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Sample records for additional wingspan increased

  1. Lift enhancement by bats' dynamically changing wingspan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shizhao; Zhang, Xing; He, Guowei; Liu, Tianshu

    2015-12-01

    This paper elucidates the aerodynamic role of the dynamically changing wingspan in bat flight. Based on direct numerical simulations of the flow over a slow-flying bat, it is found that the dynamically changing wingspan can significantly enhance the lift. Further, an analysis of flow structures and lift decomposition reveal that the elevated vortex lift associated with the leading-edge vortices intensified by the dynamically changing wingspan considerably contributed to enhancement of the time-averaged lift. The nonlinear interaction between the dynamically changing wing and the vortical structures plays an important role in the lift enhancement of a flying bat in addition to the geometrical effect of changing the lifting-surface area in a flapping cycle. In addition, the dynamically changing wingspan leads to the higher efficiency in terms of generating lift for a given amount of the mechanical energy consumed in flight. PMID:26701882

  2. Vertebral Dissecting Aneurysm Treated with Wingspan Stent Deployment and Detachable Coils

    PubMed Central

    Lv, M.; Lv, X.; Li, Y.; Yang, X.; Wu, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We describe the first documented endovascular treatment of vertebral dissecting aneurysm using a Wingspan stent and detachable coils. A 54-year-old man presented with a nonruptured vertebral dissecting aneurysm. Because of the dissecting nature of the vertebral aneurysms, a 3x15-mm Wingspan stent was placed in the left vertebral artery. One month later, several detachable coils were introduced into the aneurysm. Six-month follow-up angiogram confirmed the obliteration. Vertebral dissecting aneurysm can be treated with Wingspan stent placement and detachable coils. PMID:20465940

  3. Foam concrete of increased strength with the thermomodified peat additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudyakov, A. I.; Kopanitsa, N. O.; Sarkisov, Ju S.; Kasatkina, A. V.; Prischepa, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research of foam concrete with thermomodified peat additives. The aim of the research was to study the effect of modifying additives on cement stone and foam concrete properties. Peat additives are prepared by heat treatment of peat at 600 °C. Two approaches of obtaining additives are examined: in condition of open air access (TMT-600) and in condition of limited air access (TMT-600-k). Compressive strength of a cement stone with modifiers found to be increased by 28.9 - 65.2%. Introducing peat modifiers into foam concrete mix leads to increase of compressive strength by 44-57% at 28- day age and heat conductivity of foam concrete decreases by 0.089 W/(m·°C).

  4. Nonlinear responses in salt marsh functioning to increased nitrogen addition.

    PubMed

    Vivanco, Lucía; Irvine, Irina C; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2015-04-01

    Salt marshes provide storm protection to shorelines, sequester carbon (C), and mitigate coastal eutrophication. These valuable coastal ecosystems are confronted with increasing nitrogen (N) inputs from anthropogenic sources, such as agricultural runoff, wastewater, and atmospheric deposition. To inform predictions of salt marsh functioning and sustainability in the future, we characterized the response of a variety of plant, microbial, and sediment responses to a seven-level gradient of N addition in three Californian salt marshes after 7 and 14 months of N addition. The marshes showed variable responses to the experimental N gradient that can be grouped as neutral (root biomass, sediment respiration, potential carbon mineralization, and potential net nitrification), linear (increasing methane flux, decreasing potential net N mineralization, and increasing sediment inorganic N), and nonlinear (saturating aboveground plant biomass and leaf N content, and exponentially increasing sediment inorganic and organic N). The three salt marshes showed quantitative differences in most ecosystem properties and processes rates; however, the form of the response curves to N addition were generally consistent across the three marshes, indicating that the responses observed may be applicable to other marshes in the region. Only for sediment properties (inorganic and organic N pool) did the shape of the response differ significantly between marshes. Overall, the study suggests salt marshes are limited in their ability to sequester C and N with future increases in N, even without further losses in marsh area. PMID:26230015

  5. Nitrogen addition increases fecundity in the desert shrub Sarcobatus vermiculatus.

    PubMed

    Drenovsky, R E; Richards, J H

    2005-04-01

    Nutrients, in addition to water, limit desert primary productivity, but nutrient limitations to fecundity and seed quality in desert ecosystems have received little attention. Reduced seed production and quality may affect recruitment, population, and community processes. At the Mono Basin, CA, USA where the alkaline, sandy soil has very low availability of N, P, and most other nutrients, seed production, recruitment, and dominance of the desert shrub Sarcobatus vermiculatus decrease over a dune successional sequence. Concurrently, Sarcobatus leaf N, P, and Ca/Mg ratio decline from early to later successional dunes. At two later successional dune sites, we fertilized adult Sarcobatus shrubs for 2 years and determined which nutrient(s) limited growth, seed production, and seed quality. We also tested whether nutrient addition at these older sites made these fitness-related variables equivalent to a younger, high-fecundity site. Nitrogen addition, alone, increased Sarcobatus leaf N, growth, and seed production per shoot module. Any treatment including P, Ca, Mg, or micronutrients but not N had an insignificant effect on growth and fecundity. Nitrogen addition also increased filled seed weight, a predictor of potential seedling survival, at one of the sites. Nitrogen-limited seed production and seed mass may reduce Sarcobatus fitness and contribute to the observed successional changes in plant community composition in this alkaline desert ecosystem. PMID:15690179

  6. Wingspan Stent for High-Grade Symptomatic Vertebrobasilar Artery Atherosclerotic Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jian Zhao Zhenwei Gao Guodong Deng Jianping; Yu Jia; Gao Li; Yuan Yang; Qv Youzhi

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to present the treatment outcomes with Wingspan stent angioplasty of high-grade intracranial vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) stenosis in symptomatic patients. Methods: Between 2007 and 2010, the records of 30 patients with 31 intracranial high-grade VBA stenoses (all{>=}70%) who underwent elective stenting due to the failure of medical therapy were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical evaluation was performed based on the modified Rankin scale and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Results: In all cases, the stent deployment was technically successful. The mean stenosis decreased significantly from 82.28 {+-} 8.02% (range, 72-99%) to 11.18 {+-} 7.28% (range, 0-25%) after stent-assisted angioplasty (P < 0.05). Periprocedure complications occurred in 3 (10%) of 30 patients; there were 2 cases of perforator strokes and 1 case of transient flow insufficiency with stent overlap. Clinical follow-up (mean, 17.81 {+-} 11.49 months; range, 5-40 months) was available for 27 patients, and angiographic follow-up (mean, 9.95 {+-} 5.74 months, range, 5-20 months) was available for 19 patients. Only one case demonstrated recurrent symptoms with restenosis ({>=}50%). There were no recurrent ischemic events and no cases of restenosis in the other patients. Conclusions: According to our data, the Wingspan stent for symptomatic intracranial VBA stenoses is a safe and efficacious treatment alternative in cases with recurrent symptoms despite medical therapy. However, the improvement of outcome requires the reduction in the rate of procedure-related complications and long-term outcomes still have to be demonstrated.

  7. Increasing arsenic sorption on red mud by phosphogypsum addition.

    PubMed

    Lopes, G; Guilherme, L R G; Costa, E T S; Curi, N; Penha, H G V

    2013-11-15

    Mining by-products have been tested as adsorbents for arsenic in order to reduce As bioavailability. This study evaluated a red mud (RM) treated with or without phosphogypsum (G) in order to improve its As retention. Red mud and G samples and their mixtures were chemically and mineralogically characterized to gather information concerning their composition, which is key for a better understanding of the adsorbent properties. Phosphogypsum was added to RM in the following proportions: 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 25% by weight. These mixtures were subjected to As adsorption and desorption and tested for their maximum adsorption capacity of As (AsMAC). Arsenic adsorption increased upon increasing the proportion of G added to RM. The AsMAC at pure RM reached 909 mg kg(-1), whereas the 75%-RM+25%-G mixture sorbed up to 3333 mg kg(-1) of As, i.e., a 3.5-fold increase in AsMAC. Using G in mixtures with RM increases the efficiency of As adsorption due to the presence of Ca(2+), which alters the charge balance of the adsorbent, leading to the formation of ternary complexes. Addition of G to RM is thus a promising technique to improve As retention, while providing additional value to both by-products, G and RM. PMID:22795841

  8. A meta-analysis of the traits affecting dispersal ability in butterflies: can wingspan be used as a proxy?

    PubMed

    Sekar, Sandhya

    2012-01-01

    1. Dispersal ability of a species is a key ecological characteristic, affecting a range of processes from adaptation, community dynamics and genetic structure, to distribution and range size. It is determined by both intrinsic species traits and extrinsic landscape-related properties. 2. Using butterflies as a model system, the following questions were addressed: (i) given similar extrinsic factors, which intrinsic species trait(s) explain dispersal ability? (ii) can one of these traits be used as a proxy for dispersal ability? (iii) the effect of interactions between the traits, and phylogenetic relatedness, on dispersal ability. 3. Four data sets, using different measures of dispersal, were compiled from published literature. The first data set uses mean dispersal distances from capture-mark-recapture studies, and the other three use mobility indices. Data for six traits that can potentially affect dispersal ability were collected: wingspan, larval host plant specificity, adult habitat specificity, mate location strategy, voltinism and flight period duration. Each data set was subjected to both unifactorial, and multifactorial, phylogenetically controlled analyses. 4. Among the factors considered, wingspan was the most important determinant of dispersal ability, although the predictive powers of regression models were low. Voltinism and flight period duration also affect dispersal ability, especially in case of temperate species. Interactions between the factors did not affect dispersal ability, and phylogenetic relatedness was significant in one data set. 5. While using wingspan as the only proxy for dispersal ability maybe problematic, it is usually the only easily accessible species-specific trait for a large number of species. It can thus be a satisfactory proxy when carefully interpreted, especially for analyses involving many species from all across the world. PMID:21988561

  9. Comparison of wing-span averaging effects on lift, rolling moment, and bending moment for two span load distributions and for two turbulence representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtenstein, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical method of computing the averaging effect of wing-span size on the loading of a wing induced by random turbulence was adapted for use on a digital electronic computer. The turbulence input was assumed to have a Dryden power spectral density. The computations were made for lift, rolling moment, and bending moment for two span load distributions, rectangular and elliptic. Data are presented to show the wing-span averaging effect for wing-span ratios encompassing current airplane sizes. The rectangular wing-span loading showed a slightly greater averaging effect than did the elliptic loading. In the frequency range most bothersome to airplane passengers, the wing-span averaging effect can reduce the normal lift load, and thus the acceleration, by about 7 percent for a typical medium-sized transport. Some calculations were made to evaluate the effect of using a Von Karman turbulence representation. These results showed that using the Von Karman representation generally resulted in a span averaging effect about 3 percent larger.

  10. Optical coherence tomography of the intracranial vasculature and Wingspan stent in a patient

    PubMed Central

    Given, Curtis Alden; Ramsey, Christian Norman; Attizzani, Guilherme Ferragut; Jones, Michael R; Brooks, William H; Bezerra, Hiram G; Costa, Marco A

    2014-01-01

    Summary A 67-year-old man with medically refractory vertebrobasilar insufficiency and short segment occlusions of the intracranial vertebral arteries was treated with angioplasty and stent placement. Fifteen hours after the procedure the patient developed symptoms of posterior fossa ischemia and repeat angiography showed thrombus formation within the stent which was treated with thrombolytic and aggressive antiplatelet therapy. Angiography revealed lysis of the clot, but concerns regarding the mechanism of the thrombotic phenomenon prompted frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT) assessment. FDOCT provided excellent visualization of the stent and vessel wall interactions, as well as excluding residual flow-limiting stenosis, obviating the need for further intervention. The potential utility of FDOCT in the evaluation of intracranial atherosclerotic disease and additional intracranial applications are discussed. PMID:24835808

  11. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  12. Warming and Nitrogen Addition Increase Litter Decomposition in a Temperate Meadow Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Shiwei; Guo, Rui; Zhang, Tao; Guo, Jixun

    2015-01-01

    Background Litter decomposition greatly influences soil structure, nutrient content and carbon sequestration, but how litter decomposition is affected by climate change is still not well understood. Methodology/Principal Findings A field experiment with increased temperature and nitrogen (N) addition was established in April 2007 to examine the effects of experimental warming, N addition and their interaction on litter decomposition in a temperate meadow steppe in northeastern China. Warming, N addition and warming plus N addition reduced the residual mass of L. chinensis litter by 3.78%, 7.51% and 4.53%, respectively, in 2008 and 2009, and by 4.73%, 24.08% and 16.1%, respectively, in 2010. Warming, N addition and warming plus N addition had no effect on the decomposition of P. communis litter in 2008 or 2009, but reduced the residual litter mass by 5.58%, 15.53% and 5.17%, respectively, in 2010. Warming and N addition reduced the cellulose percentage of L. chinensis and P. communis, specifically in 2010. The lignin percentage of L. chinensis and P. communis was reduced by warming but increased by N addition. The C, N and P contents of L. chinensis and P. communis litter increased with time. Warming and N addition reduced the C content and C:N ratios of L. chinensisand P. communis litter, but increased the N and P contents. Significant interactive effects of warming and N addition on litter decomposition were observed (P<0.01). Conclusion/Significance The litter decomposition rate was highly correlated with soil temperature, soil water content and litter quality. Warming and N addition significantly impacted the litter decomposition rate in the Songnen meadow ecosystem, and the effects of warming and N addition on litter decomposition were also influenced by the quality of litter. These results highlight how climate change could alter grassland ecosystem carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents in soil by influencing litter decomposition. PMID:25774776

  13. 34 CFR 75.534 - Training grants-automatic increases for additional dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training grants-automatic increases for additional dependents. 75.534 Section 75.534 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Allowable Costs § 75.534 Training...

  14. 34 CFR 75.534 - Training grants-automatic increases for additional dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Training grants-automatic increases for additional dependents. 75.534 Section 75.534 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Allowable Costs § 75.534 Training...

  15. 34 CFR 75.534 - Training grants-automatic increases for additional dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Training grants-automatic increases for additional dependents. 75.534 Section 75.534 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Allowable Costs § 75.534 Training...

  16. 34 CFR 75.534 - Training grants-automatic increases for additional dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Training grants-automatic increases for additional dependents. 75.534 Section 75.534 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Allowable Costs § 75.534 Training...

  17. 34 CFR 75.534 - Training grants-automatic increases for additional dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Training grants-automatic increases for additional dependents. 75.534 Section 75.534 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Allowable Costs § 75.534 Training...

  18. Additive genetic variation and evolvability of a multivariate trait can be increased by epistatic gene action.

    PubMed

    Griswold, Cortland K

    2015-12-21

    Epistatic gene action occurs when mutations or alleles interact to produce a phenotype. Theoretically and empirically it is of interest to know whether gene interactions can facilitate the evolution of diversity. In this paper, we explore how epistatic gene action affects the additive genetic component or heritable component of multivariate trait variation, as well as how epistatic gene action affects the evolvability of multivariate traits. The analysis involves a sexually reproducing and recombining population. Our results indicate that under stabilizing selection conditions a population with a mixed additive and epistatic genetic architecture can have greater multivariate additive genetic variation and evolvability than a population with a purely additive genetic architecture. That greater multivariate additive genetic variation can occur with epistasis is in contrast to previous theory that indicated univariate additive genetic variation is decreased with epistasis under stabilizing selection conditions. In a multivariate setting, epistasis leads to less relative covariance among individuals in their genotypic, as well as their breeding values, which facilitates the maintenance of additive genetic variation and increases a population׳s evolvability. Our analysis involves linking the combinatorial nature of epistatic genetic effects to the ancestral graph structure of a population to provide insight into the consequences of epistasis on multivariate trait variation and evolution. PMID:26431770

  19. Aggregation of Cricket Activity in Response to Resource Addition Increases Local Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Szinwelski, Neucir; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Solar, Ricardo Ribeiro de Castro; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2015-01-01

    Crickets are often found feeding on fallen fruits among forest litter. Fruits and other sugar-rich resources are not homogeneously distributed, nor are they always available. We therefore expect that crickets dwelling in forest litter have a limited supply of sugar-rich resource, and will perceive this and displace towards resource-supplemented sites. Here we evaluate how sugar availability affects cricket species richness and abundance in old-growth Atlantic forest by spraying sugarcane syrup on leaf litter, simulating increasing availability, and collecting crickets via pitfall trapping. We found an asymptotic positive association between resource addition and species richness, and an interaction between resource addition and species identity on cricket abundance, which indicates differential effects of resource addition among cricket species. Our results indicate that 12 of the 13 cricket species present in forest litter are maintained at low densities by resource scarcity; this highlights sugar-rich resource as a short-term driver of litter cricket community structure in tropical forests. When resource was experimentally increased, species richness increased due to behavioral displacement. We present evidence that the density of many species is limited by resource scarcity and, when resources are added, behavioral displacement promotes increased species packing and alters species composition. Further, our findings have technical applicability for increasing sampling efficiency of local cricket diversity in studies aiming to estimate species richness, but with no regard to local environmental drivers or species-abundance characteristics. PMID:26436669

  20. Increased rainfall variability and N addition accelerate litter decomposition in a restored prairie.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen deposition and projected increases in rainfall variability (the frequency of drought and heavy rainfall events) are expected to strongly influence ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition. However, how these two global change factors interact to influence litter decomposition is largely unknown. I examined how increased rainfall variability and nitrogen addition affected mass and nitrogen loss of litter from two tallgrass prairie species, Schizachyrium scoparium and Solidago canadensis, and isolated the effects of each during plant growth and during litter decomposition. I increased rainfall variability by consolidating ambient rainfall into larger events and simulated chronic nitrogen deposition using a slow-release urea fertilizer. S. scoparium litter decay was more strongly regulated by the treatments applied during plant growth than by those applied during decomposition. During plant growth, increased rainfall variability resulted in S. scoparium litter that subsequently decomposed more slowly and immobilized more nitrogen than litter grown under ambient conditions, whereas nitrogen addition during plant growth accelerated subsequent mass loss of S. scoparium litter. In contrast, S. canadensis litter mass and N losses were enhanced under either N addition or increased rainfall variability both during plant growth and during decomposition. These results suggest that ongoing changes in rainfall variability and nitrogen availability are accelerating nutrient cycling in tallgrass prairies through their combined effects on litter quality, environmental conditions, and plant community composition. PMID:26216200

  1. Vitellogenin-RNAi and ovariectomy each increase lifespan, increase protein storage, and decrease feeding, but are not additive in grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Tetlak, Alicia G; Burnett, Jacob B; Hahn, Daniel A; Hatle, John D

    2015-12-01

    Reduced reproduction has been shown to increase lifespan in many animals, yet the mechanisms behind this trade-off are unclear. We addressed this question by combining two distinct, direct means of life-extension via reduced reproduction, to test whether they were additive. In the lubber grasshopper, Romalea microptera, ovariectomized (OVX) individuals had a ~20% increase in lifespan and a doubling of storage relative to controls (Sham operated). Similarly, young female grasshoppers treated with RNAi against vitellogenin (the precursor to egg yolk protein) had increased fat body mass and halted ovarian growth. In this study, we compared VgRNAi to two control groups that do not reduce reproduction, namely buffer injection (Buffer) and injection with RNAi against a hexameric storage protein (Hex90RNAi). Each injection treatment was tested with and without ovariectomy. Hence, we tested feeding, storage, and lifespans in six groups: OVX and Buffer, OVX and Hex90RNAi, OVX and VgRNAi, Sham and Buffer, Sham and Hex90RNAi, and Sham and VgRNAi. Ovariectomized grasshoppers and VgRNAi grasshoppers each had similar reductions in feeding (~40%), increases in protein storage in the hemolymph (150-300%), and extensions in lifespan (13-21%). Ovariectomized grasshoppers had higher vitellogenin protein levels than did VgRNAi grasshoppers. Last but not least, when ovariectomy and VgRNAi were applied together, there was no greater effect on feeding, protein storage, or longevity. Hence, feeding regulation, and protein storage in insects, may be conserved components of life-extension via reduced reproduction. PMID:26298568

  2. An Inventory of Methods for the Assessment of Additive Increased Addictiveness of Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Kienhuis, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarettes and other forms of tobacco contain the addictive drug nicotine. Other components, either naturally occurring in tobacco or additives that are intentionally added during the manufacturing process, may add to the addictiveness of tobacco products. As such, these components can make cigarette smokers more easily and heavily dependent. Efforts to regulate tobacco product dependence are emerging globally. Additives that increase tobacco dependence will be prohibited under the new European Tobacco Product Directive. Objective: This article provides guidelines and recommendations for developing a regulatory strategy for assessment of increase in tobacco dependence due to additives. Relevant scientific literature is summarized and criteria and experimental studies that can define increased dependence of tobacco products are described. Conclusions: Natural tobacco smoke is a very complex matrix of components, therefore analysis of the contribution of an additive or a combination of additives to the level of dependence on this product is challenging. We propose to combine different type of studies analyzing overall tobacco product dependence potential and the functioning of additives in relation to nicotine. By using a combination of techniques, changes associated with nicotine dependence such as behavioral, physiological, and neurochemical alterations can be examined to provide sufficient information. Research needs and knowledge gaps will be discussed and recommendations will be made to translate current knowledge into legislation. As such, this article aids in implementation of the Tobacco Product Directive, as well as help enable regulators and researchers worldwide to develop standards to reduce dependence on tobacco products. Implications: This article provides an overall view on how to assess tobacco product constituents for their potential contribution to use and dependence. It provides guidelines that help enable regulators worldwide to

  3. Soil nutrient additions increase invertebrate herbivore abundances, but not herbivory, across three grassland systems.

    PubMed

    La Pierre, Kimberly J; Smith, Melinda D

    2016-02-01

    Resource availability may influence invertebrate communities, with important consequences for ecosystem function, such as biomass production. We assessed: (1) the effects of experimental soil nutrient additions on invertebrate abundances and feeding rates and (2) the resultant changes in the effects of invertebrates on aboveground plant biomass at three grassland sites spanning the North American Central Plains, across which plant tissue chemistry and biomass vary. Invertebrate communities and rates of herbivory were sampled within a long-term nutrient-addition experiment established at each site along the broad Central Plains precipitation gradient. Additionally, the effects of invertebrates on aboveground plant biomass were determined under ambient and elevated nutrient conditions. At the more mesic sites, invertebrate herbivore abundances increased and their per capita rate of herbivory decreased with nutrient additions. In contrast, at the semi-arid site where plant biomass is low and plant nutrient concentrations are high, invertebrate herbivore abundances did not vary and per capita rates of herbivory increased with nutrient additions. No change in the effect of invertebrate herbivores on aboveground plant biomass was observed at any of the sites. In sum, nutrient additions induced shifts in both plant biomass and leaf nutrient content, which altered invertebrate abundances and feeding rate. However, due to the inverse relationship between changes in herbivore abundance and per capita rates of herbivory, nutrient additions did not alter the effect of invertebrates on aboveground biomass. Overall, we suggest that this inverse response of herbivore abundance and per capita feeding rate may buffer ecosystems against changes in invertebrate damage in response to fluctuations in nutrient levels. PMID:26474567

  4. Insulin analog with additional disulfide bond has increased stability and preserved activity.

    PubMed

    Vinther, Tine N; Norrman, Mathias; Ribel, Ulla; Huus, Kasper; Schlein, Morten; Steensgaard, Dorte B; Pedersen, Thomas Å; Pettersson, Ingrid; Ludvigsen, Svend; Kjeldsen, Thomas; Jensen, Knud J; Hubálek, František

    2013-03-01

    Insulin is a key hormone controlling glucose homeostasis. All known vertebrate insulin analogs have a classical structure with three 100% conserved disulfide bonds that are essential for structural stability and thus the function of insulin. It might be hypothesized that an additional disulfide bond may enhance insulin structural stability which would be highly desirable in a pharmaceutical use. To address this hypothesis, we designed insulin with an additional interchain disulfide bond in positions A10/B4 based on Cα-Cα distances, solvent exposure, and side-chain orientation in human insulin (HI) structure. This insulin analog had increased affinity for the insulin receptor and apparently augmented glucodynamic potency in a normal rat model compared with HI. Addition of the disulfide bond also resulted in a 34.6°C increase in melting temperature and prevented insulin fibril formation under high physical stress even though the C-terminus of the B-chain thought to be directly involved in fibril formation was not modified. Importantly, this analog was capable of forming hexamer upon Zn addition as typical for wild-type insulin and its crystal structure showed only minor deviations from the classical insulin structure. Furthermore, the additional disulfide bond prevented this insulin analog from adopting the R-state conformation and thus showing that the R-state conformation is not a prerequisite for binding to insulin receptor as previously suggested. In summary, this is the first example of an insulin analog featuring a fourth disulfide bond with increased structural stability and retained function. PMID:23281053

  5. Green Manure Addition to Soil Increases Grain Zinc Concentration in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A.; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H.; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg−1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg−1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg−1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)−1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)−1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs. PMID:24999738

  6. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs. PMID:24999738

  7. Increased Mechanical Properties Through the Addition of Zr to GRCop-84

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2011-01-01

    GRCop-84 (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb) has shown exceptional mechanical properties above 932 F (773 K). However, its properties below 932 F (773 K) are inferior to precipitation strengthened alloys such as Cu-Cr, Cu-Zr and Cu-Cr-Zr when they are in the fully aged, hard-drawn condition. It has been noted that the addition of small amounts of Zr, typically 0.1 wt.% to 0.5 wt.%, can greatly enhance the mechanical properties of copper-based alloys. Limited testing was conducted upon GRCop-84 with an addition of 0.4 wt.% Zr to determine its tensile, creep and low cycle fatigue (LCF) properties. Very large increases in strength (up to 68%) and ductility (up to 123%) were observed at both room temperature and 932 F (773 K). Creep properties at 932 F (773 K) demonstrated more than an order of magnitude decrease in the creep rate relative to unmodified GRCop-84 with a corresponding order of magnitude increase in creep life. Limited LCF testing showed that the modified alloy had a comparable LCF life at room temperature, but it was capable of sustaining a much higher load. While more testing and composition optimization are required, the addition of Zr to GRCop-84 has shown clear benefits to mechanical properties.

  8. Consolidation of silicon nitride without additives. [for gas turbine engine efficiency increase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sikora, P. F.; Yeh, H. C.

    1976-01-01

    The use of ceramics for gas turbine engine construction might make it possible to increase engine efficiency by raising operational temperatures to values beyond those which can be tolerated by metallic alloys. The most promising ceramics being investigated in this connection are Si3N4 and SiC. A description is presented of a study which had the objective to produce dense Si3N4. The two most common methods of consolidating Si3N4 currently being used include hot pressing and reaction sintering. The feasibility was explored of producing a sound, dense Si3N4 body without additives by means of conventional gas hot isostatic pressing techniques and an uncommon hydraulic hot isostatic pressing technique. It was found that Si3N4 can be densified without additions to a density which exceeds 95% of the theoretical value

  9. Innovative additives can increase the drilling rates of water-based muds

    SciTech Connect

    Growcock, F.B.; Sinor, L.A.; Reece, A.R.; Powers, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    Several types of organic compounds were tested as rate of penetration (ROP) enhancers for a simple gel/water mud. Experiments conducted in a full-size drilling apparatus with both rollercone and PDC bits at wellbore pressures of 1,100 and 2,000 psi indicate that a paraffin/ester mixture, several terpenes and a mixture of insoluble poly(propylene glycols), or PPGs, can all increase the ROP by 5 to 20% when added at levels of 2--4% by volume. Complementary lubricity and shale recovery studies suggest that the paraffin and terpenes function by making the steel surfaces less water-wetting, thereby reducing the tendency of partially hydrated sticky shales to adhere. The PPG mixture, on the other hand, may function primarily by interacting directly with the shales to reduce their tendency to form a sticky mass. In either case, the additives increased ROP to levels comparable to the ROP observed with pure water.

  10. Hot-Pack and 1-MHz Ultrasound Treatments Have an Additive Effect on Muscle Temperature Increase

    PubMed Central

    Draper, David O.; Harris, Shane T.; Schulthies, Shane; Durrant, Earlene; Knight, Kenneth L.; Ricard, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Objective: Therapeutic ultrasound is an effective deep heating modality commonly applied alone or after cooling or heating of the treatment area. The purpose of this study was to examine the tissue temperature rise in the human triceps surae muscle group after ultrasound with prior heating via a silicate gel hot pack. Design and Setting: This study was designed as a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial with repeated measures on two factors (depth and time). Independent variables were temperature of pack (hot and room temperature), depth of measurement (1 cm and 3 cm), and time (beginning, after pack application, and after ultrasound). The dependent variable was tissue temperature. Subjects were assigned to one of two treatment groups: ultrasound preceded by a 15-minute hot pack treatment or ultrasound preceded by a 15-minute application with a silicate gel pack at room temperature. Measurements were taken while subjects were treated in a university training room. Subjects: Twenty-one uninjured male and female college student volunteers were randomly assigned to one of the two pack groups. Measurements: The hot packs were stored in 75°C water. A 1-MHz ultrasound treatment was administered for 10 minutes at an intensity of 1.5 W/cm². Tissue temperature was measured every 30 seconds using 23-gauge hypodermic microprobes interfaced with a telethermometer and inserted 1 and 3 cm below the surface of anesthetized triceps surae muscle. Results: At both tissue depths, there was a 0.8°C greater increase in tissue temperature with hot packs and ultrasound. At 1 cm, ultrasound increased temperature 3.5°C after a 0.5°C rise during the room temperature-pack application, but only 0.6°C after a 3.8°C increase during hot-pack application. At 3 cm, ultrasound increased temperature 3.85°C following a slight (-0.26°C) decrease during the room temperature-pack application and 3.68°C after a 0.74°C increase during hot-pack application. Conclusions: Vigorous increases in deep muscle

  11. Increased loss of soil-derived carbon in response to litter addition and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamer, C.; Krull, E. S.; Sanderman, J.; Farrell, M.

