Science.gov

Sample records for additional water sources

  1. Water hyacinth a potential source for value addition: An overview.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Raveendran; Binod, Parameswaran; Pandey, Ashok; Madhavan, Aravind; Alphonsa, Jose Anju; Vivek, Narisetty; Gnansounou, Edgard; Castro, Eulogio; Faraco, Vincenza

    2017-04-01

    Water hyacinth a fresh water aquatic plant is considered as a noxious weed in many parts of the world since it grows very fast and depletes nutrients and oxygen from water bodies adversely affecting the growth of both plants and animals. Hence conversion of this problematic weed to value added chemicals and fuels helps in the self-sustainability especially for developing countries. The present review discusses the various value added products and fuels which can be produced from water hyacinth, the recent research and developmental activities on the bioconversion of water hyacinth for the production of fuels and value added products as well as its possibilities and challenges in commercialization.

  2. Addition of a worm leachate as source of humic substances in the drinking water of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Rosales, S; de L Angeles, M

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth performance, the apparent ileal digestibility of nitrogen and energy, the retention of nutrients and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected to zero nitrogen retention (AMEn) in broiler chickens supplemented with increasing doses of a worm leachate (WL) as a source of humic substances (HS) in the drinking water. In Exp. 1, 140 male broilers were penned individually and assigned to four WL levels (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) mixed in the drinking water from 21 to 49 days of age. Water was offered in plastic bottles tied to the cage. In Exp. 2, 600 male broilers from 21 to 49 days of age housed in floor pens were assigned to three levels of WL (0%, 10%, and 20%) mixed in the drinking water. The WL was mixed with tap water in plastic containers connected by plastic tubing to bell drinkers. The results of both experiments were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial contrasts. In Exp. 1, the daily water consumption was similar among treatments but the consumption of humic, fulvic, and total humic acids increased linearly (p<0.01) as the WL increased in the drinking water. The feed conversion (p<0.01) and the ileal digestibility of energy, the excretion of dry matter and energy, the retention of dry matter, ash and nitrogen and the AMEn showed quadratic responses (p<0.05) relative to the WL levels in drinking water. In Exp. 2, the increasing level of WL in the drinking water had quadratic effects on the final body weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio (p<0.05). The addition of WL as a source of HS in the drinking water had beneficial effects on the growth performance, ileal digestibility of energy, the retention of nutrients as well on the AMEn in broiler chickens; the best results were observed when the WL was mixed at levels of 20% to 30% in the drinking water.

  3. Enantioselective Michael addition of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-02-09

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry.

  4. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  5. Conducting Source Water Assessments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents background information on the source water assessment steps, the four steps of a source wter assessment, and how to use the results of an assessment to protect drinking water sources.

  6. Source Water Quality Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will provide background information on continuous source water monitoring using online toxicity monitors and cover various tools available. Conceptual and practical aspects of source water quality monitoring will be discussed.

  7. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  8. Leptospirosis from water sources

    PubMed Central

    Wynwood, Sarah Jane; Graham, Glenn Charles; Weier, Steven Lance; Collet, Trudi Anne; McKay, David Brian; Craig, Scott Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis outbreaks have been associated with many common water events including water consumption, water sports, environmental disasters, and occupational exposure. The ability of leptospires to survive in moist environments makes them a high-risk agent for infection following contact with any contaminated water source. Water treatment processes reduce the likelihood of leptospirosis or other microbial agents causing infection provided that they do not malfunction and the distribution networks are maintained. Notably, there are many differences in water treatment systems around the world, particularly between developing and developed countries. Detection of leptospirosis in water samples is uncommonly performed by molecular methods. PMID:25348115

  9. INEEL Source Water Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sehlke, Gerald

    2003-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will

  10. Water addition, evaporation and water holding capacity of poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Mark W; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2015-12-15

    Litter moisture content has been related to ammonia, dust and odour emissions as well as bird health and welfare. Improved understanding of the water holding properties of poultry litter as well as water additions to litter and evaporation from litter will contribute to improved litter moisture management during the meat chicken grow-out. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how management and environmental conditions over the course of a grow-out affect the volume of water A) applied to litter, B) able to be stored in litter, and C) evaporated from litter on a daily basis. The same unit of measurement has been used to enable direct comparison-litres of water per square metre of poultry shed floor area, L/m(2), assuming a litter depth of 5cm. An equation was developed to estimate the amount of water added to litter from bird excretion and drinking spillage, which are sources of regular water application to the litter. Using this equation showed that water applied to litter from these sources changes over the course of a grow-out, and can be as much as 3.2L/m(2)/day. Over a 56day grow-out, the total quantity of water added to the litter was estimated to be 104L/m(2). Litter porosity, water holding capacity and water evaporation rates from litter were measured experimentally. Litter porosity decreased and water holding capacity increased over the course of a grow-out due to manure addition. Water evaporation rates at 25°C and 50% relative humidity ranged from 0.5 to 10L/m(2)/day. Evaporation rates increased with litter moisture content and air speed. Maintaining dry litter at the peak of a grow-out is likely to be challenging because evaporation rates from dry litter may be insufficient to remove the quantity of water added to the litter on a daily basis.

  11. Helping Residents Protect Water Sources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Building on the successful early engagement of the Plain Sect agricultural community, the Eastern Lancaster County Source Water Protection Collaborative is expanding its efforts to involve local residents in the work of protecting drinking water sources.

  12. Stereochemistry of enzymatic water addition to C=C bonds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Water addition to carbon-carbon double bonds using hydratases is attracting great interest in biochemistry. Most of the known hydratases are involved in primary metabolism and to a lesser extent in secondary metabolism. New hydratases have recently been added to the toolbox, both from natural sources or artificial metalloenzymes. In order to comprehensively understand how the hydratases are able to catalyse the water addition to carbon-carbon double bonds, this review will highlight the mechanistic and stereochemical studies of the enzymatic water addition to carbon-carbon double bonds, focusing on the syn/anti-addition and stereochemistry of the reaction.

  13. NONPOINT SOURCES AND WATER QUALITY TRADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of nonpoint sources (NPS) of nutrients may reduce discharge levels more cost effectively than can additional controls on point sources (PS); water quality trading (WQT), where a PS buys nutrient or sediment reductions from an NPS, may be an alternative means for the PS...

  14. 17 CFR 37.408 - Additional sources for compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional sources for compliance. 37.408 Section 37.408 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SWAP EXECUTION FACILITIES Monitoring of Trading and Trade Processing § 37.408 Additional sources...

  15. 17 CFR 38.201 - Additional sources for compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional sources for compliance. 38.201 Section 38.201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Contracts Not Readily Subject to Manipulation § 38.201 Additional sources...

  16. 17 CFR 38.201 - Additional sources for compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional sources for compliance. 38.201 Section 38.201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Contracts Not Readily Subject to Manipulation § 38.201 Additional sources...

  17. PHARMACEUTICALS IN SOURCE WATER - OVERVIEW ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. S

  18. 21 CFR 173.310 - Boiler water additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Boiler water additives. 173.310 Section 173.310... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.310 Boiler water additives. Boiler water additives may be safely... water. Copolymer contains not more than 0.5 percent by weight of acrylic acid monomer (dry weight...

  19. 21 CFR 173.310 - Boiler water additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Boiler water additives. 173.310 Section 173.310... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.310 Boiler water additives. Boiler water additives may be safely... water. Copolymer contains not more than 0.5 percent by weight of acrylic acid monomer (dry weight...

  20. 21 CFR 173.310 - Boiler water additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Boiler water additives. 173.310 Section 173.310... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.310 Boiler water additives. Boiler water additives may be safely... water. Copolymer contains not more than 0.5 percent by weight of acrylic acid monomer (dry weight...

  1. 21 CFR 173.310 - Boiler water additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Boiler water additives. 173.310 Section 173.310... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.310 Boiler water additives. Boiler water additives may be safely... water. Copolymer contains not more than 0.5 percent by weight of acrylic acid monomer (dry weight...

  2. 21 CFR 173.310 - Boiler water additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Boiler water additives. 173.310 Section 173.310... Boiler water additives. Boiler water additives may be safely used in the preparation of steam that will... Total not to exceed 1.5 parts per million in boiler feed water. Copolymer contains not more than...

  3. Source water monitoring and biomonitoring systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will provide background information on continuous source water monitoring using online toxicity monitors and cover various tools available. Conceptual and practical aspects of source water quality monitoring will be discussed.

  4. THE FATE OF FLUOROSILICATE DRINKING WATER ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periodically, the EPA reexamines its information on regulated drinking water contaminants to deterime if further study is required. Fluoride is one such contaminant undergoing review. The chemical literature indicates that some deficiencies exist in our understanding of the spe...

  5. Elevated Natural Source Water Ammonia and Nitrification in the Distribution Systems of Four Water Utilities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrification in drinking water distribution systems is a concern of many drinking water systems. Although chloramination as a source of nitrification (i.e., addition of excess ammonia or breakdown of chloramines) has drawn the most attention, many source waters contain signific...

  6. Volume 3a - Area Source Methods - Additional Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nonpoint (area) source emission reference materials from the Emissions Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP). Provides nonpoint source guidance on ammonia emissions from natural landscapes, fertilized soils, and nonagricultural sources.

  7. 10. Water treatment plant, view to S. 1965 addition is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Water treatment plant, view to S. 1965 addition is in the foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  8. Water: Source of Future Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    the property they own. A second option is for the government to expand irrigation by diverting more water to agriculture and building more dams. This...by engaging in better water management practices. For example, growing tomatoes with traditional irrigation systems requires far more water than...growing tomatoes that use drip systems. This example suggests that even our daily diet has an effect on our overall water needs.21 Growing a pound of

  9. WATER QUALITY IN SOURCE WATER, TREATMENT, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most drinking water utilities practice the multiple-barrier concept as the guiding principle for providing safe water. This chapter discusses multiple barriers as they relate to the basic criteria for selecting and protecting source waters, including known and potential sources ...

  10. Modeling water demand when households have multiple sources of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulibaly, Lassina; Jakus, Paul M.; Keith, John E.

    2014-07-01

    A significant portion of the world's population lives in areas where public water delivery systems are unreliable and/or deliver poor quality water. In response, people have developed important alternatives to publicly supplied water. To date, most water demand research has been based on single-equation models for a single source of water, with very few studies that have examined water demand from two sources of water (where all nonpublic system water sources have been aggregated into a single demand). This modeling approach leads to two outcomes. First, the demand models do not capture the full range of alternatives, so the true economic relationship among the alternatives is obscured. Second, and more seriously, economic theory predicts that demand for a good becomes more price-elastic as the number of close substitutes increases. If researchers artificially limit the number of alternatives studied to something less than the true number, the price elasticity estimate may be biased downward. This paper examines water demand in a region with near universal access to piped water, but where system reliability and quality is such that many alternative sources of water exist. In extending the demand analysis to four sources of water, we are able to (i) demonstrate why households choose the water sources they do, (ii) provide a richer description of the demand relationships among sources, and (iii) calculate own-price elasticity estimates that are more elastic than those generally found in the literature.

  11. Potable water as a source for legionellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, D W

    1985-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have been examined in attempts to implicate potable water as a source for legionellosis. Success has been mixed. The strongest evidence has been the similarity of strains recovered from patients and from potable water and the cessation of outbreaks following institution of measures to eradicate Legionella from potable water systems. Epidemiologic efforts to identify the effective mode of exposure to water (e.g. ingestion) have been remarkably unsuccessful. Although L pneumophila can clearly be acquired on occasion from potable water, the proportion of cases traceable to this source is unknown, as is the role of potable water as a source of infection by other Legionellae. Hyperchlorination, raising hot water temperatures to greater than 55 degrees C, and replacing rubber gaskets are useful methods for controlling outbreaks of legionellosis traced to potable water systems but are not yet justified as routine preventative methods in the absence of such an outbreak. PMID:4085438

  12. Water: Source of Health, Source of Illness. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Amy

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  13. Water Pollution: Monitoring the Source.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkes, James W.

    1980-01-01

    Described is an advanced biology class project involving study of the effects of organic pollution on an aquatic ecosystem from an sewage treatment plant overflow to evaluate the chemical quality and biological activity of the river water. (DS)

  14. USEPA Guidance for Designing a Source Water Monitoring System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treatment plants are commonly designed and operated to handle typical variability in source water quality, treat contaminants known to occur in source water, comply with drinking water standards, and meet customer expectations. However, unanticipated changes in source water qual...

  15. Differences in dissolved organic matter between reclaimed water source and drinking water source.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hong-Ying; Du, Ye; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Zhao, Xin; Tang, Xin; Chen, Zhuo

    2016-05-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) significantly affects the quality of reclaimed water and drinking water. Reclaimed water potable reuse is an effective way to augment drinking water source and de facto reuse exists worldwide. Hence, when reclaimed water source (namely secondary effluent) is blended with drinking water source, understanding the difference in DOM between drinking water source (dDOM) and reclaimed water source (rDOM) is essential. In this study, composition, transformation, and potential risk of dDOM from drinking water source and rDOM from secondary effluent were compared. Generally, the DOC concentration of rDOM and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) content in reclaimed water source were higher but rDOM exhibited a lower aromaticity. Besides, rDOM comprises a higher proportion of hydrophilic fractions and more low-molecular weight compounds, which are difficult to be removed during coagulation. Although dDOM exhibited higher specific disinfection byproducts formation potential (SDBPFP), rDOM formed more total disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination including halomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) due to high DOC concentration. Likewise, in consideration of DOC basis, rDOM contained more absolute assimilable organic carbon (AOC) despite showing a lower specific AOC (normalized AOC per unit of DOC). Besides, rDOM exhibited higher biotoxicity including genotoxicity and endocrine disruption. Therefore, rDOM presents a greater potential risk than dDOM does. Reclaimed water source needs to be treated carefully when it is blended with drinking water source.

  16. Percolation model with an additional source of disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Sumanta; Manna, S. S.

    2016-06-01

    The ranges of transmission of the mobiles in a mobile ad hoc network are not uniform in reality. They are affected by the temperature fluctuation in air, obstruction due to the solid objects, even the humidity difference in the environment, etc. How the varying range of transmission of the individual active elements affects the global connectivity in the network may be an important practical question to ask. Here a model of percolation phenomena, with an additional source of disorder, is introduced for a theoretical understanding of this problem. As in ordinary percolation, sites of a square lattice are occupied randomly with probability p . Each occupied site is then assigned a circular disk of random value R for its radius. A bond is defined to be occupied if and only if the radii R1 and R2 of the disks centered at the ends satisfy a certain predefined condition. In a very general formulation, one divides the R1-R2 plane into two regions by an arbitrary closed curve. One defines a point within one region as representing an occupied bond; otherwise it is a vacant bond. The study of three different rules under this general formulation indicates that the percolation threshold always varies continuously. This threshold has two limiting values, one is pc(sq) , the percolation threshold for the ordinary site percolation on the square lattice, and the other is unity. The approach of the percolation threshold to its limiting values are characterized by two exponents. In a special case, all lattice sites are occupied by disks of random radii R ∈{0 ,R0} and a percolation transition is observed with R0 as the control variable, similar to the site occupation probability.

  17. THE PERSISTENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM IN A DRINKING WATER SYSTEM AFTER THE ADDITION OF FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water is increasingly recognized as a major source of pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) associated with human infection. Our goal was to determine if the prevalence of NTM would decrease after the addition of filtration treatment to an unfiltered surface water...

  18. Source Water Assessment for the Las Vegas Valley Surface Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albuquerque, S. P.; Piechota, T. C.

    2003-12-01

    The 1996 amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 created the Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) with an objective to evaluate potential sources of contamination to drinking water intakes. The development of a Source Water Assessment Plan for Las Vegas Valley surface water runoff into Lake Mead is important since it will guide future work on source water protection of the main source of water. The first step was the identification of the watershed boundary and source water protection area. Two protection zones were delineated. Zone A extends 500 ft around water bodies, and Zone B extends 3000 ft from the boundaries of Zone A. These Zones extend upstream to the limits of dry weather flows in the storm channels within the Las Vegas Valley. After the protection areas were identified, the potential sources of contamination in the protection area were inventoried. Field work was conducted to identify possible sources of contamination. A GIS coverage obtained from local data sources was used to identify the septic tank locations. Finally, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits were obtained from the State of Nevada, and included in the inventory. After the inventory was completed, a level of risk was assigned to each potential contaminating activity (PCA). The contaminants of concern were grouped into five categories: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), synthetic organic compounds (SOCs), inorganic compounds (IOCs), microbiological, and radionuclides. The vulnerability of the water intake to each of the PCAs was assigned based on these five categories, and also on three other factors: the physical barrier effectiveness, the risk potential, and the time of travel. The vulnerability analysis shows that the PCAs with the highest vulnerability rating include septic systems, golf courses/parks, storm channels, gas stations, auto repair shops, construction, and the wastewater treatment plant discharges. Based on the current water quality

  19. BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY SOURCE WATER ASSESSMENT FOR DRINKING WATER SUPPLY WELLS

    SciTech Connect

    BENNETT,D.B.; PAQUETTE,D.E.; KLAUS,K.; DORSCH,W.R.

    2000-12-18

    The BNL water supply system meets all water quality standards and has sufficient pumping and storage capacity to meet current and anticipated future operational demands. Because BNL's water supply is drawn from the shallow Upper Glacial aquifer, BNL's source water is susceptible to contamination. The quality of the water supply is being protected through (1) a comprehensive program of engineered and operational controls of existing aquifer contamination and potential sources of new contamination, (2) groundwater monitoring, and (3) potable water treatment. The BNL Source Water Assessment found that the source water for BNL's Western Well Field (comprised of Supply Wells 4, 6, and 7) has relatively few threats of contamination and identified potential sources are already being carefully managed. The source water for BNL's Eastern Well Field (comprised of Supply Wells 10, 11, and 12) has a moderate number of threats to water quality, primarily from several existing volatile organic compound and tritium plumes. The g-2 Tritium Plume and portions of the Operable Unit III VOC plume fall within the delineated source water area for the Eastern Well Field. In addition, portions of the much slower migrating strontium-90 plumes associated with the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor, Waste Concentration Facility and Building 650 lie within the Eastern source water area. However, the rate of travel in the aquifer for strontium-90 is about one-twentieth of that for tritium and volatile organic compounds. The Laboratory has been carefully monitoring plume migration, and has made adjustments to water supply operations. Although a number of BNL's water supply wells were impacted by VOC contamination in the late 1980s, recent routine analysis of water samples from BNL's supply wells indicate that no drinking water standards have been reached or exceeded. The high quality of the water supply strongly indicates that the operational and engineered controls implemented over the past

  20. Water Conservation and Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell-Poe, Kitt

    This book contains science activities that are designed to make learning and demonstrating nonpoint source pollution concepts exciting and fun. These activities can either be used alone or with an existing water resources education curricula. Activities include: Water Tasting, Acting Out the Hydrologic Cycle, Concentration of Chemical Pollutants…

  1. INTERNATIONAL SOURCE WATER TOXICITY MONITORING CONSORTIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many researchers in the field of time-relevant, on-line toxicity monitors for source water protection believe that some mechanism to guide and prioritize research in this emerging field would be beneficial. On-line toxicity monitors are tools designed to screen water quality and ...

  2. Protecting Source Water in West Virginia

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA funds helped WV residents and utilities in source water protection efforts and emergency planning following the Elk River chemical spill of 2014. The spill contaminated the water supply of nearly 300,000 people in the capitol and surrounding counties.

  3. Effect of water on overbased sulfonate engine oil additives.

    PubMed

    Tavacoli, J W; Dowding, P J; Steytler, D C; Barnes, D J; Routh, A F

    2008-04-15

    The presence and effect of water on calcium carbonate nanoparticles used in engine additives, stabilized with a sulfonate surfactant, is investigated using small-angle neutron scattering, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and rheometry. These techniques provide complementary data that suggests the formation of a layer of water around the core of the particles ensuring continued colloidal stability yet increasing the dispersion viscosity. Through the use of small-angle neutron scattering, the dimensions of this layer have been quantified to effectively one or two water molecules in thickness. The lack of a significant electrostatic repulsion is evidence that the water layer is insufficient to cause major dissociation of surface ions.

  4. Review of North Atlantic Source Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) ventilates the deep World Ocean. It not only carries relatively well-oxygenated waters, but also other substances derived from recent sea-surface exchanges. There are five regional sources for NADW: (1) derivatives of the salty Mediterranean Sea outflow, (2) products of open-ocean convection in the Labrador Sea, (3) Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water from the Norwegian Sea - salty by virtue of mixing with saline water near the sills, (4) Denmark Strait Overflow Water from the Iceland and Greenland Seas - which retains a high-density, relatively low-salinity signal, and (5) remnants of deep water from the Antarctic circumpolar region - freshest of the bottom waters. Despite the differences of characteristics of the source waters, the NADW is relatively uniform. Because the formation of each of the five source waters may be viewed as a response to a complex series of events, it is difficult to examine the sensitivity of NADW to environmental fluctuations. It is known that the deep northern North Atlantic is relatively closely coupled to the sea surface in the Greenland and Iceland seas. The most recent studies indicate a minimum response time of only two years between the introduction of a passive signal north of Iceland and its appearance in the deep northwest Atlantic.

  5. Radiation safety attached to radioactive sources management - additional aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Kositsyn, V.F.

    1993-12-31

    Radiation sources are used in many scientific areas. Safety management requirements are determined for them with guarantee of the international and national dose limits unexceeding. As a rule, such dose limits are being developed concerning the type, energy, and flux of main radiation. Lack of knowledge of these attendant radiations can put personnel in danger. The study of the attendant neutron and gamma-radiations for plutonium 128 alpha sources was made.

  6. Additives for Water Mist Fire Suppression Systems: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    this. Water mist produces no acid gases and therefore can be discharged in a space where persons are present. It consists of small water droplets...investigated include film forming additives for Class B fires (generally fluorinated surfactants), alkali metals salts, transition metal chlorides, sulphates ...et portatif sur les navires militaires continue de croître pour plusieurs raisons. Le brouillard d’eau ne contient pas de gaz acides et, par

  7. ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOMS: AN ADDITIONAL SOURCE FOR HELIOSPHERIC PICKUP IONS

    SciTech Connect

    Bochsler, Peter; Moebius, Eberhard

    2010-09-20

    Recently, Schwadron and McComas discussed the possibility of inner source pickup particles originating from the ionization of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs), based on new data from the IBEX mission. This proposition has some interesting features, namely, it might be able to explain why inner source pickup ions (PUIs) have a composition resembling solar abundances and show no indication of overabundance of refractory elements, although this should be expected, if the conventional explanation of solar wind-dust interaction for the origin of this heliospheric component were correct. In this Letter, we explore further consequences for ENA-related PUIs and investigate their velocity distributions. We conclude that this model will not reproduce the observed velocity distributions of inner source PUIs and point out a substantial deviation in their composition. However, it seems likely that the ionization of ENAs as observed with IBEX could contribute a significant amount of heliospheric suprathermal tail ions. Some possible consequences of our investigation for heliospheric particle populations are briefly discussed.

  8. Effects of additional HONO sources on visibility over the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; An, Junling; Gultepe, Ismail

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to better understand the impacts of the additional sources of nitrous acid (HONO) on visibility, which is an aspect not considered in current air quality models. Simulations of HONO contributions to visibility over the North China Plain (NCP) during August 2007 using the fully coupled Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model were performed, including three additional HONO sources: (1) the reaction of photo-excited nitrogen dioxide (NO * 2) with water vapor; (2) the NO2 heterogeneous reaction on aerosol surfaces; and (3) HONO emissions. The model generally reproduced the spatial patterns and diurnal variations of visibility over the NCP well. When the additional HONO sources were included in the simulations, the visibility was occasionally decreased by 20%-30% (3-4 km) in local urban areas of the NCP. Monthly-mean concentrations of NO{3/-}, NH{4/+}, SO{4/2-} and PM2.5 were increased by 20%-52% (3-11 μg m-3), 10%-38%, 6%-10%, and 6%-11% (9-17 μg m-3), respectively; and in urban areas, monthly-mean accumulationmode number concentrations (AMNC) and surface concentrations of aerosols were enhanced by 15%-20% and 10%-20%, respectively. Overall, the results suggest that increases in concentrations of PM2.5, its hydrophilic components, and AMNC, are key factors for visibility degradation. A proposed conceptual model for the impacts of additional HONO sources on visibility also suggests that visibility estimation should consider the heterogeneous reaction on aerosol surfaces and the enhanced atmospheric oxidation capacity due to additional HONO sources, especially in areas with high mass concentrations of NO x and aerosols.

  9. Water in Mantle Sources of Oceanic Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, J. E.

    2006-12-01

    This talk will review estimates of water partitioning during subduction as determined by studies of mantle- derived melts. A major uncertainty in the earth's water cycle is the effect of subduction and recycling of hydrated lithosphere on deep mantle water concentrations. The problem with quantifying the variablility of mantle volatiles is that their concentrations are easily modified by shallow crystallization and degassing processes. Careful examination of volatile data from submarine basalts is required to select only those that have not degassed water. For example, even basalts collected deep on a submarine rift zone are not immune because basaltic volcanoes that have breached the sea surface are like champagne bottles; once the cork is popped, the entire bottle goes flat (e.g., Dixon et al., 1991). Once degassing effects have been eliminated, mantle water concentrations show systematic variations. Mantle sources for mid-ocean ridge basalts contain about 120 ppm water, with the most depleted MORB end-member having about 60 ppm. Source regions for mantle plumes are wetter than MORB sources. The wettest mantle is found in plumes dominated by the "common mantle plume component" (FOZO; 700 to 800 ppm H2O, H2O /Ce=210 to 300). Mantle sources for plumes enriched in recycled lithosphere (EM1, EM2, LOMU, and HIMU) have about half as much water (300 to 400 ppm H2O) and lower ratios of water to similarly incompatible elements (H2O/Ce<=100). High H2O /Ce in FOZO plumes cannot be derived from recycled lithosphere; therefore, a significant amount of water must be juvenile, left over from planetary accretion. Thus, dehydration during subduction effectively partitions water into the exosphere (mantle wedge, crust, ocean, atmosphere) resulting in time-integrated depletion of water relative to other incompatible elements in recycled (deeply subducted) lithosphere and sediments and, ultimately, the majority of the mantle. These results are consistent with a global water cycle

  10. Additional muon calculations for the SLC positron source

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.; McCall, R.C.

    1985-04-23

    This note is an update to the muon calculations presented in CN-221 and takes into account: (1) a more complete muon production and transport model, including an estimate of wide angle production based on experimental data, (2) additional earth shielding that will be added on top and both sides of the 2/3 tunnel areas, and (3) a detailed analysis of the earth profile as it pertains to shielding in the direction of the SLAC site boundary. The highest annual dose at the SLAC boundary is found to be 13 mrem/year (4000 hours of operation at 50 kW), and this occurs at a horizontal angle of 0 degrees and a vertical angle of 3.6 degrees relative to the incident beam direction. Although the shielding criteria is 10 mrem/year at the site boundary, the radiation transport model becomes somewhat conservative at large distances from the shield, which should bring the 13 mrem/year number actually well below the criteria. This point is also about 28 feet above the roadway. Extension of this line may strike the ground in the Christmas tree farm beyond the SLAC boundary but there will be additional attenuation due to distance. We do not recommend that any additional shielding be added at this time. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  11. PRIORITIZATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINANTS AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to identify chemical, physical, bacteriological, and viral contaminants, and their sources, which present the greatest health threat in public ground water supplies in the USA; and to classify (prioritize) such contaminants and relative to their...

  12. DETAIL VIEW OF WATER TANKS AND PIPELINE TO WATER SOURCE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF WATER TANKS AND PIPELINE TO WATER SOURCE. LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM LARGE TAILINGS PILE. THE TANK ON THE LEFT IS A WATER TANK, POSSIBLY ASSOCIATED WITH A WATER SHAFT THAT IS SEEN AS A RAISED SPOT ON THE GROUND JUST TO THE RIGHT OF IT. THE TANK ON THE RIGHT IS IN DIRECT CONNECTION WITH THE PIPELINE CARRYING WATER FROM A NEARBY SPRING IN THE DISTANCE AT CENTER. THE WATER WAS THEN PUMPED UP TO ALL PARTS OF THE MINING OPERATION, INCLUDING THE UPPER MINES ONE MILE NORTH, THE MILL, AND THE CYANIDE PLANT. THE PIPELINE ITSELF IS DISMANTLED, WITH PARTS OF IT MISSING OR SCATTERED ALONG THE GROUND, AS SEEN IN THE CENTER DISTANCE. THE SPRING IS APPROX. A QUARTER MILE DISTANT, AND IS NOT PROMINENT IN THIS PHOTOGRAPH. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  13. Two different sources of water for the early solar nebula.

    PubMed

    Kupper, Stefan; Tornow, Carmen; Gast, Philipp

    2012-06-01

    Water is essential for life. This is a trivial fact but has profound implications since the forming of life on the early Earth required water. The sources of water and the related amount of delivery depend not only on the conditions on the early Earth itself but also on the evolutionary history of the solar system. Thus we ask where and when water formed in the solar nebula-the precursor of the solar system. In this paper we explore the chemical mechanics for water formation and its expected abundance. This is achieved by studying the parental cloud core of the solar nebula and its gravitational collapse. We have identified two different sources of water for the region of Earth's accretion. The first being the sublimation of the icy mantles of dust grains formed in the parental cloud. The second source is located in the inner region of the collapsing cloud core - the so-called hot corino with a temperature of several hundred Kelvin. There, water is produced efficiently in the gas phase by reactions between neutral molecules. Additionally, we analyse the dependence of the production of water on the initial abundance ratio between carbon and oxygen.

  14. Overview of the Texas Source Water Assessment Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulery, Randy L.

    2000-01-01

    The 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act require, for the first time, that each state prepare a source water assessment for all PWS. Previously, Federal regulations focused on sampling and enforcement with emphasis on the quality of delivered water. These Amendments emphasize the importance of protecting the source water. States are required to determine the drinking-water source, the origin of contaminants monitored or the potential contaminants to be monitored, and the intrinsic susceptibility of the source water. Under the amendments to the Act, States must create SWAP Programs. The programs must include an individual source water assessment for each public water system regulated by the State. These assessments will determine whether an individual drinking water source is susceptible to contamination. During 1997?99, TNRCC and USGS staff met as subject-matter working groups to develop an approach to conducting Source Water Susceptibility Assessments (SWSA) and a draft workplan. The draft workplan was then presented to and reviewed by various stakeholder and technical advisory groups. Comments and suggestions from these groups were considered, and a final workplan was produced and presented to the EPA. After EPA approval, work formally began on the Texas SWAP Project. The project has an expected completion date of September 2002. At that time, initial SWSA of all Texas public water supplies should be complete. Ground-water supplies can be considered susceptible if a possible source of contamination (PSOC) exists in the contributing area for the public-supply well field or spring, the contaminant travel time to the well field or spring is short, and the soil zone, vadose zone, and aquifer-matrix materials are unlikely to adequately attenuate the contaminants associated with the PSOC. In addition, particular types of land use/cover within the contributing area may cause the supply to be deemed more susceptible to contamination. Finally, detection of

  15. An open source simulator for water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Stephen; Meier, Philipp; Selby, Philip; Mohammed, Khaled; Khadem, Majed; Padula, Silvia; Harou, Julien; Rosenberg, David; Rheinheimer, David

    2015-04-01

    Descriptive modelling of water resource systems requires the representation of different aspects in one model: the physical system including hydrological inputs and engineered infrastructure, and human management, including social, economic and institutional behaviours and constraints. Although most water resource systems share some characteristics such as the ability to represent them as a network of nodes and links, geographical, institutional and other differences mean that invariably each water system functions in a unique way. A diverse group is developing an open source simulation framework which will allow model developers to build generalised water management models that are customised to the institutional, physical and economical components they are seeking to model. The framework will allow the simulation of complex individual and institutional behaviour required for the assessment of real-world resource systems. It supports the spatial and hierarchical structures commonly found in water resource systems. The individual infrastructures can be operated by different actors while policies are defined at a regional level by one or more institutional actors. The framework enables building multi-agent system simulators in which developers can define their own agent types and add their own decision making code. Developers using the framework have two main tasks: (i) Extend the core classes to represent the aspects of their particular system, and (ii) write model structure files. Both are done in Python. For task one, users must either write new decision making code for each class or link to an existing code base to provide functionality to each of these extension classes. The model structure file links these extension classes in a standardised way to the network topology. The framework will be open-source and written in Python and is to be available directly for download through standard installer packages. Many water management model developers are unfamiliar

  16. Tapping another water source: lianas' and trees' below ground competition for water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deurwaerder, Hannes; Hervé-Fernández, Pedro; Stahl, Clément; Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoit; Boeckx, Pascal; Verbeeck, Hans

    2016-04-01

    growing in sandy soil. In addition, our results support "the two-water-world hypothesis", and show that lianas and trees on clay soils have very different Pp-offsets. This difference was not found for lianas and trees in sandy soils, suggesting that lianas and trees are using water with a different isotopic signature, therefore, distinct water sources in clay soils, but not in sandy soils. In conclusion, our study shows that xylem water from lianas has a heavier isotopic signature than those observed in trees xylem water. Therefore indicating that belowground competition for water between lianas and trees might be less strong than previously expected.

  17. 40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements... water treatment requirements. Systems shall complete the applicable source water monitoring and....86, and 141.88) by the following deadlines. (a) Deadlines for completing source water treatment...

  18. Water: from the source to the treatment plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquet, V.; Baude, I.

    2012-04-01

    As a biology and geology teacher, I have worked on water, from the source to the treatment plant, with pupils between 14 and 15 years old. Lesson 1. Introduction, the water in Vienna Aim: The pupils have to consider why the water is so important in Vienna (history, economy etc.) Activities: Brainstorming about where and why we use water every day and why the water is different in Vienna. Lesson 2. Soil, rock and water Aim: Permeability/ impermeability of the different layers of earth Activities: The pupils have measure the permeability and porosity of different stones: granite, clay, sand, carbonate and basalt. Lesson 3. Relationship between water's ion composition and the stone's mineralogy Aim: Each water source has the same ion composition as the soil where the water comes from. Activities: Comparison between the stone's mineralogy and ions in water. They had a diagram with the ions of granite, clay, sand, carbonate and basalt and the label of different water. They had to make hypotheses about the type of soil where the water came from. They verified this with a geology map of France and Austria. They have to make a profile of the area where the water comes from. They had to confirm or reject their hypothesis. Lesson 4 .Water-catchment and reservoir rocks Aim: Construction of a confined aquifer and artesian well Activities: With sand, clay and a basin, they have to model a confined aquifer and make an artesian well, using what they have learned in lesson 2. Lesson 5. Organic material breakdown and it's affect on the oxygen levels in an aquatic ecosystem Aim: Evaluate the relationship between oxygen levels and the amount of organic matter in an aquatic ecosystem. Explain the relationship between oxygen levels, bacteria and the breakdown of organic matter using an indicator solution. Activities: Put 5 ml of a different water sample in each tube with 20 drops of methylene blue. Observe the tubes after 1 month. Lesson 6. Visit to the biggest water treatment plant in

  19. Additive for coal water slurry made from weak slurryability coal

    SciTech Connect

    Zi-xiu Zang; Lin Zhang; Xino-an Fu; Long Jiang

    1993-12-31

    Surface treatment of weak slurryability coal and preparation of highly concentrated coal water slurry (CWS) have been investigated using wettability and rheology measurements. By adding 0.5{approximately}10 wt.% (based on coal) pitch during dry milling coal surface became more hydrophobic and the coal could be easily prepared for CWS which had much lower viscosity compared with CWS of the untreated coal. The reasons of this result is high degree of hydrophobic surface of coal particles made surfactant adsorption easier compared with high degree of hydrophilic surface of coal particles. Another important reason in hydrophobic surface impeded the penetration of water into the inner pores of coal particles which resulted in decreasing swelling ability of coal and enhancing the fluidity of CWS. Four different additives have been investigated including three nonionic ethoxylated surfactants and one mixture of anionic surfactants (sodium humate derivative and naphthalenesulfonic acid-HCHO condensate). Both rheological and thixotropic properties showed that nonionic surfactant G2 was the most efficient additive for preparation of highly concentrated CWS. The results of dynamic experiment illustrated that the slurry had good dynamic stability, in other words, the viscosity of the slurry decreased very slowly at constant stir. The pitch treated coal powders were beneficiated coal had much lower viscosity compared with CWS of the unbeneficiated coal.

  20. Water sources and water-use efficiency in mediterranean coastal dune vegetation.

    PubMed

    Alessio, G A; De Lillis, M; Brugnoli, E; Lauteri, M

    2004-05-01

    In coastal environments plants have to cope with various water sources: rainwater, water table, seawater, and mixtures. These are usually characterized by different isotopic signatures ( (18)O/ (16)O and D/H ratios). Xylem water reflects the isotopic compositions of the water sources. Additionally, water-use efficiency (WUE) can be assessed with carbon isotope discrimination (Delta) analyses. Gas exchange, Delta of leaf dry matter, and isotopic composition (delta (18)O) of xylem water were measured from June to August 2001 in herbaceous perennials of mobile dunes (Ammophila littoralis, Elymus farctus) and sclerophyllous shrubs and climbers (Arbutus unedo, Pistacia lentiscus, Phillyrea angustifolia, Qercus ilex, Juniperus oxycedrus, Smilax aspera) of consolidated dunes. Assimilation rates were rather low and did not show clear seasonal patterns, possibly due to limited precipitation and generally low values of stomatal conductance. The lowest values were shown in S. aspera. Different physiological patterns were found, on the basis of delta (18)O and Delta analyses. Values of delta (18)O of xylem water of phanerophytes were remarkably constant and matched those of the water table, indicating dependence on a reliable water source; values of Delta were relatively high, indicating low intrinsic WUE, with the exception of J. oxycedrus. Surprisingly, very high delta (18)O values were found for the xylem water from S. aspera in August. This suggests retrodiffusion of leaf water to xylem sap in the stem or direct uptake of water by leaves or stems, owing to dew or fog occurrence. Low Delta values indicated high WUE in S. aspera. Contrasting strategies were shown by the species of mobile dunes: E. farctus relied on superficial water and exhibited low WUE, accordingly to its therophyte-like vegetative cycle; on the contrary, A. littoralis used deeper water sources, showing higher WUE in relation to its long-lasting vegetative habit.

  1. Reclaimed water as an alternative source of water for the city of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taigbenu, Akpofure E.; Ncube, Mthokozisi

    Perennial water problems, precipitated by increased water demand in Bulawayo, the second largest city in Zimbabwe, has prompted the consideration of a wide array of strategies from demand management and water conservation measures to exploitation of alternative water sources. One of such strategies in the latter category includes recycling of blue water for both potable and non-potable purposes. This paper examines the existing reclaimed water system with a view at revamping the existing infrastructure to maximise reclaimed water use for purposes that are amenable to water of lower quality. It is a generally accepted practice to avoid the use of water of high quality for purposes that can tolerate a lower grade, unless it is in excess in amount [ Okun, D.A., 1973. Planning for water reuse. Journal of AWWA 65(10)]. The reclaimed water is assessed in terms of its quality and quantity vis-à-vis possible uses. Perceptions and expectations of both current and identified prospective consumers are examined and discussed, in addition to the feasibility of accommodating these identified prospective consumers in an expanded network. Apart from enhancement of the existing infrastructure, the paper highlights the need for social marketing and education in order to realise the optimum benefits of this alternative water source. The cost implications of implementing the proposed project are evaluated, including suggestions on suitable tariff structure and an allocation distribution that achieves equity.

  2. [Case study of red water phenomenon in drinking water distribution systems caused by water source switch].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xiao-jian; Chen, Chao; Pan, An-jun; Xu, Yang; Liao, Ping-an; Zhang, Su-xia; Gu, Jun-nong

    2009-12-01

    Red water phenomenon occurred in some communities of a city in China after water source switch in recent days. The origin of this red water problem and mechanism of iron release were investigated in the study. Water quality of local and new water sources was tested and tap water quality in suffered area had been monitored for 3 months since red water occurred. Interior corrosion scales on the pipe which was obtained from the suffered area were analyzed by XRD, SEM, and EDS. Corrosion rates of cast iron under the conditions of two source water were obtained by Annular Reactor. The influence of different source water on iron release was studied by pipe section reactor to simulate the distribution systems. The results indicated that large increase of sulfate concentration by water source shift was regarded as the cause of red water problem. The Larson ratio increased from about 0.4 to 1.7-1.9 and the red water problem happened in the taps of some urban communities just several days after the new water source was applied. The mechanism of iron release was concluded that the stable shell of scales in the pipes had been corrupted by this kind of high-sulfate-concentration source water and it was hard to recover soon spontaneously. The effect of sulfate on iron release of the old cast iron was more significant than its effect on enhancing iron corrosion. The rate of iron release increased with increasing Larson ratio, and the correlation of them was nonlinear on the old cast-iron. The problem remained quite a long time even if the water source re-shifted into the blended one with only small ratio of the new source and the Larson ratio reduced to about 0.6.

  3. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  4. Global net irrigation water requirements from various water supply sources during past and future periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Cho, J.; Hanasaki, N.; Kanae, S.

    2014-12-01

    Water supply sources for irrigation (e.g. rivers and reservoirs) are critically important for agricultural productivity. The current rapid increase in irrigation water use is considered unsustainable and threatens food production. In this study, we estimated the time-varying dependence of irrigation water requirements from water supply sources, with a particular focus on variations in irrigation area during past (1960-2001) and future (2002-2050) periods using the global water resources model, H08. The H08 model can simulate water requirements on a daily basis at a resolution of 1.0° × 1.0° latitude and longitude. The sources of irrigation water requirements in the past simulations were specified using four categories: rivers (RIV), large reservoirs (LR), medium-size reservoirs (MSR), and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW). The simulated results from 1960 to 2001 showed that RIV, MSR and NNBW increased significantly from the 1960s to the early 1990s globally, but LR increased at a relatively low rate. After the early 1990s, the increase in RIV declined as it approached a critical limit, due to the continued expansion of irrigation area. MSR and NNBW increased significantly, during the same time period, following the expansion of the irrigation area and the increased storage capacity of the medium-size reservoirs. We also estimated future irrigation water requirements from the above four water supply sources and an additional water supply source (ADD) in three future simulation designs; irrigation area change, climate change, and changes in both irrigation area and climate. ADD was defined as a future increase in NNBW. After the 2020s, MSR was predicted to approach the critical limit, and ADD would account for 11-23% of the total requirements in the 2040s.

  5. Comparing drinking water treatment costs to source water protection costs using time series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heberling, Matthew T.; Nietch, Christopher T.; Thurston, Hale W.; Elovitz, Michael; Birkenhauer, Kelly H.; Panguluri, Srinivas; Ramakrishnan, Balaji; Heiser, Eric; Neyer, Tim

    2015-11-01

    We present a framework to compare water treatment costs to source water protection costs, an important knowledge gap for drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). This trade-off helps to determine what incentives a DWTP has to invest in natural infrastructure or pollution reduction in the watershed rather than pay for treatment on site. To illustrate, we use daily observations from 2007 to 2011 for the Bob McEwen Water Treatment Plant, Clermont County, Ohio, to understand the relationship between treatment costs and water quality and operational variables (e.g., turbidity, total organic carbon [TOC], pool elevation, and production volume). Part of our contribution to understanding drinking water treatment costs is examining both long-run and short-run relationships using error correction models (ECMs). Treatment costs per 1000 gallons (per 3.79 m3) were based on chemical, pumping, and granular activated carbon costs. Results from the ECM suggest that a 1% decrease in turbidity decreases treatment costs by 0.02% immediately and an additional 0.1% over future days. Using mean values for the plant, a 1% decrease in turbidity leads to $1123/year decrease in treatment costs. To compare these costs with source water protection costs, we use a polynomial distributed lag model to link total phosphorus loads, a source water quality parameter affected by land use changes, to turbidity at the plant. We find the costs for source water protection to reduce loads much greater than the reduction in treatment costs during these years. Although we find no incentive to protect source water in our case study, this framework can help DWTPs quantify the trade-offs.

  6. Occurrence of selected volatile organic compounds and soluble pesticides in Texas public water-supply source waters, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara June; Canova, Michael G.; Gary, Marcus O.

    2002-01-01

    During 1999–2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, collected samples of untreated water from 48 public water-supply reservoirs and 174 public water-supply wells. The samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and soluble pesticides; in addition, well samples were analyzed for nitrite plus nitrate and tritium. This fact sheet summarizes the findings of the source-water sampling and analyses. Both VOCs and pesticides were detected much more frequently in surface water than in ground water. The only constituent detected at concentrations exceeding the maximum contaminant level for drinking water was nitrate. These results will be used in the Texas SourceWater Assessment Program to evaluate the susceptibility of public water-supply source waters to contamination.

  7. Measurement of water by oven evaporation using a novel oven design. 2. Water in motor oils and motor oil additives.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Sam A; Vaishnav, Kevin; Sieber, John R

    2004-11-01

    The measurement of water in lubricating oils is important because water accelerates the corrosion of metal parts and bearings in motors. Some of the additives added to lubricating oils to improve their performance react with the Karl Fischer reagent (KFR) causing a positive bias in the water measurement. A new oven evaporation technique for measuring water in oils has been developed that is automated, requires less sample handling, is easily calibrated, and is capable of measuring relatively small mass fractions of water (> or =50 mg/kg sample). A series of motor oils was analyzed with the standard KFR, a reagent that detects interfering substances that reduce iodine, and the aldehyde-ketone reagent that does not detect substances that react with methanol and form water. The oil samples were heated to 107 degrees C and then reheated to 160 degrees C. At both temperatures, material was measured by both KFRs, but only zinc dithiophosphate released sulfur compounds that would react with the reagent that detects interfering substances. Mass fractions of between 20 and 70% of the volatile material released at either temperature were measured with the standard KFR but not with the aldehyde-ketone reagent. These results demonstrate that there are a number of sources of positive bias in the measurement of water in motor oils and that the standard KFR cannot be used to measure water in motor oils and motor oil additives. These results also indicate that some of the material reacts with methanol to form water. Finally, these results suggest that some of the material that is volatile at 160 degrees C and not at 107 degrees C may be water that is physically occluded or may be substances that react with diethyleneglycol monomethylether to produce water.

  8. Benefits of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water as a drinking water additive for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bügener, E; Kump, A Wilms-Schulze; Casteel, M; Klein, G

    2014-09-01

    In the wake of discussion about the use of drugs in food-producing farms, it seems to be more and more important to search for alternatives and supportive measures to improve health. In this field trial, the influence of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water on water quality, drug consumption, mortality, and performance parameters such as BW and feed conversion rate was investigated on 2 broiler farms. At each farm, 3 rearing periods were included in the study. With EO water as the water additive, the total viable cell count and the number of Escherichia coli in drinking water samples were reduced compared with the respective control group. The frequency of treatment days was represented by the number of used daily doses per population and showed lower values in EO-water-treated groups at both farms. Furthermore, the addition of EO water resulted in a lower mortality rate. In terms of analyzed performance parameters, no significant differences were determined. In this study, the use of EO water improved drinking water quality and seemed to reduce the drug use without showing negative effects on performance parameters and mortality rates.

  9. Laboratory investigation of drinking water sources of Kangra, Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Thakur, S D; Panda, A K

    2012-06-01

    A total of 70 drinking water sources including piped water supply (n = 36), ground water sources (n = 24, hand pumps and bore wells) and natural water sources (n = 10, springs/step-wells) from various parts of district Kangra, Himachal Pradesh were investigated for their suitability for drinking purpose by presumptive coliform test. Three samples were collected from each source during different parts of the year. Piped water sources (91.7%) were most contaminated followed by natural water sources (90%) and ground water sources (62.5%). 70.5% of the total water samples (n = 210) were positive for coliforms. All the three samples from 8.3% (n = 3), 37.5% (n = 9) and 10% (n = 1) piped water, ground water and natural sources respectively, were negative for coliform organisms. A variety of organisms including Proteus, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pasteurella, Enterobacter and Serratia liquefaciens were isolated from water samples positive for coliforms in presumptive coliform test. Thermo-tolerant coliform organisms; Escherichia coli, Citrobacter, Klebsiella and Enterobacter were 71.2% (n = 52) of the total bacterial isolations. These findings suggest absence of adequate treatment and disinfection of the water sources supplying drinking water in district Kangra.

  10. Acidification of East Siberian Arctic Shelf waters through addition of freshwater and terrestrial carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiletov, Igor; Pipko, Irina; Gustafsson, Örjan; Anderson, Leif G.; Sergienko, Valentin; Pugach, Svetlana; Dudarev, Oleg; Charkin, Alexander; Gukov, Alexander; Bröder, Lisa; Andersson, August; Spivak, Eduard; Shakhova, Natalia

    2016-05-01

    Ocean acidification affects marine ecosystems and carbon cycling, and is considered a direct effect of anthropogenic carbon dioxide uptake from the atmosphere. Accumulation of atmospheric CO2 in ocean surface waters is predicted to make the ocean twice as acidic by the end of this century. The Arctic Ocean is particularly sensitive to ocean acidification because more CO2 can dissolve in cold water. Here we present observations of the chemical and physical characteristics of East Siberian Arctic Shelf waters from 1999, 2000-2005, 2008 and 2011, and find extreme aragonite undersaturation that reflects acidity levels in excess of those projected in this region for 2100. Dissolved inorganic carbon isotopic data and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations of water sources using salinity and δ18O data suggest that the persistent acidification is driven by the degradation of terrestrial organic matter and discharge of Arctic river water with elevated CO2 concentrations, rather than by uptake of atmospheric CO2. We suggest that East Siberian Arctic Shelf waters may become more acidic if thawing permafrost leads to enhanced terrestrial organic carbon inputs and if freshwater additions continue to increase, which may affect their efficiency as a source of CO2.

  11. Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui; Zhao, Xingru; Wang, Lijing; Liu, Changming

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009. The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated. The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater. The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 to 2008, while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources. The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions. In river drinking water sources, the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally. The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region, while the lowest value was found in Southwest region. In lake/reservoir drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions. In underground drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions. In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels, there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources.

  12. Water quality . . . potential sources of pollution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank

    1996-01-01

    What is water quality? To most students, water quality may suggest only "clean" water for drinking, swimming, and fishing. But to the farmer or manufacturer, water quality may have an entirely different meaning. One of the most important issues concerning the quality of water is how that water will be used. Water that is perfectly fine for irrigation might not be suitable for drinking or swimming.

  13. An Assessment of Global Net Irrigation Water Requirements from Various Water Supply Sources to Sustain Irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Cho, Jail; Yamada, Hannah; Khajuria, Anupam; Hanasaki, Naota; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2014-05-01

    Water supply sources for irrigation, such as rivers, reservoirs, and groundwater, are critically important for agricultural productivity. The current rapid increase in irrigation water use threatens sustainable food production. In this study, we estimated the time-varying dependence of irrigation water requirements from water supply sources, with a particular focus on variations in irrigation area during the period 1960-2050 using the global water resources model, H08. The H08 model simulates water requirements on a daily basis at a resolution of 1.0° × 1.0° . The sources of irrigation water requirements in the past simulations were specified using four categories: rivers (RIV), large reservoirs (LR) with a storage capacity greater than 1.0 km3, medium-size reservoirs (MSR) with storage capacities ranging from 1.0 km3 to 3.0 M m3, and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW). We also estimated future irrigation water requirements from the above four water supply sources and an additional water supply source (ADD) in three future simulation designs; irrigation area change, climate change, and changes in both irrigation area and climate. ADD was defined as the difference between NNBW in the 1990s and NNBW in the 2040s, because it was difficult to distinguish the types of future water supply sources except for RIV. The simulated results showed that RIV, MSR, and NNBW increased significantly through the 1960s to the early 1990s globally, but LR increased at a relatively low rate. After the early 1990s, RIV approached a critical limit due to the continued expansion of the irrigation area. Furthermore, MSR and NNBW increased significantly following the expansion of the irrigation area and the increased storage capacity of the medium-size reservoirs. After the 2020s, MSR could be expected to approach the critical limit without the construction of medium-size reservoirs. ADD would account for 11-23% of the total requirements in the 2040s. We found that an expansion of

  14. Evaluation of the Aggressiveness of Slovak Mineral Water Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrablíková, Dana; Porubská, Diana; Fendeková, Miriam; Božíková, Jarmila; Kókaiová, Denisa

    2014-07-01

    The aggressive properties of natural waters arise due to their specific physical properties and chemical composition. The latest analyses of certified natural and healing mineral water sources according to Act No. 538/2005 were used for the evaluation. A total of 53 sources in 26 localities were evaluated; they comprised 25 sources of bottled natural mineral and healing waters and 28 sources of natural healing waters in 9 spas. The aggressiveness of the water against concrete was weak (17 sources), medium (17 sources), or none (19 sources). The aggressiveness was mostly caused by low pH values and/or increased SO42- content. Their corrosiveness to metal was mostly very high. The results showed that the disintegration of concrete building constructions, well casings and pipelines could occur in most of the evaluated localities in the case of mineral water contacting them. Therefore, preventive measures are necessary.

  15. Source apportionment of atmospheric water over East Asia - a source tracer study in CAM5.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Chen; Zhu, Bin; Gao, Jinhui; Kang, Hanqing

    2017-02-01

    The atmospheric water tracer (AWT) method is implemented in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5.1) to quantitatively identify the contributions of various source regions to precipitation and water vapour over East Asia. Compared to other source apportionment methods, the AWT method was developed based on detailed physical parameterisations, and can therefore trace the behaviour of atmospheric water substances directly and exactly. According to the simulation, the northern Indian Ocean (NIO) is the dominant oceanic moisture source region for precipitation over the Yangtze River valley (YRV) and southern China (SCN) in summer, while the north-western Pacific (NWP) dominates during other seasons. Evaporation over the South China Sea (SCS) is responsible for only 2.7-3.7 % of summer precipitation over the YRV and SCN. In addition, the Indo-China Peninsula is an important terrestrial moisture source region (annual contribution of ˜ 10 %). The overall relative contribution of each source region to the water vapour amount is similar to the corresponding contribution to precipitation over the YRV and SCN. A case study for the SCS shows that only a small part ( ≤ 5.5 %) of water vapour originates from local evaporation, whereas much more water vapour is supplied by the NWP and NIO. In addition, because evaporation from the SCS represents only a small contribution to the water vapour over the YRV and SCN in summer, the SCS mainly acts as a water vapour transport pathway where moisture from the NIO and NWP meet.

  16. Oxidation of Ammonia in Source Water Using Biological Filtration (slides)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water utilities are challenged with a variety of contamination issues from both the source water and the distribution system. Source water issues include biological contaminants such as bacteria and viruses as well as inorganic contaminants such as arsenic, barium, and ...

  17. 40 CFR 141.701 - Source water monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source water monitoring. 141.701 Section 141.701 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Source...

  18. 40 CFR 141.701 - Source water monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source water monitoring. 141.701 Section 141.701 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Source...

  19. 40 CFR 141.701 - Source water monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Source water monitoring. 141.701 Section 141.701 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Source...

  20. 40 CFR 141.701 - Source water monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source water monitoring. 141.701 Section 141.701 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Source...

  1. Revised accident source terms for light-water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Soffer, L.

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents revised accident source terms for light-water reactors incorporating the severe accident research insights gained in this area over the last 15 years. Current LWR reactor accident source terms used for licensing date from 1962 and are contained in Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4. These specify that 100% of the core inventory of noble gases and 25% of the iodine fission products are assumed to be instantaneously available for release from the containment. The chemical form of the iodine fission products is also assumed to be predominantly elemental iodine. These assumptions have strongly affected present nuclear air cleaning requirements by emphasizing rapid actuation of spray systems and filtration systems optimized to retain elemental iodine. A proposed revision of reactor accident source terms and some im implications for nuclear air cleaning requirements was presented at the 22nd DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference. A draft report was issued by the NRC for comment in July 1992. Extensive comments were received, with the most significant comments involving (a) release fractions for both volatile and non-volatile species in the early in-vessel release phase, (b) gap release fractions of the noble gases, iodine and cesium, and (c) the timing and duration for the release phases. The final source term report is expected to be issued in late 1994. Although the revised source terms are intended primarily for future plants, current nuclear power plants may request use of revised accident source term insights as well in licensing. This paper emphasizes additional information obtained since the 22nd Conference, including studies on fission product removal mechanisms, results obtained from improved severe accident code calculations and resolution of major comments, and their impact upon the revised accident source terms. Revised accident source terms for both BWRS and PWRS are presented.

  2. EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF UPSTREAM DISCHARGERS ON DOWNSTREAM WATER SUPPLIES: A SOURCE WATER PROTECTION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Source water protection is a component of the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. Drinking water utilities have adopted widely different philosophies for source water protection. the City of New York, with large upland water reservoirs, is investing millions of doll...

