The WAR algorithm is a methodology for analyzing potential environmental impacts of 1600+ chemicals used in the chemical processing and other industries. The algorithm...

  16. Glossary on the environmental impact of a nuclear war. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Verstraete, M.M.

    1986-02-01

    The glossary defines a number of words, expressions, and acronyms used in the description of the impact of nuclear war on the environment, and associated issues. Selected additional words related to the problems of armaments, disarmament, and nuclear war in general were also added for convenience, although terms and expressions specifically related to the medical aspects of the problem were not included. The glossary is an enlarged and updated version of the glossary that was published as part of the SCOPE-Enuwar study on the same subject, and published by Wiley (Pittock et al., 1986).

  17. [Psychogenic Disorders in German soldiers during World War I and II].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, P; Hahne, H-H; Biesold, K-H; Lanczik, M

    2005-02-01

    In the First and Second World War German soldiers frequently suffered from psychogenic disorders. By comparison a change in the prevalences can be noted: in the First World War dissociative disorders dominated the clinical impression ("shell shock"), in the Second World War they could rarely be seen but were replaced by somatoform and psychosomatic diseases. The discussion about numerous reasons for this development has not been completed yet and is still not free from political attitudes. To achieve a more scientific point of view, the perspective of psychotraumatology might be helpful. According to psychotraumatic research, dissociative and somatoform disorders can emerge in a close relation to a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. The choice of symptoms depends on personality traits of the victim, but also on specific factors that characterise the situation in which the trauma appears. The mixture of pathogenetic and protective influences includes e. g. the possibility of flight- or fight reactions, feelings of trauma-associated guilt and group cohesion in the military unit. These factors can be useful to help explain the change of symptoms between both wars. In addition the analysis of situational conditions in former wars can give hints to actual planning and prophylaxis strategies in modern military psychiatry, that has to adjust to very different military operation fields. PMID:15685493

  18. Conventional Middle East arms control: Impact of the end of the cold war. Study project report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Johnsen, W.T.

    1993-03-31

    The end of the Gulf War brought to the forefront concern for dangers posed by unrestrained militarization of the Middle East. In response, on 29 May 1991 President Bush unveiled a comprehensive Middle East arms control policy in a speech at the U.S. Air Force Academy. A key element of the policy banned the sale of the most dangerous conventional weapons to the region. Although the major arms suppliers (which also happen to be the five permanent members of the U.N. Security Council) have held a series of high level meetings to discuss options for restricting sales to the region, all continue conventional arms transfers to the Middle East and are likely to continue to do so. This paper contends that the end of the Cold War put additional economic pressure on the major suppliers to export arms to the Middle East; and, their interests are so compelling that the suppliers are unlikely to support President Bush's proposal. This position is supported by analyzing the interests that influence major arms suppliers to sell arms abroad. The format for this analysis includes an assessment of: each country's interest in selling arms during the Cold War; the impact of the Cold War's end on those interests; and whether the post Cold War interests conflict with President Bush's conventional arms control proposal. The paper concludes with recommendations for US policy in the region.

  19. Teaching the Vietnam War in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, H. Bruce

    For an instructor who has been teaching the Vietnam War for over 30 years, the War has been teaching him for even longer. One of the objectives in teaching the Vietnam War in the 1990s is what it meant to teach the Vietnam War in the 1960s. It is easy to forget that the antiwar movement began as an attempt to educate the government and the nation,…

  20. [Russians in Bjelovar hospitals during and after World war I].