    2013-12-01

    In order to predict the response of soil organic matter (SOM) to increasing temperatures, a mechanistic understanding of the interactions between OM quality, OM availability, and microbial community structure and function is needed. We used short-term incubations of 13C enriched (20 atom%) fresh and pre-incubated eucalyptus leaf litter in an Australian woodland soil to determine changes in allocation of C to various OM pools, as dictated by microbial activity, in response to temperature and substrate quality. The quantity and isotopic composition of microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and dissolved organic C (DOC) were measured along with the quantity of dissolved inorganic and organic nitrogen at four destructive time points. The quantity and isotopic composition of respired CO2 was measured throughout the incubation. Although the temperature sensitivities of the two litters were similar (despite different chemical compositions), soil-C was significantly more temperature sensitive than litter-C. We also observed negative priming of soil-C in the fresh litter treatment and positive priming of soil-C in the pre-incubated litter treatment relative to the control (no litter addition). The extent of positive priming in the pre-incubated litter treatment also increased significantly with temperature. The quantity of soil-derived DOC was consistent between both litter treatments and the control, confirming that differences in soil-C availability were not controlling the observed differences in soil-C mineralization. In contrast, dissolved N was significantly higher in the pre-incubated litter treatment and increased with temperature, suggesting enhanced SOM decomposition in the pre-incubated litter treatment resulted in greater N cycling, production, or destabilization from SOM. The pre-incubated litter treatment also had greater proportions of PLFA that predominately cycled soil-derived OM (gram-positive bacteria), and increased in response to elevated temperature

  12. Anaerobic Codigestion of Sludge: Addition of Butcher's Fat Waste as a Cosubstrate for Increasing Biogas Production.

    PubMed

    Martínez, E J; Gil, M V; Fernandez, C; Rosas, J G; Gómez, X

    2016-01-01

    Fat waste discarded from butcheries was used as a cosubstrate in the anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge (SS). The process was evaluated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The codigestion was successfully attained despite some inhibitory stages initially present that had their origin in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and adsorption of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). The addition of a fat waste improved digestion stability and increased biogas yields thanks to the higher organic loading rate (OLR) applied to the reactors. However, thermophilic digestion was characterized by an effluent of poor quality and high VFA content. Results from spectroscopic analysis suggested the adsorption of lipid components onto the anaerobic biomass, thus disturbing the complete degradation of substrate during the treatment. The formation of fatty aggregates in the thermophilic reactor prevented process failure by avoiding the exposure of biomass to the toxic effect of high LCFA concentrations. PMID:27071074

  13. Non-Additive Increases in Sediment Stability Are Generated by Macroinvertebrate Species Interactions in Laboratory Streams

    PubMed Central

    Albertson, Lindsey K.; Cardinale, Bradley J.; Sklar, Leonard S.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that biological structures such as plant roots can have large impacts on landscape morphodynamics, and that physical models that do not incorporate biology can generate qualitatively incorrect predictions of sediment transport. However, work to date has focused almost entirely on the impacts of single, usually dominant, species. Here we ask whether multiple, coexisting species of hydropsychid caddisfly larvae have different impacts on sediment mobility compared to single-species systems due to competitive interactions and niche differences. We manipulated the presence of two common species of net-spinning caddisfly (Ceratopsyche oslari, Arctopsyche californica) in laboratory mesocosms and measured how their silk filtration nets influence the critical shear stress required to initiate sediment grain motion when they were in monoculture versus polyculture. We found that critical shear stress increases non-additively in polycultures where species were allowed to interact. Critical shear stress was 26% higher in multi-species assemblages compared to the average single-species monoculture, and 21% greater than levels of stability achieved by the species having the largest impact on sediment motion in monoculture. Supplementary behavioral experiments suggest the non-additive increase in critical shear stress may have occurred as competition among species led to shifts in the spatial distribution of the two populations and complementary habitat use. To explore the implications of these results for field conditions, we used results from the laboratory study to parameterize a common model of sediment transport. We then used this model to estimate potential bed movement in a natural stream for which we had measurements of channel geometry, grain size, and daily discharge. Although this extrapolation is speculative, it illustrates that multi-species impacts could be sufficiently large to reduce bedload sediment flux over annual time scales in

  14. Increased Risk of Additional Cancers Among Patients with Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, James D.; Ma, Grace L.; Baumgartner, Joel M.; Madlensky, Lisa; Burgoyne, Adam M.; Tang, Chih-Min; Martinez, Maria Elena; Sicklick, Jason K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are considered non-hereditary or sporadic. However, single-institution studies suggest that GIST patients develop additional malignancies with increased frequencies. We hypothesized that we could gain greater insight into possible associations between GIST and other malignancies using a national cancer database inquiry. Methods Patients diagnosed with GIST (2001–2011) in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database were included. Standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to quantify cancer risks incurred by GIST patients before and after GIST diagnoses, respectively, when compared with the general U.S. population. Results Of 6,112 GIST patients, 1,047 (17.1%) had additional cancers. There were significant increases in overall cancer rates: 44% (SPR=1.44) before diagnosis and 66% (SIR=1.66) after GIST diagnoses. Malignancies with significantly increased occurrence both before/after diagnoses included other sarcomas (SPR=5.24/SIR=4.02), neuroendocrine-carcinoid tumors (SPR=3.56/SIR=4.79), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (SPR=1.69/SIR=1.76), and colorectal adenocarcinoma (SPR=1.51/SIR=2.16). Esophageal adenocarcinoma (SPR=12.0), bladder adenocarcinoma (SPR=7.51), melanoma (SPR=1.46), and prostate adenocarcinoma (SPR=1.20) were significantly more common only before GIST. Ovarian carcinoma (SIR=8.72), small intestine adenocarcinoma (SIR=5.89), papillary thyroid cancer (SIR=5.16), renal cell carcinoma (SIR=4.46), hepatobiliary adenocarcinomas (SIR=3.10), gastric adenocarcinoma (SIR=2.70), pancreatic adenocarcinoma (SIR=2.03), uterine adenocarcinoma (SIR=1.96), non-small cell lung cancer (SIR=1.74), and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (SIR=1.65) were significantly more common only after GIST. Conclusion This is the first population-based study to characterize the associations and temporal relationships between GIST and other cancers, both by site and

  15. Nitrogen Additions Increase the Diversity of Carbon Compounds Degraded by Fungi in Boreal Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartner, T. B.; Turner, K. M.; Treseder, K. K.

    2004-12-01

    Boreal forest soils in North America harbor a large reservoir of organic C, and this region is increasingly exposed to long-range atmospheric N transport from Eurasia. By examining the responses of decomposers to N deposition in these forests, we hope to improve predictions of the fate of boreal carbon pools under global change. We tested the hypothesis that the functional diversity of decomposer fungi would increase under N fertilization in boreal forests where fungal growth was otherwise N-limited, owing to a reduction in competitive exclusion of fungal groups. We collected soil and leaf litter from three Alaskan sites that represent different successional stages at 5, 17, or 80 years following severe forest fire. Each site had been exposed for two years to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization in a factorial design, with four plots per treatment. Nutrient limitation of fungal growth varied depending on successional stage. The standing hyphal length of decomposer fungi in soil (i.e. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) responded to neither N nor P in the 5-year old site, increased under N fertilization in the 17-year old site, and increased where N and P was added simultaneously in the 80-year old site (site x N x P interaction: P = 0.001). We used BIOLOG microplates for filamentous fungi to obtain an index of the diversity of carbon use by decomposer fungi; each of 95 wells of these plates contains a different carbon-based compound, as well as a dye that changes color upon metabolism of the compound. Saline leaf litter extracts were mixed with fungal growth medium and then added to the microplates. The number of wells displaying metabolic activity was counted following incubation for five days. We found that N fertilization raised the average number of positive wells per plate from 14 to 27 (P = 0.012), with no significant differences in responses among sites. Phosphorus additions did not alter functional diversity of fungi in any site. Since increases in functional

  16. A protease additive increases fermentation of alfalfa diets by mixed ruminal microorganisms in vitro.

    PubMed

    Colombatto, D; Beauchemin, K A

    2009-03-01

    In vitro experiments were conducted to examine the characteristics and mode of action of a protease that increased the ruminal fiber digestibility of alfalfa hay. A commercial source of protease (Protex 6L, Genencor Int., Rochester, NY), already characterized for its main activities, was further analyzed to determine protease activity in response to pH, molecular size by SDS-PAGE, specificity to degrade model or feed substrates, response to autoclaving, and action of specific protease inhibitors in the absence or presence of ruminal fluid. In addition, batch culture in vitro incubations in buffered ruminal fluid were conducted to compare the enzyme product with purified protease sources, and dose-response studies (0 to 10 microL/g of forage DM) were carried out using alfalfa hay as a substrate. The enzyme product was shown to be an alkaline protease (optimum pH >8.5) of approximately 30 kDa. Specificity in the absence of ruminal fluid showed that the enzyme was active against gelatin and casein to the same extent, whereas it had limited (21% of the total) activity on BSA. In the presence of ruminal fluid and with the use of feed substrates, the protease increased (P < 0.05) 22-h IVDMD (%) of alfalfa hay, fresh corn silage, dry-rolled corn, and a total mixed ration composed of the 3 ingredients (39.5 vs. 44.7; 50.3 vs. 54.5; 63.8 vs. 68.4; and 55.4 vs. 56.4 for control vs. protease for each feed, respectively). Inhibitor studies in the absence of ruminal fluid indicated that the enzyme was inhibited most by a serine protease inhibitor but not by cysteine- or metalloprotease inhibitors (10 vs. 1.9 and 0.1%, respectively). In the presence of ruminal fluid, the serine protease inhibitor reversed (P < 0.05) the increase in alfalfa IVDMD achieved by the enzyme product, such that IVDMD was similar to that of the control treatment. Comparisons among different proteases revealed that only pure subtilisin achieved increases in IVDMD that were similar to those with protease

  17. The response of soil organic matter decomposition and carbon cycling to temperature increase and nitrogen addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, I.; Kang, M.; Choi, J.

    2012-12-01

    Global warming caused by greenhouse effects has raised the worldwide air temperature by 1.4~5.8°C from the pre-industrial level. It has been known that the enhanced air temperature leads to increase the rate of soil organic matter decomposition. The enhanced soil organic matter decomposition could increase the emission of GHG (Green House Gas-mostly CO2, CH4) from the terrestrial ecosystem. GHG emission from the decomposition of soil organic matter can be affected by N deposition. N deposition of Asia has significantly grown from 1000mg N m2yr-1 to 2000mg N m2yr-1during the period of 1990s. It is expected that large area of South and East Asia will receive as large as 5000mg N m2yr-1of nitrogen in the future. Therefore, it is interesting to investigate the effects of global change factors, such as elevated temperature and N deposition on GHG emission from the terrestrial ecosystem. Growth chamber experiments were conducted under the enhanced air temperature and N addition (controlled at 10°C(30°C), 20°C(40°C) from ambient air temperature 18°C/23°C(day/night)) and GHG(CH4,CO2)was measured using gas chromatograph. Since combined changes in temperature and N deposition are sensitive to litter quantity and quality, especially C:N ratio of organic material, we select three sites with different C:N ratio (rice paddy, forest, wetland) in the southern part of Han river in Korea. Our results show that, for the case of rice paddy and forest, CO2 flux at 30°C was higher than at 40°C. However, wetland soil produces higher CO2 flux at 40°C than at 30°C. While CH4 flux was not detected at 30°C for all of three soils, only wetland soil produced CH4 flux at 40°C. Every flux under the condition of N addition was higher than that of N limitation. The GHG fluxes clearly related to the temperature, N concentration difference and soil types. Long term laboratory experiments are needed in three different soil types to determine how different soil type affects GHG by

  18. Protease addition to increase yield and fermentation rate in dry grind ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a small scale laboratory procedure (100g shake flasks) for ethanol production from corn, the effects of acid protease addition during the fermentation step were evaluated. The batch fermentations were conducted in duplicate using standard conditions and with protease addition during fermentati...

  19. Increasing shrub abundance and N addition in Arctic tundra affect leaf and root litter decomposition differently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaren, J.; van de Weg, M. J.; Shaver, G. R.; Gough, L.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in global climate have resulted in a ';greening' of the Arctic as the abundance of deciduous shrub species increases. Consequently, not only the living plant community, but also the litter composition changes, which in turn can affect carbon turnover patterns in the Arctic. We examined effects of changing litter composition (both root and leaf litter) on decomposition rates with a litter bag study, and specifically focused on the impact of deciduous shrub Betula nana litter on litter decomposition from two evergreen shrubs (Ledum palustre, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and one graminoid (Eriophorum vaginatum) species. Additionally, we investigated how decomposition was affected by nutrient availability by placing the litterbags in an ambient and a fertilized moist acidic tundra environment. Measurements were carried out seasonally over 2 years (after snow melt, mid-growing season, end growing season). We measured litter mass loss over time, as well as the respiration rates (standardized for temperature and moisture) and temperature sensitivity of litter respiration at the time of harvesting the litter bags. For leaves, Betula litter decomposed faster than the other three species, with Eriophorum leaves decomposing the slowest. This pattern was observed for both mass loss and litter respiration rates, although the differences in respiration became smaller over time. Surprisingly, combining Betula with any other species resulted in slower overall weight loss rates than would be predicted based on monoculture weight loss rates. This contrasted with litter respiration at the time of sampling, which showed a positive mixing effect of adding Betula leaf liter to the other species. Apparently, during the first winter months (September - May) Betula litter decomposition is negatively affected by mixing the species and this legacy can still be observed in the total mass loss results later in the year. For root litter there were fewer effects of species identity on root

  20. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes Containing Flame Retardant Additives for Increased Safety Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Smith, Kiah A. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick Charles (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of Li-ion electrolytes containing flame retardant additives that have delivered good performance over a wide temperature range, good cycle life characteristics, and improved safety characteristics, namely, reduced flammability. In one embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a fluorinated co-solvent, a flame retardant additive, and a lithium salt. In another embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film forming agent, and a lithium salt.

  1. Additives increasing antioxidant activity of sesamol in soybean oil at frying temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sesamol has drawn a considerable interest as an alternative to synthetic antioxidants due to its excellent radical scavenging ability at room temperature, low cost and additional health-promoting benefits. However, when it was evaluated for its antioxidant activity in soybean oil at frying temperatu...

  2. Addition of blood to a phycogenic bone substitute leads to increased in vivo vascularization.

    PubMed

    Barbeck, Mike; Najman, Stevo; Stojanović, Sanja; Mitić, Žarko; Živković, Jelena M; Choukroun, Joseph; Kovačević, Predrag; Sader, Robert; Kirkpatrick, C James; Ghanaati, Shahram

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the effects of the addition of blood to the phycogenic bone substitute Algipore(®) on the severity of in vivo tissue reaction. Initially, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the bone substitute was conducted to analyze its chemical composition. The subcutaneous implantation model in Balb/c mice was then applied for up to 30 d to analyze the tissue reactions on the basis of specialized histochemical, immunohistochemical, and histomorphometrical methods. The data of the FTIR analysis showed that the phycogenic bone substitute material is mainly composed of hydroxyapatite with some carbonate content. The in vivo analyses revealed that the addition of blood to Algipore(®) had a major impact on both angiogenesis and vessel maturation. The higher vascularization seemed to be based on significantly higher numbers of multinucleated TRAP-positive cells. However, mostly macrophages and a relatively low number of multinucleated giant cells were involved in the tissue reaction to Algipore(®). The presented data show that the addition of blood to a bone substitute impacts the tissue reaction to it. In particular, the immune response and the vascularization were influenced, and these are believed to have a major impact on the regenerative potential of the process of bone tissue regeneration. PMID:26359820

  3. Use of chemical additives with steam injection to increase oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Handy, L.L.

    1984-09-01

    Surfactants and certain inorganic bases have been evaluated as possible chemical additives to improve performance of steamfloods. Special emphasis was given to chemicals which would reduce the residual oil saturation in regions flooded by hot water below the steam zone. Problems considered were the effect of prolonged exposure to steam temperature on the stability of petroleum sulfonates, the effect of temperature on surfactant adsorption and the effect of temperature on interfacial tensions. Methods were developed for measuring quantitatively the thermal stability of the aryl sulfonate class of surfactant. This class includes the petroleum sulfonates. The best of the surfactants evaluated in this study had marginal stability for use with steamfloods. The surfactants in combination with elevated temperatures do reduce residual oil saturations. Data are presented on the temperature effects on interfacial tensions and on adsorption. Certain inorganic chemicals which give high pH are effective and inexpensive but hydroxyl ions react with silica in the reservoir. This reaction is accentuated at higher temperatures. Data show that the pH of the injected hot water with caustic decreases with contact time. The experiments did not permit determining if an equilibrium pH would be obtained which would be high enough to be effective in recovering oil. Core floods showed that pH's in excess of 12 would be required to reduce residual oil saturations if sodium hydroxide was the injected chemical. The addition of surfactants with caustic or the use of sodium carbonate may permit recovery of oil at lower pH's. A reservoir simulator is being developed to predict performance of steamfloods with chemical additives. This has been completed for simple linear floods but is being extended to three dimensions and to more complicated flooding operations. 31 references, 43 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Effects of Increased Summer Precipitation and Nitrogen Addition on Root Decomposition in a Temperate Desert

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongmei; Huang, Gang; Li, Yan; Ma, Jian; Sheng, Jiandong; Jia, Hongtao; Li, Congjuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Climate change scenarios that include precipitation shifts and nitrogen (N) deposition are impacting carbon (C) budgets in arid ecosystems. Roots constitute an important part of the C cycle, but it is still unclear which factors control root mass loss and nutrient release in arid lands. Methodology/Principal Findings Litterbags were used to investigate the decomposition rate and nutrient dynamics in root litter with water and N-addition treatments in the Gurbantunggut Desert in China. Water and N addition had no significant effect on root mass loss and the N and phosphorus content of litter residue. The loss of root litter and nutrient releases were strongly controlled by the initial lignin content and the lignin:N ratio, as evidenced by the negative correlations between decomposition rate and litter lignin content and the lignin:N ratio. Fine roots of Seriphidium santolinum (with higher initial lignin content) had a slower decomposition rate in comparison to coarse roots. Conclusion/Significance Results from this study indicate that small and temporary changes in rainfall and N deposition do not affect root decomposition patterns in the Gurbantunggut Desert. Root decomposition rates were significantly different between species, and also between fine and coarse roots, and were determined by carbon components, especially lignin content, suggesting that root litter quality may be the primary driver of belowground carbon turnover. PMID:26544050

  5. Non-Additive Effects of Genotypic Diversity Increase Floral Abundance and Abundance of Floral Visitors

    PubMed Central

    Genung, Mark A.; Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Brown, Claire B.; Bunn, Windy A.; Cregger, Melissa A.; Reynolds, Wm. Nicholas; Felker-Quinn, Emmi; Stevenson, Mary L.; Hartley, Amanda S.; Crutsinger, Gregory M.; Schweitzer, Jennifer A.; Bailey, Joseph K.

    2010-01-01

    Background In the emerging field of community and ecosystem genetics, genetic variation and diversity in dominant plant species have been shown to play fundamental roles in maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function. However, the importance of intraspecific genetic variation and diversity to floral abundance and pollinator visitation has received little attention. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an experimental common garden that manipulated genotypic diversity (the number of distinct genotypes per plot) of Solidago altissima, we document that genotypic diversity of a dominant plant can indirectly influence flower visitor abundance. Across two years, we found that 1) plant genotype explained 45% and 92% of the variation in flower visitor abundance in 2007 and 2008, respectively; and 2) plant genotypic diversity had a positive and non-additive effect on floral abundance and the abundance of flower visitors, as plots established with multiple genotypes produced 25% more flowers and received 45% more flower visits than would be expected under an additive model. Conclusions/Significance These results provide evidence that declines in genotypic diversity may be an important but little considered factor for understanding plant-pollinator dynamics, with implications for the global decline in pollinators due to reduced plant diversity in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. PMID:20090850

  6. Responses of estuarine nematodes to an increase in nutrient supply: an in situ continuous addition experiment.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, R C; Nascimento-Junior, A B; Santos, P J P; Botter-Carvalho, M L; Pinto, T K

    2015-01-15

    An experiment was carried out on an estuarine mudflat to assess impacts of inorganic nutrients used to fertilize sugar-cane fields on the surrounding aquatic ecosystem, through changes in the nematode community structure. During 118 days, nine quadrats each 4m(2) were sampled six times after the beginning of fertilizer addition. The fertilizer was introduced weekly in six areas, at two different concentrations (low and high doses), and three areas were used as control. The introduction of nutrients modified key nematode community descriptors. In general, the nematodes were negatively affected over the study period. However, Comesa, Metachromadora, Metalinhomoeus, Spirinia and Terschellingia were considered tolerant, and other genera showed different degrees of sensitivity. Nutrient input also affect the availability and quality of food, changing the nematode trophic structure. The use of inorganic fertilizer should be evaluated with care because of the potential for damage to biological communities of coastal aquatic systems. PMID:25499965

  7. Increased in vitro activity of ceftriaxone by addition of tazobactam against clinical isolates of anaerobes.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, K E; Morice, N; Schiro, D D

    1994-08-01

    A total of 461 clinical strains of anaerobes were tested using a broth microdilution test to determine the activity of the combination of ceftriaxone and tazobactam and other antimicrobials against these isolates. Ceftriaxone was combined with tazobactam in ratios of 1:1, 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1 and twofold dilutions of ceftriaxone in constant concentrations to tazobactam of 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 micrograms/ml. Against beta-lactamase-producing strains of the Bacteroides fragilis group, B. capillosus, and Prevotella species all combinations of ceftriaxone and tazobactam showed enhanced in vitro activity and were eight- to 2048-fold more active than ceftriaxone alone. By comparison ceftriaxone and tazobactam showed superior or equal activity to ampicillin and sulbactam, piperacillin and tazobactam, amoxicillin and clavulanate, ticarcillin and clavulanate, and metronidazole against these same strains. Against beta-lactamase nonproducing strains of Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Eubacterium, Peptostreptococcus, and Veillonella parvula the addition of tazobactam produced no appreciable enhanced ceftriaxone activity. Fixed concentrations of tazobactam at 2 and 4 micrograms/ml appear to be most suitable for susceptibility testing and are within the pharmacologic profile of this inhibitor. Pharmacologic and toxicity studies will be needed to define the role of ceftriaxone and tazobactam in infectious diseases. PMID:7851086

  8. Additional weight load increases freezing of gait episodes in Parkinson's disease; an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Mensink, Senja H G; Nonnekes, Jorik; van Bon, Geert; Snijders, Anke H; Duysens, Jacques; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Oude Nijhuis, Lars B

    2014-05-01

    Freezing of gait is an episodic gait disorder,characterized by the inability to generate effective forward stepping movements. The pathophysiology underlying freezing of gait remains insufficiently understood, and this hampers the development of better treatment strategies.Preliminary evidence suggests that impaired force control during walking may contribute to freezing episodes, with difficulty to unload the swing leg and initiate the swing phase. Here, we used external loading to manipulate force control and to investigate its influence on freezing of gait.Twelve Parkinson's disease patients with freezing of gait performed three contrasting tasks: (1) loaded gait while wearing a belt fortified with lead weights; (2) weight supported gait using a parachute harness connected to a rigid metal cable running above the gait trajectory; and (3)normal gait. Gait tasks were used to provoke freezing episodes, including rapid 360° turns. Freezing episodes were quantified using blinded, videotaped clinical assessment. Furthermore, ground reaction forces and body kinematics were recorded. Loading significantly increased the mean number of freezing episodes per trial compared to the normal gait condition (P<0.05), but the effect of weight support was not consistent. Loading particularly increased the number of freezing episodes during rapid short steps. Step length was significantly smaller during loaded gait compared to normal gait (P<0.05), but changes in anticipatory postural adjustments were not different.Our results may point to impaired force control playing a key role in freezing of gait. Future studies should further investigate the mechanism, i.e., the contribution of deficient load feedback, and evaluate which forms of weight support might offer treatment opportunities. PMID:24658705

  9. Increases in the Amounts of Vibrio spp. in Oysters upon Addition of Exogenous Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, James

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Vibrio vulnificus is found naturally in brackish coastal waters but can be greatly concentrated by filter-feeding organisms such as shellfish. Numerous experiments in which exogenous V. vulnificus cells are added to oysters in an attempt to measure uptake and depuration have been performed. In nearly all cases, results have shown that laboratory-grown bacteria are rapidly taken up by the oysters but ultimately eliminated, while naturally present Vibrio populations in oysters are resistant to depuration. In this study, oysters harvested during winter months, with low culturable Vibrio concentrations, were incubated in aquaria supplemented with strains of V. vulnificus that were either genotypically or phenotypically distinct from the background bacteria. These exogenous cells were eliminated from the oysters, as previously seen, but other vibrios already inhabiting the oysters responded to the V. vulnificus inoculum by rapidly increasing in number and maintaining a large stable population. The presence of such an oyster-adapted Vibrio population would be expected to prevent colonization by exogenous V. vulnificus cells, thus explaining the rapid depuration of these added bacteria. PMID:23793640

  10. Nitrogen addition, not initial phylogenetic diversity, increases litter decomposition by fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Amend, Anthony S; Matulich, Kristin L; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2015-01-01

    Fungi play a critical role in the degradation of organic matter. Because different combinations of fungi result in different rates of decomposition, determining how climate change will affect microbial composition and function is fundamental to predicting future environments. Fungal response to global change is patterned by genetic relatedness, resulting in communities with comparatively low phylogenetic diversity (PD). This may have important implications for the functional capacity of disturbed communities if lineages sensitive to disturbance also contain unique traits important for litter decomposition. Here we tested the relationship between PD and decomposition rates. Leaf litter fungi were isolated from the field and deployed in microcosms as mock communities along a gradient of initial PD, while species richness was held constant. Replicate communities were subject to nitrogen fertilization comparable to anthropogenic deposition levels. Carbon mineralization rates were measured over the course of 66 days. We found that nitrogen fertilization increased cumulative respiration by 24.8%, and that differences in respiration between fertilized and ambient communities diminished over the course of the experiment. Initial PD failed to predict respiration rates or their change in response to nitrogen fertilization, and there was no correlation between community similarity and respiration rates. Last, we detected no phylogenetic signal in the contributions of individual isolates to respiration rates. Our results suggest that the degree to which PD predicts ecosystem function will depend on environmental context. PMID:25741330

  11. Nitrogen addition, not initial phylogenetic diversity, increases litter decomposition by fungal communities

    PubMed Central

    Amend, Anthony S.; Matulich, Kristin L.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi play a critical role in the degradation of organic matter. Because different combinations of fungi result in different rates of decomposition, determining how climate change will affect microbial composition and function is fundamental to predicting future environments. Fungal response to global change is patterned by genetic relatedness, resulting in communities with comparatively low phylogenetic diversity (PD). This may have important implications for the functional capacity of disturbed communities if lineages sensitive to disturbance also contain unique traits important for litter decomposition. Here we tested the relationship between PD and decomposition rates. Leaf litter fungi were isolated from the field and deployed in microcosms as mock communities along a gradient of initial PD, while species richness was held constant. Replicate communities were subject to nitrogen fertilization comparable to anthropogenic deposition levels. Carbon mineralization rates were measured over the course of 66 days. We found that nitrogen fertilization increased cumulative respiration by 24.8%, and that differences in respiration between fertilized and ambient communities diminished over the course of the experiment. Initial PD failed to predict respiration rates or their change in response to nitrogen fertilization, and there was no correlation between community similarity and respiration rates. Last, we detected no phylogenetic signal in the contributions of individual isolates to respiration rates. Our results suggest that the degree to which PD predicts ecosystem function will depend on environmental context. PMID:25741330

  12. CO2 enrichment and N addition increase nutrient loss from decomposing leaf litter in subtropical model forest ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juxiu; Fang, Xiong; Deng, Qi; Han, Tianfeng; Huang, Wenjuan; Li, Yiyong

    2015-01-01

    As atmospheric CO2 concentration increases, many experiments have been carried out to study effects of CO2 enrichment on litter decomposition and nutrient release. However, the result is still uncertain. Meanwhile, the impact of CO2 enrichment on nutrients other than N and P are far less studied. Using open-top chambers, we examined effects of elevated CO2 and N addition on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release in subtropical model forest ecosystems. We found that both elevated CO2 and N addition increased nutrient (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Zn) loss from the decomposing litter. The N, P, Ca and Zn loss was more than tripled in the chambers exposed to both elevated CO2 and N addition than those in the control chambers after 21 months of treatment. The stimulation of nutrient loss under elevated CO2 was associated with the increased soil moisture, the higher leaf litter quality and the greater soil acidity. Accelerated nutrient release under N addition was related to the higher leaf litter quality, the increased soil microbial biomass and the greater soil acidity. Our results imply that elevated CO2 and N addition will increase nutrient cycling in subtropical China under the future global change. PMID:25608664

  13. CO2 enrichment and N addition increase nutrient loss from decomposing leaf litter in subtropical model forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juxiu; Fang, Xiong; Deng, Qi; Han, Tianfeng; Huang, Wenjuan; Li, Yiyong

    2015-01-01

    As atmospheric CO2 concentration increases, many experiments have been carried out to study effects of CO2 enrichment on litter decomposition and nutrient release. However, the result is still uncertain. Meanwhile, the impact of CO2 enrichment on nutrients other than N and P are far less studied. Using open-top chambers, we examined effects of elevated CO2 and N addition on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release in subtropical model forest ecosystems. We found that both elevated CO2 and N addition increased nutrient (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Zn) loss from the decomposing litter. The N, P, Ca and Zn loss was more than tripled in the chambers exposed to both elevated CO2 and N addition than those in the control chambers after 21 months of treatment. The stimulation of nutrient loss under elevated CO2 was associated with the increased soil moisture, the higher leaf litter quality and the greater soil acidity. Accelerated nutrient release under N addition was related to the higher leaf litter quality, the increased soil microbial biomass and the greater soil acidity. Our results imply that elevated CO2 and N addition will increase nutrient cycling in subtropical China under the future global change.

  14. Influence of additives on the increase of the heating value of Bayah's coal with upgrading brown coal (UBC) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heriyanto, Heri; Widya Ernayati, K.; Umam, Chairul; Margareta, Nita

    2015-12-01

    UBC (upgrading brown coal) is a method of improving the quality of coal by using oil as an additive. Through processing in the oil media, not just the calories that increase, but there is also water repellent properties and a decrease in the tendency of spontaneous combustion of coal products produced. The results showed a decrease in the water levels of natural coal bayah reached 69%, increase in calorific value reached 21.2%. Increased caloric value and reduced water content caused by the water molecules on replacing seal the pores of coal by oil and atoms C on the oil that is bound to increase the percentage of coal carbon. As a result of this experiment is, the produced coal has better calorific value, the increasing of this new calorific value up to 23.8% with the additive waste lubricant, and the moisture content reduced up to 69.45%.

  15. Effect of enzyme concentration, addition of water and incubation time on increase in yield of starch from potato.

    PubMed

    Sit, Nandan; Agrawal, U S; Deka, Sankar C

    2014-05-01

    Enzymatic treatment process for starch extraction from potato was investigated using cellulase enzyme and compared with conventional process. The effects of three parameters, cellulase enzyme concentration, incubation time and addition of water were evaluated for increase in starch yield as compared to the conventional process i.e., without using enzyme. A two-level full factorial design was used to study the process. The results indicated that all the main parameters and their interactions are statistically significant. Enzyme concentration and incubation time had a positive effect on the increase in starch yield while addition of water had a negative effect. The increase in starch yield ranged from 1.9% at low enzyme concentration and incubation time and high addition of water to a maximum of 70% increase from conventional process in starch yield was achieved when enzyme concentration and incubation time were high and addition of water was low suggesting water present in the ground potato meal is sufficient for access to the enzyme with in the slurry ensuring adequate contact with the substrate. PMID:24803713

  16. Effects of belowground litter addition, increased precipitation and clipping on soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization in a temperate steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Guo, C.; Xin, X.; Yuan, S.; Wang, R.