  3. Maintaining Water Supplies to a Remote Island Population When Source Water Becomes Contaminated

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    water source – Rain Water • Rain water collected via water catchments (23 acres) (reference 3) •Daily Water Demand on Roi-Namur is...Lenswell Reliance • What are lenswells? - Fresh water less dense than salt water - Replenished by rain water (recharge) - Lenswells are shallow and...removal • 20/80 lenswell to rain water mixture recommended - PCE value of 3 ug/L (EPA MCL = 5 ug/L) - Extended water usage by

  4. Florida Sunshine -- Natural Source for Heating Water

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-05-01

    This brochure, part of the State Energy Program (SEP) Stellar Project series, describes a utility solar hot water program in Lakeland, Florida. It is the first such utility-run solar hot water program in the country.

  5. Sources of chlorate ion in US drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Bolyard, M. ); Fair, P.S. ); Hautman, D.P. )

    1993-09-01

    Samples of untreated source water and finished drinking water were obtained from 42 water utilities which treated their water with oxidants-disinfectants that included chlorine dioxide (ClO[sub 2]), gaseous chlorine, hypochlorite solutions, and chloramines. Chlorite ion was only detected in water from utilities that used ClO[sub 2]. Finished water from utilities that used ClO[sub 2] or hypochlorite solutions contained comparable concentrations of chlorate ion (ClO[sub 3][sup [minus

  6. Irrigation water sources and irrigation application methods used by U.S. plant nursery producers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Pandit, Mahesh; Hinson, Roger

    2016-02-01

    We examine irrigation water sources and irrigation methods used by U.S. nursery plant producers using nested multinomial fractional regression models. We use data collected from the National Nursery Survey (2009) to identify effects of different firm and sales characteristics on the fraction of water sources and irrigation methods used. We find that regions, sales of plants types, farm income, and farm age have significant roles in what water source is used. Given the fraction of alternative water sources used, results indicated that use of computer, annual sales, region, and the number of IPM practices adopted play an important role in the choice of irrigation method. Based on the findings from this study, government can provide subsidies to nursery producers in water deficit regions to adopt drip irrigation method or use recycled water or combination of both. Additionally, encouraging farmers to adopt IPM may enhance the use of drip irrigation and recycled water in nursery plant production.

  7. Sources of emergency water supplies in San Mateo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, P.R.

    1975-01-01

    San Mateo County has several densely populated urban areas that get most of their water supplies from surface-water sources that could by damaged by a major earthquake or other general disaster. In the event of such a disaster, limited supplies of potable water may be obtained from selected wells, springs, and perennial streams. This report outlines the principal sources of existing water supplies, gives information on the need for emergency water-supply procedures, presents general criteria needed for selecting emergency water-supply wells, summarizes information for 60 selected water wells, numerous springs, and perennial streams that can be used as sources of water, and describes emergency water-purification procedures that can be used by individuals or small groups of people.

  8. Watering holes: The use of arboreal sources of drinking water by Old World monkeys and apes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Narayan; Huffman, Michael A; Gupta, Shreejata; Nautiyal, Himani; Mendonça, Renata; Morino, Luca; Sinha, Anindya

    2016-08-01

    Water is one of the most important components of an animal's diet, as it is essential for life. Primates, as do most animals, procure water directly from standing or free-flowing sources such as pools, ponds and rivers, or indirectly by the ingestion of certain plant parts. The latter is frequently described as the main source of water for predominantly arboreal species. However, in addition to these, many species are known to drink water accumulated in tree-holes. This has been commonly observed in several arboreal New World primate species, but rarely reported systematically from Old World primates. Here, we report observations of this behaviour from eight great ape and Old World monkey species, namely chimpanzee, orangutan, siamang, western hoolock gibbon, northern pig-tailed macaque, bonnet macaque, rhesus macaque and the central Himalayan langur. We hypothesise three possible reasons why these primates drink water from tree-holes: (1) coping with seasonal or habitat-specific water shortages, (2) predator/human conflict avoidance, and (3) potential medicinal benefits. We also suggest some alternative hypotheses that should be tested in future studies. This behaviour is likely to be more prevalent than currently thought, and may have significant, previously unknown, influences on primate survival and health, warranting further detailed studies.

  9. 40 CFR 141.701 - Source water monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... at least 10,000 people must sample their source water for Cryptosporidium, E. coli, and turbidity at... than 10,000 people must sample their source water for E. coli at least once every two weeks for 12 months. (ii) A filtered system serving fewer than 10,000 people may avoid E. coli monitoring if...

  10. High prevalence of enteric viruses in untreated individual drinking water sources and surface water in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Steyer, Andrej; Torkar, Karmen Godič; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja

    2011-09-01

    Waterborne infections have been shown to be important in outbreaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. Although improved sanitary conditions are being progressively applied, fecal contaminations remain an emerging problem also in developed countries. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of fecal contaminated water sources in Slovenia, including surface waters and groundwater sources throughout the country. In total, 152 water samples were investigated, of which 72 samples represents groundwater from individual wells, 17 samples from public collection supplies and 63 samples from surface stream waters. Two liters of untreated water samples were collected and concentrated by the adsorption/elution technique with positively charged filters followed by an additional ultracentrifugation step. Group A rotaviruses, noroviruses (genogroups I and II) and astroviruses were detected with real-time RT-PCR method in 69 (45.4%) out of 152 samples collected, of which 31/89 (34.8%) drinking water and 38/63 (60.3%) surface water samples were positive for at least one virus tested. In 30.3% of drinking water samples group A rotaviruses were detected (27/89), followed by noroviruses GI (2.2%; 2/89) and astroviruses (2.2%; 2/89). In drinking groundwater samples group A rotaviruses were detected in 27 out of 72 tested samples (37.5%), genogroup I noroviruses in two (2.8%), and human astroviruses in one (1.4%) samples. In surface water samples norovirus genogroup GII was the most frequently detected (41.3%; 26/63), followed by norovirus GI (33.3%; 21/63), human astrovirus (27.0%; 17/63) and group A rotavirus (17.5%; 11/63). Our study demonstrates relatively high percentage of groundwater contamination in Slovenia and, suggests that raw groundwater used as individual drinking water supply may constitute a possible source of enteric virus infections. In the future, testing for enteric viruses should be applied for drinking water sources in waterborne outbreaks.

  11. Internal Sources for Water on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

    2015-08-01

    Rocky planets are built through a series of highly energetic accretionary impacts. The accreting bodies are thought to carry small amounts of water to the growing planet, but it is debated whether the planet can retain this water through the accretionary process, or if water needs to be added largely after the planet is complete and cooled.Most of the relatively few measurements of deuterium to hydrogen in cometary water do not match Earth’s water, though the single example of 103P/Hartley 2 is a good match (Mumma and Charnley, 2011; Hartogh et al., 2011). Alexander et al. (2012) point out, however, that organic materials in comets have far higher D/H than does their water, so in bulk no comet matches Earth’s D/H ratio, not even comet Hartley.Meteorites provide evidence that the material that built planets had small but sufficient amounts of water, and analysis of its isotopic composition demonstrates that water from rocky material, and not comets, provided water to the Earth (Alexander et al., 2012). This current evidence that Earth’s water came from rocky asteroidal material does not solve the question of whether this material was the accreting material that built the planet, or if it was added later.Mission data from the Moon and Mercury demonstrates that those bodies are not completely devoid of volatiles (McCubbin et al., 2010; Saal et al, 2008; Peplowski et al, 2011). The Moon, in particularly, has small amounts of internal water that survived its energetic origins (Hauri et al., 2011). Thus, the giant accretionary impacts that build planets do not completely dry them, and the water from their initial building blocks can be retained.If volatiles are delivered and partly retained during accretion, then the initial habitability of a young planet may be set by degassing of a magma ocean. Models predict that cooling can result in liquid water oceans within ten or tens of millions of years (Abe and Matsui, 1986; Elkins-Tanton, 2011). Thus, rocky planets in

  12. Internal sources of water on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

    Rocky planets are built through a series of highly energetic accretionary impacts. The accreting bodies are thought to carry small amounts of water to the growing planet, but it is debated whether the planet can retain this water through the accretionary process, or if water needs to be added largely after the planet is complete and cooled. Most of the relatively few measurements of deuterium to hydrogen in cometary water do not match Earths water, though the single example of 103P/Hartley 2 is a good match (Mumma & Charnley 2011, Hartogh et al. 2011). Alexander et al. (2012) point out, however, that organic materials in comets have far higher D/H than does their water, so in bulk no comet matches Earths D/H ratio, not even comet Hartley. Meteorites provide evidence that the material that built planets had small but sufficient amounts of water, and analysis of its isotopic composition demonstrates that water from rocky material, and not comets, provided water to the Earth (Alexander et al. 2012). This current evidence that Earths water came from rocky asteroidal material does not solve the question of whether this material was the accreting material that built the planet, or if it was added later. Mission data from the Moon and Mercury demonstrates that those bodies are not completely devoid of volatiles (McCubbin et al. 2010, Saal et al. 2008, Peplowski et al. 2011). The Moon, in particularly, has small amounts of internal water that survived its energetic origins (Hauri et al. 2011). Thus, the giant accretionary impacts that build planets do not completely dry them, and the water from their initial building blocks can be retained. If volatiles are delivered and partly retained during accretion, then the initial habitability of a young planet may be set by degassing of a magma ocean. Models predict that cooling can result in liquid water oceans within ten or tens of millions of years (Abe and Matsui 1986, Elkins-Tanton 2011). Thus, rocky planets in solar systems

  13. Marine mammal audibility of selected shallow-water survey sources.

    PubMed

    MacGillivray, Alexander O; Racca, Roberto; Li, Zizheng

    2014-01-01

    Most attention about the acoustic effects of marine survey sound sources on marine mammals has focused on airgun arrays, with other common sources receiving less scrutiny. Sound levels above hearing threshold (sensation levels) were modeled for six marine mammal species and seven different survey sources in shallow water. The model indicated that odontocetes were most likely to hear sounds from mid-frequency sources (fishery, communication, and hydrographic systems), mysticetes from low-frequency sources (sub-bottom profiler and airguns), and pinnipeds from both mid- and low-frequency sources. High-frequency sources (side-scan and multibeam) generated the lowest estimated sensation levels for all marine mammal species groups.

  14. Characterization and identification of Na-Cl sources in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panno, S.V.; Hackley, Keith C.; Hwang, H.-H.; Greenberg, S.E.; Krapac, I.G.; Landsberger, S.; O'Kelly, D. J.

    2006-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl -) in surface and ground water are common in the United States and other countries, and can serve as indicators of, or may constitute, a water quality problem. We have characterized the most prevalent natural and anthropogenic sources of Na+ and Cl- in ground water, primarily in Illinois, and explored techniques that could be used to identify their source. We considered seven potential sources that included agricultural chemicals, septic effluent, animal waste, municipal landfill leachate, sea water, basin brines, and road deicers. The halides Cl-, bromide (Br-), and iodide (I-) were useful indicators of the sources of Na+-Cl- contamination. Iodide enrichment (relative to Cl-) was greatest in precipitation, followed by uncontaminated soil water and ground water, and landfill leachate. The mass ratios of the halides among themselves, with total nitrogen (N), and with Na+ provided diagnostic methods for graphically distinguishing among sources of Na+ and Cl- in contaminated water. Cl/Br ratios relative to Cl- revealed a clear, although overlapping, separation of sample groups. Samples of landfill leachate and ground water known to be contaminated by leachate were enriched in I- and Br-; this provided an excellent fingerprint for identifying leachate contamination. In addition, total N, when plotted against Cl/Br ratios, successfully separated water contaminated by road salt from water contaminated by other sources. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  15. Holy springs and holy water: underestimated sources of illness?

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Alexander K T; Atteneder, Michael; Schmidhuber, Angelika; Knetsch, Sonja; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Sommer, Regina

    2012-09-01

    Use of holy springs and holy water is inherent in religious activities. Holy spring water is also used extensively for personal drinking water, although not assessed according to drinking water standards. Holy water in churches and chapels may cause infections via wetting of lips and sprinkling on persons. Our aim was to assess the microbiological and chemical water quality of holy springs and holy water in churches and hospital chapels. Of the holy springs investigated, only 14% met the microbiological and chemical requirements of national drinking water regulations. Considering results from sanitary inspections of the water catchments, no spring was assessed as a reliable drinking water source. All holy water samples from churches and hospital chapels showed extremely high concentrations of HPC; fecal indicators, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus occurred only in the most frequently visited churches. We conclude that it is highly necessary to include holy springs in programs for assessment and management of water quality. Public awareness has to be raised to perceive holy springs as potential sources of illness. Holy water can be another source of infection, especially in hospital chapels and frequently visited churches. Recommendations are made for proper water quality management of both water types.

  16. Water use sources of desert riparian Populus euphratica forests.

    PubMed

    Si, Jianhua; Feng, Qi; Cao, Shengkui; Yu, Tengfei; Zhao, Chunyan

    2014-09-01

    Desert riparian forests are the main body of natural oases in the lower reaches of inland rivers; its growth and distribution are closely related to water use sources. However, how does the desert riparian forest obtains a stable water source and which water sources it uses to effectively avoid or overcome water stress to survive? This paper describes an analysis of the water sources, using the stable oxygen isotope technique and the linear mixed model of the isotopic values and of desert riparian Populus euphratica forests growing at sites with different groundwater depths and conditions. The results showed that the main water source of Populus euphratica changes from water in a single soil layer or groundwater to deep subsoil water and groundwater as the depth of groundwater increases. This appears to be an adaptive selection to arid and water-deficient conditions and is a primary reason for the long-term survival of P. euphratica in the desert riparian forest of an extremely arid region. Water contributions from the various soil layers and from groundwater differed and the desert riparian P. euphratica forests in different habitats had dissimilar water use strategies.

  17. Nonpoint Source: National Water Quality Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Water Quality Initiative (NWQI) is a collaborative between EPA and Natural Resource Conservation Service ( NRCS) that began in 2012. NWQI provides a means to accelerate voluntary, private lands conservation practices

  18. Hands-On Science. Trace Water to Its Source.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepler, Lynne

    1993-01-01

    A hands-on science project on watersheds helps elementary students understand the water cycle. The unit, which focuses on the fact that all living things need water and that watersheds are sources of water for rivers and streams, teaches students to observe, make inferences, predict, and draw conclusions. (SM)

  19. Research of mine water source identification based on LIF technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Mengran; Yan, Pengcheng

    2016-09-01

    According to the problem that traditional chemical methods to the mine water source identification takes a long time, put forward a method for rapid source identification system of mine water inrush based on the technology of laser induced fluorescence (LIF). Emphatically analyzes the basic principle of LIF technology. The hardware composition of LIF system are analyzed and the related modules were selected. Through the fluorescence experiment with the water samples of coal mine in the LIF system, fluorescence spectra of water samples are got. Traditional water source identification mainly according to the ion concentration representative of the water, but it is hard to analysis the ion concentration of the water from the fluorescence spectra. This paper proposes a simple and practical method of rapid identification of water by fluorescence spectrum, which measure the space distance between unknown water samples and standard samples, and then based on the clustering analysis, the category of the unknown water sample can be get. Water source identification for unknown samples verified the reliability of the LIF system, and solve the problem that the current coal mine can't have a better real-time and online monitoring on water inrush, which is of great significance for coal mine safety in production.

  20. 40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section 141.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.83...

  1. 40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section 141.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.83...

  2. 40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section 141.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.83...

  3. 40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section 141.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.83...

  4. Water required, water used, and potential water sources for rice irrigation, north coast of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roman-Mas, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    A 3-yr investigation was conducted to determine the water required and used (both consumed and applied) for irrigation in the rice-growing areas of Vega Baja, Manati, and Arecibo along the north coast. In addition, the investigation evaluated the water resources of each area with regard to the full development of rice farming areas. Based on experiments conducted at selected test farms, water required ranged from 3.13 to 5.25 acre-ft/acre/crop. The amount of water required varies with the wet and dry seasons. Rainfall was capable of supplying from 31 to 70% of the water required for the measured crop cycles. Statistical analyses demonstrated that as much as 95% of rainfall is potentially usable for rice irrigation. The amount of water consumed differed from the quantity required at selected test farms. The difference between the amount of water consumed and that required was due to unaccounted losses or gains, seepage to and from the irrigation and drainage canals, and lateral leakage through levees. Due to poor water-management practices, the amount of water applied to the farms was considerably larger than the sum of the water requirement and the unaccounted losses or gains. Rivers within the rice growing areas constitute the major water supply for rice irrigation. Full development of these areas will require more water than the rivers can supply. Efficient use of rainfall can significantly reduce the water demand from streamflow. The resulting water demand, however, would still be in excess of the amount available from streamflow. Groundwater development in the area is limited because of seawater intrusion in the aquifers underlying the rice-growing areas. Capture of seepage to the aquifers using wells located near streams, artificial recharge, and development of the deep artesian system can provide additional water for rice irrigation. (Author 's abstract)

  5. Beamforming for directional sources: additional estimator and evaluation of performance under different acoustic scenarios.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Christian; Havelock, David I; Bouchard, Martin

    2011-04-01

    Beamforming is done with an array of sensors to achieve a directional or spatially-specific response by using a model of the arriving wavefront. Conventionally, a plane wave or point source model is used and this can cause decreased array gain or even total breakdown of beamforming when the source is directional. To avoid this, the authors proposed in recent work an alternative beamforming method which defines a set of "sub-beamformers," each designed to respond to a different spatial mode of the source. The outputs of the individual sub-beamformers are combined in a weighted sum to give an overall output of better quality than that of a monopole beamformer. This paper extends the previous work by introducing an additional estimator for the weighted sum and by presenting simulation results to demonstrate the relative performance of the proposed method and the different estimators for a directional source in the presence of diffuse noise, reverberation, and an interfering source. Gain optimization subject to a constraint on the white-noise gain with the proposed beamforming method is also introduced. Generally, when beamforming on directional sources, the proposed method outperforms beamforming with a point source model when the input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 0 dB or higher.

  6. Estimation of pathogen concentrations in a drinking water source using hydrodynamic modelling and microbial source tracking.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Ekaterina; Aström, Johan; Pettersson, Thomas J R; Bergstedt, Olof; Hermansson, Malte

    2012-09-01

    The faecal contamination of drinking water sources can lead to waterborne disease outbreaks. To estimate a potential risk for waterborne infections caused by faecal contamination of drinking water sources, knowledge of the pathogen concentrations in raw water is required. We suggest a novel approach to estimate pathogen concentrations in a drinking water source by using microbial source tracking data and fate and transport modelling. First, the pathogen (norovirus, Cryptosporidium, Escherichia coli O157/H7) concentrations in faecal contamination sources around the drinking water source Lake Rådasjön in Sweden were estimated for endemic and epidemic conditions using measured concentrations of faecal indicators (E. coli and Bacteroidales genetic markers). Afterwards, the fate and transport of pathogens within the lake were simulated using a three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic and microbiological model. This approach provided information on the contribution from different contamination sources to the pathogen concentrations at the water intake of a drinking water treatment plant. This approach addresses the limitations of monitoring and provides data for quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) and risk management in the context of faecal contamination of surface drinking water sources.

  7. Enhancement of nitrate removal at the sediment-water interface by carbon addition plus vertical mixing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuechu; He, Shengbing; Zhang, Yueping; Huang, Xiaobo; Huang, Yingying; Chen, Danyue; Huang, Xiaochen; Tang, Jianwu

    2015-10-01

    Wetlands and ponds are frequently used to remove nitrate from effluents or runoffs. However, the efficiency of this approach is limited. Based on the assumption that introducing vertical mixing to water column plus carbon addition would benefit the diffusion across the sediment-water interface, we conducted simulation experiments to identify a method for enhancing nitrate removal. The results suggested that the sediment-water interface has a great potential for nitrate removal, and the potential can be activated after several days of acclimation. Adding additional carbon plus mixing significantly increases the nitrate removal capacity, and the removal of total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) is well fitted to a first-order reaction model. Adding Hydrilla verticillata debris as a carbon source increased nitrate removal, whereas adding Eichhornia crassipe decreased it. Adding ethanol plus mixing greatly improved the removal performance, with the removal rate of NO3(-)-N and TN reaching 15.0-16.5 g m(-2) d(-1). The feasibility of this enhancement method was further confirmed with a wetland microcosm, and the NO3(-)-N removal rate maintained at 10.0-12.0 g m(-2) d(-1) at a hydraulic loading rate of 0.5 m d(-1).

  8. Warming combined with more extreme precipitation regimes modifies the water sources used by trees

    SciTech Connect

    Grossiord, Charlotte; Sevanto, Sanna; Dawson, Todd E.; Adams, Henry D.; Collins, Adam D.; Dickman, Lee T.; Newman, Brent D.; Stockton, Elizabeth A.; McDowell, Nate G.

    2016-09-09

    The persistence of vegetation under climate change will depend on a plant's capacity to exploit water resources. In addition, we analyzed water source dynamics in piñon pine and juniper trees subjected to precipitation reduction, atmospheric warming, and to both simultaneously.

  9. Use of additional fission sources or scattering sources to model inward axial leakages in fast-reactor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1981-10-01

    When calculations of flux are done in less than three dimensions, bucklings are normally used to model leakages (flows) in the dimensions for which the flux is not calculated. If the net leakage for a given energy group is outward (positive), the buckling is positive, and buckling methods work well. However, if the new leakage for a given energy group is inward (negative), the buckling is negative and can lead to numerical instabilities (oscillations in the iterative flux calculation). This report discusses two equivalent nonbuckling methods to model inward leakages. One method (the chi/sub g/ method) models these incoming neutrons by additional fission sources. The other method (the ..sigma../sub s/(1 ..-->.. g) method) models them by increased downscatter sources. The derivation of the two methods is shown, and the flux spectra obtained by their use are compared with those obtained from two-dimensional (RZ) calculations.

  10. Liquid Water Production from Atmospheric Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    sources. The device weighs approxi- search Institute (SERI); Dr. David Johison, SERI; Dr. mately 7300 pounds and requires a 30 kW external power Desikan ... Bharathan , SERI; Mr. Chuck Kutscher, SERI, and supply. It fits within a HALFCON frame. Its specific Dr. J.L. Armand, University of California, Santa

  11. Thermoluminescence dosimetry measurements of brachytherapy sources in liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Tailor, Ramesh; Tolani, Naresh; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.

    2008-09-15

    Radiation therapy dose measurements are customarily performed in liquid water. The characterization of brachytherapy sources is, however, generally based on measurements made with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), for which contact with water may lead to erroneous readings. Consequently, most dosimetry parameters reported in the literature have been based on measurements in water-equivalent plastics, such as Solid Water. These previous reports employed a correction factor to transfer the dose measurements from a plastic phantom to liquid water. The correction factor most often was based on Monte Carlo calculations. The process of measuring in a water-equivalent plastic phantom whose exact composition may be different from published specifications, then correcting the results to a water medium leads to increased uncertainty in the results. A system has been designed to enable measurements with TLDs in liquid water. This system, which includes jigs to support water-tight capsules of lithium fluoride in configurations suitable for measuring several dosimetric parameters, was used to determine the correction factor from water-equivalent plastic to water. Measurements of several {sup 125}I and {sup 131}Cs prostate brachytherapy sources in liquid water and in a Solid Water phantom demonstrated a correction factor of 1.039{+-}0.005 at 1 cm distance. These measurements are in good agreement with a published value of this correction factor for an {sup 125}I source.

  12. Effect of Periodic Water Addition on Citric Acid Production in Solid State Fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utpat, Shraddha S.; Kinnige, Pallavi T.; Dhamole, Pradip B.

    2013-09-01

    Water addition is one of the methods used to control the moisture loss in solid state fermentation (SSF). However, none of the studies report the timing of water addition and amount of water to be added in SSF. Therefore, this work was undertaken with an objective to evaluate the performance of periodic water addition on citric acid production in SSF. Experiments were conducted at different moistures (50-80 %) and temperatures (30-40 °C) to simulate the conditions in a fermenter. Citric acid production by Aspergillus niger (ATCC 9029) using sugarcane baggase was chosen as a model system. Based on the moisture profile, citric acid and sugar data, a strategy was designed for periodic addition of water. Water addition at 48, 96, 144 and 192 h enhanced the citric acid production by 62 % whereas water addition at 72, 120, and 168 h increased the citric acid production by just 17 %.

  13. 75 FR 41725 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate AGENCY: Food and Drug... regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals to provide for the safe use of... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS 0 1. The authority citation for 21 CFR part 573 continues to read as...

  14. Operating a radio-frequency plasma source on water vapor.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Sonca V T; Foster, John E; Gallimore, Alec D

    2009-08-01

    A magnetically enhanced radio-frequency (rf) plasma source operating on water vapor has an extensive list of potential applications. In this work, the use of a rf plasma source to dissociate water vapor for hydrogen production is investigated. This paper describes a rf plasma source operated on water vapor and characterizes its plasma properties using a Langmuir probe, a residual gas analyzer, and a spectrometer. The plasma source operated first on argon and then on water vapor at operating pressures just over 300 mtorr. Argon and water vapor plasma number densities differ significantly. In the electropositive argon plasma, quasineutrality requires n(i) approximately = n(e), where n(i) is the positive ion density. But in the electronegative water plasma, quasineutrality requires n(i+) = n(i-) + n(e). The positive ion density and electron density of the water vapor plasma are approximately one and two orders of magnitude lower, respectively, than those of argon plasma. These results suggest that attachment and dissociative attachment are present in electronegative water vapor plasma. The electron temperature for this water vapor plasma source is between 1.5 and 4 eV. Without an applied axial magnetic field, hydrogen production increases linearly with rf power. With an axial magnetic field, hydrogen production jumps to a maximum value at 500 W and then saturates with rf power. The presence of the applied axial magnetic field is therefore shown to enhance hydrogen production.

  15. Water: A Source of Life and Culture. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKoski, David

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water as a…

  16. Carbon source utilization profiles suggest additional metabolic interactions in a synergistic linuron-degrading bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Horemans, Benjamin; Smolders, Erik; Springael, Dirk

    2013-04-01

    A bacterial triple-species consortium that synergistically metabolizes the phenylurea herbicide linuron was studied to determine whether synergy is extended toward the metabolism of other C-sources. The metabolic performance and range of the individual consortium members were compared with those of paired and three-species combinations in Biolog GN2 MicroPlate assays. The strain combinations showed an increase in the rate and extent of utilization of 80% of the C-sources that were utilized by either one or more of the individual consortium members and the additional utilization of eight C-sources for which oxidation was not observed for the individual strains. When one of the three strains was replaced by bacterial strains 'foreign' to the consortium, either belonging to the same genus or to other genera, mainly antagonistic effects occurred. The data suggest that the consortium members cooperate in the metabolism of C-sources in addition to linuron. This feature can contribute in consolidating consortium composition when linuron is absent or present at low concentrations.

  17. Sources of water-use data in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trotta, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    Since the 1976-77 drought in Minnesota, legislators, planners, and citizens have become aware of the need for water management based on knowledge of water availability and use in order to alleviate local water shortages. In addition to maintaining an adequate supply, information on the amount of water used, where it is used, and how it is used is needed to help resolve problems of resource allocation, environmental impact, energy development, and water quality. A reliable water-use-data base providing historical information is needed by management and regulatory agencies to monitor and project the hydrologic effects of water demands.

  18. Chloramination of Organophosphorus Pesticides Found in Drinking Water Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The degradation of commonly detected organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, in drinking water sources, was investigated under simulated chloramination conditions. Due to monochloramine autodecomposition, it is difficult to observe the direct reaction of monochloramine with each OP pe...

  19. Investigations on boron levels in drinking water sources in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ren-ji; Xing, Xiao-ru; Zhou, Qun-fang; Jiang, Gui-bin; Wei, Fu-sheng

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate boron contamination of public drinking water in China, both dissolved and total boron contents in 98 public drinking water sources from 49 cities, 42 brands of bottled water samples from supermarkets in several cities, and 58 water samples from boron industrial area were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our experimental results showed that boron existed in public drinking water sources mainly in dissolved status with total concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 0.337 mg/L (mean = 0.046 mg/L). The mean boron concentrations in mineral and pure bottled water were 0.052 and 0.028 mg/L, respectively. The results obtained in this work showed that there was no health risk on view of boron in public drinking water sources and bottled water. In boron industrial area, boron concentrations in surface water and ground water were 1.28 mg/L (range = 0.007-3.8 mg/L) and 18.3 mg/L (range = 0.015-140 mg/L), respectively, which indicated that boron industry caused boron pollution in local water system.

  20. Evaluation of Additives to Eliminate Free Water from Aviation Fuel Light Obscuration Particle Counts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    5000 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Evaluation of Additives to Eliminate Free Water from Aviation Fuel Light...April 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Additives to Eliminate Free Water from Aviation Fuel Light Obscuration Particle Counts 5a. CONTRACT...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This technical report details the evaluation fuel additives used to eliminate the effects of free water

  1. Calculation of ecological compensation for water sources for water diversion projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, H. B.; Zhang, T. M.; Hu, C. Y.; Long, L. Y.

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the compensation of water diversion projects for the values of the terrestrial biological resources, water environment, and aquatic biological resources in water sources. An analysis of capital dynamics was conducted, and the economic development coefficient was used to correct the current method for calculating ecological compensation. A model was constructed to calculatethe ecological compensation for the water sources for water diversion projects. This model was used to calculate the ecological compensation for the Niulanjiang River provided by the Niulanjiang River to the Dianchi Lake water diversion project, which was calculated to be 136,799,400 RMB. As long as we know the occupying area of the project, the change of the river net flow after diversion and the local average GDP, the ecological compensation for water sources could be calculated by the model. The proposed model for calculating the ecological compensation for water sources is simple and incorporates the compensation provided by water diversion projects for the various environmental effects on water sources. It provides a guarantee for the capital to be used for the environmental protection of water sources and facilitates the sustainable development of the ecological environments of water sources.

  2. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Source Water Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sehlke, G.

    2003-03-17

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 square miles and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL's drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey's Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency's Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a this vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL's Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL's 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-1, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will protect

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF FECAL POLLUTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods are currently used to determine the origin of fecal pollution impacting environmental waters. MST is based on the assumption that given the appropriate method and indicator organism, the source of fecal microbial pollution can ...

  4. Controlling Nonpoint-Source Water Pollution: A Citizen's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Nancy Richardson; And Others

    Citizens can play an important role in helping their states develop pollution control programs and spurring effective efforts to deal with nonpoint-source pollution. This guide takes the reader step-by-step through the process that states must follow to comply with water quality legislation relevant to nonpoint-source pollution. Part I provides…

  5. [Metallic content of water sources and drinkable water in industrial cities of Murmansk region].

    PubMed

    Doushkina, E V; Dudarev, A A; Sladkova, Yu N; Zachinskaya, I Yu; Chupakhin, V S; Goushchin, I V; Talykova, L V; Nikanov, A N

    2015-01-01

    Performed in 2013, sampling of centralized and noncentralized water-supply and analysis of engineering technology materials on household water use in 6 cities of Murmansk region (Nikel, Zapolyarny, Olenegorsk, Montchegorsk, Apatity, Kirovsk), subjected to industrial emissions, enabled to evaluate and compare levels of 15 metals in water sources (lakes and springs) and the cities' drinkable waters. Findings are that some cities lack sanitary protection zones for water sources, most cities require preliminary water processing, water desinfection involves only chlorination. Concentrations of most metals in water samples from all the cities at the points of water intake, water preparation and water supply are within the hygienic norms. But values significantly (2-5 times) exceeding MACs (both in water sources and in drinkable waters of the cities) were seen for aluminium in Kirovsk city and for nickel in Zapolarny and Nikel cities. To decrease effects of aluminium, nickel and their compounds in the three cities' residents (and preserve health of the population and offsprings), the authors necessitate specification and adaptation of measures to purify the drinkable waters from the pollutants. In all the cities studied, significantly increased concentrations of iron and other metals were seen during water transportation from the source to the city supply--that necessitates replacement of depreciated water supply systems by modern ones. Water taken from Petchenga region springs demonstrated relatively low levels of metals, except from strontium and barium.

  6. Contaminant Sources in Stream Water of a Missouri Claypan Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, G. R.; Liu, F.; Lerch, R. N.; Lee, H.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen and herbicides in stream water have degraded water quality and caused serious problems affecting human and aquatic ecosystem health in the Central Claypan Region of the US Midwest. However, the contribution of specific recharge sources to stream water is not well understood in claypan-dominated watersheds. The purpose of this study was to estimate the recharge sources to Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW) in north-central Missouri and investigate their importance to contaminant transport. Samples were collected from 2011 to 2014 from streams, piezometers, seep flows, and groundwater in GCEW and analyzed for major ions (including nitrate and nitrite), trace elements, stable H and O isotopes, total nitrogen (TN) and herbicides. Using an endmember mixing analysis based on conservative tracers, recharge contributions to stream flow were an average of 25% surface runoff, 44% shallow subsurface water, and 31% groundwater. TN concentrations were, on average, <0.05 ppm, 0.5 ppm, and 5 ppm in surface runoff, shallow subsurface water, and groundwater, respectively. Atrazine concentrations were, on average, <0.001 ppb, 0.052 ppb and <0.0001 in surface runoff, shallow subsurface water and groundwater, respectively. The data indicated that TN in stream water was primarily from groundwater, while shallow subsurface water was the dominant source of atrazine in stream water. An improved understanding of claypan hydrology and contaminant transport could lead to crop management practices that better protect surface water and groundwater in claypan-dominated watersheds.

  7. Modeling Source Water TOC Using Hydroclimate Variables and Local Polynomial Regression.

    PubMed

    Samson, Carleigh C; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Summers, R Scott

    2016-04-19

    To control disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation in drinking water, an understanding of the source water total organic carbon (TOC) concentration variability can be critical. Previously, TOC concentrations in water treatment plant source waters have been modeled using streamflow data. However, the lack of streamflow data or unimpaired flow scenarios makes it difficult to model TOC. In addition, TOC variability under climate change further exacerbates the problem. Here we proposed a modeling approach based on local polynomial regression that uses climate, e.g. temperature, and land surface, e.g., soil moisture, variables as predictors of TOC concentration, obviating the need for streamflow. The local polynomial approach has the ability to capture non-Gaussian and nonlinear features that might be present in the relationships. The utility of the methodology is demonstrated using source water quality and climate data in three case study locations with surface source waters including river and reservoir sources. The models show good predictive skill in general at these locations, with lower skills at locations with the most anthropogenic influences in their streams. Source water TOC predictive models can provide water treatment utilities important information for making treatment decisions for DBP regulation compliance under future climate scenarios.

  8. 8. FACING NORTH, LOOKING UP TAILRACE TOWARD WATER POWER SOURCE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. FACING NORTH, LOOKING UP TAILRACE TOWARD WATER POWER SOURCE. PENSTOCK RUNS LEFT TO RIGHT. HOOD OR IRON DRAINAGE TUBE FROM TURBINE WHEELS IN VIEW. CONDUIT VISIBLE UNDER PENSTOCK IS PART OF WASTE WATER DRAINAGE SYSTEM. MILL NO. 1 IS NEARER VIEWER; MILL NO. 2 IN BACKGROUND. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  9. Microbial risk assessment of drinking water based on hydrodynamic modelling of pathogen concentrations in source water.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Ekaterina; Petterson, Susan R; Dienus, Olaf; Nyström, Fredrik; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Pettersson, Thomas J R

    2015-09-01

    Norovirus contamination of drinking water sources is an important cause of waterborne disease outbreaks. Knowledge on pathogen concentrations in source water is needed to assess the ability of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) to provide safe drinking water. However, pathogen enumeration in source water samples is often not sufficient to describe the source water quality. In this study, the norovirus concentrations were characterised at the contamination source, i.e. in sewage discharges. Then, the transport of norovirus within the water source (the river Göta älv in Sweden) under different loading conditions was simulated using a hydrodynamic model. Based on the estimated concentrations in source water, the required reduction of norovirus at the DWTP was calculated using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). The required reduction was compared with the estimated treatment performance at the DWTP. The average estimated concentration in source water varied between 4.8×10(2) and 7.5×10(3) genome equivalents L(-1); and the average required reduction by treatment was between 7.6 and 8.8 Log10. The treatment performance at the DWTP was estimated to be adequate to deal with all tested loading conditions, but was heavily dependent on chlorine disinfection, with the risk of poor reduction by conventional treatment and slow sand filtration. To our knowledge, this is the first article to employ discharge-based QMRA, combined with hydrodynamic modelling, in the context of drinking water.

  10. Sources of emergency water supplies in Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akers, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    Water distribution systems in Santa Clara County, Calif., may be damaged and rendered inoperable by a large earthquake or other disaster. In such an event, individual agencies may have to implement emergency measures to supply water for drinking, firefighting, decontamination, or other purposes. In Santa Clara County, 128 wells have been identified as potential water-supply sources in emergencies. The criteria used to select the wells are: yield of at least 3 liters per second (50 gallons per minute), good water quality, ready accessibility, and available emergency power. Purification methods of small water supplies are described. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Solar-assisted water-source heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-03-01

    The usefulness of a collector array is to be extended to year-round usage by using the collectors to reject heat at night during the summer. A water source heat pump is used to cool a home by rejecting heat to water which is then held in a storage tank. At night the warm water is pumped through the collectors for radiative cooling. Two complete systems are being installed to demonstrate feasibility. One part of the system has been completed and tested.

  12. Modeling the Effect of External Carbon Source Addition under Different Electron Acceptor Conditions in Biological Nutrient Removal Activated Sludge Systems.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang; Wisniewski, Kamil; Czerwionka, Krzysztof; Zhou, Qi; Xie, Li; Makinia, Jacek

    2016-02-16

    The aim of this study was to expand the International Water Association Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) to predict the aerobic/anoxic behavior of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and "ordinary" heterotrophs in the presence of different external carbon sources and electron acceptors. The following new aspects were considered: (1) a new type of the readily biodegradable substrate, not available for the anaerobic activity of PAOs, (2) nitrite as an electron acceptor, and (3) acclimation of "ordinary" heterotrophs to the new external substrate via enzyme synthesis. The expanded model incorporated 30 new or modified process rate equations. The model was evaluated against data from several, especially designed laboratory experiments which focused on the combined effects of different types of external carbon sources (acetate, ethanol and fusel oil) and electron acceptors (dissolved oxygen, nitrate and nitrite) on the behavior of PAOs and "ordinary" heterotrophs. With the proposed expansions, it was possible to improve some deficiencies of the ASM2d in predicting the behavior of biological nutrient removal (BNR) systems with the addition of external carbon sources, including the effect of acclimation to the new carbon source.

  13. Evaluating the time and source of hydrocarbon additions to soils using lead isotopes and historical changes in industrial lead sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, R.W. California State Univ., Los Angeles, CA )

    1994-04-01

    Isotopic analysis of anthropogenic Pb in well-dated, southern California coastal sediments have been integrated with historical changes in ore Pb sources to produce calibration curves (206Pb/207Pb vs. time) that allow us to model the time anthropogenic Pb was added to a soil horizon. The major, historical sources of anthropogenic Pb in southern California are fossil fuels (e.g. gasoline). Hence, Pb model ages (LABILE model; Los Angeles Borderland Industrial Lead) provide time constraints on Pb deposition from fossil fuel combustion via airborne deposition, runoff, and/or sewage outfall in this region. The correlation between the LABILE model age and known times of anthropogenic Pb additions at 17 specific sites is good (r = 0.978); the accuracy of the method ranges from one to five years in the post-1960 time interval. Factors influencing accuracy include analytical uncertainties in Pb isotopic measurements ([<=]0.1%), the scatter in isotopic ratios of anthropogenic Pb (circa 0.2%), and the uncertainty in the sediment age used to calibrate the method (0-15 yr). At one site three statistically distinguishable events were identified; they correlate with residential development (1968), airborne vehicular Pb deposition (1983), and site remediation (1991). Gasoline incursions at two tests sites have been dated accurately ([+-] 1 yr). The limitations of the LABILE model (geographic, age, types of hydrocarbons, and industry to which it applies) are now under investigation.

  14. Community shift of biofilms developed in a full-scale drinking water distribution system switching from different water sources.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiying; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Junpeng; Qiao, Yu; Xu, Chen; Liu, Yao; Qian, Lin; Li, Wenming; Dong, Bingzhi

    2016-02-15

    The bacterial community of biofilms in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with various water sources has been rarely reported. In this research, biofilms were sampled at three points (A, B, and C) during the river water source phase (phase I), the interim period (phase II) and the reservoir water source phase (phase III), and the biofilm community was determined using the 454-pyrosequencing method. Results showed that microbial diversity declined in phase II but increased in phase III. The primary phylum was Proteobacteria during three phases, while the dominant class at points A and B was Betaproteobacteria (>49%) during all phases, but that changed to Holophagae in phase II (62.7%) and Actinobacteria in phase III (35.6%) for point C, which was closely related to its water quality. More remarkable community shift was found at the genus level. In addition, analysis results showed that water quality could significantly affect microbial diversity together, while the nutrient composition (e.g. C/N ration) of the water environment might determine the microbial community. Furthermore, Mycobacterium spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in the biofilm, which should give rise to attention. This study revealed that water source switching produced substantial impact on the biofilm community.

  15. Noachian Martian Volcanics a Water Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, A. P.; Glaze, L. S.; Baloga, S. M.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    H2O was supplied to the Noachian atmosphere by eruptions, or in association with large impacts. Most water outgassed into an extremely cold atmosphere, and condensate deposits were inevitable. High heat flow could lead to subglacial melting only if ice thicknesses were greater than 500-1000m, which is extremely unlikely. Subareal melting and flow is contingent upon temperatures periodically exceeding 273 K, and retarding evaporative loss of the flow. In still air, evaporation into a dry atmosphere is in the free convection regime, and a stream with 2 cu m/s discharge, flowing 1 m/s could persist for hundreds of days and cover distances greater than any valley reach. The zero-wind-shear condition is considered implausible however. We investigate the possibility that evaporation rates were suppressed because the atmosphere was regionally charged with H2O as it moved over snow/ice fields. Our initial concern is precipitation from volcanic plumes. A Kilauea-style eruption on the martian surface would cover a 10km circular deposit with 10cm of H2O, if all H2O could be precipitated near the vent. The characteristics of the eruption at the vent, (vent size, temperature, H2O content, etc.) are independent of the environmental conditions. The subsequent behavior of the plume, including precipitation of ash and H2O condensate depends strongly on the environment. Hence, the proximal fate of volcanic H2O is amenable to treatment in a model. A simple bulk thermodynamic model of the rise of an H2O plume through a stably stratified CO2 atmosphere, with only adiabatic cooling, produces runaway plume rise. A more complex treatment includes the effects of latent heat release, wind shear along the plume, divergence of ash and H2O, and will yield more realistic estimates of H2O transport in eruptive plumes. Results of these simulations will be presented.

  16. Wood decomposition in Amazonian hydropower reservoirs: An additional source of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abril, Gwenaël; Parize, Marcelo; Pérez, Marcela A. P.; Filizola, Naziano

    2013-07-01

    Amazonian hydroelectric reservoirs produce abundant carbon dioxide and methane from large quantities of flooded biomass that decompose anaerobically underwater. Emissions are extreme the first years after impounding and progressively decrease with time. To date, only water-to-air fluxes have been considered in these estimates. Here, we investigate in two Amazonian reservoirs (Balbina and Petit Saut) the fate of above water standing dead trees, by combining a qualitative analysis of wood state and density through time and a quantitative analysis of the biomass initially flooded. Dead wood was much more decomposed in the Balbina reservoir 23 years after flooding than in the Petit Saut reservoir 10 years after flooding. Termites apparently played a major role in wood decomposition, occurring mainly above water, and resulting in a complete conversion of this carbon biomass into CO2 and CH4 at a timescale much shorter than reservoir operation. The analysis of pre-impounding wood biomass reveals that above-water decomposition in Amazonian reservoirs is a large, previously unrecognized source of carbon emissions to the atmosphere, representing 26-45% of the total reservoir flux integrated over 100 years. Accounting for both below- and above-water fluxes, we could estimate that each km2 of Amazonian forest converted to reservoir would emit over 140 Gg CO2-eq in 100 years. Hydropower plants in the Amazon should thus generate 0.25-0.4 MW h per km2 flooded area to produce lower greenhouse gas emissions than gas power plants. They also have the disadvantage to emit most of their greenhouse gases the earliest years of operation.

  17. The crystallization water of gypsum rocks is a relevant water source for plants.

    PubMed

    Palacio, Sara; Azorín, José; Montserrat-Martí, Gabriel; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2014-08-18

    Some minerals, like gypsum, hold water in their crystalline structure. Although still unexplored, the use of such crystallization water by organisms would point to a completely new water source for life, critical under dry conditions. Here we use the fact that the isotopic composition of free water differs from gypsum crystallization water to show that plants can use crystallization water from the gypsum structure. The composition of the xylem sap of gypsum plants during summer shows closer values to gypsum crystallization water than to free soil water. Crystallization water represents a significant water source for organisms growing on gypsum, especially during summer, when it accounts for 70-90% of the water used by shallow-rooted plants. Given the widespread occurrence of gypsum in dry lands throughout the Earth and in Mars, these results may have important implications for arid land reclamation and exobiology.

  18. Microbial and metal water quality in rain catchments compared with traditional drinking water sources in the East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Horak, Helena M; Chynoweth, Joshua S; Myers, Ward P; Davis, Jennifer; Fendorf, Scott; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2010-03-01

    In Papua New Guinea, a significant portion of morbidity and mortality is attributed to water-borne diseases. To reduce incidence of disease, communities and non-governmental organizations have installed rain catchments to provide drinking water of improved quality. However, little work has been done to determine whether these rain catchments provide drinking water of better quality than traditional drinking water sources, and if morbidity is decreased in villages with rain catchments. The specific aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of water produced by rain catchments in comparison with traditional drinking water sources in rural villages in the East Sepik Province. Fifty-four water sources in 22 villages were evaluated for enterococci and Escherichia coli densities as well as 14 health-relevant metals. In addition, we examined how the prevalence of diarrhoeal illness in villages relates to the type of primary drinking water source. The majority of tested metals were below World Health Organization safety limits. Catchment water sources had lower enterococci and E. coli than other water sources. Individuals in villages using Sepik River water as their primary water source had significantly higher incidence of diarrhoea than those primarily using other water sources (streams, dug wells and catchments).

  19. Assessment of nonpoint-source impacts on Illinois water resources. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    Section 319 of the 1987 Clean Water Act was created to focus on the importance of controlling nonpoint sources of pollution. As required by Section 319, the report was developed to describe the nature, extent and effects of nonpoint-source pollution on Illinois' surface waters, the cause of such pollution, and programs and methods used for controlling pollution. The Assessment additionally identifies in-place pollutant problem areas, statewide ground-water initiatives and studies, and ongoing efforts to inventory state wetlands resources.

  20. Terahertz-dependent evaluation of water content in high-water-cut crude oil using additive-manufactured samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, LiMei; Zhan, HongLei; Miao, XinYang; Zhu, Jing; Zhao, Kun

    2017-04-01

    The evaluation of water content in crude oil is of significance to petroleum exploration and transportation. Terahertz (THz) waves are sensitive to fluctuations in the dipole moment of water. However, due to the strong absorption of water in the THz range, it is difficult for the THz spectrum to determine high water content with the common sampler. In this research, micron-grade samplers for THz detection were designed and manufactured using additive manufacturing (AM) technology. Oil-water mixtures with water content from 1.8% to 90.6% were measured with the THz-TDS system using sample cells. In addition, a detailed analysis was performed of the relationships among THz parameters such as signal peak, time delay, and refractive index as well as absorption coefficient and high water content (>60%). Results suggest that the combination of THz spectroscopy and AM technique is effective for water content evaluation in crude oil and can be further applied in the petroleum industry.

  1. Direct photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking water sources.

    PubMed

    Sanches, S; Leitão, C; Penetra, A; Cardoso, V V; Ferreira, E; Benoliel, M J; Crespo, M T Barreto; Pereira, V J

    2011-09-15

    The widely used low pressure lamps were tested in terms of their efficiency to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons listed as priority pollutants by the European Water Framework Directive and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in water matrices with very different compositions (laboratory grade water, groundwater, and surface water). Using a UV fluence of 1500 mJ/cm(2), anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene were efficiently degraded, with much higher percent removals obtained when present in groundwater (83-93%) compared to surface water (36-48%). The removal percentages obtained for fluoranthene were lower and ranged from 13 to 54% in the different water matrices tested. Several parameters that influence the direct photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined and their photolysis by-products were identified by mass spectrometry. The formation of photolysis by-products was found to be highly dependent on the source waters tested.

  2. Source rock potential of shallow-water evaporitic settings

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.K.

    1986-05-01

    In the major evaporitic environments on the world's surface today, most organic matter accumulates in shallow subaqueous to seasonally subaerially exposed, algal-mat sediments. Given the present depositional setting, this organic matter probably could not be preserved to form source rocks. However, if the authors place such evaporite deposition into a geologic context, source rocks could have formed in shallow-water settings in the past. Such settings were characterized by hydrologic conditions that allowed the retention of hypersaline, anoxic pore water to depths where the organic material was buried deep enough to generate hydrocarbons. When deep-basin, shallow-water, evaporite successions were laid down in basins such as the Mediterranean during the late Miocene, the Michigan basin during the Silurian, and in other large saline giants, conditions were right for source rocks to form within shallow-water and salt-flat evaporitic environments. The evaporites in these saline giants were deposited under conditions of relatively shallow water (< 50 m); the basin never appears to have dried out, but water levels changed quickly (approx. 10,000 years) from shallow to deep. Continual water saturation coupled with saline pore fluids prevented the inflow of fresh, oxidizing ground water into the basin center of shallow-water organic-rich evaporites. Immature hydrocarbons derived from such rocks today drip from the 5.5-m.y. old evaporites of Sicily in active salt and sulfur mines. Organic-rich sediments could also be preserved to generate hydrocarbons in rapidly subsiding rift basins. In such basins, rapid burial has prevented the entrance of fresher oxygenated waters and the associated degradation and destruction of the organic matter. The early continental rift stage generates the source rocks; the ephemeral streams, wadis, and dune fields become the reservoirs, and the subsequent evaporite stage seals the reservoir.

  3. Evidence for an Additional Heat Source in the Warm Ionized Medium of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, R. J.; Haffner, L. M.; Tufte, S. L.

    1999-11-01

    Spatial variations of the [S II]/Hα and [N II]/Hα line intensity ratios observed in the gaseous halo of the Milky Way and other galaxies are inconsistent with pure photoionization models. They appear to require a supplemental heating mechanism that increases the electron temperature at low densities, ne. This would imply that in addition to photoionization, which has a heating rate per unit volume proportional to n2e, there is another source of heat with a rate per unit volume proportional to a lower power of ne. One possible mechanism is the dissipation of interstellar plasma turbulence, which, according to Minter & Spangler, heats the ionized interstellar medium in the Milky Way at a rate of ~1×10-25ne ergs cm-3 s-1. If such a source were present, it would dominate over photoionization heating in regions where ne<~0.1 cm-3, producing the observed increases in the [S II]/Hα and [N II]/Hα intensity ratios at large distances from the galactic midplane as well as accounting for the constancy of [S II]/[N II], which is not explained by pure photoionization. Other supplemental heating sources, such as magnetic reconnection, cosmic rays, or photoelectric emission from small grains, could also account for these observations, provided they supply ~10-5 ergs s-1 per square centimeter of the Galactic disk to the warm ionized medium.

  4. Subcritical water extraction of trace metals from petroleum source rock.

    PubMed

    Akinlua, Akinsehinwa; Smith, Roger M

    2010-06-15

    The extraction of trace metals from petroleum source rock by superheated water was investigated and the conditions for maximum yield were determined. The results showed that no significant extraction was attained at 100 degrees C but the extraction was enhanced at higher temperatures. The optimum temperature for superheated water extraction of the metals from petroleum source rocks was 250 degrees C. Extraction yields increased with enhanced extraction time. Exhaustive extraction time for all the trace metals determined in this study was attained at 30min. Comparison of results of leaching these trace metals by superheated water with those of acid digestion revealed that cadmium, chromium, manganese and nickel had better yields with superheated water while vanadium had better yield with acid digestion. The results showed that the temperature and kinetic rates have significant effects on superheated water extraction of metals from petroleum source rocks. The results also revealed that effective leaching of some metals from petroleum source rocks by superheated water can be achieved without any modification except for vanadium.

  5. How to Manual: How to Update and Enhance Your Local Source Water Protection Assessments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes opportunities for improving source water assessments performed under the Safe Drinking Water Act 1453. It includes: local delineations, potential contaminant source inventories, and susceptibility determinations of source water assessment.

  6. Source-Water Protection and Water-Quality Investigations in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Supply System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldron, Marcus C.; Norton, Chip; MacDonald, Timothy W.D.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction The Cambridge Water Department (CWD) supplies about 15 million gallons of water each day to more than 95,000 customers in the City of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Most of this water is obtained from a system of reservoirs located in Cambridge and in parts of five other suburban-Boston communities. The drainage basin that contributes water to these reservoirs includes several potential sources of drinking-water contaminants, including major highways, secondary roads, areas of commercial and industrial development, and suburban residential tracts. The CWD is implementing a comprehensive Source-Water Protection Plan to ensure that the highest quality water is delivered to the treatment plant. A key element of this plan is a program that combines systematic monitoring of the drainage basin with detailed investigations of the effects of nonpoint-source contaminants, such as highway-deicing chemicals, nutrients, oxygen-demanding organic compounds, bacteria, and trace metals arising from stormwater runoff. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is working with the CWD and the Massachusetts Highway Department (MassHighway) to develop a better understanding of the sources, transport, and fate of many of these contaminants. This Fact Sheet describes source-water protection and water-quality investigations currently underway in the Cambridge drinking-water supply system. The investigations are designed to complement a national effort by the USGS to provide water suppliers and regulatory agencies with information on the vulnerability of water supplies and the movement and fate of source-water contaminants.

  7. Accelerated Source-Encoding Full-Waveform Inversion with Additional Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, C.; Fichtner, A.; Ulbrich, M.

    2014-12-01

    We present a flexible framework of Newton-type methods for constrained full-waveform inversion in the time domain. Our main goal is (1) to incorporate additional prior knowledge by using general constraints on the model parameters and (2) to reduce the computational costs of solving the inverse problem by tailoring source-encoding strategies to Newton-type methods.In particular, we apply the Moreau-Yosida regularization to handle the constraints and use a continuation strategy to adjust the regularization parameter. Furthermore, we propose a semismooth Newton method with a trust-region globalization that relies on second-order adjoints to compute the Newton system with a matrix-free preconditioned conjugate gradient solver. The costs of conventional FWI approaches scale proportionally with the number of seismic sources. Here, source-encoding strategies that trigger different sources simultaneously have been proven to be a successful tool to trade a small loss of information for huge savings of computational time to solve the inverse problem. This is particularly interesting for our setting as one iteration of Newton's methods using the full Hessian is considerably more expensive than quasi-Newton methods like L-BFGS. To this end, we discuss a sample average approximation model that is accelerated by using inexact Hessian information based on mini-batches of the samples. Furthermore, we compare its performance with stochastic descent schemes. Here, the classical stochastic gradient method is accelerated by an L-BFGS preconditioner and moreover, the stability of this stochastic preconditioner is enhanced by using the Hessian instead of only gradient information.Numerical results are presented for problems in geophysical exploration on reservoir-scale.

  8. Aggregation of Adenovirus 2 in Source Water and Impacts on Disinfection by Chlorine.

    PubMed

    Kahler, Amy M; Cromeans, Theresa L; Metcalfe, Maureen G; Humphrey, Charles D; Hill, Vincent R

    2016-06-01

    It is generally accepted that viral particles in source water are likely to be found as aggregates attached to other particles. For this reason, it is important to investigate the disinfection efficacy of chlorine on aggregated viruses. A method to produce adenovirus particle aggregation was developed for this study. Negative stain electron microscopy was used to measure aggregation before and after addition of virus particles to surface water at different pH and specific conductance levels. The impact of aggregation on the efficacy of chlorine disinfection was also examined. Disinfection experiments with human adenovirus 2 (HAdV2) in source water were conducted using 0.2 mg/L free chlorine at 5 °C. Aggregation of HAdV2 in source water (≥3 aggregated particles) remained higher at higher specific conductance and pH levels. However, aggregation was highly variable, with the percentage of particles present in aggregates ranging from 43 to 71 %. Upon addition into source water, the aggregation percentage dropped dramatically. On average, chlorination CT values (chlorine concentration in mg/L × time in min) for 3-log10 inactivation of aggregated HAdV2 were up to three times higher than those for dispersed HAdV2, indicating that aggregation reduced the disinfection rate. This information can be used by water utilities and regulators to guide decision making regarding disinfection of viruses in water.