    PubMed

    Habek, Dubravko; Čerkez Habek, Jasna

    2016-08-01

    The Great War was the beginning of the settlement of the Russian population in the town of Bjelovar in war conditions, most often as prisoners of war directed to the treatment of the military or civilian hospital. Thus, in Bjelovar during the Great War died 71 members of the Russian people, principally the soldiers, prisoners. Some were later permanently inhabited, founded by his family and worked in Bjelovar longer or shorter time. PMID:27598952

  1. Deployment stressors of the Iraq War: insights from the mainstream media.

    PubMed

    La Bash, Heidi A J; Vogt, Dawne S; King, Lynda A; King, Daniel W

    2009-02-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the stressors of the Iraq War is needed to ensure appropriate postdeployment assessments and to inform empirical inquiries. Yet we are unaware of any published studies that address the range of stressors experienced by this cohort. Thus, in the present study, we report the results of an interpretive literature review of mainstream media reports published from the beginning of the Iraq War in March 2003 to March 2005. This literature revealed a combination of stressors associated with traditional combat, insurgency warfare, and peacekeeping operations. The increasing deployment of National Guard/Reservist personnel, older soldiers, and women highlights additional stressors associated with sexual harassment and assault, preparedness and training, and life and family disruptions. This is a cause for concern as war-zone stressors have been implicated in postdeployment health outcomes, including intimate partner violence and child maltreatment, immediate physical and mental health, and long-term adjustment. PMID:18467690

  2. The Legacy of "A Nation at Risk"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdick, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Nearly thirty years after the Cold War era commission's report titled "A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform," educators and historians must evaluate its relevance and its contribution to the shifting educational paradigm in the United States.

  3. Helping Children Outgrow War. SD Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Vachel W.; Affolter, Friedrich W.

    Helping children outgrow war is an overarching goal of educational reconstruction in post-conflict settings, but responses must be highly adaptive and informed by insights gained from interventions elsewhere. This guidebook offers seven examples of successful interventions in post-conflict settings internationally, situating them within a…

  4. The Social Studies Wars, Now and Then

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ronald W.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this article are, first, to capture the main camps and patterns of the "social studies wars" since the beginning of the twentieth century and, second, to describe critical episodes from that long history that will help put the contemporary controversies in historical perspective. Here, the author features six critical episodes…

  5. Language Situation in Post-War Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiek, Ahmed Gumaa

    2010-01-01

    The theme behind this paper is to review the language policy and language planning in the Sudan, after the institutionalization of peace; by exploring the recent policy of political factions in the North and the South towards languages in post-war Sudan. This effort aims at encouraging non-Arabic speaking-ethnic-groups to accept the Arabic…

  6. Treating Survivors of War Trauma and Torture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanscom, Karen L.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes a mental health treatment model for survivors of torture and war trauma, presenting principles underlying such treatment and a developmental view of such abuse. Describes a Guatemalan project that uses the model to train village women to treat survivors in their communities and a U.S. torture treatment program that treats survivors…

  7. War, Conflict and Play. Debating Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyder, Tina

    2004-01-01

    Young refugees from many parts of the world are increasingly present in UK early years settings. This book explores the crucial importance of play for young refugee children's development. It considers the implications of war and conflict on young children and notes how opportunities for play are denied. It provides a framework for early years…

  8. Surviving the War--And the Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Surviving the War: A College Counselor's Journal" by Philip Clinton. He argues that Clinton's engrossing account of the 1990-91 school year at Cairo American College (CAC) gives individuals wonderful insights into the unusual challenges occasionally encountered by an international counselor. The year…

  9. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  10. 1940s: Camping in the War Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camping Magazine, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Camps continued to operate during World War II, but young male counselors, food, and supplies were difficult to obtain. An illustrative article from 1943, "Meal Planning for Summer Camps in Wartime" (Agnes B. Peterson), presents a guide to planning nutritious meals for campers despite shortages caused by wartime rationing, increased food costs,…

  11. "The War of the Worlds". [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulen, Dawn L.; Rooks, Kirsten

    Based on H.G. Wells' novel "War of the Worlds" and the reaction to Orson Wells' 1938 adaptation for radio, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that literature originally created in one medium is often adapted to another medium; and that technology can make the unreal seam real and can otherwise confuse…

  12. Teaching the Great War through Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shortell, Catherine K.; Paddock, Troy R. E.

    2011-01-01

    With all of the time constraints and institutional pressures that teachers face, it may seem odd to suggest using an anomalous event such as the Christmas Truce to study the first World War. However, the uniqueness of this event helps grab the attention of students and, as the authors demonstrate, can be used both to illustrate the common…

  13. Teaching About War, Peace, Conflict and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Friends Group, Inc., New York. Center for War/Peace Studies.