    2013-11-01

    Soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling are sensitive to changes in environmental factors and play critical roles in the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to natural and anthropogenic perturbations. This study was conducted to quantify the effects of belowground particulate litter (BPL) addition, increased precipitation and their interactions on soil C and N mineralization in two adjacent sites where belowground photosynthate allocation was manipulated through vegetation clipping in a temperate steppe of northeastern China from 2010 to 2011. The results show that BPL addition significantly increase soil C mineralization rate (CMR) and net N mineralization rate (NMR). Although increased precipitation-induced enhancement of soil CMR essentially ceased after the first year, stimulation of soil NMR and net nitrification rate continued into the second year. Clipping only marginally decreased soil CMR and NMR during the two years. There were significant synergistic interactions between BPL addition (and increased precipitation) and clipping on soil CMR and NMR, likely to reflect shifts in soil microbial community structure and a decrease in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi biomass due to the reduction of belowground photosynthate allocation. These results highlight the importance of plants in mediating the responses of soil C and N mineralization to potentially increased BPL and precipitation by controlling belowground photosynthate allocation in the temperate steppe.

  17. Fasting and other mild stresses with hormetic effects in Drosophila melanogaster can additively increase resistance to cold.

    PubMed

    Le Bourg, Éric

    2015-08-01

    Mild stresses can have various positive effects in animal models and human beings. Previous studies have shown that fasting, i.e. a short starvation period with water ad lib, increases resistance to a severe cold stress in flies (percentage of survivors 3 days after being kept at 0 °C). Only a few studies have combined two mild stresses with hormetic effects in an attempt to obtain additive effects. Fasting was combined in the same flies with either a hypergravity, cold or heat stress and resistance to cold was observed. When each mild stress had positive effects on this trait (fasting, cold, and hypergravity in males only), their combination had additive effects. However, when one of the mild stresses had no positive effect or even a negative effect (heat), combining it with fasting did not increase the positive effect of fasting or even decreased it. PMID:25864076

  18. Lead acid battery performance and cycle life increased through addition of discrete carbon nanotubes to both electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugumaran, Nanjan; Everill, Paul; Swogger, Steven W.; Dubey, D. P.

    2015-04-01

    Contemporary applications are changing the failure mechanisms of lead acid batteries. Sulfation at the negative electrode, acid stratification, and dendrite formation now precede positive electrode failures such as grid corrosion and active material shedding. To attenuate these failures, carbon has been explored as a negative electrode additive to increase charge acceptance, eliminate sulfation, and extend cycle life. Frequently, however, carbon incorporation decreases paste density and hinders manufacturability. Discrete carbon nanotubes (dCNT), also known as Molecular Rebar®, are lead acid battery additives which can be stably incorporated into either electrode to increase charge acceptance and cycle life with no change to paste density and without impeding the manufacturing process. Here, full-scale automotive batteries containing dCNT in the negative electrode or both negative and positive electrodes are compared to control batteries. dCNT batteries show little change to Reserve Capacity, improved Cold Cranking, increased charge acceptance, and enhanced overall system efficiency. Life cycle tests show >60% increases when dCNT are incorporated into the negative electrode (HRPSoC/SBA) and up to 500% when incorporated into both electrodes (SBA), with water loss per cycle reduced >20%. Failure modes of cycled batteries are discussed and a hypothesis of dCNT action is introduced: the dCNT/Had Overcharge Reaction Mechanism.

  19. Increasing the efficiency of CO/sub 2/ transverse electric atmospheric lasers by use of low ionization potential additives

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, C.H.B.; Fragnito, H.L.

    1981-02-01

    A method for increasing the efficiency of conventional CO/sub 2/ transverse electric atmospheric lasers is presented. We take advantage of the fact that by strongly doping the usual CO/sub 2/:N/sub 2/:He gas mixture with a low ionization potential additive, the plasma sustaining field can be suitably reduced to attain a value optimum for the excitation of the upper laser level of CO/sub 2/. We observed field reductions to as little as 20% of the reported value for the nondoped mixture. This permitted us to increase the CO/sub 2/ excitation efficiency by a factor of 2. We also observed that the laser operating efficiency was increased by reducing the helium concentration in the gas mixture.

  20. Long-term nitrogen additions increase likelihood of climate stress and affect recovery from wildfire in a lowland heath.

    PubMed

    Southon, Georgina E; Green, Emma R; Jones, Alan G; Barker, Chris G; Power, Sally A

    2012-09-01

    Increases in the emissions and associated atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) have the potential to cause significant changes to the structure and function of N-limited ecosystems. Here, we present the results of a long-term (13 year) experiment assessing the impacts of N addition (30 kg ha(-1)  yr(-1) ) on a UK lowland heathland under a wide range of environmental conditions, including the occurrence of prolonged natural drought episodes and a severe summer fire. Our findings indicate that elevated N deposition results in large, persistent effects on Calluna growth, phenology and chemistry, severe suppression of understorey lichen flora and changes in soil biogeochemistry. Growing season rainfall was found to be a strong driver of inter-annual variation in Calluna growth and, although interactions between N and rainfall for shoot growth were not significant until the later phase of the experiment, N addition exacerbated the extent of drought injury to Calluna shoots following naturally occurring droughts in 2003 and 2009. Following a severe wildfire at the experimental site in 2006, heathland regeneration dynamics were significantly affected by N, with a greater abundance of pioneering moss species and suppression of the lichen flora in plots receiving N additions. Significant interactions between climate and N were also apparent post fire, with the characteristic stimulation in Calluna growth in +N plots suppressed during dry years. Carbon (C) and N budgets demonstrate large increases in both above- and below-ground stocks of these elements in N-treated plots prior to the fire, despite higher levels of soil microbial activity and organic matter turnover. Although much of the organic material was removed during the fire, pre-existing treatment differences were still evident following the burn. Post fire accumulation of below-ground C and N stocks was increased rapidly in N-treated plots, highlighting the role of N deposition in ecosystem C sequestration

  1. Increased bioclogging and corrosion risk by sulfate addition during iodine recovery at a natural gas production plant.

    PubMed

    Lim, Choon-Ping; Zhao, Dan; Takase, Yuta; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Tomoko; Tomoe, Yasuyoshi; Tanji, Yasunori

    2011-02-01

    Iodine recovery at a natural gas production plant in Japan involved the addition of sulfuric acid for pH adjustment, resulting in an additional about 200 mg/L of sulfate in the waste brine after iodine recovery. Bioclogging occurred at the waste brine injection well, causing a decrease in well injectivity. To examine the factors that contribute to bioclogging, an on-site experiment was conducted by amending 10 L of brine with different conditions and then incubating the brine for 5 months under open air. The control case was exposed to open air but did not receive additional chemicals. When sulfate addition was coupled with low iodine, there was a drastic increase in the total amount of accumulated biomass (and subsequently the risk of bioclogging) that was nearly six times higher than the control. The bioclogging-associated corrosion rate of carbon steel was 84.5 μm/year, which is four times higher than that observed under other conditions. Analysis of the microbial communities by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the additional sulfate established a sulfur cycle and induced the growth of phototrophic bacteria, including cyanobacteria and purple bacteria. In the presence of sulfate and low iodine levels, cyanobacteria and purple bacteria bloomed, and the accumulation of abundant biomass may have created a more conducive environment for anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria. It is believed that the higher corrosion rate was caused by a differential aeration cell that was established by the heterogeneous distribution of the biomass that covered the surface of the test coupons. PMID:20922384

  2. How to interpret a small increase in AUC with an additional risk prediction marker: Decision analysis comes through

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Stuart G.; Schuit, Ewoud; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Pencina, Michael J.; Vickers, Andew; Moons, Karel G. M.; Mol, Ben W.J.; Lindeman, Karen S.

    2014-01-01

    An important question in the evaluation of an additional risk prediction marker is how to interpret a small increase in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Many researchers believe that a change in AUC is a poor metric because it increases only slightly with the addition of a marker with a large odds ratio. Because it is not possible on purely statistical grounds to choose between the odds ratio and AUC, we invoke decision analysis, which incorporates costs and benefits. For example a timely estimate of the risk of later non-elective operative delivery can help a woman in labor decide if she wants an early elective cesarean section to avoid greater complications from possible later non-elective operative delivery. A basic risk prediction model for later non-elective operative delivery involves only antepartum markers. Because adding intrapartum markers to this risk prediction model increases AUC by 0.02, we questioned whether this small improvement is worthwhile. A key decision-analytic quantity is the risk threshold, here the risk of later non-elective operative delivery at which a patient would be indifferent between an early elective cesarean section and usual care. For a range of risk thresholds, we found that an increase in the net benefit of risk prediction requires collecting intrapartum marker data on 68 to 124 women for every correct prediction of later non-elective operative delivery. Because data collection is non-invasive, this test tradeoff of 68 to 124 is clinically acceptable, indicating the value of adding intrapartum markers to the risk prediction model. PMID:24825728

  3. Meat and bone meal and mineral feed additives may increase the risk of oral prion disease transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; McKenzie, Debbie; Pedersen, Joel A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2011-01-01

    Ingestion of prion-contaminated materials is postulated to be a primary route of prion disease transmission. Binding of prions to soil (micro)particles dramatically enhances peroral disease transmission relative to unbound prions, and it was hypothesized that micrometer-sized particles present in other consumed materials may affect prion disease transmission via the oral route of exposure. Small, insoluble particles are present in many substances, including soil, human foods, pharmaceuticals, and animal feeds. It is known that meat and bone meal (MBM), a feed additive believed responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), contains particles smaller than 20 μm and that the pathogenic prion protein binds to MBM. The potentiation of disease transmission via the oral route by exposure to MBM or three micrometer-sized mineral feed additives was determined. Data showed that when the disease agent was bound to any of the tested materials, the penetrance of disease was increased compared to unbound prions. Our data suggest that in feed or other prion-contaminated substances consumed by animals or, potentially, humans, the addition of MBM or the presence of microparticles could heighten risks of prion disease acquisition.

  4. Meat and bone meal and mineral feed additives may increase the risk of oral prion disease transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; McKenzie, D.; Pedersen, J.A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2011-01-01

    Ingestion of prion-contaminated materials is postulated to be a primary route of prion disease transmission. Binding of prions to soil (micro)particles dramatically enhances peroral disease transmission relative to unbound prions, and it was hypothesized that micrometer-sized particles present in other consumed materials may affect prion disease transmission via the oral route of exposure. Small, insoluble particles are present in many substances, including soil, human foods, pharmaceuticals, and animal feeds. It is known that meat and bone meal (MBM), a feed additive believed responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), contains particles smaller than 20 ??m and that the pathogenic prion protein binds to MBM. The potentiation of disease transmission via the oral route by exposure to MBM or three micrometer-sized mineral feed additives was determined. Data showed that when the disease agent was bound to any of the tested materials, the penetrance of disease was increased compared to unbound prions. Our data suggest that in feed or other prion-contaminated substances consumed by animals or, potentially, humans, the addition of MBM or the presence of microparticles could heighten risks of prion disease acquisition. Copyright ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  5. A combination of exercise and capsinoid supplementation additively suppresses diet-induced obesity by increasing energy expenditure in mice.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Kana; Nogusa, Yoshihito; Suzuki, Katsuya; Shinoda, Kosaku; Kajimura, Shingo; Bannai, Makoto

    2015-02-15

    Exercise effectively prevents the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Capsinoids (CSNs) are capsaicin analogs found in a nonpungent pepper that increase whole body energy expenditure. Although both exercise and CSNs have antiobesity functions, the effectiveness of exercise with CSN supplementation has not yet been investigated. Here, we examined whether the beneficial effects of exercise could be further enhanced by CSN supplementation in mice. Mice were randomly assigned to four groups: 1) high-fat diet (HFD, Control), 2) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs, 3) HFD with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise), and 4) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise + CSN). After 8 wk of ingestion, blood and tissues were collected and analyzed. Although CSNs significantly suppressed body weight gain under the HFD, CSN supplementation with exercise additively decreased body weight gain and fat accumulation and increased whole body energy expenditure compared with exercise alone. Exercise together with CSN supplementation robustly improved metabolic profiles, including the plasma cholesterol level. Furthermore, this combination significantly prevented diet-induced liver steatosis and decreased the size of adipocyte cells in white adipose tissue. Exercise and CSNs significantly increased cAMP levels and PKA activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT), indicating an increase of lipolysis. Moreover, they significantly activated both the oxidative phosphorylation gene program and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that CSNs efficiently promote the antiobesity effect of exercise, in part by increasing energy expenditure via the activation of fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and lipolysis in BAT. PMID:25516550

  6. Selection for increased desiccation resistance in Drosophila melanogaster: Additive genetic control and correlated responses for other stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, A.A.; Parsons, P.A. )

    1989-08-01

    Previously we found that Drosophila melanogaster lines selected for increased desiccation resistance have lowered metabolic rate and behavioral activity levels, and show correlated responses for resistance to starvation and a toxic ethanol level. These results were consistent with a prediction that increased resistance to many environmental stresses may be genetically correlated because of a reduction in metabolic energy expenditure. Here we present experiments on the genetic basis of the selection response and extend the study of correlated responses to other stresses. The response to selection was not sex-specific and involved X-linked and autosomal genes acting additively. Activity differences contributed little to differences in desiccation resistance between selected and control lines. Selected lines had lower metabolic rates than controls in darkness when activity was inhibited. Adults from selected lines showed increased resistance to a heat shock, {sup 60}Co-gamma-radiation, and acute ethanol and acetic acid stress. The desiccation, ethanol and starvation resistance of isofemale lines set up from the F2s of a cross between one of the selected and one of the control lines were correlated. Selected and control lines did not differ in ether-extractable lipid content or in resistance to acetone, ether or a cold shock.

  7. Selection and optimization of transfection enhancer additives for increased virus-like particle production in HEK293 suspension cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Cervera, Laura; Fuenmayor, Javier; González-Domínguez, Irene; Gutiérrez-Granados, Sonia; Segura, Maria Mercedes; Gòdia, Francesc

    2015-12-01

    The manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals in mammalian cells typically relies on the use of stable producer cell lines. However, in recent years, transient gene expression has emerged as a suitable technology for rapid production of biopharmaceuticals. Transient gene expression is particularly well suited for early developmental phases, where several potential therapeutic targets need to be produced and tested in vivo. As a relatively new bioprocessing modality, a number of opportunities exist for improving cell culture productivity upon transient transfection. For instance, several compounds have shown positive effects on transient gene expression. These transfection enhancers either facilitate entry of PEI/DNA transfection complexes into the cell or nucleus or increase levels of gene expression. In this work, the potential of combining transfection enhancers to increase Gag-based virus-like particle production levels upon transfection of suspension-growing HEK 293 cells is evaluated. Using Plackett-Burman design of experiments, it is first tested the effect of eight transfection enhancers: trichostatin A, valproic acid, sodium butyrate, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), lithium acetate, caffeine, hydroxyurea, and nocodazole. An optimal combination of compounds exhibiting the highest effect on gene expression levels was subsequently identified using a surface response experimental design. The optimal consisted on the addition of 20 mM lithium acetate, 3.36 mM valproic acid, and 5.04 mM caffeine which increased VLP production levels 3.8-fold, while maintaining cell culture viability at 94%. PMID:26278533

  8. Anaerobic Codigestion of Sludge: Addition of Butcher’s Fat Waste as a Cosubstrate for Increasing Biogas Production

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, E. J.; Gil, M. V.; Fernandez, C.; Rosas, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Fat waste discarded from butcheries was used as a cosubstrate in the anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge (SS). The process was evaluated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The codigestion was successfully attained despite some inhibitory stages initially present that had their origin in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and adsorption of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). The addition of a fat waste improved digestion stability and increased biogas yields thanks to the higher organic loading rate (OLR) applied to the reactors. However, thermophilic digestion was characterized by an effluent of poor quality and high VFA content. Results from spectroscopic analysis suggested the adsorption of lipid components onto the anaerobic biomass, thus disturbing the complete degradation of substrate during the treatment. The formation of fatty aggregates in the thermophilic reactor prevented process failure by avoiding the exposure of biomass to the toxic effect of high LCFA concentrations. PMID:27071074

  9. Demographic population model for American shad: will access to additional habitat upstream of dams increase population sizes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima are in decline in their native range, and modeling possible management scenarios could help guide their restoration. We developed a density-dependent, deterministic, stage-based matrix model to predict the population-level results of transporting American shad to suitable spawning habitat upstream of dams on the Roanoke River, North Carolina and Virginia. We used data on sonic-tagged adult American shad and oxytetracycline-marked American shad fry both above and below dams on the Roanoke River with information from other systems to estimate a starting population size and vital rates. We modeled the adult female population over 30 years under plausible scenarios of adult transport, effective fecundity (egg production), and survival of adults (i.e., to return to spawn the next year) and juveniles (from spawned egg to age 1). We also evaluated the potential effects of increased survival for adults and juveniles. The adult female population size in the Roanoke River was estimated to be 5,224. With no transport, the model predicted a slow population increase over the next 30 years. Predicted population increases were highest when survival was improved during the first year of life. Transport was predicted to benefit the population only if high rates of effective fecundity and juvenile survival could be achieved. Currently, transported adults and young are less likely to successfully out-migrate than individuals below the dams, and the estimated adult population size is much smaller than either of two assumed values of carrying capacity for the lower river; therefore, transport is not predicted to help restore the stock under present conditions. Research on survival rates, density-dependent processes, and the impacts of structures to increase out-migration success would improve evaluation of the potential benefits of access to additional spawning habitat for American shad.

  10. Effectiveness of nitrate addition and increased oil content as methane mitigation strategies for beef cattle fed two contrasting basal diets.

    PubMed

    Troy, S M; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Roehe, R; Ross, D W; Wallace, R J; Waterhouse, A; Rooke, J A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of (1) the addition of nitrate and (2) an increase in dietary oil on methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) emissions from 2 breeds (cross-bred Charolais and purebred Luing) of finishing beef cattle receiving 2 contrasting basal diets consisting (grams per kilogram DM) of 500:500 (Mixed) and 80:920 (Concentrate) forage to concentrate ratios. Within each basal diet there were 3 treatments: (i) control treatments (mixed-CTL and concentrate-CTL) contained rapeseed meal as the protein source, which was replaced with either (ii) calcium nitrate (mixed-NIT and concentrate-NIT) supplying 21.5 g nitrate/kg DM, or (iii) rapeseed cake (mixed-RSC and concentrate-RSC) to increase dietary oil from 27 (CTL) to 53 g/kg DM (RSC). Following adaption to diets, CH4 and H2 emissions were measured on 1 occasion from each of the 76 steers over a 13-wk period. Dry matter intakes tended (P = 0.051) to be greater for the concentrate diet than the mixed diet; however, when expressed as grams DMI per kilogram BW, there was no difference between diets (P = 0.41). Dry matter intakes for NIT or RSC did not differ from CTL. Steers fed a concentrate diet produced less CH4 and H2 than those fed a mixed diet (P < 0.001). Molar proportions of acetate (P < 0.001) and butyrate (P < 0.01) were lower and propionate (P < 0.001) and valerate (P < 0.05) higher in the rumen fluid from steers fed the concentrate diet. For the mixed diet, CH4 yield (grams per kilogram DMI) was decreased by 17% when nitrate was added (P < 0.01), while H2 yield increased by 160% (P < 0.001). The addition of RSC to the mixed diet decreased CH4 yield by 7.5% (P = 0.18). However, for the concentrate diet neither addition of nitrate (P = 0.65) nor increasing dietary oil content (P = 0.46) decreased CH4 yield compared to concentrate-CTL. Molar proportions of acetate were higher (P < 0.001) and those of propionate lower (P < 0.01) in rumen fluid from NIT treatments compared to

  11. Formation Of Transparent Exopolymeric Particles (TEP) In Mesocosms Under Increasing Turbulence Levels With And Without Additional Nutrients.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauvais, S.; Pedrotti, Ml.

    Transparent Exopolymeric Particles (TEP) are formed abiotically by spontaneous co- agulation of the colloidal fraction of dissolved organic polysaccharides released via phytoplankton and bacteria exudation. Their importance in the vertical fluxes of or- ganic matter in coastal and pelagic ecosystems is now well recognised. However, their production as a function of the environment features has yet to be investigated. Evolu- tion of TEP formation was followed during a two week mesocosm experiment under 4 several turbulence levels and with or without added nutrients. This study was per- formed in the framework of EC-ELOISE-NATP project. The results showed a rapid formation of TEP 24h after the phytoplankton bloom occurred. This suggests that TEP consist of fresh organic material, derived from biological process, such as phyto- plankton blooms. Their abundance increased with time in mesocosms with additional nutrients indicating that phytoplankton cells were actively exuding the precursors. The C/N ratio of particualte organic matter (POM) in mesocosms enriched with nutrients was highly correlated with TEP abundance, it confirms that TEP can have a strong impact on the biogeochemical fluxes in oceans, in particular on the carbon cycle. TEP were more abundant in the mesocosms with the highest turbulence intensity. It sug- gests that the effect of turbulence could promote encounter rates between particles increasing coagulation processes. Even if biological processes are of primary impor- tance in TEP production, this study also highlights the role of physical processes in their formation dynamics. The role of TEP in the microbial food web will be also discussed.

  12. Tissue-specific factors additively increase the probability of the all-or-none formation of a hypersensitive site.

    PubMed Central

    Boyes, J; Felsenfeld, G

    1996-01-01

    DNase I-hypersensitive sites lack a canonical nucleosome and have binding sites for various transcription factors. To understand how the hypersensitivity is generated and maintained, we studied the chicken erythroid-specific beta(A)/epsilon globin gene enhancer, a region where both tissue-specific and ubiquitous transcription factors can bind. Constructions containing mutations of this enhancer were stably introduced into a chicken erythroid cell line. We found that the hypersensitivity was determined primarily by the erythroid factors and that their binding additively increased the accessibility. The fraction of accessible sites in clonal cell lines was quantitated using restriction endonucleases; these data implied that the formation of each hypersensitive site was an all-or-none phenomenon. Use of DNase I and micrococcal nuclease probes further indicated that the size of the hypersensitive site was influenced by the binding of transcription factors which then determined the length of the nucleosome-free gap. Our data are consistent with a model in which hypersensitive sites are generated stochastically: mutations that reduce the number of bound factors reduce the probability that these factors will prevail over a nucleosome; thus, the fraction of sites in the population that are accessible is also diminished. Images PMID:8665857

  13. Aging as an evolvability-increasing program which can be switched off by organism to mobilize additional resources for survival.

    PubMed

    Skulachev, Maxim V; Severin, Fedor F; Skulachev, Vladimir P

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, several pieces of convincing evidence were published indicating that aging of living organisms is programmed, being a particular case of programmed death of organism (phenoptosis). Among them, the following observations can be mentioned. (1) Species were described that show negligible aging. In mammals, the naked mole rat is the most impressive example. This is a rodent of mouse size living at least 10-fold longer than a mouse and having fecundity higher than a mouse and no agerelated diseases. (2) In some species with high aging rate, genes responsible for active organization of aging by poisoning of the organism with endogenous metabolites have been identified. (3) In women, standard deviations divided by the mean are the same for age of menarche (an event controlled by the ontogenetic program) and for age of menopause (an aging-related event). (4) Inhibitors of programmed cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) retard and in certain cases even reverse the development of age-dependent pathologies. (5) In aging species, the rate of aging is regulated by the individual which responds by changes in this rate to changes in the environmental conditions. In this review, we consider point (5) in detail. Data are summarized suggesting that inhibition of aging rate by moderate food restriction can be explained assuming that such restriction is perceived by the organism as a signal of future starvation. In response to this dramatic signal, the organism switches off such an optional program as aging, mobilizing in such a way additional reserves for survival. A similar explanation is postulated for geroprotective effects of heavy muscle work, a lowering or a rise in the external temperature, small amounts of metabolic poisons (hormesis), low doses of radiation, and other deleterious events. On the contrary, sometimes certain positive signals can prolong life by inhibiting the aging program in individuals who are useful for the community (e

  14. Addition of 5-fluorouracil to doxorubicin-paclitaxel sequence increases caspase-dependent apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Zoli, Wainer; Ulivi, Paola; Tesei, Anna; Fabbri, Francesco; Rosetti, Marco; Maltoni, Roberta; Giunchi, Donata Casadei; Ricotti, Luca; Brigliadori, Giovanni; Vannini, Ivan; Amadori, Dino

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of a combination of doxorubicin (Dox), paclitaxel (Pacl) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), to define the most effective schedule, and to investigate the mechanisms of action in human breast cancer cells. Methods The study was performed on MCF-7 and BRC-230 cell lines. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated by sulphorhodamine B assay and the type of drug interaction was assessed by the median effect principle. Cell cycle perturbation and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry, and apoptosis-related marker (p53, bcl-2, bax, p21), caspase and thymidylate synthase (TS) expression were assessed by western blot. Results 5-FU, used as a single agent, exerted a low cytotoxic activity in both cell lines. The Dox→Pacl sequence produced a synergistic cytocidal effect and enhanced the efficacy of subsequent exposure to 5-FU in both cell lines. Specifically, the Dox→Pacl sequence blocked cells in the G2-M phase, and the addition of 5-FU forced the cells to progress through the cell cycle or killed them. Furthermore, Dox→Pacl pretreatment produced a significant reduction in basal TS expression in both cell lines, probably favoring the increase in 5-FU activity. The sequence Dox→Pacl→48-h washout→5-FU produced a synergistic and highly schedule-dependent interaction (combination index < 1), resulting in an induction of apoptosis in both experimental models regardless of hormonal, p53, bcl-2 or bax status. Apoptosis in MCF-7 cells was induced through caspase-9 activation and anti-apoptosis-inducing factor hyperexpression. In the BRC-230 cell line, the apoptotic process was triggered only by a caspase-dependent mechanism. In particular, at the end of the three-drug treatment, caspase-8 activation triggered downstream executioner caspase-3 and, to a lesser degree, caspase-7. Conclusion In our experimental models, characterized by different biomolecular profiles representing the different biology of human breast

  15. Application of copper nanoparticles as additions to a grinding fluid to increase the quality of grinding of magnetic ceramic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krevchik, V. D.; Skryabin, V. A.; Sokolov, A. V.; Men'shova, S. B.; Artemov, I. I.; Prokof'ev, M. V.; Karasev, N. Ya.

    2015-12-01

    The influence of copper nanoparticles in a grinding fluid (GF) used for grinding on the characteristics of the surface layer of ferrite parts and their service properties is studied. Profilograms of the ground surfaces and their roughness are measured. The electromagnetic losses of 10000NN ferrite parts ground in an GF medium with copper nanoparticles are estimated. The use of metal nanoparticles as additions to a grinding fluid is shown to be useful for processing of brittle nonmetallic materials.

  16. Increase in complexation ability of humic acids with the addition of ligneous bulking agents during sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiong; Yan-Xia, Li; Ming, Yang; Feng-Song, Zhang; Wei, Li

    2010-12-01

    Wood sawdust and maize straw were selected to co-compost sewage sludge to investigate the effects of organic bulking agents on the formation and molecular transformation of humic substances. The results showed that composting process increased humic acids (HA) while decreased fulvic acids (FA), and the wood sawdust and maize straw promoted the formation of HA by 25.6% and 16.1%, respectively. Results from fluorescence titration demonstrated that organic bulking agents also increased the binding ability of HA with the heavy metal ions, Cu(II) and Cd(II), but had little influence on that of FA. These findings indicate that organic materials especially wood sawdust may be used as bulking agents to reduce the mobility and bioavailability of toxic metals in solid waste composts. PMID:20724147

  17. Enhanced bacterial decomposition with increasing addition of autochthonous to allochthonous carbon without any effect on bacterial community composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attermeyer, K.; Hornick, T.; Kayler, Z. E.; Bahr, A.; Zwirnmann, E.; Grossart, H.-P.; Premke, K.

    2014-03-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations - mainly of terrestrial origin - are increasing worldwide in inland waters. Heterotrophic bacteria are the main consumers of DOC and thus determine DOC temporal dynamics and availability for higher trophic levels. Our aim was to study bacterial carbon (C) turnover with respect to DOC quantity and chemical quality using both allochthonous and autochthonous DOC sources. We incubated a natural bacterial community with allochthonous C (13C-labeled beech leachate) and increased concentrations and pulses (intermittent occurrence of organic matter input) of autochthonous C (phytoplankton lysate). We then determined bacterial C consumption, activities, and community composition together with the C flow through bacteria using stable C isotopes. The chemical analysis of single sources revealed differences in aromaticity and low- and high-molecular-weight substance fractions (LMWS and HMWS, respectively) between allochthonous and autochthonous C sources. Both DOC sources (allochthonous and autochthonous DOC) were metabolized at a high bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) around 50%. In treatments with mixed sources, rising concentrations of added autochthonous DOC resulted in a further, significant increase in bacterial DOC consumption of up to 68% when nutrients were not limiting. This rise was accompanied by a decrease in the humic substance (HS) fraction and an increase in bacterial biomass. Changes in DOC concentration and consumption in mixed treatments did not affect bacterial community composition (BCC), but BCC differed in single vs. mixed incubations. Our study highlights that DOC quantity affects bacterial C consumption but not BCC in nutrient-rich aquatic systems. BCC shifted when a mixture of allochthonous and autochthonous C was provided simultaneously to the bacterial community. Our results indicate that chemical quality rather than source of DOC per se (allochthonous vs. autochthonous) determines bacterial DOC turnover.