  9. Aggregation of Adenovirus 2 in Source Water and Impacts on Disinfection by Chlorine

    PubMed Central

    Cromeans, Theresa L.; Metcalfe, Maureen G.; Humphrey, Charles D.; Hill, Vincent R.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that viral particles in source water are likely to be found as aggregates attached to other particles. For this reason, it is important to investigate the disinfection efficacy of chlorine on aggregated viruses. A method to produce adenovirus particle aggregation was developed for this study. Negative stain electron microscopy was used to measure aggregation before and after addition of virus particles to surface water at different pH and specific conductance levels. The impact of aggregation on the efficacy of chlorine disinfection was also examined. Disinfection experiments with human adenovirus 2 (HAdV2) in source water were conducted using 0.2 mg/L free chlorine at 5 °C. Aggregation of HAdV2 in source water (≥3 aggregated particles) remained higher at higher specific conductance and pH levels. However, aggregation was highly variable, with the percentage of particles present in aggregates ranging from 43 to 71 %. Upon addition into source water, the aggregation percentage dropped dramatically. On average, chlorination CT values (chlorine concentration in mg/L × time in min) for 3-log10 inactivation of aggregated HAdV2 were up to three times higher than those for dispersed HAdV2, indicating that aggregation reduced the disinfection rate. This information can be used by water utilities and regulators to guide decision making regarding disinfection of viruses in water. PMID:26910058

  10. Why "improved" water sources are not always safe.

    PubMed

    Shaheed, Ameer; Orgill, Jennifer; Montgomery, Maggie A; Jeuland, Marc A; Brown, Joe

    2014-04-01

    Existing and proposed metrics for household drinking-water services are intended to measure the availability, safety and accessibility of water sources. However, these attributes can be highly variable over time and space and this variation complicates the task of creating and implementing simple and scalable metrics. In this paper, we highlight those factors - especially those that relate to so-called improved water sources - that contribute to variability in water safety but may not be generally recognized as important by non-experts. Problems in the provision of water in adequate quantities and of adequate quality - interrelated problems that are often influenced by human behaviour - may contribute to an increased risk of poor health. Such risk may be masked by global water metrics that indicate that we are on the way to meeting the world's drinking-water needs. Given the complexity of the topic and current knowledge gaps, international metrics for access to drinking water should be interpreted with great caution. We need further targeted research on the health impacts associated with improvements in drinking-water supplies.

  11. Impact of New Water Sources on the Overall Water Network: An Optimisation Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Brian C.; Hove-Musekwa, Senelani D.

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical programming problem is formulated for a water network with new water sources included. Salinity and water hardness are considered in the model, which is later solved using the Max-Min Ant System (MMAS) to assess the impact of new water sources on the total cost of the existing network. It is efficient to include new water sources if the distances to them are short or if there is a high penalty associated with failure to meet demand. Desalination unit costs also significantly affect the decision whether to install new water sources into the existing network while softening costs are generally negligible in making such decisions. Experimental results show that, in the example considered, it is efficient to reduce number of desalination plants to remain with one central plant. The Max-Min Ant System algorithm seems to be an effective method as shown by least computational time as compared to the commercial solver Cplex. PMID:27382617

  12. Impact of New Water Sources on the Overall Water Network: An Optimisation Approach.

    PubMed

    Chagwiza, Godfrey; Jones, Brian C; Hove-Musekwa, Senelani D

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical programming problem is formulated for a water network with new water sources included. Salinity and water hardness are considered in the model, which is later solved using the Max-Min Ant System (MMAS) to assess the impact of new water sources on the total cost of the existing network. It is efficient to include new water sources if the distances to them are short or if there is a high penalty associated with failure to meet demand. Desalination unit costs also significantly affect the decision whether to install new water sources into the existing network while softening costs are generally negligible in making such decisions. Experimental results show that, in the example considered, it is efficient to reduce number of desalination plants to remain with one central plant. The Max-Min Ant System algorithm seems to be an effective method as shown by least computational time as compared to the commercial solver Cplex.

  13. Return of naturally sourced Pb to Atlantic surface waters

    PubMed Central

    Bridgestock, Luke; van de Flierdt, Tina; Rehkämper, Mark; Paul, Maxence; Middag, Rob; Milne, Angela; Lohan, Maeve C.; Baker, Alex R.; Chance, Rosie; Khondoker, Roulin; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Achterberg, Eric P.; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; de Baar, Hein J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic emissions completely overwhelmed natural marine lead (Pb) sources during the past century, predominantly due to leaded petrol usage. Here, based on Pb isotope measurements, we reassess the importance of natural and anthropogenic Pb sources to the tropical North Atlantic following the nearly complete global cessation of leaded petrol use. Significant proportions of up to 30–50% of natural Pb, derived from mineral dust, are observed in Atlantic surface waters, reflecting the success of the global effort to reduce anthropogenic Pb emissions. The observation of mineral dust derived Pb in surface waters is governed by the elevated atmospheric mineral dust concentration of the North African dust plume and the dominance of dry deposition for the atmospheric aerosol flux to surface waters. Given these specific regional conditions, emissions from anthropogenic activities will remain the dominant global marine Pb source, even in the absence of leaded petrol combustion. PMID:27678297

  14. Return of naturally sourced Pb to Atlantic surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgestock, Luke; van de Flierdt, Tina; Rehkämper, Mark; Paul, Maxence; Middag, Rob; Milne, Angela; Lohan, Maeve C.; Baker, Alex R.; Chance, Rosie; Khondoker, Roulin; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Achterberg, Eric P.; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; de Baar, Hein J. W.

    2016-09-01

    Anthropogenic emissions completely overwhelmed natural marine lead (Pb) sources during the past century, predominantly due to leaded petrol usage. Here, based on Pb isotope measurements, we reassess the importance of natural and anthropogenic Pb sources to the tropical North Atlantic following the nearly complete global cessation of leaded petrol use. Significant proportions of up to 30-50% of natural Pb, derived from mineral dust, are observed in Atlantic surface waters, reflecting the success of the global effort to reduce anthropogenic Pb emissions. The observation of mineral dust derived Pb in surface waters is governed by the elevated atmospheric mineral dust concentration of the North African dust plume and the dominance of dry deposition for the atmospheric aerosol flux to surface waters. Given these specific regional conditions, emissions from anthropogenic activities will remain the dominant global marine Pb source, even in the absence of leaded petrol combustion.

  15. Assessment of water sources to plant growth in rice based cropping systems by stable water isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahindawansha, Amani; Kraft, Philipp; Racela, Heathcliff; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Rice is one of the most water-consuming crops in the world. Understanding water source utilization of rice will help us to improve water use efficiency (WUE) in paddy management. The objectives of our study are to evaluate the isotopic compositions of surface ponded water, soil water, irrigation water, groundwater, rain water and plant water and based on stable water isotope signatures to evaluate the contributions of various water sources to plant growth (wet rice, aerobic rice and maize) together with investigating the contribution of water from different soil horizons for plant growth in different maturity periods during wet and dry seasons. Finally we will compare the water balances and crop yields in both crops during both seasons and calculate the water use efficiencies. This will help to identify the most efficient water management systems in rice based cropping ecosystems using stable water isotopes. Soil samples are collected from 9 different depths at up to 60 cm in vegetative, reproductive and matured periods of plant growth together with stem samples. Soil and plant samples are extracted by cryogenic vacuum extraction. Root samples are collected up to 60 cm depth from 10 cm intercepts leading calculation of root length density and dry weight. Groundwater, surface water, rain water and irrigation water are sampled weekly. All water samples are analyzed for hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios (d18O and dD) using Los Gatos Research DLT100. Rainfall records, ground water level, surface water level fluctuations and the amount of water irrigated in each field will be measured during the sampling period. The direct inference approach which is based on comparing isotopic compositions (dD and d18O) between plant stem water and soil water will be used to determine water sources taken up by plant. Multiple-source mass balance assessment can provide the estimated range of potential contributions of water from each soil depth to root water uptake of a crop. These

  16. Consumer Perception and Preference of Drinking Water Sources

    PubMed Central

    Sajjadi, Seyed Ali; Alipour, Vali; Matlabi, Mohammad; Biglari, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Understanding consumer perception of drinking water can contribute to improvements in water management and consumer satisfaction. The aim of this study was to assess the consumer perception of tap water quality and other drinking water sources in Gonabad as a small semiarid city. Methods This study was performed in autumn and winter 2013. For collection data a researcher-made a questionnaire consisting of nine questions, based on demographic information prepared. Questions were asked for participants to provide information regarding household drinking water usage and patterns, opinion about tap water safety, taste and reasons for purchasing bottled water. For statistical analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS version 16 was applied in this study. Results Results showed that demographic variables had a significant relationship with consumer satisfaction (p < 0.05). Office employees, women and poor families had the most satisfaction from tap water quality. Peoples’ preferences for tap water, commercial softener, domestic softener, ghanat (a type of underground cistern) and bottled water were 27.8, 19, 27.8, 40.4 and 3.5% respectively. Dissatisfaction from production of foam, unsuitable taste, unacceptable appearance and other problems in tap water was 11.1, 95.6, 27.8 and 0.4% respectively. Consumer reasons for using domestic water softeners are: suitable taste (80%), easy availability (71%), economical (56%) and low health side effects (34%). Conclusion According to these results it was clear that each consumer group, based on self-condition, prefers using a specific drinking water source. PMID:28070256

  17. Potential Chemical Effects of Changes in the Source of Water Supply for the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2008-01-01

    either dissolve or newly precipitate when surface water or ground-water/surface-water mixtures are delivered through the Authority's current distribution system are carbonates (particularly aragonite and calcite). Other types of minerals having the potential to dissolve or newly precipitate under conditions present throughout most of the distribution system include a form of silica, an aluminum hyroxide (gibbsite or diaspore), or the Fe-containing mineral Fe3(OH)8. Dissolution of most of these minerals (except perhaps the Fe-containing minerals) is not likely to substantially affect trace-element concentrations or aesthetic characteristics of delivered water, except perhaps hardness. Precipitation of these minerals would probably be of concern only if the quantities of material involved were large enough to clog pipes or fixtures. The mineral Fe3(OH)8 was not found in the current distribution system. Some Fe-containing minerals that were identified in the distribution system were associated with relatively high contents of selected elements, including As, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn. However, these Fe-containing minerals were not identified as minerals likely to dissolve when the source of water was changed from ground water to surface water or a ground-water/surface-water mixture. Based on the modeled potential for calcite precipitation and additional calculations of corrosion indices ground water, surface water, and ground-water/surface-water mixtures are not likely to differ greatly in corrosion potential. In particular, surface water and ground-water/surface-water mixtures do not appear likely to dissolve large quantities of existing calcite and expose metal surfaces in the distribution system to substantially increased corrosion. Instead, modeling calculations indicate that somewhat larger masses of material would tend to precipitate from surface water or ground-water/surface-water mixtures compared to ground water alone.

  18. Effects of water addition on soil arthropods and soil characteristics in a precipitation-limited environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikoski, Jennifer M.; Ferguson, Steven H.; Meyer, Lense

    2006-09-01

    We investigated the effect of water addition and season on soil arthropod abundance and soil characteristics (%C, %N, C:N, moisture, pH). The experimental design consisted of 24 groups of five boxes distributed within a small aspen stand in Saskatchewan, Canada. The boxes depressed the soil to create a habitat with suitable microclimate for soil arthropods, and by overturning boxes we counted soil arthropods during weekly surveys from April to September 1999. Soil samples were collected at two-month intervals and water was added once per week to half of the plots. Of the eleven recognizable taxonomic units identified, only mites (Acari) and springtails (Collembola) responded to water addition by increasing abundance, whereas ants decreased in abundance with water addition. During summer, springtail numbers increased with water addition, whereas pH was a stronger determinant of mite abundance. In autumn, springtails were positively correlated with water and negatively correlated with mites, whereas mite abundance was negatively correlated with increasing C:N ratio, positively correlated to water addition, and negatively correlated with springtail abundance. Although both mite and springtail numbers decreased in autumn with a decrease in soil moisture, mites became more abundant than springtails suggesting a predator-prey (mite-springtail) relationship. Water had a significant effect on both springtails and mites in summer and autumn supporting the assertion that prairie soil communities are water limited.

  19. Floodplain ecohydrology: Climatic, anthropogenic, and local physical controls on partitioning of water sources to riparian trees

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Michael Bliss; Sargeant, Christopher I; Piégay, Hervé; Riquier, Jérémie; Wilson, Rob J S; Evans, Cristina M

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal and annual partitioning of water within river floodplains has important implications for ecohydrologic links between the water cycle and tree growth. Climatic and hydrologic shifts alter water distribution between floodplain storage reservoirs (e.g., vadose, phreatic), affecting water availability to tree roots. Water partitioning is also dependent on the physical conditions that control tree rooting depth (e.g., gravel layers that impede root growth), the sources of contributing water, the rate of water drainage, and water residence times within particular storage reservoirs. We employ instrumental climate records alongside oxygen isotopes within tree rings and regional source waters, as well as topographic data and soil depth measurements, to infer the water sources used over several decades by two co-occurring tree species within a riparian floodplain along the Rhône River in France. We find that water partitioning to riparian trees is influenced by annual (wet versus dry years) and seasonal (spring snowmelt versus spring rainfall) fluctuations in climate. This influence depends strongly on local (tree level) conditions including floodplain surface elevation and subsurface gravel layer elevation. The latter represents the upper limit of the phreatic zone and therefore controls access to shallow groundwater. The difference between them, the thickness of the vadose zone, controls total soil moisture retention capacity. These factors thus modulate the climatic influence on tree ring isotopes. Additionally, we identified growth signatures and tree ring isotope changes associated with recent restoration of minimum streamflows in the Rhône, which made new phreatic water sources available to some trees in otherwise dry years. Key Points Water shifts due to climatic fluctuations between floodplain storage reservoirs Anthropogenic changes to hydrology directly impact water available to trees Ecohydrologic approaches to integration of hydrology afford new

  20. Unusual sources of aluminium and heavy metals in potable waters.

    PubMed

    Fuge, R; Pearce, N J; Perkins, W T

    1992-04-01

    Aluminium in water supplies derives from natural sources and from the use of Al2(SO4)3 in water treatment. Heavy metals such as Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd can be added to water from pipework and solder. However, it is apparent that AI and other metals in potable waters can derive from deposits on pipe walls which can be subsequently mobilised when the supply and/or treatment process is changed. Concentrations of Al in domestic supply water of the Llanbrynmair area have been shown to increase from 1 μg to 50 μg L(-1) during its 18 km journey along the water main. Similarly, Pb concentrations in a public building in the Aberystwyth area are found to be extremely elevated due to the metal's mobilisation from encrustations occurring on the copper pipework.

  1. Phosphorus runoff from two water sources on a calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Aase, J K; Bjorneberg, D L; Westermann, D T

    2001-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) in irrigation runoff may enrich offsite water bodies and streams and be influenced by irrigation water quality and antecedent soil surface conditions. Runoff, soil loss, and P fractions in runoff using reverse osmosis (RO) water or mixed RO and well water (RO/ Tap) were studied in a laboratory sprinkler study to evaluate water source effects on P transport. A top- or subsoil Portneuf silt loam (coarse-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Durinodic Xeric Haplocalcid), either amended or not amended with manure and/or with cheese whey, with Olsen P from 20 to 141 mg kg(-1) and lime from 108 to 243 g kg(-1), was placed in 1.5 x 1.2 x 0.2-m-deep containers with 2.4% slope and irrigated three times from a 3-m height for 15 min, applying 20 mm of water. The first irrigation was on a dry loose surface, the second on a wet surface, and the third on a dry crusted surface. Surface (ca. 2 cm) soil samples, prior to the first irrigation, were analyzed for Olsen P, water-soluble P (Pws), and iron-oxide impregnated paper-extractable P (FeO-P) analyses. Following each irrigation we determined runoff, sediment, dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in a 0.45-microm filtered sample, and FeO-P and total P in unfiltered samples. Soil surface conditions had no effect on P runoff relationships. Water source had no significant effect on the relationship between DRP or FeO-P runoff and soil test P, except for DRP in RO runoff versus water-soluble soil P (r2 = 0.90). Total P in RO runoff versus soil P were not related; but weakly correlated for RO/Tap (r2 < 0.50). Water source and soil surface conditions had little or no effect on P runoff from this calcareous soil.

  2. Bacterial Composition in a Metropolitan Drinking Water Distribution System Utilizing Different Source Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial community structure was investigated from bulk phase water samples of multiple collection sites from two service areas within the Cincinnati drinking water distribution system (DWDS). Each area is associated with a different primary source of water (i.e., groundwat...

  3. Comparing drinking water treatment costs to source water protection costs using time series analysis.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a framework to compare water treatment costs to source water protection costs, an important knowledge gap for drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). This trade-off helps to determine what incentives a DWTP has to invest in natural infrastructure or pollution reductio...

  4. Recent Advances in Understanding the Sources of Methylmercury to Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R. P.; Balcom, P.; Chen, C.; Gosnell, K. J.; Jonsson, S.; Mazrui, N.; Ortiz, V.; Seelen, E.; Schartup, A. T.; Sunderland, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the sources of methylmercury (MeHg) to the food chain in coastal waters is important given the related health concerns from consumption of seafood containing elevated MeHg. While water column dissolved or particulate MeHg is the best predictor of bioaccumulation into pelagic organisms in coastal waters, there is debate concerning the dominant sources of MeHg to the water column, and how the relative importance of these sources vary with ecosystem characteristics. Potential sources include both external inputs from the watershed and offshore waters and internal sources (net methylation in sediments and the associated flux of MeHg to the water column and/or net MeHg production in the water column). We will report the results from our various studies in estuarine and coastal waters which have examined the distribution and partitioning of sediment and water column MeHg, and its formation and degradation, across a geographic range from Labrador, Canada to the Chesapeake Bay, USA. The ecosystems studied vary from shallow estuarine bays to deeper systems, and from salt wedge to tidally-dynamic systems. Additionally, both pristine and contaminated environments were examined. The studies examined the factors controlling the net production of MeHg in sediments, and in our more recent work, the potential formation of MeHg in the oxic water column of coastal waters. Sediment measurements (core and grab samples) included both solid phase and porewater MeHg and total mercury (HgT) and important ancillary parameters. Water column parameters included dissolved and particulate MeHg and HgT, TSS, nutrients, and DOC. Stable Hg isotope tracer incubations were used to assess the degree of methylation and demethylation in sediments and surface waters. Average suspended particle MeHg ranged from <5 to 120 pmol/g, and was 1-8% of HgT across sites. Mass balance estimates provide insights into the importance of external MeHg sources to coastal waters. We will use the

  5. Reverse osmosis desalination: water sources, technology, and today's challenges.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Lauren F; Lawler, Desmond F; Freeman, Benny D; Marrot, Benoit; Moulin, Philippe

    2009-05-01

    Reverse osmosis membrane technology has developed over the past 40 years to a 44% share in world desalting production capacity, and an 80% share in the total number of desalination plants installed worldwide. The use of membrane desalination has increased as materials have improved and costs have decreased. Today, reverse osmosis membranes are the leading technology for new desalination installations, and they are applied to a variety of salt water resources using tailored pretreatment and membrane system design. Two distinct branches of reverse osmosis desalination have emerged: seawater reverse osmosis and brackish water reverse osmosis. Differences between the two water sources, including foulants, salinity, waste brine (concentrate) disposal options, and plant location, have created significant differences in process development, implementation, and key technical problems. Pretreatment options are similar for both types of reverse osmosis and depend on the specific components of the water source. Both brackish water and seawater reverse osmosis (RO) will continue to be used worldwide; new technology in energy recovery and renewable energy, as well as innovative plant design, will allow greater use of desalination for inland and rural communities, while providing more affordable water for large coastal cities. A wide variety of research and general information on RO desalination is available; however, a direct comparison of seawater and brackish water RO systems is necessary to highlight similarities and differences in process development. This article brings to light key parameters of an RO process and process modifications due to feed water characteristics.

  6. Presence of enteric viruses in source waters for drinking water production in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Lodder, W J; van den Berg, H H J L; Rutjes, S A; de Roda Husman, A M

    2010-09-01

    The quality of drinking water in The Netherlands has to comply with the Dutch Drinking Water Directive: less than one infection in 10,000 persons per year may occur due to consumption of unboiled drinking water. Since virus concentrations in drinking waters may be below the detection limit but entail a public health risk, the infection risk from drinking water consumption requires the assessment of the virus concentrations in source waters and of the removal efficiency of treatment processes. In this study, samples of source waters were taken during 4 years of regular sampling (1999 to 2002), and enteroviruses, reoviruses, somatic phages, and F-specific phages were detected in 75% (range, 0.0033 to 5.2 PFU/liter), 83% (0.0030 to 5.9 PFU/liter), 100% (1.1 to 114,156 PFU/liter), and 97% (0.12 to 14,403 PFU/liter), respectively, of 75 tested source water samples originating from 10 locations for drinking water production. By endpoint dilution reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), 45% of the tested source water samples were positive for norovirus RNA (0.22 to 177 PCR-detectable units [PDU]/liter), and 48% were positive for rotavirus RNA (0.65 to 2,249 PDU/liter). Multiple viruses were regularly detected in the source water samples. A significant correlation between the concentrations of the two phages and those of the enteroviruses could be demonstrated. The virus concentrations varied greatly between 10 tested locations, and a seasonal effect was observed. Peak concentrations of pathogenic viruses occur in source waters used for drinking water production. If seasonal and short-term fluctuations coincide with less efficient or failing treatment, an unacceptable public health risk from exposure to this drinking water may occur.

  7. Statistical addition method for external noise sources affecting HF-MF-LF systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neudegg, David

    2001-01-01

    The current statistical method for the addition of external component noise sources in the LF, MF, and lower HF band (100 kHz to 3 MHz) produces total median noise levels that may be less than the largest-component median in some cases. Several case studies illustrate this anomaly. Methods used to sum the components rely on their power (decibels) distributions being represented as normal by the statistical parameters. The atmospheric noise component is not correctly represented by its decile values when it is assumed to have a normal distribution, causing anomalies in the noise summation when components are similar in magnitude. A revised component summation method is proposed, and the way it provides a more physically realistic total noise median for LF, MF, and lower HF frequencies is illustrated.

  8. Optimizing Irrigation Water Allocation under Multiple Sources of Uncertainty in an Arid River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Tang, D.; Gao, H.; Ding, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Population growth and climate change add additional pressures affecting water resources management strategies for meeting demands from different economic sectors. It is especially challenging in arid regions where fresh water is limited. For instance, in the Tailanhe River Basin (Xinjiang, China), a compromise must be made between water suppliers and users during drought years. This study presents a multi-objective irrigation water allocation model to cope with water scarcity in arid river basins. To deal with the uncertainties from multiple sources in the water allocation system (e.g., variations of available water amount, crop yield, crop prices, and water price), the model employs a interval linear programming approach. The multi-objective optimization model developed from this study is characterized by integrating eco-system service theory into water-saving measures. For evaluation purposes, the model is used to construct an optimal allocation system for irrigation areas fed by the Tailan River (Xinjiang Province, China). The objective functions to be optimized are formulated based on these irrigation areas' economic, social, and ecological benefits. The optimal irrigation water allocation plans are made under different hydroclimate conditions (wet year, normal year, and dry year), with multiple sources of uncertainty represented. The modeling tool and results are valuable for advising decision making by the local water authority—and the agricultural community—especially on measures for coping with water scarcity (by incorporating uncertain factors associated with crop production planning).

  9. A Source Water Assessment of the INEEL: Conjunctive Delineation of a Large Scale Area

    SciTech Connect

    Sehlke, Gerald; Andersen, Bradley Don

    2003-01-01

    Presently, the INEEL operates and monitors 12 Public Water Systems that pump water from 22 wells for at the Site (Table 1). The source of water for each of these facilities is the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Because the INEEL operates Public Water Systems, it is required to conduct source water assessments for those facilities and to develop a Source Water Management Program.

  10. Near-Earth water sources: Ethics and fairness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, James S. J.

    2016-08-01

    There is a small finite upper bound on the amount of easily accessible water in near-Earth space, including water from C-type NEAs and permanently shadowed lunar craters. Recent estimates put this total at about 3.7 ×1012kg . Given the non-renewable nature of this resource, we should begin thinking carefully about the regulation of near-Earth water sources (NEWS). This paper discusses this issue from an ethical vantage point, and argues that for the foreseeable future, the scientific use of NEWS should be prioritized over other potential uses of NEWS.

  11. Sources of water column methylmercury across multiple estuaries in the Northeast U.S

    PubMed Central

    Balcom, Prentiss H.; Schartup, Amina T.; Mason, Robert P.; Chen, Celia Y.

    2015-01-01

    Estuarine water column methylmercury (MeHg) is an important driver of mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation in pelagic organisms and thus it is necessary to understand the sources and processes affecting environmental levels of MeHg. Increases in water column MeHg concentrations can ultimately be transferred to fish consumed by humans, but despite this, the sources of MeHg to the estuarine water column are still poorly understood. Here we evaluate MeHg sources across 4 estuaries and 10 sampling sites and examine the distributions and partitioning of sediment and water column MeHg across a geographic range (Maine to New Jersey). Our study sites present a gradient in the concentrations of sediment, pore water and water column Hg species. Suspended particle MeHg ranged from below detection to 187 pmol g−1, dissolved MeHg from 0.01 to 0.68 pM, and sediment MeHg from 0.01 to 109 pmol g−1. Across multiple estuaries, dissolved MeHg correlated with Hg species in the water column, and sediment MeHg correlated with sediment total Hg (HgT). Water column MeHg did not correlate well with sediment Hg across estuaries, indicating that sediment concentrations were not a good predictor of water MeHg concentrations. This is an unexpected finding since it has been shown that MeHg production from inorganic Hg2+ within sediment is the primary source of MeHg to coastal waters. Additional sources of MeHg regulate water column MeHg levels in some of the shallow estuaries included in this study. PMID:26806999

  12. Man-Made Organic Compounds in Source Water of Nine Community Water Systems that Withdraw from Streams, 2002-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kingsbury, James A.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Hamilton, Pixie A.

    2008-01-01

    Initial findings from a national study by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) characterize the occurrence of about 250 anthropogenic organic compounds in source water (defined as water collected at a surface-water intake prior to water treatment) at nine community water systems in nine States in the Nation. The organic compounds analyzed in this study are primarily man-made and include pesticides, solvents, gasoline hydrocarbons, personal-care and domestic-use products, disinfection by-products, and manufacturing additives. The study also describes and compares the occurrence of selected compounds detected in source water with their occurrence in finished water, which is defined as water that has passed through treatment processes but prior to distribution. This fact sheet summarizes major findings and implications of the study and serves as a companion product to two USGS reports that present more detailed and technical information for the nine systems studied during 2002-05 (Carter and others, 2007; Kingsbury and others, 2008).

  13. Comments Received on Proposed Additions to West Virginia's 2014 List of Impaired Waters

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Comments submitted from the public during the public comment period for EPA's partial approval-partial disapproval and proposed additions to West Virginia's 2014 Section 303(d) List of Impaired Waters.

  14. Development and Validation of an Acid Mine Drainage Treatment Process for Source Water

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Throughout Northern Appalachia and surrounding regions, hundreds of abandoned mine sites exist which frequently are the source of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). AMD typically contains metal ions in solution with sulfate ions which have been leached from the mine. These large volumes of water, if treated to a minimum standard, may be of use in Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) or other industrial processes. This project’s focus is to evaluate an AMD water treatment technology for the purpose of providing treated AMD as an alternative source of water for HF operations. The HydroFlex™ technology allows the conversion of a previous environmental liability into an asset while reducing stress on potable water sources. The technology achieves greater than 95% water recovery, while removing sulfate to concentrations below 100 mg/L and common metals (e.g., iron and aluminum) below 1 mg/L. The project is intended to demonstrate the capability of the process to provide AMD as alternative source water for HF operations. The second budget period of the project has been completed during which Battelle conducted two individual test campaigns in the field. The first test campaign demonstrated the ability of the HydroFlex system to remove sulfate to levels below 100 mg/L, meeting the requirements indicated by industry stakeholders for use of the treated AMD as source water. The second test campaign consisted of a series of focused confirmatory tests aimed at gathering additional data to refine the economic projections for the process. Throughout the project, regular communications were held with a group of project stakeholders to ensure alignment of the project objectives with industry requirements. Finally, the process byproduct generated by the HydroFlex process was evaluated for the treatment of produced water against commercial treatment chemicals. It was found that the process byproduct achieved similar results for produced water treatment as the chemicals currently in use. Further

  15. Water Masses and Nutrient Sources to the Gulf of Maine.

    PubMed

    Townsend, David W; Pettigrew, Neal R; Thomas, Maura A; Neary, Mark G; McGillicuddy, Dennis J; O'Donnell, James

    2015-01-01

    The Gulf of Maine, a semi-enclosed basin on the continental shelf of the northwest Atlantic Ocean, is fed by surface and deep water flows from outside the Gulf: Scotian Shelf Water from the Nova Scotian shelf that enters the Gulf at the surface, and Slope Water that enters at depth and along the bottom through the Northeast Channel. There are two types of Slope Water, Labrador Slope Water (LSW) and Warm Slope Water (WSW); it is these deep water masses that are the major source of dissolved inorganic nutrients to the Gulf. It has been known for some time that the volume inflow of Slope Waters of either type that enters the Gulf of Maine is variable, that it co-varies with the magnitude of inflowing Scotian Shelf Water, and that periods of greater inflows of Scotian Shelf Water have become more frequent in recent years, accompanied by reduced Slope Water inflows. We present here analyses of a ten-year record of data collected by moored sensors in Jordan Basin, in the interior Gulf of Maine, and in the Northeast Channel, along with recent and historical hydrographic and nutrient data, that help reveal the nature of Scotian Shelf Water and Slope Water inflows. Proportional inflows of nutrient-rich Slope Waters and nutrient-poor Scotian Shelf Waters alternate episodically with one another on time scales of months to several years, creating a variable nutrient field upon which the biological productivities of the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank depend. Unlike decades past, the inflows of Slope Waters of either type do not appear to be correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, which had been shown earlier to influence the relative proportions of the two Slope Waters, WSW and LSW, that enter the Gulf. We suggest that of greater importance in recent years are more frequent, episodic influxes of colder, fresher, less dense, and low-nutrient Scotian Shelf Water into the Gulf of Maine, and concomitant reductions in the inflow of deep, nutrient-rich Slope Waters. We also

  16. BIOSENSOR TECHNOLOGY EVALUATIONS FOR REAL-TIME/SOURCE WATER PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent advances in electronics and computer technology have made great strides in the field of remote sensing and biomonitoring. The quality of drinking water sources has come under closer scrutiny in recent years. Issues ranging from ecological to public health and national se...

  17. PATHOGENIC PHYTOPHTHORA SPECIES IN SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY IRRIGATION WATER SOURCES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface sources of irrigation water including the Kings River and three canals were assayed for Phytophthora spp. at six locations in the San Joaquin Valley within 30 km of Hanford, CA. Four nylon-mesh bags, each containing three firm, green pear fruits (separated by Styrofoam blocks) as bait for Ph...

  18. Snow Harvesting: A Potential Water Source for Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    storage capabilities, with many regions suffering recurring drought. A widespread drought occurred from 1997 to 2002, causing a significant decrease ...supply using snow fences depends not only upon the ability to capture the snow but also the effect that introducing a new water source has upon the...

  19. Bacterial indices of drinking water from natural sources.

    PubMed

    Thakur, K; Grover, P S

    2001-04-01

    Two hundred forty samples of water from twenty natural sources were subjected to the study for the detection of four bacterial indicators of faecal pollution. The samples were subjected to the detection of coliform, faecal coliform, E. coli, S. faecalis, Cl. welchii and plate count at 37 degrees C and 22 degrees C. All these samples were found unfit for human consumption. MPN for coliforms, E. coli and S. faecalis varied from 3 to 1800 per 100 ml of water, sero to 1800 per 100 ml water and zero to 540 per 100 ml of water respectively. Plate count at 37 degrees C and 22 degrees C varied from 2.5 x 10(3) to > 150 x 10(3) per ml of water. Cl. welchii was detected in 30.4% samples in rainy season and high plate count at 37 degrees C and 22 degrees C was observed during the same period.

  20. Urban wet-weather flows: sources of fecal contamination impacting on recreational waters and threatening drinking-water sources.

    PubMed

    Marsalek, Jiri; Rochfort, Quintin

    Discharges of urban stormwater and combined sewer overflows (CSOs) contribute to fecal contamination of urban waters and need to be considered in planning the protection of recreational waters and sources of drinking water. Stormwater characterization indicates that Escherichia coli counts in stormwater typically range from 103 to 104 units per 100 ml. Higher counts (10(5) units/100 ml) suggest the presence of cross-connections with sanitary sewers, and such connections should be identified and corrected. Fecal contamination of stormwater may be attenuated prior to discharge into surface waters by stormwater management measures, which typically remove suspended solids and attached bacteria. Exceptionally, stormwater discharges in the vicinity of swimming beaches are disinfected. The levels of indicator bacteria in CSOs can be as high as 10(6) E. coli per 100 ml. Consequently, the abatement of fecal contamination of CSOs is now considered in the design of CSO control and treatment, as for example stipulated in the Ontario Procedure F-5-5. CSO abatement options comprise combin ations of storage and treatment, in which the CSO treatment generally includes disinfection by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Finally, indicator bacteria data from Sarnia (Ontario) were used to demonstrate some fecal contamination impacts of wet-weather flows. In wet weather, the microbiological quality of riverine water worsened as a result of CSO and stormwater discharges, and the recreational water guidelines for indicator organisms were exceeded most of the time. Local improvements in water quality were feasible by source controls and diversion of polluted water.

  1. Isotopic compositions and sources of nitrate in ground water from western Salt River Valley, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellenbeck, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Isotopic and chemical compositions of ground water from western Salt River Valley near Phoenix, Arizona, were used to develop identification tech- niques for sources of nitrate in ground water. Four possible sources of nitrate were studied: dairies and feedlots, sewage-treatment plants, agricultural activities, and natural source. End members that represent these sources were analyzed for a variety of chemical and isotopic constituents; contents of the end-member and the ground water were compared to identify nitrate from these sources. Nitrate from dairies and feedlots was identified by delta 15N values higher than +9.0 per mil. Nitrate from sewage treatment plants was identified by some chemical constituents and values of delta 15N, delta 34S, delta 7Li, and delta 11B that were lighter than the values determined for ground water not affected by sewage-treatment plants. Nitrate from agricultural activities was identified by delta 15N, 3H, and delta 34S compositions. Natural nitrate derived from decomposing plants and accumulated by biological fixation was identified by delta 15N values that range between +2 and +8 per mil. In addition to identifying nitrate sources, some chemical and isotopic charabteristics of ground water were determined on the basis of data collected during this study. Concentrations of major ions, lithium, and boron and delta 7Li, delta 11B, 3H, delta D, and delta 18O data identify ground water in different geographic regions in the study area. These differences probably are related to different sources of ground water, geochemical processes, or geologic deposits. The Luke salt body and a geothermal anomaly alter the chemical and isotopic content of some ground water.

  2. Simulation and source identification of X-ray contrast media in the water cycle of Berlin.

    PubMed

    Knodel, J; Geissen, S-U; Broll, J; Dünnbier, U

    2011-11-01

    This article describes the development of a model to simulate the fate of iodinated X-ray contrast media (XRC) in the water cycle of the German capital, Berlin. It also handles data uncertainties concerning the different amounts and sources of input for XRC via source densities in single districts for the XRC usage by inhabitants, hospitals, and radiologists. As well, different degradation rates for the behavior of the adsorbable organic iodine (AOI) were investigated in single water compartments. The introduced model consists of mass balances and includes, in addition to naturally branched bodies of water, the water distribution network between waterways and wastewater treatment plants, which are coupled to natural surface waters at numerous points. Scenarios were calculated according to the data uncertainties that were statistically evaluated to identify the scenario with the highest agreement among the provided measurement data. The simulation of X-ray contrast media in the water cycle of Berlin showed that medical institutions have to be considered as point sources for congested urban areas due to their high levels of X-ray contrast media emission. The calculations identified hospitals, represented by their capacity (number of hospital beds), as the most relevant point sources, while the inhabitants served as important diffusive sources. Deployed for almost inert substances like contrast media, the model can be used for qualitative statements and, therefore, as a decision-support tool.

  3. Addition of chlorine during water purification reduces iodine content of drinking water and contributes to iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Samson, L; Czegeny, I; Mezosi, E; Erdei, A; Bodor, M; Cseke, B; Burman, K D; Nagy, E V

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water is the major natural source of iodine in many European countries. In the present study, we examined possible sites of iodine loss during the usual water purification process.Water samples from 6 sites during the technological process were taken and analyzed for iodine content. Under laboratory circumstances, prepared iodine in water solution has been used as a model to test the effect of the presence of chlorine. Samples from the purification sites revealed that in the presence of chlorine there is a progressive loss of iodine from the water. In the chlorine concentrations employed in the purification process, 24-h chlorine exposure eliminated more than 50% of iodine when the initial iodine concentration was 250 μg/l or less. Iodine was completely eliminated if the starting concentration was 16 μg/l.We conclude that chlorine used during water purification may be a major contributor to iodine deficiency in European communities.

  4. Source development for extreme ultraviolet lithography and water window imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, G.; Dunne, P.; Kilbane, D.; Liu, L.; Lokasani, R.; Long, E.; Li, B. W.; McCormack, T.; O'Reilly, F.; Shiel, J.; Sokell, E.; Suzuki, C.; Wu, T.; Higashiguchi, T.

    2017-03-01

    Sources based on laser produced plasmas of tin (Sn) are currently being developed for extreme ultraviolet lithography for semiconductor fabrication. Since they operate at short wavelength (13.5 nm) they are capable of producing features with critical dimensions in the 10 nm range. Already next generation lithography sources operating at an even lower wavelength of around 6.7-6.8 nm have been proposed and research is ongoing on their feasibility for both large scale manufacturing and `at wavelength' metrology. The high resolution afforded by such short wavelengths is also of use for applications such as surface patterning and microscopy and the results of recent experiments to identify sources for operation in the `water window' (2.34-4.2 nm), where carbon absorbs strongly but water does not are summarized.

  5. Army Corps of Engineers: Additional Steps Needed for Review and Revision of Water Control Manuals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS Additional Steps Needed for Review and Revision of Water Control Manuals Report to...Revision of Water Control Manuals What GAO Found According to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) officials, the agency conducts ongoing, informal...reviews of selected water control manuals and has revised some of them, but the extent of the reviews and revisions is unclear because they are not

  6. Water as a source of errors in reference materials.

    PubMed

    Rückold, S; Grobecker, K H; Isengard, H D

    2001-06-01

    In the field of reference materials, long-term stability is of highest importance. Particularly for biological matrices, any kind of deterioration must be avoided during shelf-life. In the production precautions are taken to prevent these, but possible alterations caused by intensive drying have been underestimated until today. This presentation discusses several mechanisms of deterioration related to water activity and water content. Comparison of the results for water and moisture for six reference materials and their water sorption isotherms serve as a base to discuss the importance of accurate dry mass corrections for certified values. It is shown that the method chosen for dry mass correction influences certified contents significantly and a method description must be given. Furthermore, it is confirmed that for biological matrices optimal ranges of water activity and water content exist, where hygroscopicity is low without significant danger of product deterioration. Additionally, handling is facilitated in the optimised ranges.

  7. Quantifying Impacts of Food Trade on Water Availability Considering Water Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, T.; Yano, S.; Hanasaki, N.

    2012-12-01

    Food production requires a lot of water, and traded food potentially has external impacts on environment through reducing the water availability in the producing region. Water footprint is supposed to be an indicator to reflect the impacts of water use. However, impacts of water use on environment, resource, and sustainability are different in place and time, and according to the sources of water withdrawals. Therefore it is preferable to characterize the water withdrawals or consumptions rather than just accumulate the total amount of water use when estimating water footprint. In this study, a new methodology, global green-water equivalent method, is proposed in which regional characterization factors are determined based on the estimates of natural hydrological cycles, such as precipitation, total runoff, and sub-surface runoff, and applied for green-water, river(+reservoir) water, and non-renewable ground water uses. Water footprint of the world associated with the production of 19 major crops was estimated using an integrated hydrological and water resources modeling system (H08), with atmospheric forcing data for 1991-2000 with spatial resolution of 0.5 by 0.5 longitudinal and latitudinal degrees. The impacts is estimated to be 6 times larger than the simple summation of green and blue water uses, and reflect the climatological water scarcity conditions geographically. The results can be used to compare the possible impacts of food trade associated with various crops from various regions on environment through reducing the availability of water resources in the cropping area.

  8. Asbestos in water sources of the Bazhenovskoye chrysotile asbestos deposit.

    PubMed

    Kashansky, Sergey V; Slyshkina, Tatiana V

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides measurements of asbestos fiber levels in water sources from the area of the Bazhenovskoye chrysotile asbestos deposit. All study water samples contained asbestos fibers at concentrations one to three orders below the values standardized in the USA (7 x 10(6) fibers/liter). All the identified fibers belonged to chrysotile asbestos and no amphibole asbestos, such as tremolite asbestos, has been identified. The anthropogenic load of asbestos fibers in Asbest City's environment is increasing in the volume of 5.770 x 10(14) fibers/liter or 10.2 kg of chrysotile asbestos. The authors consider it advisable to continue studies to measure asbestos levels in the water sources in the areas located in the vicinity of other Russian asbestos deposits.

  9. First molecular detection of group A rotaviruses in drinking water sources in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    He, X Q; Cheng, L; Zhang, D Y; Li, W; Xie, X M; Ma, M; Wang, Z J

    2009-07-01

    The most prevalent group A rotavirus found in the diarrheic children was also determined in drinking water sources including raw water, treated water and tap water in Beijing, and then the possible contamination contributions to tap water for human consumption were discussed in this study. A total of 26 raw water samples, 77 treated water samples and 143 tap water samples in Beijing were collected for analysis of group A rotavirus from April 2006 to August 2007. According to the results, it was shown that group A rotaviruses occurred in 9 raw water samples (34.6%), 9 treated water samples (11.7%) and 32 tap water samples (22.4%) during the sampling period, and low disinfectant residuals or a vulnerability of the distribution system to pressure transients, in addition to raw water, may account for the group A rotaviruses contamination to tap water. The rotavirus contamination observed in this study may highlight a potential public health risk and illustrate the importance of including routine virological analysis of drinking water supplies during winter time in Beijing.

  10. Rain water transport and storage in a model sandy soil with hydrogel particle additives.

    PubMed

    Wei, Y; Durian, D J

    2014-10-01

    We study rain water infiltration and drainage in a dry model sandy soil with superabsorbent hydrogel particle additives by measuring the mass of retained water for non-ponding rainfall using a self-built 3D laboratory set-up. In the pure model sandy soil, the retained water curve measurements indicate that instead of a stable horizontal wetting front that grows downward uniformly, a narrow fingered flow forms under the top layer of water-saturated soil. This rain water channelization phenomenon not only further reduces the available rain water in the plant root zone, but also affects the efficiency of soil additives, such as superabsorbent hydrogel particles. Our studies show that the shape of the retained water curve for a soil packing with hydrogel particle additives strongly depends on the location and the concentration of the hydrogel particles in the model sandy soil. By carefully choosing the particle size and distribution methods, we may use the swollen hydrogel particles to modify the soil pore structure, to clog or extend the water channels in sandy soils, or to build water reservoirs in the plant root zone.

  11. Floodplain ecohydrology: Climatic, anthropogenic, and local physical controls on partitioning of water sources to riparian trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Michael Bliss; Sargeant, Christopher I.; Piégay, Hervé; Riquier, Jérémie; Wilson, Rob J. S.; Evans, Cristina M.

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal and annual partitioning of water within river floodplains has important implications for ecohydrologic links between the water cycle and tree growth. Climatic and hydrologic shifts alter water distribution between floodplain storage reservoirs (e.g., vadose, phreatic), affecting water availability to tree roots. Water partitioning is also dependent on the physical conditions that control tree rooting depth (e.g., gravel layers that impede root growth), the sources of contributing water, the rate of water drainage, and water residence times within particular storage reservoirs. We employ instrumental climate records alongside oxygen isotopes within tree rings and regional source waters, as well as topographic data and soil depth measurements, to infer the water sources used over several decades by two co-occurring tree species within a riparian floodplain along the Rhône River in France. We find that water partitioning to riparian trees is influenced by annual (wet versus dry years) and seasonal (spring snowmelt versus spring rainfall) fluctuations in climate. This influence depends strongly on local (tree level) conditions including floodplain surface elevation and subsurface gravel layer elevation. The latter represents the upper limit of the phreatic zone and therefore controls access to shallow groundwater. The difference between them, the thickness of the vadose zone, controls total soil moisture retention capacity. These factors thus modulate the climatic influence on tree ring isotopes. Additionally, we identified growth signatures and tree ring isotope changes associated with recent restoration of minimum streamflows in the Rhône, which made new phreatic water sources available to some trees in otherwise dry years.

  12. Floodplain ecohydrology: Climatic, anthropogenic, and local physical controls on partitioning of water sources to riparian trees.

    PubMed

    Singer, Michael Bliss; Sargeant, Christopher I; Piégay, Hervé; Riquier, Jérémie; Wilson, Rob J S; Evans, Cristina M

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal and annual partitioning of water within river floodplains has important implications for ecohydrologic links between the water cycle and tree growth. Climatic and hydrologic shifts alter water distribution between floodplain storage reservoirs (e.g., vadose, phreatic), affecting water availability to tree roots. Water partitioning is also dependent on the physical conditions that control tree rooting depth (e.g., gravel layers that impede root growth), the sources of contributing water, the rate of water drainage, and water residence times within particular storage reservoirs. We employ instrumental climate records alongside oxygen isotopes within tree rings and regional source waters, as well as topographic data and soil depth measurements, to infer the water sources used over several decades by two co-occurring tree species within a riparian floodplain along the Rhône River in France. We find that water partitioning to riparian trees is influenced by annual (wet versus dry years) and seasonal (spring snowmelt versus spring rainfall) fluctuations in climate. This influence depends strongly on local (tree level) conditions including floodplain surface elevation and subsurface gravel layer elevation. The latter represents the upper limit of the phreatic zone and therefore controls access to shallow groundwater. The difference between them, the thickness of the vadose zone, controls total soil moisture retention capacity. These factors thus modulate the climatic influence on tree ring isotopes. Additionally, we identified growth signatures and tree ring isotope changes associated with recent restoration of minimum streamflows in the Rhône, which made new phreatic water sources available to some trees in otherwise dry years.

  13. Geochemical Investigation of Source Water to Cave Springs, Great Basin National Park, White Pine County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.; Glancy, Patrick A.

    2009-01-01

    Cave Springs supply the water for the Lehman Caves Visitor Center at Great Basin National Park, which is about 60 miles east of Ely, Nevada, in White Pine County. The source of water to the springs was investigated to evaluate the potential depletion caused by ground-water pumping in areas east of the park and to consider means to protect the supply from contamination. Cave Springs are a collection of several small springs that discharge from alluvial and glacial deposits near the contact between quartzite and granite. Four of the largest springs are diverted into a water-collection system for the park. Water from Cave Springs had more dissolved strontium, calcium, and bicarbonate, and a heavier value of carbon-13 than water from Marmot Spring at the contact between quartzite and granite near Baker Creek campground indicating that limestone had dissolved into water at Cave Springs prior to discharging. The source of the limestone at Cave Springs was determined to be rounded gravels from a pit near Baker, Nevada, which was placed around the springs during the reconstruction of the water-collection system in 1996. Isotopic compositions of water at Cave Springs and Marmot Spring indicate that the source of water to these springs primarily is from winter precipitation. Mixing of water at Cave Springs between alluvial and glacial deposits along Lehman Creek and water from quartzite is unlikely because deuterium and oxygen-18 values from a spring discharging from the alluvial and glacial deposits near upper Lehman Creek campground were heavier than the deuterium and oxygen-18 values from Cave Springs. Additionally, the estimated mean age of water determined from chlorofluorocarbon concentrations indicates water discharging from the spring near upper Lehman Creek campground is younger than that discharging from either Cave Springs or Marmot Spring. The source of water at Cave Springs is from quartzite and water discharges from the springs on the upstream side of the

  14. The Recreational Water Cycle: From Source Water to Tap Water to Spa and Swimming Pool Water: Effects of Disinfectants and Precursors and Implications for Exposure and Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current study investigates the effect of different disinfection treatments on the disinfection by-products (DBPs) formed in finished drinking water vs. tap water vs. swimming pool water vs. spa waters. To this end, complete water pathway samples (untreated source waters ->fi...

  15. Water quality variables and pollution sources shaping stream macroinvertebrate communities.

    PubMed

    Berger, Elisabeth; Haase, Peter; Kuemmerlen, Mathias; Leps, Moritz; Schäfer, Ralf Bernhard; Sundermann, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    In 2015, over 90 percent of German rivers failed to reach a good ecological status as demanded by the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). Deficits in water quality, mainly from diffuse pollution such as agricultural run-off, but also from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), have been suggested as important drivers of this decline in ecological quality. We modelled six macroinvertebrate based metrics indicating ecological quality for 184 streams in response to a) PCA-derived water quality gradients, b) individual water quality variables and c) catchment land use and wastewater exposure indices as pollution drivers. The aim was to evaluate the relative importance of key water quality variables and their sources. Indicator substances (i.e. carbamazepine and caffeine indicating wastewater exposure; herbicides indicating agricultural run-off) represented micropollutants in the analyses and successfully related water quality variables to pollution sources. Arable and urban catchment land covers were strongly associated with reduced ecological quality. Electric conductivity, oxygen concentration, caffeine, silicate and toxic units with respect to pesticides were identified as the most significant in-stream predictors in this order. Our results underline the importance to manage diffuse pollution, if ecological quality is to be improved. However, we also found a clear impact of wastewater on ecological quality through caffeine. Thus, improvement of WWTPs, especially preventing the release of poorly treated wastewater, will benefit freshwater communities.

  16. Modeling the contribution of point sources and non-point sources to Thachin River water pollution.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, Monika; Bader, Hans-Peter; Scheidegger, Ruth

    2009-08-15

    Major rivers in developing and emerging countries suffer increasingly of severe degradation of water quality. The current study uses a mathematical Material Flow Analysis (MMFA) as a complementary approach to address the degradation of river water quality due to nutrient pollution in the Thachin River Basin in Central Thailand. This paper gives an overview of the origins and flow paths of the various point- and non-point pollution sources in the Thachin River Basin (in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus) and quantifies their relative importance within the system. The key parameters influencing the main nutrient flows are determined and possible mitigation measures discussed. The results show that aquaculture (as a point source) and rice farming (as a non-point source) are the key nutrient sources in the Thachin River Basin. Other point sources such as pig farms, households and industries, which were previously cited as the most relevant pollution sources in terms of organic pollution, play less significant roles in comparison. This order of importance shifts when considering the model results for the provincial level. Crosschecks with secondary data and field studies confirm the plausibility of our simulations. Specific nutrient loads for the pollution sources are derived; these can be used for a first broad quantification of nutrient pollution in comparable river basins. Based on an identification of the sensitive model parameters, possible mitigation scenarios are determined and their potential to reduce the nutrient load evaluated. A comparison of simulated nutrient loads with measured nutrient concentrations shows that nutrient retention in the river system may be significant. Sedimentation in the slow flowing surface water network as well as nitrogen emission to the air from the warm oxygen deficient waters are certainly partly responsible, but also wetlands along the river banks could play an important role as nutrient sinks.

  17. Toward a mechanistic understanding of the effect of biochar addition on soil water retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, S.; Chang, N.; Guo, M.; Imhoff, P. T.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar (BC) is a carbon-rich product produced by thermal degradation of biomass in an oxygen-free environment, whose application to sediment is said to improve water retention. However, BC produced from different feedstocks and pyrolyzed at different temperatures have distinct properties, which may alter water retention in ways difficult to predict a priori. Our goal is to develop a mechanistic understanding of BC addition on water retention by examining the impact of BC from two feedstocks, poultry litter (PL) and hardwood (HW), on the soil-water retention curves (SWRC) of a uniform sand and a sandy loam (SL). For experiments with sand, BC and sand were sieved to the same particle size (~ 0.547 mm) to minimize effects of BC addition on particle size distribution. Experiments with SL contained the same sieved BC. PL and HW bicohars were added at 2 and 7% (w/w), and water retention was measured from 0 to -4.38 × 106 cm-H2O. Both BCs increased porosities for sand and SL, up to 39 and 13% for sand and SL, respectively, with 7% HW BC addition. The primary cause for these increases was the internal porosity of BC particles. While the matric potential for air-entry was unchanged with BC addition, BC amendment increased water retention for sand and SL in the capillary region (0 to -15,000 cm-H2O) by an average of 26 and 33 % for 7% PL and HW BC in sand, respectively, but only 7 and 14 % for 7% PL and HW BC in SL. The most dramatic influence of BC amendment on water retention occurred in the adsorption region (< -15,000 cm-H2O), where water retention increased by a factor of 11 and 22 for 7% PL and HW BC in sand, respectively, but by 140 and 190 % for 7% PL and HW BC in SL, respectively. The impact of BC on water retention in these sediments is explained primarily by the additional surface area and internal porosity of PL and HW BC particles. van Genuchten (VG) models were fitted to the water retention data. For SL where the impact of BC addition on water retention was

  18. Public water supplies of North Carolina : a summary of water sources, use, treatment, and capacity of water-supply systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.T.

    1978-01-01

    Data were collected during 1970-76 on 224 public water supply systems in North Carolina with 500 or more customers. This report summarizes these data that were previously published in five separate regional reports. The data are presented in order to Council of Government region, county, and water system name and include population served, average and maximum daily use, industrial use, water source, allowable draft of surface-water supplies, raw water pumping capacity, raw and finished water storage, type of water treatment, treatment plant capacity, and a summary of the chemical quality of finished water. Tables and maps provide cross references for system names, counties, Council of Government regions and water source.

  19. Experimental investigation on water quality standard of Yangtze River water source heat pump.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zenghu; Tong, Mingwei; Kun, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the surface water in the upper reaches of Yangtze River in China containing large amounts of silt and algae, high content of microorganisms and suspended solids, the water in Yangtze River cannot be used for cooling a heat pump directly. In this paper, the possibility of using Yangtze River, which goes through Chongqing, a city in southwest China, as a heat source-sink was investigated. Water temperature and quality of the Yangtze River in the Chongqing area were analyzed and the performance of water source heat pump units in different sediment concentrations, turbidity and algae material conditions were tested experimentally, and the water quality standards, in particular surface water conditions, in the Yangtze River region that adapt to energy-efficient heat pumps were also proposed. The experimental results show that the coefficient of performance heat pump falls by 3.73% to the greatest extent, and the fouling resistance of cooling water in the heat exchanger increases up to 25.6% in different water conditions. When the sediment concentration and the turbidity in the river water are no more than 100 g/m3 and 50 NTU respectively, the performance of the heat pump is better, which can be used as a suitable river water quality standard for river water source heat pumps.

  20. Multiple sources of boron in urban surface waters and groundwaters.

    PubMed

    Hasenmueller, Elizabeth A; Criss, Robert E

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies attribute abnormal boron (B) levels in streams and groundwaters to wastewater and fertilizer inputs. This study shows that municipal drinking water used for lawn irrigation contributes substantial non-point loads of B and other chemicals (S-species, Li, and Cu) to surface waters and shallow groundwaters in the St. Louis, Missouri, area. Background levels and potential B sources were characterized by analysis of lawn and street runoff, streams, rivers, springs, local rainfall, wastewater influent and effluent, and fertilizers. Urban surface waters and groundwaters are highly enriched in B (to 250μg/L) compared to background levels found in rain and pristine, carbonate-hosted streams and springs (<25μg/L), but have similar concentrations (150 to 259μg/L) compared to municipal drinking waters derived from the Missouri River. Other data including B/SO4(2-)-S and B/Li ratios confirm major contributions from this source. Moreover, sequential samples of runoff collected during storms show that B concentrations decrease with increased discharge, proving that elevated B levels are not primarily derived from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) during flooding. Instead, non-point source B exhibits complex behavior depending on land use. In urban settings B is rapidly mobilized from lawns during "first flush" events, likely representing surficial salt residues from drinking water used to irrigate lawns, and is also associated with the baseflow fraction, likely derived from the shallow groundwater reservoir that over time accumulates B from drinking water that percolates into the subsurface. The opposite occurs in small rural watersheds, where B is leached from soils by recent rainfall and covaries with the event water fraction.

  1. Protozoal pollution of surface water sources in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elshazly, Attef M; Elsheikha, Hany M; Soltan, Doaa M; Mohammad, Khairy A; Morsy, Tosson A

    2007-04-01

    Water samples were collected different water sources and different districts of Dakahlia G., from September 2005 to August 2006, were investigated for pathogenic protozoa. Water specimens were examined by concentration technique followed by modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) and Truant auramine-rhodamine (AR) stains for Giardia sp. cysts, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts, and other protozoa species. In the 1st survey, 94/480 (19.6%) water samples had protozoa. Prevalence rates were in summer 38/120 (31.6%), autumn 27/ 120 (22.5%), spring 20/ 120 (16.6%) and lastly winter 9/120 (7.5%). Protozoa were less common in treated potable water tanks 15/120 (12.5%), followed by River Nile (Demiatta branch) 22/120 (18.3%) and sub-branch Bahr-El-Saghear 24/120 (20%). The highest prevalence was in water of the main local draining 33/120 (27.5%). In the 2nd survey, 840 potable water samples from seven districts were examined. Prevalence in descending order was C. parvum (3.1%), G. intestinalis (2.1%), E. histolytica (1%), Blastocystis homi-nis (1%), Iodamoeba sp, (0.5%), Isospora belli (0.47%), E. coli (0.36%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (0.24%), and Chilomastix mesnilli (0.12%). Data suggested that C. parvum and G. intestinalis were the commonest disease-agent. The implementation of preventive measures to protect water system from protozoa contamination was given.