    This is a description of the objectives, program activities, and policy of an experimental curriculum development project in the war/peace field. Seven major concepts of content are defined: 1) Identity, 2) Obligation, 3) Change, 4) Power, 5) Conflict, 6) Institutions, 7) Interdependence, 8) Values and the Value Process. Rationale is that…

  14. War, gender and culture: Mozambican women refugees.

    PubMed

    Sideris, Tina

    2003-02-01

    Analyses of the psychological sequelae of war-related violence for women tend to rely on the concepts developed in research on male combatants. Post-traumatic stress disorder or varying combinations of its symptoms are identified as the principal outcomes of war-related events for women. By and large, the dominant literature does not examine possible outcomes which could be specified by gender. This paper refers to the war in Mozambique during the 1970s and 1980s as a typical illustration of how women are an integral part of the battlefield. It draws on research on African women and uses testimony of Mozambican women refugees who settled in South Africa to explore how gender is linked to psycho-social outcomes of massive social conflict. The paper argues that a richer understanding of the psycho-social outcomes of war and the needs of survivors is promoted by investigating gender in specific historical situations and how this frames the responses people have to experiences of violence and social destruction. PMID:12560006

  15. Colleges and Universities in World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardozier, V. R.

    This book examines the impact of World War II on college campuses and how the large military influence during that period affected such areas as the emergence of new fields of study, the role of the professor, and the social utility of higher education. Specific chapters examine Army, Navy, and Army Air Forces College Training Programs; how…

  16. Toxicological assessments of Gulf War veterans

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Concerns about unexplained illnesses among veterans of the 1991 Gulf War appeared soon after that conflict ended. Many environmental causes have been suggested, including possible exposure to depleted uranium munitions, vaccines and other drugs used to protect troops, deliberate or accidental exposure to chemical warfare agents and pesticides and smoke from oil-well fires. To help resolve these issues, US and UK governments have sought independent expert scientific advice from prestigious, independent scientific and public health experts, including the US National Academies of Science and the UK Royal Society and Medical Research Council. Their authoritative and independent scientific and medical reviews shed light on a wide range of Gulf War environmental hazards. However, they have added little to our understanding of Gulf War veterans' illnesses, because identified health effects have been previously well characterized, primarily in the occupational health literature. This effort has not identified any new health effects or unique syndromes associated with the evaluated environmental hazards. Nor do their findings provide an explanation for significant amounts of illnesses among veterans of the 1991 Gulf War. Nevertheless, these independent and highly credible scientific reviews have proven to be an effective means for evaluating potential health effects from deployment-related environmental hazards. PMID:16687269

  17. Americans for Germany in World War I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Blair R.

    The pro-German American newspaper "The Fatherland," published shortly before the United States entered the First World War (1914-1917), displayed a failure of public relations in terms of defining and offering themes likely to convince a target audience to side with Germany. By looking at a public relations campaign undertaken by the paper, a…

  18. The Civil War: Beyond the Battlefield

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelfried, Steven

    2011-01-01

    According to historian Gary W. Gallagher, "Books about the Civil War have accumulated at the rate of more than a title a day since fighting erupted at Fort Sumter in April 1861." Now, 150 years later, children's authors and illustrators continue to approach this fascinating era in inventive ways. The past decade has brought readers rich portrayals…

  19. The Epidemiology of Peace and War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Francis A.

    Health science (epidemiology) is a relatively advanced discipline which offers theories and methods which could be useful in peace science (polemology). Similarities between war and disease, peace and health, center around concern with prevention of physical damage and death on the one hand and preservation and extension of human life on the…

  20. The Cold War and Revisionist Historiography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogeboom, Willard L.

    1970-01-01

    An important historiographic controversy exists between those who blame the Soviets for the origins of the Cold War (orthodox) and those who blame the U. S. (revisionist--New Left). While the latter criticize the orthodox historians' methods, they are often guilty of semilar biases and simplifications. (JB)