  18. Increased Understanding of Watershed Dynamics through the Addition of Stream and Groundwater Temperature Monitoring at USGS Groundwater Streamgages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. E.; Caldwell, R.; Barlow, J.; Constantz, J. E.; Wheeler, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Temporal and spatial variations of streamflow, stream temperature, groundwater recharge/discharge areas, and groundwater temperature are primarily controlled by localized climatic conditions within watersheds. Many watershed components, including stream/groundwater exchanges, can be tracked using temperature patterns, and due to the hydrologic information gained through the use of temperature monitoring, the USGS has increasingly included continuous (15 minute) stream temperature data along with continuous stream stage (elevation) at many streamgages nationwide over the past 25 years. To advance the localized understanding of recharge and discharge patterns near streams, the use of continuous water-temperature monitoring was extended to include the groundwater component of hydrologic systems with the development of USGS Groundwater Streamgage (Eddy-Miller et al., 2012, USGS Fact Sheet 2012-3054). The necessary and sufficient parameters of a basic USGS Groundwater Streamgage are: stream stage, stream temperature, groundwater elevation and groundwater temperature (http://wy-mt.water.usgs.gov/projects/ogw/index.htm), with availability for add-on parameters (e.g., electrical conductivity) as appropriate. The ability to evaluate stream and groundwater hydrographs simultaneously with their thermographs permits detailed analysis of continuous stream exchanges with nearby groundwater, and for example, if a specific stream reach is a groundwater discharge or recharge area on a specific day or over a seasonal or on a decadal scale. There are numerous case-specific advantages available using this four-parameter approach in watersheds; for example, determination whether a rise in the water table is induced by increases in overpressure or rather by groundwater recharge may be determined by analyzing whether the corresponding groundwater temperature changes, which indicates groundwater recharge. Several visual examples are provided to detail methods in which USGS Groundwater

  19. Sulfate reduction in sulfuric material after re-flooding: Effectiveness of organic carbon addition and pH increase depends on soil properties.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chaolei; Fitzpatrick, Rob; Mosley, Luke M; Marschner, Petra

    2015-11-15

    Sulfuric material is formed upon oxidation of sulfidic material; it is extremely acidic, and therefore, an environmental hazard. One option for increasing pH of sulfuric material may be stimulation of bacterial sulfate reduction. We investigated the effects of organic carbon addition and pH increase on sulfate reduction after re-flooding in ten sulfuric materials with four treatments: control, pH increase to 5.5 (+pH), organic carbon addition with 2% w/w finely ground wheat straw (+C), and organic carbon addition and pH increase (+C+pH). After 36 weeks, in five of the ten soils, only treatment +C+pH significantly increased the concentration of reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) compared to the control and increased the soil pore water pH compared to treatment+pH. In four other soils, pH increase or/and organic carbon addition had no significant effect on RIS concentration compared to the control. The RIS concentration in treatment +C+pH as percentage of the control was negatively correlated with soil clay content and initial nitrate concentration. The results suggest that organic carbon addition and pH increase can stimulate sulfate reduction after re-flooding, but the effectiveness of this treatment depends on soil properties. PMID:26024614

  20. Influence of additives on the increase of the heating value of Bayah’s coal with upgrading brown coal (UBC) method

    SciTech Connect

    Heriyanto, Heri; Widya Ernayati, K.; Umam, Chairul; Margareta, Nita

    2015-12-29

    UBC (upgrading brown coal) is a method of improving the quality of coal by using oil as an additive. Through processing in the oil media, not just the calories that increase, but there is also water repellent properties and a decrease in the tendency of spontaneous combustion of coal products produced. The results showed a decrease in the water levels of natural coal bayah reached 69%, increase in calorific value reached 21.2%. Increased caloric value and reduced water content caused by the water molecules on replacing seal the pores of coal by oil and atoms C on the oil that is bound to increase the percentage of coal carbon. As a result of this experiment is, the produced coal has better calorific value, the increasing of this new calorific value up to 23.8% with the additive waste lubricant, and the moisture content reduced up to 69.45%.

  1. Surface roughness-induced speed increase for active Janus micromotors† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc01607j Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Udit; Soler, Lluís; Gibbs, John G.; Fischer, Peer

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple physical fabrication method to control surface roughness of Janus micromotors and fabricate self-propelled active Janus microparticles with rough catalytic platinum surfaces that show a four-fold increase in their propulsion speed compared to conventional Janus particles coated with a smooth Pt layer. PMID:25905919

  2. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans. PMID:25179942

  3. Increases in soil aggregation following phosphorus additions in a tropical premontane forest are not driven by root and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camenzind, Tessa; Papathanasiou, Helena; Foerster, Antje; Dietrich, Karla; Hertel, Dietrich; Homeier, Juergen; Oelmann, Yvonne; Olsson, Pål Axel; Suárez, Juan; Rillig, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    Tropical ecosystems have an important role in global change scenarios, in part because they serve as a large terrestrial carbon pool. Carbon protection is mediated by soil aggregation processes, whereby biotic and abiotic factors influence the formation and stability of aggregates. Nutrient additions may affect soil structure indirectly by simultaneous shifts in biotic factors, mainly roots and fungal hyphae, but also via impacts on abiotic soil properties. Here, we tested the hypothesis that soil aggregation will be affected by nutrient additions primarily via changes in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) hyphae and root length in a pristine tropical forest system. Therefore, the percentage of water-stable macroaggregates (> 250µm) (WSA) and the soil mean weight diameter (MWD) was analyzed, as well as nutrient contents, pH, root length and AMF abundance. Phosphorus additions significantly increased the amount of WSA, which was consistent across two different sampling times. Despite a positive effect of phosphorus additions on extraradical AMF biomass, no relationship between WSA and extra-radical AMF nor roots was revealed by regression analyses, contrary to the proposed hypothesis. These findings emphasize the importance of analyzing soil structure in understudied tropical systems, since it might be affected by increasing nutrient deposition expected in the future.

  4. Addition of dimethylsulphoxide to methyl-tert-butyl ether and ethyl propionate increases cholesterol dissolving capacity and cholesterol gall stone dissolution in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, J J; Groen, A K; Huibregtse, K; Tytgat, G N

    1994-01-01

    There is a discrepancy between in vitro cholesterol dissolving efficacy of methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl propionate and cholesterol gall stone dissolution in vivo. This study investigated whether the presence of bile changes the cholesterol dissolving capacity of MTBE and ethyl propionate. The addition of dimethylsulphoxide to MTBE or ethyl propionate was also studied to discover if it improves the dissolving capacity for cholesterol gall stones. The presence of bile caused a 25% decrease in cholesterol dissolving capacity of both MTBE and ethyl propionate (p < 0.0001). This inhibitory effect of bile could be overcome by the addition of dimethyl-sulphoxide: dimethylsulphoxide caused an increase in cholesterol dissolving capacity of MTBE and ethyl propionate, the increase depending on the dimethyl-sulphoxide/bile ratio in the mixture. Mean dissolution time of weight, size, and patient matched cholesterol gall stones was 220 minutes in MTBE and 130 minutes in MTBE/dimethylsulphoxide (p < 0.0001). No stones dissolved completely in ethyl propionate or ethyl propionate/dimethyl-sulphoxide within 300 minutes. In conclusion, MTBE/dimethylsulphoxide is a more potent dissolving agent for cholesterol gall stones than MTBE, giving a 40% reduction in dissolution time. Addition of dimethylsulphoxide to ethyl propionate does not result in faster stone dissolution. MTBE and MTBE/dimethylsulphoxide are far superior to ethyl propionate as solvents for cholesterol gall stones. PMID:7828992

  5. Pre- and post-experimental manipulation assessments confirm the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes

    PubMed Central

    Cuatianquiz Lima, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Secondary cavity nesting (SCN) birds breed in holes that they do not excavate themselves. This is possible where there are large trees whose size and age permit the digging of holes by primary excavators and only rarely happens in forest plantations, where we expected a deficit of both breeding holes and SCN species. We assessed whether the availability of tree cavities influenced the number of SCNs in two temperate forest types, and evaluated the change in number of SCNs after adding nest boxes. First, we counted all cavities within each of our 25-m radius sampling points in mature and young forest plots during 2009. We then added nest boxes at standardised locations during 2010 and 2011 and conducted fortnightly bird counts (January–October 2009–2011). In 2011 we added two extra plots of each forest type, where we also conducted bird counts. Prior to adding nest boxes, counts revealed more SCNs in mature than in young forest. Following the addition of nest boxes, the number of SCNs increased significantly in the points with nest boxes in both types of forest. Counts in 2011 confirmed the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes. Given the likely benefits associated with a richer bird community we propose that, as is routinely done in some countries, forest management programs preserve old tree stumps and add nest boxes to forest plantations in order to increase bird numbers and bird community diversity. PMID:26998410

  6. Calcium addition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest increases sugar storage, antioxidant activity and cold tolerance in native red spruce (Picea rubens).

    PubMed

    Halman, Joshua M; Schaberg, Paul G; Hawley, Gary J; Eagar, Christopher

    2008-06-01

    In fall (November 2005) and winter (February 2006), we collected current-year foliage of native red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) growing in a reference watershed and in a watershed treated in 1999 with wollastonite (CaSiO(3), a slow-release calcium source) to simulate preindustrial soil calcium concentrations (Ca-addition watershed) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (Thornton, NH). We analyzed nutrition, soluble sugar concentrations, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity and cold tolerance, to evaluate the basis of recent (2003) differences between watersheds in red spruce foliar winter injury. Foliar Ca and total sugar concentrations were significantly higher in trees in the Ca-addition watershed than in trees in the reference watershed during both fall (P=0.037 and 0.035, respectively) and winter (P=0.055 and 0.036, respectively). The Ca-addition treatment significantly increased foliar fructose and glucose concentrations in November (P=0.013 and 0.007, respectively) and foliar sucrose concentrations in winter (P=0.040). Foliar APX activity was similar in trees in both watersheds during fall (P=0.28), but higher in trees in the Ca-addition watershed during winter (P=0.063). Cold tolerance of foliage was significantly greater in trees in the Ca-addition watershed than in trees in the reference watershed (P<0.001). Our results suggest that low foliar sugar concentrations and APX activity, and reduced cold tolerance in trees in the reference watershed contributed to their high vulnerability to winter injury in 2003. Because the reference watershed reflects forest conditions in the region, the consequences of impaired physiological function caused by soil Ca depletion may have widespread implications for forest health. PMID:18381266

  7. Increase in the carbohydrate content of the microalgae Spirulina in culture by nutrient starvation and the addition of residues of whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Vieira Salla, Ana Cláudia; Margarites, Ana Cláudia; Seibel, Fábio Ivan; Holz, Luiz Carlos; Brião, Vandré Barbosa; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Colla, Luciane Maria; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Non-renewable sources that will end with time are the largest part of world energy consumption, which emphasizes the necessity to develop renewable sources of energy. This necessity has created opportunities for the use of microalgae as a biofuel. The use of microalgae as a feedstock source for bioethanol production requires high yields of both biomass and carbohydrates. With mixotrophic cultures, wastewater can be used to culture algae. The aim of the study was to increase the carbohydrate content in the microalgae Spirulina with the additions of residues from the ultra and nanofiltration of whey protein. The nutrient deficit in the Zarrouk medium diluted to 20% and the addition of 2.5% of both residue types led to high carbohydrate productivity (60 mg L(-1) d(-1)). With these culture conditions, the increase in carbohydrate production in Spirulina indicated that the conditions were appropriate for use with microalgae as a feedstock in the production of bioethanol. PMID:26967336

  8. Simvastatin and t-butylhydroquinone suppress KLF1 and BCL11A gene expression and additively increase fetal hemoglobin in primary human erythroid cells

    PubMed Central

    Macari, Elizabeth R.; Schaeffer, Emily K.; West, Rachel J.

    2013-01-01

    Although increased fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels have proven benefit for people with β-hemoglobinopathies, all current HbF-inducing agents have limitations. We previously reported that drugs that activate the NRF2 antioxidant response signaling pathway increase HbF in primary human erythroid cells. In an attempt to increase HbF levels achieved with NRF2 activators, in the present study, we investigated potential complementary activity between these agents and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) based on their ability to induce KLF2 protein levels. Experiments in K562 cells showed that simvastatin increased KLF2 mRNA and protein and KLF2 binding to HS2 of the β-globin locus control region and enhanced γ-globin mRNA production by the NRF2 activator Tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ). When tested in differentiating primary human erythroid cells, simvastatin induced HbF alone and additively with tBHQ, but it did not increase KLF2 mRNA or locus control region binding above levels seen with normal differentiation. Investigating alternative mechanisms of action, we found that both simvastatin and tBHQ suppress β-globin mRNA and KLF1 and BCL11A mRNA and protein, similar to what is seen in people with an HPFH phenotype because of KLF1 haploinsufficiency. These findings identify statins as a potential class of HbF-inducing agents and suggest a novel mechanism of action based on pharmacologic suppression of KLF1 and BCL11A gene expression. PMID:23223429

  9. Increasing the sensitivity of PCR detection in bovine preputial smegma spiked with Tritrichomonas foetus by the addition of agar and resin.

    PubMed

    Chen, X G; Li, J

    2001-07-01

    Methods for the extraction of DNA from the preputial smegma of cattle infected with Tritrichomonas foetus for the purposes of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection are usually time-consuming, relatively insensitive and require hazardous chemicals. In order to solve these problems, we have developed a rapid, sensitive and harmless method to extract quality DNA from preputial smegma spiked with T. foetus. Results indicate that the addition of 5% Chelex-100 resin and 0.05% agar solution to the spiked smegma before the process of DNA extraction by the boiling method can significantly increase the sensitivity of PCR detection. This improved method may be suitable for routine DNA extraction for the diagnosis of cattle and even human trichomoniasis by PCR. PMID:11484853

  10. Replication of a Gene-Environment Interaction via Multimodel Inference: Additive-Genetic Variance in Adolescents’ General Cognitive Ability Increases with Family-of-Origin Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2015-01-01

    The present study of general cognitive ability attempts to replicate and extend previous investigations of a biometric moderator, family-of-origin socioeconomic status (SES), in a sample of 2,494 pairs of adolescent twins, non-twin biological siblings, and adoptive siblings assessed with individually administered IQ tests. We hypothesized that SES would covary positively with additive-genetic variance and negatively with shared-environmental variance. Important potential confounds unaddressed in some past studies, such as twin-specific effects, assortative mating, and differential heritability by trait level, were found to be negligible. In our main analysis, we compared models by their sample-size corrected AIC, and base our statistical inference on model-averaged point estimates and standard errors. Additive-genetic variance increased with SES—an effect that was statistically significant and robust to model specification. We found no evidence that SES moderated shared-environmental influence. We attempt to explain the inconsistent replication record of these effects, and provide suggestions for future research. PMID:25539975

  11. Replication of a gene-environment interaction Via Multimodel inference: additive-genetic variance in adolescents' general cognitive ability increases with family-of-origin socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2015-03-01

    The present study of general cognitive ability attempts to replicate and extend previous investigations of a biometric moderator, family-of-origin socioeconomic status (SES), in a sample of 2,494 pairs of adolescent twins, non-twin biological siblings, and adoptive siblings assessed with individually administered IQ tests. We hypothesized that SES would covary positively with additive-genetic variance and negatively with shared-environmental variance. Important potential confounds unaddressed in some past studies, such as twin-specific effects, assortative mating, and differential heritability by trait level, were found to be negligible. In our main analysis, we compared models by their sample-size corrected AIC, and base our statistical inference on model-averaged point estimates and standard errors. Additive-genetic variance increased with SES-an effect that was statistically significant and robust to model specification. We found no evidence that SES moderated shared-environmental influence. We attempt to explain the inconsistent replication record of these effects, and provide suggestions for future research. PMID:25539975

  12. Increased potency of BioThrax anthrax vaccine with the addition of the C-class CpG oligonucleotide adjuvant CPG 10109.

    PubMed

    Gu, Mili; Hine, Paul M; James Jackson, W; Giri, Lallan; Nabors, Gary S

    2007-01-01

    The inclusion of an adjuvant, in addition to the existing aluminum hydroxide, in the formulation of the licensed anthrax vaccine BioThrax may have the potential to positively modify immune responses. Some potential desirable outcomes from the inclusion of an additional adjuvant include increased immune response kinetics, increased response rates, more prolonged antibody decay rates, and the ability to use less antigen per dose or fewer doses to achieve immunity. One promising group of adjuvants that is being investigated with a variety of vaccines and which has been shown to cause many of these effects are oligonucleotides which contain unmethylated CpG motifs. The C-class oligonucleotide CPG 10109, constructed of a mixed phosphorothioate/phosphodiester backbone and containing 3 CpG motifs, was added to various dilutions of BioThrax and used in mouse and guinea pig immunogenicity studies. Anti-protective antigen (PA) IgG ELISAs and the anthrax toxin neutralization assay (TNA) were performed on serum samples from both species. Anti-PA IgG and TNA responses were approximately 10-fold higher after a single dose of undiluted or diluted BioThrax upon addition of 100 microg CPG 10109 in the mouse regardless of the route of immunization. Responses were also significantly greater in the guinea pig after receiving CpG-adjuvanted undiluted BioThrax or CpG-adjuvanted BioThrax diluted 1:5, 1:10 or 1:30 compared to those achieved with BioThrax alone. A guinea pig spore challenge study showed that a single injection of BioThrax vaccine diluted 1:10 in the presence of 25 microg CPG 10109 was as protective as undiluted BioThrax, whereas a single injection of BioThrax diluted 1:10 was not protective. Taken together with the results from the immunogenicity studies, these results suggest that a CpG adjuvant could be used to reduce the dose of active ingredient required to elicit a protective response, and could lead to improved immune response kinetics. PMID:16973247

  13. Addition of a Single gp120 Glycan Confers Increased Binding to Dendritic Cell-Specific ICAM-3-Grabbing Nonintegrin and Neutralization Escape to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Lue, James; Hsu, Mayla; Yang, David; Marx, Preston; Chen, Zhiwei; Cheng-Mayer, Cecilia

    2002-01-01

    The potential role of dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) binding in human immunodeficiency virus transmission across the mucosal barrier was investigated by assessing the ability of simian-human immunodeficiency chimeric viruses (SHIVs) showing varying degrees of mucosal transmissibility to bind the DC-SIGN expressed on the surface of transfected cells. We found that gp120 of the highly transmissible, pathogenic CCR5-tropic SHIVSF162P3 bound human and rhesus DC-SIGN with an efficiency threefold or greater than that of gp120 of the nonpathogenic, poorly transmissible parental SHIVSF162, and this increase in binding to the DC-SIGN of the SHIVSF162P3 envelope gp120 translated into an enhancement of T-cell infection in trans. The presence of an additional glycan at the N-terminal base of the V2 loop of SHIVSF162P3 gp120 compared to that of the parental virus was shown to be responsible for the increase in binding to DC-SIGN. Interestingly, this glycan also conferred escape from autologous neutralization, raising the possibility that the modification occurred as a result of immune selection. Our data suggest that more-efficient binding of envelope gp120 to DC-SIGN could be relevant to the enhanced mucosal transmissibility of SHIVSF162P3 compared to that of parental SHIVSF162. PMID:12239306

  14. Evaluation of corn oil as an additive in the pre-enrichment step to increase recovery of Salmonella enterica from oregano.

    PubMed

    Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Flamer, Marie-Laure; Addy, Nicole; Ewing, Laura; Gopinath, Gopal; Jarvis, Karen; Grim, Chris; Hanes, Darcy E

    2016-08-01

    Phenolic compounds associated with essential oils of spices and herbs possess a variety of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties that interfere with Salmonella detection from fresh and dried products. Finding a compound to neutralize the effect of these antimicrobial compounds, while allowing Salmonella growth during pre-enrichment, is a crucial step in both traditional pathogen isolation and molecular detection from these foods. This study evaluated the effectiveness of corn oil as a component of the pre-enrichment broth to counteract antimicrobial compounds properties and increase the recovery of Salmonella from spices. Oregano samples artificially contaminated with Salmonella enterica were pre-enriched in modified Buffered Peptone Water (mBPW) supplemented with and without 2% (vol/vol) corn oil respectively. Samples were incubated overnight at 37 °C. The results showed that recovery of Salmonella from oregano samples was increased by ≥50% when pre-enriched with corn oil. Serovars were confirmed using a PCR serotyping method. In addition, shot-gun metagenomics analyses demonstrated bacterial diversity and the effect of corn oil on the relative prevalence of Salmonella in the oregano samples. Modifying pre-enrichment broths with corn oil improved the detection and isolation of Salmonella from oregano, and may provide an alternative method for pathogen detection in dried food matrices such as spices. PMID:27052719

  15. Addition of a third field significantly increases dose to the brachial plexus for patients undergoing tangential whole-breast therapy after lumpectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Stanic, Sinisa; Mathai, Mathew; Mayadev, Jyoti S.; Do, Ly V.; Purdy, James A.; Chen, Allen M.

    2012-07-01

    Our goal was to evaluate brachial plexus (BP) dose with and without the use of supraclavicular (SCL) irradiation in patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy with whole-breast radiation therapy (RT) after lumpectomy. Using the standardized Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-endorsed guidelines delineation, we contoured the BP for 10 postlumpectomy breast cancer patients. The radiation dose to the whole breast was 50.4 Gy using tangential fields in 1.8-Gy fractions, followed by a conedown to the operative bed using electrons (10 Gy). The prescription dose to the SCL field was 50.4 Gy, delivered to 3-cm depth. The mean BP volume was 14.5 {+-} 1.5 cm{sup 3}. With tangential fields alone, the median mean dose to the BP was 0.57 Gy, the median maximum dose was 1.93 Gy, and the irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 0%. When the third (SCL field) was added, the dose to the BP was significantly increased (P = .01): the median mean dose to the BP was 40.60 Gy, and the median maximum dose was 52.22 Gy. With 3-field RT, the median irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 83.5%, 68.5%, and 24.6%, respectively. The addition of the SCL field significantly increases dose to the BP. The possibility of increasing the risk of BP morbidity should be considered in the context of clinical decision making.

  16. Increasing addition of autochthonous to allochthonous carbon in nutrient-rich aquatic systems stimulates carbon consumption but does not alter bacterial community composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attermeyer, K.; Hornick, T.; Kayler, Z. E.; Bahr, A.; Zwirnmann, E.; Grossart, H.-P.; Premke, K.

    2013-08-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations - mainly of terrestrial origin - are increasing worldwide in inland waters. The biodegradability of the DOC varies depending on quantity and chemical quality. Heterotrophic bacteria are the main consumers of DOC and thus determine DOC temporal dynamics and availability for higher trophic levels. It is therefore crucial to understand the processes controlling the bacterial turnover of additional allochthonous and autochthonous DOC in aquatic systems. Our aim was to study bacterial carbon (C) turnover with respect to DOC quantity and chemical quality using both allochthonous and autochthonous DOC sources. We incubated a natural bacterial community with allochthonous C (13C-labeled beech leachate) and increased concentrations and pulses (intermittent occurrence of organic matter input) of autochthonous C (algae lysate). We then determined bacterial carbon consumption, activities, and community composition together with the carbon flow through bacteria using stable C isotopes. The chemical analysis of single sources revealed differences in aromaticity and fractions of low and high molecular weight substances (LMWS and HMWS, respectively) between allochthonous and autochthonous C sources. In parallel to these differences in chemical composition, we observed a higher availability of allochthonous C as evidenced by increased DOC consumption and bacterial growth efficiencies (BGE) when solely allochthonous C was provided. In treatments with mixed sources, rising concentrations of added autochthonous DOC resulted in a further, significant increase in bacterial DOC consumption from 52 to 68% when nutrients were not limiting. This rise was accompanied by a decrease in the humic substances (HS) fraction and an increase in bacterial biomass. Stable C isotope analyses of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and respired dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) supported a preferential assimilation of autochthonous C and respiration of the

  17. Second Malignancies After Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Breast Cancer: Is There Increased Risk With Addition of Regional Radiation to Local Radiation?

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Sarah Nicole; Tyldesley, Scott; Li, Dongdong; Olson, Robert; McBride, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an increased risk of second malignancies (SM), particularly lung cancer, in early stage breast cancer patients treated with the addition of nodal fields to breast and/or chest wall radiation therapy (RT). Materials and Methods: Subjects were stage I/II female breast cancer patients 20 to 79 years of age, diagnosed between 1989 and 2005 and treated with adjuvant RT at our institution. Patients were included if they survived and did not have SM within 3 years of diagnosis. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to compare SM incidence to cancer incidence in the general sex- and age-matched populations. Secondary malignancy risks in patients treated with local RT (LRT) to the breast/chest wall were compared to those in patients treated with locoregional RT (LRRT) to the breast/chest wall and regional nodes, using multivariate regression analysis (MVA) to account for covariates. Results: The cohort included 12,836 patients with a median follow-up of 8.4 years. LRRT was used in 18% of patients. The SIR comparing patients treated with LRT to the general population was 1.29 (CI: 1.21-1.38). No statistically significant increased incidence of in-field malignancies (SIR, 1.04; CI: 0.87-1.23) and lung cancers (SIR, 1.06; CI: 0.88-1.26) was detected. The SIR comparing patients treated with LRRT to the general population was 1.39 (CI: 1.17-1.64). No statistically significant increased incidence of in-field malignancies (SIR, 1.26; CI: 0.77-1.94) and lung cancers (SIR, 1.27; CI: 0.76-1.98) was detected. On MVA comparing LRRT to LRT, the adjusted hazard ratio was 1.20 for in-field malignancies (CI: 0.68-2.16) and 1.26 for lung cancer (CI: 0.67-2.36). The excess attributable risk (EAR) to regional RT was 3.1 per 10,000 person years (CI: −8.7 to 9.9). Conclusions: No statistically significant increased risk of second malignancy was detected after LRRT relative to

  18. The homogeneous reduction of CO₂ by [Ni(cyclam)]⁺: increased catalytic rates with the addition of a CO scavenger.

    PubMed

    Froehlich, Jesse D; Kubiak, Clifford P

    2015-03-18

    The homogeneous electrochemical reduction of CO2 by the molecular catalyst [Ni(cyclam)](2+) is studied by electrochemistry and infrared spectroelectrochemistry. The electrochemical kinetics are probed by varying CO2 substrate and proton concentrations. Products of CO2 reduction are observed in infrared spectra obtained from spectroelectrochemical experiments. The two major species observed are a Ni(I) carbonyl, [Ni(cyclam)(CO)](+), and a Ni(II) coordinated bicarbonate, [Ni(cyclam)(CO2OH)](+). The rate-limiting step during electrocatalysis is determined to be CO loss from the deactivated species, [Ni(cyclam)(CO)](+), to produce the active catalyst, [Ni(cyclam)](+). Another macrocyclic complex, [Ni(TMC)](+), is deployed as a CO scavenger in order to inhibit the deactivation of [Ni(cyclam)](+) by CO. Addition of the CO scavenger is shown to dramatically increase the catalytic current observed for CO2 reduction. Evidence for the [Ni(TMC)](+) acting as a CO scavenger includes the observation of [Ni(TMC)(CO)](+) by IR. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations probing the optimized geometry of the [Ni(cyclam)(CO)](+) species are also presented. PMID:25714353

  19. STAT4 Associates with SLE Through Two Independent Effects that Correlate with Gene Expression and Act Additively with IRF5 to Increase Risk

    PubMed Central

    Abelson, Anna-Karin; Delgado-Vega, Angélica M.; Kozyrev, Sergey V.; Sánchez, Elena; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Eriksson, Niclas; Wojcik, Jerome; Reddy, Prasad Linga; Lima, Guadalupe; D’Alfonso, Sandra; Migliaresi, Sergio; Baca, Vicente; Orozco, Lorena; Witte, Torsten; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Abderrahim, Hadi; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Gutiérrez, Carmen; Suárez, Ana; González-Escribano, Maria Francisca; Martin, Javier; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To confirm and define the genetic association of STAT4 and systemic lupus erythematosus, investigate the possibility of correlations with differential splicing and/or expression levels, and genetic interaction with IRF5. Methods 30 tag SNPs were genotyped in an independent set of Spanish cases and controls. SNPs surviving correction for multiple tests were genotyped in 5 new sets of cases and controls for replication. STAT4 cDNA was analyzed by 5’-RACE PCR and sequencing. Expression levels were measured by quantitative PCR. Results In the fine-mapping, four SNPs were significant after correction for multiple testing, with rs3821236 and rs3024866 as the strongest signals, followed by the previously associated rs7574865, and by rs1467199. Association was replicated in all cohorts. After conditional regression analyses, two major independent signals represented by SNPs rs3821236 and rs7574865, remained significant across the sets. These SNPs belong to separate haplotype blocks. High levels of STAT4 expression correlated with SNPs rs3821236, rs3024866 (both in the same haplotype block) and rs7574865 but not with other SNPs. We also detected transcription of alternative tissue-specific exons 1, indicating presence of tissue-specific promoters of potential importance in the expression of STAT4. No interaction with associated SNPs of IRF5 was observed using regression analysis. Conclusions These data confirm STAT4 as a susceptibility gene for SLE and suggest the presence of at least two functional variants affecting levels of STAT4. Our results also indicate that both genes STAT4 and IRF5 act additively to increase risk for SLE. PMID:19019891

  20. THE ADDITION OF MILK OR YOGURT TO A PLANT-BASED DIET INCREASES ZINC BIOAVAILABILITY BUT DOES NOT AFFECT IRON BIOAVAILABILITY IN WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The addition of milk and milk-based products to the diets of individuals subsisting on plant-based diets was reported to have positive effects on nutritional status and functional outcomes such as growth, morbidity, and cognition. We examined the effect of the addition of milk or yogurt on the bioav...

  1. Echolocation behaviour of the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) in an obstacle avoidance task of increasing difficulty.

    PubMed

    Sändig, Sonja; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Denzinger, Annette

    2014-08-15

    Four big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were challenged in an obstacle avoidance experiment to localize vertically stretched wires requiring progressively greater accuracy by diminishing the wire-to-wire distance from 50 to 10 cm. The performance of the bats decreased with decreasing gap size. The avoidance task became very difficult below a wire separation of 30 cm, which corresponds to the average wingspan of E. fuscus. Two of the bats were able to pass without collisions down to a gap size of 10 cm in some of the flights. The other two bats only managed to master gap sizes down to 20 and 30 cm, respectively. They also performed distinctly worse at all other gap sizes. With increasing difficulty of the task, the bats changed their flight and echolocation behaviour. Especially at gap sizes of 30 cm and below, flight paths increased in height and flight speed was reduced. In addition, the bats emitted approach signals that were arranged in groups. At all gap sizes, the largest numbers of pulses per group were observed in the last group before passing the obstacle. The more difficult the obstacle avoidance task, the more pulses there were in the groups and the shorter the within-group pulse intervals. In comparable situations, the better-performing bats always emitted groups with more pulses than the less well-performing individuals. We hypothesize that the accuracy of target localization increases with the number of pulses per group and that each group is processed as a package. PMID:24902745

  2. Elevated CO2, not defoliation, enhances N cycling and increases short-term soil N immobilization regardless of N addition in a semiarid grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated CO2 and defoliation effects on nitrogen (N) cycling in rangeland soils remain poorly understood. Here we tested whether effects of elevated CO2 and defoliation (clipping to 2.5 cm height) on N cycling depended on soil N availability (addition of 1 vs. 11 g N/m2) in intact mesocosms extracte...

  3. Addition of an N-terminal epitope tag significantly increases the activity of plant fatty acid desaturases expressed in yeast cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows great potential for development of bioreactor systems geared towards the production of high-value lipids such as polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, the yields of which are largely dependent on the activity of ectopically-expressed enzymes. Here we show that the addit...