  2. Recycled water sources influence the bioavailability of copper to earthworms.

    PubMed

    Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Bolan, Nanthi S; Naidu, Ravi; Kim, Won-Il

    2013-10-15

    Re-use of wastewaters can overcome shortfalls in irrigation demand and mitigate environmental pollution. However, in an untreated or partially treated state, these water sources can introduce inorganic contaminants, including heavy metals, to soils that are irrigated. In this study, earthworms (Eisenia fetida) have been used to determine copper (Cu) bioavailability in two contrasting soils irrigated with farm dairy, piggery and winery effluents. Soils spiked with varying levels of Cu (0-1,000 mg/kg) were subsequently irrigated with recycled waters and Milli-Q (MQ) water and Cu bioavailability to earthworms determined by mortality and avoidance tests. Earthworms clearly avoided high Cu soils and the effect was more pronounced in the absence than presence of recycled water irrigation. At the highest Cu concentration (1,000 mg/kg), worm mortality was 100% when irrigated with MQ-water; however, when irrigated with recycled waters, mortality decreased by 30%. Accumulation of Cu in earthworms was significantly less in the presence of recycled water and was dependent on CaCl2-extractable free Cu(2+) concentration in the soil. Here, it is evident that organic carbon in recycled waters was effective in decreasing the toxic effects of Cu on earthworms, indicating that the metal-organic complexes decreased Cu bioavailability to earthworms.

  3. Sources of nitrate in ground water in a sewered housing development, Central Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flipse, W.J.; Katz, B.G.; Lindner, J.B.; Markel, R.

    1984-01-01

    Nitrate concentrations in ground water on Long Island, New York, have increased markedly in the last 30 years. A significant amount of this increase has been attributed to lawn and garden fertilizers in addition to cesspool and septic-tank discharges. The increase in nitrate concentration is of particular concern in the central and eastern part of the island, where ground water is the sole source of drinking water. Ground-water samples were collected from 14 wells screened near the water table in the sewered Twelve Pines housing development constructed in Medford, Suffolk County, in 1970. Samples were collected during 1972-79 and analyzed for total ammonium, organic nitrogen, and nitrate. Statistical analyses indicate that concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen in water from 10 of the wells increased significantly during 1972-79; those in water from the other four wells did not. Nitrogen loads were estimated to be 2,300 kg/yr from fertilizers, less than 80 kg/yr from irrigation water, 200 kg/yr from animals, and less than 670 kg/yr from precipitation. Leakage from sewers was considered negligible. Nitrate-nitrogen isotope ratios also suggest that the greatest source of nitrogen is from cultivation sources (either mineralized soil nitrogen or fertilizers) rather than human or animal wastes.

  4. Evaluating the influence of source basins on downstream water quality in the Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, G.M.; Broshears, R.E.; Hooper, R.P.; Goolsby, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Chemical variability in the Mississippi River during water years 1989 to 1998 was evaluated using stream discharge and water-quality data in conjunction with the DAFLOW/BLTM hydraulic model. Model simulations were used to identify subbasin contributions of water and chemical constituents to the Mississippi River upstream from its confluence with the Ohio and the Mississippi River and at the Atchafalaya Diversion in Louisiana. Concentrations of dissolved solids, sodium, and sulfate at the Thebes site showed a general decreasing trend, and concentrations of silica and nitrate showed a general increasing trend as the percentage of discharge from the Mississippi River upstream from Grafton increased. Concentrations of most chemical constituents in the Mississippi River at the Atchafalaya Diversion exhibited a decreasing trend as the percentage of water from the Ohio River increased. Regression models were used to evaluate the importance of the source of water to the water chemistry in the Mississippi River at Thebes and the Atchafalaya Diversion. The addition of terms in regression equations to account for the percent of water from subbasins improved coefficients of determination for predicting chemical concentrations by as much as nine percent at the Thebes site and by as much as 48 percent at the Atchafalaya Diversion site. The addition of source-water terms to regression equations increased the estimated annual loads of nitrate and silica delivered from the Mississippi River Basin to the Gulf of Mexico by as much as 14 and 13 percent, respectively.

  5. Quality of source water and drinking water in urban areas of Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Yatsuka; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2013-01-01

    Myanmar is one of the least developed countries in the world, and very little information is available regarding the nation's water quality. This report gives an overview of the current situation in the country, presenting the results of various water-quality assessments in urban areas of Myanmar. River, dam, lake, and well water sources were examined and found to be of generally good quality. Both As and F(-) were present in relatively high concentrations and must be removed before deep wells are used. Heterotrophic plate counts in drinking water were highest in public pots, followed by nonpiped tap water, piped tap water, and bottled water. Measures need to be taken to improve low-quality water in pots and nonpiped tap waters.

  6. Quality of Source Water and Drinking Water in Urban Areas of Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Yatsuka; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2013-01-01

    Myanmar is one of the least developed countries in the world, and very little information is available regarding the nation's water quality. This report gives an overview of the current situation in the country, presenting the results of various water-quality assessments in urban areas of Myanmar. River, dam, lake, and well water sources were examined and found to be of generally good quality. Both As and F− were present in relatively high concentrations and must be removed before deep wells are used. Heterotrophic plate counts in drinking water were highest in public pots, followed by nonpiped tap water, piped tap water, and bottled water. Measures need to be taken to improve low-quality water in pots and nonpiped tap waters. PMID:23844413

  7. Modeling of water radiolysis at spallation neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Daemen, L.L.; Kanner, G.S.; Lillard, R.S.; Butt, D.P.; Brun, T.O.; Sommer, W.F.

    1998-12-01

    In spallation neutron sources neutrons are produced when a beam of high-energy particles (e.g., 1 GeV protons) collides with a (water-cooled) heavy metal target such as tungsten. The resulting spallation reactions produce a complex radiation environment (which differs from typical conditions at fission and fusion reactors) leading to the radiolysis of water molecules. Most water radiolysis products are short-lived but extremely reactive. When formed in the vicinity of the target surface they can react with metal atoms, thereby contributing to target corrosion. The authors describe the results of calculations and experiments performed at los alamos to determine the impact on target corrosion of water radiolysis in the spallation radiation environment. The computational methodology relies on the use of the Los Alamos radiation transport code, LAHET, to determine the radiation environment, and the AEA code, FACSIMILE, to model reaction-diffusion processes.

  8. Characterization of precursors to trihalomethanes formation in Bangkok source water.

    PubMed

    Panyapinyopol, Bunyarit; Marhaba, Taha F; Kanokkantapong, Vorapot; Pavasant, Prasert

    2005-04-11

    Resin adsorption techniques using three types of resin (DAX-8, AG-MP-50, and WA-10) were employed to characterize the raw water (RW) from the major 3 million m3/day (793 million gal/day) drinking water treatment plant in Bangkok, Thailand. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) mass distribution sequences of the six organic fractions in raw water, from high to low, were hydrophilic neutral (HPIN), hydrophobic acid (HPOA), hydrophilic acid (HPIA), hydrophobic neutral (HPON), hydrophilic base (HPIB), and hydrophobic base (HPOB). HPIN and HPOA were the two main precursors for trihalomethanes formation (THMFP) in this water source following chlorination. The chlorination of HPON and HPIN fractions only led to the formation of mostly chloroform, while other organic fractions formed both chloroform and bromodichloromethane. The linear dependency between each organic fraction concentration and THMFP indicated that the reactions of each organic fraction with chlorine were first-order.

  9. An assessment of global net irrigation water requirements from various water supply sources to sustain irrigation: rivers and reservoirs (1960-2000 and 2050)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Cho, J.; Yamada, H. G.; Hanasaki, N.; Khajuria, A.; Kanae, S.

    2013-01-01

    Water supply sources for irrigation, such as rivers, reservoirs, and groundwater, are critically important for agricultural productivity. The current rapid increase in irrigation water use threatens sustainable food production. In this study, we estimated the time-varying dependency of the supply of irrigation water from rivers, large reservoirs with a greater than 1.0 km3 storage capacity, medium-size reservoirs with storage capacities ranging from 1.0 km3 to 3.0 Mm3, and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW), particularly taking into account variations in irrigation area during the period 1960-2000. We also estimated the future irrigation water requirements from water supply sources in addition to these four sources, using an irrigation area scenario. The net irrigation water requirements from various supply sources were assessed using the global H08 water resources model. The H08 model simulates water requirements on a daily basis at a resolution of 1.0° × 1.0°. We obtained net irrigation water from rivers and medium-size reservoirs, and determined that the NNBW increased continuously from 1960 to 1985, but the net irrigation water from large reservoirs increased only marginally. After 1985, the net irrigation water from rivers approached a critical limit with the continued expansion of the irrigation area. The irrigation water requirements from medium-size reservoirs and NNBW increased significantly following the expansion of the irrigation area and the increased storage capacity of medium-size reservoirs. Under the irrigation area scenario without climate change, global net irrigation water requirements from additional water supply sources will account for 26% of the total requirements in the year 2050. We found that expansion of irrigation areas due to population growth will generate an enormous demand for irrigation water from additional resources.

  10. Elite sport is not an additional source of distress for adolescents with high stress levels.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Brand, Serge

    2011-04-01

    This study examined whether participation in elite sport interacts with stress in decreasing or increasing symptoms of depression and anxiety among adolescents, and further, whether the interplay between participation in high-performance sport and stress is related to the perceived quality of sleep. 434 adolescents (278 girls, 156 boys; age: M = 17.2 yr.) from 15 "Swiss Olympic Sport Classes" and 9 conventional classes answered a questionnaire and completed a 7-day sleep log. Analyses of covariance showed that heightened stress was related to more depressive symptoms and higher scores for trait-anxiety. Moreover, those classified as having poor sleep by a median split cutoff reported higher levels of depressive symptoms. No significant (multivariate) main effects were found for high-performance sport athletes. Similarly, no significant two- or three-way interaction effects were found. These results caution against exaggerated expectations concerning sport participation as a stress buffer. Nevertheless, participation in high-performance sport was not found to be an additional source of distress for adolescents who reported high stress levels despite prior research that has pointed toward such a relationship.

  11. Water: from the source to the treatment plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baude, I.; Marquet, V.

    2012-04-01

    Isabelle BAUDE isa.baude@free.fr Lycee français de Vienne Liechtensteinstrasse 37AVienna As a physics and chemistry teacher, I have worked on water from the source to the treatment plant with 27 pupils between 14 and 15 years old enrolled in the option "Science and laboratory". The objectives of this option are to interest students in science, to introduce them to practical methods of laboratory analyses, and let them use computer technology. Teaching takes place every two weeks and lasts 1.5 hours. The theme of water is a common project with the biology and geology teacher, Mrs. Virginie Marquet. Lesson 1: Introduction: The water in Vienna The pupils have to consider why the water is so important in Vienna (history, economy etc.) and where tap water comes from. Activities: Brainstorming about where and why we use water every day and why the water is different in Vienna. Lesson 2: Objectives of the session: What are the differences between mineral waters? Activities: Compare water from different origins (France: Evian, Vittel, Contrex. Austria: Vöslauer, Juvina, Gasteiner and tap water from Vienna) by tasting and finding the main ions they contain. Testing ions: Calcium, magnesium, sulphate, chloride, sodium, and potassium Lesson 3: Objectives of the session: Build a hydrometer Activities: Producing a range of calibration solutions, build and calibrate the hydrometer with different salt-water solutions. Measure the density of the Dead Sea's water and other mineral waters. Lesson 4: Objectives of the session: How does a fountain work? Activities: Construction of a fountain as Heron of Alexandria with simple equipment and try to understand the hydrostatic principles. Lesson 5: Objectives of the session: Study of the physical processes of water treatment (decantation, filtration, screening) Activities: Build a natural filter with sand, stone, carbon, and cotton wool. Retrieve the filtered water to test it during lesson 7. Lesson 6: Visit of the biggest treatment

  12. Nitrogen addition and clonal integration alleviate water stress of dependent ramets of Indocalamus decorus under heterogeneous soil water environment

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zi-Wu; Hu, Jun-Jing; Chen, Shuang-Lin; Li, Ying-Chun; Yang, Qing-Ping; Cai, Han-Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Water and nitrogen are two of the most important factors for plant growth and development. However, little is known about effects of N on water translocation between connected bamboo ramets. We performed experiment connected Indocalamus decorus ramets in adjacent pots with different soil water contents and three N levels. We determined antioxidase activities, concentration of osmotic adjustment products, O2·−, MDA and photosynthetic pigments, and electrolyte leakage rate in paired unit. When N supply to supporting ramets increased, their electrolyte leakage rates and contents of O2·− and MDA significantly increased, while antioxidase activities and contents of osmotic adjustment products and photosynthetic pigments in connected dependent ramets increased markedly as their electrolyte leakage rates and contents of O2·− and MDA decreased greatly. When N addition to dependent ramets increased, antioxidant enzyme activity and contents of osmotic adjustment products and photosynthetic pigments decreased in both ramets, but electrolyte leakage rates and O2·− and MDA contents increased significantly. Therefore, N addition to either supporting or dependent ramets can improve water integration among I. decorus ramets. N addition to supporting ramets promotes water translocation and alleviates water stress of dependent ramets, but N addition to dependent ramets exacerbates drought stress damage to dependent ramets. PMID:28295023

  13. Nitrogen addition and clonal integration alleviate water stress of dependent ramets of Indocalamus decorus under heterogeneous soil water environment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zi-Wu; Hu, Jun-Jing; Chen, Shuang-Lin; Li, Ying-Chun; Yang, Qing-Ping; Cai, Han-Jiang

    2017-03-15

    Water and nitrogen are two of the most important factors for plant growth and development. However, little is known about effects of N on water translocation between connected bamboo ramets. We performed experiment connected Indocalamus decorus ramets in adjacent pots with different soil water contents and three N levels. We determined antioxidase activities, concentration of osmotic adjustment products, O2·(-), MDA and photosynthetic pigments, and electrolyte leakage rate in paired unit. When N supply to supporting ramets increased, their electrolyte leakage rates and contents of O2·(-) and MDA significantly increased, while antioxidase activities and contents of osmotic adjustment products and photosynthetic pigments in connected dependent ramets increased markedly as their electrolyte leakage rates and contents of O2·(-) and MDA decreased greatly. When N addition to dependent ramets increased, antioxidant enzyme activity and contents of osmotic adjustment products and photosynthetic pigments decreased in both ramets, but electrolyte leakage rates and O2·(-) and MDA contents increased significantly. Therefore, N addition to either supporting or dependent ramets can improve water integration among I. decorus ramets. N addition to supporting ramets promotes water translocation and alleviates water stress of dependent ramets, but N addition to dependent ramets exacerbates drought stress damage to dependent ramets.

  14. Feasibility study of broadband efficient ''water window'' source

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru; Otsuka, Takamitsu; Jiang Weihua; Endo, Akira; Li Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2012-01-02

    We demonstrate a table-top broadband emission water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) in the 2-4 nm region, extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). Arrays resulting from n=4-n=4 transitions are overlaid with n=4-n=5 emission and shift to shorter wavelength with increasing atomic number. An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on a bismuth plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics.

  15. Sump additives as a source of bioaerosols in a school building.

    PubMed

    Thorne, P S

    1993-04-01

    An investigation was launched following complaints of poor air quality and building-related illness in a public elementary school. Occlusion of air intakes put the building under negative pressure and caused vents from a below-ground sump to become air intakes. Outside air drawn through the sump pit traveled into the adjacent main air handling unit and was disseminated throughout the building. Sump additives introduced in an attempt to counteract foul odors contained spores of Bacillus species, which appeared as bioaerosols throughout the school. Viable microbial sampling identified B subtilis, B cereus, and B licheniformis in the sump room and classrooms at levels as high as 760 colony forming units/m3 (CFU/m3). Concentrations of CO2 in classrooms were 1250 ppm, indicating inadequate makeup air. Remediation was accomplished by opening the air intakes, isolating the sump room from the air handling system, venting the sump to the outside, and flushing the sump with fresh water on a regular basis.

  16. Stable Isotope Mixing Models as a Tool for Tracking Sources of Water and Water Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    One goal of monitoring pollutants is to be able to trace the pollutant to its source. Here we review how mixing models using stable isotope information on water and water pollutants can help accomplish this goal. A number of elements exist in multiple stable (non-radioactive) i...

  17. Water quality in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, 2005-8

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    2015-01-01

    During 2005-8, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Water Department, measured concentrations of sodium and chloride, plant nutrients, commonly used pesticides, and caffeine in base-flow and stormwater samples collected from 11 tributaries in the Cambridge drinking-water source area. These data were used to characterize current water-quality conditions, to establish a baseline for future comparisons, and to describe trends in surface-water quality. The data also were used to assess the effects of watershed characteristics on surface-water quality and to inform future watershed management.

  18. Evaluation of Genotoxic and Mutagenic Activity of Organic Extracts from Drinking Water Sources.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ying; Wang, Xiaodong; Wong, Minghung; Sun, Guoping; An, Taicheng; Guo, Jun; Zhang, Guoxia

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of industrial, agricultural and commercial chemicals in the aquatic environment lead to various deleterious effects on organisms, which is becoming a serious global health concern. In this study, the Ames test and SOS/umu test were conducted to investigate the potential genotoxicity and mutagenicity caused by organic extracts from drinking water sources. Organic content of source water was extracted with XAD-2 resin column and organic solvents. Four doses of the extract equivalent to 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2L of source water were tested for toxicity. All the water samples were collected from six different locations in Guangdong province. The results of the Ames test and SOS/umu test showed that all the organic extracts from the water samples could induce different levels of DNA damage and mutagenic potentials at the dose of 2 L in the absence of S9 mix, which demonstrated the existence of genotoxicity and mutagenicity. Additionally, we found that Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 was more sensitive for the mutagen. Correlation analysis between genotoxicity, Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) showed that most individual OCPs were frame shift toxicants in drinking water sources, and there was no correlation with total OCPs and PAHs.

  19. Evaluation of Genotoxic and Mutagenic Activity of Organic Extracts from Drinking Water Sources

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Ying; Wang, Xiaodong; Wong, Minghung; Sun, Guoping; An, Taicheng; Guo, Jun

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of industrial, agricultural and commercial chemicals in the aquatic environment lead to various deleterious effects on organisms, which is becoming a serious global health concern. In this study, the Ames test and SOS/umu test were conducted to investigate the potential genotoxicity and mutagenicity caused by organic extracts from drinking water sources. Organic content of source water was extracted with XAD-2 resin column and organic solvents. Four doses of the extract equivalent to 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2L of source water were tested for toxicity. All the water samples were collected from six different locations in Guangdong province. The results of the Ames test and SOS/umu test showed that all the organic extracts from the water samples could induce different levels of DNA damage and mutagenic potentials at the dose of 2 L in the absence of S9 mix, which demonstrated the existence of genotoxicity and mutagenicity. Additionally, we found that Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 was more sensitive for the mutagen. Correlation analysis between genotoxicity, Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) showed that most individual OCPs were frame shift toxicants in drinking water sources, and there was no correlation with total OCPs and PAHs. PMID:28125725

  20. The water environment as a source of potentially pathogenic mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Makovcova, Jitka; Slany, Michal; Babak, Vladimir; Slana, Iva; Kralik, Petr

    2014-06-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous organisms of a wide variety of environmental reservoirs, including natural and municipal water, soil, aerosols, protozoans, animals and humans. Several of these species are potential pathogens which affect human health. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of NTM in the water environment. Samples were taken from 13 water-related facilities including fish ponds, storage ponds, drinking water reservoirs and an experimental recirculation system. Altogether, 396 samples of water, sediment and aquatic plants were collected and analysed. All samples were examined using conventional culture methods. Suspected microbial isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction analysis and identified using partial sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA gene. The culture revealed 94/396 samples (23.7%) that contained mycobacteria. Among known NTM we identified potentially pathogenic mycobacteria isolated from the fresh water environment for the first time: Mycobacterium asiaticum, M. chimaera, M. interjectum, M. kumamotonense, M. lentiflavum, M. montefiorense, M. nebraskense, M. paraffinicum and M. simiae. Epidemiologic studies suggest that the natural water environment is the principal source of human exposure. Our results indicate that besides the well-known potentially pathogenic mycobacteria it is important to observe occurrence, proliferation and persistence of newly discovered mycobacterial species.

  1. Improvement of organics removal by bio-ceramic filtration of raw water with addition of phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Sang, Junqiang; Zhang, Xihui; Li, Lingzhi; Wang, Zhansheng

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of phosphorus addition on biological pretreatment of raw water. Experiments were conducted in pilot-scale bio-ceramic filters with raw water from a reservoir located in Beijing, China. The results demonstrated that phosphorus was the limiting nutrient for bacterial growth in the raw water investigated in this study. The measured values of bacterial regrowth potential (BRP) and biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) of the raw water increased by 50-65% and 30-40% with addition of 50 microg of PO4(3-)-PL(-1), respectively. Addition of 25 microg of PO4(3-)-PL(-1) to the influent of bio-ceramic filter enhanced the percent removal of organics by 4.6, 5.7 and 15 percentage points in terms of COD(Mn), TOC and BDOC, respectively. Biomass in terms of phospholipid content increased by 13-22% and oxygen uptake rate (OUR) increased by 35-45%. The ratio of C:P for bacteria growth was 100:1.6 for the raw water used in this study. Since change of phosphorus concentrations can influence the performance of biological pretreatment and the biological stability of drinking water, this study is of substantial significance for waterworks in China. The role of phosphorus in biological processes of drinking water should deserve more attention.

  2. Solar neutrinos and the influences of opacity, thermal instability, additional neutrino sources, and a central black hole on solar models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.; Ezer, D.

    1972-01-01

    Significant quantities that affect the internal structure of the sun are examined for factors that reduce the temperature near the sun's center. The four factors discussed are: opacity, central black hole, thermal instability, and additional neutrino sources.

  3. Critical issues with cryogenic water extraction for tracing plant's source water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlowski, Natalie; Winkler, Anna; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Numerous scientists and disciplines around the world are applying stable water isotope techniques-, especially in the ecohydrological context. For more than two decades, cryogenic vacuum extraction has been the most widely used method for obtaining water from soils and plant tissues for isotope analysis. Recent findings suggested that cryogenic extraction conditions (extraction time, temperature, vacuum threshold) and physicochemical soil properties considerably affected the extracted soil water isotope results. The key question therefore is: Which soil water pool/s are we actually extracting cryogenically under certain extraction conditions and is this soil water pool the source of plant water uptake? We conducted a greenhouse trial with two different plant species grown on two physicochemically different soils (sandy soil and clayey loam) to test the effects of varying cryogenic extraction conditions and physicochemical soil properties on extracted soil water isotope results. We further aimed to identify the unique soil water isotopic signature which mirrors plant's water source. We sampled root crowns and an aliquot of the first and second soil layer for cryogenic water extraction. To determine the plant water available soil water pool/s, we varied water extraction parameters (time and temperature). Our dual-isotope study showed that physicochemical soil properties (i.e. clay content, pore size) along with extraction parameters lead to isotope fractionation effects of soil water. Extraction temperature and time significantly impacted isotope results of clayey loam samples but no effect could be observed for the sandy soil. In general, for water extracts of both soil types, longer extraction times and higher temperatures resulted in enriched isotopic signatures, although this influence was more pronounced for the clayey loam. Determining ideal soil water extraction parameters to identify plant available soil water pools revealed that extraction settings of 200

  4. External Sources of Water for Mercury's Putative Ice Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Julianne I.; Rawlins, Katherine; Zahnle, Kevin; Dones, Luke

    1999-01-01

    Radar images have revealed the possible presence of ice deposits in Mercury's polar regions. Although thermal models indicate that water ice can be stable in permanently shaded regions near Mercury's poles, the ultimate source of the water remains unclear. We use stochastic models and other theoretical methods to investigate the role of external sources in supplying Mercury with the requisite amount of water. By extrapolating the current terrestrial influx of interplanetary dust particles to that at Mercury, we find that continual micrometeoritic bombardment of Mercury over the last 3.5 byr could have resulted in the delivery of (3-60) x 10(exp 16) grams of water ice to the permanently shaded regions at Mercury's poles (equivalent to an average ice thickness of 0.8-20 m). Erosion by micrometeoritic impact on exposed ice deposits could reduce the above value by about a half. For comparison, the current ice deposits on Mercury are believed to be somewhere between approx. 2 and 20 m thick. Using a Monte Carlo model to simulate the impact history of Mercury, we find that asteroids and comets can also deliver an amount of water consistent with the observations. Impacts from Jupiter-family comets over the last 3.5 billion years can supply (0.1-200) x 10(exp 16) grams of water to Mercury's polar regions (corresponding to ice deposits 0.05-60 m thick), Halley-type comets can supply (0.2-20) x 10(exp 16) grams of water to the poles (0.07-7 m of ice), and asteroids can provide (0.4-20) x 10(exp 16) grams of water to the poles (0.1-8 m of ice). Although all these external sources are nominally sufficient to explain the estimated amount of ice currently at Mercury's poles, impacts by a few large comets and/or asteroids seem to provide the best explanation for both the amount and cleanliness of the ice deposits on Mercury. Despite their low population estimates in the inner solar system, Jupiter-family comets are particularly promising candidates for delivering water to Mercury

  5. Biodegradability of immidazolium, pyridinium, piperidinium and pyrrolidinium based ionic liquid in different water source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, S.; Quraishi, K. S.; Aminuddin, N. F.; Mazlan, F. A.; Leveque, J.-M.

    2016-11-01

    Ionic Liquid (IL), combination of an organic cation with an organic or inorganic cation, possess some remarkable physical chemical properties such as no virtual vapor pressure (allowing recyclability and reusability), wide liquid range, high thermal and chemical stability, ease to choose hydrophobic/hydrophilic character and wide electrochemical window. Owing to that, they have become increasingly popular as green solvents/additives/catalysts for organic synthetic chemistry, extraction, electrochemistry, catalysis, biomass conversion, biotechnologies and pharmaceutical applications. This is acknowledged by the exponential number of yearly published articles related to them. However, even if these are very widely studied in the international scientific community, they are not or very little used on an industrial scale, particularly because of the lack of data on their toxicity and biodegradability. Notably hydrophobic ILs seems to display higher toxicity towards microorganisms and lower biodegradability compared to their hydrophilic analogues since they are not readily disassociated in water. This present work aims to explore the biodegradability of 8 different insoluble ILs in different sources of water bearing varied amount of microorganisms to study the impact of the used water on the biodegradability assessment. The water sources used are Type III Water, Pond water and filtered Sewage Water. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the type of water has a very minor influence on the biodegradability effect of insoluble ILs. However, there is still some degree of influence on the type of water with the biodegradability.

  6. Testing contamination source identification methods for water distribution networks

    DOE PAGES

    Seth, Arpan; Klise, Katherine A.; Siirola, John D.; ...

    2016-04-01

    In the event of contamination in a water distribution network (WDN), source identification (SI) methods that analyze sensor data can be used to identify the source location(s). Knowledge of the source location and characteristics are important to inform contamination control and cleanup operations. Various SI strategies that have been developed by researchers differ in their underlying assumptions and solution techniques. The following manuscript presents a systematic procedure for testing and evaluating SI methods. The performance of these SI methods is affected by various factors including the size of WDN model, measurement error, modeling error, time and number of contaminant injections,more » and time and number of measurements. This paper includes test cases that vary these factors and evaluates three SI methods on the basis of accuracy and specificity. The tests are used to review and compare these different SI methods, highlighting their strengths in handling various identification scenarios. These SI methods and a testing framework that includes the test cases and analysis tools presented in this paper have been integrated into EPA’s Water Security Toolkit (WST), a suite of software tools to help researchers and others in the water industry evaluate and plan various response strategies in case of a contamination incident. Lastly, a set of recommendations are made for users to consider when working with different categories of SI methods.« less

  7. Testing contamination source identification methods for water distribution networks

    SciTech Connect

    Seth, Arpan; Klise, Katherine A.; Siirola, John D.; Haxton, Terranna; Laird, Carl D.

    2016-04-01

    In the event of contamination in a water distribution network (WDN), source identification (SI) methods that analyze sensor data can be used to identify the source location(s). Knowledge of the source location and characteristics are important to inform contamination control and cleanup operations. Various SI strategies that have been developed by researchers differ in their underlying assumptions and solution techniques. The following manuscript presents a systematic procedure for testing and evaluating SI methods. The performance of these SI methods is affected by various factors including the size of WDN model, measurement error, modeling error, time and number of contaminant injections, and time and number of measurements. This paper includes test cases that vary these factors and evaluates three SI methods on the basis of accuracy and specificity. The tests are used to review and compare these different SI methods, highlighting their strengths in handling various identification scenarios. These SI methods and a testing framework that includes the test cases and analysis tools presented in this paper have been integrated into EPA’s Water Security Toolkit (WST), a suite of software tools to help researchers and others in the water industry evaluate and plan various response strategies in case of a contamination incident. Lastly, a set of recommendations are made for users to consider when working with different categories of SI methods.

  8. Drinking water intake and source patterns within a US-Mexico border population.

    PubMed

    Regnier, Adam; Gurian, Patrick; Mena, Kristina D

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to identify water intake and source patterns among a population that resides in a hot, arid region on the US-Mexico border. A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted among households in the neighbouring cities of El Paso, TX, USA and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico to obtain data on the quantity and source of water consumed. The study was also designed to identify factors that impact water consumption patterns, including gender, demographics, socio-economic status, cultural characteristics, health status, types of occupations and residences, available water sources and outdoor temperature, among many others. Of all factors studied, outdoor air temperature was found to have the strongest impact upon water intake quantity. Specifically, among the survey participants, when the outdoor air temperature exceeded 90 °F, water consumption increased by 28 %. Additionally, it was found that participants in this region consumed approximately 50 % more water than the values reported in previous studies.

  9. Water Quality Assessment of River Soan (Pakistan) and Source Apportionment of Pollution Sources Through Receptor Modeling.

    PubMed

    Nazeer, Summya; Ali, Zeshan; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-07-01

    The present study was designed to determine the spatiotemporal patterns in water quality of River Soan using multivariate statistics. A total of 26 sites were surveyed along River Soan and its associated tributaries during pre- and post-monsoon seasons in 2008. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA) classified sampling sites into three groups according to their degree of pollution, which ranged from least to high degradation of water quality. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) revealed that alkalinity, orthophosphates, nitrates, ammonia, salinity, and Cd were variables that significantly discriminate among three groups identified by HACA. Temporal trends as identified through DFA revealed that COD, DO, pH, Cu, Cd, and Cr could be attributed for major seasonal variations in water quality. PCA/FA identified six factors as potential sources of pollution of River Soan. Absolute principal component scores using multiple regression method (APCS-MLR) further explained the percent contribution from each source. Heavy metals were largely added through industrial activities (28 %) and sewage waste (28 %), nutrients through agriculture runoff (35 %) and sewage waste (28 %), organic pollution through sewage waste (27 %) and urban runoff (17 %) and macroelements through urban runoff (39 %), and mineralization and sewage waste (30 %). The present study showed that anthropogenic activities are the major source of variations in River Soan. In order to address the water quality issues, implementation of effective waste management measures are needed.

  10. ADDITIONAL OBSERVATIONS OF PLANETS AND QUASI-STELLAR RADIO SOURCES AT 3 MM,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MERCURY ( PLANET ), VENUS( PLANET ), PERIODIC VARIATIONS, RADIO ASTRONOMY, SPECTRUM SIGNATURES...EXTRATERRESTRIAL RADIO WAVES, SOURCES), GALAXIES, BLACKBODY RADIATION, BRIGHTNESS, TEMPERATURE, MARS( PLANET ), JUPITER( PLANET ), SATURN( PLANET

  11. Addition of hydrogen peroxide for the simultaneous control of bromate and odor during advanced drinking water treatment using ozone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjing; Yu, Jianwei; Zhang, Dong; Yang, Min

    2014-03-01

    Complete removal of the characteristic septic/swampy odor from Huangpu River source water could only be achieved under an ozone dose as high as 4.0 mg/L in an ozone-biological activated carbon (O3-BAC) process, which would lead to the production of high concentrations of carcinogenic bromate due to the high bromide content. This study investigated the possibility of simultaneous control of bromate and the septic/swampy odor by adding H2O2 prior to the O3-BAC process for the treatment of Huangpu River water. H2O2 addition could reduce the bromate concentration effectively at an H2O2/O3 (g/g) ratio of 0.5 or higher. At the same time, the septic/swampy odor removal was enhanced by the addition of H2O2, although optimization of the H2O2/O3 ratio was required for each ozone dose. At an ozone dose of 2.0 mg/L, the odor was removed completely at an H2O2/O3 ratio of 0.5. The results indicated that H2O2 application at a suitable dose could enhance the removal of the septic/swampy odor while suppressing the formation of bromate during ozonation of Huangpu River source water.

  12. Long Term 2 Second Round Source Water Monitoring and Bin Placement Memo

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR) applies to all public water systems served by a surface water source or public water systems served by a ground water source under the direct influence of surface water.

  13. Effects of water and nitrogen addition on species turnover in temperate grasslands in northern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhuwen; Wan, Shiqiang; Ren, Haiyan; Han, Xingguo; Li, Mai-He; Cheng, Weixin; Jiang, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Global nitrogen (N) deposition and climate change have been identified as two of the most important causes of current plant diversity loss. However, temporal patterns of species turnover underlying diversity changes in response to changing precipitation regimes and atmospheric N deposition have received inadequate attention. We carried out a manipulation experiment in a steppe and an old-field in North China from 2005 to 2009, to test the hypothesis that water addition enhances plant species richness through increase in the rate of species gain and decrease in the rate of species loss, while N addition has opposite effects on species changes. Our results showed that water addition increased the rate of species gain in both the steppe and the old field but decreased the rates of species loss and turnover in the old field. In contrast, N addition increased the rates of species loss and turnover in the steppe but decreased the rate of species gain in the old field. The rate of species change was greater in the old field than in the steppe. Water interacted with N to affect species richness and species turnover, indicating that the impacts of N on semi-arid grasslands were largely mediated by water availability. The temporal stability of communities was negatively correlated with rates of species loss and turnover, suggesting that water addition might enhance, but N addition would reduce the compositional stability of grasslands. Experimental results support our initial hypothesis and demonstrate that water and N availabilities differed in the effects on rate of species change in the temperate grasslands, and these effects also depend on grassland types and/or land-use history. Species gain and loss together contribute to the dynamic change of species richness in semi-arid grasslands under future climate change.

  14. Investigating the sources and sinks of water of Congo's wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva, R. C. D.; O'Loughlin, F.; Alsdorf, D. E.; Durand, M. T.; Beighley, E., II; Calmant, S.; Lee, H.; Santos Da Silva, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Congo is the second largest river basin in the world and indeed there is still a lot to be investigated about the hydrology of this system. This region presents extensive wetlands that may play an important role on the hydrology, carbon and ecological dynamics of the Congo. However, previous studies indicate that these wetlands behave differently from the Amazon, other major rainforest basin, and how water enters and leaves the Cuvette Centrale wetland is still to be quantified. We investigate the sources and sinks of water to the Congo's wetlands. Our analyses range from simple examinations of precipitation and evaporation historical data to remote sensing datasets and 2 D hydrodynamic modelling of Congo wetlands. Early results show that water levels at wetlands are usually higher than adjacent Congo River water levels and amplitude of variation is considerably smaller. Also, floodplain channels are not observed in this region indicating that surface flows are diffusive. Mean annual precipitation range from 1600 to 2000 mm/year, evapotranspiration estimates are approximately 1100 mm/year while some estimates of groundwater recharge indicate values larger than 300 mm/year. These assessments suggest that volumes coming from local water balance could flood the wetlands to depths of only a few centimeters. Preliminary 2D hydrodynamic simulations show that water coming from main rivers produces at upstream areas can flood only a small part of wetland, mainly alongside these rivers.

  15. Drinking water in Michigan: source, quality, and contaminants.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Vincent R

    2006-01-01

    The Michigan Safe Drinking Water Act (Act 399) was enacted in 1976 and enables the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) to maintain the state's authority over drinking water in the state. The DEQ also contracts with local health departments to maintain non-community programs in each county. Private water wells throughout the state are clearly the most troublesome for users and regulators. An abundant array of contaminants (e.g., pesticides, metals, etc.) may impact wells without the user's knowledge. Most private wells are only inspected when they are installed and have no further regulatory requirements. With regards to contaminants in public systems, lead is problematic. Irregardless of the source or treatment, the piping infrastructure leading to and inside the home can be a source affecting the quality. Thus, the problem of lead in drinking water can be from the service lines, the pipes inside the home, the solder connecting the pipes, or in some case the treatment chemicals used for disinfection.

  16. The Ecohydrological Interactions Between Mesquite and its Water Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, R. L.; Hultine, K.; Ferré, P.

    2003-12-01

    Velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina), a native woody plant to southern Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico, has successfully expanded its range and encroached into both upland and riparian grasslands during the 20th century. In this study, we examined the interactions between mesquite and its water sources in order to determine how the trees responded to moisture availability. This study took place in a riparian area and because the trees had access to both deep groundwater and surface water, these interactions resulted in important hydrological and ecological consequences. Surprisingly, we found that the mesquite responded to and even manipulated both surface and deep soil moisture even though they apparently had access to a stable groundwater source throughout the growing season. During dry season nights, observations of root sap flow showed that the trees moved moisture upwards in the taproot and out into the surface soils in lateral roots. As a consequence of this "hydraulic lift", diurnal soil respiration measurements showed that the soil microbes were stimulated following the nocturnal release of moisture into the near-surface regions. During rainy season nights, there was sap flow movement toward the tree in the surface lateral roots and downwards in the taproot indicating "hydraulic descent". Borehole GPR measurements of the deeper, 2 - 10 m, vadose zone moisture content increased apparently as a result of this tree-facilitated water movement. Also, hydraulic descent influenced water table elevations indicating direct groundwater recharge via plant pathways.

  17. Changes in source waters to the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bograd, Steven J.; Buil, Mercedes Pozo; Lorenzo, Emanuele Di; Castro, Carmen G.; Schroeder, Isaac D.; Goericke, Ralf; Anderson, Clarissa R.; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia; Whitney, Frank A.

    2015-02-01

    Historical hydrographic data (1984-2012) from the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) program and global reanalysis products were used to quantify recent water mass variability off the coast of Southern California. Dissolved oxygen concentrations continued to decline within the lower pycnocline, concurrent with strong increases in nitrate and phosphate that have spatial patterns matching those of dissolved oxygen. Silicic acid also shows an increasing trend in the offshore portion of the region, but has strong and opposing trends in the upper (increasing) and lower-pycnocline (decreasing) within the Southern California Bight. The varying rates of change in the inorganic nutrients yield a more complex pattern of variability in the nutrient ratios, resulting in large decreases in the N:P and Si:N ratios within the Southern California Bight at depths that provide source waters for upwelling. Basin-scale reanalysis products are consistent with low-frequency water mass changes observed off Southern California and suggest that advection of modified source waters is the cause of the variability. The biogeochemical changes described here may have important impacts on the regional ecosystem, including a reduction of viable pelagic habitat and community reorganization.

  18. IMPACTS OF SOURCE TERM HETEROGENEITIES ON WATER PATHWAY DOSE.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.; GUSKOV, A.; POSKAS, P.; RUPERTI, N.; HANUSIK, V.; ET AL.

    2004-09-15

    Radioactive sealed sources are used extensively throughout the world in different field and various activities such as medicine, agriculture, industry, research, education military applications, as well as nuclear facilities. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation sources [1] defines a sealed source as ''radioactive material that is (a) permanently sealed in capsule or (b) closely bounded and in a solid form. The capsule or material of sealed source shall be strong enough to maintain remain leak free under the conditions of use and wear for which the source was designed, also under foreseeable mishaps''. When a radioactive sealed source is no longer needed, or becomes unfit for the intended application it is considered spent. A spent sealed source is not necessarily a waste because it can be used in other applications. If for any technical or economic reason (decay, obsolete equipment and technique, worn out equipment) no further use is foreseen, the spent sealed source is considered spent and becomes radioactive waste [2] [3]. In addition, a source may be taken out of service temporarily or indefinitely. In this case the source is out of used (''disused'') but not considered spent [4]. Sources that are not in active use and have not being declared as spent are considered as disused sealed sources [4]. Considering the potential radiation hazards associated with such waste it has to be managed and disposed of in a way that will ensure that the potential radiation hazards are adequately managed and controlled in compliance with the appropriate safety principles and criteria. It is recognized that there exists today experience and means for all steps in the management of disused sealed sources, except disposal of [2]. In many countries, disused sealed sources represent a part of the radioactive waste inventory being characterized generally with high specific activities and small physical sizes

  19. Prevalent flucocorticoid and androgen activity in US water sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stavreva, Diana A.; George, Anuja A.; Klausmeyer, Paul; Varticovski, Lyuba; Sack, Daniel; Voss, Ty C.; Schiltz, R. Louis; Blazer, Vicki; Iwanowiczl, Luke R.; Hager, Gordon L.

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of the environment with endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a major health concern. The presence of estrogenic compounds in water and their deleterious effect are well documented. However, detection and monitoring of other classes of EDCs is limited. Here we utilize a high-throughput live cell assay based on sub-cellular relocalization of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid and androgen receptors (GFP-GR and GFP-AR), in combination with gene transcription analysis, to screen for glucocorticoid and androgen activity in water samples. We report previously unrecognized glucocorticoid activity in 27%, and androgen activity in 35% of tested water sources from 14 states in the US. Steroids of both classes impact body development, metabolism, and interfere with reproductive, endocrine, and immune systems. This prevalent contamination could negatively affect wildlife and human populations.

  20. Stress corrosion cracking of α-brass in waters with and without additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkins, R. N.; Rangel, C. M.; Yu, J.

    1985-09-01

    Slow strain rate stress corrosion tests on a 0.032 pct As brass in SO2 solutions of increasing dilution eventually resulted in tests being carried out in various waters which were also found to promote cracking. A 0.002 pet As brass was also found to be susceptible to cracking in deionized water, but in brackish water or an acidified sulfate solution this brass did not display the stress corrosion cracking observed in these more aggressive solutions by the higher As brass. The addition of arsenite to distilled water or arsenate to deionized water in sufficient amounts effectively inhibited the cracking observed at controlled potentials or open circuit in these waters without the As additions. The results are interpreted as indicative of dezincification being involved in these various environments that promoted cracking, but the extent of the dezincification plays an important role in determining whether or not cracking occurs, those additions leading to rapid and massive dezincification involving redeposition of dissolved Cu not being conducive to cracking.

  1. Impact of orthophosphate addition on biofilm development in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Gouider, Mbarka; Bouzid, Jalel; Sayadi, Sami; Montiel, Antoine

    2009-08-15

    The contamination of the water distribution network results from fixed bacteria multiplication (biofilm) on the water pipe walls, followed by their detachment and their transport in the circulating liquid. The presence of biofilms in distribution networks can result in numerous unwanted problems for the user such as microbial contamination of the distributed water and deterioration of the network (bio-corrosion). For old networks, lead-containing plumbings can be a serious cause of worry for the consumer owing to the release of lead ions in the circulating water. Among the solutions considered to reduce the presence of lead in drinking water, the addition of orthophosphates constitutes an interesting alternative. However, the added orthophosphate may cause--even at low doses--additional microbial growth. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the orthophosphate treatment on the biofilm development in the water supplied by the Joinville-le-Pont water treatment plant (Eau de Paris, France). For this purpose, a laboratory pilot plant was devised and connected to the considered water network. Two quantification methods for monitoring the biofilm formation were used: the enumeration on R2A agar and the determination of proteins. For the biofilm detachment operation, an optimization of the rinsing step was firstly conducted in order to distinguish between free and fixed biomass. The data obtained showed that there was a linear relation between both quantification methods. They also showed that, for the tested water, the bacterial densities were not affected by orthophosphate addition at a treatment rate of 1mg PO(4)(3-)/L.

  2. Uranium in hot water tanks: a source of TENORM.

    PubMed

    DeVol, T A; Woodruff, R L

    2004-12-01

    Uranium deposits were detected inside hot water tanks using gamma-ray spectroscopic techniques and corroborated by the difference in the uranium concentration of the groundwater entering and leaving the hot water tanks. In-situ gamma-ray spectroscopy was performed using a transportable high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer to estimate the mass of uranium in the hot water tanks. Gamma-ray spectroscopic analyses of hot water tanks in four residences with groundwater uranium concentration between 732 and 7,667 mug L revealed an estimated 3.5 to 69 g of uranium in each hot water tank. The uranium deposit within the tanks was indicated by the 143.8, 163.4, and 185.7 keV gamma rays of U and confirmed with the 63.3, 92.3, and 92.8 keV gamma rays of Th as well as the 1,001 keV peak of Pa. An average decrease in uranium concentration of 23% was observed in the groundwater that passed through the hot water tanks. Additionally, once "uranium free" water entered the hot water tanks, the uranium deposits within the tanks resulted in an increase in the uranium concentration in the effluent water. The groundwater had an alkalinity in the range of 46-96 mg L as CaCO3 and a pH range of 7.3-8.1. The accumulation of uranium in these hot water tanks results in them being classified as technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM).

  3. Cumulative effects of fecal contamination from combined sewer overflows: Management for source water protection.

    PubMed

    Jalliffier-Verne, Isabelle; Heniche, Mourad; Madoux-Humery, Anne-Sophie; Galarneau, Martine; Servais, Pierre; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    The quality of a drinking water source depends largely on upstream contaminant discharges. Sewer overflows can have a large influence on downstream drinking water intakes as they discharge untreated or partially treated wastewaters that may be contaminated with pathogens. This study focuses on the quantification of Escherichia coli discharges from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and the dispersion and diffusion in receiving waters in order to prioritize actions for source water protection. E. coli concentrations from CSOs were estimated from monitoring data at a series of overflow structures and then applied to the 42 active overflow structures between 2009 and 2012 using a simple relationship based upon the population within the drainage network. From these estimates, a transport-dispersion model was calibrated with data from a monitoring program from both overflow structures and downstream drinking water intakes. The model was validated with 15 extreme events such as a large number of overflows (n > 8) or high concentrations at drinking water intakes. Model results demonstrated the importance of the cumulative effects of CSOs on the degradation of water quality downstream. However, permits are typically issued on a discharge point basis and do not consider cumulative effects. Source water protection plans must consider the cumulative effects of discharges and their concentrations because the simultaneous discharge of multiple overflows can lead to elevated E. coli concentrations at a drinking water intake. In addition, some CSOs have a disproportionate impact on peak concentrations at drinking water intakes. As such, it is recommended that the management of CSOs move away from frequency based permitting at the discharge point to focus on the development of comprehensive strategies to reduce cumulative and peak discharges from CSOs upstream of drinking water intakes.

  4. Occurrence and sources of bromate in chlorinated tap drinking water in Metropolitan Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Genuino, Homer C; Espino, Maria Pythias B

    2012-04-01

    Significant levels of potentially carcinogenic bromate were measured in chlorinated tap drinking water in Metropolitan Manila, Philippines, using an optimized ion-chromatographic method. This method can quantify bromate in water down to 4.5 μg l⁻¹ by employing a postcolumn reaction with acidic fuchsin and subsequent spectrophotometric detection. The concentration of bromate in tap drinking water samples collected from 21 locations in cities and municipalities within the 9-month study period ranged from 7 to 138 μg l⁻¹. The average bromate concentration of all tap drinking water samples was 66 μg l⁻¹ (n = 567), almost seven times greater than the current regulatory limit in the country. The levels of bromate in other water types were also determined to identify the sources of bromate found in the distribution lines and to further uncover contaminated sites. The concentration of bromate in water sourced from two rivers and two water treatment plants ranged from 15 to 80 and 12 to 101 μg l⁻¹, respectively. Rainwater did not contribute bromate in rivers but decreased bromate level by dilution. Groundwater and wastewater samples showed bromate concentrations as high as 246 and 342 μg l⁻¹, respectively. Bromate presence in tap drinking water can be linked to pollution in natural water bodies and the practice of using hypochlorite chemicals in addition to gaseous chlorine for water disinfection. This study established the levels, occurrence, and possible sources of bromate in local drinking water supplies.

  5. Effects of water and nitrogen addition on ecosystem carbon exchange in a meadow steppe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunbo; Jiang, Qi; Yang, Zhiming; Sun, Wei; Wang, Deli

    2015-01-01

    A changing precipitation regime and increasing nitrogen deposition are likely to have profound impacts on arid and semiarid ecosystem C cycling, which is often constrained by the timing and availability of water and nitrogen. However, little is known about the effects of altered precipitation and nitrogen addition on grassland ecosystem C exchange. We conducted a 3-year field experiment to assess the responses of vegetation composition, ecosystem productivity, and ecosystem C exchange to manipulative water and nitrogen addition in a meadow steppe. Nitrogen addition significantly stimulated aboveground biomass and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), which suggests that nitrogen availability is a primary limiting factor for ecosystem C cycling in the meadow steppe. Water addition had no significant impacts on either ecosystem C exchange or plant biomass, but ecosystem C fluxes showed a strong correlation with early growing season precipitation, rather than whole growing season precipitation, across the 3 experimental years. After we incorporated water addition into the calculation of precipitation regimes, we found that monthly average ecosystem C fluxes correlated more strongly with precipitation frequency than with precipitation amount. These results highlight the importance of precipitation distribution in regulating ecosystem C cycling. Overall, ecosystem C fluxes in the studied ecosystem are highly sensitive to nitrogen deposition, but less sensitive to increased precipitation.

  6. Effects of Water and Nitrogen Addition on Ecosystem Carbon Exchange in a Meadow Steppe

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunbo; Jiang, Qi; Yang, Zhiming; Sun, Wei; Wang, Deli

    2015-01-01

    A changing precipitation regime and increasing nitrogen deposition are likely to have profound impacts on arid and semiarid ecosystem C cycling, which is often constrained by the timing and availability of water and nitrogen. However, little is known about the effects of altered precipitation and nitrogen addition on grassland ecosystem C exchange. We conducted a 3-year field experiment to assess the responses of vegetation composition, ecosystem productivity, and ecosystem C exchange to manipulative water and nitrogen addition in a meadow steppe. Nitrogen addition significantly stimulated aboveground biomass and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), which suggests that nitrogen availability is a primary limiting factor for ecosystem C cycling in the meadow steppe. Water addition had no significant impacts on either ecosystem C exchange or plant biomass, but ecosystem C fluxes showed a strong correlation with early growing season precipitation, rather than whole growing season precipitation, across the 3 experimental years. After we incorporated water addition into the calculation of precipitation regimes, we found that monthly average ecosystem C fluxes correlated more strongly with precipitation frequency than with precipitation amount. These results highlight the importance of precipitation distribution in regulating ecosystem C cycling. Overall, ecosystem C fluxes in the studied ecosystem are highly sensitive to nitrogen deposition, but less sensitive to increased precipitation. PMID:26010888

  7. Water soluble graphene as electrolyte additive in magnesium-air battery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saminathan, K.; Mayilvel Dinesh, M.; Selvam, M.; Srither, S. R.; Rajendran, V.; Kaler, Karan V. I. S.

    2015-02-01

    Magnesium-air (Mg-air) batteries are an important energy source used to power electronic equipment and automobiles. Metal-air batteries give more energy density due to surplus air involved in reduction reaction at air cathode. In this study, the scope of improvements in the efficiency of Metal-air batteries is investigated through addition of water soluble graphene (WSG) as inhibitor in NaCl electrolyte. The discharge performance, corrosion behaviour and electrochemical impedance are studied for (i) the conventional Mg-air battery using 3.5% NaCl and (ii) Mg-air battery with WSG-based 3.5% NaCl electrolyte. X-ray diffraction analysis for WSG is carried out and it shows the crystalline nature of WSG by an intense sharp peak at 26.3°. Scanning electron microscope study is also performed and shows the flake-like structure of WSG denoted by thin layers of carbon. The immersion of WSG in 3.5% NaCl electrolyte increased the current density from 13.24 to 19.33 mA cm-2. Meanwhile, the WSG-based Mg-air battery was found to hold specific discharge capacity of 1030.71 mAh g-1, which was higher than that obtained in 3.5% NaCl electrolyte (i.e., 822.85 mAh g-1). The WSG-based Mg-air battery shows good self-discharge capacity and higher electrochemical activity during discharge.

  8. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2008-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2006 (October 2005 through September 2006). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir contents for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent of capacity during water year 2006, while monthly reservoir contents for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir was maintained at greater than 83 and 94 percent of capacity, respectively. If water demand is assumed to be 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2006 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 127 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area was about 16 percent greater for the 2006 water year than for the previous water year and was between 12 and 73 percent greater than for any recorded amount since water year 2002. The monthly mean specific-conductance values for all continuously monitored stations within the drinking-water source area were generally within the range of historical data collected since water year 1997, and in many cases were less than the historical medians. The annual mean specific conductance of 738 uS/cm (microsiemens per centimeter) for water discharged from the Cambridge Reservoir was nearly identical to the annual

  9. Antiquarian books as source of environment historical water data.

    PubMed

    Schram, Jürgen; Schneider, Mario; Horst, Rasmus; Thieme, Hagen

    2009-05-01

    Historical environment considerations are inevitable also for modern environmental analysis. They alone allow evaluation of anthropogenic impact into the environment. To receive information about the historical environment situation in inhabited regions, we approached this task by examining historical well dated and locatable products of the Homo faber. The work introduced here uses books as a source of environment historical data specially for the environmental compartment of water. The paper of historical books, dated by their printing and allocated by their watermark(1) (Wasserzeichensammlung Piccard, Piccard online, Hauptstaatsarchiv Stuttgart, ) is a trap for traces of heavy metals contaminating their production water in historical times. Great amounts of water were brought into contact with the paper pulp in the historical paper mill process. The cellulose of the pulp acts as an ion exchange material for heavy metals, forming a dynamic equilibrium. A well defined pulp production process, starting with used clothes, allows estimation of the concentration of historical heavy metals (Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+)) in the production water (river water). Ancient papers from well dated books are eluted without destruction of their paper and the resulting solution is analysed by ETAAS and inverse stripping voltammetry to determine the historical impact of metals. Afterwards in a flow system the eluted paper spot is equilibrated with different concentrations of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+)) to plot the adsorption isotherm of that very spot. Both data together allows a calculation of the heavy metal content of the historical river. For different waters of Germany and the Netherlands of the 16th-18th Century the heavy metal load could be estimated. The resulting concentrations were mostly similar to the level of modern surface waters, but in the case of the Dutch waters of the 17th Century, they were e.g. for Pb(2+) significantly higher than modern

  10. Nutrient additions by waterfowl to lakes and reservoirs: predicting their effects on productivity and water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Johnson, W.C.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    Lakes and reservoirs provide water for human needs and habitat for aquatic birds. Managers of such waters may ask whether nutrients added by waterfowl degrade water quality. For lakes and reservoirs where primary productivity is limited by phosphorus (P), we developed a procedure that integrates annual P loads from waterfowl and other external sources, applies a nutrient load-response model, and determines whether waterfowl that used the lake or reservoir degraded water quality. Annual P loading by waterfowl can be derived from a figure in this report, using the days per year that each kind spent on any lake or reservoir. In our example, over 6500 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and 4200 ducks (mostly mallards, Anas platyrhynchos) added 4462 kg of carbon (C), 280 kg of nitrogen (N), and 88 kg of P y-1 to Wintergreen Lake in southwestern Michigan, mostly during their migration. These amounts were 69% of all C, 27% of all N, and 70% of all P that entered the lake from external sources. Loads from all external sources totaled 840 mg P m-2 y-1. Application of a nutrient load-response model to this concentration, the hydraulic load (0.25 m y-1), and the water residence time (9.7 y) of Wintergreen Lake yielded an average annual concentration of total P in the lake of 818 mg m-3 that classified the lake as hypertrophic. This trophic classification agreed with independent measures of primary productivity, chlorophyll-a, total P, total N, and Secchi disk transparency made in Wintergreen Lake. Our procedure showed that waterfowl caused low water quality in Wintergreen Lake.