  1. Peace Education after the Cold War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Mary-Wynne

    1996-01-01

    Considers school violence prevention programs as well as the role students can play in international efforts to prevent war. Examines the peace and global education efforts of nongovernmental organizations. Finds a pertinent example in the Philippines where students declared their school a "zone of peace." (MJP)

  2. A Camp Director Remembers World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Helen Herz

    2003-01-01

    A girl's camp in Maine during World War II had to deal with food rationing and black-market food dealers. Campers picked beans to raise money for refugees, sewed clothes for refugees, and spotted for enemy planes from Mt. Pleasant. An attempt to use a horse-drawn cart for transportation failed, and good help was hard to find. (TD)

  3. Immunological dysfunction, vaccination and Gulf War illness

    PubMed Central

    Peakman, Mark; Skowera, Ania; Hotopf, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    One candidate cause of Gulf War illness is vaccination against infectious diseases including medical counter-measures against biological weapons. One influential theory has suggested that such mass-vaccination caused a shift in immune response to a Type 2 cytokine pattern (Th2), which it was suggested was accompanied by a chronic fatigue syndrome-like illness. This article critically appraises this theory. We start by examining epidemiological evidence, which indicates that single vaccines are unlikely to be a substantial cause of Gulf War illness, but that there was a modest relationship with multiple vaccines, which was strongest in those vaccinated while deployed to the Gulf. These relationships may be affected by recall bias. We conclude by examining the results of immunological studies carried out in veterans or in a relevant setting in vitro. The balance of evidence from immunological studies on veterans returning from the War, including those developing multi-symptom illness, is that the immune response has not become polarized towards Th2. In summary, the epidemiological evidence for a multiple vaccine effect on Gulf War-related illness remains a potentially important aetiological lead, but mechanistic studies available at this stage do not identify any immunological basis for it. PMID:16687270

  4. The Amityville Experience During World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Historical Inquiry, 1985

    1985-01-01

    An historical journal compiled by advanced placement American history high school students contains 10 articles about the experiences of residents of Amityville, New York, during World War II. Students used secondary sources, first-hand newspaper accounts, oral interviews, and primary source documents to recreate Amityville as it was during those…

  5. Psychologists and Nuclear War: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polyson, James; And Others

    A questionnaire was mailed to 530 randomly selected members of the American Psychological Association to determine their views on the nuclear war threat and on efforts by the American Psychological Association to reduce that threat. Completed questionnaires were received from 290 psychologists. The two-page questionnaire asked respondents whether…

  6. Fighting the Civil War with Primary Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Alan; Sterne, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    The calendar was creeping into June. It was late spring, a time when many students' thoughts were sliding toward summer vacation. But it wasn't a problem in Lori Lowe's classroom. Her students had bigger things on their minds--like whether or not the Civil War would turn out the way they hoped. For many weeks, these fourth graders had been…

  7. Reach for Reference. Grolier's The Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2005-01-01

    This column describes Grolier's new ten-volume reference set, "The Civil War." The volumes are easy to handle and the set's appearance is designed to appeal to middle level students. Arrangement is alphabetical from Abolition in volume one to Zouaves in volume ten with reasonable cross references to other relevant articles. Each volume contains a…

  8. War Crimes Tribunals: A Permanent Criminal Court?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, James E.; Rudelius-Palmer, Kristi

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the establishment and jurisdiction of war crimes tribunals in recent years. The tribunals, established and supported by the United Nations, investigate atrocities and other crimes committed during wartime. Discusses the tribunals in Rwanda and Yugoslavia, and the political opposition to the establishment of a permanent court. (MJP)

  9. Updates in the War against Terrorism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Lee S.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an update of new court cases related to Part IV of the series on Information and the War Against Terrorism. Discusses civil liberties versus security involving the legality of mandatory commercial use of biometrics as identification; and communication of privileged information between a person and his or her attorney. (LRW)