  4. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  5. Increase in activity of essential oil components carvacrol and thymol against Escherichia coli O157:H7 by addition of food stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Burt, Sara A; Vlielander, René; Haagsman, Henk P; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A

    2005-05-01

    The major components of oregano and thyme essential oils that had previously been shown to inhibit Escherichia coli O157:H7 were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection and liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry. The MICs and MBCs of carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, and gamma-terpinene against a strain of E. coli O157: H7 phage type 34 isolated from bovine feces were determined by microdilution assay. The constituents were then tested in checkerboard assays to detect possible interactions. Carvacrol and thymol displayed bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties with MICs of 1.2 mmol/liter and were additive in combination. p-Cymene and gamma-terpinene displayed no measurable antibacterial activity up to 50 mmol/liter, and neither influenced the activity of carvacrol or thymol. Growth curves in the presence of nonlethal concentrations of carvacrol with the addition of agar (0.05%, wt/vol) or carrageenan (0.125%, wt/vol) as stabilizer were produced by optical density measurement. The stabilizers agar and carrageenan both significantly improved the effectiveness of carvacrol in broth, possibly because of a delay in the separation of the hydrophobic substrate from the aqueous phase of the medium. When carvacrol was dissolved in ethanol before addition to broth, stabilizers were not needed. Carvacrol and thymol, particularly when used in combination with a stabilizer or in an ethanol solution, may be effective in reducing the number or preventing growth of E. coli O157:H7 in liquid foods. PMID:15895722

  6. Co-addition of manure increases the dissipation rates of tylosin A and the numbers of resistance genes in laboratory incubation experiments.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yong-De; Liao, Xin-Di; Liang, Juan-Boo; Xin, Wen; Wu, Yin-Bao

    2015-09-15

    The behavior of veterinary antibiotics in the soil is commonly studied using the following methods to add antibiotics to the soil: (A) adding manure collected from animals fed a diet that includes antibiotics; (B) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics; and (C) the direct addition of antibiotics. However, most studies have only used methods (B) and (C) in their research, and few studies have simultaneously compared the different antibiotic addition methods. This study used tylosin A (TYLA) as a model antibiotic to compare the effects of these three commonly used antibiotic addition methods on the dissipation rates of TYLA and the numbers of resistance genes in laboratory incubation experiments. The results showed that the three treatment methods produced similar TYLA degradation trends; however, there were significant differences (P<0.05) in the TYLA degradation half-life (t1/2) among the three methods. The half-life of TYLA degradation in treatments A, B and C was 2.44 ± 0.04, 1.21 ± 0.03 and 5.13 ± 0.11 days, respectively. The presence of manure resulted in a higher electrical conductivity (EC), higher relative abundance of Citrobacter amalonaticus, higher macrolide resistant gene (ermB, ermF and ermT) count and lower ecological toxicity in the soil, which could partially explain the higher TYLA degradation rate in the treatments containing manure. The higher degradation rate of TYLA in treatment B when compared to treatment A could be due to the lower concentrations of tylosin B (TYLB) and tylosin D (TYLD). The main route for veterinary antibiotics to enter the soil is via the manure of animals that have been administered antibiotics. Therefore, the more appropriate method to study the degradation and ecotoxicity of antibiotic residues in the soil is by using manure from animals fed/administered the particular antibiotic rather than by adding the antibiotic directly to the soil. PMID:25958362

  7. The addition of stripes (a version of the 'horizontal-vertical illusion') increases foot clearance when crossing low-height obstacles.

    PubMed

    Foster, Richard J; Buckley, John G; Whitaker, David; Elliott, David B

    2016-07-01

    Trips over obstacles are one of the main causes of falling in older adults, with vision playing an important role in successful obstacle negotiation. We determined whether a horizontal-vertical illusion, superimposed onto low-height obstacles to create a perceived increase in obstacle height, increased foot clearances during obstacle negotiation thus reducing the likelihood of tripping. Eleven adults (mean ± 1 SD: age 27.3 ± 5.1 years) negotiated obstacles of varying heights (3, 5, 7 cm) with four different appearance conditions; two were obstacles with a horizontal-vertical illusion (vertical stripes of different thickness) superimposed on the front, one was a plain obstacle and the fourth a plain obstacle with a horizontal black line painted on the top edge. Foot clearance parameters were compared across conditions. Both illusions led to a significant increase in foot clearance when crossing the obstacle, compared to the plain condition, irrespective of obstacle height. Superimposing a horizontal-vertical illusion onto low-height obstacles can increase foot clearance, and its use on the floor section of a double-glazing door frame for example may reduce the incidence of tripping in the home. Practitioner Summary: Low-height obstacles such as the floor section of a double-glazing door frame are potential tripping hazards. In a gait lab-based study we found that a horizontal-vertical illusion superimposed onto low-height obstacles led to significantly higher foot clearances; indicating their potential as a useful safety measure. PMID:27626886

  8. Increasing the Richness of Culturable Arsenic-Tolerant Bacteria from Theonella swinhoei by Addition of Sponge Skeleton to the Growth Medium.

    PubMed

    Keren, Ray; Lavy, Adi; Ilan, Micha

    2016-05-01

    Theonella swinhoei is an arsenic hyper-accumulator sponge, harboring a multitude of associated bacteria. These bacteria reside in the mesohyl, the dense extracellular matrix of the sponge. Previous elemental analysis of separated cell fractions from the sponge had determined that arsenic is localized to the associated bacteria. Subsequently, sponge-associated arsenic-tolerant bacteria were isolated here and grouped into 15 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 97% similarity). Both culture-dependent and culture-independent work had revealed that T. swinhoei harbors a highly diverse bacterial community. It was thus hypothesized the acclimation of bacteria in the presence of a sponge skeleton, better mimicking its natural environment, would increase the yield of isolation of sponge-associated bacteria. Using seven modularly designed media, 380 bacteria isolates were grown and grouped into 22 OTUs. Inclusion of sponge skeleton in the growth medium promoted bacterial growth in all seven media, accounting for 20 of the 22 identified OTUs (the other two in a medium without skeleton). Diversity and richness indices were calculated for each treatment or combination of treatments with shared growth parameters. Integrating data inherent in the modularly designed media with the ecological indices led to the formation of new hypotheses regarding the aeration conditions and expected arsenic form in situ. Both aerobic and anoxic conditions are expected to occur in the sponge (temporally and/or spatially). Arsenate is expected to be the dominant (or even the only) arsenic form in the sponge. PMID:26809776

  9. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  10. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  11. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  12. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  13. Dolutegravir-Selected HIV-1 Containing the N155H and R263K Resistance Substitutions Does Not Acquire Additional Compensatory Mutations under Drug Pressure That Lead to Higher-Level Resistance and Increased Replicative Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Anstett, Kaitlin; Fusco, Robert; Cutillas, Vincent; Mesplède, Thibault

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have previously shown that the addition of the raltegravir/elvitegavir (RAL/EVG) primary resistance mutation N155H to the R263K dolutegravir (DTG) resistance mutation partially compensated for the fitness cost imposed by R263K while also slightly increasing DTG resistance in vitro (K. Anstett, T. Mesplede, M. Oliveira, V. Cutillas, and M. A. Wainberg, J Virol 89:4681–4684, 2015, doi:10.1128/JVI.03485-14). Since many patients failing RAL/EVG are given DTG as part of rescue therapy, and given that the N155H substitution often is found in combination with other compensatory resistance mutations in such individuals, we investigated the effects of multiple such substitutions within integrase (IN) on each of integrase function, HIV-1 infectivity, and levels of drug resistance. To this end, each of the L74M, E92Q, T97A, E157Q, and G163R substitutions were introduced into NL4.3 subtype B HIV-1 vectors harboring N155H and R263K in tandem [termed NL4.3IN(N155H/R263K)]. Relevant recombinant integrase enzymes also were expressed, and purified and biochemical assays of strand transfer efficiency as well as viral infectivity and drug resistance studies were performed. We found that the addition of T97A, E157Q, or G163R somewhat improved the affinity of INN155H/R263K for its target DNA substrate, while the presence of L74M or E92Q had a negative effect on this process. However, viral infectivity was significantly decreased from that of NL4.3IN(N155H/R263K) after the addition of each tertiary mutation, and no increases in levels of DTG resistance were observed. This work shows that the compensatory mutations that evolve after N155H under continued DTG or RAL/EVG pressure in patients are unable to improve either enzyme efficiency or viral infectivity in an N155H/R263K background. IMPORTANCE In contrast to other drugs, dolutegravir has not selected for resistance in HIV-positive individuals when used in first-line therapy. We had previously shown that HIV containing

  14. Addition of the immunostimulatory oligonucleotide IMT504 to a seasonal flu vaccine increases hemagglutinin antibody titers in young adult and elder rats, and expands the anti-hemagglutinin antibody repertoire.

    PubMed

    Montaner, Alejandro Daniel; Denichilo, Analía; Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Fló, Juan; López, Ricardo Agustin; Pontoriero, Andrea; Savy, Vilma; Baumeister, Elsa; Frank, Ronald; Zorzopulos, Jorge; Elías, Fernanda

    2011-08-01

    Flu vaccines are partially protective in infants and elder people. New adjuvants such as immunostimulatory oligonucleotides (ODNs) are strong candidates to solve this problem, because a combination with several antigens has demonstrated effectiveness. Here, we report that IMT504, the prototype of a major class of immunostimulatory ODNs, is a potent adjuvant of the influenza vaccine in young adult and elderly rats. Flu vaccines that use virosomes or whole viral particles as antigens were combined with IMT504 and injected in rats. Young adult and elderly animals vaccinated with IMT504-adjuvated preparations reached antibody titers 20-fold and 15-fold higher than controls, respectively. Antibody titers remained high throughout a 120 day-period. Animals injected with the IMT504-adjuvated vaccine showed expansion of the anti-hemagglutinin antibody repertoire and a significant increase in the antibody titer with hemagglutination inhibition capacity when confronted to viral strains included or not in the vaccine. This indicates that the addition of IMT504 in flu vaccines may contribute to the development of significant cross-protective immune response against shifted or drifted flu strains. PMID:21793787

  15. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  16. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs.

    PubMed

    Blaabjerg, K; Thomassen, A-M; Poulsen, H D

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet with 88% dry matter (DM)) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of phosphorus (P) in pigs fed a dry or soaked diet. Twenty-four pigs (65±3 kg) from six litters were used. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates and fed one of four diets for 12 days; 5 days for adaptation and 7 days for total, but separate collection of feces and urine. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, maize, soybean meal and no mineral phosphate. Dietary treatments were: basal dry-fed diet (BDD), BDD with microbial phytase (BDD+phy), BDD soaked for 24 h at 20°C before feeding (BDS) and BDS with microbial phytase (BDS+phy). Supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of DM and crude protein (N×6.25) by 2 and 3 percentage units (P<0.0001; P<0.001), respectively. The ATTD of P was affected by the interaction between microbial phytase and soaking (P=0.02). This was due to a greater increase in ATTD of P by soaking of the diet containing solely plant phytase compared with the diet supplemented with microbial phytase: 35%, 65%, 44% and 68% for BDD, BDD+phy, BSD and BSD+phy, respectively. As such, supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of P in the dry-fed diet, but not in the soaked diet. The higher ATTD of P for BDS compared with BDD resulted from the degradation of 54% of the phytate in BDS by wheat and barley phytases during soaking. On the other hand, soaking of BDS+phy did not increase ATTD of P significantly compared with BDD+phy despite that 76% of the phytate in BDS+phy was degraded before feeding. In conclusion, soaking of BDS containing solely plant phytase provided a great potential for increasing ATTD of P. However, this potential was not present when microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet) was supplemented, most likely because soaking of BDS+phy for 24 h at 20°C did not result in a complete degradation of phytate before feeding. PMID:25245085

  17. The effect of MgSO4 addition and the increasing doses of calcium and phosphorus during ending drying period on the occurrence of hypocalcaemia and hypophosphataemia in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bodarski, R; Kinal, S; Preś, J; Slupczyńska, M; Twardoń, J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the presented study was the estimation of optimal Ca and P levels applied before calving together with anionic salt addition, as an element of hypocalcaemia and hypophosphataemia prevention. The experiment was carried out during the dry period on 48 cows with similar milk yield in the previous lactation. Cows were divided into four groups. In group I (control) the amount of minerals was in accordance to NRC standards. In experimental groups (groups II-IV), two weeks before calving, cows received 140 g/day/head of hydrated magnesium sulphate to achieve dietary cation-anion difference at the level of about 50 mEq/kg DM. In groups II and III cows received calcium carbonate (100 g/day) 10 days a.p. (antepartum) (group II), or 5 days a.p. (group III), while cows in IV group received dicalcium phosphate (100 g/day) for 5 days a.p. Application of MgSO4 x 7H20 significantly affected the urine pH of cows from group III and IV 4-5 d. before calving - 6.45 and 6.81, respectively. The acidification of urine was observed after calving in group IV (7.13). In cows from group II (100 CaCO3 10 days a.p.) urine pH decline was not found (7.97-7.75). In that group the incidences of hypophosphatemia were noted (blood serum inorganic P level 1.41-1.46 mmol/1). Addition of magnesium sulphate prevented hypocalcaemia occurrence -- 4-5 d. before calving the concentration of ionized Ca in blood serum was 1.11, 1.13 and 1.16 mmol/1 (respectively for group II, III and IV). Reproductive functions were significantly improved after the application of CaCO3 and CaHPO4 for 5 days a.p. in comparison with control and group II -- progesterone concentration in the blood serum on the 45th day of lactation was 1.396 - 1.409 versus 0.799 - 0.401. The correlation between progesterone and inorganic P level in serum was almost significant. Based on the obtained results a treatment optimal in prevention of hypocalcaemia and hypophosphataemia is the application of 50 g CaCO3 and 50 g of CaHPO4 for

  18. Extremely fast increase in the organic loading rate during the co-digestion of rapeseed oil and sewage sludge in a CSTR--characterization of granules formed due to CaO addition to maintain process stability.

    PubMed

    Kasina, M; Kleyböcker, A; Michalik, M; Würdemann, H

    2015-01-01

    In a co-digestion system running with rapeseed oil and sewage sludge, an extremely fast increase in the organic loading rate was studied to develop a procedure to allow for flexible and demand-driven energy production. The over-acidification of the digestate was successfully prevented by calcium oxide dosage, which resulted in granule formation. Mineralogical analyses revealed that the granules were composed of insoluble salts of long chain fatty acids and calcium and had a porous structure. Long chain fatty acids and calcium formed the outer cover of granules and offered interfaces on the inside thereby enhancing the growth of biofilms. With granule size and age, the pore size increased and indicated degradation of granular interfaces. A stable biogas production up to the organic loading rate of 10.4 kg volatile solids m(-3) d(-1) was achieved although the hydrogen concentration was not favorable for propionic acid degradation. However, at higher organic loading rates, unbalanced granule formation and degradation were observed. Obviously, the adaption time for biofilm growth was too short to maintain the balance, thereby resulting in a low methane yield. PMID:26524448

  19. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  20. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  1. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  2. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  3. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  4. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  5. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  6. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  7. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  8. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  9. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  10. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  11. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  12. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  13. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  14. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  15. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  16. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  17. S. 2375: a bill to disapprove of certain deferrals of Strategic Petroleum Reserve budget authority, to authorize additional appropriations with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, and to increase oil import fees. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, April 28, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this bill is to disapprove of certain deferrals of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) budget authority, to authorize additional appropriations to the SPR, and to increase oil import fees. The bill authorizes $1 billion for fiscal years 1987, 88, and 89 for crude oil acquisitions for the SPR and $163 million for storage and related facility construction during 1987. It also instructs the Energy Secretary to cease production from the Naval Petroleum Reserve at Elk Hills for six months to allow the reservoir depletion to stabilize.

  18. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  19. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  20. [Biologically active food additives].

    PubMed

    Velichko, M A; Shevchenko, V P

    1998-07-01

    More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776

  1. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  2. Hydrocarbon fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, S.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes the method of fuel storage or combustion, wherein the fuel supply contains small amounts of water, the step of adding to the fuel supply an additive comprising a blend of a hydrophilic agent chosen from the group of ethylene glycol, n-butyl alcohol, and cellosolve in the range of 22-37% by weight; ethoxylated nonylphenol in the range of 26-35% by weight; nonylphenol polyethylene glycol ether in the range of 32-43% by weight.

  3. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  4. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  5. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  6. Oil additive process

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

  7. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  8. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  9. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Love, Lonnie J.

    2015-03-04

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Cincinnati Incorporated (CI) to demonstrate Big Area Additive Manufacturing which increases the speed of the additive manufacturing (AM) process by over 1000X, increases the size of parts by over 10X and shows a cost reduction of over 100X. ORNL worked with CI to transition the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology from a proof-of-principle (TRL 2-3) demonstration to a prototype product stage (TRL 7-8).

  10. Does Preoperative Measurement of Cerebral Blood Flow with Acetazolamide Challenge in Addition to Preoperative Measurement of Cerebral Blood Flow at the Resting State Increase the Predictive Accuracy of Development of Cerebral Hyperperfusion after Carotid Endarterectomy? Results from 500 Cases with Brain Perfusion Single-photon Emission Computed Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    OSHIDA, Sotaro; OGASAWARA, Kuniaki; SAURA, Hiroaki; YOSHIDA, Koji; FUJIWARA, Shunro; KOJIMA, Daigo; KOBAYASHI, Masakazu; YOSHIDA, Kenji; KUBO, Yoshitaka; OGAWA, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether preoperative measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) with acetazolamide in addition to preoperative measurement of CBF at the resting state increases the predictive accuracy of development of cerebral hyperperfusion after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). CBF at the resting state and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to acetazolamide were quantitatively assessed using N-isopropyl-p-[123I]-iodoamphetamine (IMP)-autoradiography method with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) before CEA in 500 patients with ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (≥ 70%). CBF measurement using 123I-IMP SPECT was also performed immediately and 3 days after CEA. A region of interest (ROI) was automatically placed in the middle cerebral artery territory in the affected cerebral hemisphere using a three-dimensional stereotactic ROI template. Preoperative decreases in CBF at the resting state [95% confidence intervals (CIs), 0.855 to 0.967; P = 0.0023] and preoperative decreases in CVR to acetazolamide (95% CIs, 0.844 to 0.912; P < 0.0001) were significant independent predictors of post-CEA hyperperfusion. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for prediction of the development of post-CEA hyperperfusion was significantly greater for CVR to acetazolamide than for CBF at the resting state (difference between areas, 0.173; P < 0.0001). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive- and negative-predictive values for the prediction of the development of post-CEA hyperperfusion were significantly greater for CVR to acetazolamide than for CBF at the resting state (P < 0.05, respectively). The present study demonstrated that preoperative measurement of CBF with acetazolamide in addition to preoperative measurement of CBF at the resting state increases the predictive accuracy of the development of post-CEA hyperperfusion. PMID:25746308

  11. Parametric Study for Increasing On-Station Duration via Unconventional Aircraft Launch Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl, Christopher A.; Moses, Robert W.; Croom, Mark A.; Sandford, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    The need for better atmospheric predictions is causing the atmospheric science community to look for new ways to obtain longer, higher-resolution measurements over several diurnal cycles. The high resolution, in-situ measurements required to study many atmospheric phenomena can be achieved by an Autonomous Aerial Observation System (AAOS); however, meeting the long on-station time requirements with an aerial platform poses many challenges. Inspired by the half-scale drop test of the deployable Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mars airplane, a study was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine the possibility of increasing on-station time by launching an airplane directly at the desired altitude. The ARES Mars airplane concept was used as a baseline for Earth atmospheric flight, and parametric analyses of fundamental configuration elements were performed to study their impact on achieving desired on-station time with this class of airplane. The concept involved lifting the aircraft from the ground to the target altitude by means of an air balloon, thereby unburdening the airplane of ascent requirements. The parameters varied in the study were aircraft wingspan, payload, fuel quantity, and propulsion system. The results show promising trends for further research into aircraft-payload design using this unconventional balloon-based launch approach.

  12. 43 CFR 3154.2 - Additional bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional bonding. 3154.2 Section 3154.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Requirements § 3154.2 Additional bonding. The authorized officer may increase the amount of any bond that...

  13. 46 CFR 308.502 - Additional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional insurance. 308.502 Section 308.502 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.502 Additional insurance. The assured may place increased value...

  14. 46 CFR 308.502 - Additional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional insurance. 308.502 Section 308.502 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.502 Additional insurance. The assured may place increased value...

  15. 46 CFR 308.502 - Additional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional insurance. 308.502 Section 308.502 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.502 Additional insurance. The assured may place increased value...

  16. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  17. Nitrogen as a friendly addition to steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Interstitial alloying with nitrogen or carbon is a common means of enhancing properties of iron-based alloys. Interstitial nitrogen addition to fcc-phase Fe-Cr-Mn/Ni alloys results in improved mechanical properties, whereas addition of carbon can result in the formation of unwanted carbides. Carbon addition to low alloy, bcc-phase iron alloys significantly improves strength through the formation of carbides, whereas addition of nitrogen in bcc-phase iron alloys can result in porous casting and reduced mechanical properties. This study will show that alloying iron-based alloys with both nitrogen and carbon can produce positive results. Nitrogen addition to Fe-C and Fe-Cr-C alloys, and both nitrogen and nitrogen-carbon additions to Fe-Cr-Mn/Ni alloys altered the microstructure, improved mechanical properties, increased hardness, and reduced wear by stabilizing the fcc-phase and altering (possibly eliminating) precipitate formation.

  18. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting. PMID:25500631

  19. Additive attacks on speaker recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokh Baroughi, Alireza; Craver, Scott

    2014-02-01

    Speaker recognition is used to identify a speaker's voice from among a group of known speakers. A common method of speaker recognition is a classification based on cepstral coefficients of the speaker's voice, using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to model each speaker. In this paper we try to fool a speaker recognition system using additive noise such that an intruder is recognized as a target user. Our attack uses a mixture selected from a target user's GMM model, inverting the cepstral transformation to produce noise samples. In our 5 speaker data base, we achieve an attack success rate of 50% with a noise signal at 10dB SNR, and 95% by increasing noise power to 0dB SNR. The importance of this attack is its simplicity and flexibility: it can be employed in real time with no processing of an attacker's voice, and little computation is needed at the moment of detection, allowing the attack to be performed by a small portable device. For any target user, knowing that user's model or voice sample is sufficient to compute the attack signal, and it is enough that the intruder plays it while he/she is uttering to be classiffed as the victim.

  20. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  1. Deciphering the roles of multiple additives in organocatalyzed Michael additions.

    PubMed

    Günler, Z Inci; Companyó, Xavier; Alfonso, Ignacio; Burés, Jordi; Jimeno, Ciril; Pericàs, Miquel A

    2016-05-21

    The synergistic effects of multiple additives (water and acetic acid) on the asymmetric Michael addition of acetone to nitrostyrene catalyzed by primary amine-thioureas (PAT) were precisely determined. Acetic acid facilitates hydrolysis of the imine intermediates, thus leading to catalytic behavior, and minimizes the formation of the double addition side product. In contrast, water slows down the reaction but minimizes catalyst deactivation, eventually leading to higher final yields. PMID:27128165

  2. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Computational Process and Material Modeling of Powder Bed additive manufacturing of IN 718. Optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling. Increase understanding of build properties. Increase reliability of builds. Decrease time to adoption of process for critical hardware. Potential to decrease post-build heat treatments. Conduct single-track and coupon builds at various build parameters. Record build parameter information and QM Meltpool data. Refine Applied Optimization powder bed AM process model using data. Report thermal modeling results. Conduct metallography of build samples. Calibrate STK models using metallography findings. Run STK models using AO thermal profiles and report STK modeling results. Validate modeling with additional build. Photodiode Intensity measurements highly linear with power input. Melt Pool Intensity highly correlated to Melt Pool Size. Melt Pool size and intensity increase with power. Applied Optimization will use data to develop powder bed additive manufacturing process model.

  3. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  4. Pharmacological and Chemical Effects of Cigarette Additives

    PubMed Central

    Rabinoff, Michael; Caskey, Nicholas; Rissling, Anthony; Park, Candice

    2007-01-01

    We investigated tobacco industry documents and other sources for evidence of possible pharmacological and chemical effects of tobacco additives. Our findings indicated that more than 100 of 599 documented cigarette additives have pharmacological actions that camouflage the odor of environmental tobacco smoke emitted from cigarettes, enhance or maintain nicotine delivery, could increase the addictiveness of cigarettes, and mask symptoms and illnesses associated with smoking behaviors. Whether such uses were specifically intended for these agents is unknown. Our results provide a clear rationale for regulatory control of tobacco additives. PMID:17666709

  5. Measuring additive interaction using odds ratios

    PubMed Central

    Kalilani, Linda; Atashili, Julius

    2006-01-01

    Interaction measured on the additive scale has been argued to be better correlated with biologic interaction than when measured on the multiplicative scale. Measures of interaction on the additive scale have been developed using risk ratios. However, in studies that use odds ratios as the sole measure of effect, the calculation of these measures of additive interaction is usually performed by directly substituting odds ratios for risk ratios. Yet assessing additive interaction based on replacing risk ratios by odds ratios in formulas that were derived using the former may be erroneous. In this paper, we evaluate the extent to which three measures of additive interaction – the interaction contrast ratio (ICR), the attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), and the synergy index (S), estimated using odds ratios versus using risk ratios differ as the incidence of the outcome of interest increases in the source population and/or as the magnitude of interaction increases. Our analysis shows that the difference between the two depends on the measure of interaction used, the type of interaction present, and the baseline incidence of the outcome. Substituting odds ratios for risk ratios, when calculating measures of additive interaction, may result in misleading conclusions. Of the three measures, AP appears to be the most robust to this direct substitution. Formulas that use stratum specific odds and odds ratios to accurately calculate measures of additive interaction are presented. PMID:16620385

  6. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  7. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  8. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  9. 75 FR 27313 - Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED PROCUREMENT LIST Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the... or Severely Disabled, Jefferson Plaza 2, Suite 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway,...

  10. Multiplicative and additive Adelson's snake illusions.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Two different versions of Adelson's snake lightness illusion are quantitatively investigated. In one experiment an additive version of the illusion is investigated by varying the additive component of the atmosphere transfer function (ATF) introduced by Adelson [2000, in The New Cognitive Neuroscience Ed. M Gazzaniga (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) pp 339-351]. In the other, a multiplicative version of the illusion is examined by varying the multiplicative component of the ATE In both experiments four observers matched the targets' lightness of the snake patterns with Munsell samples. Increasing the additive or the multiplicative component elicited an approximately equal increase in the magnitude of the lightness illusion. The results show that both components, in the absence of other kinds of information, can be used as heuristics by our visual system to anchor luminance of the object when converting it into lightness. PMID:19189728

  11. Why Additional Presentations Help Identify a Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guest, Duncan; Kent, Christopher; Adelman, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Nosofsky (1983) reported that additional stimulus presentations within a trial increase discriminability in absolute identification, suggesting that each presentation creates an independent stimulus representation, but it remains unclear whether exposure duration or the formation of independent representations improves discrimination in such…

  12. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  13. Magnetic Coupling Delivers Increased Torque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Edward L.

    1989-01-01

    Fixed magnetic pins reduce reluctance of gap in magnetic coupling. Concentrate flux and increase torque transmitted. Coupling arranged as face or radial drive. Addition of flux pins to gap between magnetically coupled shafts in bioreactor experiment increases transferred torque by almost 50 percent.

  14. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  15. Active mineral additives of sapropel ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, V. A.; Danilina, E. V.; Krivonos, O. I.; Plaksin, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the presented research is to establish a scientific rational for the possibility of sapropel ashes usage as an active mineral additive. The research included the study of producing active mineral additives from sapropels by their thermal treatment at 850900 °C and afterpowdering, the investigation of the properties of paste matrix with an ash additive, and the study of the ash influence on the cement bonding agent. Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray investigations allowed us to establish that while burning, organic substances are removed, clay minerals are dehydrated and their structure is broken. Sapropel ashes chemical composition was determined. An amorphous ash constituent is mainly formed from silica of the mineral sapropel part and alumosilicagels resulted from clay minerals decomposition. Properties of PC 400 and PC 500A0 sparopel ash additives were studied. Adding ashes containing Glenium plasticizer to the cement increases paste matrix strength and considerably reduces its water absorption. X-ray phase analysis data shows changes in the phase composition of the paste matrix with an ash additive. Ash additives produce a pozzolanic effect on the cement bonding agent. Besides, an ash additive due to the alumosilicagels content causes transformation from unstable calcium aluminate forms to the stable ones.

  16. Polyolefins as additives in plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Deanin, R.D.

    1993-12-31

    Polyolefins are not only major commodity plastics - they are also very useful as additives, both in other polyolefins and also in other types of plastics. This review covers ethylene, propylene, butylene and isobutylene polymers, in blends with each other, and as additives to natural rubber, styrene/butadiene rubber, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polymethyl methacrylate, polyphenylene oxide, polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyesters, polyurethanes, polyamides, and mixed automotive plastics recycling.

  17. Mobile consultant: evaluation of additional services.

    PubMed

    Banitsas, Konstantinos; Georgiadis, Pantelis; Tachakra, Sapal; Cavouras, Dionisis

    2007-01-01

    As the need for mobility in the medical world increases, newer systems and applications came to light; many of them based on wireless and mobile networks. PDA based systems were presented in the past, capable of videoconferencing and transmitting high quality images between a roaming consultant and a fixed point in the hospital. These systems not only had desirable characteristics but also incorporated additional services that were found of value: paging, Voice over IP calling, Internet, email, intranet, patient record update, etc This paper presents an engineering and clinical evaluation of those additional services based on both objective and subjective criteria. It concludes that such complementary services can be desirable as they increase personnel mobility, utilize the hospital resources more efficiently while at the same time increase productivity and decrease the cost of hardware and communications. PMID:18002803

  18. ADDITIVITY ASSESSMENT OF TRIHALOMETHANE MIXTURES BY PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE ADDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    If additivity is known or assumed, the toxicity of a chemical mixture may be predicted from the dose response curves of the individual chemicals comprising the mixture. As single chemical data are abundant and mixture data sparse, mixture risk methods that utilize single chemical...

  19. Anti-misting additives for jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grens, E. A., II; Williams, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    The ignition characteristics of sprays, created by wind shear action, of Jet-A fuel containing polyisobutylene additives wee examined over ranges of air velocities from 45 to 90 m/s and of fuel/air mass ratios of 0.20 to 8.0. Ignition was by calibrated sparks of energies up to about 0.5 J and by a butane/oxygen flame at 165 J/s. The polymeric additives studied included the grades L80, L160, and L200 from Exxon Chemical and B200 and B230 from BASF. The ignition suppression ability of the additives, as well as their observed anti-misting (AM) behavior, ranked exactly as their molecular weights (viscosity average, M sub v) with 400-500 ppm of L80 (M sub v = 0.68 x 1,000,000) being required to suppress ignition of a spray at 51 m/s, 1.8 fuel/air mass ratio, by a 0.55 J spark while only 10 ppm of B230 (M sub v = 7.37 x 1,000,000) was required for the same conditions. The additive concentrations (L160) required for ignition suppression increased with increasing air velocity and with increasing fuel/air ratio.

  20. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting. PMID:26118220

  1. Manipulating crystallization with molecular additives.

    PubMed

    Shtukenberg, Alexander G; Lee, Stephanie S; Kahr, Bart; Ward, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of organic crystals in a wide range of industrial applications, the chemistry, biology, materials science, and chemical engineering communities have focused considerable attention on developing methods to control crystal structure, size, shape, and orientation. Tailored additives have been used to control crystallization to great effect, presumably by selectively binding to particular crystallographic surfaces and sites. However, substantial knowledge gaps still exist in the fundamental mechanisms that govern the formation and growth of organic crystals in both the absence and presence of additives. In this review, we highlight research discoveries that reveal the role of additives, either introduced by design or present adventitiously, on various stages of formation and growth of organic crystals, including nucleation, dislocation spiral growth mechanisms, growth inhibition, and nonclassical crystal morphologies. The insights from these investigations and others of their kind are likely to guide the development of innovative methods to manipulate crystallization for a wide range of materials and applications. PMID:24579880

  2. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  3. Promoting Additive Acculturation in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1995-01-01

    A study focusing on 113 ninth graders of Mexican descent indicates that most students and their parents adhere to a strategy of additive acculturation (incorporating skills of the new culture and language), but that the school curriculum and general school climate devalue Mexican culture. (SLD)

  4. Individualized Additional Instruction for Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takata, Ken

    2010-01-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the…

  5. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  6. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  7. Tinkertoy Color-Addition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joe L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple home-built device, using an overhead projector, for use in demonstrations of the addition of various combinations of red, green, and blue light. Useful in connection with discussions of color, color vision, or color television. (JRH)

  8. Silage Additives and Management Issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inoculants are the most common silage additives in the United States. These products contain lactic acid bacteria to supplement the lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop and help insure a consistent fermentation in the silo. There are three types of inoculants: homofermentative lactic acid bact...