  11. Passive nutrient addition for the biodegradation of ethylene glycol in storm water.

    PubMed

    Safferman, Steven I; Azar, Roger A; Sigler, Stephanie

    2002-01-01

    This laboratory proof-of-concept research examined the feasibility of adding solid, slow-release macronutrients to a biofilm reactor system to achieve the effective biodegradation of a predominately organic polluted storm water. The target scenario was treating ethylene glycol in storm water, representing the runoff of airport deicing and anti-icing fluids. However, the results can also be generalized for any water polluted with a predominately carbonaceous material. The use of a solid, slow-release nutrient source, compared to amending with a soluble solution in proportion to influent flow, would be ideal for storm water applications and other specialized wastewater flows when maintenance requirements and operational support must be minimized. Several commercially available fertilizers were preliminarily examined to determine which had the best potential to provide the required amount of nutrients. A time-released, polymer-coated granular fertilizer was ultimately selected. Based on laboratory studies, it was found that this fertilizer could provide a controllable source of macronutrients that enabled treatment to a similar degree as if the macronutrients had been dissolved in the influent. The only major operational problem was reduced nutrient delivery from the fertilizer after it became coated with a thick biofilm. However, the inherent intermittent nature of storm water production resulting in wet/dry cycles may minimize the development of a thick biofilm.

  12. Isotopic Tracers for Delineating Non-Point Source Pollutants in Surface Water

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M L

    2001-03-01

    This study tested whether isotope measurements of surface water and dissolved constituents in surface water could be used as tracers of non-point source pollution. Oxygen-18 was used as a water tracer, while carbon-14, carbon-13, and deuterium were tested as tracers of DOC. Carbon-14 and carbon-13 were also used as tracers of dissolved inorganic carbon, and chlorine-36 and uranium isotopes were tested as tracers of other dissolved salts. In addition, large databases of water quality measurements were assembled for the Missouri River at St. Louis and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California to enhance interpretive results of the isotope measurements. Much of the water quality data has been under-interpreted and provides a valuable resource to investigative research, for which this report exploits and integrates with the isotope measurements.

  13. Implementation of a source term control program in a mature boiling water reactor.

    PubMed

    Vargo, G J; Jarvis, A J; Remark, J F

    1991-06-01

    The implementation and results of a source term control program implemented at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAF), a mature boiling water reactor (BWR) facility that has been in commercial operation since 1975, are discussed. Following a chemical decontamination of the reactor water recirculation piping in the Reload 8/Cycle 9 refueling outage in 1988, hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) and feedwater Zn addition were implemented. This is the first application of both HWC and feedwater Zn addition in a BWR facility. The radiological benefits and impacts of combined operation of HWC and feedwater Zn addition at JAF during Cycle 9 are detailed and summarized. The implementation of hydrogen water chemistry resulted in a significant transport of corrosion products within the reactor coolant system that was greater than anticipated. Feedwater Zn addition appears to be effective in controlling buildup of other activated corrosion products such as 60Co on reactor water recirculation piping; however, adverse impacts were encountered. The major adverse impact of feedwater Zn addition is the production of 65Zn that is released during plant outages and operational transients.

  14. Sources of High-Chloride Water to Wells, Eastern San Joaquin Ground-Water Subbasin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Metzger, Loren F.; McPherson, Kelly R.; Everett, Rhett; Bennett, George L.

    2006-01-01

    As a result of pumping and subsequent declines in water levels, chloride concentrations have increased in water from wells in the Eastern San Joaquin Ground-Water Subbasin, about 80 miles east of San Francisco (Montgomery Watson, Inc., 2000). Water from a number of public-supply, agricultural, and domestic wells in the western part of the subbasin adjacent to the San Joaquin Delta exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) for chloride of 250 milligrams per liter (mg/L) (fig. 1) (link to animation showing chloride concentrations in water from wells, 1984 to 2004). Some of these wells have been removed from service. High-chloride water from delta surface water, delta sediments, saline aquifers that underlie freshwater aquifers, and irrigation return are possible sources of high-chloride water to wells (fig. 2). It is possible that different sources contribute high-chloride water to wells in different parts of the subbasin or even to different depths within the same well.

  15. A photoautotrophic source for lycopane in marine water columns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakeham, Stuart G.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Pease, Tamara K.; Hayes, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Suspended particulate matter and recent sediments from diverse oceanic sites have been investigated for their contents of lycopane. Lycopane was present in all samples, including both oxic and anoxic water column and sediments. The highest concentrations in the water column were found in surface waters of the central Pacific gyre (1.5 ng/L) and in the anoxic waters of the Cariaco Trench (1.1 ng/L) and the Black Sea (0.3 ng/L). Vertical concentration profiles suggest that lycopane is probably algal in origin. Moreover, biogeochemical conditions in anoxic zones apparently result in a secondary production of lycopane from an as yet unidentified precursor. Compound-specific carbon isotopic analyses have been carried out on lycopane from water column and sediment samples. Isotopic compositions of lycopane range between -23.6 and -32.9 percent and are consistent with a photoautotrophic origin. We postulate that some lycopane is produced in surface waters of the ocean, while additional lycopane is produced in anoxic zones by anaerobic microbial action on an algal precursor.

  16. Water and a protic ionic liquid acted as refolding additives for chemically denatured enzymes.

    PubMed

    Attri, Pankaj; Venkatesu, P; Kumar, Anil

    2012-10-07

    In this communication, we present the ability of water and a protic ionic liquid, triethyl ammonium phosphate (TEAP) to act as refolding additives for the urea-induced chemical denaturated state of the two enzymes, α-chymotrypsin and succinylated Con A. We show that the enzymatic activity is regained and in certain circumstances enhanced.

  17. Well vulnerability: a quantitative approach for source water protection.

    PubMed

    Frind, E O; Molson, J W; Rudolph, D L

    2006-01-01

    The concept of vulnerability of drinking water sources is reviewed, and a quantitative approach for assessing well vulnerability for complex three-dimensional ground water systems is developed. The approach focuses on the relative expected impact of potential contaminant sources at unknown locations within a well capture zone, providing relative measures of intrinsic well vulnerability, including the expected times of arrival of a contaminant, the dispersion-related reduction in concentration, the time taken to breach a certain quality objective, and the corresponding exposure times. Thus, the result of the analysis includes the usual advective travel time information used in conventional wellhead protection analysis, plus a set of selected quantitative measures expressing the expected impact. The technique is based on adjoint theory and combines forward- and backward-in-time transport modeling using a standard numerical flow and transport code. The methodology is demonstrated using the case study of a complex glacial multiaquifer system in Ontario. The new approach will be useful in helping water managers develop more physically based and quantitative wellhead protection strategies.

  18. Water sorption of CH3- and CF3-Bis-GMA based resins with additives

    PubMed Central

    PRAKKI, Anuradha; CILLI, Renato; VIEIRA, Ian Matos; DUDUMAS, Kristina; PEREIRA, José Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of additives on the water sorption characteristics of Bis-GMA based copolymers and composites containing TEGDMA, CH3Bis-GMA or CF3Bis-GMA. Material and methods Fifteen experimental copolymers and corresponding composites were prepared combining Bis-GMA and TEGDMA, CH3Bis-GMA or CF3Bis-GMA, with aldehyde or diketone (24 and 32 mol%) totaling 30 groups. For composites, barium aluminosilicate glass and pyrogenic silica was added to comonomer mixtures. Photopolymerization was effected by 0.2 wt% each of camphorquinone and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine. Specimen densities in dry and water saturated conditions were obtained by Archimedes' method. Water sorption and desorption were evaluated in a desorption-sorption-desorption cycle. Water uptake (%WU), water desorption (%WD), equilibrium solubility (ES; µg/mm3), swelling (f) and volume increase (%V) were calculated using appropriate equations. Results All resins with additives had increased %WU and ES. TEGDMA-containing systems presented higher %WU, %WD, ES, f and %V values, followed by resins based on CH3Bis-GMA and CF3Bis-GMA. Conclusions Aldehyde and diketone led to increases in the water sorption characteristics of experimental resins. PMID:23032211

  19. Meta-analysis on Methane Mitigating Properties of Saponin-rich Sources in the Rumen: Influence of Addition Levels and Plant Sources

    PubMed Central

    Jayanegara, Anuraga; Wina, Elizabeth; Takahashi, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Saponins have been considered as promising natural substances for mitigating methane emissions from ruminants. However, studies reported that addition of saponin-rich sources often arrived at contrasting results, i.e. either it decreased methane or it did not. The aim of the present study was to assess ruminal methane emissions through a meta-analytical approach of integrating related studies from published papers which described various levels of different saponin-rich sources being added to ruminant feed. A database was constructed from published literature reporting the addition of saponin-rich sources at various levels and then monitoring ruminal methane emissions in vitro. Accordingly, levels of saponin-rich source additions as well as different saponin sources were specified in the database. Apart from methane, other related rumen fermentation parameters were also included in the database, i.e. organic matter digestibility, gas production, pH, ammonia concentration, short-chain fatty acid profiles and protozoal count. A total of 23 studies comprised of 89 data points met the inclusion criteria. The data obtained were subsequently subjected to a statistical meta-analysis based on mixed model methodology. Accordingly, different studies were treated as random effects whereas levels of saponin-rich source additions or different saponin sources were considered as fixed effects. Model statistics used were p-value and root mean square error. Results showed that an addition of increasing levels of a saponin-rich source decreased methane emission per unit of substrate incubated as well as per unit of total gas produced (p<0.05). There was a decrease in acetate proportion (linear pattern; p<0.001) and an increase in propionate proportion (linear pattern; p<0.001) with increasing levels of saponin. Log protozoal count decreased (p<0.05) at higher saponin levels. Comparing between different saponin-rich sources, all saponin sources, i.e. quillaja, tea and yucca saponins

  20. Occurrence of microbial indicators in various ground water sources

    SciTech Connect

    Shadix, L.C.; Newport, B.S.; Crout, S.R.; Lieberman, R.J.

    1996-11-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AWWARF) have been collaborating in an ongoing study to research the application of molecular biology techniques versus conventional techniques for monitoring and consequently to obtain ground water microbial occurrence data. The bacterial assays described below were performed during the course of the USEPA/AWWARF study in addition to enteric virus, bacteriophage and Legionella assays to provide occurrence information and also to investigate the potential use of fecal indicator organisms as surrogates for enteric viruses. This paper presents occurrence data obtained for total coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), fecal enterococci and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) bacteria from samples collected at thirty public ground water supplies.

  1. The development of catalytic nucleophilic additions of terminal alkynes in water.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao-Jun

    2010-04-20

    One of the major research endeavors in synthetic chemistry over the past two decades is the exploration of synthetic methods that work under ambient atmosphere with benign solvents, that maximize atom utilization, and that directly transform natural resources, such as renewable biomass, from their native states into useful chemical products, thus avoiding the need for protecting groups. The nucleophilic addition of terminal alkynes to various unsaturated electrophiles is a classical (textbook) reaction in organic chemistry, allowing the formation of a C-C bond while simultaneously introducing the alkyne functionality. A prerequisite of this classical reaction is the stoichiometric generation of highly reactive metal acetylides. Over the past decade, our laboratory and others have been exploring an alternative, the catalytic and direct nucleophilic addition of terminal alkynes to unsaturated electrophiles in water. We found that various terminal alkynes can react efficiently with a wide range of such electrophiles in water (or organic solvent) in the presence of simple and readily available catalysts, such as copper, silver, gold, iron, palladium, and others. In this Account, we describe the development of these synthetic methods, focusing primarily on results from our laboratory. Our studies include the following: (i) catalytic reaction of terminal alkynes with acid chloride, (ii) catalytic addition of terminal alkynes to aldehydes and ketones, (iii) catalytic addition of alkynes to C=N bonds, and (iv) catalytic conjugate additions. Most importantly, these reactions can tolerate various functional groups and, in many cases, perform better in water than in organic solvents, clearly defying classical reactivities predicated on the relative acidities of water, alcohols, and terminal alkynes. We further discuss multicomponent and enantioselective reactions that were developed. These methods provide an alternative to the traditional requirement of separate steps in

  2. Improvement in properties of coal water slurry by combined use of new additive and ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhaobing; Feng, Ruo; Zheng, Youfei; Fu, Xiaoru

    2007-07-01

    Coal water slurry (CWS) was prepared with a newly developed additive from naphthalene oil. The effects of ultrasonic irradiation on coal particle size distribution (PSD), adsorption behavior of additive in coal particles and the characteristics of CWS were investigated. Results showed that ultrasonic irradiation led to a higher proportion of fine coal in CWS and increased the saturated adsorption amount of additive in coal particles. In addition, the rheological behavior and static stability of CWS irradiated by ultrasonic wave were remarkably improved. The changes on viscosity of CWS containing 1% and 2% additive are qualitatively different with the increasing sonication time studied. The reason for the different effect of sonication time on CWS viscosity is presented in this study.

  3. New water-soluble metal working fluids additives from phosphonic acid derivatives for aluminum alloy materials.

    PubMed

    Kohara, Ichitaro; Tomoda, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Shoji

    2007-01-01

    Water-soluble metal working fluids are used for processing of aluminum alloy materials. This short paper describes properties of new additives for water-soluble cutting fluids for aluminum alloy materials. Some alkyldiphosphonic acids were prepared with known method. Amine salts of these phosphonic acids showed anti-corrosion property for aluminum alloy materials. However, they have no hard water tolerance. Monoesters of octylphosphonic acid were prepared by the reaction of octylphosphonic acid dichloride with various alcohols in the presence of triethylamine. Amine salts of monoester of octylphosphonic acid with diethyleneglycol monomethyl ether, ethyleneglycol monomethyl ether and triethyleneglycol monomethyl ether showed both of a good anti-corrosion property for aluminum alloy materials and hard water tolerance.

  4. Comparison of biofilm formation and water quality when water from different sources was stored in large commercial water storage tanks.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Venessa; Duvenage, Stacey; Korsten, Lise

    2013-03-01

    Rain-, ground- and municipal potable water were stored in low density polyethylene storage tanks for a period of 90 days to determine the effects of long-term storage on the deterioration in the microbial quality of the water. Total viable bacteria present in the stored water and the resultant biofilms were enumerated using heterotrophic plate counts. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Colilert-18(®) tests were performed to determine if the faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli was present in the water and in the biofilm samples collected throughout the study. The municipal potable water at the start of the study was the only water source that conformed to the South African Water Quality Guidelines for Domestic Use. After 15 days of storage, this water source had deteriorated microbiologically to levels considered unfit for human consumption. E. coli was detected in the ground- and potable water and ground- and potable biofilms periodically, whereas it was detected in the rainwater and associated biofilms at every sampling point. Imperfections in the UV resistant inner lining of the tanks were shown to be ecological niches for microbial colonisation and biofilm development. The results from the current study confirmed that long-term storage can influence water quality and increase the number of microbial cells associated with biofilms on the interior surfaces of water storage tanks.

  5. Assessment of sewer source contamination of drinking water wells using tracers and human enteric viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, R.J.; Borchardt, M. A.; Richards, K.D.; Spencer, S. K.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the source, transport, and occurrence of human enteric viruses in municipal well water, focusing on sanitary sewer sources. A total of 33 wells from 14 communities were sampled once for wastewater tracers and viruses. Wastewater tracers were detected in four of these wells, and five wells were virus- positive by qRT-PCR. These results, along with exclusion of wells with surface water sources, were used to select three wells for additional investigation. Viruses and wastewater tracers were found in the groundwater at all sites. Some wastewater tracers, such as ionic detergents, flame retardants, and cholesterol, were considered unambiguous evidence of wastewater. Sampling at any given time may not show concurrent virus and tracer presence; however, given sufficient sampling over time, a relation between wastewater tracers and virus occurrence was identified. Presence of infectious viruses at the wellhead demonstrates that high-capacity pumping induced sufficiently short travel times for the transport of infectious viruses. Therefore, drinking-water wells are vulnerable to contaminants that travel along fast groundwater flowpaths even if they contribute a small amount of virus-laden water to the well. These results suggest that vulnerability assessments require characterization of "low yield-fast transport" in addition to traditional "high yield-slow transport", pathways. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. Assessment of sewer source contamination of drinking water wells using tracers and human enteric viruses.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Randall J; Borchardt, Mark A; Richards, Kevin D; Spencer, Susan K

    2010-10-15

    This study investigated the source, transport, and occurrence of human enteric viruses in municipal well water, focusing on sanitary sewer sources. A total of 33 wells from 14 communities were sampled once for wastewater tracers and viruses. Wastewater tracers were detected in four of these wells, and five wells were virus- positive by qRT-PCR. These results, along with exclusion of wells with surface water sources, were used to select three wells for additional investigation. Viruses and wastewater tracers were found in the groundwater at all sites. Some wastewater tracers, such as ionic detergents, flame retardants, and cholesterol, were considered unambiguous evidence of wastewater. Sampling at any given time may not show concurrent virus and tracer presence; however, given sufficient sampling over time, a relation between wastewater tracers and virus occurrence was identified. Presence of infectious viruses at the wellhead demonstrates that high-capacity pumping induced sufficiently short travel times for the transport of infectious viruses. Therefore, drinking-water wells are vulnerable to contaminants that travel along fast groundwater flowpaths even if they contribute a small amount of virus-laden water to the well. These results suggest that vulnerability assessments require characterization of "low yield-fast transport" in addition to traditional "high yield-slow transport", pathways.

  7. The Use of Additional GPS Frequencies to Independently Determine Tropospheric Water Vapor Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, B.M.; Feng, D.; Flittner, D. E.; Kursinski, E. R.

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that the currently employed L1 and L2 GPS/MET frequencies (1.2 - 1.6) Ghz) do not allow for the separation of water vapor and density (or temperature) from active microwave occultation measurements in regions of the troposphere warmer than 240 K Therefore, additional information must be used, from other types of measurements and weather analyses, to recover water vapor (and temperature) profiles. Thus in data sparse regions, these inferred profiles can be subject to larger errors than would result in data rich regions. The use of properly selected additional GPS frequencies enables a direct, independent measurement of the absorption associated with the water vapor profile, which may then be used in the standard GPS/MET retrievals to obtain a more accurate determination of atmospheric temperature throughout the water vapor layer. This study looks at the use of microwave crosslinks in the region of the 22 Ghz water vapor absorption line for this purpose. An added advantage of using 22 Ghz frequencies is that they are only negligibly affected by the ionosphere in contrast to the large effect at the GPS frequencies. The retrieval algorithm uses both amplitude and phase measurements to obtain profiles of atmospheric pressure, temperature and water water vapor pressure with a vertical resolution of 1 km or better. This technique also provides the cloud liquid water content along the ray path, which is in itself an important element in climate monitoring. Advantages of this method include the ability to make measurements in the presence of clouds and the use of techniques and technology proven through the GPS/MET experiment and several of NASA's planetary exploration missions. Simulations demonstrating this method will be presented for both clear and cloudy sky conditions.

  8. Solar-assisted water-source heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-01-01

    The construction of two solar assisted water source heat pump systems to evaluate the use of night sky radiation using standard solar collectors is reported. The design of the system's controller is described, and project efforts are summarized. The procedure involved in the determination of the feasibility of night sky radiation as the means of rejecting heat through solar collectors for a sample house is reported. Conclusions on different types of coatings that are used on solar collectors are presented. A system and its backup are designed and cooling tower and night sky radiation are compared.

  9. Water Source Pollution and Disease Diagnosis in a Nigerian Rural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangodoyin, A. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Samples from five water sources (spring, borehole, pond, stream, and well) in rural Nigerian communities were tested. Results include source reliabilities in terms of water quality and quantity, pollution effects upon water quality, epidemiological effects related to water quantity and waste disposal, and impact of water quality improvement upon…

  10. Water Residence Times and Runoff Sources Across an Urbanizing Gradient (Croton Water Supply Area, New York)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitvar, T.; Burns, D. A.; Duncan, J. M.; Hassett, J. M.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2002-12-01

    Water residence times and nutrient budgets were measured in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY. The watersheds (less than 1km 2) have different levels of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on impervious surfaces and slow flow through the subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wet zones, hillslopes). Throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were sampled bi-weekly during a period of up to 2 years and analyzed for major chemical constituents, oxygen-18 content, and nitrogen species. Mean residence times of the stream water of about 30 weeks were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes for all 3 watersheds. There was no significant difference in mean residence times among the three study watersheds, despite their different levels of urbanization. However, residence times from a few weeks up to ca 2 years vary within the watersheds, depending on the local runoff sources and their geographical conditions (riparian and hillslope topography, aquifer type). The runoff sources were quantified for selected streamwater and groundwater sampling sites using the end member mixing analysis technique (EMMA). The mixing analysis shows the impact of the runoff sources on runoff generation in the selected watersheds, i.e. it shows how big is the impact of urbanization on the runoff generation and how big is the natural control. These results may be useful in watershed management and planning of further urbanization in the Croton water supply area.

  11. Water defluoridation using Malawi’s locally sourced gypsum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masamba, W. R. L.; Sajidu, S. M.; Thole, B.; Mwatseteza, J. F.

    Free fluoride levels above the WHO guideline maximum value of 1.5 mg/l have been reported in several parts of Malawi. Dental fluorosis has also been observed in the same areas such that search for local defluoridation techniques has become important in the country. The present research intended to determine the potential of using Malawi gypsum in defluoridation, identify the best pre-treatment of the gypsum and optimum conditions under which effective water defluoridation with the gypsum may be obtained. Laboratory experiments were carried out to explore defluoridation of drinking water using locally sourced gypsum and gypsum calcined at high temperatures. A 400 °C calcined phase of gypsum gave the highest defluoridation capacity of 67.80% compared to raw (uncalcined) gypsum, 200, 300 and 500 °C calcined phases. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern of the 400 °C phase revealed existence of less crystalline CaSO 4 that was thought to be responsible for such relatively high defluoridation capacity. The dependence of the fluoride removal by the 400 °C calcined phase on other drinking water quality parameters was assessed by simple correlation analysis. Reaction kinetics and mechanisms of fluoride removal by the materials were also investigated. It was found that ion exchange was the dominant mechanism through which fluoride was removed from water by the materials.

  12. Characterization of haloacetic acid precursors in source water.

    PubMed

    Kanokkantapong, Vorapot; Marhaba, Taha F; Pavasant, Prasert; Panyapinyophol, Bunyarit

    2006-08-01

    Raw water from the Bangkok (Thailand) main municipal water supply canal was examined for its natural organic composition by fractionation with adsorption resins. DAX-8 resin was the first resin employed to fractionate the hydrophobic fractions. Fractionation at neutral pH resulted in the separation of the hydrophobic neutral components; at a high pH level (approx. 10) separation of the hydrophobic base components occurred; and at a low pH level (approx. 2) the hydrophobic acid components were separated. AG-MP-50 cationic resin was then used to separate the hydrophilic base components, and WA-10, a weak anionic resin, was applied finally to fractionate the hydrophilic acid and neutral components. Subsequently, each fraction was tested for its chlorine disinfection by-product (DBP) formation potential. The HAA formation tests demonstrated that the various organic fractions had different reactivity levels for the formation of haloacetic acids (HAAs). For this source water, the hydrophilic neutral fraction dominated over the other five fractions in being the main organic component and the most significant precursor of HAAs formation. On the other hand, in terms of specific HAA formation potential (FP), the hydrophobic and hydrophilic base fractions were the most reactive precursors to the formation of HAAs. In all cases, the quantity of HAAs formed depended linearly upon the amount of organic constituents in the water sample.

  13. Occurrence and profiling of multiple nitrosamines in source water and drinking water of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanfeng; Yu, Jianwei; An, Wei; Yang, Min

    2016-05-01

    The occurrence of multiple nitrosamines was investigated in 54 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) from 30 cities across major watersheds of China, and the formation potential (FP) and cancer risk of the dominant nitrosamines were studied for profiling purposes. The results showed that N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine (NDBA) were the most abundant in DWTPs, and the concentrations in source water and finished water samples were not detected (ND) -53.6ng/L (NDMA), ND -68.5ng/L (NDEA), ND -48.2ng/L (NDBA). The frequencies of detection in source waters were 64.8%, 61.1% and 51.8%, and 57.4%, 53.7%, and 37% for finished waters, respectively. Further study indicated that the FPs of the three main nitrosamines during chloramination were higher than those during chlorination and in drinking water. The results of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) showed that ammonia was the most closely associated factor in nitrosamine formation in the investigated source water; however, there was no significant correlation between nitrosamine-FPs and the values of dominant water-quality parameters. The advanced treatment units (i.e., ozonation and biological activated carbon) used in DWTPs were able to control the nitrosamine-FPs effectively after disinfection. The target pollutants posed median and maximum cancer risks of 2.99×10(-5) and 35.5×10(-5) to the local populations due to their occurrence in drinking water.

  14. Impacts of carbon source addition on denitrification and phosphorus uptake in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shamim A; Batista, Jacimaria R

    2013-01-01

    In this study, simultaneous denitrification and phosphorus (P) removal were investigated in batch tests using nitrified mixed liquor and secondary wastewater influent from a full-scale treatment plant and different levels of acetate and propionate as supplemental carbon sources. Without supplemental carbon source, denitrification occurred at low rate and P release and P uptake was negatively affected (i.e., P removal of only 59.7%). When acetate and propionate were supplied, denitrification and P release occurred simultaneously under anoxic conditions. For acetate and propionate at a C/N stoichiometric ratio of 7.6, P release was negatively affected by denitrification. For acetate, the percent P removal and denitrification were very similar for C/N ratios of 22 (5X stoichiometric) and 59 (10X stoichiometric). For propionate, both percent P removal and denitrification deteriorated for C/N ratios of 22 (5X stoichiometric) and 45 (10X stoichiometric). It was observed that carbon source added in excess to stoichiometric ratio was consumed in the aerobic zone, but P was not taken up. This implies that PAO bacteria may utilize the excess carbon source in the aerobic zone rather than their polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) reserves, thereby promoting deterioration of the system.

  15. Source regions and water release mechanisms of Martian Valley Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Reiss, D.; Sander, T.; Gwinner, K.; Roatsch, T.; Matz, K.-D.; Hauber, E.; Mertens, V.; Hoffmann, H.; Neukum, G.; HRSC Co-Investigator Team

    Martian valley networks have been cited as the best evidence that Mars maintained flow of liquid water across the surface. Although internal structures associated with a fluvial origin within valleys like inner channels, terraces, slip-off and undercut slopes are extremely rare on Mars (Carr and Malin, 2000) such features can be identified in high-resolution imagery (e.g. Malin and Edgett, 2001; Jaumann et al., 2005). However, besides internal features the source regions are an important indicator for the flow processes in Martian valleys because they define the drainage area and thus constrain the amount of available water for eroding the valley network. Furthermore, the morphology of the source regions and their topographic characteristics provide information about the origin of the water. On Mars valley networks are thought to be formed by retreating erosion where the water is supplied from the sub-surface. However, the mechanisms that are responsible for the release of ground water are poorly understood. The three dimensional highly resolved data of the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on the Mars Express Mission (Neukum et al., 2004) allow the detailed examination of valley network source regions. A valley network in the western Lybia Montes region valley between 1.4°N to 3.5°N and 81.6°E to 82.5°E originates at a highland mountain region and drains down to Isidis Planitia over a distance of 400 km. Most of its distance the valley exhibits an interior channel that allows to constraint discharge and erosion budgets (Jaumann, et al., 2005). The valley was formed in the Noachian/Hesperian between 3.7 and 3.3 billion years. However, discharge and erosion budgets restrict the erosion time to a few million years in total, indicating single events rather than continuous flow over long periods. The source region of the valley is covered by a series of lava flows. Even the upstream part of the valley is covered by lava flows that cover the interior channel

  16. Microbial Surveillance of Potable Water Sources of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, Rebekah J.; Ott, C. Mark; Skuratov, Vladimir M.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2005-01-01

    To mitigate risk to the crew, the microbial surveillance of the quality of potable water sources of the International Space Station (ISS) has been ongoing since before the arrival of the first permanent crew. These water sources have included stored ground-supplied water, water produced by the shuttle fuel cells during flight, and ISS humidity condensate that is reclaimed and processed. Monitoring was accomplished using a self-contained filter designed to allow bacterial growth and enumeration during flight. Upon return to earth, microbial isolates were identified using 16S ribosomal gene sequencing. While the predominant isolates were common Gramnegative bacteria including Ralstonia eutropha, Methylobacterium fujisawaense, and Spingomonas paucimobilis, opportunistic pathogens such as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also isolated. Results of in-flight enumeration have indicated a fluctuation of bacterial counts above system design specifications. Additional in-flight monitoring capability for the specific detection of coliforms was added in 2004; no coliforms have been detected from any potable water source. Neither the bacterial concentrations nor the identification of the isolates recovered from these samples has suggested a threat to crew health.

  17. [Water environmental capacity calculation model for the rivers in drinking water source conservation area].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ding-jiang; Lü, Jun; Shen, Ye-na; Jin, Shu-quan; Shi, Yi-ming

    2008-09-01

    Based on the one-dimension model for water environmental capacity (WEC) in river, a new model for the WEC estimation in river-reservoir system was developed in drinking water source conservation area (DWSCA). In the new model, the concept was introduced that the water quality target of the rivers in DWSCA was determined by the water quality demand of reservoir for drinking water source. It implied that the WEC of the reservoir could be used as the water quality control target at the reach-end of the upstream rivers in DWSCA so that the problems for WEC estimation might be avoided that the differences of the standards for a water quality control target between in river and in reservoir, such as the criterions differences for total phosphorus (TP)/total nitrogen (TN) between in reservoir and in river according to the National Surface Water Quality Standard of China (GB 3838-2002), and the difference of designed hydrology conditions for WEC estimation between in reservoir and in river. The new model described the quantitative relationship between the WEC of drinking water source and of the river, and it factually expressed the continuity and interplay of these low water areas. As a case study, WEC for the rivers in DWSCA of Laohutan reservoir located in southeast China was estimated using the new model. Results indicated that the WEC for TN and TP was 65.05 t x a(-1) and 5.05 t x a(-1) in the rivers of the DWSCA, respectively. According to the WEC of Laohutan reservoir and current TN and TP quantity that entered into the rivers, about 33.86 t x a(-1) of current TN quantity should be reduced in the DWSCA, while there was 2.23 t x a(-1) of residual WEC of TP in the rivers. The modeling method was also widely applicable for the continuous water bodies with different water quality targets, especially for the situation of higher water quality control target in downstream water body than that in upstream.

  18. Detection and identification of enteroviruses from various drinking water sources in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu; Chen, Chien-Hsien; Wan, Min-Tao; Chang, Po-Jen; Fan, Cheng-Wei

    2009-02-01

    SummaryTwenty-three water samples, including seventeen from surface water reservoirs, three from the raw water of groundwater treatment plants, and three from small water systems, were collected in Taiwan and investigated for the presence of, as well as the species of enteroviruses. RT-PCR was used for the detection of enteroviruses. Results revealed that 23.5% of raw water samples from reservoirs were positive for enteroviruses. In addition, one of the three groundwater samples and two of the three small system water samples were positive for enteroviruses. Water samples that were positive for enteroviruses subsequently were evaluated by real-time PCR. The results indicated that enterovirus concentration in groundwater was lower than that in samples obtained from surface water sources. Enteroviruses were identified by nucleic acid sequencing in the 5'-untranslated regions. Three clusters of enteroviruses were identified as coxsackievirus A2, coxsackievirus A6, and enterovirus 71. The presence of enteroviruses indicates the possibility of waterborne transmission of enteroviruses in Taiwan, if water is not adequately treated.

  19. Fecal source tracking in water using a mitochondrial DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Nguyet-Minh; Villemur, Richard; Payment, Pierre; Brousseau, Roland; Topp, Edward; Masson, Luke

    2013-01-01

    A mitochondrial-based microarray (mitoArray) was developed for rapid identification of the presence of 28 animals and one family (cervidae) potentially implicated in fecal pollution in mixed activity watersheds. Oligonucleotide probes for genus or subfamily-level identification were targeted within the 12S rRNA - Val tRNA - 16S rRNA region in the mitochondrial genome. This region, called MI-50, was selected based on three criteria: 1) the ability to be amplified by universal primers 2) these universal primer sequences are present in most commercial and domestic animals of interest in source tracking, and 3) that sufficient sequence variation exists within this region to meet the minimal requirements for microarray probe discrimination. To quantify the overall level of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in samples, a quantitative-PCR (Q-PCR) universal primer pair was also developed. Probe validation was performed using DNA extracted from animal tissues and, for many cases, animal-specific fecal samples. To reduce the amplification of potentially interfering fish mtDNA sequences during the MI-50 enrichment step, a clamping PCR method was designed using a fish-specific peptide nucleic acid. DNA extracted from 19 water samples were subjected to both array and independent PCR analyses. Our results confirm that the mitochondrial microarray approach method could accurately detect the dominant animals present in water samples emphasizing the potential for this methodology in the parallel scanning of a large variety of animals normally monitored in fecal source tracking.

  20. Characterization of the relationship between ceramic pot filter water production and turbidity in source water.

    PubMed

    Salvinelli, Carlo; Elmore, A Curt; Reidmeyer, Mary R; Drake, K David; Ahmad, Khaldoun I

    2016-11-01

    Ceramic pot filters represent a common and effective household water treatment technology in developing countries, but factors impacting water production rate are not well-known. Turbidity of source water may be principal indicator in characterizing the filter's lifetime in terms of water production capacity. A flow rate study was conducted by creating four controlled scenarios with different turbidities, and influent and effluent water samples were tested for total suspended solids and particle size distribution. A relationship between average flow rate and turbidity was identified with a negative linear trend of 50 mLh(-1)/NTU. Also, a positive linear relationship was found between the initial flow rate of the filters and average flow rate calculated over the 23 day life of the experiment. Therefore, it was possible to establish a method to estimate the average flow rate given the initial flow rate and the turbidity in the influent water source, and to back calculate the maximum average turbidity that would need to be maintained in order to achieve a specific average flow rate. However, long-term investigations should be conducted to assess how these relationships change over the expected CPF lifetime. CPFs rejected fine suspended particles (below 75 μm), especially particles with diameters between 0.375 μm and 10 μm. The results confirmed that ceramic pot filters are able to effectively reduce turbidity, but pretreatment of influent water should be performed to avoid premature failure.

  1. Vaporization Mechanisms of Water-Insoluble Cs in Ash During Thermal Treatment with Calcium Chloride Addition.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Facun; Iwata, Norie; Kinoshita, Norikazu; Kawaguchi, Masato; Asada, Motoyuki; Honda, Maki; Sueki, Keisuke; Ninomiya, Yoshihiko

    2016-12-20

    The vaporization mechanisms of water-insoluble Cs in raw ash and Cs-doped ash during thermal treatment with CaCl2 addition was systematically examined in a lab-scale electrical heating furnace over a temperature range of 500-1500 °C. The results indicate that the water-insoluble Cs in the ash was associated with aluminosilicate as pollucite. Addition of 10% CaCl2 caused the maximum vaporization ratio of Cs in the raw ash to reach approximately 80% at temperatures higher than 1200 °C, whereas approximately 95% of Cs was vaporized at temperatures higher than 1300 °C when 30% CaCl2 was added. The formation of an intermediate compound, CsCaCl3, through the chemical reaction of Cs with CaCl2 was responsible for Cs vaporization by means of the subsequent decomposition of this intermediate upon the increase in temperature. The indirect chlorination of Cs by the gaseous chlorine released from the decomposition of CaCl2 was insignificant. A high CaCl2 content in the resulting annealed products with 30% CaCl2 addition delayed the decomposition of CsCaCl3 and thus lowered the Cs vaporization ratio compared to that with 10% CaCl2 addition at 900-1250 °C. Thermal treatment with CaCl2 addition is a proposed method to remove Cs from Cs-contaminated incineration ash.

  2. Inorganic nitrogen, sterols and bacterial source tracking as tools to characterize water quality and possible contamination sources in surface water.

    PubMed

    Furtula, Vesna; Osachoff, Heather; Derksen, George; Juahir, Hafizan; Colodey, Al; Chambers, Patricia

    2012-03-15

    The effects of agricultural activities on stream water quality were assessed by nitrogen analysis, further investigated by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) sterol analysis (including chemometric analysis), and characterized by bacterial source tracking (BST). Surface water samples were collected from five sites, throughout the agriculturally-influenced Nathan Creek watershed, British Columbia, Canada and a nearby control site between October 2005 and March 2006. From a total of 48 samples, Canadian Water Quality Guidelines were exceeded nineteen times for nitrate (NO3-; guideline value: 2.94 mg/L N) and four times for un-ionized ammonia (NH3; guideline value 0.019 mg/L N). Gas chromatography mass spectrometry single ion monitoring (GC-MS SIM) analysis of 18 sterols showed that five fecal sterols (coprostanol, episoprostanol, cholesterol, cholestanol, desmosterol) were detected at all sites except the control site (where only cholesterol, cholestanol and desmosterol were detected). Three phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol) were also detected at all sites while the hormone estrone was present at one site on two occasions at concentrations of 0.01 and 0.04 μg/L. Chemometric analysis (principal component analysis and cluster analysis) grouped sites based on their similarities in sterol composition. Analysis of ten sterol ratios (seven for identifying human fecal contamination and four for differentiating sources of fecal contamination) showed multiple instances of human and animal contamination for every site but the control site. Application of a Bacteroides-BST method confirmed contamination from ruminant animals, pigs and dogs in varying combinations at all impact sites. Together, these results confirmed the impact of agricultural activities on the Nathan Creek watershed and support a need for better land management practices to protect water quality and aquatic life.

  3. Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Source Policies

    SciTech Connect

    Harto, C. B.; Schroeder, J. N.; Horner, R. M.; Patton, T. L.; Durham, L. A.; Murphy, D. J.; Clark, C. E.

    2014-10-01

    According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), geothermal energy generation in the United States is projected to more than triple by 2040 (EIA 2013). This addition, which translates to more than 5 GW of generation capacity, is anticipated because of technological advances and an increase in available sources through the continued development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) and low-temperature resources (EIA 2013). Studies have shown that air emissions, water consumption, and land use for geothermal electricity generation have less of an impact than traditional fossil fuel–based electricity generation; however, the long-term sustainability of geothermal power plants can be affected by insufficient replacement of aboveground or belowground operational fluid losses resulting from normal operations (Schroeder et al. 2014). Thus, access to water is therefore critical for increased deployment of EGS technologies and, therefore, growth of the geothermal sector. This paper examines water issues relating to EGS development from a variety of perspectives. It starts by exploring the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects. It then examines the relative costs of different potential traditional and alternative water sources for EGS. Finally it summarizes specific state policies relevant to the use of alternative water sources for EGS, and finally explores the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects.

  4. Anthropogenic organic compounds in source water of select community water systems in the United States, 2002-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.; Price, Curtis V.; Bender, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water delivered by community water systems (CWSs) comes from one or both of two sources: surface water and groundwater. Source water is raw, untreated water used by CWSs and is usually treated before distribution to consumers. Beginning in 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program initiated Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) at select CWSs across the United States, primarily to characterize the occurrence of a large number of anthropogenic organic compounds that are predominantly unregulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Source-water samples from CWSs were collected during 2002–10 from 20 surface-water sites (river intakes) and during 2002–09 from 448 groundwater sites (supply wells). River intakes were sampled approximately 16 times during a 1-year sampling period, and supply wells were sampled once. Samples were monitored for 265 anthropogenic organic compounds. An additional 3 herbicides and 16 herbicide degradates were monitored in samples collected from 8 river intakes and 118 supply wells in areas where these compounds likely have been used. Thirty-seven compounds have an established U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for drinking water, 123 have USGS Health-Based Screening Levels (HBSLs), and 29 are included on the EPA Contaminant Candidate List 3. All compounds detected in source water were evaluated both with and without an assessment level and were grouped into 13 categories (hereafter termed as “use groups”) based on their primary use or source. The CWS sites were characterized in a national context using an extract of the EPA Safe Drinking Water Information System to develop spatially derived and system-specific ancillary data. Community water system information is contained in the EPA Public Supply Database, which includes 2,016 active river intakes and 112,099 active supply wells. Ancillary variables including population served

  5. Nano-porous pottery using calcined waste sediment from tap water production as an additive.

    PubMed

    Sangsuk, Supin; Khunthon, Srichalai; Nilpairach, Siriphan

    2010-10-01

    A suspension of sediment from a lagoon in a tap water production plant was collected for this experiment. The suspension was spray dried and calcined at 700 °C for 1 h. After calcining, 30 wt.% of the sediment were mixed with pottery clay. Samples with and without calcined sediment were sintered at 900, 1000 and 1100 °C. The results show that calcined sediment can be used as an additive in pottery clay. The samples with calcined sediment show higher porosity, water absorption and flexural strength, especially for 900 and 1000 °C. At 900 °C, samples with calcined sediment show a porosity of 50% with an average pore size of 68 nm, water absorption of 31% and flexural strength of 12.61 MPa.

  6. Effect of addition of water-soluble chitin on amylose film.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shiho; Shimahashi, Katsumasa; Takahara, Junichi; Sunako, Michihiro; Takaha, Takeshi; Ogawa, Kozo; Kitamura, Shinichi

    2005-01-01

    Amylose films blended with chitosan, which were free from additives such as acid, salt, and plasticizer, were prepared by casting mixtures of an aqueous solution of an enzymatically synthesized amylose and that of water-soluble chitin (44.1% deacetylated). The presence of a small amount of chitin (less than 10%) increased significantly the permeability of gases (N2, O2, CO2, C2H4) and improved the mechanical parameters of amylose film; particularly, the elastic modulus and elongation of the blend films were larger than those of amylose or chitin films. No antibacterial activity was observed with either amylose or water-soluble chitin films. But amylose films having a small amount of chitin showed strong antibacterial action, suggesting a morphological change in water-soluble chitin on the film surface by blending with amylose molecule. These facts suggested the presence of a molecular complex of amylose and chitosan.

  7. 40 CFR 141.88 - Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... make another sampling point more representative of each source or treatment plant. (ii) Surface water... last day of that period. (c) Monitoring frequency after installation of source water treatment. Any system which installs source water treatment pursuant to § 141.83(a)(3) shall collect an...

  8. 40 CFR 141.88 - Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... make another sampling point more representative of each source or treatment plant. (ii) Surface water... last day of that period. (c) Monitoring frequency after installation of source water treatment. Any system which installs source water treatment pursuant to § 141.83(a)(3) shall collect an...

  9. 40 CFR 141.88 - Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... make another sampling point more representative of each source or treatment plant. (ii) Surface water... last day of that period. (c) Monitoring frequency after installation of source water treatment. Any system which installs source water treatment pursuant to § 141.83(a)(3) shall collect an...

  10. The acid-base impact of free water removal from, and addition to, plasma.

    PubMed

    Haskins, Steve C; Hopper, Kate; Rezende, Marlis L

    2006-03-01

    Water, compared with plasma at a pH of 7.4, is a weak acid. The addition of free water to a patient should have an acidifying effect (dilutional acidosis) and the removal of it, an alkalinizing effect (concentrational alkalosis). The specific effects of free water loss or gain in a relatively complex fluid such as plasma has, to the authors' knowledge, not been reported. This information would be useful in the interpretation of the effect of changes in free water in patients. Plasma samples from goats were either evaporated in a tonometer to 80% of baseline volume or hydrated by the addition of distilled water to 120% of baseline volume. The pH and partial pressure of carbon dioxide, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, chloride, lactate, phosphorous, albumin, and total protein concentrations were measured. Actual base excess (ABE), standard bicarbonate, anion gap, strong ion difference, strong ion gap, unmeasured anions, and the effects of sodium, chloride, phosphate, and albumin changes on ABE were calculated. Most parameters changed 20% in proportion to the magnitude of dehydration or hydration. Bicarbonate concentration, however, increased only 11% in the evaporation trial and decreased only -2% in the dehydration trial. The evaporation trial was associated with a mild, but significant, metabolic alkalotic effect (ABE increased 3.2 mM/L), whereas the hydration trial was associated with a slight, insignificant metabolic acidotic effect (ABE decreased only 0.6 mM/L). The calculated free water ABE effect (change in sodium concentration) was offset by opposite changes in calculated chloride, lactate, phosphate, and albumin ABE effects.

  11. A radio/optical reference frame. 5: Additional source positions in the mid-latitude southern hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, J. L.; Reynolds, J. E.; Jauncey, D. L.; De Vegt, C.; Zacharias, N.; Ma, C.; Fey, A. L.; Johnston, K. J.; Hindsley, R.; Hughes, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    We report new accurate radio position measurements for 30 sources, preliminary positions for two sources, improved radio postions for nine additional sources which had limited previous observations, and optical positions and optical-radio differences for six of the radio sources. The Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations are part of the continuing effort to establish a global radio reference frame of about 400 compact, flat spectrum sources, which are evenly distributed across the sky. The observations were made using Mark III data format in four separate sessions in 1988-89 with radio telescopes at Tidbinbilla, Australia, Kauai, USA, and Kashima, Japan. We observed a total of 54 sources, including ten calibrators and three which were undetected. The 32 new source positions bring the total number in the radio reference frame catalog to 319 (172 northern and 147 southern) and fill in the zone -25 deg greater than delta greater than -45 deg which, prior to this list, had the lowest source density. The VLBI positions have an average formal precision of less than 1 mas, although unknown radio structure effects of about 1-2 mas may be present. The six new optical postion measurements are part of the program to obtain positions of the optical counterparts of the radio reference frame source and to map accurately the optical on to the radio reference frames. The optical measurements were obtained from United States Naval Observatory (USNO) Black Birch astrograph plates and source plates from the AAT, and Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 4 m, and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Schmidt. The optical positions have an average precision of 0.07 sec, mostly due to the zero point error when adjusted to the FK5 optical frame using the IRS catalog. To date we have measured optical positions for 46 sources.

  12. The methods of receiving coal water suspension and its use as the modifying additive in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyantuyev, S. L.; Urkhanova, L. A.; Lkhasaranov, S. A.; Stebenkova, Y. Y.; Khmelev, A. B.; Kondratenko, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Results of research of the coal water suspension (CWS) from a cake received in the electrodigit ways in the fluid environment and gas are given in article and also the possibilities of its use as the modifying additive in concrete are considered. Use of a coal cake is perspective as it is a withdrawal of the coal and concentrating enterprises and has extremely low cost. Methods of receiving CWS and possibility of formation of carbon nanomaterials (CNM) are given in their structure. Research and the analysis of a microstructure of a surface of exemplars before electrodigit processing, their element structure, dependence of durability of a cement stone on a look and quantity of an additive of CWS is conducted. For modification of cement the carbon nanomaterials received from the following exemplars of water coal suspensions were used: foams from a cake from a scrubber of the plasma modular reactor, coal water suspension from a cake from electrodigit installation. The product which can find further application for a power engineering as fuel for combustion, and also in structural materials science, in particular, as the modifying additive in concrete allows to receive these methods.

  13. Rapid Recovery of Cyanobacterial Pigments in Desiccated Biological Soil Crusts following Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Abed, Raeid M. M.; Polerecky, Lubos; Al-Habsi, Amal; Oetjen, Janina; Strous, Marc; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    We examined soil surface colour change to green and hydrotaxis following addition of water to biological soil crusts using pigment extraction, hyperspectral imaging, microsensors and 13C labeling experiments coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALD-TOF MS). The topsoil colour turned green in less than 5 minutes following water addition. The concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl a), scytonemin and echinenon rapidly increased in the top <1 mm layer while in the deeper layer, their concentrations remained low. Hyperspectral imaging showed that, in both wet and dehydrated crusts, cyanobacteria formed a layer at a depth of 0.2–0.4 mm and this layer did not move upward after wetting. 13C labeling experiments and MALDI TOF analysis showed that Chl a was already present in the desiccated crusts and de novo synthesis of this molecule started only after 2 days of wetting due to growth of cyanobacteria. Microsensor measurements showed that photosynthetic activity increased concomitantly with the increase of Chl a, and reached a maximum net rate of 92 µmol m−2 h−1 approximately 2 hours after wetting. We conclude that the colour change of soil crusts to green upon water addition was not due to hydrotaxis but rather to the quick recovery and reassembly of pigments. Cyanobacteria in crusts can maintain their photosynthetic apparatus intact even under prolonged periods of desiccation with the ability to resume their photosynthetic activities within minutes after wetting. PMID:25375172

  14. Rapid recovery of cyanobacterial pigments in desiccated biological soil crusts following addition of water.

    PubMed

    Abed, Raeid M M; Polerecky, Lubos; Al-Habsi, Amal; Oetjen, Janina; Strous, Marc; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    We examined soil surface colour change to green and hydrotaxis following addition of water to biological soil crusts using pigment extraction, hyperspectral imaging, microsensors and 13C labeling experiments coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALD-TOF MS). The topsoil colour turned green in less than 5 minutes following water addition. The concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl a), scytonemin and echinenon rapidly increased in the top <1 mm layer while in the deeper layer, their concentrations remained low. Hyperspectral imaging showed that, in both wet and dehydrated crusts, cyanobacteria formed a layer at a depth of 0.2-0.4 mm and this layer did not move upward after wetting. 13C labeling experiments and MALDI TOF analysis showed that Chl a was already present in the desiccated crusts and de novo synthesis of this molecule started only after 2 days of wetting due to growth of cyanobacteria. Microsensor measurements showed that photosynthetic activity increased concomitantly with the increase of Chl a, and reached a maximum net rate of 92 µmol m-2 h-1 approximately 2 hours after wetting. We conclude that the colour change of soil crusts to green upon water addition was not due to hydrotaxis but rather to the quick recovery and reassembly of pigments. Cyanobacteria in crusts can maintain their photosynthetic apparatus intact even under prolonged periods of desiccation with the ability to resume their photosynthetic activities within minutes after wetting.

  15. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2007-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2005 (October 2004 through September 2005). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for selected elements, organic constituents, suspended sediment, and Escherichia coli bacteria. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir capacities for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent during water year 2005, while monthly reservoir capacities for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir were maintained at capacities greater than 84 and 96 percent, respectively. Assuming a water demand of 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2005 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 119 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area for the 2005 water year was within 2 inches of the total annual precipitation for the previous 2 water years. The monthly mean specific conductances for the outflow of the Cambridge Reservoir were similar to historical monthly mean values. However, monthly mean specific conductances for Stony Brook near Route 20, in Waltham (U.S. Geological Survey station 01104460), which is the principal tributary feeding the Stony Brook Reservoir, were generally higher than the medians of the monthly mean specific conductances for the period of record. Similarly, monthly mean specific conductances for a small tributary to Stony Brook (U.S. Geological Survey

  16. Nitrification in lake sediment with addition of drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Liu, Juanfeng; Wang, Zhixin; Pei, Yuansheng

    2014-06-01

    Drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs), non-hazardous by-products generated during potable water production, can effectively reduce the lake internal phosphorus (P) loading and improve water quality in lakes. It stands to reason that special attention regarding the beneficial reuse of WTRs should be given not only to the effectiveness of P pollution control, but also to the effects on the migration and transformation of other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen (N)). In this work, based on laboratory enrichment tests, the effects of WTRs addition on nitrification in lake sediment were investigated using batch tests, fluorescence in situ hybridization, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and phylogenetic analysis techniques. The results indicated that WTRs addition had minor effects on the morphologies of AOB and NOB; however, the addition slightly enhanced the sediment nitrification potential from 12.8 to 13.2 μg-N g(-1)-dry sample h(-1) and also increased the ammonia oxidation bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) abundances, particularly the AOB abundances (P < 0.05), which increased from 1.11 × 10(8) to 1.31 × 10(8) copies g(-1)-dry sample. Moreover, WTRs addition was beneficial to the enrichment of Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira multiformis and promoted the emergence of a new Nitrospira cluster, causing the increase in AOB and NOB diversities. Further analysis showed that the variations of nitrification in lake sediment after WTRs addition were primarily due to the decrease of bioavailable P, the introduction of new nitrifiers and the increase of favorable carriers for microorganism attachment in sediments. Overall, these results suggested that WTRs reuse for the control of lake internal P loading would also lead to conditions that are beneficial to nitrification.

  17. Common genetic variants, acting additively, are a major source of risk for autism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are early onset neurodevelopmental syndromes typified by impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication, accompanied by restricted and repetitive behaviors. While rare and especially de novo genetic variation are known to affect liability, whether common genetic polymorphism plays a substantial role is an open question and the relative contribution of genes and environment is contentious. It is probable that the relative contributions of rare and common variation, as well as environment, differs between ASD families having only a single affected individual (simplex) versus multiplex families who have two or more affected individuals. Methods By using quantitative genetics techniques and the contrast of ASD subjects to controls, we estimate what portion of liability can be explained by additive genetic effects, known as narrow-sense heritability. We evaluate relatives of ASD subjects using the same methods to evaluate the assumptions of the additive model and partition families by simplex/multiplex status to determine how heritability changes with status. Results By analyzing common variation throughout the genome, we show that common genetic polymorphism exerts substantial additive genetic effects on ASD liability and that simplex/multiplex family status has an impact on the identified composition of that risk. As a fraction of the total variation in liability, the estimated narrow-sense heritability exceeds 60% for ASD individuals from multiplex families and is approximately 40% for simplex families. By analyzing parents, unaffected siblings and alleles not transmitted from parents to their affected children, we conclude that the data for simplex ASD families follow the expectation for additive models closely. The data from multiplex families deviate somewhat from an additive model, possibly due to parental assortative mating. Conclusions Our results, when viewed in the context of results from genome

  18. Bacterial composition in a metropolitan drinking water distribution system utilizing different source waters.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Humrighouse, Ben W; Revetta, Randy P; Santo Domingo, Jorge W

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the bacterial composition of water samples from two service areas within a drinking water distribution system (DWDS), each associated with a different primary source of water (groundwater, GW; surface water, SW) and different treatment process. Community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicated that Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium spp.) and α-Proteobacteria represented nearly 43 and 38% of the total sequences, respectively. Sequences closely related to Legionella, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio spp. were also identified. In spite of the high number of sequences (71%) shared in both areas, multivariable analysis revealed significant differences between the GW and SW areas. While the dominant phylotypes where not significantly contributing in the ordination of samples, the populations associated with the core of phylotypes (1-10% in each sample) significantly contributed to the differences between both service areas. Diversity indices indicate that the microbial community inhabiting the SW area is more diverse and contains more distantly related species coexisting with local assemblages as compared with the GW area. The bacterial community structure of SW and GW service areas were dissimilar, suggesting that their respective source water and/or water quality parameters shaped by the treatment processes may contribute to the differences in community structure observed.

  19. The water factor and mortality from ischemic heart disease: a review and possible explanations for inconsistent findings with additional data from Manitoba.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zeid, H A

    1979-01-01

    The question of the relationship between water hardness and mortality from cardiovascular diseases is far from being settled. Marked discrepancies in the results of various studies in this area exist and there is a great need for closer examination of the reliability of measuring water hardness and other water characteristics. There is also a need for standardizing these measurements and for accounting for certain important questions in designing studies of this nature. This article reviews the results of various studies on the "water factor," points out their discrepancies, presents additional evidence from the Province of Manitoba against the "water factor;" and explains possible sources for discrepancies in the findings of various studies. Based on the evidence so far available, it is too early to universally accept the "water story" and to make recommendations for discouraging the softening of hard water as a measure for preventing cardiovascular disease mortality.