  10. Arsenal Workers During World War II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    During World War II, Arsenal workers from Huntsville, Alabama. and surrounding areas responded to the call for civilian defense workers. This February 20, 1945 photo shows workers filling colored smoke grenades that were used for signaling. (Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public Library)

  11. Georgia History Plan Stirs Civil War Fuss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2004-01-01

    Nearly 140 years have not erased Georgia's memory of the trail of destruction by General William T. Sherman and Union troops as they burned their way from Atlanta to Savannah during a critical campaign of the Civil War. Those weeks in late 1864 have left a lasting influence on the state's history and culture. This article deals with Georgia's…

  12. Surviving the War: A College Counselor's Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Philip L.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents excerpts of the author's journal that recounts his experiences and the events about surviving the war in Egypt from 1990-1991. The article begins with the August 13th entry in the journal of the year 1990.

  13. Strategy: The logic of war and peace

    SciTech Connect

    Luttwak, E.N.

    1987-01-01

    This book expounds a new way of thinking about the conduct of war and the diplomacy of peace, a theory Luttwak calls ''paradoxical logic,'' and illustrates, through abundant historical examples, the failure of commonsense logic in matters of military strategy and international politics. Topics considered include nuclear weapons, military strategy, decision making, historical aspects, political aspects, global aspects, and warfare.

  14. Civil War. NBER Working Paper No. 14801

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blattman, Christopher; Miguel, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Most nations have experienced an internal armed conflict since 1960. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the causes and consequences of civil wars, belatedly bringing the topic into the economics mainstream. This article critically reviews this interdisciplinary literature and charts productive paths forward. Formal theory…

  15. Select Bibliography of the Korean War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Stanley

    2000-01-01

    Discusses various resources on the history of the Korean War that include, but are not limited to, works from the North Korean perspective, "standard" accounts from a western perspective that identify U.S. and South Korean shortcomings, and works on the secrecy around U.S. special operations. Provides a detailed bibliography. (CMK)

  16. The medical implications of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, F.; Marston, R.Q.

    1986-01-01

    This volume is divided into five parts. The first provides an overview of the physical and environmental effects of nuclear war, setting the stage for later sections that address the medical impact of various types of nuclear attack. Part III reviews the demand for medical resources after a nuclear attack and estimates the actual supply likely to be available. If a single one-megaton bomb were exploded over the city of Detroit, for example, it is calculated that survivors would need about forty times the number of burn beds currently available throughout the entire United States. Contributors to Part IV address the nuclear arms race from a psychosocial point of view: How does the threat of nuclear war affect the attitudes and behavior of adults and children. Studies provide evidence that many young children are worried about the possibility of nuclear war; most learn about nuclear war from television or the media and rarely discuss it with their parents. Finally in this section is a call for improving the screening system used to select nuclear weapons handlers.

  17. The Supreme Court in the Culture Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabkin, Jeremy

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the U.S. Supreme Court has been an active and liberally biased participant in the U.S. culture war. Historical evidence is presented, including areas of tuition tax credit and segregated private schools, abortion and the Right-to-Life movement, and prayer in public schools. The author discusses how the Supreme Court has strengthened…

  18. The effects of a nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Alred, W.T. )

    1990-10-01

    Many factors influence the impact that a nuclear war would have on both the environment and survivors. These factors include, although are not limited to, the type of nuclear weapons used, the amount of these weapons, and the time of year a war would take place. The effects that a major nuclear war would have on the environment would vary greatly depending on the factors previously mentioned. Some effects that would occur are: major climatic changes, destruction of most food crops, contamination of current food and water supplies, and the deaths of animals and insects that are crucial to the balance of the environment. The factors that influence the survivors also vary; however, certain problems have been predicted by researchers. Among these problems are psychological disorders, lack of food supplies, the elimination of medical relief, and exposure from both radiation and the changing environment. All these effects, as well as others, tend to give researchers a much different view of the effects that a nuclear war would have on the environment and survivors than has been predicted since before the mid nineteen-eighties.