  9. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  10. Increased duplex stabilization in porphyrin-LNA zipper arrays with structure dependent exciton coupling† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthetic procedures for the building blocks and DNA strands, full spectroscopic analysis of the ssDNA and duplex systems. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ob01681a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Daniel G.; Hussain, Rohanah; Siligardi, Giuliano; Kumar, Pawan; Hrdlicka, Patrick J.; Berova, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Porphyrins were attached to LNA uridine building blocks via rigid 5-acetylene or more flexible propargyl-amide linkers and incorporated into DNA strands. The systems show a greatly increased thermodynamic stability when using as little as three porphyrins in a zipper arrangement. Thermodynamic analysis reveals clustering of the strands into more ordered duplexes with both greater negative ΔΔS and ΔΔH values, and less ordered duplexes with small positive ΔΔS differences, depending on the combination of linkers used. The exciton coupling between the porphyrins is dependent on the flanking DNA sequence in the single stranded form, and on the nature of the linker between the nucleobase and the porphyrin in the double stranded form; it is, however, also strongly influenced by intermolecular interactions. This system is suitable for the formation of stable helical chromophore arrays with sequence and structure dependent exciton coupling. PMID:26416024

  11. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  12. Core Noise - Increasing Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustor-noise prediction capability as well as activities supporting the development of improved reduced-order, physics-based models for combustor-noise prediction. The need for benchmark data for validation of high-fidelity and modeling work and the value of a potential future diagnostic facility for testing of core-noise-reduction concepts are indicated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor

  13. Evaluation of advanced polymers for additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, Orlando; Morrison, Crystal

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and PPG Industries, Inc. was to evaluate the feasibility of using conventional coatings chemistry and technology to build up material layer-by-layer. The PPG-ORNL study successfully demonstrated that polymeric coatings formulations may overcome many limitations of common thermoplastics used in additive manufacturing (AM), allow lightweight nozzle design for material deposition and increase build rate. The materials effort focused on layer-by-layer deposition of coatings with each layer fusing together. The combination of materials and deposition results in an additively manufactured build that has sufficient mechanical properties to bear the load of additional layers, yet is capable of bonding across the z-layers to improve build direction strength. The formulation properties were tuned to enable a novel, high-throughput deposition method that is highly scalable, compatible with high loading of reinforcing fillers, and is inherently low-cost.

  14. [Food additives from the viewpoint of the food chemist].

    PubMed

    Lück, E

    1987-01-01

    Food additives serve the consumer and are a necessity for food retailers and producers. Additives, such as vitamin D and iodine, increase the nutritional physiological value of foodstuffs. Additives, which improve food preservation by preventing microbiological deterioration are especially important. Some additives are added during food production and have no further use in the finished product. They are no longer present (solvents, clarifying agents). With regard to health, many food additives are better tested than most foods. PMID:3442082

  15. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  16. Robust stability under additive perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.

  17. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  18. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  19. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  20. Additional evidence of Mercurian volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trask, N.J.; Strom, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence concerned with (1) the character and distribution of terrain surrounding fresh basins, (2) albedo, color and temporal differences between a basin rim and smooth plains on its floor, and (3) the stratigraphic relations and local distribution of smooth plains in the hilly and lineated terrain are cited as additional evidence for an internal origin of much of the Mercurian smooth plains. Altough the question of Mercurian volcanism should be kept open, this evidence together with that presented in an earlier paper suggests that volcanism occurred on Mercury early in its history. ?? 1976.

  1. Individualized additional instruction for calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Ken

    2010-10-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the student's performance. Our study compares two calculus classes, one taught with mandatory remedial IAI and the other without. The class with mandatory remedial IAI did significantly better on comprehensive multiple-choice exams, participated more frequently in classroom discussion and showed greater interest in theorem-proving and other advanced topics.

  2. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  3. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  4. High Flow Addition Curing Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Ansari, Irfan; Cerny, Lawrence L.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of high flow PMR-type addition curing polyimides was developed, which employed the substitution of 2,2'-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) for p-phenylenediamine (p -PDA) in a PMR-IL formulation. These thermoset polyimides, designated as 12F resins, were prepared from BTDB and the dimethyl ester of 4,4'- (hexafluo- roisopropylidene) -diphthalic acid (HFDE) with either nadic ester (NE) or p-aminostyrene (PAS) as the endcaps for addition curing. The 12F prepolymers displayed lower melting temperatures in DSC analysis, and higher melt flow in rheological studies than the cor- responding PMR-11 polyimides. Long-term isothermal aging studies showed that BTDB- based 12F resins exhibited comparable thermo-oxidative stability to P-PDA based PMR-11 polyimides. The noncoplanar 2- and 2'-disubstituted biphenyldiamine (BTDB) not only lowered the melt viscosities of 12F prepolymers, but also retained reasonable thermal sta- bility of the cured resins. The 12F polyimide resin with p-aminostyrene endcaps showed the best promise for long-term, high-temperature application at 343 C (650 F).

  5. Interactions between sealing materials and lubricating oil additives

    SciTech Connect

    Winkenbach, R.; Von Arndt, E.M.; Mindermann, H.

    1987-01-01

    Due to the increasingly higher application demands, engine and transmission manufactures are today using lubrication oils with more and more additives. The result is that seal materials are being damaged when exposed to such conditions and such additives. This paper shows the effects of basic oils with, and without, additives on elastomeric materials such as NBR, ACM, MVQ and FPM.

  6. China update: HIV increasing.

    PubMed

    Gil, V E

    1993-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS case rate in China increased 117% over the period 1990-1992, from 446 to 957 HIV infections. While the majority of cases in 1990 were localized in Yunnan among minority farmers and manual laborers, infection is now found in 19 provinces, counties, and urban areas over a wider spectrum of society. The concentration of cases among IV-drug users has decreased from 83.4% to 72.6%. HIV monitoring and prevention stations have been in place in the country since 1986. The government also encouraged special zones and semiautonomous cities as well as the World Health Organization to take steps to monitor and prevent the spread of HIV. While these effort have served to augment the degree of sex education previously provided, low budgets, bureaucracy, and ambivalence have impeded control efforts. Only 1.25 million of the 1.16 billion population has been serosampled over 8 years and 100,000 fewer serosamples were taken in 1992 compared to in 1991. Neither the general population nor health workers have sufficient knowledge about HIV/AIDS to prevent its continued spread. While gay men sampled in Beijing were better informed about transmission means and risk groups, over two thirds believed they were not at risk if they avoided having sex with foreigners. Recent economic reform measures allowing large movements of population from rural to urban areas, increased disposable income available for prostitutes, and greater exposure to alternative sexual norms and behaviors through the media and music further increase the risk of HIV transmission, especially among the younger generation. To counter these risks, an AIDS hotline for information and referrals has been established in Beijing which openly reaches out to the homosexual community and fields 8-12 calls/day. Training programs for doctors, counselors, professors, and social workers have been attended by people from more than 30 provinces and regions. In addition, modest research into sexual behavior is also being

  7. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  8. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed

    Barker, R H

    1975-06-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  9. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  10. Diesel fuel detergent additive performance and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, M.W.; Papachristos, M.J.; Williams, D.; Burton, J.

    1994-10-01

    Diesel fuel detergent additives are increasingly linked with high quality automotive diesel fuels. Both in Europe and in the USA, field problems associated with fuel injector coking or fouling have been experienced. In Europe indirect injection (IDI) light duty engines used in passenger cars were affected, while in the USA, a direct injection (DI) engine in heavy duty truck applications experienced field problems. In both cases, a fuel additive detergent performance test has evolved using an engine linked with the original field problem, although engine design modifications employed by the manufacturers have ensured improved operation in service. Increasing awareness of the potential for injector nozzle coking to cause deterioration in engine performance is coupled with a need to meet ever more stringent exhaust emissions legislation. These two requirements indicate that the use of detergency additives will continue to be associated with high quality diesel fuels. The paper examines detergency performance evaluated in a range of IDI and DI engines and correlates performance in the two most widely recognised test engines, namely the Peugeot 1.9 litre IDI, and Cummins L10 DI engines. 17 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. A novel addition polyimide adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.; Progar, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    An addition polyimide adhesive, LARC 13, was developed which shows promise for bonding both titanium and composites for applications which require service temperatures in excess of 533 K. The LARC 13 is based on an oligomeric bis nadimide containing a meta linked aromatic diamine. The adhesive melts prior to polymerization due to its oligomeric nature, thereby allowing it to be processed at 344 kPa or less. Therefore, LARC 13 is ideal for the bonding of honeycomb sandwich structures. After melting, the resin thermosets during the cure of the nadic endcaps to a highly crosslinked system. Few volatiles are evolved, thus allowing large enclosed structures to be bonded. Preparation of the adhesive as well as bonding, aging, and testing of lap shear and honeycomb samples are discussed.

  12. Optics of progressive addition lenses.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, J E; Buri, M; Bailey, I L; Azus, J; Borish, I M

    1987-02-01

    The optical characteristics of the major progressive addition lenses were measured using an automated lensometer with a specially designed lens holder to simulate eye rotation. Measurements were made every 3 degrees (about 1.5 mm) and graphs of isospherical equivalent lines and isocylinder lines were developed. Generally the near zone of these lenses is narrower and lower than in bifocal or trifocal lenses. Distinct differences exist between the various progressive lenses. The width of the near zone, rate of power progression, amount of unwanted cylinder (level with the distance center), and clarity of the distance zone are compared for the various lenses. The optical measurements demonstrate an apparent trade-off between the size of the cylinder-free area of the lens and the amount of the cylinder. PMID:3826294

  13. Addition polyimide end cap study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    The characterization of addition polyimides with various end caps for adhesive applications at 120-250 C environments is discussed. Oligometric polyimides were prepared from 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,3'-methylenedianiline which were end-capped with functionally reactive moities which cause crosslinking when the oligomers are heated to 200-400 C. The syntheses of the oligomers are outlined. The thermolysis of the oligomers was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and the resulting polymers were characterized by differential thermal analysis and adhesive performance. The adhesive data include lap shear strengths on titanium 6-4 adherends both before and after aging for 1000 hours at 121 C and/or 232 C.

  14. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  15. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  16. SIPSEY WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweinfurth, Stanley P.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mineral surveys the Sipsey Wilderness and additions are deemed to have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Although limestone, shale, and sandstone resources that occur in the area are physically suitable for a variety of uses, similar materials are available outside the area closer to transportation routes and potential markets. A small amount of coal has been identified in the area, occurring as nonpersistent beds less than 28 in. thick. Oil and (or) natural gas resources may be present if suitable structural traps exist in the subsurface. Therefore, the area has a probable oil and gas potential. Small amounts of asphaltic sandstone and limestone, commonly referred to as tar sands, may also occur in the subsurface. 5 refs.

  17. Adverse reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1986-01-01

    There are thousands of agents that are intentionally added to the food that we consume. These include preservatives, stabilizers, conditioners, thickeners, colorings, flavorings, sweeteners, antioxidants, etc. etc. Yet only a surprisingly small number have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Amongst all the additives, FD&C dyes have been most frequently associated with adverse reactions. Tartrazine is the most notorious of them all; however, critical review of the medical literature and current Scripps Clinic studies would indicate that tartrazine has been confirmed to be at best only occasionally associated with flares of urticaria or asthma. There is no convincing evidence in the literature of reactivity to the other azo or nonazo dyes. This can also be said of BHA/BHT, nitrites/nitrates and sorbates. Parabens have been shown to elicit IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions when used as pharmaceutical preservatives; however, as with the other additives noted above, ingested parabens have only occasionally been associated with adverse reactions. MSG, the cause of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' has only been linked to asthma in one report. Sulfiting agents used primarily as food fresheners and to control microbial growth in fermented beverages have been established as the cause of any where from mild to severe and even fatal reactions in at least 5% of the asthmatic population. Other reactions reported to follow sulfite ingestion include anaphylaxis, gastro intestinal complaints and dermatological eruptions. The prevalence of these non asthmatic reactions is unknown. The mechanism of sulfite sensitive asthma is also unknown but most likely involves hyperreactivity to inhale SO2 in the great majority of cases; however, there are reports of IgE mediated reactions and other sulfite sensitive asthmatics have been found with low levels of sulfite oxidase; necessary to oxidize endogenous sulfite to sulfate. PMID:3302664

  18. Volatiles Which Increase Magma Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S.

    2015-12-01

    The standard model of an erupting volcano is one in which the viscosity of a decompressing magma increases as the volatiles leave the melt structure to form bubbles. It has now been observed that the addition of the "volatiles" P, Cl and F result in an increase in silicate melt viscosity. This observation would mean that the viscosity of selected degassing magmas would decrease rather than increase. Here we look at P, Cl and F as three volatiles which increase viscosity through different structural mechanisms. In all three cases the volatiles increase the viscosity of peralkaline composition melts, but appear to always decrease the viscosity of peraluminous melts. Phosphorus causes the melt to unmix into a Na-P rich phase and a Na-poor silicate phase. Thus as the network modifying Na (or Ca) are removed to the phosphorus-rich melt, the matrix melt viscosity increases. With increasing amounts of added phosphorus (at network modifying Na ~ P) the addition of further phosphorus causes a decrease in viscosity. The addition of chlorine to Fe-free aluminosilicate melts results in an increase in viscosity. NMR data on these glass indicates that the chlorine sits in salt-like structures surrounded by Na and/or Ca. Such structures would remove network-modifying atoms from the melt structure and thus result in an increase in viscosity. The NMR spectra of fluorine-bearing glasses shows that F takes up at least 5 different structural positions in peralkaline composition melts. Three of these positions should result in a decrease in viscosity due to the removal of bridging oxygens. Two of the structural positons of F, however, should result in an increase in viscosity as they require the removal of network-modifying atoms from the melt structure (with one of the structures being that observed for Cl). This would imply that increasing amounts of F might result in an increase in viscosity. This proposed increase in viscosity with increasing F has now been experimentally confirmed.

  19. p53 and rapamycin are additive

    PubMed Central

    Campisi, Judith; Huang, Jing; Jones, Diane; Dodds, Sherry G.; Williams, Charnae; Hubbard, Gene; Livi, Carolina B.; Gao, Xiaoli; Weintraub, Susan; Curiel, Tyler; Sharp, Z. Dave; Hasty, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a kinase found in a complex (mTORC1) that enables macromolecular synthesis and cell growth and is implicated in cancer etiology. The rapamycin-FK506 binding protein 12 (FKBP12) complex allosterically inhibits mTORC1. In response to stress, p53 inhibits mTORC1 through a separate pathway involving cell signaling and amino acid sensing. Thus, these different mechanisms could be additive. Here we show that p53 improved the ability of rapamycin to: 1) extend mouse life span, 2) suppress ionizing radiation (IR)-induced senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) and 3) increase the levels of amino acids and citric acid in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. This additive effect could have implications for cancer treatment since rapamycin and p53 are anti-oncogenic. PMID:26158292

  20. Femtosecond fiber laser additive manufacturing of tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Shuang; Liu, Jian; Yang, Pei; Zhai, Meiyu; Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is promising to produce complex shaped components, including metals and alloys, to meet requirements from different industries such as aerospace, defense and biomedicines. Current laser AM uses CW lasers and very few publications have been reported for using pulsed lasers (esp. ultrafast lasers). In this paper, additive manufacturing of Tungsten materials is investigated by using femtosecond (fs) fiber lasers. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. Fully dense Tungsten part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained and compared with parts made with different pulse widths and CW laser. The results are evidenced that the fs laser based AM provides more dimensions to modify mechanical properties with controlled heating, rapid melting and cooling rates compared with a CW or long pulsed laser. This can greatly benefit to the make of complicated structures and materials that could not be achieved before.

  1. Increasing Instructional Efficiency by Presenting Additional Stimuli in Learning Trials for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vladescu, Jason C.; Kodak, Tiffany M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the effectiveness and efficiency of presenting secondary targets within learning trials for 4 children with an autism spectrum disorder. Specifically, we compared 4 instructional conditions using a progressive prompt delay. In 3 conditions, we presented secondary targets in the antecedent or consequence portion of…

  2. Increasing instructional efficiency by presenting additional stimuli in learning trials for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Vladescu, Jason C; Kodak, Tiffany M

    2013-12-01

    The current study examined the effectiveness and efficiency of presenting secondary targets within learning trials for 4 children with an autism spectrum disorder. Specifically, we compared 4 instructional conditions using a progressive prompt delay. In 3 conditions, we presented secondary targets in the antecedent or consequence portion of learning trials, or in the absence of prompts and reinforcement. In the fourth condition (control), we did not include secondary targets in learning trials. Results replicate and extend previous research by demonstrating that the majority of participants acquired secondary targets presented in the antecedent and consequent events of learning trials. PMID:24114346

  3. Additional potassium did not decrease aflatoxin or fumonisin nor increase corn yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potassium (K) aids in maintaining the water status of corn (Zea mays L) and helps plants to resist infection by some fungal pathogens. Two experiments involving muriate of potash fertilizer treatments of 0 lbs/A K2O, 60 lbs/A K2O, 120 lbs/A K2O, or a split application of 60 lbs/A K2O pre-plant follo...

  4. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-25

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, {sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  5. Salt additions increase soil nitrate leaching: Implications for near-coastal watershed biogeochemistry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Deposition of sea salt aerosols is often elevated along the coast relative to inland areas, yet little is known about the effects of this deposition on terrestrial ecosystem biogeochemistry. Spatial patterns of stream chemistry in the Oregon Coast Range led us to hypothesize tha...

  6. Concentrated fed-batch cell culture increases manufacturing capacity without additional volumetric capacity.

    PubMed

    Yang, William C; Minkler, Daniel F; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas; Huang, Yao-Ming

    2016-01-10

    Biomanufacturing factories of the future are transitioning from large, single-product facilities toward smaller, multi-product, flexible facilities. Flexible capacity allows companies to adapt to ever-changing pipeline and market demands. Concentrated fed-batch (CFB) cell culture enables flexible manufacturing capacity with limited volumetric capacity; it intensifies cell culture titers such that the output of a smaller facility can rival that of a larger facility. We tested this hypothesis at bench scale by developing a feeding strategy for CFB and applying it to two cell lines. CFB improved cell line A output by 105% and cell line B output by 70% compared to traditional fed-batch (TFB) processes. CFB did not greatly change cell line A product quality, but it improved cell line B charge heterogeneity, suggesting that CFB has both process and product quality benefits. We projected CFB output gains in the context of a 2000-L small-scale facility, but the output was lower than that of a 15,000-L large-scale TFB facility. CFB's high cell mass also complicated operations, eroded volumetric productivity, and showed our current processes require significant improvements in specific productivity in order to realize their full potential and savings in manufacturing. Thus, improving specific productivity can resolve CFB's cost, scale-up, and operability challenges. PMID:26521697

  7. Addition of activated switchgrass biochar to an aridic subsoil increases microbial nitrogen cycling gene abundances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been demonstrated that soil amended with biochar, designed specifically for use as a soil conditioner, results in changes to the microbial populations that reside therein. These changes have been reflected in studies measuring variations in microbial activity, biomass, and community structure...

  8. Addition of Contingency Management to Increase Home Practice in Young Children with a Speech Sound Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther, Thoms; Hautvast, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Background: Along with the severity of the disorder, the motivation of the children and their parents is an important element in explaining the extensive variance in therapeutic success. There is consensus that parental cooperation and homework are important for successful therapy. Systematic investigation into the effects of including homework in…

  9. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  10. Enhancer additivity and non-additivity are determined by enhancer strength in the Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Bothma, Jacques P; Garcia, Hernan G; Ng, Samuel; Perry, Michael W; Gregor, Thomas; Levine, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Metazoan genes are embedded in a rich milieu of regulatory information that often includes multiple enhancers possessing overlapping activities. In this study, we employ quantitative live imaging methods to assess the function of pairs of primary and shadow enhancers in the regulation of key patterning genes-knirps, hunchback, and snail-in developing Drosophila embryos. The knirps enhancers exhibit additive, sometimes even super-additive activities, consistent with classical gene fusion studies. In contrast, the hunchback enhancers function sub-additively in anterior regions containing saturating levels of the Bicoid activator, but function additively in regions where there are diminishing levels of the Bicoid gradient. Strikingly sub-additive behavior is also observed for snail, whereby removal of the proximal enhancer causes a significant increase in gene expression. Quantitative modeling of enhancer–promoter interactions suggests that weakly active enhancers function additively while strong enhancers behave sub-additively due to competition with the target promoter. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07956.001 PMID:26267217

  11. Refining Breast Cancer Risk Stratification: Additional Genes, Additional Information.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Allison W; Antoniou, Antonis C; Domchek, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic technology have enabled far more rapid, less expensive sequencing of multiple genes than was possible only a few years ago. Advances in bioinformatics also facilitate the interpretation of large amounts of genomic data. New strategies for cancer genetic risk assessment include multiplex sequencing panels of 5 to more than 100 genes (in which rare mutations are often associated with at least two times the average risk of developing breast cancer) and panels of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), combinations of which are generally associated with more modest cancer risks (more than twofold). Although these new multiple-gene panel tests are used in oncology practice, questions remain about the clinical validity and the clinical utility of their results. To translate this increasingly complex genetic information for clinical use, cancer risk prediction tools are under development that consider the joint effects of all susceptibility genes, together with other established breast cancer risk factors. Risk-adapted screening and prevention protocols are underway, with ongoing refinement as genetic knowledge grows. Priority areas for future research include the clinical validity and clinical utility of emerging genetic tests; the accuracy of developing cancer risk prediction models; and the long-term outcomes of risk-adapted screening and prevention protocols, in terms of patients' experiences and survival. PMID:27249685

  12. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  13. Additive Transforms Paint into Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tech Traders Inc. sought assistance developing low-cost, highly effective coatings and paints that created useful thermal reflectance and were safe and non-toxic. In cooperation with a group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center., Tech Traders created Insuladd, a powder additive made up of microscopic, inert gas-filled, ceramic microspheres that can be mixed into ordinary interior or exterior paint, allowing the paint to act like a layer of insulation. When the paint dries, this forms a radiant heat barrier, turning the ordinary house paint into heat-reflecting thermal paint. According to Tech Traders, the product works with all types of paints and coatings and will not change the coverage rate, application, or adhesion of the paint. Other useful applications include feed storage silos to help prevent feed spoilage, poultry hatcheries to reduce the summer heat and winter cold effects, and on military vehicles and ships. Tech Traders has continued its connection to the aerospace community by recently providing Lockheed Martin Corporation with one of its thermal products for use on the F-22 Raptor.

  14. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  15. Food additives and contaminants. An update.

    PubMed

    Newberne, P M; Conner, M W

    1986-10-15

    Food additives continue to be a source of benefits to the consuming public but there are also perceived risks. Concern for the latter in the last decade has produced a society afflicted with cancer phobia. The intentional additives including sugars, salt, corn syrup, and dextrose make up 90% of the direct additives. These, along with a limited number of familiar items make up a large proportion of the remainder of the additives. Such common ingredients as nitrates and nitrites, solanine, cyanogenetic compounds, arsenic, etc., are unavoidably consumed in the diet and with little if any evidence for public health consequences. Major concern on the part of the public in recent years has been focused on man-made chemicals which are intentionally added to foods to enhance flavors and acceptability, nutrient value, shelf life and increased availability. These include food colors, nonnutritive and low-nutrient sweeteners, (saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame); antioxidants; and nitrites. Contaminants, sometimes incorrectly included in lists of food additives, present the greatest potential threat to public health. Such contaminants as mycotoxins, nitrosamines, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, among others, provide a continuing challenge to our regulatory agencies and to public health authorities. Evidence to date indicate that these responsible for food safety are doing an admirable job, and as a society, our food supply has never been better, or safer, and, as a population, we have never been healthier. Aside from contaminants, major concerns relate to an excess of good food and to obesity. These comments should not be taken to infer that we should relax our concern and surveillance; instead more concern and surveillance should be exerted toward those uncontrolled substances such as natural plant products and alleged natural nutrients, roots, herbs, etc., which are given much credit for positive health effects, without meeting the high standards of our

  16. Manipulation of microstructure in laser additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Shuang; Yang, Lihmei; Liu, Jian

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, additive manufacturing (AM) of tungsten parts is investigated by using femtosecond fiber lasers. For the first time, manipulating microstructures of AM parts is systematically investigated and reported. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, and microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. Fully dense tungsten part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained for femtosecond laser, compared with parts made with different pulse widths and CW laser. Micro-hardness is investigated for the fabricated samples. This can greatly benefit to the make of complicated structures and materials that could not be achieved before.

  17. Improving ED efficiency to capture additional revenue.

    PubMed

    Mandavia, Sujal; Samaniego, Loretta

    2016-06-01

    An increase in the number of patients visiting emergency departments (EDs) presents an opportunity for additional revenue if hospitals take four steps to optimize resources: Streamline the patient pathway and reduce the amount of time each patient occupies a bed in the ED. Schedule staff according to the busy and light times for patient arrivals. Perform registration and triage bedside, reducing initial wait times. Create an area for patients to wait for test results so beds can be freed up for new arrivals. PMID:27451568

  18. Addition agents effects on hydrocarbon fuels burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V. M.; Mitrofanov, G. A.; Sakhovskii, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Literature review on addition agents effects on hydrocarbon fuels burning has been conducted. The impact results in flame pattern and burning velocity change, energy efficiency increase, environmentally harmful NOx and CO emission reduction and damping of self-oscillations in flow. An assumption about water molecules dissociation phenomenon existing in a number of practical applications and being neglected in most explanations for physical- chemical processes taking place in case of injection of water/steam into combustion zone has been noted. The hypothesis about necessity of water dissociation account has been proposed. It can be useful for low temperature combustion process control and NOx emission reduction.

  19. Increased feelings with increased body signals

    PubMed Central

    Vianna, Eduardo P. M.; Weinstock, Joel; Elliott, David; Summers, Robert; Tranel, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Since the beginning of psychology as a scientific endeavour, the question of whether the body plays a role in how a person experiences emotion has been the centre of emotion research. Patients with structural gastrointestinal disorders, such as Crohn's disease, provide an intriguing opportunity to study the influence of body signals on emotions and feelings. In the present study, emotionally salient films were presented to participants with Crohn's disease in either the active state (Crohn's-active, CA) or silent state (Crohn's-silent, CS), and to normal comparison (NC) participants. We hypothesized that CA participants would have increased feelings, compared with CS and NC participants, when viewing emotional films designed to elicit happiness, disgust, sadness and fear. Gastric myoelectrical activity (electrogastrogram, or EGG) was measured during the films, and after each film was presented, participants rated emotion intensity (arousal) and pleasantness (valence). All groups labelled the emotions similarly. In support of the hypothesis, CA participants showed an increase in subjective arousal for negative emotions compared with CS and NC participants. The CA participants also showed increased EGG during emotional film viewing, as well as a strong positive correlation of EGG with arousal ratings. Together, these findings can be taken as evidence that aberrant feedback from the gastrointestinal system up-regulates the intensity of feelings of negative emotions. PMID:18985099

  20. Additively Manufactured Metals in Oxygen Systems Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tylka, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Metals produced by additive manufacturing methods, such as Powder Bed Fusion Technology, are now mature enough to be considered for qualification in human spaceflight oxygen systems. The mechanical properties of metals produced through AM processes are being systematically studied. However, it is unknown whether AM metals in oxygen applications may present an increased risk of flammability or ignition as compared to wrought metals of the same metallurgical composition due to increased porosity. Per NASA-STD-6001B materials to be used in oxygen system applications shall be based on flammability and combustion test data, followed by a flammability assessment. Without systematic flammability and ignition testing in oxygen there is no credible method for NASA to accurately evaluate the risk of using AM metals in oxygen systems.

  1. Aerated concrete with mineral dispersed reinforcing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdov, G. I.; Ilina, L. V.; Mukhina, I. N.; Rakov, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    To guarantee the production of aerated concrete with the lowest average density while ensuring the required strength it is necessary to use a silica component with a surface area of 250-300 m2 / kg. The article presents experimental data on grinding the silica component together with clinker to the optimum dispersion. This allows increasing the strength of non-autoclaved aerated concrete up to 33%. Furthermore, the addition to aerated concrete the mixture of dispersed reinforcing agents (wollastonite, diopside) and electrolytes with multiply charged cations and anions (1% Fe2 (SO4)3; Al2 (SO4)3) provides the growth of aerated concrete strength at 30 - 75%. As a cohesive the clinker, crushed together with silica and mineral supplements should be used. This increases the strength of aerated concrete at 65% in comparing with Portland cement.

  2. Evaluating Three Different Methods of Determining Addition in Presbyopia

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Negareh; Khorasani, Abbas Azimi; Moghadam, Hanieh Mirhajian; Yekta, Abbas Ali; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Shandiz, Javad Heravian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare three different methods for determining addition in presbyopes. Methods: The study included 81 subjects with presbyopia who aged 40-70 years. Reading addition values were measured using 3 approaches including the amplitude of accommodation (AA), dynamic retinoscopy (DR), and increasing plus lens (IPL). Results: IPL overestimated reading addition relative to other methods. Mean near addition obtained by AA, DR and IPL were 1.31, 1.68 and 1.77, respectively. Our results showed that IPL method could provide 20/20 vision at near in the majority of presbyopic subjects (63.4%). Conclusion: The results were approximately the same for 3 methods and provided comparable final addition; however, mean near additions were higher with increasing plus lens compared with the other two methods. In presbyopic individuals, increasing plus lens is recommended as the least time-consuming method with the range of ±0.50 diopter at the 40 cm working distance. PMID:27621785

  3. Additive monitoring and interactions during copper electroprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Dale Wade

    The electrochemical deposition of copper has been a major focus of research for decades. Renewed interest in copper electroplating is not limited to the copper producers but is also a major concern of semiconductor manufacturers. The focus on copper electrochemistry by the semiconductor manufacturers has increased since IBM's announcement in 1997 that copper will be used for metallization in high speed/power semiconductors [1--3]. The desire to use copper instead of aluminum is simply a reflection on copper's superior conductivity (lower RC time constants) and resistance to electromigration (generally proportional to the melting point). This dissertation is the compilation of the research into analytical techniques for monitoring surface-active additives in common sulfuric acid/copper sulfate plating baths. Chronopotentiometric, DC and AC voltammetry were the major analytical techniques used in this research. Several interactions between the additives will also be presented along with their apparent decline in activity. The decline in activity is well known in the industry and is also detected by these methods as presented in chapters 4 and 5. Finally, a systemic approach for monitoring the additive Galactosal, which is commonly used in electrowinning, will be outlined. The monitoring system proposed herein would have to be adjusted for each electrowinning facility because each has a unique chemistry and cell configuration.