  20. The influence of compost addition on the water repellency of brownfield soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Amii; Kechavarzi, Cedric; Sakrabani, Ruben; Coulon, Frederic; Simmons, Robert; Wu, Guozhong

    2010-05-01

    Compost application to brownfield sites, which can facilitate the stabilisation and remediation of contaminants whilst providing adequate conditions for plant growth, is seen as an opportunity to divert biodegradable wastes from landfill and put degraded land back into productive use. However, although compost application is thought to improve soil hydraulic functioning, there is a lack of information on the impact of large amounts of compost on soil water repellency. Water repellency in soils is attributed to the accumulation of hydrophobic organic compounds released as root exudates, fungal and microbial by-products and decomposition of organic matter. It has also been shown that brownfield soils contaminated with petroleum-derived organic contaminants can exhibit strong water repellency, preventing the rapid infiltration of water and leading potentially to surface run off and erosion of contaminated soil. However, hydrophobic organic contaminants are known to become sequestrated by partitioning into organic matter or diffusing into nano- and micropores, making them less available over time (ageing). The effect of large amounts of organic matter addition through compost application on the water repellency of soils contaminated with petroleum-derived organic contaminants requires further investigation. We characterised the influence of compost addition on water repellency in the laboratory by measuring the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT), sorptivity and water repellency index through infiltration experiments on soil samples amended with two composts made with contrasting feedstocks (green waste and predominantly meat waste). The treatments consisted of a sandy loam, a clay loam and a sandy loam contaminated with diesel fuel and aged for 3 years, which were amended with the two composts at a rate equivalent to 750t/ha. In addition core samples collected from a brownfield site, amended with compost at three different rates (250, 500 and 750t/ha) in 2007, were

  1. A possible source of water in seismogenic subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameda, J.; Yamaguchi, A.; Kimura, G.; Iodp Exp. 322 Scientists

    2010-12-01

    Recent works on the subduction megathrusts have emphasized the mechanical function of fluids contributing dynamic slip-weakening. Basalt-hosting fault zones in on-land accretionary complexes present several textures of seismic slip under fluid-assisted condition such as implosion breccia with carbonate matrix and decrepitation of fluid inclusion. In order to clarify initiation and evolution processes of such fault zones as well as possible source of fluid in the seismogenic subduction zone, we examined a mineralogical/geochemical feature of basaltic basement recovered by IODP Exp. 322 at C0012, that is a reference site for subduction input in the Nankai Trough. A total of 10 samples (about 4 m depth interval from the basement top) were analyzed in this study. XRD analyses indicate that all of the samples contain considerable amount of smectite. The smectite does not appear as a form of interstratified phase with illite or chlorite. Preliminary chemical analyses by EDS in TEM suggest that the smectite is trioctahedral saponite with Ca as a dominant interlayer cation. To determine the saponite content quantitatively, cation exchange capacity (CEC) of bulk samples was measured. The samples show almost similar CEC of around 30 meq/100g, implying that bulk rock contains about 30 wt% of saponite, considering a general CEC of 100 meq/100g for monomineralic saponite. Such abundance of saponite might be a result from intense alteration of oceanic crust due to sea water circulation at low temperature. Previous experimental work suggests that saponite might be highly hydrated (two to three water layer hydration form) at the seismogenic P-T condition. Hence, altered upper oceanic crust is a possible water sink in the seismogenic zone. The water stored in the smectite interlayer region will be expelled via smectite to chlorite transition reaction, that might contribute to the dynamic weakening of the seimogenic plate boundary between the basement basalt and overlying

  2. Suppression of methane/air explosion by ultrafine water mist containing sodium chloride additive.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xingyan; Ren, Jingjie; Zhou, Yihui; Wang, Qiuju; Gao, Xuliang; Bi, Mingshu

    2015-03-21

    The suppression effect of ultrafine mists on methane/air explosions with methane concentrations of 6.5%, 8%, 9.5%, 11%, and 13.5% were experimentally studied in a closed visual vessel. Ultrafine water/NaCl solution mist as well as pure water mist was adopted and the droplet sizes of mists were measured by phase doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). A high speed camera was used to record the flame evolution processes. In contrast to pure water mist, the flame propagation speed, the maximum explosion overpressure (ΔP(max)), and the maximum pressure rising rate ((dP/dt)max) decreased significantly, with the "tulip" flame disappearing and the flame getting brighter. The results show that the suppressing effect on methane explosion by ultrafine water/NaCl solution mist is influenced by the mist amount and methane concentration. With the increase of the mist amount, the pressure, and the flame speed both descended significantly. And when the mist amount reached 74.08 g/m(3) and 37.04 g/m(3), the flames of 6.5% and 13.5% methane explosions can be absolutely suppressed, respectively. All of results indicate that addition of NaCl can improve the suppression effect of ultrafine pure water mist on the methane explosions, and the suppression effect is considered due to the combination effect of physical and chemical inhibitions.

  3. Roofing as a source of nonpoint water pollution.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mingteh; McBroom, Matthew W; Scott Beasley, R

    2004-12-01

    new wood-shingle roofs were significantly higher than those from aged roofs of a previous study. The study demonstrated that roofs could be a serious source of nonpoint water pollution. Since Zn is the most serious water pollutant and wood shingle is the worst of the four roof types, using less compounds and materials associated with Zn along with good care and maintenance of roofs are critical in reducing Zn pollution in roof runoff.

  4. Temporal-spatial distribution of non-point source pollution in a drinking water source reservoir watershed based on SWAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Cheng, W.; Yu, B.-S.; Fang, Y.

    2015-05-01

    The conservation of drinking water source reservoirs has a close relationship between regional economic development and people's livelihood. Research on the non-point pollution characteristics in its watershed is crucial for reservoir security. Tang Pu Reservoir watershed was selected as the study area. The non-point pollution model of Tang Pu Reservoir was established based on the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model. The model was adjusted to analyse the temporal-spatial distribution patterns of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). The results showed that the loss of TN and TP in the reservoir watershed were related to precipitation in flood season. And the annual changes showed an "M" shape. It was found that the contribution of loss of TN and TP accounted for 84.5% and 85.3% in high flow years, and for 70.3% and 69.7% in low flow years, respectively. The contributions in normal flow years were 62.9% and 63.3%, respectively. The TN and TP mainly arise from Wangtan town, Gulai town, and Wangyuan town, etc. In addition, it was found that the source of TN and TP showed consistency in space.

  5. 40 CFR 141.88 - Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... copper in source water. 141.88 Section 141.88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.88 Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water. (a) Sample location,...

  6. 40 CFR 141.88 - Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... copper in source water. 141.88 Section 141.88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.88 Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water. (a) Sample location,...

  7. A simulated insect diet as a water source for quail: effects on body mass and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, W M; Lutz, R S; Patiño, R

    1995-06-01

    Compared with control birds receiving ad libitum free-water, the total water intake of male and female northern bobwhite declined when only mealworms were available as a source of water. Male northern bobwhite sustained tissue mass and reproductive function with mealworms as their only source of water. Female northern bobwhite could not sustain body, ovary, and oviduct mass, and rate of egg production with mealworms as their only source of water. We suggest that, without free-water, breeding females require a diet with a water:dry matter ratio of greater than 1:1.29 (> 44% water).

  8. Retardation of crystallization-induced destabilization of PMF-in-water emulsion with emulsifier additives.

    PubMed

    Arima, Satoshi; Ueji, Toshiyuki; Ueno, Satoru; Ogawa, Akihiro; Sato, Kiyotaka

    2007-03-15

    An oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion, in which the oil phase is semi-solid fat, is easily destabilized when stored below the crystallization temperature of the oil phase. Such destabilization, characterized by loss of fluidity at chilled temperature and oil-water separation after re-heating, is caused by inter-droplet bridging of fat crystals protruding out of the emulsion droplets. In the present study, we found that the simultaneous use of additives of highly hydrophobic sucrose oligoester (SOE; P-170) and highly hydrophilic SOE (P-1670) containing palmitic acid moiety remarkably retarded the crystallization-induced destabilization of the O/W emulsion that contains palm-mid-fraction (PMF) as the oil phase. Without the additives, destabilization occurred when the emulsion was cooled from 60 to 0 degrees C and kept at 0 degrees C for 1 day. Microscopic observation revealed that destabilization was caused by coalescence of the oil droplets, which was triggered by the growth of needle-shaped PMF crystals protruding out of the emulsion membranes. However, the addition of P-170 to PMF increased the crystallization temperature of PMF and at the same time retarded the destabilization. Furthermore, the simultaneous addition of P-170 and P-1670 retarded the crystallization-induced destabilization even more. Optical observation, DSC, and synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction measurements indicated that the P-170 additive enhanced interfacial heterogeneous crystallization to form tiny PMF crystals in the droplets, and that the P-1670 additive retarded morphological change of the PMF crystals into long needle shapes in association with polymorphic transformation from alpha to beta'.

  9. Study Design and Percent Recoveries of Anthropogenic Organic Compounds With and Without the Addition of Ascorbic Acid to Preserve Water Samples Containing Free Chlorine, 2004-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Price, Curtis V.; Sandstrom, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2002 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems in the United States. As used for SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well prior to water treatment (for ground water) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water). Finished water is the water that is treated, which typically involves, in part, the addition of chlorine or other disinfection chemicals to remove pathogens, and is ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished water is collected before the water enters the distribution system. This report describes the study design and percent recoveries of anthropogenic organic compounds (AOCs) with and without the addition of ascorbic acid to preserve water samples containing free chlorine. The percent recoveries were determined by using analytical results from a laboratory study conducted in 2004 by the USGS's National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) and from data collected during 2004-06 for a field study currently (2008) being conducted by the USGS's NAWQA Program. The laboratory study was designed to determine if preserving samples with ascorbic acid (quenching samples) adversely affects analytical performance under controlled conditions. During the laboratory study, eight samples of reagent water were spiked for each of five analytical schedules evaluated. Percent recoveries from these samples were then compared in two ways: (1) four quenched reagent spiked samples analyzed on day 0 were compared with four quenched reagent spiked samples analyzed on day 7 or 14, and (2) the combined eight quenched reagent spiked samples analyzed on day 0, 7, or 14 were compared with eight laboratory reagent spikes (LRSs). Percent

  10. A water soluble additive to suppress respirable dust from concrete-cutting chainsaws: a case study.

    PubMed

    Summers, Michael P; Parmigiani, John P

    2015-01-01

    Respirable dust is of particular concern in the construction industry because it contains crystalline silica. Respirable forms of silica are a severe health threat because they heighten the risk of numerous respirable diseases. Concrete cutting, a common work practice in the construction industry, is a major contributor to dust generation. No studies have been found that focus on the dust suppression of concrete-cutting chainsaws, presumably because, during normal operation water is supplied continuously and copiously to the dust generation points. However, there is a desire to better understand dust creation at low water flow rates. In this case study, a water-soluble surfactant additive was used in the chainsaw's water supply. Cutting was performed on a free-standing concrete wall in a covered outdoor lab with a hand-held, gas-powered, concrete-cutting chainsaw. Air was sampled at the operator's lapel, and around the concrete wall to simulate nearby personnel. Two additive concentrations were tested (2.0% and 0.2%), across a range of fluid flow rates (0.38-3.8 Lpm [0.1-1.0 gpm] at 0.38 Lpm [0.1 gpm] increments). Results indicate that when a lower concentration of additive is used exposure levels increase. However, all exposure levels, once adjusted for 3 hours of continuous cutting in an 8-hour work shift, are below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 5 mg/m(3). Estimates were made using trend lines to predict the fluid flow rates that would cause respirable dust exposure to exceed both the OSHA PEL and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) threshold limit value (TLV).

  11. Emergency drinking water treatment during source water pollution accidents in China: origin analysis, framework and technologies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Chen, Chao; Lin, Peng-Fei; Hou, Ai-Xin; Niu, Zhang-Bin; Wang, Jun

    2011-01-01

    China has suffered frequent source water contamination accidents in the past decade, which has resulted in severe consequences to the water supply of millions of residents. The origins of typical cases of contamination are discussed in this paper as well as the emergency response to these accidents. In general, excessive pursuit of rapid industrialization and the unreasonable location of factories are responsible for the increasing frequency of accidental pollution events. Moreover, insufficient attention to environmental protection and rudimentary emergency response capability has exacerbated the consequences of such accidents. These environmental accidents triggered or accelerated the promulgation of stricter environmental protection policy and the shift from economic development mode to a more sustainable direction, which should be regarded as the turning point of environmental protection in China. To guarantee water security, China is trying to establish a rapid and effective emergency response framework, build up the capability of early accident detection, and develop efficient technologies to remove contaminants from water.

  12. [Countermeasures for strict water quality management of drinking water sources: some thoughts and suggestions on implementing strict water resources management].

    PubMed

    Fu, Guo-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Suggestions on Carrying Out Strict Management Regulations of Water Resources were promulgated by the State Council in January, 2012. This is an important issue which has drawn public attention. I strongly support the principle and spirit of the regulations, as well as the request that governments above the county level bear the overall management responsibility. However, as to the technical route of and countermeasures for achieving strict management, several problems exist in reality. Relevant opinions and suggestions are given in this paper (the paper focuses exclusively on drinking water sources which are most in need of strict protection and management). Main opinions are as follows. (1) The sources of drinking water meeting the Class II standard in Surface Water Environment Quality Standards (GB 3838-2002) may not necessarily be unpolluted; (2) A necessary condition for protecting drinking water sources is that the effluents of enterprises' workshops discharged into the conservation zone should meet the regulation on the permitted maximum concentration of priority-I pollutants defined in the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB 8978-1996); (3) There is a strong doubt about whether Class II standard in GB 3838-2002 for priority I pollutants reflects environmental background values in water.

  13. Hand dug wells in Namibia: An underestimated water source or a threat to human health?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanke, H.; Nakwafila, A.; Hamutoko, J. T.; Lohe, C.; Neumbo, F.; Petrus, I.; David, A.; Beukes, H.; Masule, N.; Quinger, M.

    The rural population of parts of northern and western Namibia uses hand dug wells for their domestic water supply, partly because no other source (e.g., deep tube wells) is available, but also as a substitute for pipeline water that is often perceived as being too expensive. The water quality of these wells is usually not monitored or controlled, thus a study has been carried out in four study areas in Namibia: southern Omusati/Oshana area, Okongo/Ohangwena area, Omatjete/Omaruru area, Okanguati/Kunene area. Hand dug wells have been tested for on-site parameters: electric conductivity, pH and temperature while samples were taken for major inorganic constituents and several minor and trace constituents including fluoride and nitrate. In addition a sampling campaign in 2010 included the determination of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli. Results were classified according to the Namibian Water Guidelines. The constituents making the water unfit for human consumption are fluoride, nitrate, sulphate and total dissolved solids. Contamination by E. coli was indicated in nearly all wells that are used for livestock watering. For the Omatjete/Omaruru study area an isotope based study on the source of nitrate has indicated manure as a source. The range of recharge values obtained for the studied villages ranges from 1 mm/a to locally more than 100 mm/a. Overall the water resource in the shallow perched aquifers in the study areas is in many places inappropriate for human consumption. Treatment to improve the quality or introduction of protection measures is necessary to bring this resource to an acceptable quality according to national and/or international standards.

  14. INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  15. INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  16. The sources of trace element pollution of dry depositions nearby a drinking water source.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xinyue; Ji, Hongbing; Li, Cai; Gao, Yang; Ding, Huaijian; Tang, Lei; Feng, Jinguo

    2017-02-01

    Miyun Reservoir is one of the most important drinking water sources for Beijing. Thirteen atmospheric PM sampling sites were established around this reservoir to analyze the mineral composition, morphological characteristics, element concentration, and sources of atmospheric PM pollution, using transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses. The average monthly dry deposition flux of aerosols was 15.18 g/m(2), with a range of 5.78-47.56 g/m(2). The maximum flux season was winter, followed by summer, autumn, and spring. Zn and Pb pollution in this area was serious, and some of the sample sites had Cr, Co, Ni, and Cu pollution. Deposition fluxes of Zn/Pb in winter and summer reached 99.77/143.63 and 17.04/33.23 g/(hm(2) month), respectively. Principal component analysis showed two main components in the dry deposition; the first was Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn, and the other was Pb and Cd. Principal sources of the trace elements were iron mining and other anthropogenic activities in the surrounding areas and mountainous area north of the reservoir. Mineralogy analysis and microscopic conformation results showed many iron minerals and some unweathered minerals in dry deposition and atmospheric particulate matter, which came from an iron ore yard in the northern mountainous area of Miyun County. There was possible iron-rich dry deposition into Miyun Reservoir, affecting its water quality and harming the health of people living in areas around the reservoir and Beijing.

  17. Surface-water, water-quality, and meteorological data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, water years 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Water samples were collected in nearly all of the subbasins in the Cambridge drinking-water source area and from Fresh Pond during the study period. Discrete water samples were collected during base-flow conditions with an antecedent dry period of at least 3 days. Composite sampl

  18. Contamination of community water sources by potentially pathogenic vibrios following sea water inundation.

    PubMed

    Kanungo, Reba; Shashikala; Karunasagar, I; Srinivasan, S; Sheela, Devi; Venkatesh, K; Anitha, P

    2007-12-01

    Potentially pathogenic members of the Vibrionaceae family including Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahemolyticus were isolated from domestic sources of drinking water in coastal villages following sea water inundation during the tsunami in Southern India. Phenotypic and genotypic studies were done to confirm the identity and detection of toxins. Vibrio-gyr (gyrase B gene) was detected in all sixteen vibrio isolates. Toxin regulating genes i.e.: ctx gene, tdh gene, and trh gene, however were not detected in any of the strains, thereby ruling out presence of toxins which could endanger human life. Other potentially pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas and Plesiomonas were also isolated from hand pumps and wells, in a few localities. There was no immediate danger in the form of an outbreak or sporadic gastroenteritis at the time of the study. Timely chlorination and restoration of potable water supply to the flood affected population by governmental and nongovernmental agencies averted waterborne gastroenteritis. Assessment of quality of water and detection of potential virulent organisms is an important public health activity following natural disasters. This work highlights the importance of screening water sources for potentially pathogenic microorganisms after natural disasters to avert outbreaks of gastroenteritis and other infectious diseases.

  19. [Microbial source tracking of water fecal pollution: a review].

    PubMed

    Feng, Guan-da; Deng, Ming-rong; Zhu, Hong-hui; Guo, Jun; Zhang, Xi; Zhu, Chang-xiong; Liang, Hao-liang

    2010-12-01

    Livestock feces and domestic sewage are the one of the main factors inducing water pollution, while the identification of the pollution source is particularly important in pollution control and management. Because of this, microbial source tracking (MST) has recently been paid more and more attention by the related researchers around the world. In this paper, the research progress of two types of MST methods, their advantages and disadvantages, and existing problems in application were reviewed and discussed. It was considered that in the library- and culture-dependent MST methods, PCR genotyping based on repetitive sequences was most practicable, while in the library- and culture-independent MST methods, PCR-DGGE based on the gene of specificity in Escherichia coli had a very glaring sight. Future researches should be more focused on the library- and culture-independent MST, and the combination of library- and culture-dependent MST with library- and culture-independent MST could make the tracking results more credible.

  20. Poly(ether ester) Ionomers as Water-Soluble Polymers for Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing Processes.

    PubMed

    Pekkanen, Allison M; Zawaski, Callie; Stevenson, André T; Dickerman, Ross; Whittington, Abby R; Williams, Christopher B; Long, Timothy E

    2017-04-12

    Water-soluble polymers as sacrificial supports for additive manufacturing (AM) facilitate complex features in printed objects. Few water-soluble polymers beyond poly(vinyl alcohol) enable material extrusion AM. In this work, charged poly(ether ester)s with tailored rheological and mechanical properties serve as novel materials for extrusion-based AM at low temperatures. Melt transesterification of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, 8k) and dimethyl 5-sulfoisophthalate afforded poly(ether ester)s of sufficient molecular weight to impart mechanical integrity. Quantitative ion exchange provided a library of poly(ether ester)s with varying counterions, including both monovalent and divalent cations. Dynamic mechanical and tensile analysis revealed an insignificant difference in mechanical properties for these polymers below the melting temperature, suggesting an insignificant change in final part properties. Rheological analysis, however, revealed the advantageous effect of divalent countercations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+)) in the melt state and exhibited an increase in viscosity of two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, time-temperature superposition identified an elevation in modulus, melt viscosity, and flow activation energy, suggesting intramolecular interactions between polymer chains and a higher apparent molecular weight. In particular, extrusion of poly(PEG8k-co-CaSIP) revealed vast opportunities for extrusion AM of well-defined parts. The unique melt rheological properties highlighted these poly(ether ester) ionomers as ideal candidates for low-temperature material extrusion additive manufacturing of water-soluble parts.

  1. Possible sources of nitrate in ground water at swine licensed-managed feeding operations in Oklahoma, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Mark F.; Peter, Kathy D.; Masoner, Jason

    2002-01-01

    Samples collected and analyzed by the Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food, and Forestry from 1999 to 2001 determined that nitrate exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level for public drinking-water supplies of 10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen in 79 monitoring wells at 35 swine licensed-managed feeding operations (LMFO) in Oklahoma. The LMFOs are located in rural agricultural settings where long-term agriculture has potentially affected the ground-water quality in some areas. Land use prior to the construction of the LMFOs was assessed to evaluate the types of agricultural land use within a 500-meter radius of the sampled wells. Chemical and microbiological techniques were used to determine the possible sources of nitrate in water sampled from 10 wastewater lagoons and 79 wells. Samples were analyzed for dissolved major ions, dissolved trace elements, dissolved nutrients, nitrogen isotope ratios of nitrate and ammonia, wastewater organic compounds, and fecal coliform bacteria. Bacteria ribotyping analysis was done on selected samples to identify possible specific animal sources. A decision process was developed to identify the possible sources of nitrate. First, nitrogen isotope ratios were used to define sources as animal, mixed animal and fertilizer, or fertilizer. Second, wastewater organic compound detections, nitrogen-isotope ratios, fecal coliform bacteria detections, and ribotyping were used to refine the identification of possible sources as LFMO waste, fertilizer, or unidentified animal or mixtures of these sources. Additional evidence provided by ribotyping and wastewater organic compound data can, in some cases, specifically indicate the animal source. Detections of three or more wastewater organic compounds that are indicators of animal sources and detections of fecal coliform bacteria provided additional evidence of an animal source. LMFO waste was designated as a possible source of nitrate in water from 10

  2. Water Sources and Quantity for Energy Development in Colorado's Denver-Julesburg Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waskom, R.; Kallenberger, J.; Boone, K.; Plombon, B.; Ryan, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade, Colorado has experienced a significant rise in oil and gas development with the greatest concentration of activity occurring in the Denver-Julesburg Basin (DJB) in the Northeast corner of the state. According to the Colorado Oil and Gas Association, as of June 2014, there are approximately 52,200 active oil and gas wells statewide, with over 21,300 located in Weld County, the epicenter of the DJB. In this water-scarce region, much attention is paid to the source and quantity of water being used to produce energy. This information is not readily accessible, but is of great importance to many. In response, our research team is undertaking an evaluation of water quantity impacts and tradeoffs associated with oil and gas development. Technological advancements in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing require additional sources of water - about 2.8 million gallons of per well (Goodwin et al.). The statewide water use for hydraulic fracturing is estimated to be less than 0.1%; however, on a local scale, when water is transferred from agricultural and municipal uses to industrial use, there are economic, environmental and social tradeoffs. Unfortunately, the pathway of a particular water transfer and its associated tradeoffs can be difficult to predict and quantify, further complicating the ability of local and state stakeholders to make sound and informative decisions about energy development. Energy companies are implementing new strategies to ensure reliable water supplies for their operations. These include tapping into non-tributary aquifers to help reduce competition for fully appropriated surface and tributary groundwater sources and recycling and reusing wastewater that results from the drilling and extraction practices. Many conflicting perspectives shape the water-energy discussion in the DJB so non-biased scientific data plays an important role in addressing the questions surrounding water use for energy development. This

  3. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in drinking water sources impacted by multiple tributaries.

    PubMed

    Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L; Snyder, Shane A; Suffet, I H

    2007-10-01

    The characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in drinking water sources is important as this material contributes to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) and affects how water treatment unit operations are optimized. Drinking water utilities often draw water from sources impacted by multiple tributaries, with possible shifts in DOM concentrations and reactivity over time, depending on specific environmental conditions. In this study, results are presented on the characterization of DOM under varying ambient conditions from the four main tributaries of Lake Mead, a large reservoir in the southwest United States. The tributaries include the Las Vegas Wash (LVW), Muddy River (MR), Virgin River (VR) and the upper Colorado River (UCR). One additional sample was collected at the outflow of the reservoir (lower Colorado River (LCR)). The DOM was characterized by both bulk parameters (specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA)) and specific physicochemical properties, i.e. size, polarity and fluorescence. The analyses were performed emphasizing limited changes in its natural configuration by eliminating analytical preparation steps, excluding sample filtration (0.45 microm filter). Results indicate that each tributary had a different molecular weight distribution, as well as fluorescence properties, which helped in the identification of the relative source of DOM (allochthonous versus autochthonous). The largest apparent molecular weight distribution was observed for DOM samples collected at the MR site, which is fed mostly by groundwater seepage. The smallest apparent molecular weight was observed for DOM collected at the LCR site, suggesting that retention in the reservoir resulted in a decrease in molecular weight as a probable result of photo oxidation and microbial processes. Fluorescence analysis aided the differentiation of DOM by clearly identifying waters that were affected by microbial activity (LVW, UCR, and LCR), either by wastewater influence

  4. Water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, W.R.; Irick, S.C.; Lunt, D.L.J.

    1991-10-28

    The program for providing water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley is reviewed with respect to fabrication and metrology of the surfaces. Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from prototype mirrors and grating blanks will be presented, which show exceptionally low microroughness and mid-period error. We will briefly describe out improved version of the Long Trace Profiler, and its importance to out metrology program. We have completely redesigned the mechanical, optical and computational parts of the profiler system with the cooperation of Peter Takacs of Brookhaven, Continental Optical, and Baker Manufacturing. Most important is that one of our profilers is in use at the vendor to allow testing during fabrication. Metrology from the first water cooled mirror for an ALS beamline is presented as an example. The preplating processing and grinding and polishing were done by Tucson Optical. We will show significantly better surface microroughness on electroless nickel, over large areas, than has been reported previously.

  5. Dendrite-Free Li Deposition Using Trace-Amounts of Water as an Electrolyte Additive

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark H.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-07-01

    Residual water presents in nonaqueous electrolytes has been widely regarded as a detrimental factor for lithium (Li) batteries. This is because water is highly reactive with the commonly used LiPF6 salt and leads to the formation of HF that corrodes battery materials. In this work, we demonstrate that a controlled trace-amount of water (25-100 ppm) can be an effective electrolyte additive for achieving dendrite-free Li metal deposition in LiPF6-based electrolytes and avoid its detrimental effect at the same time. Detailed analyses reveal that the trace amount of HF formed by the decomposition reaction of LiPF6 with water will be electrochemically reduced during initial Li deposition process to form a uniform and dense LiF-rich SEI layer on the surface of the substrate. This LiF-rich SEI layer leads to a uniform distribution of the electric field on the substrate surface and enables uniform and dendrite-free Li deposition. Meanwhile the detrimental effect of HF is diminished due to the consumption of HF in the LiF formation process. Microscopic analysis reveals that the as-deposited dendrite-free Li films exhibit a self-aligned and highly-compacted Li nanorods structure which is consistent with their charming blue color or known as structure color. These findings clearly demonstrate a novel approach to control the nucleation and grow process of Li metal films using well-controlled trace-amount of water. They also shine the light on the effect of water on other electrodeposition processes.

  6. Fogs and Clouds are a Potential Indicator of a Local Water Source in Valles Marineris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Cecilia W. S.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Stillman, David E.; McEwen, Alfred S.

    2016-04-01

    Recurring slope lineae (RSL) are narrow, low-albedo seasonal flow features on present-day Mars that extend incrementally down warm, steep slopes, fade when inactive, and reappear annually over multiple Mars years [1,2]. Hypothesis for the sources of volatile by which RSL are recharged include seeping water, melting shallow ice, aquifers, and vapor from the atmosphere [1-5]. About 50% of the 250+ candidate and confirmed RSL sites appear in and around Valles Marineris [3], and coincide with regions where putative morning water ice fogs may appear as imaged by the High Resolution Stereo Camera on Mars Express [6]. The presence of fog may provide clues to the water cycle within the canyon, and could elucidate the processes related to the evolution of RSL. Using a regional atmospheric model, we investigate the atmospheric dynamics in and around Valles Marineris. Our simulation results show a curious temperature structure, where the inside of the canyon appears warmer relative to the plateaus immediately outside at all times of day. Formation of fogs requires the atmosphere to be saturated. This can happen with the appropriate combination of cooling or addition of water vapor. The modeled temperature structure suggests that if water is well mixed and fog is present within the warmer canyon bottom, fog should be present on the cooler surrounding plateaus as well. This is generally not the case. Therefore, the only way to produce fog inside the canyon is to have a local water source. RSL may contribute to this atmospheric water through evaporation, or RSL may simply be a surface marker of a larger near-surface reservoir of water that can act as a source. From the modeled temperatures, we calculated the corresponding saturation vapor pressures and saturation mixing ratios to determine the amount of water vapor in the air at saturation. The observed Martian atmospheric column abundance is ~10 precipitable microns on average [7] and presents a major challenge for an

  7. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Free-Living Amoebae from Different Water Sources in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Montalbano Di Filippo, Margherita; Santoro, Maristella; Lovreglio, Piero; Monno, Rosa; Capolongo, Carmen; Calia, Carla; Fumarola, Luciana; D’Alfonso, Rossella; Berrilli, Federica; Di Cave, David

    2015-01-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are protozoa ubiquitous in Nature, isolated from a variety of environments worldwide. In addition to their natural distribution, some species have been found to be pathogenic to humans. In the present study a survey was conducted in order to evaluate the presence and to characterize at molecular level the isolates of amoebic organisms collected from different water sources in Italy. A total of 160 water samples were analyzed by culture and microscopic examination. FLA were found in 46 (28.7%) of the investigated water samples. Groundwater, well waters, and ornamental fountain waters were the sources with higher prevalence rates (85.7%, 50.0%, and 45.9%, respectively). Identification of FLA species/genotypes, based on the 18S rDNA regions, allowed to identify 18 (39.1%) Acanthamoeba isolates (genotypes T4 and T15) and 21 (45.6%) Vermamoeba vermiformis isolates. Other FLA species, including Vahlkampfia sp. and Naegleria spp., previously reported in Italy, were not recovered. The occurrence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae in habitats related to human population, as reported in the present study, supports the relevance of FLA as a potential health threat to humans. PMID:25811766

  8. [Emergent treatment of source water contaminated by representative chemicals].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bei-Bei; Gao, Nai-Yun; Lu, Wen-Min; Shang, Ya-Bo; Qin, Zu-Qun

    2009-06-15

    Emergent treatment of source water polluted by representative chemical bisphenol-A (BPA) and Di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) was researched. The results indicate that activated carbon adsorption could achieve high efficiencies to remove the two chemicals. The pseudo second-order adsorption kinetic model and Elovich kinetic model can be used to describe the powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption process of BPA and DEP in raw water. In pilot test, 50 mg/L PAC dosage can get the pollution concentration of 500 microg/L BPA or 3.3 mg/L DEP comply with the requirement of water quality standard. The dynamic adsorption of carbon-sand filter was also studied, and removal efficiencies of BPA and DEP were hardly influenced by their original concentrations and the filtering velocity among 5.1-15.3 m/h of carbon-sand filter. When PAC adsorption was combined with carbon-sand filter, PAC adsorption contributes most to removing pollution, and carbon-sand filter as the supplement of PAC can strengthen safety. DEP can't be oxidized by KMnO4 or Cl2, but 850 microg/L BPA can be almost completely oxidized by 3 mg/L KMnO4 and 1.5 mg/L Cl2. The oxidation products of BPA as well as their toxicity need further study. PAC adsorption combined with 1.5 mg/L KMnO4 preoxidation can't improve the removal efficiency of DEP, but can improve BPA removal efficiency.

  9. Inhibition of Ostwald ripening in model beverage emulsions by addition of poorly water soluble triglyceride oils.

    PubMed

    McClements, David Julian; Henson, Lulu; Popplewell, L Michael; Decker, Eric Andrew; Choi, Seung Jun

    2012-01-01

    Beverage emulsions containing flavor oils that have a relatively high water-solubility are unstable to droplet growth due to Ostwald ripening. The aim of this study was to improve the stability of model beverage emulsions to this kind of droplet growth by incorporating poorly water-soluble triglyceride oils. High pressure homogenization was used to prepare a series of 5 wt% oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by modified starch that had different lipid phase compositions (orange oil : corn oil). Emulsions prepared using only orange oil as the lipid phase were highly unstable to droplet growth during storage, which was attributed to Ostwald ripening resulting from the relatively high water-solubility of orange oil. Droplet growth could be effectively inhibited by incorporating ≥ 10% corn oil into the lipid phase prior to homogenization. In addition, creaming was also retarded because the lipid phase density was closer to that of the aqueous phase density. These results illustrate a simple method of improving the physical stability of orange oil emulsions for utilization in the food, beverage, and fragrance industries.

  10. Hydrogeology, ground-water quality, and sources of nitrate in lowland glacial aquifers of Whatcom County, Washington, and British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Stephen E.; Kahle, Sue C.

    1999-01-01

    Ground water is an important source of domestic, municipal, and irrigation water supply throughout the Fraser-Whatcom Lowland, particularly for the 225-square mile agricultural area surrounding the Whatcom County communities of Lynden, Everson, Nooksack, and Sumas and the British Columbia communities of Abbotsford and Aldergrove. Population growth and developing ground-water-quality problems have increased the demand for additional sources of ground water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Whatcom County Planning Department, collected water-level, lithologic, and water-quality data from 608 wells during 1990-92 to complete a regional appraisal of the ground-water system.

  11. Evaluation of Current Water Treatment and Distribution System Optimization to Provide Safe Drinking Water from Various Source Water Types and Conditions (Deliverable 5.2.C.1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasingly, drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) are being challenged by changes in the quality of their source waters and by their aging treatment and distribution system infrastructure. Individually or in combination, factors such as shrinking water and financial resources...

  12. Effects of nitrate addition on water column methylmercury in Occoquan Reservoir, Virginia, USA.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Marc W; Duvil, Ricardi; Cubas, Francisco J; Grizzard, Thomas J

    2017-03-01

    Mercury bioaccumulation in aquatic biota poses a widespread threat to human and environmental health. Methylmercury (MeHg), the toxic form of mercury, tends to build up under anaerobic conditions in the profundal zones of lakes. In this study we performed a two-year assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of dissolved oxygen, nitrate, MeHg, manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) in Occoquan Reservoir, a large run-of-the-river drinking water reservoir in Virginia, USA. A tributary to the reservoir receives input of nitrate-rich tertiary-treated wastewater that enhances the oxidant capacity of bottom water. Multiple lines of evidence supported the hypothesis that the presences of nitrate and/or oxygen in bottom water correlated with low MeHg in bottom water. Bottom water MeHg was significantly lower in a nitrate-rich tributary (annual mean of 0.05 ng/L in both 2012 and 2013) compared to a nitrate-poor tributary (annual mean of 0.58 ng/L in 2012 and 0.21 ng/L in 2013). The presence of nitrate and oxygen in bottom water corresponded with significantly lower bottom water MeHg at an upstream station in the main reservoir (0.05 versus 0.11 ng/L in 2013). In 2012 the reservoir exhibited a longitudinal gradient with nitrate and oxygen decreasing and MeHg and Mn increasing downstream. In both study years, there was a clear threshold of oxygen equivalent (3-5 mg/L), a metric that combines the oxidant capacity of nitrate and oxygen, above which MeHg (<0.05 ng/L), Mn (<0.3 mg/L) and Fe (<0.5 mg/L) were low. Results indicated that the addition of nitrate-rich tertiary-treated wastewater to the bottom of anaerobic reservoirs can reduce MeHg concentrations, and potentially decrease mercury bioaccumulation, while increasing the safe water yield for potable use.

  13. High Temperature Thermoplastic Additive Manufacturing Using Low-Cost, Open-Source Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, John M.; Stelter, Christopher J.; Yashin, Edward A.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) via Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), also known as Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), is a process where material is placed in specific locations layer-by-layer to create a complete part. Printers designed for FFF build parts by extruding a thermoplastic filament from a nozzle in a predetermined path. Originally developed for commercial printers, 3D printing via FFF has become accessible to a much larger community of users since the introduction of Reprap printers. These low-cost, desktop machines are typically used to print prototype parts or novelty items. As the adoption of desktop sized 3D printers broadens, there is increased demand for these machines to produce functional parts that can withstand harsher conditions such as high temperature and mechanical loads. Materials meeting these requirements tend to possess better mechanical properties and higher glass transition temperatures (Tg), thus requiring printers with high temperature printing capability. This report outlines the problems and solutions, and includes a detailed description of the machine design, printing parameters, and processes specific to high temperature thermoplastic 3D printing.

  14. Influence of Anthropogenic Nutrient Additions on Greenhouse Gas Production Rates at Water-soil Interfaces in an Urban Dominated Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigham, B. A.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Bird, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The tidal Hudson River Estuary (HRE) receives significant inputs of readily dissolvable carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) from incomplete wastewater treatment and sewer overflow during storm events associated with NYC and other urban centers. Nutrient deposition may alter C utilization in the estuarine water column, associated sediments and surrounding wetlands. In these anaerobic systems, we hypothesize that microbial activity is limited by the availability of easily-degradable C (not electron acceptors), which acts as a co-metabolite and provides energy for organic matter decomposition. Sporadic transport of highly C enriched storm derived runoff may substantially enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) production rates through the utilization of stored C pools. To test our hypothesis carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) process rates (1) were evaluated from soil cores removed from three distinct HRE wetland sites (Saw Mill Creek, Piermont, and Iona Island Marsh(s)) across a salinity gradient and incubated under varying nutrient treatments. Further, CO2 and CH4 surface water effluxes (2) were quantified from multiple river cruises spanning two years at varying distance from nutrient sources associated with NYC. Incubation experiments from wetland soil core experiments demonstrated that readily degradable C but not inorganic N additions stimulated GHG production (200 - 350 ug C g-1 of dry soil day-1) threefold compared to negative controls. The HRE was found to be both a CO2 and CH4 source under all conditions. The greatest GHG efflux (300 - 3000 nmoles C m-2 day-1) was quantified in mid-channel, tributary, and near shore sites in close proximity to NYC which following precipitation events demonstrated 2-20X increased GHG efflux. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic C additions associated with dense urban centers have the potential to enhance anaerobic microbial degradation of organic matter and subsequent GHG production.

  15. Source Distribution Method for Unsteady One-Dimensional Flows With Small Mass, Momentum, and Heat Addition and Small Area Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirels, Harold

    1959-01-01

    A source distribution method is presented for obtaining flow perturbations due to small unsteady area variations, mass, momentum, and heat additions in a basic uniform (or piecewise uniform) one-dimensional flow. First, the perturbations due to an elemental area variation, mass, momentum, and heat addition are found. The general solution is then represented by a spatial and temporal distribution of these elemental (source) solutions. Emphasis is placed on discussing the physical nature of the flow phenomena. The method is illustrated by several examples. These include the determination of perturbations in basic flows consisting of (1) a shock propagating through a nonuniform tube, (2) a constant-velocity piston driving a shock, (3) ideal shock-tube flows, and (4) deflagrations initiated at a closed end. The method is particularly applicable for finding the perturbations due to relatively thin wall boundary layers.

  16. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater.

  17. Factors affecting reservoir and stream-water quality in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area and implications for source-water protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldron, Marcus C.; Bent, Gardner C.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, Water Department, to assess reservoir and tributary-stream quality in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, and to use the information gained to help guide the design of a comprehensive water-quality monitoring program for the source area. Assessments of the quality and trophic state of the three primary storage reservoirs, Hobbs Brook Reservoir, Stony Brook Reservoir, and Fresh Pond, were conducted (September 1997-November 1998) to provide baseline information on the state of these resources and to determine the vulnerability of the reservoirs to increased loads of nutrients and other contaminants. The effects of land use, land cover, and other drainage-basin characteristics on sources, transport, and fate of fecal-indicator bacteria, highway deicing chemicals, nutrients, selected metals, and naturally occurring organic compounds in 11 subbasins that contribute water to the reservoirs also was investigated, and the data used to select sampling stations for incorporation into a water-quality monitoring network for the source area. All three reservoirs exhibited thermal and chemical stratification, despite artificial mixing by air hoses in Stony Brook Reservoir and Fresh Pond. The stratification produced anoxic or hypoxic conditions in the deepest parts of the reservoirs and these conditions resulted in the release of ammonia nitrogen orthophosphate phosphorus, and dissolved iron and manganese from the reservoir bed sediments. Concentrations of sodium and chloride in the reservoirs usually were higher than the amounts recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection agency for drinking-water sources (20 milligrams per liter for sodium and 250 milligrams per liter for chloride). Maximum measured sodium concentrations were highest in Hobbs Brook Reservoir (113 milligrams per liter), intermediate in Stony Brook Reservoir (62

  18. Drinking water: a major source of lead exposure in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ul-Haq, N; Arain, M A; Badar, N; Rasheed, M; Haque, Z

    2011-11-01

    Excess lead in drinking water is a neglected source of lead toxicity in Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey in 2007/08 was made of water samples from drinking water sources in Karachi, a large industrial city. This study aimed to compare lead levels between untreated ground water and treated surface (tap) water in 18 different districts. Of 216 ground and surface water samples collected, 86% had lead levels higher than the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration of l0 ppb. Mean lead concentration in ground water [146 (SD 119) ppb] was significantly higher than in surface water [77.1 (SD 54) ppb]. None of the 18 districts had a mean lead level of ground or surface water below the WHO cut-off and ground water sources in 9 districts had a severe level of contamination (>150 ppb). Urgent action is needed to eliminate sources of contamination.

  19. Effect of PAC addition on immersed ultrafiltration for the treatment of algal-rich water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Tian, Jiayu; Nan, Jun; Gao, ShanShan; Liang, Heng; Wang, Meilian; Li, Guibai

    2011-02-28

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on the treatment of algal-rich water by immersed ultrafiltration (UF), in terms of permeate quality and membrane fouling. Experiments were performed with a hollow-fiber polyvinyl chloride ultrafiltration membrane at a laboratory scale, 20-25°C and 10 L/(m(2) h) constant permeate flux. UF could achieve an absolute removal of Microcystis aeruginosa cells, but a poor removal of algogenic organic matter (AOM) released into water, contaminants responsible for severe membrane fouling. The addition of 4 g/L PAC to the immersed UF reactor significantly alleviated the development of trans-membrane pressure and enhanced the removal of dissovled organic carbon (by 10.9±1.7%), UV(254) (by 27.1±1.7%), and microcystins (expressed as MC-LR(eq), by 40.8±4.2%). However, PAC had little effect on the rejection of hydrophilic high molecular weight AOM such as carbohydrates and proteins. It was also identified that PAC reduced the concentrations of carbohydrates and proteins in the reactor due to decreased light intensity, as well as the MC-LR(eq) concentration by PAC adsorption.

  20. Chromium in drinking water: sources, metabolism, and cancer risks.

    PubMed

    Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2011-10-17

    Drinking water supplies in many geographic areas contain chromium in the +3 and +6 oxidation states. Public health concerns are centered on the presence of hexavalent Cr that is classified as a known human carcinogen via inhalation. Cr(VI) has high environmental mobility and can originate from anthropogenic and natural sources. Acidic environments with high organic content promote the reduction of Cr(VI) to nontoxic Cr(III). The opposite process of Cr(VI) formation from Cr(III) also occurs, particularly in the presence of common minerals containing Mn(IV) oxides. Limited epidemiological evidence for Cr(VI) ingestion is suggestive of elevated risks for stomach cancers. Exposure of animals to Cr(VI) in drinking water induced tumors in the alimentary tract, with linear and supralinear responses in the mouse small intestine. Chromate, the predominant form of Cr(VI) at neutral pH, is taken up by all cells through sulfate channels and is activated nonenzymatically by ubiquitously present ascorbate and small thiols. The most abundant form of DNA damage induced by Cr(VI) is Cr-DNA adducts, which cause mutations and chromosomal breaks. Emerging evidence points to two-way interactions between DNA damage and epigenetic changes that collectively determine the spectrum of genomic rearrangements and profiles of gene expression in tumors. Extensive formation of DNA adducts, clear positivity in genotoxicity assays with high predictive values for carcinogenicity, the shape of tumor-dose responses in mice, and a biological signature of mutagenic carcinogens (multispecies, multisite, and trans-sex tumorigenic potency) strongly support the importance of the DNA-reactive mutagenic mechanisms in carcinogenic effects of Cr(VI). Bioavailability results and kinetic considerations suggest that 10-20% of ingested low-dose Cr(VI) escapes human gastric inactivation. The directly mutagenic mode of action and the incompleteness of gastric detoxification argue against a threshold in low

  1. Chromium in Drinking Water: Sources, Metabolism, and Cancer Risks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Drinking water supplies in many geographic areas contain chromium in the +3 and +6 oxidation states. Public health concerns are centered on the presence of hexavalent Cr that is classified as a known human carcinogen via inhalation. Cr(VI) has high environmental mobility and can originate from anthropogenic and natural sources. Acidic environments with high organic content promote the reduction of Cr(VI) to nontoxic Cr(III). The opposite process of Cr(VI) formation from Cr(III) also occurs, particularly in the presence of common minerals containing Mn(IV) oxides. Limited epidemiological evidence for Cr(VI) ingestion is suggestive of elevated risks for stomach cancers. Exposure of animals to Cr(VI) in drinking water induced tumors in the alimentary tract, with linear and supralinear responses in the mouse small intestine. Chromate, the predominant form of Cr(VI) at neutral pH, is taken up by all cells through sulfate channels and is activated nonenzymatically by ubiquitously present ascorbate and small thiols. The most abundant form of DNA damage induced by Cr(VI) is Cr-DNA adducts, which cause mutations and chromosomal breaks. Emerging evidence points to two-way interactions between DNA damage and epigenetic changes that collectively determine the spectrum of genomic rearrangements and profiles of gene expression in tumors. Extensive formation of DNA adducts, clear positivity in genotoxicity assays with high predictive values for carcinogenicity, the shape of tumor–dose responses in mice, and a biological signature of mutagenic carcinogens (multispecies, multisite, and trans-sex tumorigenic potency) strongly support the importance of the DNA-reactive mutagenic mechanisms in carcinogenic effects of Cr(VI). Bioavailability results and kinetic considerations suggest that 10–20% of ingested low-dose Cr(VI) escapes human gastric inactivation. The directly mutagenic mode of action and the incompleteness of gastric detoxification argue against a threshold in low

  2. Natural and anthropogenic sources and processes affecting water chemistry in two South Korean streams.

    PubMed

    Shin, Woo-Jin; Ryu, Jong-Sik; Mayer, Bernhard; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Lee, Sin-Woo

    2014-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) in a watershed provides potential sources of pollutants for surface and subsurface waters that can deteriorate water quality. Between March and early August 2011, water samples were collected from two streams in South Korea, one dominantly draining a watershed with carbonate bedrock affected by coal mines and another draining a watershed with silicate bedrock and a relatively undisturbed catchment area. The objective of the study was to identify the sources and processes controlling water chemistry, which was dependent on bedrock and land use. In the Odae stream (OS), the stream in the silicate-dominated catchment, Ca, Na, and HCO3 were the dominant ions and total dissolved solids (TDS) was low (26.1-165 mg/L). In the Jijang stream (JS), in the carbonate-dominated watershed, TDS (224-434 mg/L) and ion concentrations were typically higher, and Ca and SO4 were the dominant ions due to carbonate weathering and oxidation of pyrite exposed at coal mines. Dual isotopic compositions of sulfate (δ(34)SSO4 and δ(18)OSO4) verified that the SO4 in JS is derived mainly from sulfide mineral oxidation in coal mines. Cl in JS was highest upstream and decreased progressively downstream, which implies that pollutants from recreational facilities in the uppermost part of the catchment are the major source governing Cl concentrations within the discharge basin. Dual isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ(15)NNO3 and δ(18)ONO3) indicated that NO3 in JS is attributable to nitrification of soil organic matter but that NO3 in OS is derived mostly from manure. Additionally, the contributions of potential anthropogenic sources to the two streams were estimated in more detail by using a plot of δ(34)SSO4 and δ(15)NNO3. This study suggests that the dual isotope approach for sulfate and nitrate is an excellent additional tool for elucidating the sources and processes controlling the water chemistry of streams draining watersheds having different lithologies and

  3. Percent recoveries of anthropogenic organic compounds with and without the addition of ascorbic acid to preserve finished-water samples containing free chlorine, 2004-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Bender, David A.; Price, Curtis V.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents finished-water matrix-spike recoveries of 270 anthropogenic organic compounds with and without the addition of ascorbic acid to preserve water samples containing free chlorine. Percent recoveries were calculated using analytical results from a study conducted during 2004-10 for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The study was intended to characterize the effect of quenching on finished-water matrix-spike recoveries and to better understand the potential oxidation and transformation of 270 anthropogenic organic compounds. The anthropogenic organic compounds studied include those on analytical schedules 1433, 2003, 2033, 2060, 2020, and 4024 of the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory. Three types of samples were collected from 34 NAWQA locations across the Nation: (1) quenched finished-water samples (not spiked), (2) quenched finished-water matrix-spike samples, and (3) nonquenched finished-water matrix-spike samples. Percent recoveries of anthropogenic organic compounds in quenched and nonquenched finished-water matrix-spike samples are presented. Comparisons of percent recoveries between quenched and nonquenched spiked samples can be used to show how quenching affects finished-water samples. A maximum of 18 surface-water and 34 groundwater quenched finished-water matrix-spike samples paired with nonquenched finished-water matrix-spike samples were analyzed. Percent recoveries for the study are presented in two ways: (1) finished-water matrix-spike samples supplied by surface-water or groundwater, and (2) by use (or source) group category for surface-water and groundwater supplies. Graphical representations of percent recoveries for the quenched and nonquenched finished-water matrix-spike samples also are presented.

  4. Density currents in the Chicago River: Characterization, effects on water quality, and potential sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, P. Ryan; Garcia, Carlos M.; Oberg, Kevin A.; Johnson, Kevin K.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2008-01-01

    Bidirectional flows in a river system can occur under stratified flow conditions and in addition to creating significant errors in discharge estimates, the upstream propagating currents are capable of transporting contaminants and affecting water quality. Detailed field observations of bidirectional flows were made in the Chicago River in Chicago, Illinois in the winter of 2005-06. Using multiple acoustic Doppler current profilers simultaneously with a water-quality profiler, the formation of upstream propagating density currents within the Chicago River both as an underflow and an overflow was observed on three occasions. Density differences driving the flow primarily arise from salinity differences between intersecting branches of the Chicago River, whereas water temperature is secondary in the creation of these currents. Deicing salts appear to be the primary source of salinity in the North Branch of the Chicago River, entering the waterway through direct runoff and effluent from a wastewater-treatment plant in a large metropolitan area primarily served by combined sewers. Water-quality assessments of the Chicago River may underestimate (or overestimate) the impairment of the river because standard water-quality monitoring practices do not account for density-driven underflows (or overflows). Chloride concentrations near the riverbed can significantly exceed concentrations at the river surface during underflows indicating that full-depth parameter profiles are necessary for accurate water-quality assessments in urban environments where application of deicing salt is common.

  5. Growth of moderately halophilic bacteria isolated from sea water using phenol as the sole carbon source.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, J A; Pérez-Esteban, B; Esteban, M; de la Escalera, S; Gómez, M A; Martínez-Toledo, M V; González-López, J

    2001-01-01

    Moderately halophilic bacteria utilizing phenol as the sole carbon source were isolated by selective enrichment from sea water. The isolate (Gram-negative motile rods) was identified as Deleya venusta. It grew well in the presence of up to 1600 mg/L of phenol and 8% NaCl under aerobic conditions. When the cells were treated with chloramphenicol prior to the addition of phenol they did not utilize added phenol, even after prolonged incubation. Thus, the enzymes necessary for phenol metabolism appeared to be inducible.

  6. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment...

  7. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment...

  8. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment...

  9. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment...

  10. National survey of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and other Volatile Organic Compounds in drinking-water sources: Results of the random source-water survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grady, Stephen J.

    2002-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was detected in source water used by 8.7 percent of randomly selected community water systems (CWSs) in the United States at concentrations that ranged from 0.2 to 20 micrograms per liter (?g/L). The Random Survey conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California and the Oregon Health & Science University, was designed to provide an assessment of the frequency of detection, concentration, and distribution of MTBE, three other ether gasoline oxygenates, and 62 other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ground- and surface-water sources used for drinking-water supplies. The Random Survey was the first of two components of a national assessment of the quality of source water supplying CWSs sponsored by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation. A total of 954 CWSs were selected for VOC sampling from the population of nearly 47,000 active, self-supplied CWSs in all 50 States, Native American Lands, and Puerto Rico based on a statistical design that stratified on CWS size (population served), type of source water (ground and surface water), and geographic distribution (State).At a reporting level of 0.2 ?g/L, VOCs were detected in 27 percent of source-water samples collected from May 3, 1999 through October 23, 2000. Chloroform (in 13 percent of samples) was the most frequently detected of 42 VOCs present in the source-water samples, followed by MTBE. VOC concentrations were generally less than 10 ?g/L?95 percent of the 530 detections?and 63 percent were less than 1.0 ?g/L. Concentrations of 1,1-dichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, vinyl chloride, and total trihalomethanes (TTHMs), however, exceeded drinking-water regulations in eight samples.Detections of most VOCs were more frequent in surface-water sources than in ground-water sources, with gasoline compounds collectively and MTBE individually detected significantly more often in surface

  11. Hydrogeochemical identification of the subsurface sources of surface water in a river basin with arid climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Wang, H.

    2015-12-01

    The interaction between groundwater and surface water plays a dominant role in the geo-environment in arid or semi-arid basins, especially in the discharge area around rivers. Tóth (1963) found that the lowest reaches of a large-scale basin could be the discharge area of local, intermediate and regional groundwater flow systems with different circulation depths. However, little research has been devoted to identify the dominant source of river water from a specific flow system in real river basins. In this study, the source of water in the Dosit River in the Ordos Cretaceous Basin is examined. The main aquifer of the watershed is the poorly consolidated Cretaceous sandstone with a thickness of 700-1000 m, which is overlain locally by Tertiary mudstones and extensively by thin unconsolidated Quaternary sediments. There are numerous wells with different depths which provides an excellent opportunity to sample groundwater from different flow systems. In addition, all of the artesian wells belongs to the intermediate and regional flow systems. Therefore, the analysis of hydrogeochemical and isotope techniques were used to investigate groundwater sources and their associated discharging processes to the river. Based on the Piper plot, several groups with distinct geochemical compositions could be found, which shows that the river water was mixed with groundwater from local and intermediate flow systems in the upstream, and dominated by groundwater from the intermediate flow system in the downstream. The relationship between δ D and δ18O supports this scenario. According to the Gibbs scheme, groundwater chemical evolution is mainly controlled by rock dominance and evaporation process, while, an evaporation trend could be found in river water. These results not only enhance the understanding of chemical evolution of groundwater in the study area, but also indicated the importance of artesian wells. Tóth, J., 1963. A theoretical analysis of groundwater flow in small

  12. Heat transfer characteristics for some coolant additives used for water cooled engines

    SciTech Connect

    Abou-Ziyan, H.Z.; Helali, A.H.B.

    1996-12-31

    Engine coolants contain certain additives to prevent engine overheating or coolant freezing in cold environments. Coolants, also, contain corrosion and rust inhibitors, among other additives. As most engines are using engine cooling solutions, it is of interest to evaluate the effect of engine coolants on the boiling heat transfer coefficient. This has its direct impact on radiator size and environment. This paper describes the apparatus and the measurement techniques. Also, it presents the obtained boiling heat transfer results at different parameters. Three types of engine coolants and their mixtures in distilled water are evaluated, under sub-cooled and saturated boiling conditions. A profound effect of the presence of additives in the coolant, on heat transfer, was clear since changes of heat transfer for different coolants were likely to occur. The results showed that up to 180% improvement of boiling heat transfer coefficient is experienced with some types of coolants. However, at certain concentrations other coolants provide deterioration or not enhancement in the boiling heat transfer characteristics. This investigation proved that there are limitations, which are to be taken into consideration, for the composition of engine coolants in different environments. In warm climates, ethylene glycol should be kept at the minimum concentration required for dissolving other components, whereas borax is beneficial to the enhancement of the heat transfer characteristics.

  13. Multiport Diffuser as Line Source of Momentum in Shallow Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joseph H.; Jirka, Gerhard H.

    1980-08-01

    Multiport diffusers are linear structures consisting of many closely spaced nozzles which inject a series of high-velocity jets into an ambient fluid. The discharge of heated water into the shallow coastal zone is considered herein as a typical practice for cooling water disposal from steam electric power generation. The flow and temperature fields, induced in the otherwise stagnant and homogeneous fluid layer, are analyzed by representing the diffuser as a line source of fluid momentum in a two-dimensional coordinate system, thus neglecting the initial momentum transfer zone in which the three-dimensional jets merge to produce a vertically fully mixed flow. A scaling argument which considers the effect of pressure deviations, turbulent bottom friction, and lateral turbulent diffusion shows that the flow field can be divided into the near field, of order of the diffuser length, and into the far field, at longer distances. The near field is characterized by a predominantly inviscid behavior and gives rise to a contracting slipstream motion, qualitatively similar to the slipstream produced by an airscrew. The shape of the slip streamline is found by mapping the complex potential of the flow into the log hodograph plane. The boundary conditions at the diffuser line are assumed to be a uniform normal velocity and a uniform longitudinal acceleration. The interior velocity and pressure distribution are determined through a finite difference solution using the known geometry of the slipstream. Results indicate a strong separation angle (60°) of the slipstream at the diffuser and a rapid approach to the asymptotic contraction value (½). An integral model is developed for the depth-averaged temperature and velocity in the far field of the `diffuser plume' (i.e., a localized current with elevated temperatures with weaker velocities and a uniform temperature outside). The model includes the effect of turbulent friction at the plume bottom, described by a quadratic friction

  14. Dissecting the variable source area concept - Subsurface flow pathways and water mixing processes in a hillslope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlke, Helen E.; Easton, Zachary M.; Lyon, Steve W.; Todd Walter, M.; Destouni, Georgia; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2012-02-01

    SummaryThis study uses an instrumented (trenched) 0.5 ha hillslope in the southern tier of New York State, USA, to provide new data and insights on how variable source areas and associated flow pathways form and combine to connect rainfall with downstream water flows across a hillslope. Measurements of water fluxes in the trench, upslope water table dynamics, surface and bedrock topography, and isotopic and geochemical tracers have been combined for a four-dimensional (space-time) characterization of subsurface storm flow responses. During events with dry antecedent conditions infiltrating rainwater was found to percolate through a prevailing fragipan layer to deeper soil layers, with much (33-71%) of the total discharge of the hillslope originating from deeper water flow below the fragipan. During storm events with wet antecedent conditions and large rainfall amounts, shallow lateral flow of event and pre-event water above the fragipan occurred and was one magnitude greater than the deeper water flow contribution. Spatial surface and subsurface water quality observations indicate that water from a distance of up to 56 m contributed runoff from the hillslope during storm events. In addition, mobilization of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) with subsurface flow played a greater role than with overland or near-surface flow. During all events TDP loads were highest in the total discharge during peak flows (8-11.5 kg ha -1 d -1), except during the largest storm event, when TDP concentrations were highly diluted. These results have implications for strategies to protect streams and other downstream water recipients from waterborne nutrient and pollutant loading.