  19. Psychiatry in the Korean War: perils, PIES, and prisoners of war.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron

    2002-11-01

    In the initial months of the Korean War, very high numbers of psychological casualties occurred among American troops, 250 per 1,000 per annum. Initially, these men were evacuated to Japan or the United States, and very few of them were returned to duty. Then the principles of early and far-forward treatment, learned in the previous world wars, were reinstituted. Up to 80% of neuropsychiatric casualties were returned to duty. During and after the war, the prisoners of war were believed to have been "brainwashed," have "give-it-upitis," and exhibit apathy and depression. Mistakenly believed to be signs of moral decay, the psychiatric symptoms during and after release were probably a result of extended inhumane treatment and vitamin deficiencies. PMID:12448614

  20. Survive, help, learn: experience of a medical journal in war and post-war times.

    PubMed

    Sambunjak, Dario; Ivanis, Ana

    2006-07-01

    Medical journals and their editors have a unique responsibility in armed conflicts. The experience of the Croatian Medical Journal during and after the 1991-1995 war in Croatia shows how a medical journal can survive, help others and learn in times of war. The first duty of a medical journal in such circumstances is to publish scientific articles on various aspects of war medicine, and to document cases of human rights abuses. In small scientific communities, editors can offer their expertise and assist authors in writing and publishing war-related research and reports. In post-conflict period, medical journals have a responsibility to participate in peace-building and reconciliation efforts. They can do so by publishing good scientific articles regardless of their place or country of origin, re-establishing contacts with colleagues from the opposing sides, striving for the multiethnic or multinational Editorial and Advisory Boards, and engaging in collaborative research and regional initiatives. PMID:16961192

  1. Chromosome aberration analysis in peripheral lymphocytes of Gulf War and Balkans War veterans.

    PubMed

    Schröder, H; Heimers, A; Frentzel-Beyme, R; Schott, A; Hoffmann, W

    2003-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were determined in standard peripheral lymphocyte metaphase preparations of 13 British Gulf War veterans, two veterans of the recent war in the Balkans and one veteran of both wars. All 16 volunteers suspect exposures to depleted uranium (DU) while deployed at the two different theatres of war in 1990 and later on. The Bremen laboratory control served as a reference in this study. Compared with this control there was a statistically significant increase in the frequency of dicentric chromosomes (dic) and centric ring chromosomes (cR) in the veterans' group. indicating a previous exposure to ionising radiation. The statistically significant overdispersion of die and cR indicates non-uniform irradiation as would be expected after non-uniform exposure and/or exposure to radiation with a high linear energy transfer (LET). The frequency of SCEs was decreased when compared with the laboratory control. PMID:12678382

  2. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (e) Civilian Auxiliary to the Military Police. Post-World War II Veterans ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (e) Civilian Auxiliary to the Military Police. Post-World War II Veterans ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (e) Civilian Auxiliary to the Military Police. Post-World War II Veterans ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (e) Civilian Auxiliary to the Military Police. Post-World War II Veterans ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (e) Civilian Auxiliary to the Military Police. Post-World War II Veterans ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War...

  7. Education, Meritocracy and the Global War for Talent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Phillip; Tannock, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Talk of the rise of a global war for talent and emergence of a new global meritocracy has spread from the literature on human resource management to shape nation-state discourse on managed migration and immigration reform. This article examines the implications that the global war for talent have for education policy. Given that this talent war is…

  8. Civil War Photography and Its Impact from 1863-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seels, Jody M.; Seels, Barbara A.

    The United States Civil War was the first American war to be documented extensively by photographs, and these photographs have had tremendous impact and importance. During the war and immediately following, the cost and difficulty of reproducing photographs limited their appeal. Economic pressures actually caused Matthew Brady, the most famous…

  9. Peace Education: How We Come to Love and Hate War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2011-01-01

    There is a huge volume of work on war and its causes, most of which treats its political and economic roots. In Loving and Hating War: An Approach to Peace Education, Nel Noddings explores the psychological factors that support war: nationalism, hatred, delight in spectacles, masculinity, religious extremism, and the search for existential…

  10. The End of the Cold War, 1961-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulzinger, Robert D.

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of Cold War years from President Kennedy's inauguration to end of Soviet Union on December 31, 1991. Recommends six questions to provide a structure for studying or teaching about the Cold War era. Concludes that the Cold War remains one of the premier forces in shaping the world during the second half of the 20th century.…

  11. 78 FR 28292 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review... War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Draft Written Report is now complete. VA is inviting...