  4. Culture and neuroscience: additive or synergistic?

    PubMed Central

    Dapretto, Mirella; Iacoboni, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of cultural phenomena using neuroscientific methods—cultural neuroscience (CN)—is receiving increasing attention. Yet it is unclear whether the integration of cultural study and neuroscience is merely additive, providing additional evidence of neural plasticity in the human brain, or truly synergistic, yielding discoveries that neither discipline could have achieved alone. We discuss how the parent fields to CN: cross-cultural psychology, psychological anthropology and cognitive neuroscience inform the investigation of the role of cultural experience in shaping the brain. Drawing on well-established methodologies from cross-cultural psychology and cognitive neuroscience, we outline a set of guidelines for CN, evaluate 17 CN studies in terms of these guidelines, and provide a summary table of our results. We conclude that the combination of culture and neuroscience is both additive and synergistic; while some CN methodologies and findings will represent the direct union of information from parent fields, CN studies employing the methodological rigor required by this logistically challenging new field have the potential to transform existing methodologies and produce unique findings. PMID:20083533

  5. (Al, B)-ZSM-11 FCC additive performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hsing, L.H.; O`Young, C.L.

    1996-10-01

    ZSM-5 additive has been used extensively in the petroleum refining industry to enhance the light olefins production from the FCCU operation. In this paper, an FCC additive, (Al, B)-ZSM-11 was evaluated for its performance on a circulated FCC pilot unit. This additive was prepared by partially replacing the frame-work aluminum with boron, which in turn, will alternate its acid characteristics and performance as an FCC additive in promoting light olefin production. The (Al, B)-ZSM-11 additive increased C3=, C4=, and C5= yields, but was less effective in increasing C3=, C4= yields, particularly I-C4= than ZSM-5 additive. The (Al, B)-ZSM-11 additive increased branched C5= and decreased linear C5= yields resulting from skeletal isomerization. C5= and FC naphtha yields with (Al, B)-ZSM-11 additive are higher than those obtained with ZSM-5 additive indicating lower cracking of FC naphtha and C%= to lower olefins with (Al, B)-ZSM-11 additive than ZSM-5. The product selectivity difference between ZSM-5 and (Al, B)-ZSM-11 additives can be correlated with their respective acidity.

  6. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Meraab, J.

    1988-06-27

    This research is directed towards the development of engineering guidelines that define the application of distributed fuel addition as a technique for NOx abatement. It is expected that multiple fuel and air addition in the post-flame of a combustion process will increase free radical concentrations which destroy nitrogenous species and thus help them decay toward their equilibrium concentrations, which can be very low in that region of the combustor. Screening experiments were conducted on a laboratory scale downfired combustor. The objective was to compare NOx emissions arising from various combustion configurations, including fuel and/or air staging. Although the primary focus of this research is on NO control, a secondary effort was directed towards the measurement of N2O emissions from various coal combustion processes. N2O has been identified as a trace gas responsible for stratospheric ozone depletion, and has been hypothesized to arise from combustion processes, in amounts roughly proportional to NO emissions. Results presented in this report showed that the ratio N2O/NO was far from constant. The introduction of secondary air into a combustion process was accompanied an increase in N2O emissions. The measured N2O was always less than 10 ppm even under the most favorable combustion conditions. Reburning with premixed fuel and air mixtures was not effective in reducing NO emissions.

  7. Foam concrete with porous mineral and organic additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudiakov, A.; Prischepa, I.; Tolchennickov, M.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents results of studies of structural heat insulating foam concrete with porous mineral and organic additives. By mixing additives with the concrete the speed of the initial structure formation increases. The additives of ash loss and thermal-modified peat TMT 600 provide a stable increase of strength by compression and bending of foam concrete. In the dried foam concrete with the addition of TMT and ash loss thermal conductivity decreases by 20% and 7% respectively. The regularities of changes in the thermal conductivity at various moisture of foam concrete have been investigated.

  8. Supplier Selection Using Weighted Utility Additive Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karande, Prasad; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem which mainly involves evaluating a number of available suppliers according to a set of common criteria for choosing the best one to meet the organizational needs. For any manufacturing or service organization, selecting the right upstream suppliers is a key success factor that will significantly reduce purchasing cost, increase downstream customer satisfaction and improve competitive ability. The past researchers have attempted to solve the supplier selection problem employing different MCDM techniques which involve active participation of the decision makers in the decision-making process. This paper deals with the application of weighted utility additive (WUTA) method for solving supplier selection problems. The WUTA method, an extension of utility additive approach, is based on ordinal regression and consists of building a piece-wise linear additive decision model from a preference structure using linear programming (LP). It adopts preference disaggregation principle and addresses the decision-making activities through operational models which need implicit preferences in the form of a preorder of reference alternatives or a subset of these alternatives present in the process. The preferential preorder provided by the decision maker is used as a restriction of a LP problem, which has its own objective function, minimization of the sum of the errors associated with the ranking of each alternative. Based on a given reference ranking of alternatives, one or more additive utility functions are derived. Using these utility functions, the weighted utilities for individual criterion values are combined into an overall weighted utility for a given alternative. It is observed that WUTA method, having a sound mathematical background, can provide accurate ranking to the candidate suppliers and choose the best one to fulfill the organizational requirements. Two real time examples are illustrated to prove

  9. Increased intracranial pressure

    MedlinePlus

    Increased intracranial pressure is a rise in the pressure inside the skull that can result from or cause brain injury. ... Increased intracranial pressure can be due to a rise in pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid. This is ...

  10. Increased head circumference

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003305.htm Increased head circumference To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Increased head circumference is when the measured distance around the ...

  11. Resin additive improves performance of high-temperature hydrocarbon lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Loomis, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Paraffinic resins, in high temperature applications, improve strength of thin lubricant film in Hertzian contacts even though they do not increase bulk oil viscosity. Use of resin circumvents corrosivity and high volatility problems inherent with many chemical additives.

  12. Additional Crime Scenes for Projectile Motion Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, Dan; Bonner, David

    2011-12-01

    Building students' ability to transfer physics fundamentals to real-world applications establishes a deeper understanding of underlying concepts while enhancing student interest. Forensic science offers a great opportunity for students to apply physics to highly engaging, real-world contexts. Integrating these opportunities into inquiry-based problem solving in a team environment provides a terrific backdrop for fostering communication, analysis, and critical thinking skills. One such activity, inspired jointly by the museum exhibit "CSI: The Experience"2 and David Bonner's TPT article "Increasing Student Engagement and Enthusiasm: A Projectile Motion Crime Scene,"3 provides students with three different crime scenes, each requiring an analysis of projectile motion. In this lesson students socially engage in higher-order analysis of two-dimensional projectile motion problems by collecting information from 3-D scale models and collaborating with one another on its interpretation, in addition to diagramming and mathematical analysis typical to problem solving in physics.

  13. Emerging technologies in arthroplasty: additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Samik; Kulesha, Gene; Kester, Mark; Mont, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Additive manufacturing is an industrial technology whereby three-dimensional visual computer models are fabricated into physical components by selectively curing, depositing, or consolidating various materials in consecutive layers. Although initially developed for production of simulated models, the technology has undergone vast improvements and is currently increasingly being used for the production of end-use components in various aerospace, automotive, and biomedical specialties. The ability of this technology to be used for the manufacture of solid-mesh-foam monolithic and coated components of complex geometries previously considered unmanufacturable has attracted the attention of implant manufacturers, bioengineers, and orthopedic surgeons. Currently, there is a paucity of reports describing this fabrication method in the orthopedic literature. Therefore, we aimed to briefly describe this technology, some of the applications in other orthopedic subspecialties, its present use in hip and knee arthroplasty, and concerns with the present form of the technology. As there are few reports of clinical trials presently available, the true benefits of this technology can only be realized when studies evaluating the clinical and radiographic outcomes of cementless implants manufactured with additive manufacturing report durable fixation, less stress shielding, and better implant survivorship. Nevertheless, the authors believe that this technology holds great promise and may potentially change the conventional methods of casting, machining, and tooling for implant manufacturing in the future. PMID:24764230

  14. Additive manufacturing of glass for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Junjie; Gilbert, Luke J.; Bristow, Douglas A.; Landers, Robert G.; Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Kinzel, Edward C.

    2016-04-01

    Glasses including fused quartz have significant scientific and engineering applications including optics, communications, electronics, and hermetic seals. This paper investigates a filament fed process for Additive Manufacturing (AM) of fused quartz. Additive manufacturing has several potential benefits including increased design freedom, faster prototyping, and lower processing costs for small production volumes. However, current research in AM of glasses is limited and has focused on non-optical applications. Fused quartz is studied here because of its desirability for high-quality optics due to its high transmissivity and thermal stability. Fused quartz also has a higher working temperature than soda lime glass which poses a challenge for AM. In this work, fused quartz filaments are fed into a CO2 laser generated melt pool, smoothly depositing material onto the work piece. Single tracks are printed to explore the effects that different process parameters have on the morphology of printed fused quartz. A spectrometer is used to measure the thermal radiation incandescently emitted from the melt pool. Thin-walls are printed to study the effects of layer-to-layer height. Finally, a 3D fused quartz cube is printed using the newly acquired layer height and polished on each surface. The transmittance and index homogeneity of the polished cube are both measured. These results show that the filament fed process has the potential to print fused quartz with optical transparency and of index of refraction uniformity approaching bulk processed glass.

  15. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  16. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  17. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  18. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  19. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  20. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  1. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  2. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  3. Applications of Metal Additive Manufacturing in Veterinary Orthopedic Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrysson, Ola L. A.; Marcellin-Little, Denis J.; Horn, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    Veterinary medicine has undergone a rapid increase in specialization over the last three decades. Veterinarians now routinely perform joint replacement, neurosurgery, limb-sparing surgery, interventional radiology, radiation therapy, and other complex medical procedures. Many procedures involve advanced imaging and surgical planning. Evidence-based medicine has also become part of the modus operandi of veterinary clinicians. Modeling and additive manufacturing can provide individualized or customized therapeutic solutions to support the management of companion animals with complex medical problems. The use of metal additive manufacturing is increasing in veterinary orthopedic surgery. This review describes and discusses current and potential applications of metal additive manufacturing in veterinary orthopedic surgery.

  4. Reducing Communication in Algebraic Multigrid Using Additive Variants

    SciTech Connect

    Vassilevski, Panayot S.; Yang, Ulrike Meier

    2014-02-12

    Algebraic multigrid (AMG) has proven to be an effective scalable solver on many high performance computers. However, its increasing communication complexity on coarser levels has shown to seriously impact its performance on computers with high communication cost. Moreover, additive AMG variants provide not only increased parallelism as well as decreased numbers of messages per cycle but also generally exhibit slower convergence. Here we present various new additive variants with convergence rates that are significantly improved compared to the classical additive algebraic multigrid method and investigate their potential for decreased communication, and improved communication-computation overlap, features that are essential for good performance on future exascale architectures.

  5. Increases in Problem Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Increases in Problem Drinking Alcohol use disorder is becoming more common, a ... the need to better educate people about problem drinking and its treatment. Alcohol use disorder, or AUD, ...

  6. Increasing productivity: Another approach

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.J.

    1996-06-10

    An engineering information (EI) and information technology (IT) organization that must improve its productivity should work to further its business goals. This paper explores a comprehensive model for increasing EI/IT productivity by supporting organizational objectives.

  7. Increasing Public Library Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelson, Howard

    1981-01-01

    Suggests ways of improving productivity for public libraries faced with increased accountability, dwindling revenues, and continuing inflation. Techniques described include work simplification, work analysis, improved management, and employee motivation. (RAA)

  8. Evaluation of biodegradation-promoting additives for plastics.

    PubMed

    Selke, Susan; Auras, Rafael; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Castro Aguirre, Edgar; Cheruvathur, Rijosh; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-17

    Biodegradation-promoting additives for polymers are increasingly being used around the world with the claim that they effectively render commercial polymers biodegradable. However, there is a lot of uncertainty about their effectiveness in degrading polymers in different environments. In this study, we evaluated the effect of biodegradation-promoting additives on the biodegradation of polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Biodegradation was evaluated in compost, anaerobic digestion, and soil burial environments. None of the five different additives tested significantly increased biodegradation in any of these environments. Thus, no evidence was found that these additives promote and/or enhance biodegradation of PE or PET polymers. So, anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation are not recommended as feasible disposal routes for nonbiodegradable plastics containing any of the five tested biodegradation-promoting additives. PMID:25723056

  9. English as an Additional Language: Assumptions and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan

    2010-01-01

    The number of pupils who have English as an Additional Language (EAL) in our English schools is increasing with an increased influx of migrants from Europe. This paper investigates how schools are addressing the needs of these children. Using survey and interviews with teachers and paraprofessionals (teaching assistants and bilingual assistants),…

  10. Meeting increased demand.

    PubMed

    Blair, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    New Zealand is a little country with a little economy but with a population that's rapidly aging. New Zealand's population is only 4.3 million people. It's GDP is only $US58.6 billion (2002). New Zealand's expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP is not out of line with that of other countries. As a nation we have been increasing expenditure on health over recent years. In 1990 we spent 7% of GDP on health. In 1995 that increased to 7.65% and is now 8.3%. However, in per capita terms our expenditure on health does not compare so well with like countries. The size of New Zealand's economy is restricting what our country spends on health. Health is already the second highest demand on the New Zealand tax dollar. The tolerance of New Zealanders would be challenged if a Government attempted to increase taxes further to meet the growing demands for expenditure on health, but at the same time the population's expectations are increasing. This is the challenging situation we face today. What lies ahead? Like all industrialized countries New Zealand is facing an aging population. The population below age 40 is decreasing, but it is increasing significantly over that age. 16% of the population is currently aged over 60. By 2051 this proportion will almost double to just over 31%. Coupled with the aging population is increased awareness and expectations, as access to options for treatment and technology becomes readily accessible to the population through such media as the internet. The extent of the impact of the aging population can be clearly represented by focusing on one specialty such as orthopaedics. The New Zealand Orthopaecic Association undertook a study in July 2003 which concluded (among other things) that as a result of the projected aging of the population, over the next 50 years: Musculo-skeletal operations will increase by over 30%. The number of hip replacements will nearly double. The incidence of osteoporosis will increase by a massive 201%. The number

  11. Increasing Accuracy in Environmental Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacksier, Tracey; Fernandes, Adelino; Matthew, Matt; Lehmann, Horst

    2016-04-01

    Human activity is increasing the concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in the atmosphere which results in temperature increases. High precision is a key requirement of atmospheric measurements to study the global carbon cycle and its effect on climate change. Natural air containing stable isotopes are used in GHG monitoring to calibrate analytical equipment. This presentation will examine the natural air and isotopic mixture preparation process, for both molecular and isotopic concentrations, for a range of components and delta values. The role of precisely characterized source material will be presented. Analysis of individual cylinders within multiple batches will be presented to demonstrate the ability to dynamically fill multiple cylinders containing identical compositions without isotopic fractionation. Additional emphasis will focus on the ability to adjust isotope ratios to more closely bracket sample types without the reliance on combusting naturally occurring materials, thereby improving analytical accuracy.

  12. Recent additions in the treatment of cough

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, cough is regarded as a challenging clinical problem due to its frequency and often limited therapeutic options. Chronic cough that remains refractory to usual medical treatment causes significant quality of life impairment in people with this problem. Methods We have examined current evidence on recent additions in the treatment of cough, specifically treatment of refractory chronic cough with speech pathology and gabapentin. Relevant randomised control trials, reviews and case reports were identified through a PubMed and SCOPUS search of English-language literature referring to these concepts over the last eight years. Summary Of the one hundred and two articles comprising this review the majority investigated the role of the transient receptor potential (TRP) receptors TRP Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRPA1 in cough and the potential of TRP antagonists as effective anti-tussives. However, these have only been tested in the laboratory and therefore their clinical effectiveness is unknown. Behavioural treatments such as speech pathology have gained momentum and this was evident in the increasing number of articles investigating its positive effect on cough. Investigation on the effectiveness of neuromodulating medications in the treatment of cough have been supported primarily through case series reports and prospective reviews however; their use (particularly gabapentin) has been significantly advanced through recently conducted randomised controlled trials. Conclusions Recent additions in the treatment of chronic cough have been significant as they consider cough to have a unifying diagnosis of cough hypersensitivity with or without the presence of a neuropathic basis. Primarily, effective treatments for chronic cough target these areas and include behavioural treatment such as speech pathology and pharmaceutical treatment with neuromodulating medications such as gabapentin. PMID:25383209

  13. Seismic waves increase permeability.

    PubMed

    Elkhoury, Jean E; Brodsky, Emily E; Agnew, Duncan C

    2006-06-29

    Earthquakes have been observed to affect hydrological systems in a variety of ways--water well levels can change dramatically, streams can become fuller and spring discharges can increase at the time of earthquakes. Distant earthquakes may even increase the permeability in faults. Most of these hydrological observations can be explained by some form of permeability increase. Here we use the response of water well levels to solid Earth tides to measure permeability over a 20-year period. At the time of each of seven earthquakes in Southern California, we observe transient changes of up to 24 degrees in the phase of the water level response to the dilatational volumetric strain of the semidiurnal tidal components of wells at the Piñon Flat Observatory in Southern California. After the earthquakes, the phase gradually returns to the background value at a rate of less than 0.1 degrees per day. We use a model of axisymmetric flow driven by an imposed head oscillation through a single, laterally extensive, confined, homogeneous and isotropic aquifer to relate the phase response to aquifer properties. We interpret the changes in phase response as due to changes in permeability. At the time of the earthquakes, the permeability at the site increases by a factor as high as three. The permeability increase depends roughly linearly on the amplitude of seismic-wave peak ground velocity in the range of 0.21-2.1 cm s(-1). Such permeability increases are of interest to hydrologists and oil reservoir engineers as they affect fluid flow and might determine long-term evolution of hydrological and oil-bearing systems. They may also be interesting to seismologists, as the resulting pore pressure changes can affect earthquakes by changing normal stresses on faults. PMID:16810253

  14. Effect of additives on the purification of urease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Wang, J.; Ulrich, J.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of additives on the purification of proteins was investigated. The target protein studied here is the enzyme urease. Studies on the purification of urease from jack bean meal were carried out. 32% (v/v) acetone was utilized to extract urease from the jack bean meal. Further purification by crystallization with the addition of 2-mercaptoethanol and EDTA disodium salt dehydrate was carried out. It was found out that the presence of additives can affect the selectivity of the crystallization. Increases in both purity and yield of the urease after crystallization were observed in the presence of additives, which were proven using both SDS-PAGE and activity. Urease crystals with a yield of 69.9% and a purity of 85.1% were obtained in one crystallization step in the presence of additives. Furthermore, the effect of additives on the thermodynamics and kinetics of urease crystallization was studied.

  15. Does salt increase thirst?

    PubMed

    Leshem, Micah

    2015-02-01

    Our diet is believed to be overly rich in sodium, and it is commonly believed that sodium intake increases drinking. Hence the concern of a possible contribution of dietary sodium to beverage intake which in turn may contribute to obesity and ill health. Here we examine whether voluntary, acute intake of a sodium load, as occurs in routine eating and snacking, increases thirst and drinking. We find that after ingesting 3.5 or 4.4 g NaCl (men) and 1.9 or 3.7 g (women) on nuts during 15 minutes, there is no increase in thirst or drinking of freely available water in the following 2 h compared with eating similar amounts of sugared or unflavored nuts. This suggests that routine ingestion of boluses of salt (~30-40% of daily intake for men, ~ 20-40% for women) does not increase drinking. Methodological concerns such as about nuts as vehicle for sodium suggest further research to establish the generalizability of this unexpected result. PMID:25447020

  16. Productivity increases in science

    SciTech Connect

    Danko, J.E.; Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M.; Dirks, J.A.

    1993-02-01

    The study quantifies the impact on the cost of experimentation of synergistic advancements in instrumentation, theory, and computation over the last two decades. The study finds that the productivity of experimental investigation (experimental results/$) is increasing as science is transformed from a linear, isolated approach to a hierarchical, multidisciplinary approach. Developments such as massively parallel processors coupled with instrumental systems with multiple probes and diverse data analysis capabilities will further this transformation and increase the productivity of scientific studies. The complexities and scale of today's scientific challenges are much greater than in the past, however, so that the costs of research are increasing. Even though science is much more productive in terms of the experimental results, the challenges facing scientific investigators are increasing at an even faster pace. New approaches to infrastructure investments must capitalize on the changing dynamics of research and allow the scientific community to maximize gains in productivity so that complex problems can be attacked cost-effectively. Research strategies that include user facilities and coordinated experimental, computational, and theoretical research are needed.

  17. Productivity increases in science

    SciTech Connect

    Danko, J.E.; Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M.; Dirks, J.A.

    1993-02-01

    The study quantifies the impact on the cost of experimentation of synergistic advancements in instrumentation, theory, and computation over the last two decades. The study finds that the productivity of experimental investigation (experimental results/$) is increasing as science is transformed from a linear, isolated approach to a hierarchical, multidisciplinary approach. Developments such as massively parallel processors coupled with instrumental systems with multiple probes and diverse data analysis capabilities will further this transformation and increase the productivity of scientific studies. The complexities and scale of today`s scientific challenges are much greater than in the past, however, so that the costs of research are increasing. Even though science is much more productive in terms of the experimental results, the challenges facing scientific investigators are increasing at an even faster pace. New approaches to infrastructure investments must capitalize on the changing dynamics of research and allow the scientific community to maximize gains in productivity so that complex problems can be attacked cost-effectively. Research strategies that include user facilities and coordinated experimental, computational, and theoretical research are needed.

  18. Increased global financings

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.

    1994-10-01

    The results of a financial rankings survey for the first half of 1994 show increased financial activity over the second half of 1993. More than $10.5 billion is reported by developers and financial firms for 62 transactions during 1994`s first six months.

  19. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  20. Acidic stream mitigation by limestone sand addition

    SciTech Connect

    Brant, D.L.; Marich, A.J. Jr.; Largent, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    The Town Line Run watershed comprises an area of 3,600 wooded acres. The tributaries feeding the stream consist of sandstone springs that do not contribute alkalinity to the watershed, leaving the stream susceptible to acid precipitation. This has a negative affect on Iser`s Run, a native brook trout fishery above the confluence with Town Line Run. The objective in stream liming is to improve water chemistry by increasing pH, alkalinity, and reducing acidity, aluminum, and iron. Introducing crushed limestone directly into a stream from a dump truck is an inexpensive but temporary solution to accomplish this objective. In this type of liming operation, a bed of limestone is spread down the stream channel by the momentum of the stream from the introduction point, rather than manually. Water moving across this bed dissolves the limestone, increasing the pH, alkalinity, and calcium while decreasing the acidity, iron, and aluminum concentrations of the water. The size of the limestone particles is important for this purpose because particles that are too small (<150 microns) will carried away, while particles that are too large (>1000 microns) will remain at the introduction point. Our study placed 80 tons of sand-sized limestone (85% calcite) in the stream channel at a single point. Water samples were collected monthly at the following sites (1) directly upstream of the addition site, (2) 100 yards downstream of the site, and (3) 2500 yards downstream of the site. Other sample locations include (4) upstream and (5) downstream of the Town Line Run- Iser`s Run confluence and the Casselman River upstream (6) and downstream (7) of Town Line Run. The samples were analyzed for pH. Specific conductivity, Alkalinity, Acidity, Iron, Manganese, Aluminum, and Sulfate.

  1. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  2. 20 CFR 901.72 - Additional rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional rules. 901.72 Section 901.72... Additional rules. The Joint Board may, in notice or other guidance of general applicability, provide additional rules regarding the enrollment of actuaries. Effective Date Note: At 76 FR 17776, Mar. 31,...

  3. 17 CFR 48.10 - Additional contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional contracts. 48.10... FOREIGN BOARDS OF TRADE § 48.10 Additional contracts. (a) Generally. A registered foreign board of trade that wishes to make an additional futures, option or swap contract available for trading by...

  4. 17 CFR 48.10 - Additional contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional contracts. 48.10...) REGISTRATION OF FOREIGN BOARDS OF TRADE § 48.10 Additional contracts. (a) Generally. A registered foreign board of trade that wishes to make an additional futures, option or swap contract available for trading...

  5. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  6. 20 CFR 802.215 - Additional briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional briefs. 802.215 Section 802.215 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Prereview Procedures Initial Processing § 802.215 Additional briefs. Additional briefs may be filed or ordered in...

  7. 77 FR 49783 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/15/2012 (77 FR 35942-35944) and 6/22/2012 (77 FR 37659-37660), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  8. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  9. 20 CFR 802.215 - Additional briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional briefs. 802.215 Section 802.215 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Prereview Procedures Initial Processing § 802.215 Additional briefs. Additional briefs may be filed or ordered in...

  10. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to determine... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section...

  11. 78 FR 9386 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 11/30/2012 (77 FR 71400-71401), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  12. 78 FR 45183 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 5/31/2013 (78 FR 32631-32632); 6/7/2013 (78 FR 34350-34351); and 6/14/2013 (78 FR... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  13. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional information. 75.231 Section 75.231 Education... Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  14. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The... activity to submit additional information....

  15. 10 CFR 725.13 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 725.13 Section 725.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA Applications § 725.13 Additional information. The... and before the termination of the permit, require additional information in order to enable the...

  16. 10 CFR 725.13 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 725.13 Section 725.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA Applications § 725.13 Additional information. The... and before the termination of the permit, require additional information in order to enable the...

  17. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  18. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  19. 12 CFR 1249.19 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional provisions. 1249.19 Section 1249.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 1249.19 Additional provisions. (a) Additional requirements. In any case or any class of cases arising under this part, an Enterprise may require such...

  20. 75 FR 33269 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 4/9/2010 (75 FR 18164-18165), the Committee for Purchase From People Who... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  1. Polymeric Additives For Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experimental studies of properties of several graphite/epoxy composites containing polymeric additives as flexibilizing or toughening agents. Emphasizes effects of brominated polymeric additives (BPA's) with or without carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile rubber. Reviews effects of individual and combined additives on fracture toughnesses, environmental stabilities, hot/wet strengths, thermomechanical behaviors, and other mechanical properties of composites.

  2. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  3. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  4. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  5. 76 FR 18189 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 1/28/2011 (76 FR 5142-5143), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  6. 75 FR 4784 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 11/16/2009 (74 FR 58949-58950), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  7. 75 FR 54114 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 7/2/2010 (75 FR 38467-38468) and 7/9/2010 (75 FR 39497-39499), the... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  8. 77 FR 53180 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/15/2012 (77 FR 35942-35944) and 6/29/2012 (77 FR 38775-38776), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase from People who are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  9. 76 FR 19751 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 1/28/2011 (76 FR 5142-5143), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  10. 17 CFR 48.10 - Additional contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional contracts. 48.10... FOREIGN BOARDS OF TRADE § 48.10 Additional contracts. (a) Generally. A registered foreign board of trade that wishes to make an additional futures, option or swap contract available for trading by...

  11. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition to those established in...

  12. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  13. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  14. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  15. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  16. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  17. 28 CFR 80.16 - Additional requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional requests. 80.16 Section 80.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.16 Additional requests. Additional requests for FCPA Opinions may be filed with the...

  18. 28 CFR 80.16 - Additional requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional requests. 80.16 Section 80.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.16 Additional requests. Additional requests for FCPA Opinions may be filed with the...

  19. 77 FR 17034 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 1/13/2012 (77 FR 2048), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  20. 75 FR 39497 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 5/14/2010 (75 FR 27313), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  1. 78 FR 59658 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 7/26/2013 (78 FR 45183); 8/9/2013 (78 FR 48656-48657) and 8/16/ 2013 (78 FR 50040... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  2. 77 FR 12816 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/24/2011 (76 FR 37069-37070) and 1/6/2012 (77 FR 780), the Committee for Purchase... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  3. 76 FR 80345 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 10/14/2011 (76 FR 63905-63906) and 10/28/2011 (76 FR 66913- 66914), the Committee... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  4. 75 FR 21246 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 2/26/2010 (75 FR 8927), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  5. 75 FR 43152 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 5/28/2010 (75 FR 29994-29995) and 6/4/2010 (75 FR 31768-31769), the... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  6. 75 FR 29995 - Procurement List Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 12/18/2009 (74 FR 67176-67177), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  7. 78 FR 4133 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Addition On 11/9/2012 (77 FR 67343-67344), the Committee for Purchase From People Who... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List....

  8. 76 FR 23997 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 2/25/2011 (76 FR 10571), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  9. 77 FR 59595 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 7/9/2012 (77 FR 40344-40345) and 7/20/2012 (77 FR 42701-42702), the... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  10. 76 FR 35415 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 4/29/2011 (76 FR 23998), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  11. 78 FR 2378 - Procurement List, Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 11/9/2012 (77 FR 67343-67344), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List, Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  12. 75 FR 72815 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/4/2010 (75 FR 31768-31769) and 10/1/2010 (75 FR 60739-60740), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  13. 78 FR 16476 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ...: Additions On 1/18/2013 (78 FR 4133-4134), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  14. 75 FR 70908 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 9/24/2010 (75 FR 58367), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  15. 75 FR 58366 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/11/2010 (75 FR 33270-33271) and 7/16/2010 (75 FR 41451), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  16. 75 FR 52723 - Procurement List Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 7/9/2010 (75 FR 39497-39499), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  17. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65... SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do not... additional orders in each case as may be deemed necessary....

  18. 47 CFR 74.28 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional orders. 74.28 Section 74.28... Services in Part 74 § 74.28 Additional orders. In case the rules contained in this part do not cover all... additional orders in each case as may be deemed necessary....

  19. 27 CFR 19.967 - Additional security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional security. 19..., Equipment and Security § 19.967 Additional security. If the appropriate TTB officer finds that security is... diversion of spirits to unauthorized purposes, additional security measures may be required. Such...

  20. 28 CFR 80.16 - Additional requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional requests. 80.16 Section 80.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.16 Additional requests. Additional requests for FCPA Opinions may be filed with the...

  1. 28 CFR 80.16 - Additional requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional requests. 80.16 Section 80.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.16 Additional requests. Additional requests for FCPA Opinions may be filed with the...

  2. 28 CFR 80.16 - Additional requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional requests. 80.16 Section 80.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.16 Additional requests. Additional requests for FCPA Opinions may be filed with the...

  3. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color additives... of a color additive petition to change a provisionally listed color additive to permanent listing...