  15. WATER MASER SURVEY ON AKARI AND IRAS SOURCES: A SEARCH FOR ''LOW-VELOCITY'' WATER FOUNTAINS

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, Bosco H. K.; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Kwok, Sun; Imai, Hiroshi; Deguchi, Shuji; Henkel, Christian

    2013-05-20

    We present the results of a 22 GHz H{sub 2}O maser survey toward a new sample of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and post-AGB star candidates. Most of the objects are selected for the first time based on the AKARI data, which have high flux sensitivity in the mid-infrared ranges. We aim at finding H{sub 2}O maser sources in the transient phase between the AGB and post-AGB stages of evolution, where the envelopes start to develop large deviations from spherical symmetry. The observations were carried out with the Effelsberg 100 m radio telescope. Among 204 observed objects, 63 detections (36 new) were obtained. We found four objects that may be ''water fountain'' sources (IRAS 15193+3132, IRAS 18056-1514, OH 16.3-3.0, and IRAS 18455+0448). They possess an H{sub 2}O maser velocity coverage much smaller than those in other known water fountains. However, the coverage is still larger than that of the 1612 MHz OH maser. It implies that there is an outflow with a higher velocity than the envelope expansion velocity (typically {<=}25 km s{sup -1}), meeting the criterion of the water fountain class. We suggest that these candidates are possibly oxygen-rich late AGB or early post-AGB stars in a stage of evolution immediately after the spherically symmetric AGB mass loss has ceased.

  16. Occurrence and potential causes of androgenic activities in source and drinking water in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinxin; Shi, Wei; Wei, Si; Zhang, Xiaowei; Feng, Jianfang; Hu, Guanjiu; Chen, Sulan; Giesy, John P; Yu, Hongxia

    2013-09-17

    The increased incidences of disorders of male reproductive tract as well as testicular and prostate cancers have been attributed to androgenic pollutants in the environment. Drinking water is one pathway of exposure through which humans can be exposed. In this study, both potencies of androgen receptor (AR) agonists and antagonists were determined in organic extracts of raw source water as well as finished water from waterworks, tap water, boiled water, and poured boiled water in eastern China. Ten of 13 samples of source water exhibited detectable AR antagonistic potencies with AR antagonist equivalents (Ant-AR-EQs) ranging from <15.3 (detection limit) to 140 μg flutamide/L. However, no AR agonistic activity was detected in any source water. All finished water from waterworks, tap water, boiled water, and poured boiled water exhibited neither AR agonistic nor antagonistic activity. Although potential risks are posed by source water, water treatment processes effectively removed AR antagonists. Boiling and pouring of water further removed these pollutants. Phthalate esters (PAEs) including diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were identified as major contributors to AR antagonistic potencies in source waters. Metabolites of PAEs exhibited no AR antagonistic activity and did not increase potencies of PAEs when they coexist.

  17. Sources and chronology of nitrate contamination in spring waters, Suwannee River basin, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, Brian G.; Hornsby, H.D.; Bohlke, J.F.; Mokray, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    A multi-tracer approach, which consisted of analyzing water samples for n aturally occurring chemical and isotopic indicators, was used to better understand sources and chronology of nitrate contamination in spring wate rs discharging to the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers in northern Florida. Dur ing 1997 and 1998, as part of a cooperative study between the Suwannee River Water Management District and the U.S. Geological Survey, water samples were collected and analyzed from 24 springs and two wells for major ions, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and selected environmental isotopes [18O/16O, D/H, 13C/12C, 15N/14N]. To better understand when nitrate entered the ground-water system, water samples were analyzed for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs; CCl3F, CCl2F2, and C2Cl3F3) and tritium (3H); in this way, the apparent ages and residence times of spring waters and water from shallow zones in the Upper Floridan aquifer were determined. In addition to information obtained from the use of isotopic and other chemical tracers, information on changes in land-use activities in the basin during 1954-97 were used to estimate nitrogen inputs from nonpoint sources for five counties in the basin. Changes in nitrate concentrations in spring waters with time were compared with estimated nitrogen inputs for Lafayette and Suwannee Counties. Agricultural activities [cropland farming, animal farming operations (beef and dairy cows, poultry, and swine)] along with atmospheric deposition have contributed large quantities of nitrogen to ground water in the Suwannee River Basin in northern Florida. Changes in agricultural land use during the past 40 years in Alachua, Columbia, Gilchrist, Lafayette, and Suwannee Counties have contributed variable amounts of nitrogen to the ground-water system. During 1955-97, total estimated nitrogen from all nonpoint sources (fertilizers, animal wastes, atmospheric deposition, and septic tanks) increased continuously in Gilchrist and Lafayette Counties. In

  18. The organic contamination survey and health risk assessment of 16 source water reservoirs in Haihe River basin.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jijun; Liu, Linghua; Liu, Xiaoru; Lu, Jin; Hao, Hong; Yuan, Hao; Zhou, Huaidong

    2012-01-01

    Although contamination by organic pollutants has previously been reported to occur in the Haihe River basin, few studies have been carried out on the levels of source water reservoir contamination and the health risk in the Haihe River basin. To understand the organic pollution status of the reservoirs in the Haihe River basin, samples were collected from 16 source water reservoirs. The samples were analyzed for the representative organic pollutants, which included benzene homologues, chlorobenzene compounds, organophosphorus pesticides, and nitrobenzene compounds, a total in all of 17 compounds. It was observed that the concentrations of the 17 compounds in the 16 reservoirs were all less than the limit laid down by Chinese surface water quality standards. In addition, benzene, toluene, nitrobenzene, p-nitrochlorobenzene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, dichlorvos, demeton, dimethoate methyl parathion, malathion and parathion were frequently detected in the 16 source water reservoirs, especially the organophosphorus pesticides; the detection rates of dichlorvos, dimethoate, methyl parathion, malathion and parathion were all 100% in the 16 source water reservoirs. The detection rate of target compounds suggested that organic pollution had been common in the source water of the Haihe River basin. The health risk assessment results suggested that the noncarcinogenic risk hazard quotient values of the target compounds were less than one, and the cancer risk values were all below 1 × 10(-6), which indicated that the heath risk produced by the target compounds in the 16 reservoirs was at an acceptable level.

  19. Facile synthesis of SrCO3 nanostructures in methanol/water solution without additives

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Highly dispersive strontium carbonate (SrCO3) nanostructures with uniform dumbbell, ellipsoid, and rod-like morphologies were synthesized in methanol solution without any additives. These SrCO3 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption. The results showed that the reaction temperature and the methanol/water ratio had important effects on the morphologies of SrCO3 particles. The dumbbell-like SrCO3 exhibited a Broader-Emmett-Teller surface area of 14.9 m2 g−1 and an average pore size of about 32 nm with narrow pore size distribution. The formation mechanism of the SrCO3 crystal was preliminary presented. PMID:22704526

  20. THE PERSISTENCE OF NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA INI A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AFTER THE ADDITION OF FILTRATION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is evidence that drinking water may be a source of pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections in humans. One method by which NTM are believed to enter drinking water distribution systems is by their intracellular colonization of protozoa. Our goal was to determ...

  1. Methodology for Identifying and Quantifying Metal Pollutant Sources in Storm Water Runoff

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    February 2015 METHODOLOGY FOR IDENTIFYING AND QUANTIFYING METAL POLLUTANT SOURCES IN STORM WATER RUNOFF Edwin Chiang P.E. Naval Facilities Engineering...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER METHODOLOGY FOR IDENTIFYING AND QUANTIFYING METAL POLLUTANT SOURCES IN STORM WATER RUNOFF 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...This page intentionally left blank. v Methodology for Identifying and Quantifying Metal Pollutant Sources in Storm Water Runoff NESDI Project Number

  2. Polymer Growth Rate in a Wire Chamber with Oxygen,Water, or Alcohol Gas Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Boyarski, Adam; /SLAC

    2008-07-02

    The rate of polymer growth on wires was measured in a wire chamber while the chamber was aged initially with helium-isobutane (80:20) gas, and then with either oxygen, water, or alcohol added to the gas. At the completion of the aging process for each gas mixture, the carbon content on the wires was measured in a SEM/EDX instrument. The same physical wires were used in all the gas mixtures, allowing measurement of polymer build up or polymer depletion by each gas additive. It is found that the rate of polymer growth is not changed by the presence of oxygen, water or alcohol. Conjecture that oxygen reduces breakdown by removing polymer deposits on field wires is negated by these measurements. Instead, it appears that the reduced breakdown is due to lower resistance in the polymer from oxygen ions being transported into the polymer. It is also observed that field wires bombarded by the electrons in the SEM and then placed back into the chamber show an abundance of single electrons being emitted, indicating that electron charge is stored in the polymer layer and that a high electric field is necessary to remove the charge.

  3. Separating Octadecyltrimethoxysilane Hydrolysis and Condensation at the Air/Water Interface through Addition of Methyl Stearate

    PubMed Central

    Britt, David W.; Hlady, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The hydrolysis and condensation of octadecyltrimethoxysilane (OTMS) at the air/water interface were monitored through molecular area changes at a constant surface pressure of 10 mN/m. The onset of condensation was delayed through the addition of methyl stearate (SME) acting as an inert filler molecule. In the absence of SME, complete gelation of OTMS required 30 h, during which time OTMS condensation occurred concomitantly with hydrolysis. In the presence of SME, the OTMS monolayer gelation rate increased in proportion to the amount of SME present. A 1:6 OTMS:SME molar ratio resulted in monolayer gelation within 30 min, suggesting completion of monomer hydrolysis prior to condensation. These findings indicate that lability of OTMS to hydrolysis at the air/water interface is governed by steric and conformational constraints at the silicon atom site, with monomeric OTMS being much more reactive than oligomeric OTMS. Fluorescence microscope images demonstrated that the OTMS condensed domain size also decreased with increasing SME concentrations, further implicating SME’s role as an inert filler. PMID:25132807

  4. Vigorous Mold Growth in Soils After Addition of Water-Insoluble Fatty Substances

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Frank P.; Lange, Willy

    1965-01-01

    Various water-insoluble fatty compounds, when added to soil in finely divided form, will support as high-caloric nutrients a visible, vigorous growth of the molds, Fusarium solani Mart., F. diversisporum Sherb., and F. equiseti. n-Paraffins and olefins are most effective, because the effect of additives is reduced to the extent that oxygen atoms are introduced into the molecule. n-Fatty alcohols support growth in soil almost as well as the paraffins; however, growth is reduced when branched-chain compounds are added as nutrients. Compounds that will support mold growth when added to air-dried soil as finely powdered solids will not do so when incorporated at temperatures above their melting point, but will produce dense growth when applied to wet soil in this form. Mold growth is correlated with degradation of fatty matter. The rate of degradation is controlled by the availability of water, oxygen, and the basic inorganic nutrients. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:14325872

  5. [Distribution of Phosphorus Forms in the Overlying Water Under Disturbance with the Addition of Algae].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Li, Yong; Li, Da-peng; Huang, Yong; Zhu, Pei-ying

    2016-04-15

    Distribution of different phosphorus (P) forms in the overlying water and the contribution of different algae to the P disappearance were investigated under disturbance with the addition of algae (Microcystis aeruginosa and Selenastrum capricornutum, respectively). The sediments and overlying water were taken from Meiliang Bay in Taihu Lake. The results showed that the concentrations of total P (TP), dissolved total P (DTP), dissolved inorganic P (DIP) and biavailable P (BAP) decreased with and without disturbance. The uptake of DTP and DIP by Microcystis aeruginosa was better than that of Selenastrum capricornutum under the disturbance, but it was the opposite without the disturbance. The disappearance of P in the overlying water was attributed completely to the physico-chemical adsorption of the suspended solids and the uptake of algae. But the contribution of suspended solids and algae depended on the disturbance. The contribution of Microcystis aeruginosa and Selenastrum capricornutum to DTP and DIP absorption was about 60% without disturbance. However, the value was reduced to 40% (Microcystis aeruginosa) and 25% ( Selenastrum capricornutum) under the disturbance. Under the disturbance and the action of algae, the distribution of sedimentary P forms changed. NH4 Cl-P and Ca-P release and Fe/Al-P increase were observed with and without disturbance. The decrease of NH4 Cl-P and Ca-P and the increase of Fe/Al-P were more obvious with disturbance than without disturbance. Selenastrum capricornutum was favor of the release of Ca-P and the formation of Fe/Al-P.

  6. Long-term nitrogen additions and the intrinsic water-use efficiency of boreal Scots pine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, John; Wallin, Göran; Linder, Sune; Lundmark, Tomas; Näsholm, Torgny

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen fertilization nearly always increases productivity in boreal forests, at least in terms of wood production, but it is unclear how. In a mature (80 yrs. old) Scots pine forest in northern Sweden, we tested the extent to which nitrogen fertilization increased intrinsic photosynthetic water-use efficiency. We measured δ13C both discretely, in biweekly phloem sampling, and continuously, by monitoring of bole respiration. The original experiment was designed as a test of eddy covariance methods and is not therefore strictly replicated. Nonetheless, we compared phloem contents among fifteen trees from each plot and stem respiration from four per plot. The treatments included addition of 100 kg N/ha for eight years and a control. Phloem contents have the advantage of integrating over the whole canopy and undergoing complete and rapid turnover. Their disadvantage is that some have observed isotopic drift with transport down the length of the stem, presumably as a result of preferential export and/or reloading. We also measured the isotopic composition of stem respiration from four trees on each plot using a Picarro G1101-I CRDS attached to the vent flow from a continuous gas-exchange system. We detected consistent differences in δ13C between the treatments in phloem contents. Within each treatment, the phloem δ13C was negatively correlated with antecedent temperature (R2= 0.65) and no other measured climate variable. The isotopic composition of stem CO2 efflux will be compared to that of phloem contents. However, when converted to intrinsic water-use efficiency, the increase amounted to only about 4%. This is a small relative to the near doubling in wood production. Although we were able to detect a clear and consistent increase in water-use efficiency with N-fertilization, it constitutes but a minor cause of the observed increase in wood production.

  7. Water management with water conservation, infrastructure expansions, and source variability in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, David E.; Howitt, Richard E.; Lund, Jay R.

    2008-11-01

    A regional hydroeconomic model is developed to include demand shifts from nonprice water conservation programs as input parameters and decision variables. Stochastic nonlinear programming then jointly identifies the benefit-maximizing portfolio of conservation and leak reduction programs, infrastructure expansions, and operational allocations under variable water availability. We present a detailed application for 12 governorates in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. It considers targeted installations of water-efficient appliances, leak reduction in the distribution system, surface and groundwater development, seawater desalination, conveyance, and wastewater treatment projects. Results show that (1) water conservation by urban users generates substantial regional benefits and can delay infrastructure expansions; (2) some rationing and conjunctive use operations smooth operations during droughts; (3) a broad mix of source developments, conveyance expansions, and leak reduction programs can forestall the need for desalination; (4) the Disi carrier to Amman should include a large branch to Karak; and (5) increasing conveyance from Ma'an, Irbid, and Mafraq can avert impending crises in the neighboring districts of Tafelah, Ajloun, and Zarqa.

  8. Report: Source Water Assessment and Protection Programs Show Initial Promise, But Obstacles Remain

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2005-P-00013, March 28, 2005. Source water assessments are being used by (1) some States to improve the overall drinking water protection program by prioritizing protection efforts and program resources.

  9. Uneven access to safe drinking water for First Nations in Canada: connecting health and place through source water protection.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Source water protection has gained considerable attention in the water resources literature particularly after several well publicized (non-First Nations) water contamination events in Canada. This short report explores health and place through an examination of access to safe drinking water in a developed country. For First Nations in Canada, safe drinking water remains a serious, albeit under-reported, problem. The incidence of contaminated drinking water is pervasive in many First Nations communities. Attempts to "fix" water quality problems using technology alone have produced only limited success. It will be shown that greater attention to source water protection has potential for both to improve drinking water quality as well as to re-connect health and place for First Nations in Canada.

  10. Chloramination of organophosphorus pesticides found in drinking water sources.

    PubMed

    Duirk, Stephen E; Desetto, Lisa M; Davis, Gary M; Lindell, Cristal; Cornelison, Christopher T

    2010-02-01

    The degradation of commonly detected organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, in drinking water sources, was investigated under simulated chloramination conditions. Due to monochloramine autodecomposition, it is difficult to observe the direct reaction of monochloramine with each OP pesticide. Therefore, a model was developed to examine the reaction of monochloramine (NH(2)Cl) and dichloramine (NHCl(2)) with chlorpyrifos (CP), diazinon (DZ), and malathion (MA). Monochloramine was found not to be very reactive with each OP pesticides, (k)NH(2)Cl,OP = 11-21 M(-1)h(-1). While, dichloramine (NHCl(2)) was found to be 2 orders of magnitude more reactive with each of the OP pesticides than monochloramine, (k)NHCl(2),OP = 2000-2900 M(-1)h(-1), which is still three orders of magnitude less than the hypochlorous acid reaction rate coefficient with each OP pesticide. For each pesticide, the reactivity of the three chlorinated oxidants was then found to correlate with half-wave potentials (E(1/2)) of each oxidant. With reaction rate coefficients for the three chlorinated oxidations as well as neutral and alkaline hydrolysis rate coefficients for the pesticides, the model was used to determine the dominant reaction pathways as a function of pH. At pH 6.5, OP pesticide transformation was mostly due to the reaction of hypochlorous acid and dichloramine. Above pH 8, alkaline hydrolysis or the direct reaction with monochloramine was the primary degradation pathway responsible for the transformation of OP pesticides. This demonstrates the ability of models to be used as tools to elucidate degradation pathways and parameterize critical reaction parameters when used with select yet comprehensive data sets.

  11. Water on Mars: Inventory, distribution, and possible sources of polar ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    Theoretical considerations and various lines of morphologic evidence suggest that, in addition to the normal seasonal and climatic exchange of H2O that occurs between the Martian polar caps, atmosphere, and mid to high latitude regolith, large volumes of water have been introduced into the planet's long term hydrologic cycle by the sublimation of equatorial ground ice, impacts, catastrophic flooding, and volcanism. Under the climatic conditions that are thought to have prevailed on Mars throughout the past 3 to 4 b.y., much of this water is expected to have been cold trapped at the poles. The amount of polar ice contributed by each of the planet's potential crustal sources is discussed and estimated. The final analysis suggests that only 5 to 15 pct. of this potential inventory is now in residence at the poles.

  12. Size characterization of dissolved metals and organic matter in source waters to streams in developed landscapes.

    PubMed

    Luan, Hongwei; Vadas, Timothy M

    2015-02-01

    Individual and mixed water samples from wastewater treatment plant effluents, stormwater runoff, streams from developed areas were characterized with respect to organic matter concentration and spectral properties and metal concentration and size distribution. In addition, asymmetric flow-field flow fractionation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure concentration, size distribution and association of metals in the colloidal size range. Results reveal that Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in the colloidal size range were mainly associated with the less than 5 nm, or less than 10 kDa size range. Cu was most strongly associated with organic matter, while Zn and Pb were mixed between Fe and organic matter. Effluent showed higher binding capacity for metals, while stormwater, even with higher organic matter concentrations showed more exchangeable metals. Upon mixing of source waters, colloidal metal concentrations and size distributions were conserved.

  13. Warming combined with more extreme precipitation regimes modifies the water sources used by trees.

    PubMed

    Grossiord, Charlotte; Sevanto, Sanna; Dawson, Todd E; Adams, Henry D; Collins, Adam D; Dickman, Lee T; Newman, Brent D; Stockton, Elizabeth A; McDowell, Nate G

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of vegetation under climate change will depend on a plant's capacity to exploit water resources. We analyzed water source dynamics in piñon pine and juniper trees subjected to precipitation reduction, atmospheric warming, and to both simultaneously. Piñon and juniper exhibited different and opposite shifts in water uptake depth in response to experimental stress and background climate over 3 yr. During a dry summer, juniper responded to warming with a shift to shallow water sources, whereas piñon pine responded to precipitation reduction with a shift to deeper sources in autumn. In normal and wet summers, both species responded to precipitation reduction, but juniper increased deep water uptake and piñon increased shallow water uptake. Shifts in the utilization of water sources were associated with reduced stomatal conductance and photosynthesis, suggesting that belowground compensation in response to warming and water reduction did not alleviate stress impacts for gas exchange. We have demonstrated that predicted climate change could modify water sources of trees. Warming impairs juniper uptake of deep sources during extended dry periods. Precipitation reduction alters the uptake of shallow sources following extended droughts for piñon. Shifts in water sources may not compensate for climate change impacts on tree physiology.

  14. Changing stream water sources in insect-infested forests: a combined field and modeling analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bearup, Lindsay; Maxwell, Reed

    2014-05-01

    Climate-exacerbated mountain pine beetle infestation in the Rocky Mountains of North America has resulted in tree death over the last decade that is unprecedented in recorded history. The subsequent perturbation to tree-scale water budget processes such as interception, transpiration, and evaporation often combine non-uniformly and produce variable catchment responses across different regional analyses. Specifically, potentially offsetting perturbations such as decreased transpiration with tree death and increased exposure and evaporation with needle fall can produce changes in peak streamflow and water yield that are undetectable above typical interannual variability. These combined perturbations, however, may change streamflow generating processes and water sources that impact water quality in important mountain headwater streams. To determine the potential impact of widespread land cover change on catchment contributions to streamflow, this study combines a chemical and isotopic separation analysis using paired watersheds and pre-infestation controls with a novel Lagrangian modeling approach that determines idealized surface and groundwater contributions to streamflow. Field observations and hydrograph separation analysis suggests that groundwater contributions to streamflow increase with recent insect infestation, as transpiration ceases to remove water from the subsurface but potentially increased ground evaporation removes water from the land and subsurface with relative uniformity. Comparing these field observations with a modeled hillslope provides additional spatial and temporal controls on inherently challenging field heterogeneities as well as a way of testing the influence of natural properties such as precipitation and topography on perturbations to streamflow partitioning from insect infestation. The modeling approach uses the physically based, integrated model PARFLOW-CLM to determine surface and subsurface fluxes representative of a range of forest

  15. Effects of water soaking and/or sodium polystyrene sulfonate addition on potassium content of foods.

    PubMed

    Picq, Christian; Asplanato, Marion; Bernillon, Noémie; Fabre, Claudie; Roubeix, Mathilde; Ricort, Jean-Marc

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we determined, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, the potassium amount leached by soaking or boiling foods identified by children suffering from chronic renal failure as "pleasure food" and that they cannot eat because of their low-potassium diet, and evaluated whether addition of sodium polystyrene sulfonate resin (i.e. Kayexalate®) during soaking or boiling modulated potassium loss. A significant amount of potassium content was removed by soaking (16% for chocolate and potato, 26% for apple, 37% for tomato and 41% for banana) or boiling in a large amount of water (73% for potato). Although Kayexalate® efficiently dose-dependently removed potassium from drinks (by 48% to 73%), resin addition during soaking or boiling did not eliminate more potassium from solid foods. Our results therefore provide useful information for dietitians who elaborate menus for people on potassium-restricted diets and would give an interesting alternative to the systematic elimination of all potassium-rich foods from their diet.

  16. Effects of Additives, Photodegradation, and Water-tree Degradation on the Photoluminescence in Polyethylene and Polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Toshihide; Fuse, Norikazu; Ohki, Yoshimichi

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectra induced by irradiation of ultraviolet photons are compared among low-density polyethylene (LDPE), crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE), and polypropylene (PP). Three PL bands appear around 4.2, 3.6, and 3.1 eV in LDPE and XLPE, while similar three PL bands are observed at similar energies in PP. The PL spectra and their decay profiles are independent of the presence of additives and are also independent of whether the samples were crosslinked or not. These results indicate that neither the additives nor the crosslinking has any significant effects on the respective three PLs in PE and PP. When the sample was pre-irradiated by the ultraviolet photons under different atmospheres (air, O2, and vacuum), all the PL intensities decrease with the progress of the pre-irradiation regardless of whether the sample is PE or PP. Therefore, all the PLs are considered to result from impurities. In all the pre-irradiated samples, a new PL band appears at 2.9 eV, of which intensity is stronger when the oxygen partial pressure during the pre-irradiation was lower. This PL is considered to be due to photo-induced conjugated double bonds. It has also been confirmed that water-tree degradation in LDPE or in XLPE does not contribute to PL.

  17. Predicted mineral intake utilizing both water and forage analysis varies by source and location of livestock water in Eastern Montana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock water can play an important role in contributing to mineral intake of cows grazing rangelands. Mineral analysis of both forage and water is needed to accurately assess mineral intake compared to animal requirements. Therefore, 93 pasture and water source combinations were sampled in May ...

  18. A preliminary nationwide survey of the presence of emerging contaminants in drinking and source waters in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Kelly C; Grassi, Marco Tadeu; Vidal, Cristiane; Pescara, Igor C; Jardim, Wilson F; Fernandes, Andreia N; Sodré, Fernando F; Almeida, Fernanda V; Santana, Joyce S; Canela, Maria Cristina; Nunes, Camila R O; Bichinho, Kátia M; Severo, Flaviana J R

    2016-12-01

    This is the first nationwide survey of emerging contaminants in Brazilian waters. One hundred drinking water samples were investigated in 22 Brazilian state capitals. In addition, seven source water samples from two of the most populous regions of the country were evaluated. Samples were collected from June to September of 2011 and again during the same period in 2012. The study covered emerging contaminants of different classes, including hormones, plasticizers, herbicides, triclosan and caffeine. The analytical method for the determination of the compounds was based on solid-phase extraction followed by analysis via liquid chromatography electrospray triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Caffeine, triclosan, atrazine, phenolphthalein and bisphenol A were found in at least one of the samples collected in the two sampling campaigns. Caffeine and atrazine were the most frequently detected substances in both drinking and source water. Caffeine concentrations in drinking water ranged from 1.8ngL(-1) to values above 2.0μgL(-1) while source-water concentrations varied from 40ngL(-1) to about 19μgL(-1). For atrazine, concentrations were found in the range from 2.0 to 6.0ngL(-1) in drinking water and at concentrations of up to 15ngL(-1) in source water. The widespread presence of caffeine in samples of treated water is an indication of the presence of domestic sewage in the source water, considering that caffeine is a compound of anthropogenic origin.

  19. Spatial, seasonal, and source variability in the stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition of tap waters throughout the USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landwehr, Jurate M.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Stewart, David W.

    2013-01-01

    To assess spatial, seasonal, and source variability in stable isotopic composition of human drinking waters throughout the entire USA, we have constructed a database of δ18O and δ2H of US tap waters. An additional purpose was to create a publicly available dataset useful for evaluating the forensic applicability of these isotopes for human tissue source geolocation. Samples were obtained at 349 sites, from diverse population centres, grouped by surface hydrologic units for regional comparisons. Samples were taken concurrently during two contrasting seasons, summer and winter. Source supply (surface, groundwater, mixed, and cistern) and system (public and private) types were noted. The isotopic composition of tap waters exhibits large spatial and regional variation within each season as well as significant at-site differences between seasons at many locations, consistent with patterns found in environmental (river and precipitation) waters deriving from hydrologic processes influenced by geographic factors. However, anthropogenic factors, such as the population of a tap’s surrounding community and local availability from diverse sources, also influence the isotopic composition of tap waters. Even within a locale as small as a single metropolitan area, tap waters with greatly differing isotopic compositions can be found, so that tap water within a region may not exhibit the spatial or temporal coherence predicted for environmental water. Such heterogeneities can be confounding factors when attempting forensic inference of source water location, and they underscore the necessity of measurements, not just predictions, with which to characterize the isotopic composition of regional tap waters. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. EVALUATION OF MULTIPLE AQUATIC BIOMONITORS FOR SOURCE WATER PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of probes for use in continuous monitoring of water quality exist. They range from single parameter chemical/physical probes to comprehensive screening systems based on whole organism responses. Originally developed for monitoring specific characteristics of water qua...

  1. Tracing water sources of terrestrial animal populations with stable isotopes: laboratory tests with crickets and spiders.

    PubMed

    McCluney, Kevin E; Sabo, John L

    2010-12-31

    Fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water between ecosystem components and organisms have great impacts across levels of biological organization. Although much progress has been made in tracing carbon and nitrogen, difficulty remains in tracing water sources from the ecosystem to animals and among animals (the "water web"). Naturally occurring, non-radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water provide a potential method for tracing water sources. However, using this approach for terrestrial animals is complicated by a change in water isotopes within the body due to differences in activity of heavy and light isotopes during cuticular and transpiratory water losses. Here we present a technique to use stable water isotopes to estimate the mean mix of water sources in a population by sampling a group of sympatric animals over time. Strong correlations between H and O isotopes in the body water of animals collected over time provide linear patterns of enrichment that can be used to predict a mean mix of water sources useful in standard mixing models to determine relative source contribution. Multiple temperature and humidity treatment levels do not greatly alter these relationships, thus having little effect on our ability to estimate this population-level mix of water sources. We show evidence for the validity of using multiple samples of animal body water, collected across time, to estimate the isotopic mix of water sources in a population and more accurately trace water sources. The ability to use isotopes to document patterns of animal water use should be a great asset to biologists globally, especially those studying drylands, droughts, streamside areas, irrigated landscapes, and the effects of climate change.

  2. Tracing Water Sources of Terrestrial Animal Populations with Stable Isotopes: Laboratory Tests with Crickets and Spiders

    PubMed Central

    McCluney, Kevin E.; Sabo, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water between ecosystem components and organisms have great impacts across levels of biological organization. Although much progress has been made in tracing carbon and nitrogen, difficulty remains in tracing water sources from the ecosystem to animals and among animals (the “water web”). Naturally occurring, non-radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water provide a potential method for tracing water sources. However, using this approach for terrestrial animals is complicated by a change in water isotopes within the body due to differences in activity of heavy and light isotopes during cuticular and transpiratory water losses. Here we present a technique to use stable water isotopes to estimate the mean mix of water sources in a population by sampling a group of sympatric animals over time. Strong correlations between H and O isotopes in the body water of animals collected over time provide linear patterns of enrichment that can be used to predict a mean mix of water sources useful in standard mixing models to determine relative source contribution. Multiple temperature and humidity treatment levels do not greatly alter these relationships, thus having little effect on our ability to estimate this population-level mix of water sources. We show evidence for the validity of using multiple samples of animal body water, collected across time, to estimate the isotopic mix of water sources in a population and more accurately trace water sources. The ability to use isotopes to document patterns of animal water use should be a great asset to biologists globally, especially those studying drylands, droughts, streamside areas, irrigated landscapes, and the effects of climate change. PMID:21209877

  3. Silica Sources and Water Flowpaths During Storm Events at Rio Icacos, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugolobi, F.; Kurtz, A. C.; Salvucci, G. D.

    2006-12-01

    We employ germanium/silicon (Ge/Si) ratios as a novel tracer in hydrology, in conjunction with oxygen isotopes, hydrometric measurements, and physics-based models of water routing in the Rio Icacos watershed, Puerto Rico. Ge/Si ratios provide additional information on Si sources, an improvement over Si concentration- based models traditionally used to understand flowpaths. We hypothesize that at baseflow, streams deliver solutes derived from weathering at the saprolite-bedrock interface. During storm events, shallow subsurface stormflow is activated, delivering solutes derived from rapid reactions between rainwater and soil minerals. To test our hypothesis, we have installed nested tensiometers, crest piezometers, and lysimeters at four hillslope sites and two riparian sites in the Icacos watershed. Soil moisture retention curves are being measured on extracted cores to determine the water holding capacities of these soils. In addition, we will measure saturated hydraulic conductivity on these cores, and we will perform field infiltration experiments. We are measuring Ge/Si ratios on soilwaters, and streamwaters collected by automatic samplers during storm events. Combining geochemical studies with hydrometric studies will be useful in understanding the watershed's response to storm events. Ge/Si ratios in soilwater and streamwater reflect the reactions that deliver Si to solution. Streamwater Ge/Si ratios at baseflow (0.5μmol/mol) reflect weathering reactions (primarily plagioclase to kaolinite) near the saprolite-bedrock boundary. At peak discharge, streamwater Ge/Si ratios increase to values that are similar to those measured on porewaters from the upper 100cm (~2μmol/mol). At peak flow, the oxygen isotopic composition of stream water shifts away from baseflow values (from -0.7 to 3‰ in one typical event) suggesting a change in the source of water delivered to the stream. Both Ge/Si ratios and oxygen isotopes exhibit hysteresis with discharge indicating

  4. Simulated ground-water flow and sources of water in the Killbuck Creek Valley near Wooster, Wayne County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breen, K.J.; Kontis, A.L.; Rowe, G.L.; Haefner, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    types of simulations of ground-water flow in this study indicates the primary sources of water to the wells are recharge at or near land surface and lateral subsurface flow from the shale and sandstone bedrock. Components of recharge at land surface include induced infiltration from streams, precipitation on the valley floor, and infiltration of unchanneled upland runoff that reaches the valley floor. The steady-state simulation was designed to represent conditions during the fall of 1984. The transient simulation was designed to represent an 11-day snowmelt event, 23 February to 5 March 1985, that caused water levels to rise significantly throughout the valley. Areal recharge to the valley and flow from the uplands to the valley were determined through the Variable-Recharge procedure. The total steady-state recharge to the valley was 12.5 ft3/s. Upland sources, areal valley recharge, and induced infiltration from Killnuck Creek accounted for 63, 23, and 8 percent, respectively, of the valley recharge. An analysis of the simulated vertical flow to the buried stratified drift through surficial slit, clay, and fine sand indicates that about 75 percent of the total recharge to the buried deposits is the sum of areally extensive, relatively small flows less than about 0.01 ft? /s per model node), whereas about 25 percent of the recharge results from a really restricted, relatively large flows (greater than about 0.01 ft? /s per model node). The large-magnitude flows are located primarily beneath Clear and Little Killbuck Creeks where seepage provides abundant recharge and the surficial sediments grade into coarser alluvial-fan deposits. Chemical and isotopic studies of ground water and streamwater combined with measurements of stream infiltration provide independent support for the conclusions derived from computer simulation of ground-water flow. In addition, the chemical and isotopic studies helped quantity the rate and pathways of infiltrating water from

  5. Caffeine as an indicator of estrogenic activity in source water.

    PubMed

    Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A; Pasquini, C; Jardim, W F

    2014-08-01

    Caffeine has already been used as an indicator of anthropogenic impacts, especially the ones related to the disposal of sewage in water bodies. In this work, the presence of caffeine has been correlated with the estrogenic activity of water samples measured using the BLYES assay. After testing 96 surface water samples, it was concluded that caffeine can be used to prioritize samples to be tested for estrogenic activity in water quality programs evaluating emerging contaminants with endocrine disruptor activity.

  6. 33 CFR 385.36 - Elimination or transfer of existing legal sources of water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... using other appropriate information. (b) The Corps of Engineers and the South Florida Water Management... existing legal sources of water. 385.36 Section 385.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... RESTORATION PLAN Ensuring Protection of the Natural System and Water Availability Consistent With the...

  7. 33 CFR 385.36 - Elimination or transfer of existing legal sources of water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... using other appropriate information. (b) The Corps of Engineers and the South Florida Water Management... existing legal sources of water. 385.36 Section 385.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... RESTORATION PLAN Ensuring Protection of the Natural System and Water Availability Consistent With the...

  8. SOURCE WATER PROTECTION: ITS ROLE IN CONTROLLING DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBPS) AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passage of 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments (SDWAA) has focused the attention of wter utility managers and public health and regulatory officials on source water protection (SWP) and its role in protecting public water supplies. There is growing awareness that water treatm...

  9. 33 CFR 385.36 - Elimination or transfer of existing legal sources of water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Water supply for fish and wildlife. (c) Until guidance is issued, issues involving existing legal... existing legal sources of water. 385.36 Section 385.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... RESTORATION PLAN Ensuring Protection of the Natural System and Water Availability Consistent With the...

  10. 33 CFR 385.36 - Elimination or transfer of existing legal sources of water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Water supply for fish and wildlife. (c) Until guidance is issued, issues involving existing legal... existing legal sources of water. 385.36 Section 385.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... RESTORATION PLAN Ensuring Protection of the Natural System and Water Availability Consistent With the...

  11. Color Developing Capacity of Plasma-treated Water as a Source of Nitrite for Meat Curing

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Jun Ho; Jeon, Hee-Joon; Choe, Wonho

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of plasma with liquid generates nitrogen species including nitrite (NO−2). Therefore, the color developing capacity of plasma-treated water (PTW) as a nitrite source for meat curing was investigated in this study. PTW, which is generated by surface dielectric barrier discharge in air, and the increase of plasma treatment time resulted in increase of nitrite concentration in PTW. The PTW used in this study contains 46 ppm nitrite after plasma treatment for 30 min. To evaluate the effect of PTW on the cured meat color, meat batters were prepared under three different conditions (control, non-cured meat batter; PTW, meat batter cured with PTW; Sodium nitrite, meat batter cured with sodium nitrite). The meat batters were vacuum-packaged and cooked in a water-bath at 80℃ for 30 min. The typical color of cured meat developed in cooked meat batter treated with sodium nitrite or PTW. The lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) values were similar in all conditions, whereas, the redness (a*) values of cooked meat batter with PTW and sodium nitrite (p<0.05) were significantly higher than the control. These data indicate that PTW can be used as a nitrite source in the curing process of meat without addition of other nitrite sources. PMID:26761900

  12. Historical trends in occurrence and atmospheric inputs of halogenated volatile organic compounds in untreated ground water used as a source of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Stephanie Dunkle; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Focazio, Michael J; Plummer, L Niel

    2004-04-05

    % and 6.7% of the CCl(4) and PCE detections, respectively, in pre-1940 water, and 68% and 62% of the CCl(4) and PCE detections, respectively, in water recharged in 2000 exceed solubility equilibrium with average atmospheric concentrations. These exceedences can be attributed to local atmospheric enrichment or direct contaminant input to ground-water flow systems. The detection of VOCs at concentrations indicative of atmospheric sources in 100% of the samples indicates that untreated drinking water from ground-water sources in the US recharged within the past 60 years has been affected by anthropogenic activity. Additional inputs from a variety of sources such as spills, underground injections and leaking landfills or storage tanks increasingly are providing additional sources of contamination to ground water used as drinking-water sources.

  13. Comparison of Microbial and Chemical Source Tracking Markers To Identify Fecal Contamination Sources in the Humber River (Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and Associated Storm Water Outfalls.

    PubMed

    Staley, Zachery R; Grabuski, Josey; Sverko, Ed; Edge, Thomas A

    2016-11-01

    Storm water runoff is a major source of pollution, and understanding the components of storm water discharge is essential to remediation efforts and proper assessment of risks to human and ecosystem health. In this study, culturable Escherichia coli and ampicillin-resistant E. coli levels were quantified and microbial source tracking (MST) markers (including markers for general Bacteroidales spp., human, ruminant/cow, gull, and dog) were detected in storm water outfalls and sites along the Humber River in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and enumerated via endpoint PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Additionally, chemical source tracking (CST) markers specific for human wastewater (caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, acetaminophen, and acesulfame) were quantified. Human and gull fecal sources were detected at all sites, although concentrations of the human fecal marker were higher, particularly in outfalls (mean outfall concentrations of 4.22 log10 copies, expressed as copy numbers [CN]/100 milliliters for human and 0.46 log10 CN/100 milliliters for gull). Higher concentrations of caffeine, acetaminophen, acesulfame, E. coli, and the human fecal marker were indicative of greater raw sewage contamination at several sites (maximum concentrations of 34,800 ng/liter, 5,120 ng/liter, 9,720 ng/liter, 5.26 log10 CFU/100 ml, and 7.65 log10 CN/100 ml, respectively). These results indicate pervasive sewage contamination at storm water outfalls and throughout the Humber River, with multiple lines of evidence identifying Black Creek and two storm water outfalls with prominent sewage cross-connection problems requiring remediation. Limited data are available on specific sources of pollution in storm water, though our results indicate the value of using both MST and CST methodologies to more reliably assess sewage contamination in impacted watersheds.

  14. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    PubMed

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development.

  15. The effect of quantity and timing of brine addition on water binding and textural characteristics of cooked beef rolls.

    PubMed

    Pietrasik, Z; Shand, P J

    2003-10-01

    The combined influence of quantity and timing of water/sodium chloride/phosphate addition on quality characteristics of beef rolls processed with 25 or 50% brine level was investigated. Properties of beef rolls were determined by measuring hydration and textural characteristics. The higher level of brine addition (50%) had detrimental effects on product water binding and textural characteristics. Late addition of brine/water during tumbling (i.e. during the last hour) resulted in rolls which were less hard, chewy and elastic, and had poorer water holding properties. Addition of brine in two parts favourably affected hydration properties and thermal stability, yielding lower cooking loss and purge and higher WHC, irrespective of level of brine addition. It also increased hardness and chewiness and improved springiness, cohesiveness and bind of cooked beef rolls.

  16. Development of a web application for water resources based on open source software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delipetrev, Blagoj; Jonoski, Andreja; Solomatine, Dimitri P.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents research and development of a prototype web application for water resources using latest advancements in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), open source software and web GIS. The web application has three web services for: (1) managing, presenting and storing of geospatial data, (2) support of water resources modeling and (3) water resources optimization. The web application is developed using several programming languages (PhP, Ajax, JavaScript, Java), libraries (OpenLayers, JQuery) and open source software components (GeoServer, PostgreSQL, PostGIS). The presented web application has several main advantages: it is available all the time, it is accessible from everywhere, it creates a real time multi-user collaboration platform, the programing languages code and components are interoperable and designed to work in a distributed computer environment, it is flexible for adding additional components and services and, it is scalable depending on the workload. The application was successfully tested on a case study with concurrent multi-users access.

  17. Comparison of in vitro estrogenic activity and estrogen concentrations in source and treated waters from 25 U.S. drinking water treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Conley, Justin M; Evans, Nicola; Mash, Heath; Rosenblum, Laura; Schenck, Kathleen; Glassmeyer, Susan; Furlong, Ed T; Kolpin, Dana W; Wilson, Vickie S

    2017-02-01

    In vitro bioassays have been successfully used to screen for estrogenic activity in wastewater and surface water, however, few have been applied to treated drinking water. Here, extracts of source and treated water samples were assayed for estrogenic activity using T47D-KBluc cells and analyzed by liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (LC-FTMS) for natural and synthetic estrogens (including estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, and ethinyl estradiol). None of the estrogens were detected above the LC-FTMS quantification limits in treated samples and only 5 source waters had quantifiable concentrations of estrone, whereas 3 treated samples and 16 source samples displayed in vitro estrogenicity. Estrone accounted for the majority of estrogenic activity in respective samples, however the remaining samples that displayed estrogenic activity had no quantitative detections of known estrogenic compounds by chemical analyses. Source water estrogenicity (max, 0.47ng 17β-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) L(-1)) was below levels that have been linked to adverse effects in fish and other aquatic organisms. Treated water estrogenicity (max, 0.078ngE2EqL(-1)) was considerably below levels that are expected to be biologically relevant to human consumers. Overall, the advantage of using in vitro techniques in addition to analytical chemical determinations was displayed by the sensitivity of the T47D-KBluc bioassay, coupled with the ability to measure cumulative effects of mixtures, specifically when unknown chemicals may be present.

  18. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended.

  19. Source Water Identification and Chemical Typing for Nitrogen at the Kissimmee River, Pool C, Florida--Preliminary Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2002-01-01

    As part of the South Florida Water Management District's Ground Water-Surface Water Interactions Study, a project was undertaken to identify the ages and sources of water in the area of Pool C, Kissimmee River, Florida. Twenty-two water samples were collected along two transects: at a remnant river oxbows (Site D) and in the dredged part of the channel (Site C). The samples were analyzed for concentrations of fluoride and strontium, and for isotopes of oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Selected samples were analyzed for one or more additional isotopes (carbon-14, the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86, tritium, and tritium-helium-3). Delta nitrogen-15 values for nitrate at Site C can be explained by soil nitrogen and fertilizer sources; at Site D soil nitrogen accounts for most values, although animal wastes may explain higher values. Some of the isotopic data seem to be contradictory: carbon-14 data apparently indicate that shallow ground water is younger at Site D than at Site C, whereas strontium-87/86 ratios lead to the opposite conclusion. More detailed analysis of major ions and nutrients for all sampling points, along with flow measurements, could allow more definitive interpretation of isotope data and provide additional insight into mixing of ground water and surface water at the sites.

  20. Costs and water quality effects of controlling point and nonpoint pollution sources

    SciTech Connect

    Macal, C.M.; Broomfield, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Costs and water quality effects of controlling point and nonpoint pollution sources are compared for the DuPage River basin in northern Illinois. Costs are estimated for effluent standards for municipal wastewater treatment plants and for the alternative, controlling runoff from nonpoint sources such as streets, agricultural lands, and forests. A dynamic water-quality/hydrology simulation model is used to determine water quality effects of various treatment plant standards and nonpoint-source controls. Costs and water quality data are combined, and the point-source and nonpoint-source plans are compared on a cost-effectiveness basis. Nonpoint-source controls are found to be more cost-effective than stricter control of pollutants from point sources.

  1. Precipitation Recycling and the Vertical Distribution of Local and Remote Sources of Water for Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Precipitation recycling is defined as the amount of water that evaporates from a region that precipitates within the same region. This is also interpreted as the local source of water for precipitation. In this study, the local and remote sources of water for precipitation have been diagnosed through the use of passive constituent tracers that represent regional evaporative sources along with their transport and precipitation. We will discuss the differences between this method and the simpler bulk diagnostic approach to precipitation recycling. A summer seasonal simulation has been analyzed for the regional sources of the United States Great Plains precipitation. While the tropical Atlantic Ocean (including the Gulf of Mexico) and the local continental sources of precipitation are most dominant, the vertically integrated column of water contains substantial water content originating from the Northern Pacific Ocean, which is not precipitated. The vertical profiles of regional water sources indicate that local Great Plains source of water dominates the lower troposphere, predominantly in the PBL. However, the Pacific Ocean source is dominant over a large portion of the middle to upper troposphere. The influence of the tropical Atlantic Ocean is reasonably uniform throughout the column. While the results are not unexpected given the formulation of the model's convective parameterization, the analysis provides a quantitative assessment of the impact of local evaporation on the occurrence of convective precipitation in the GCM. Further, these results suggest that local source of water is not well mixed throughout the vertical column.

  2. Assessing the microbial quality of improved drinking water sources: results from the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Baum, Rachel; Kayser, Georgia; Stauber, Christine; Sobsey, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Millennium Development Goal Target 7c (to halve between 1990 and 2015 the proportion of the global population without sustainable access to safe drinking water), was celebrated as achieved in 2012. However, new studies show that we may be prematurely celebrating. Access to safe drinking water may be overestimated if microbial water quality is considered. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between microbial drinking water quality and drinking water source in the Puerto Plata region of the Dominican Republic. This study analyzed microbial drinking water quality data from 409 households in 33 communities. Results showed that 47% of improved drinking water sources were of high to very-high risk water quality, and therefore unsafe for drinking. This study provides evidence that the current estimate of safe water access may be overly optimistic, and microbial water quality data are needed to reliably assess the safety of drinking water.

  3. Age and quality of ground water and sources of nitrogen in the aquifers in Pumpkin Creek Valley, western Nebraska, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, G.V.; Cannia, J.C.; Sibray, S.S.; McGuire, V.L.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water is the source of drinking water for the residents of Pumpkin Creek Valley, western Nebraska. In this largely agricultural area, shallow aquifers potentially are susceptible to nitrate contamination. During the last 10 years, ground-water levels in the North Platte Natural Resources District have declined and contamination has become a major problem for the district. In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Platte Natural Resources District began a cooperative study to determine the age and quality of the ground water and the sources of nitrogen in the aquifers in Pumpkin Creek Valley. Water samples were collected from 8 surface-water sites, 2 springs, and 88 ground-water sites during May, July, and August 2000. These samples were analyzed for physical properties, nutrients or nitrate, and hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. In addition, a subset of samples was analyzed for any combination of chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, tritium/helium, sulfur-hexafluoride, carbon-14, and nitrogen-15. The apparent age of ground water in the alluvial aquifer typically varied from about 1980 to modern, whereas ground water in the fractured Brule Formation had a median value in the 1970s. The Brule Formation typically contained ground water that ranged from the 1940s to the 1990s, but low-yield wells had apparent ages of 5,000 to 10,000 years before present. Data for oxygen-18 and deuterium indicated that lake-water samples showed the greatest effects from evaporation. Ground-water data showed no substantial evaporative effects and some ground water became isotopically heavier as the water moved downgradient. In addition, the physical and chemical ground-water data indicate that Pumpkin Creek is a gaining stream because little, if any, of its water is lost to the ground-water system. The water-quality type changed from a sodium calcium bicarbonate type near Pumpkin Creek's headwaters to a calcium sodium bicarbonate type near its mouth. Nitrate concentrations were

  4. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    PubMed

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration).

  5. Modeling diffuse sources of surface water contamination with plant protection products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendland, Sandra; Bock, Michael; Böhner, Jürgen; Lembrich, David

    2015-04-01

    Entries of chemical pollutants in surface waters are a serious environmental problem. Among water pollutants plant protection products (ppp) from farming practice are of major concern not only for water suppliers and environmental agencies, but also for farmers and industrial manufacturers. Lost chemicals no longer fulfill their original purpose on the field, but lead to severe damage of the environment and surface waters. Besides point-source inputs of chemical pollutants, the diffuse-source inputs from agricultural procedures play an important and not yet sufficiently studied role concerning water quality. The two most important factors for diffuse inputs are erosion and runoff. The latter usually occurs before erosion begins, and is thus often not visible in hindsight. Only if it has come to erosion, it is obvious to expect runoff in foresight at this area, too. In addition to numerous erosion models, there are also few applications to model runoff processes available. However, these conventional models utilize approximations of catchment parameters based on long-term average values or theoretically calculated concentration peaks which can only provide indications to relative amounts. Our study aims to develop and validate a simplified spatially-explicit dynamic model with high spatiotemporal resolution that enables to measure current and forecast runoff potential not only at catchment scale but field-differentiated. This method allows very precise estimations of runoff risks and supports risk reduction measures to be targeted before fields are treated. By focusing on water pathways occurring on arable land, targeted risk reduction measures like buffer strips at certain points and adapted ppp use can be taken early and pollution of rivers and other surface waters through transported pesticides, fertilizers and their products could be nearly avoided or largely minimized. Using a SAGA-based physical-parametric modeling approach, major factors influencing runoff

  6. Solvent isotope effects on the kinetics of nucleophilic addition of water to a. beta. -nitrostyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Crowell, T.I.

    1983-09-23

    The hydrolysis rate of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)-..beta..-nitrostyrene (S) has been measured in H/sub 2/O and in 99% D/sub 2/O buffer solutions from pH -0.9 to 10.6. The kinetic solvent isotope effect (KSIE), k(H/sub 2/O)/k(D/sub 2/O), is 6.2 at pH 2.5, where k is independent of pH in both solvents and attains a higher value, approximately 22, at about pH 6.2. The isotope effects k/sub i/(H/sub 2/O)/k/sub i/(D/sub 2/O) on the rate constants for the individual steps of the mechanism have been determined and their contributions to the overall KSIE evaluated. Accordingly, the KSIE on the pH-rate plateau at pH 1-4 can be separated into two factors: 5.0 for K/sub 12/, the ionization constant of S as a pseudo-base in water; and 1.4 for k/sub 3//sup H/, the rate constant for rate-controlling protonation of the resulting anion by H/sub 3/O/sup +/. At pH 6.2, the higher KSIE (7.6) on k/sub 3//sup H/sub 2/O/ becomes important while the uncatalyzed addition of water to the double bond is partly rate controlling. The rate at the midpoint of a proton-inventory plot (49.5% D/sub 2/O) shows a negative deviation from linearity of 18%. 2 figures, 2 tables.

  7. ADDITIONAL STRESS AND FRACTURE MECHANICS ANALYSES OF PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL NOZZLES

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, Matthew; Yin, Shengjun; Stevens, Gary; Sommerville, Daniel; Palm, Nathan; Heinecke, Carol

    2012-01-01

    In past years, the authors have undertaken various studies of nozzles in both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) located in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) adjacent to the core beltline region. Those studies described stress and fracture mechanics analyses performed to assess various RPV nozzle geometries, which were selected based on their proximity to the core beltline region, i.e., those nozzle configurations that are located close enough to the core region such that they may receive sufficient fluence prior to end-of-life (EOL) to require evaluation of embrittlement as part of the RPV analyses associated with pressure-temperature (P-T) limits. In this paper, additional stress and fracture analyses are summarized that were performed for additional PWR nozzles with the following objectives: To expand the population of PWR nozzle configurations evaluated, which was limited in the previous work to just two nozzles (one inlet and one outlet nozzle). To model and understand differences in stress results obtained for an internal pressure load case using a two-dimensional (2-D) axi-symmetric finite element model (FEM) vs. a three-dimensional (3-D) FEM for these PWR nozzles. In particular, the ovalization (stress concentration) effect of two intersecting cylinders, which is typical of RPV nozzle configurations, was investigated. To investigate the applicability of previously recommended linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) hand solutions for calculating the Mode I stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack for pressure loading for these PWR nozzles. These analyses were performed to further expand earlier work completed to support potential revision and refinement of Title 10 to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 50, Appendix G, Fracture Toughness Requirements, and are intended to supplement similar evaluation of nozzles presented at the 2008, 2009, and 2011 Pressure Vessels and Piping (PVP

  8. Fermentation Quality of Ensiled Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as Affected by Additives.

    PubMed

    Tham, Ho Thanh; Van Man, Ngo; Pauly, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    A lab-scale ensiling study was carried out to investigate the fermentation quality of water hyacinth (WH) supplemented with molasses, rice bran, as an absorbent, and an inoculant in the form of fermented vegetable juice and their combinations. After wilting the water hyacinths for 7 h to a dry matter (DM) content of 240 to 250 g/kg, the following treatments were applied: i) Control (C), WH only; ii) WH with sugarcane molasses at 40 g/kg WH (CM); iii) WH inoculated with fermented vegetable juice at 10 ml/kg WH (CI); iv) CM and CI (CMI) combined; v) WH with 150 g rice bran/kg WH (CA); vi) CA and CI combined (CAI); vii) CA and CM combined (CAM); and viii) CA, CM and CI combined (CAMI). After application of additives, the differently treated forages were mixed and ensiled in triplicates in 1,500-ml polyethylene jars. After ensiling for 3 d, pH values in all treatments, except C and CI, had decreased to approximately 4.0 and remained low till 14 d. After 56 d, pH had increased between 0.4 to 0.9 pH-units compared to those at 14 d. The ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration ranged from an acceptable level in treatment CM (8 g/kg N) to a high NH3-N value in treatment CMI (16 g/kg N). Lactic acid formation was higher in CI than in all other treatments. Butyric acid contents, which indicate badly fermented silages, were low in all silages (<2 g/kg DM). There were two-way interactions (p-values from <0.001 to 0.045) for almost all fermentation end-products and pH, except for the molasses×inoculant interaction on NH3-N (p = 0.26). Significant 3-way interactions were found on all observed variables except for weight losses of silages. It is concluded that conserving wilted WH as silage for ruminants may be improved by the addition of molasses or rice bran.

  9. Fermentation Quality of Ensiled Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as Affected by Additives

    PubMed Central

    Tham, Ho Thanh; Van Man, Ngo; Pauly, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A lab-scale ensiling study was carried out to investigate the fermentation quality of water hyacinth (WH) supplemented with molasses, rice bran, as an absorbent, and an inoculant in the form of fermented vegetable juice and their combinations. After wilting the water hyacinths for 7 h to a dry matter (DM) content of 240 to 250 g/kg, the following treatments were applied: i) Control (C), WH only; ii) WH with sugarcane molasses at 40 g/kg WH (CM); iii) WH inoculated with fermented vegetable juice at 10 ml/kg WH (CI); iv) CM and CI (CMI) combined; v) WH with 150 g rice bran/kg WH (CA); vi) CA and CI combined (CAI); vii) CA and CM combined (CAM); and viii) CA, CM and CI combined (CAMI). After application of additives, the differently treated forages were mixed and ensiled in triplicates in 1,500-ml polyethylene jars. After ensiling for 3 d, pH values in all treatments, except C and CI, had decreased to approximately 4.0 and remained low till 14 d. After 56 d, pH had increased between 0.4 to 0.9 pH-units compared to those at 14 d. The ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration ranged from an acceptable level in treatment CM (8 g/kg N) to a high NH3-N value in treatment CMI (16 g/kg N). Lactic acid formation was higher in CI than in all other treatments. Butyric acid contents, which indicate badly fermented silages, were low in all silages (<2 g/kg DM). There were two-way interactions (p-values from <0.001 to 0.045) for almost all fermentation end-products and pH, except for the molasses×inoculant interaction on NH3-N (p = 0.26). Significant 3-way interactions were found on all observed variables except for weight losses of silages. It is concluded that conserving wilted WH as silage for ruminants may be improved by the addition of molasses or rice bran. PMID:25049776

  10. [Improvement of sanitary legislation for using the transboundary and boundary drinking water sources].