  12. 76 FR 65321 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review... War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Draft Written Report is now complete. VA is inviting...

  13. The World War II Era and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…

  14. Nuclear War Media and Firebreaks II: An Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II

    Ground Zero is an organization whose intent is to provide factual information on nuclear war issues. Ground Zero has published a simulation called "Firebreaks II: A War-Peace Game" about the ways nuclear war might be prevented. The impact of Firebreaks II on college students' attitudes was assessed in 79 student volunteers of whom 40 percent were…

  15. The Coming of Age of the Civil War Novel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, James

    2004-01-01

    The Civil War novel for children has come of age. Although Civil War novels with little substance remain in print, more recent novels are serious in tone and readily available for classroom use. This article briefly summarizes a few Civil War novels that would be good in the classroom.

  16. Investigating U.S. Links to Nazi War Criminals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    The list of United States government connections with Nazi war criminals is a long one. We must ensure that Nazi war criminals living in America are brought to justice. And we must both explore and expunge the history of our government's relations with Nazi war criminals. (CS)

  17. The Impact of the Civil War on Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Shirley A.

    Before the U.S. Civil War, vocational education was relegated to apprenticeship training and a few scattered schools dedicated to the purpose. The Civil War brought widespread death and destruction throughout the South. By the end of the war, half of the land mass and population of the reunited United States of America had been destroyed. A major…

  18. We Can and SHOULD Teach the War in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinders, David J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author stresses the importance of including the discussion of the war in Iraq in the curriculum. He further shares how, in the spring of 2005, he had asked middle school and high school students what they thought about the Iraq War, what they had learned about the war in school, and what they would like to learn. Their answers…

  19. [Academy of medical sciences during the Great Patriotic War and first years after war].

    PubMed

    Knopov, M Sh; Taranukha, V K

    2014-06-01

    In the article presented the history of foundation of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR and its activities during the World War Two and the early postwar years. According to the authors, the scientific development of many fundamental problems from domestic medicine experience during the war has retained its relevance in solving of the contemporary issues in health and medical science in modern Russia. PMID:25286578

  20. Preserving Alaska's early Cold War legacy.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffecker, J.; Whorton, M.

    1999-03-08

    The US Air Force owns and operates numerous facilities that were constructed during the Cold War era. The end of the Cold War prompted many changes in the operation of these properties: missions changed, facilities were modified, and entire bases were closed or realigned. The widespread downsizing of the US military stimulated concern over the potential loss of properties that had acquired historical value in the context of the Cold War. In response, the US Department of Defense in 1991 initiated a broad effort to inventory properties of this era. US Air Force installations in Alaska were in the forefront of these evaluations because of the role of the Cold War in the state's development and history and the high interest on the part of the Alaska State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) in these properties. The 611th Air Support Group (611 ASG) owns many of Alaska's early Cold War properties, most were associated with strategic air defense. The 611 ASG determined that three systems it operates, which were all part of the integrated defense against Soviet nuclear strategic bomber threat, were eligible for the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) and would require treatment as historic properties. These systems include the Aircraft Control and Warning (AC&W) System, the Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line, and Forward Operating Bases (FOBs). As part of a massive cleanup operation, Clean Sweep, the 611 ASG plans to demolish many of the properties associated with these systems. To mitigate the effects of demolition, the 611 ASG negotiated agreements on the system level (e.g., the DEW Line) with the Alaska SHPO to document the history and architectural/engineering features associated with these properties. This system approach allowed the US Air Force to mitigate effects on many individual properties in a more cost-effective and efficient manner.