    PubMed

    Turbinskiĭ, V V; Trofimovich, E M; Khmelev, V A

    2012-01-01

    The paper considers legislative acts for organizing human water use in the transboundary areas and for ensuring hygienic requirements for choosing water sources to the conditions of economic activity in the drainage area of boundary subjects, for organizing a monitoring of the quality of water from centralized, household, and community water sources. Prompt interaction of the water users and supervisory bodies of adjoining areas must be a mandatory element of hydroeconomic activities in the border areas. Recommendations are given to improve water sanitary legislations.

  11. Treated wastewater effluent as a source of microbial pollution of surface water resources.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Shalinee; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2013-12-23

    Since 1990, more than 1.8 billion people have gained access to potable water and improved sanitation worldwide. Whilst this represents a vital step towards improving global health and well-being, accelerated population growth coupled with rapid urbanization has further strained existing water supplies. Whilst South Africa aims at spending 0.5% of its GDP on improving sanitation, additional factors such as hydrological variability and growing agricultural needs have further increased dependence on this finite resource. Increasing pressure on existing wastewater treatment plants has led to the discharge of inadequately treated effluent, reinforcing the need to improve and adopt more stringent methods for monitoring discharged effluent and surrounding water sources. This review provides an overview of the relative efficiencies of the different steps involved in wastewater treatment as well as the commonly detected microbial indicators with their associated health implications. In addition, it highlights the need to enforce more stringent measures to ensure compliance of treated effluent quality to the existing guidelines.

  12. Treated Wastewater Effluent as a Source of Microbial Pollution of Surface Water Resources

    PubMed Central

    Naidoo, Shalinee; Olaniran, Ademola O.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1990, more than 1.8 billion people have gained access to potable water and improved sanitation worldwide. Whilst this represents a vital step towards improving global health and well-being, accelerated population growth coupled with rapid urbanization has further strained existing water supplies. Whilst South Africa aims at spending 0.5% of its GDP on improving sanitation, additional factors such as hydrological variability and growing agricultural needs have further increased dependence on this finite resource. Increasing pressure on existing wastewater treatment plants has led to the discharge of inadequately treated effluent, reinforcing the need to improve and adopt more stringent methods for monitoring discharged effluent and surrounding water sources. This review provides an overview of the relative efficiencies of the different steps involved in wastewater treatment as well as the commonly detected microbial indicators with their associated health implications. In addition, it highlights the need to enforce more stringent measures to ensure compliance of treated effluent quality to the existing guidelines. PMID:24366046

  13. Management of source and drinking-water quality in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Aziz, J A

    2005-01-01

    Drinking-water quality in both urban and rural areas of Pakistan is not being managed properly. Results of various investigations provide evidence that most of the drinking-water supplies are faecally contaminated. At places groundwater quality is deteriorating due to the naturally occurring subsoil contaminants or to anthropogenic activities. The poor bacteriological quality of drinking-water has frequently resulted in high incidence of waterborne diseases while subsoil contaminants have caused other ailments to consumers. This paper presents a detailed review of drinking-water quality in the country and the consequent health impacts. It identifies various factors contributing to poor water quality and proposes key actions required to ensure safe drinking-water supplies to consumers.

  14. Rethinking historical and cultural source of spontaneous mental models of water cycle: in the perspective of South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Younkyeong

    2012-06-01

    This review explores Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Eshach, Orion, and Alamour's paper titled "Cultural Differences and Students' Spontaneous Models of the Water Cycle: A Case Study of Jewish and Bedouin Children in Israel" by examining how the authors use the concept of spontaneous mental models to explain cultural knowledge source of Bedouin children's mental model of water compared to Jewish children's mental model of water in nature. My response to Ben-Zvi Assaraf et al.'s work expands upon their explanations of the Bedouin children's cultural knowledge source. Bedouin children's mental model is based on their culture, religion, place of living and everyday life practices related to water. I suggest a different knowledge source for spontaneous mental model of water in nature based on unique history and traditions of South Korea where people think of water in nature in different ways. This forum also addresses how western science dominates South Korean science curriculum and ways of assessing students' conceptual understanding of scientific concepts. Additionally I argue that western science curriculum models could diminish Korean students' understanding of natural world which are based on Korean cultural ways of thinking about the natural world. Finally, I also suggest two different ways of considering this unique knowledge source for a more culturally relevant teaching Earth system education.

  15. Source And Sink Of Iodine For Drinking Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Flanagan, David T.; Gibbons, Randall E.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed system for controlling concentration of iodine in potable water exploits temperature dependence of equilibrium partition of iodine between solution in water and residence in ion-exchange resin. Used to maintain concentration of iodine sufficient to kill harmful microbes, but not so great to make water unpalatable. Requires little attention, yet controls concentration of iodine more precisely than iodination and deiodination by manual techniques. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, system has terrestrial applications in regions where water must be kept potable, resupply difficult, and system must operate largely unattended.

  16. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of water intakes from groundwater sources in Seversk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmalov, A. I.; Dutova, E. M.; Vologdina, I. V.; Pokrovsky, D. S.; Pokrovskiy, V. D.; Kuzevanov, K. K.

    2016-09-01

    The article describes the hydrogeochemical environment behavior analysis of groundwater intake which, in its turn. provides the utility and drinking water supply for Seversk. The reasons for temporary changes of the hydrogeochemical aquifer indicators in the producing areas have been highlighted. The main factor could be upset hydrodynamic conditions during long-term operation. Changed hydrogeochemical indicators have been revealed not only during the technological water treatment process but also during water transportation to consumers. Chemical composition water changes are related to secondary mineral and sludge formation on technological equipment. Precipitation is a polymineral mixture predominantly a ferrous phase. whereas phosphate and carbonate phases are secondary. Clay minerals are also found.

  17. A spatial model to aggregate point-source and nonpoint-source water-quality data for large areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.A.; Smith, R.A.; Price, C.V.; Alexander, R.B.; Robinson, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    More objective and consistent methods are needed to assess water quality for large areas. A spatial model, one that capitalizes on the topologic relationships among spatial entities, to aggregate pollution sources from upstream drainage areas is described that can be implemented on land surfaces having heterogeneous water-pollution effects. An infrastructure of stream networks and drainage basins, derived from 1:250,000-scale digital-elevation models, define the hydrologic system in this spatial model. The spatial relationships between point- and nonpoint pollution sources and measurement locations are referenced to the hydrologic infrastructure with the aid of a geographic information system. A maximum-branching algorithm has been developed to simulate the effects of distance from a pollutant source to an arbitrary downstream location, a function traditionally employed in deterministic water quality models. ?? 1992.

  18. Lead Isotopic Source Signatures for Rains and River Waters in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, C.; Cheng, M.; Lee, M.; Lin, F.

    2002-12-01

    Lead isotopic compositions and Pb contents in rains and river waters are sensitive proxies for air-pollutant sources and their transport processes. We have collected more than 100 wet precipitations between 1998 and 2001 at Peng-Chia Yu, an offshore island in northern Taiwan, and two other cities, Taichung and Tainan, located at central and southern Taiwan. Additional 14 river waters collected along the Er-Ren-Shi River, Tainan were investigated for systematic comparison. All collected samples were analyzed for major ions (i.e., Cl, Na, Mg, Ca, SO4, NO3 and NH4) by ion chromatography, trace elements and Pb isotopes by ICP-MS (Element II) installed at NCKU. The Peng-Chia Yu rains show large seasonal variation in major ions where Na and Cl are much higher in the winter season. Significant industrial contributions of SO4, NH4 and nsCa are detected at Taichung and Tainan. Trace element results display a more complicated picture, suggesting mixing among seasalt, Asia continental dust, and atmospheric pollutant. These chemical data can be understood in terms of seasonal wind direction changes due to the Asian monsoon system. In winter, the northerly cold wind blow materials with high concentration of anthropogenic input (i.e., Pb and SO4) and dust source (i.e., Al and Ca) from the Asia continent. In contrast, the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) migrates northward and caused southwest monsoon prevail in the summer. The 208Pb/207Pb ratio shows consistent seasonal trends as that of Pb contents, possibly a result of mixing between Asia atmospheric sources and seasalt. For the Er-ren Shi River waters, Pb and Pb isotopic compositions vary systematically downstream. Pb concentrations decrease rapidly from 5200 ppt at upstream stations to a value of less than 50 ppt near the estuary whereas 208Pb/207Pb varied between 2.087 and 2.124. The 208Pb/206Pb vs. 1/Pb plot demonstrates a mixing trend between anthropogenic sources and seawater. These results demonstrate that Pb and

  19. EPA Proposes Additional Water Line Connections for Groundwater Contamination at Tinkham Garage Superfund Site in Londonderry, NH

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA in consultation with NHDES, is proposing additional connections to an existing water line for residents whose wells have been found to have contamination and whom live northeast section of the Tinkham Garage Superfund Site (Site).

  20. 40 CFR 144.12 - Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... underground sources of drinking water. 144.12 Section 144.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM General Program Requirements § 144.12 Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking...

  1. 40 CFR 144.12 - Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... underground sources of drinking water. 144.12 Section 144.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM General Program Requirements § 144.12 Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking...

  2. 40 CFR 144.82 - What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sources of drinking water? 144.82 Section 144.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements for Owners and Operators of Class V Injection Wells § 144.82 What must I do to protect underground sources of...

  3. 40 CFR 144.12 - Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... underground sources of drinking water. 144.12 Section 144.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM General Program Requirements § 144.12 Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking...

  4. 40 CFR 144.12 - Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... underground sources of drinking water. 144.12 Section 144.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM General Program Requirements § 144.12 Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking...

  5. 40 CFR 144.12 - Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... underground sources of drinking water. 144.12 Section 144.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM General Program Requirements § 144.12 Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking...

  6. Pb isotopes in drinking water: a new strategy for detection of low Pb sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Source detection of low concentrations of Pb in water, for instance less than 15 µg L-1, may require a new methodology as the tolerances of Pb in drinking water are further reduced. It appears that the isotope properties of Pb may aid discrimination among natural sources and anth...

  7. An Expendable Source for Measuring Shallow Water Acoustic Propagation and Geo-Acoustic Bottom Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. An Expendable Source for Measuring Shallow Water Acoustic ...Propagation and Geo- Acoustic Bottom Properties Harry A DeFerrari RSMAS – University of Miami 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway Miami FL. 33149...broadband source is being developed that transmits high gain m-sequence to clandestinly measure pulse response of shallow water acoustic propagation

  8. Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii in water sources of district Nowshehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran; Khan, Amir Muhammad; Ayaz, Sultan; Khan, Sanaullah; Anees, Muhammad; Khan, Shaukat Ali; Ullah, Faizan

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is spread through contamination of water sources and results in morbidity globally. In the current study 300 water samples were processed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Toxoplasma gondii. The overall prevalence in different water sources was 6.6% (17/300). Among different water sources the highest prevalence was recorded in drain water at 7% (7/100), followed by tube well water at 7.5% (3/40) and open well water at 5% (5/100) ,and the lowest was recorded in tap water at 3.33% (2/60). The highest prevalence was recorded in summer. Evidence indicates that cleaning and filtration need to be adopted to avoid the health hazards of waterborne zoonotic parasites.

  9. Flowpaths, source water contributions and water residence times in a Mexican tropical dry forest catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrick, Kegan K.; Branfireun, Brian A.

    2015-10-01

    Runoff in forested tropical catchments has been frequently described in the literature as dominated by the rapid translation of rainfall to runoff through surface and shallow subsurface pathways. However, studies examining runoff generation in tropical catchments with highly permeable soils have received little attention, particularly in tropical dry forests. We present a study focused on identifying the dominant flowpaths, water sources and stream water residence times in a tropical dry forest catchment near the Pacific coast of central Mexico. During the wet season, pre-event water contributions to stormflow ranged from 72% to 97%, with the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium closely coupling the geochemistry of baseflow and groundwater from the narrow riparian/near-stream zone. Baseflow from the intermittent stream showed a strongly damped isotopic signature and a mean baseflow residence time of 52-110 days was estimated. These findings all suggest that instead of the surface and near-surface subsurface lateral pathways observed over many tropical catchments, runoff is generated through vertical flow processes and the displacement and discharge of stored water from the saturated zone. As the wet season progressed, contributions from the saturated zone persisted; however, the stormflow and baseflow geochemistry suggests that the contributing area of the catchment increased. Our results show that during the early part of the wet season, runoff originated primarily from the headwater portion of the catchment. As the wet season progressed and catchment wetness increased, connectivity among sub-basin was improved, resulting in runoff contributions from across the entire catchment.

  10. Water sources, mixing and evaporation in the Akyatan lagoon, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lécuyer, C.; Bodergat, A.-M.; Martineau, F.; Fourel, F.; Gürbüz, K.; Nazik, A.

    2012-12-01

    Akyatan lagoon, located southeast of Turkey along the Mediterranean coast, is a choked and hypersaline lagoon, and hosts a large and specific biodiversity including endangered sea turtles and migrating birds. Physicochemical properties of this lagoon were investigated by measuring temperature, salinity, and hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of its waters at a seasonal scale during years 2006 and 2007. Winter and spring seasons were dominated by mixing processes between freshwaters and Mediterranean seawater. The majority of spring season waters are formed by evapoconcentration of brackish water at moderate temperatures of 22 ± 2 °C. During summer, hypersaline waters result from evaporation of seawater and brackish waters formed during spring. Evaporation over the Akyatan lagoon reaches up to 76 wt% based on salinity measurements and operated with a dry (relative humidity of 0.15-0.20) and hot (44 ± 6 °C) air. These residual waters were characterized by the maximal seasonal isotopic enrichment in both deuterium and 18O relative to VSMOW. During autumn, most lagoonal waters became hypersaline and were formed by evaporation of waters that had isotopic compositions and salinities close to that of seawater. These autumnal hypersaline waters result from an air humidity close to 0.45 and an atmospheric temperature of evaporation of 35 ± 5 °C, which are responsible for up to 71 wt% of evaporation, with restricted isotopic enrichments relative to VSMOW. During the warm seasons, the combination of air humidity, wind velocity and temperature were responsible for a large kinetic component in the total isotopic fractionation between water liquid and water vapour.

  11. Source, use, and disposition of water in Florida, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leach, Stanley D.

    1978-01-01

    On the average, 18,420 million gallons of water was withdrawn for use in Florida each day in 1975--an increase of 3,107 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) rate since 1970. The 1975 daily total was made up of 11,502 million gallons of saline water and 6,918 million gallons of freshwater. The saline water supply, largely surface water, was pumped from tidal estuaries. Only 95.3 Mgal/d--less than 1 percent--was obtained from wells. The freshwater supply was almost equally divided between surface water (52 percent) and ground water (48 percent). Virtually all the saline water was used for thermoelectric power generation. Only 63 Mgal/d of saline water was used for all other industrial purposes. The largest user of the freshwater was for irrigation--2,868 Mgal/d. The remaining use of freshwater amounted to 1,698 Mgal/d for thermoelectric power generation; 1 ,146 Mgal/d for public supply; 940 Mgal/d for industrial use other than thermoelectric power generation; and 266 Mgal/d for rural domestic and livestock use. Irrigation, the largest user of freshwater, also is responsible for the greatest consumption, 1,332 Mgal/d or about half the water applied. Included in the quantity of water consumed by irrigation is that part of the conveyance loss made up of evapotranspiration--estimated at 109 Mgal/d. The remainder of the conveyance loss is returned to the ground water reservoir for reuse by seepage from the canals. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Soy Protein Isolate As Fluid Loss Additive in Bentonite-Water-Based Drilling Fluids.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Chun; Wu, Qinglin; Song, Kunlin; Lee, Sunyoung; Jin, Chunde; Ren, Suxia; Lei, Tingzhou

    2015-11-11

    Wellbore instability and formation collapse caused by lost circulation are vital issues during well excavation in the oil industry. This study reports the novel utilization of soy protein isolate (SPI) as fluid loss additive in bentonite-water based drilling fluids (BT-WDFs) and describes how its particle size and concentration influence on the filtration property of SPI/BT-WDFs. It was found that high pressure homogenization (HPH)-treated SPI had superior filtration property over that of native SPI due to the improved ability for the plugging pore throat. HPH treatment also caused a significant change in the surface characteristic of SPI, leading to a considerable surface interaction with BT in aqueous solution. The concentration of SPI had a significant impact on the dispersion state of SPI/BT mixtures in aquesous solution. At low SPI concentrations, strong aggregations were created, resulting in the formation of thick, loose, high-porosity and high-permeability filter cakes and high fluid loss. At high SPI concentrations, intercatlated/exfoliated structures were generated, resulting in the formation of thin, compact, low-porosity and low-permeability filter cakes and low fluid loss. The SPI/BT-WDFs exhibited superior filtration property than pure BT-WDFs at the same solid concentraion, demonstrating the potential utilization of SPI as an effective, renewable, and biodegradable fluid loss reducer in well excavation applications.

  13. Slug tests in wells screened across the water table: some additional considerations.

    PubMed

    Butler, J J

    2014-01-01

    The majority of slug tests done at sites of shallow groundwater contamination are performed in wells screened across the water table and are affected by mechanisms beyond those considered in the standard slug-test models. These additional mechanisms give rise to a number of practical issues that are yet to be fully resolved; four of these are addressed here. The wells in which slug tests are performed were rarely installed for that purpose, so the well design can result in problematic (small signal to noise ratio) test data. The suitability of a particular well design should thus always be assessed prior to field testing. In slug tests of short duration, it can be difficult to identify which portion of the test represents filter-pack drainage and which represents formation response; application of a mass balance can help confirm that test phases have been correctly identified. A key parameter required for all slug test models is the casing radius. However, in this setting, the effective casing radius (borehole radius corrected for filter-pack porosity), not the nominal well radius, is required; this effective radius is best estimated directly from test data. Finally, although conventional slug-test models do not consider filter-pack drainage, these models will yield reasonable hydraulic conductivity estimates when applied to the formation-response phase of a test from an appropriately developed well.

  14. Simulated water sources and effects of pumping on surface and ground water, Sagamore and Monomoy flow lenses, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, Donald A.; Whealan, Ann T.

    2005-01-01

    The sandy sediments underlying Cape Cod, Massachusetts, compose an important aquifer that is the sole source of water for a region undergoing rapid development. Population increases and urbanization on Cape Cod lead to two primary environmental effects that relate directly to water supply: (1) adverse effects of land use on the quality of water in the aquifer and (2) increases in pumping that can adversely affect environmentally sensitive surface waters, such as ponds and streams. These considerations are particularly important on the Sagamore and Monomoy flow lenses, which underlie the largest and most populous areas on Cape Cod. Numerical models of the two flow lenses were developed to simulate ground-water-flow conditions in the aquifer and to (1) delineate areas at the water table contributing water to wells and (2) estimate the effects of pumping and natural changes in recharge on surface waters. About 350 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water recharges the aquifer at the water table in this area; most water (about 65 percent) discharges at the coast and most of the remaining water (about 28 percent) discharges into streams. A total of about 24.9 Mgal/d, or about 7 percent, of water in the aquifer is withdrawn for water supply; most pumped water is returned to the hydrologic system as return flow creating a state of near mass balance in the aquifer. Areas at the water table that contribute water directly to production wells total about 17 square miles; some water (about 10 percent) pumped from the wells flows through ponds prior to reaching the wells. Current (2003) steady-state pumping reduces simulated ground-water levels in some areas by more than 4 feet; projected (2020) pumping may reduce water levels by an additional 3 feet or more in these same areas. Current (2003) and future (2020) pumping reduces total streamflow by about 4 and 9 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), corresponding to about 5 percent and 9 percent, respectively, of total streamflow

  15. Occurrence, distribution and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in nine water sources.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuyi; Xie, Qilai; Liu, Xinyu; Wang, Jun

    2015-05-01

    Water quality of water sources is a critical issue for human health in South China, which experiences rapid economic development and is the most densely populated region in China. In this study, the pollution of organohalogen compounds in nine important water sources, South China was investigated. Twenty six organohalogen compounds including seventeen polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and nine polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected using gas chromatograph analysis. The concentrations of total PCBs ranged from 0.93 to 13.07ngL(-1), with an average value of 7.06ngL(-1). The total concentrations of nine PBDE congeners were found in range not detected (nd) to 7.87ngL(-1) with an average value of 2.59ngL(-1). Compositions of PCBs and PBDEs indicated the historical use of Aroclors 1248, 1254 and 1260, and commercial PBDEs may be the main source of organohalogen compounds in water sources in South China. The nine water sources could be classified into three clusters by self-organizing map neural network. Low halogenated PCBs and PBDEs showed similar distribution in the nine water sources. Cancer risks of PCBs and PBDEs via water consumption were all below 10(-6), indicating the water quality in the nine water sources, South China was safe for human drinking.

  16. Cattle-derived microbial input to source water catchments: An experimental assessment of stream crossing modification.

    PubMed

    Smolders, Andrew; Rolls, Robert J; Ryder, Darren; Watkinson, Andrew; Mackenzie, Mark

    2015-06-01

    The provision of safe drinking water is a global issue, and animal production is recognized as a significant potential origin of human infectious pathogenic microorganisms within source water catchments. On-farm management can be used to mitigate livestock-derived microbial pollution in source water catchments to reduce the risk of contamination to potable water supplies. We applied a modified Before-After Control Impact (BACI) design to test if restricting the access of livestock to direct contact with streams prevented longitudinal increases in the concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria and suspended solids. Significant longitudinal increases in pollutant concentrations were detected between upstream and downstream reaches of the control crossing, whereas such increases were not detected at the treatment crossing. Therefore, while the crossing upgrade was effective in preventing cattle-derived point source pollution by between 112 and 158%, diffuse source pollution to water supplies from livestock is not ameliorated by this intervention alone. Our findings indicate that stream crossings that prevent direct contact between livestock and waterways provide a simple method for reducing pollutant loads in source water catchments, which ultimately minimises the likelihood of pathogenic microorganisms passing through source water catchments and the drinking water supply system. The efficacy of the catchment as a primary barrier to pathogenic risks to drinking water supplies would be improved with the integration of management interventions that minimise direct contact between livestock and waterways, combined with the mitigation of diffuse sources of livestock-derived faecal matter from farmland runoff to the aquatic environment.

  17. Stream restoration and sewers impact sources and fluxes of water, carbon, and nutrients in urban watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennino, Michael J.; Kaushal, Sujay S.; Mayer, Paul M.; Utz, Ryan M.; Cooper, Curtis A.

    2016-08-01

    An improved understanding of sources and timing of water, carbon, and nutrient fluxes associated with urban infrastructure and stream restoration is critical for guiding effective watershed management globally. We investigated how sources, fluxes, and flowpaths of water, carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) shift in response to differences in urban stream restoration and sewer infrastructure. We compared an urban restored stream with two urban degraded streams draining varying levels of urban development and one stream with upland stormwater management systems over a 3-year period. We found that there was significantly decreased peak discharge in response to precipitation events following stream restoration. Similarly, we found that the restored stream showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) monthly peak runoff (9.4 ± 1.0 mm day-1) compared with two urban degraded streams (ranging from 44.9 ± 4.5 to 55.4 ± 5.8 mm day-1) draining higher impervious surface cover, and the stream-draining stormwater management systems and less impervious surface cover in its watershed (13.2 ± 1.9 mm day-1). The restored stream exported most carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus at relatively lower streamflow than the two more urban catchments, which exported most carbon and nutrients at higher streamflow. Annual exports of total carbon (6.6 ± 0.5 kg ha-1 yr-1), total nitrogen (4.5 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 yr-1), and total phosphorus (161 ± 15 kg ha-1 yr-1) were significantly lower in the restored stream compared to both urban degraded streams (p < 0.05), but statistically similar to the stream draining stormwater management systems, for N exports. However, nitrate isotope data suggested that 55 ± 1 % of the nitrate in the urban restored stream was derived from leaky sanitary sewers (during baseflow), statistically similar to the urban degraded streams. These isotopic results as well as additional tracers, including fluoride (added to drinking water) and iodide (contained in dietary salt

  18. Preparations and properties of anti-corrosion additives of water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    This short review describes various types of anti-corrosion additives of water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials. It is concerned with synthetic additives classified according to their functional groups; silicone compounds, carboxylic acids and dibasic acids, esters, Diels-Alder adducts, various polymers, nitrogen compounds, phosphoric esters, phosphonic acids, and others. Testing methods for water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials are described for a practical application in a laboratory.

  19. Water supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in low-income areas of Lilongwe City, Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidya, Russel C. G.; Mulwafu, Wapulumuka O.; Banda, Sembeyawo C. T.

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies in many developing countries have shown that Small Scale Independent Providers (SSIPs) in low-income areas (LIAs) are practical alternatives to water utilities. This study explored supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in four LIAs of Lilongwe City in Malawi using qualitative and quantitative methods. Household-level surveys (n = 120) and transect walks were employed to determine the socio-economic activities in the areas. One-on-one discussions were made with water source owners (SSIPs) (n = 24). Data on policy and institutional frameworks was collected through desktop study and Key Informant Interviews (n = 25). Quality of the water sources (shallow wells and boreholes) was determined by collecting grab samples (n = 24) in triplicate using 500 mL bottles. Selected physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were measured: pH, EC, TDS, turbidity, water temperature, salinity, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl-, F-, NO3-, alkalinity, water hardness, Fecal coliform (FC) and Faecal Streptococci (FS) bacteria. Water quality data was compared with Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS) and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water. Shallow wells were reported (65%, n = 120) to be the main source of water for household use in all areas. Some policies like prohibition of boreholes and shallow wells in City locations were in conflict with other provisions of water supply, sanitation and housing. High levels of FC (0-2100 cfu/100 mL) and FS (0-1490 cfu/100 mL) at several sites (>90%, n = 24) suggest water contamination likely to impact on human health. This calls for upgrading and recognition of the water sources for improved water service delivery.

  20. 78 FR 56695 - Proposed Listing of Additional Waters To Be Included on Indiana's 2010 List of Impaired Waters...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... EPA's proposed decision identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Indiana to be listed pursuant to the Clean Water Act Section 303(d)(2), and requests public comment. For... Under the Clean Water Act AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Reopening of...

  1. 78 FR 35929 - Proposed Listing of Additional Waters To Be Included on Indiana's 2010 List of Impaired Waters...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... decision identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Indiana to be listed... pollution controls are not stringent enough to attain or maintain state water quality standards and for... certain water quality limited segments and associated pollutants (Table 1 in Appendix A1 of EPA's...

  2. Xylem-Transported Glucose as an Additional Carbon Source for Leaf Isoprene Formation in Quercus Robur L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graus, M.; Kreuzwieser, J.; Schnitzler, J.; Wisthaler, A.; Hansel, A.; Rennenberg, H.

    2003-04-01

    Isoprene is emitted from mature, photosynthesizing leaves of many plant species, particularly of trees. Current interest in understanding the biochemical and physiological mechanisms controlling isoprene formation is caused by the important role isoprene plays in atmospheric chemistry. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) thereby generating oxidizing agents such as ozone and organic peroxides. Ozone causes significant deterioration in air quality and can pose threats to human health therefore its control is a major goal in Europe and the United States. In recent years, much progress has been made in elucidating the pathways of isoprene biosynthesis. Nevertheless the regulatory mechanisms controlling isoprene emission are not completely understood. Light and temperature appear to be the main factors controlling short-term variations in isoprene emission. Exposure of plants to C-13 labeled carbon dioxide showed instantaneous assimilated carbon is the primary carbon source for isoprene formation. However, variations in diurnal and seasonal isoprene fluxes, which cannot be explained by temperature, light, and leaf development led to the suggestion that alternative carbon sources may exist contributing to isoprene emissions. The aim of the present study was to test whether xylem-transported carbohydrates act as additional sources for isoprene biosynthesis. For this purpose, [U-C-13] alpha-D-glucose was fed to photosynthesizing leaves via the xylem of Quercus robur L. seedlings and the incorporation of glucose derived C-13 into emitted isoprene was monitored in real time using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). A rapid incorporation of C-13 from xylem-fed glucose into single (mass 70) and double (mass 71) C-13 labeled isoprene molecules was observed after a lag phase of approximately 5 to 10 minutes. This incorporation was temperature dependent and was highest (up to 13% C-13 of total carbon emitted as isoprene) at the temperature optimum of

  3. Xylem-transported Glucose as an Additional Carbon Source for Leaf Isoprene Formation in Quercus Robur L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graus, M.; Wisthaler, A.; Hansel, A.; Kreuzwieser, J.; Rennenberg, H.; Schnitzler, J.

    2002-12-01

    Isoprene is emitted from mature, photosynthesizing leaves of many plant species, particularly of trees. Current interest in understanding the biochemical and physiological mechanisms controlling isoprene formation is caused by the important role isoprene plays in atmospheric chemistry. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) thereby generating oxidizing agents such as ozone and organic peroxides. Ozone causes significant deterioration in air quality and can pose threats to human health therefore its control is a major goal in Europe and the United States. In recent years, much progress has been made in elucidating the pathways of isoprene biosynthesis. Nevertheless the regulatory mechanisms controlling isoprene emission are not completely understood. Light and temperature appear to be the main factors controlling short-term variations in isoprene emission. Exposure of plants to 13CO2 showed instantaneous assimilated carbon is the primary carbon source for isoprene formation. However, variations in diurnal and seasonal isoprene fluxes, which cannot be explained by temperature, light, and leaf development led to the suggestion that alternative carbon sources may exist contributing to isoprene emissions. The aim of the present study was to test whether xylem-transported carbohydrates act as additional sources for isoprene biosynthesis. For this purpose, [U-13C]α-D-glucose was fed to photosynthesizing leaves via the xylem of {Quercus} {robur} L. seedlings and the incorporation of glucose derived 13C into emitted isoprene was monitored in real time using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). A rapid incorporation of 13C from xylem-fed glucose into single (mass 70) and double (mass 71) 13C-labeled isoprene molecules was observed after a lag phase of approximately 5 to 10 minutes. This incorporation was temperature dependent and was highest (up to 13 % 13C of total carbon emitted as isoprene) at the temperature optimum of isoprene emission (40 - 42

  4. THE COMBINED CARCINOGENIC RISK FOR EXPOSURE TO MIXTURES OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS MAY BE LESS THAN ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Combined Carcinogenic Risk for Exposure to Mixtures of Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products May be Less Than Additive

    Risk assessment methods for chemical mixtures in drinking water are not well defined. Current default risk assessments for chemical mixtures assume...

  5. [Effects of nitrogen and water addition on soil bacterial diversity and community structure in temperate grasslands in northern China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shan; Li, Xiao-bing; Wang, Ru-zhen; Cai, Jiang-ping; Xu, Zhu-wen; Zhang, Yu-ge; Li, Hui; Jiang, Yong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we measured the responses of soil bacterial diversity and community structure to nitrogen (N) and water addition in the typical temperate grassland in northern China. Results showed that N addition significantly reduced microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) under regular precipitation treatment. Similar declined trends of MBC and MBN caused by N addition were also found under increased precipitation condition. Nevertheless, water addition alleviated the inhibition by N addition. N addition exerted no significant effects. on bacterial α-diversity indices, including richness, Shannon diversity and evenness index under regular precipitation condition. Precipitation increment tended to increase bacterial α-diversity, and the diversity indices of each N gradient under regular precipitation were much lower than that of the corresponding N addition rate under increased precipitation. Correlation analysis showed that soil moisture, nitrate (NO3(-)-N) and ammonium (NH4+-N) were significantly negatively correlated with bacterial evenness index, and MBC and MBN had a significant positive correlation with bacterial richness and evenness. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination illustrated that the bacterial communities were significantly separated by N addition rates, under both water ambient and water addition treatments. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that soil MBC, MBN, pH and NH4+-N were the key environmental factors for shaping bacterial communities.

  6. Energy-Water Nexus Relevant to Baseload Electricity Source Including Mini/Micro Hydropower Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, M.; Tanabe, S.; Yamada, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water, food and energy is three sacred treasures that are necessary for human beings. However, recent factors such as population growth and rapid increase in energy consumption have generated conflicting cases between water and energy. For example, there exist conflicts caused by enhanced energy use, such as between hydropower generation and riverine ecosystems and service water, between shale gas and ground water, between geothermal and hot spring water. This study aims to provide quantitative guidelines necessary for capacity building among various stakeholders to minimize water-energy conflicts in enhancing energy use. Among various kinds of renewable energy sources, we target baseload sources, especially focusing on renewable energy of which installation is required socially not only to reduce CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions but to stimulate local economy. Such renewable energy sources include micro/mini hydropower and geothermal. Three municipalities in Japan, Beppu City, Obama City and Otsuchi Town are selected as primary sites of this study. Based on the calculated potential supply and demand of micro/mini hydropower generation in Beppu City, for example, we estimate the electricity of tens through hundreds of households is covered by installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants along each river. However, the result is based on the existing infrastructures such as roads and electric lines. This means that more potentials are expected if the local society chooses options that enhance the infrastructures to increase micro/mini hydropower generation plants. In addition, further capacity building in the local society is necessary. In Japan, for example, regulations by the river law and irrigation right restrict new entry by actors to the river. Possible influences to riverine ecosystems in installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants should also be well taken into account. Deregulation of the existing laws relevant to rivers and

  7. Performance of pond-wetland complexes as a preliminary processor of drinking water sources.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weidong; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Zhongqiong; Zhang, Rongbin; Chen, Qinghua; Yu, Xinfeng; Yin, Chengqing

    2016-01-01

    Shijiuyang Constructed Wetland (110 hm(2)) is a drinking water source treatment wetland with primary structural units of ponds and plant-bed/ditch systems. The wetland can process about 250,000 tonnes of source water in the Xincheng River every day and supplies raw water for Shijiuyang Drinking Water Plant. Daily data for 28 months indicated that the major water quality indexes of source water had been improved by one grade. The percentage increase for dissolved oxygen and the removal rates of ammonia nitrogen, iron and manganese were 73.63%, 38.86%, 35.64%, and 22.14% respectively. The treatment performance weight of ponds and plant-bed/ditch systems was roughly equal but they treated different pollutants preferentially. Most water quality indexes had better treatment efficacy with increasing temperature and inlet concentrations. These results revealed that the pond-wetland complexes exhibited strong buffering capacity for source water quality improvement. The treatment cost of Shijiuyang Drinking Water Plant was reduced by about 30.3%. Regional rainfall significantly determined the external river water levels and adversely deteriorated the inlet water quality, thus suggesting that the "hidden" diffuse pollution in the multitudinous stream branches as well as their catchments should be the controlling emphases for river source water protection in the future. The combination of pond and plant-bed/ditch systems provides a successful paradigm for drinking water source pretreatment. Three other drinking water source treatment wetlands with ponds and plant-bed/ditch systems are in operation or construction in the stream networks of the Yangtze River Delta and more people will be benefited.

  8. An open-source wireless sensor stack: from Arduino to SDI-12 to Water One Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S.; Damiano, S. G.; Smith, K. M.; Olexy, J.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Mayorga, E.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    Implementing a large-scale streaming environmental sensor network has previously been limited by the high cost of the datalogging and data communication infrastructure. The Christina River Basin Critical Zone Observatory (CRB-CZO) is overcoming the obstacles to large near-real-time data collection networks by using Arduino, an open source electronics platform, in combination with XBee ZigBee wireless radio modules. These extremely low-cost and easy-to-use open source electronics are at the heart of the new DIY movement and have provided solutions to countless projects by over half a million users worldwide. However, their use in environmental sensing is in its infancy. At present a primary limitation to widespread deployment of open-source electronics for environmental sensing is the lack of a simple, open-source software stack to manage streaming data from heterogeneous sensor networks. Here we present a functioning prototype software stack that receives sensor data over a self-meshing ZigBee wireless network from over a hundred sensors, stores the data locally and serves it on demand as a CUAHSI Water One Flow (WOF) web service. We highlight a few new, innovative components, including: (1) a versatile open data logger design based the Arduino electronics platform and ZigBee radios; (2) a software library implementing SDI-12 communication protocol between any Arduino platform and SDI12-enabled sensors without the need for additional hardware (https://github.com/StroudCenter/Arduino-SDI-12); and (3) 'midStream', a light-weight set of Python code that receives streaming sensor data, appends it with metadata on the fly by querying a relational database structured on an early version of the Observations Data Model version 2.0 (ODM2), and uses the WOFpy library to serve the data as WaterML via SOAP and REST web services.

  9. Early warning system for detection of microbial contamination of source waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogensen, Claus Tilsted; Bentien, Anders; Lau, Mogens; Højris, Bo; Iversen, Kåre; Klinting, Mette; Berg, Tommy Winter; Agersnap, Niels; Valvik, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Ensuring chemical and microbial water quality is an ever increasing important issue world-wide. Currently, determination of microbial water quality is a time (and money) consuming manual laboratory process. We have developed and field-tested an online and real-time sensor for measuring the microbial water quality of a wide range of source waters. The novel optical technique, in combination with advanced data analysis, yields a measure for the microbial content present in the sample. This gives a fast and reliable detection capability of microbial contamination of the source. Sample acquisition and analysis is performed real-time where objects in suspension are differentiated into e.g. organic/inorganic subgroups. The detection system is a compact, low power, reagentless device and thus ideal for applications where long service intervals and remote operations are desired. Due to the very large dynamic range in measured parameters, the system is able to monitor process water in industry and food production as well as monitor waste water, source water and water distribution systems. The applications envisioned for this system includes early warning of source water contamination and/or variation. This includes: water plants/water distribution networks, filtration systems (water purification), commercial buildings, swimming pools, waste water effluent, and industry in general.

  10. Fecal contamination of drinking water in Kericho District, Western Kenya: role of source and household water handling and hygiene practices.

    PubMed

    Too, Johana Kiplagat; Kipkemboi Sang, Willy; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Ngayo, Musa Otieno

    2016-08-01

    Inadequate protection of water sources, and poor household hygienic and handling practices have exacerbated fecal water contamination in Kenya. This study evaluated the rate and correlates of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) household water contamination in Kericho District, Western Kenya. Culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to characterize TTCs. The disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic susceptibility profiling of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Out of the 103 households surveyed, 48 (46.6%) had TTC contaminated drinking water (TTC levels of >10 cfu/100 mL). Five of these households were contaminated with pathogenic E. coli, including 40% enteroaggregative E. coli, 40% enterotoxigenic E. coli, and 20% enteropathogenic E. coli. All these pathogenic E. coli strains were multidrug resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, ampicillin, tetracycline and ampicillin/sulbactam. Rural household locality, drinking water hand contact, water storage container cleaning practice, hand washing before water withdrawal, water source total coliforms <10 cfu/100 mL, temperature, and free chlorine levels were associated with TTC contamination of household drinking water. Significant proportions of household drinking water in Kericho District are contaminated with TTCs including with pathogenic multidrug-resistant E. coli. Source and household hygiene and practices contribute significantly to drinking water contamination.

  11. Isotopic Analysis of Source Waters Contributing to a Submarine Spring in San Salvador, Bahamas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVivero, A. E.; Stalker, J. C.; Swart, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge supplies coastlines with a source of fresh, nutrient-rich water. The connection between inland fresh/brackish waters and submarine springs is unknown on San Salvador, Bahamas. A submarine spring within the Cockburntown formation outcrop at Grotto Beach has been identified. In May 2014, a Hobo sonde was placed within the vent for 24 hours collecting conductivity and temperature data. Analysis concluded the springs salinity was at its lowest of 23.9 psu (practical salinity units) at low tide and highest of 29.4 psu at high tide. During May 2015, multiple water samples were collected from the spring vent and 9 surrounding inland water sources. These water sources include fresh and brackish blue holes, and preexisting man-made wells. Analysis of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes gives insight to the conduit connections and source waters of the submarine spring.

  12. Methods of targeting animal sources of fecal pollution in water

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this chapter, proposed chemical and biological MST indicators for the determination of animal fecal sources are discussed. The biological indicators are grouped based on the phylogenetic description of the proposed target (eukarya, bacteria, and virus). A comprehensive descrip...

  13. Rapid In Situ Identification of Source Water and Leaf Water in a Variety of Plant Species and Functional Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Still, C. J.; Hu, J.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; Barnard, H. R.; Rahn, T.; Hsiao, G.; Raudzens Bailey, A.; Noone, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Plant rooting distributions and use of soil water resources are important determinants of ecological and hydrological function. The isotope composition of plant xylem water can be used to infer soil water source variations, in particular differences among species and plant functional types. We report here on dynamics in the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of plant and soil water pools and fluxes within the Manitou Experimental Forest in the Colorado Rockies. For this work, we used multiple in situ laser-based spectroscopic analyzers to collect isotope data on soil water, leaf water, stem water, transpiration water, and canopy vapor from multiple heights in the canopy. Using an Induction Module - Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy system, which extracts and analyzes soil and plant samples in a few minutes, we measured soil and plant water isotopic composition from multiple soil depths and plant species at several points throughout the growing season. Stem (source) water isotopic composition varied greatly among the various plant species and functional types (pine trees, shrubs, forbs, grasses), broadly in agreement with expected plant rooting depths. The steady-state isotopic composition of leaf transpiration, another proxy of source water, was also consistent with this variation by plant functional type and rooting depth. Leaf water generally followed these patterns, but pine needles exhibited dramatic isotopic gradients along the needle length, with hydrogen isotope gradients of close to 100 per mil from leaf base to tip. We also introduced an isotopic label in two pines of different sizes (that were previously instrumented with sapflow probes and dendrometers) to further identify the pathways and pace of water flow though the trees. These results demonstrate the complex interactions between multiple source and fluxes of water, and that simple ecosystem isotope models, while generally valid, require careful evaluation as high-frequency and in situ isotopic data

  14. Anthropogenic Organic Compounds in Source Water of Selected Community Water Systems that Use Groundwater, 2002-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopple, Jessica A.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Kingsbury, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Source water, defined as groundwater collected from a community water system well prior to water treatment, was sampled from 221 wells during October 2002 to July 2005 and analyzed for 258 anthropogenic organic compounds. Most of these compounds are unregulated in drinking water and include pesticides and pesticide degradates, gasoline hydrocarbons, personal-care and domestic-use products, and solvents. The laboratory analytical methods used in the study have detection levels that commonly are 100 to 1,000 times lower than State and Federal standards and guidelines for protecting water quality. Detections of anthropogenic organic compounds do not necessarily indicate a concern to human health but rather help to identify emerging issues and track changes in occurrence and concentrations over time. Less than one-half (120) of the 258 compounds were detected in at least one source-water sample. Chloroform, in 36 percent of samples, was the most commonly detected of the 12 compounds that were in about 10 percent or more of source-water samples. The herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, prometon, and simazine also were among the commonly detected compounds. The commonly detected degradates of atrazine - deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine - as well as degradates of acetochlor and alachlor, generally were detected at concentrations similar to or greater than concentrations of the parent herbicide. The compounds perchloroethene, trichloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, methyl tert-butyl ether, and cis-1,2-dichloroethene also were detected commonly. The most commonly detected compounds in source-water samples generally were among those detected commonly across the country and reported in previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Relatively few compounds were detected at concentrations greater than human-health benchmarks, and 84 percent of the concentrations were two or more orders of magnitude less than benchmarks. Five

  15. An evaluation of rural communities’ water use patterns and preparedness to manage domestic water sources in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machingambi, Memory; Manzungu, Emmanuel

    This paper makes an evaluation of rural communities’ preparedness to manage domestic water sources in Zimbabwe, as a way of assessing rural people’s willingness to contribute in cash and kind to safe and clean domestic water. A questionnaire was administered to respondents in two areas that have different rainfall regimes, as water availability was hypothesised to affect its management. This was complemented by interviews with personnel from government and semi-government institutions involved in provision of domestic water in rural areas. Information gathered included respondents’ awareness of the water resource ownership and supply structure at the community and national level, roles played by various institutions in domestic water provision, water sources ownership, number and distribution of water points, water use patterns, water based socio-economic activities and respondents’ willingness to contribute towards establishment, operation and maintenance of water points. Respondents attributed water ownership to God, the government, the community, ancestors, chiefs, ZINWA, RDCS and no one. Boreholes, shallow and deep wells, rivers, dams, canals and taps were mainly used for primary water uses like drinking, cooking, bathing, livestock watering, gardening and laundry. Brick making, gardening and irrigating plots were classified as commercial water uses because they were used to generate income. Views on water ownership affected perceptions towards establishment, maintenance and management of water points. There was a higher preference for community than individual participation except for canals and taps. The responsibility for water point establishment and repairs were regarded as the responsibility of the government, community and donors. Respondents without piped water had higher WTP amounts for the repair and desiltation of water points than those with piped water. This showed a willingness to ensure that the working order of water points was assured

  16. Sources of Water to Wells for Transient Cyclic Systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, T.E.; Pollock, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    Many state agencies are currently (1995) developing wellhead protection programs. The thrust of some of these programs is to protect water supplies by determining the areas contributing recharge to water-supply wells and by specifying regulations to minimize the opportunity for contamination of the recharge water by activities at the land surface. The area contributing recharge to a discharging well is the surface area at the water table through which the water flowing to the well entered the ground-water system. In the analyses of ground-water flow systems, steady-state average conditions are commonly used to simplify the problem and make a solution tractable. However, recharge is usually cyclic in nature, with seasonal cycles and longer term climatic cycles. The effect of these cyclic stresses on the area contributing recharge to wells is quantitatively analyzed for a hypothetical alluvial valley aquifer system that is representative of a large class of ground-water systems that are extensively developed for water supply. The analysis shows that, in many cases, these cyclic changes in the recharge rates do not significantly affect the location and size of the areas contributing recharge to wells. The ratio of the mean travel time to the length of the cyclic stress period appears to be an indicator of whether the transient effects of the cyclic stress must be explicitly represented in the analysis of contributing areas to wells. For the cases examined, if the ratio of the mean travel time to the period of the cyclic stress was much greater than one, then the transient area contributing recharge to wells was similar to the area calculated using an average steady-state condition. However, cyclic stresses on systems with ratios less than one do have an effect on the location and size of the areas contributing recharge to wells.

  17. Litter Decomposition in a Semiarid Dune Grassland: Neutral Effect of Water Supply and Inhibitory Effect of Nitrogen Addition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yulin; Ning, Zhiying; Cui, Duo; Mao, Wei; Bi, Jingdong; Zhao, Xueyong

    2016-01-01

    Background The decomposition of plant material in arid ecosystems is considered to be substantially controlled by water and N availability. The responses of litter decomposition to external N and water, however, remain controversial, and the interactive effects of supplementary N and water also have been largely unexamined. Methodology/Principal Findings A 3.5-year field experiment with supplementary nitrogen and water was conducted to assess the effects of N and water addition on mass loss and nitrogen release in leaves and fine roots of three dominant plant species (i.e., Artemisia halondendron, Setaria viridis, and Phragmites australis) with contrasting substrate chemistry (e.g. N concentration, lignin content in this study) in a desertified dune grassland of Inner Mongolia, China. The treatments included N addition, water addition, combination of N and water, and an untreated control. The decomposition rate in both leaves and roots was related to the initial litter N and lignin concentrations of the three species. However, litter quality did not explain the slower mass loss in roots than in leaves in the present study, and thus warrant further research. Nitrogen addition, either alone or in combination with water, significantly inhibited dry mass loss and N release in the leaves and roots of the three species, whereas water input had little effect on the decomposition of leaf litter and fine roots, suggesting that there was no interactive effect of supplementary N and water on litter decomposition in this system. Furthermore, our results clearly indicate that the inhibitory effects of external N on dry mass loss and nitrogen release are relatively strong in high-lignin litter compared with low-lignin litter. Conclusion/Significance These findings suggest that increasing precipitation hardly facilitates ecosystem carbon turnover but atmospheric N deposition can enhance carbon sequestration and nitrogen retention in desertified dune grasslands of northern China

  18. [Content of asbestos fibers in water sources of the Bazhenovo deposit].

    PubMed

    Kashanskiĭ, S V; Bogdanov, G B; Slyshkina, T V

    2001-01-01

    The paper provides preliminary measurements of asbestos levels in water sources from an area of the Bazhenovo chrysotile-asbestos deposit. All study water samples have been found to contain chrysotile-asbestos fibers at concentrations one-three orders less that the values standardized in the USA (7 x 10(6) vol/l). The authors consider it advisable to continue studies to measure asbestos levels in the water sources in the areas in vicinity of other Russian deposits.

  19. Additively manufactured MEMS multiplexed coaxial electrospray sources for high-throughput, uniform generation of core-shell microparticles.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Trejo, D; Velásquez-García, L F

    2016-10-18

    This study reports the first MEMS multiplexed coaxial electrospray sources in the literature. Coaxial electrospraying is a microencapsulation technology based on electrohydrodynamic jetting of two immiscible liquids, which allows precise control with low size variation of the geometry of the core-shell particles it generates, which is of great importance in numerous biomedical and engineering applications, e.g., drug delivery and self-healing composites. By implementing monolithic planar arrays of miniaturized coaxial electrospray emitters that work uniformly in parallel, the throughput of the compound microdroplet source is greatly increased, making the microencapsulation technology compatible with low-cost commercial applications. Miniaturized core-shell particle generators with up to 25 coaxial electrospray emitters (25 emitters cm(-2)) were fabricated via stereolithography, which is an additive manufacturing process that can create complex microfluidic devices at a small fraction of the cost per device and fabrication time associated with silicon-based counterparts. The characterization of devices with the same emitter structure but different array sizes demonstrates uniform array operation. Moreover, the data demonstrate that the per-emitter current is approximately proportional to the square root of the flow rate of the driving liquid, and it is independent of the flow rate of the driven liquid, as predicted by the theory. The core/shell diameters and the size distribution of the generated compound microparticles can be modulated by controlling the flow rates fed to the emitters.

  20. Genotoxicity evaluation of drinking water sources in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yulin; Chen, Haigang; Li, Zhaoli; Sun, Liwei; Qu, Mengmeng; Li, Mei; Kong, Zhiming

    2008-01-01

    The potential harm of organic pollutants in drinking water to human health is widely focused on in the world; more and more pollutants with genotoxic substances are released into the aquatic environment. Water source samples were collected from 7 different localities of Nanjing City. The potential genotoxicity of organic extracts from drinking water sources were investigated by means of the comet assay in human peripheral lymphocytes. The results showed that all the organic extracts from all the water source samples could induce DNA damages of human peripheral blood lymphocytes at different levels. A significant difference (P < 0.01) was observed when compared with the solvent control. The DNA damage increased with the increase of the dosage of the original water source. Significant differences of DNA damage were observed in different drinking water sources, as shown by the multiple comparisons analysis at the dosage of 100x; the degree of DNA damage treated by Hushu waterworks (at town level) was the most serious, the arbitrary units (AU) was 141.62 +/- 6.96, however, that of Shangyuanmen waterworks (at city level) was only 109.64 +/- 2.97. The analysis also revealed that the genotoxicity of town's water sources was higher than that of the city. The results demonstrated that the comet assay can be successfully applied to the genotoxicity monitoring programs of drinking water sources.

  1. Florida Sunshine -- Natural Source for Heating Water (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-06-01

    DOE's State Energy Program published this case study in conjunction with the Florida Energy Office about Florida's experience with establishing the first utility-run solar hot water program in the country.

  2. THE INCREASING NEED FOR SURVEILLANCE: WATER SOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The outbreaks of giardiosis in the 1980's and the outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Milwaukee, have demonstrated the susceptibility of public water supplies to contamination with protozoan parasites. Many protozoan parasites are resistant to the levels of residual disinfectant re...

  3. Water sources for subduction zone volcanism: new experimental constraints.

    PubMed

    Pawley, A R; Holloway, J R

    1993-04-30

    Despite its acknowledged importance, the role of water in the genesis of subduction zone volcanism is poorly understood. Amphibole dehydration in subducting oceanic crust at a single pressure is assumed to generate the water required for melting, but experimental constraints on the reaction are limited, and little attention has been paid to reactions involving other hydrous minerals. Experiments on an oceanic basalt at pressure-temperature conditions relevant to subducting slabs demonstrate that amphibole dehydration is spread over a depth interval of at least 20 kilometers. Reactions involving other hydrous minerals, including mica, epidote, chloritoid, and lawsonite, also release water over a wide depth interval, and in some subduction zones these phases may transport water to deep levels in the mantle.

  4. THE CARCINOGENIC RESPONSE TO A MIXTURE OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBP) WAS LESS THAN ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE CARCINOGENIC RESPONSE TO A MIXTURE OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY -PRODUCTS (DBP) W AS LESS THAN ADDITIVE.

    Current default risk assessments for chemical mixtures assume additivity of carcinogenic effects but this may under or over represent the actual biological res...

  5. Expanding the scope of Lewis acid catalysis in water: remarkable ligand acceleration of aqueous ytterbium triflate catalyzed Michael addition reactions.

    PubMed

    Ding, Rui; Katebzadeh, Kambiz; Roman, Lisa; Bergquist, Karl-Erik; Lindström, Ulf M

    2006-01-06

    [reaction: see text] Significant rate acceleration of metal-catalyzed Michael addition reactions in water was observed upon addition of small, dibasic ligands. Ytterbium triflate and TMEDA was the most effective combination leading to a nearly 20-fold faster reaction than in the absence of ligand.

  6. Microbial quality of improved drinking water sources: evidence from western Kenya and southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Grady, Caitlin A; Kipkorir, Emmanuel C; Nguyen, Kien; Blatchley, E R

    2015-06-01

    In recent decades, more than 2 billion people have gained access to improved drinking water sources thanks to extensive effort from governments, and public and private sector entities. Despite this progress, many water sector development interventions do not provide access to safe water or fail to be sustained for long-term use. The authors examined drinking water quality of previously implemented water improvement projects in three communities in western Kenya and three communities in southern Vietnam. The cross-sectional study of 219 households included measurements of viable Escherichia coli. High rates of E. coli prevalence in these improved water sources were found in many of the samples. These findings suggest that measures above and beyond the traditional 'improved source' definition may be necessary to ensure truly safe water throughout these regions.

  7. Dead Sea Water Sources during Periods of Extreme Aridity: Insights from U Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, J. M.; Kiro, Y.; Goldstein, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Dead Sea is a hypersaline lake whose watershed spans the Mediterranean and Saharan-Arabian climate systems. Between 2010 and 2011, the ICDP-Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project recovered a sediment core that records ~200 ka of climate history in the region. The last interglacial (MIS 5e) included periods of extreme aridity in this region. This study aimed to characterize water sources into the lake during such critically dry periods. Geochemical analyses of aragonite, detritus, and halite samples waere carried out though a halite-rich interval during MIS 5e that represents a large drop in lake level, when discharge was less than half of modern levels. Uranium isotope activity ratios indicate a completely different hydrological regime during the driest periods in the Dead Sea, which is reflected by a major decrease of 234U/238U from 1.5, typical to the modern day and glacial high-stands of the lake, to ~1 . The decrease toward secular equilibrium happened gradually through the arid interval. Possible explanations include more southern sources coming into the lake, more flood events, addition dissolution of old salt (i.e. in secular equilibrium) by saline springs, and possibly shutdown of the Jordan River during extremely arid conditions. Further research will yield important information to prepare for future warming in the Middle East, a region where water access and droughts greatly affect socio-economic and political stability.

  8. The role of hydrology in connecting agricultural phosphorus sources to surface water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minimizing the risk of phosphorus (P) loss from land to water represents one of the most important priorities of nutrient management in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Simply put, for P to pose a water quality problem, there must be a source of P that can readily be connected to surface water by hydro...

  9. 78 FR 19261 - Safe Drinking Water Act Sole Source Aquifer Program; Designation of Bainbridge Island, Washington...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... AGENCY Safe Drinking Water Act Sole Source Aquifer Program; Designation of Bainbridge Island, Washington.... SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that pursuant to Section 1424(e) of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the... Section 1424(e) of the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300h3(e), Public Law 93-523 of December......

  10. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment that are expected to...

  11. 40 CFR 144.7 - Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of drinking water and exempted aquifers. 144.7 Section 144.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM General Provisions § 144.7 Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers. (a)...

  12. 40 CFR 144.7 - Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of drinking water and exempted aquifers. 144.7 Section 144.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM General Provisions § 144.7 Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers. (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 144.7 - Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of drinking water and exempted aquifers. 144.7 Section 144.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM General Provisions § 144.7 Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 144.7 - Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of drinking water and exempted aquifers. 144.7 Section 144.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM General Provisions § 144.7 Identification of undergrou