  4. Designer drilling increases recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Eck-Olsen, J.; Drevdal, K.E.

    1995-04-01

    Implementation of a new designer-well profile has resulted in increased recovery and production rates. The geologically complex Gullfaks field, located in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, required a new type of well profile to increase total recovery and production rates from Gullfaks A, B and C platforms. Advances in steerable technology and directional drilling performance enabled a 3-D horizontal, extended-reach well profile, now designated as a designer well, to penetrate multiple targets. This article presents the concept, implementation and conclusions drawn from designer well application. Gullfaks field, in Norwegian North Sea Block 34/10, is the first license ever run by a fully Norwegian joint venture corporation. The license group consists of Statoil (operator), Norsk Hydro and Saga Petroleum. The field currently produces more than 535,000 bopd from three main Jurassic reservoirs.

  5. Lightning Climatology with a Generalized Additive Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Thorsten; Mayr, Georg; Umlauf, Nikolaus; Zeileis, Achim

    2016-04-01

    This study present a lightning climatology on a 1km x 1km grid estimated via generalized additive models (GAM). GAMs provide a framework to account for non-linear effects in time and space and for non-linear spatial-temporal interaction terms simultaneously. The degrees of smoothness of the non-linear effects is selected automatically in our approach. Furthermore, the influence of topography is captured in the model by including a non-linear term. To illustrate our approach we use lightning data from the ALDIS networks and selected a region in Southeastern Austria, where complex terrain extends from 200 an 3800 m asl and summertime lightning activity is high compared to other parts of the Eastern Alps. The temporal effect in the GAM shows a rapid increase in lightning activity in early July and a slow decay in activity afterwards. The estimated spatial effect is not very smooth and requires approximately 225 effective degrees of freedom. It reveals that lightning is more likely in the Eastern and Southern part of the region of interest. This spatial effect only accounts for variability not already explained by the topography. The topography effect shows lightning to be more likely at higher altitudes. The effect describing the spatio-temporal interactions takes approximately 200 degrees of freedom, and reveals local deviations of the climatology.

  6. Additive Manufacturing: Making Imagination the Major Limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yuwei; Lados, Diana A.; LaGoy, Jane L.

    2014-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) refers to an advanced technology used for the fabrication of three-dimensional near-net-shaped functional components directly from computer models, using unit materials. The fundamentals and working principle of AM offer several advantages, including near-net-shape capabilities, superior design and geometrical flexibility, innovative multi-material fabrication, reduced tooling and fixturing, shorter cycle time for design and manufacturing, instant local production at a global scale, and material, energy, and cost efficiency. Well suiting the requests of modern manufacturing climate, AM is viewed as the new industrial revolution, making its way into a continuously increasing number of industries, such as aerospace, defense, automotive, medical, architecture, art, jewelry, and food. This overview was created to relate the historical evolution of the AM technology to its state-of-the-art developments and emerging applications. Generic thoughts on the microstructural characteristics, properties, and performance of AM-fabricated materials will also be discussed, primarily related to metallic materials. This write-up will introduce the general reader to specifics of the AM field vis-à-vis advantages and common techniques, materials and properties, current applications, and future opportunities.

  7. Condom use increasing.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    Condom use is central to the prevention of AIDS among people at risk for contracting HIV. As such, condom use is increasing dramatically even though many men say that they do not like using them. Condom sales through social marketing campaigns have increased dramatically in some countries, where tens of millions of condoms are sold annually. For example, during the period 1991-96, annual social marketing sales increased about five-fold in Ethiopia to 21 million, and nine-fold in Brazil to 27 million. These sales reflect the success of condom social marketing campaigns in making condoms accessible and largely affordable. There is also a greater general awareness of AIDS than there used to be, and communication campaigns have shown that condoms are an effective solution. More condoms still need to be used in the ongoing struggle against HIV/AIDS. The author discusses the factors which affect the limited acceptance of condoms, condom use outside of marriage, social marketing, and family planning programs. PMID:12293530

  8. Increasing Response Diversity in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napolitano, Deborah A.; Smith, Tristram; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Goodkin, Karen; McAdam, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Repetitive and invariant behavior is a diagnostic feature of autism. We implemented a lag reinforcement schedule to increase response diversity for 6 participants with autism aged 6 to 10 years, 4 of whom also received prompting plus additional training. These procedures appeared to increase the variety of building-block structures, demonstrating…

  9. Early hydration of portland cement with crystalline mineral additions

    SciTech Connect

    Rahhal, V. . E-mail: vrahhal@fio.unicen.edu.ar; Talero, R.

    2005-07-01

    This research presents the effects of finely divided crystalline mineral additions (quartz and limestone), commonly known as filler, on the early hydration of portland cements with very different mineralogical composition. The used techniques to study the early hydration of blended cements were conduction calorimeter, hydraulicity (Fratini's test), non-evaporable water and X-ray diffraction. Results showed that the stimulation and the dilution effects increase when the percentage of crystalline mineral additions used is increased. Depending on the replacement proportion, the mineralogical cement composition and the type of crystalline addition, at 2 days, the prevalence of the dilution effect or the stimulation effect shows that crystalline mineral additions could act as sites of heat dissipation or heat stimulation, respectively.

  10. In situ combustion with metallic additives SUPRI TR 87

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    In-situ combustion is the most energy efficient of the thermal oil recovery methods. In this process, a portion of a reservoir's oil is burned in-situ as fuel to drive the recovery process. In light oil reservoirs, too little fuel may be deposited, making sustained combustion difficult. In heavy oil reservoirs, too much fuel may be deposited leading to high air injection requirements and unfavorable economics. This study has been designed to attack these problems. Water soluble metallic additives are investigated as agents to modify fuel deposition and combustion performance. This report describes seven combustion tube runs using two cradle oils and two metallic additives. The oils are 12{degrees} and 34{degrees} API, both from Cymric (California). The metallic additives tested are ionic nitrate (Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}9H{sub 2}O) and zinc nitrate (Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}6H{sub 2}O). Iron and tin additives improved the combustion efficiency in all cases. Fluctuations in the produced gas compositions were observed in all control runs, but nearly disappeared with the iron and tin additives. The combustion front velocities were also increased by iron and tin. Changes were also observed in the apparent hydrogen to carbon (H/C) ratio of the fuel, heat of combustion, air requirements, and amount of fuel deposited. Iron and tin caused increases in fuel concentration while causing a decrease in air requirement. The increase in fuel concentration varied between the oils, however, tin and iron were consistently more effective than zinc. A particularly interesting result occurred with the Cymric light oil. In the control runs, a sustained combustion front was not achieved, while in the iron additive runs, stable, sustained combustion was achieved. Iron and tin salts are suitable additives to increase fuel deposition when that is needed. Additives suitable for use as a fuel reducing agent have not yet been found. 26 refs., 23 figs, 6 tabs.

  11. In situ combustion with metallic additives SUPRI TR 87

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    In-situ combustion is the most energy efficient of the thermal oil recovery methods. In this process, a portion of a reservoir`s oil is burned in-situ as fuel to drive the recovery process. In light oil reservoirs, too little fuel may be deposited, making sustained combustion difficult. In heavy oil reservoirs, too much fuel may be deposited leading to high air injection requirements and unfavorable economics. This study has been designed to attack these problems. Water soluble metallic additives are investigated as agents to modify fuel deposition and combustion performance. This report describes seven combustion tube runs using two cradle oils and two metallic additives. The oils are 12{degrees} and 34{degrees} API, both from Cymric (California). The metallic additives tested are ionic nitrate (Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}9H{sub 2}O) and zinc nitrate (Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}6H{sub 2}O). Iron and tin additives improved the combustion efficiency in all cases. Fluctuations in the produced gas compositions were observed in all control runs, but nearly disappeared with the iron and tin additives. The combustion front velocities were also increased by iron and tin. Changes were also observed in the apparent hydrogen to carbon (H/C) ratio of the fuel, heat of combustion, air requirements, and amount of fuel deposited. Iron and tin caused increases in fuel concentration while causing a decrease in air requirement. The increase in fuel concentration varied between the oils, however, tin and iron were consistently more effective than zinc. A particularly interesting result occurred with the Cymric light oil. In the control runs, a sustained combustion front was not achieved, while in the iron additive runs, stable, sustained combustion was achieved. Iron and tin salts are suitable additives to increase fuel deposition when that is needed. Additives suitable for use as a fuel reducing agent have not yet been found. 26 refs., 23 figs, 6 tabs.

  12. Thunder day increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilberg, Steven D.

    1984-04-01

    A report issued by the Illinois State Water Survey concludes that annual values of thunder days for North America exhibited a general increase of about 15% from 1901 to 1945, followed by a general decrease of 10% from 1945 to 1980. A study of the variability of thunder days across North America showed a general decrease with time, particularly after 1940. A major finding of this study is that frequencies of thunderstorms over areas as large as the North American continent show major long-term trends.The report, “Temporal Distribution of Global Thunder Days,” summarizes the results of a 1-year study by Stanley A. Changnon, Jr., and Chin-Fei Hsu of the temporal variations of thunder-day records during 1901-1980 using quality weather records from weather stations scattered around the globe. A thunder day is recorded when one or more peals of thunder are heard anytime during the 24-hour period from midnight to midnight, which is consistent with the definition of a thunderstorm used at first-order weather stations since 1897. They found most stations in the northern hemisphere north of 45° latitude exhibited a general increase in thunder activity from 1901 to 1980. The project was funded by the National Science Foundation.

  13. A review of selected chemical additives in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Margit Lai Wun; Marmur, Ellen S

    2014-01-01

    The addition of chemical additives to consumer cosmetic products is a common practice to increase cosmetic effectiveness, maintain cosmetic efficacy, and produce a longer-lasting, more viable product. Recently, manufacturers have come under attack for the addition of chemicals including dioxane, formaldehyde, lead/lead acetate, parabens, and phthalate, as these additives may prove harmful to consumer health. Although reports show that these products may indeed adversely affect human health, these studies are conducted using levels of the aforementioned chemicals at much higher levels of exposure than those found in cosmetic products. When cosmeceuticals are used as per manufacturer's instructions, it is estimated that the levels of harmful additives found in these products are considerably lower than reported toxic concentrations. PMID:25052592

  14. Kagome lattices for ultracold atoms induced by additional lightfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huirong; Chen, Xuzong; Ma, Zhaoyuan; Zhou, Yuqing

    2016-06-01

    We propose a novel method for the realization of an optical Kagome lattice due to the Raman processes driven by additional light fields applied to the ultracold atoms of two hyperfine internal states trapped in a planar optical triangular lattice. The tunneling between the different internal states of the nearest-neighbor atoms in Kagome lattices can be adjusted by the additional light fields independently of the on-site interaction. This optical lattice protocol can be used to investigate the magnetic quantum phenomena and the nearest-neighbor magnetic coupling becomes strong enough by increasing the intensities of the additional light fields.

  15. New additive retards coke formation in ethylene furnace tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-09

    Adding relatively small amounts of a new additive to the feed stream of a steam cracker can inhibit coke formation on the metal surfaces of processing equipment and increase furnace run time. The additive comprises a variable mixture of four to six inorganic salts in aqueous solution. The components of the additive mixture can be varied, as needed, for processing heavy feed materials such as heavy naphtha and gas oil. The process was first tested at a Korean petrochemical plant and is now operating successfully at a commercial facility in Russia. The results of the Korean trial are presented here.

  16. Elenoside increases intestinal motility

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, E; Alonso, SJ; Navarro, R; Trujillo, J; Jorge, E

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of elenoside, an arylnaph-thalene lignan from Justicia hyssopifolia, on gastro-intestinal motility in vivo and in vitro in rats. METHODS: Routine in vivo experimental assessments were catharsis index, water percentage of boluses, intestinal transit, and codeine antagonism. The groups included were vehicle control (propylene glycol-ethanol-plant oil-tween 80), elenoside (i.p. 25 and 50 mg/kg), cisapride (i.p. 10 mg/kg), and codeine phosphate (intragastric route, 50 mg/kg). In vitro approaches used isolated rat intestinal tissues (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). The effects of elenoside at concentrations of 3.2 x 10-4, 6.4 x 10-4 and 1.2 x 10-3 mol/L, and cisapride at 10-6 mol/L were investigated. RESULTS: Elenoside in vivo produced an increase in the catharsis index and water percentage of boluses and in the percentage of distance traveled by a suspension of activated charcoal. Codeine phosphate antagonized the effect of 25 mg/kg of elenoside. In vitro, elenoside in duodenum, jejunum and ileum produced an initial decrease in the contraction force followed by an increase. Elenoside resulted in decreased intestinal frequency in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The in vitro and in vivo effects of elenoside were similar to those produced by cisapride. CONCLUSION: Elenoside is a lignan with an action similar to that of purgative and prokinetics drugs. Elenoside, could be an alternative to cisapride in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases as well as a preventive therapy for the undesirable gastrointestinal effects produced by opioids used for mild to moderate pain. PMID:17131476

  17. Increased Mortality in Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ohayon, Maurice M.; Black, Jed; Lai, Chinglin; Eller, Mark; Guinta, Diane; Bhattacharyya, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mortality rate in patients with narcolepsy. Design: Data were derived from a large database representative of the US population, which contains anonymized patient-linked longitudinal claims for 173 million individuals. Setting: Symphony Health Solutions (SHS) Source Lx, an anonymized longitudinal patient dataset. Patients/Participants: All records of patients registered in the SHS database between 2008 and 2010. Interventions: None Measurements and Results: Identification of patients with narcolepsy was based on ≥ 1 medical claim with the diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD-9 347.xx) from 2002 to 2012. Dates of death were acquired from the Social Security Administration via a third party; the third party information was encrypted in the same manner as the claims data such that anonymity is ensured prior to receipt by SHS. Annual all-cause mortality rates for 2008, 2009, and 2010 were calculated retrospectively for patients with narcolepsy and patients without narcolepsy in the database, and standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated. Mortality rates were also compared with the general US population (Centers for Disease Control data). SMRs of the narcolepsy population were consistent over the 3-year period and showed an approximate 1.5-fold excess mortality relative to those without narcolepsy. The narcolepsy population had consistently higher mortality rates relative to those without narcolepsy across all age groups, stratified by age decile, from 25-34 years to 75+ years of age. The SMR for females with narcolepsy was lower than for males with narcolepsy. Conclusions: Narcolepsy was associated with approximately 1.5-fold excess mortality relative to those without narcolepsy. While the cause of this increased mortality is unknown, these findings warrant further investigation. Citation: Ohayon MM; Black J; Lai C; Eller M; Guinta D; Bhattacharyya A. Increased mortality in narcolepsy. SLEEP 2014;37(3):439-444. PMID:24587565

  18. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color additives.... (b) Action on a request for exemption for investigational use of a food additive if the food...

  19. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color additives.... (b) Action on a request for exemption for investigational use of a food additive if the food...

  20. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color additives.... (b) Action on a request for exemption for investigational use of a food additive if the food...

  1. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color additives.... (b) Action on a request for exemption for investigational use of a food additive if the food...

  2. Reactive Additives for Phenylethynyl-Containing Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Rommel, Monica L.

    2005-01-01

    Phenylethynyl-containing reactive additive (PERA) compounds and mixtures have been found to be useful for improving the processability of oligomers, polymers, co-oligomers, and copolymers that contain phenylethynyl groups. The additives can be incorporated in different forms: A solution of an amide acid or an imide of a PERA can be added to a solution of phenylethynyl-containing oligomer, polymer, co-oligomer, or copolymer; or An imide powder of a PERA can be mixed with a dry powder of a phenylethynyl-containing oligomer, polymer, co-oligomer, or copolymer. The effect of a given PERA on the processability and other properties of the resin system depends on whether the PERA is used in the amide acid or an imide form. With proper formulation, the PERA reduces the melt viscosity of the resin and thereby reduces the processing pressures needed to form the adhesive bonds, consolidate filled or unfilled moldings, or fabricate fiber-reinforced composite laminates. During thermal cure, a PERA reacts with itself as well as with the phenylethynyl-containing host resin and thereby becomes chemically incorporated into the resin system. The effects of the PERA on mechanical properties, relative to those of the host resin, depend on the amount of PERA used. Typically, the incorporation of the PERA results in (1) increases in the glass-transition temperature (Tg), modulus of elasticity, and parameters that characterize behavior under compression, and (2) greater retention of the aforementioned mechanical properties at elevated temperatures without (3) significant reduction of toughness or damage tolerance. Of the formulations tested thus far, the ones found to yield the best overall results were those for which the host resin was the amide acid form of a phenylethynyl-terminated imide (PETI) co-oligomer having a molecular weight of 5,000 g/mole [hence, designated PETI-5] and a PERA denoted as PERA-1. PETI-5 was made from 3,3',4'4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride, 3

  3. Laser Additive Manufacturing of Gas Permeable Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klahn, C.; Bechmann, F.; Hofmann, S.; Dinkel, M.; Emmelmann, C.

    Laser additive manufacturing offers a variety of new design possibilities. In mold making laser additive manufactured inserts with conformal cooling channels are already state of the art. Pneumatic ejectors for injection molds are a new application for laser additive manufacturing. The pneumatic ejectors require a durable gas permeable material. This material is produced by placing the scan vectors for the laser additive manufacturing process in a defined pattern. Trials with different plastics proofed the function and reliability of the pneumatic ejector concept in the injection molding cycle.

  4. 78 FR 73504 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... Type/Location: Custodial Service, Directorate of Contracting Procurement Logistics Support Detachment... Contracting Procurement Logistics Support Detachment, Fort Belvoir, VA. * Additional Information:...

  5. NSF and NASA budgets increased

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Research budgets of several of the federal government agencies were increased significantly over the Reagan administration's requests in the House of Representative's appropriations bill H.R. 4034. These budgets had been removed from the Reagan administration's omnibus reconciliation bill, and thus there were worries expressed that certain research funding could be in jeopardy. The rationale was that because the requests were voted on individually on the floor of the House, many sections of the budgets would be subjected to extra scrutiny, which would lead to more cuts.The National Science Foundation (NSF) budget request had been cut and reordered by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) by making sharp reductions in programs of the social sciences and in programs of science and engineering education. There were fears that these programs would be reinstated to the original request level, at the expense of the budgets of other research activities. These fears materialized, but only momentarily. Efforts to cut the research activities by the House Appropriations Committee were soundly defeated. The budget was supported, with additional increases to provide for the education programs, by a high margin, which included most Republican and Democratic members of the House of Representatives. The overall NSF budget, as passed, has a total appropriation of $1103.5 million, compared with the Administration's request of $1033.5 million (the Fiscal Year 1981 appropriation for the NSF was $1022.4 million). The House approved budget included increases of $44.9 million in research and $25.1 million in science and engineering education. Included in the research budget increase were recommendations by the House Appropriations Committee for support of the social sciences and for the international affairs programs. Also included in the recommendations was support of interdisciplinary research programs that cut across the directorates of the NSF.

  6. Increasing immunization coverage.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Lawrence D; Curry, Edward S; Harlor, Allen D; Laughlin, James J; Leeds, Andrea J; Lessin, Herschel R; Rodgers, Chadwick T; Granado-Villar, Deise C; Brown, Jeffrey M; Cotton, William H; Gaines, Beverly Marie Madry; Gambon, Thresia B; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Gorski, Peter A; Kraft, Colleen A; Marino, Ronald Vincent; Paz-Soldan, Gonzalo J; Zind, Barbara

    2010-06-01

    In 1977, the American Academy of Pediatrics issued a statement calling for universal immunization of all children for whom vaccines are not contraindicated. In 1995, the policy statement "Implementation of the Immunization Policy" was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, followed in 2003 with publication of the first version of this statement, "Increasing Immunization Coverage." Since 2003, there have continued to be improvements in immunization coverage, with progress toward meeting the goals set forth in Healthy People 2010. Data from the 2007 National Immunization Survey showed that 90% of children 19 to 35 months of age have received recommended doses of each of the following vaccines: inactivated poliovirus (IPV), measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), varicella-zoster virus (VZB), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). For diphtheria and tetanus and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine, 84.5% have received the recommended 4 doses by 35 months of age. Nevertheless, the Healthy People 2010 goal of at least 80% coverage for the full series (at least 4 doses of DTaP, 3 doses of IPV, 1 dose of MMR, 3 doses of Hib, 3 doses of HBV, and 1 dose of varicella-zoster virus vaccine) has not yet been met, and immunization coverage of adolescents continues to lag behind the goals set forth in Healthy People 2010. Despite these encouraging data, a vast number of new challenges that threaten continued success toward the goal of universal immunization coverage have emerged. These challenges include an increase in new vaccines and new vaccine combinations as well as a significant number of vaccines currently under development; a dramatic increase in the acquisition cost of vaccines, coupled with a lack of adequate payment to practitioners to buy and administer vaccines; unanticipated manufacturing and delivery problems that have caused significant shortages of various vaccine products; and the rise of a public antivaccination movement that uses the

  7. Catalyst increases COS conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Goodboy, K.P.

    1985-02-18

    Increasingly stringent air quality legislation is placing greater emphasis on conversion of COS and CS/sub 2/ in Claus plants for the maximum sulfur recovery. Overall sulfur recovery goals are dependent upon outstanding service from the Claus catalyst in each reactor because catalyst activity is a major factor influencing plant performance. Today's catalyst are much improved over those used 10 years ago for the Claus (H/sub 2/S/SO/sub 2/) reaction. Recent technical efforts have focused on the conversion of COS and CS/sub 2/. These carbon-sulfur compounds can account for as much as 50% of the sulfur going to the incinerator, which essentially converts all remaining sulfur species to SO/sub 2/ for atmospheric dispersion. Previously, the mechanism of Claus COS conversion, i.e., hydrolysis or oxidation by SO/sub 2/, was studied and the conclusion was that oxidation by SO/sub 2/ appears to be the predominate mode of COS conversion on sulfated alumina catalysts.

  8. 77 FR 75616 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... INFORMATION: ] Additions On 10/12/2012 (77 FR 62219-62220), 10/19/2012 (77 FR 64326-64327) and 10/26/2012 (77 FR 65365), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled published... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase...

  9. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  10. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in charge may, at...

  11. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  12. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  13. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  14. 42 CFR 66.115 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 66.115 Section 66.115 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.115 Additional conditions. The Secretary may...

  15. 42 CFR 66.115 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 66.115 Section 66.115 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.115 Additional conditions. The Secretary may...

  16. 42 CFR 66.115 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 66.115 Section 66.115 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.115 Additional conditions. The Secretary may...

  17. 75 FR 3714 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the procurement list... Must Be Received On or Before: 2/22/2010. ADDRESSES: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are...

  18. 75 FR 81235 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the Procurement List... Must Be Received On or Before: 1/23/2011. ADDRESSES: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are...

  19. 77 FR 35942 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List...: Comments Must be Received on or Before: 7/16/2012. ADDRESSES: Committee for Purchase From People Who...

  20. 10 CFR 2.625 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.625 Additional considerations. (a) The Commission will not conduct more... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.625 Section 2.625 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF...

  1. 10 CFR 2.625 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Combined License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.625 Additional considerations. (a) The Commission will not conduct more than one review of site... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.625 Section 2.625...

  2. 10 CFR 2.625 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.625 Additional considerations. (a) The Commission will not conduct more... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.625 Section 2.625 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF...

  3. 10 CFR 2.625 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Combined License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.625 Additional considerations. (a) The Commission will not conduct more than one review of site... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.625 Section 2.625...

  4. Multi-heat addition turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, Leo C. (Inventor); Brabbs, Theodore A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A multi-heat addition turbine engine (MHATE) incorporates a plurality of heat addition devices to transfer energy to air and a plurality of turbines to extract energy from the air while converting it to work. The MHATE provides dry power and lower fuel consumption or lower combustor exit temperatures.

  5. 75 FR 52724 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 10/23/2009 (74 FR 54783-54784); 6/18/2010 (75 FR 34701-34702); 6/25/2010 (75 FR 36363-36371); and 7/9/2010 (75 FR 39497-39499), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are... additional reporting, recordkeeping or other compliance requirements for small entities other than the...

  6. 12 CFR 619.9010 - Additional security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional security. 619.9010 Section 619.9010 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9010 Additional security. Supplementary collateral to the primary security taken in connection with the loan....

  7. The Evolution of Children's Mental Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcraft, Mark H.; Hamann, Mary Sue

    Students in grades 1, 4, 7, and 10 were tested in a two-part investigation of simple and complex mental addition (with college students as a reference point). One session involved a normal reaction time task in which children made true/false judgments about a series of addition examples. The other session involved a verbal protocol interview, the…

  8. The Additive Coloration of Alkali Halides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirgal, G. H.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Describes the construction and use of an inexpensive, vacuum furnace designed to produce F-centers in alkali halide crystals by additive coloration. The method described avoids corrosion or contamination during the coloration process. Examination of the resultant crystals is discussed and several experiments using additively colored crystals are…

  9. 78 FR 40727 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and a service to the Procurement List that will...

  10. 76 FR 59117 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and services to the Procurement List that will...

  11. 75 FR 34701 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and services to the Procurement List that will...

  12. 78 FR 34351 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... (78 FR 21916), the Committee for Purchase from People Who are Blind or Severely Disabled published... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase from People Who are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  13. 75 FR 38467 - Procurement List: Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List: Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products to the Procurement List that will be furnished...

  14. 77 FR 47823 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a product to the Procurement List that will be furnished by...

  15. 75 FR 60739 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the procurement list. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add services to the Procurement List that will be provided...

  16. 78 FR 40727 - Procurement List Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... (78 FR 25970-25971), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  17. 76 FR 45542 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed addition to the procurement list. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a product to the Procurement List that will be furnished by...

  18. 75 FR 14575 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add to the Procurement List products and a service to be...

  19. 78 FR 19248 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a service to the Procurement List that will be provided...

  20. 76 FR 76952 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a service to the Procurement List that will be provided by...

  1. 78 FR 52512 - Procurement List Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and a service to the Procurement List that will...

  2. 77 FR 73620 - Procurement List; Additions; Clarification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Committee's Notice in the Federal Register of Friday, October 26, 2012 (77 FR 65365-65366), concerning additions to the Procurement List, specified ``Eyewear'' with coverage for 100... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions; Clarification AGENCY:...

  3. 76 FR 80346 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee... Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add services to the Procurement List that will be... connection with the services proposed for addition to the Procurement List. Comments on this...

  4. 76 FR 75536 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a service to the Procurement List that will be provided by...

  5. 47 CFR 74.28 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional orders. 74.28 Section 74.28 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES General; Rules Applicable to All Services in Part 74 § 74.28 Additional...

  6. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do not cover all phases of operation with...

  7. 7 CFR 1738.307 - Additional policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional policies. 1738.307 Section 1738.307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Loan Guarantee § 1738.307 Additional...

  8. 46 CFR 502.314 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional information. 502.314 Section 502.314 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Formal Procedure for Adjudication of Small Claims § 502.314 Additional information. The administrative law...

  9. 46 CFR 502.314 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information. 502.314 Section 502.314 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Formal Procedure for Adjudication of Small Claims § 502.314 Additional information. The administrative law...

  10. 40 CFR 265.77 - Additional reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Manifest System, Recordkeeping, and Reporting § 265.77 Additional reports. In addition to... in § 265.56(j); (b) Ground-water contamination and monitoring data as specified in §§ 265.93 and...

  11. 42 CFR 52d.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52d.9 Section 52d.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.9 Additional conditions. The Director, NCI, may with respect to...

  12. 42 CFR 52d.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52d.9 Section 52d.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.9 Additional conditions. The Director, NCI, may with respect to...

  13. 42 CFR 52d.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52d.9 Section 52d.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.9 Additional conditions. The Director, NCI, may with respect to...

  14. 42 CFR 52d.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52d.9 Section 52d.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.9 Additional conditions. The Director, NCI, may with respect to...

  15. 42 CFR 52d.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52d.9 Section 52d.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.9 Additional conditions. The Director, NCI, may with respect to...

  16. 7 CFR 1944.686 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.686 Additional grants. An additional HPG grant may be made when the grantee has achieved or nearly achieved the goals established...

  17. 7 CFR 1944.686 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.686 Additional grants. An additional HPG grant may be made when the grantee has achieved or nearly achieved the goals established...

  18. 7 CFR 1944.686 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.686 Additional grants. An additional HPG grant may be made when the grantee has achieved or nearly achieved the goals established...

  19. 49 CFR 1108.12 - Additional matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional matters. 1108.12 Section 1108.12 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.12 Additional matters. Where an arbitration demand...

  20. 49 CFR 1108.12 - Additional matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional matters. 1108.12 Section 1108.12 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.12 Additional matters. Where an arbitration demand...

  1. 49 CFR 1108.12 - Additional matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional matters. 1108.12 Section 1108.12 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.12 Additional matters. Where an arbitration demand...

  2. 12 CFR 615.5460 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional provisions. 615.5460 Section 615.5460 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Book-Entry Procedures for Farm Credit Securities § 615.5460 Additional provisions. (a)...

  3. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.116 Section 1010...) Reporting Requirements § 1010.116 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) Will there... obligation to retire the debt. (c) Violations and litigations. This information need appear only if any...

  4. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.216... § 1710.216 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) If the association has been..., information on such matters as to: (i) Whether the developer will employ his own sales force or will...

  5. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.116 Section 1010...) Reporting Requirements § 1010.116 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) Will there... obligation to retire the debt. (c) Violations and litigations. This information need appear only if any...

  6. 12 CFR 1010.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.216 Section 1010...) Reporting Requirements § 1010.216 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) If the..., information on such matters as to: (i) Whether the developer will employ his own sales force or will...

  7. 12 CFR 1010.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.216 Section 1010...) Reporting Requirements § 1010.216 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) If the..., information on such matters as to: (i) Whether the developer will employ his own sales force or will...

  8. 75 FR 69639 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a service to the Procurement List that will be provided by...

  9. 48 CFR 1603.7002 - Additional guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional guidelines. 1603.7002 Section 1603.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising 1603.7002 Additional guidelines....

  10. 48 CFR 1603.7002 - Additional guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional guidelines. 1603.7002 Section 1603.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising 1603.7002 Additional guidelines....

  11. 48 CFR 1603.7002 - Additional guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional guidelines. 1603.7002 Section 1603.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising 1603.7002 Additional guidelines....

  12. 48 CFR 1603.7002 - Additional guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional guidelines. 1603.7002 Section 1603.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising 1603.7002 Additional guidelines....

  13. 42 CFR 52e.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52e.9 Section 52e.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.9 Additional conditions. The...

  14. 42 CFR 52e.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52e.9 Section 52e.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.9 Additional conditions. The...

  15. 42 CFR 52e.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52e.9 Section 52e.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.9 Additional conditions. The...

  16. 42 CFR 52e.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52e.9 Section 52e.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.9 Additional conditions. The...

  17. 42 CFR 52e.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52e.9 Section 52e.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.9 Additional conditions. The...

  18. DECISION-MAKING, SCIENCE AND GASOLINE ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory


    Methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to serve two major purposes. The first use was as an octane-enhancer to replace organic lead, beginning in 1979. The second use, which began about 1992, was as an oxygenated additive to meet requirements ...

  19. 19 CFR 114.24 - Additions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additions. 114.24 Section 114.24 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARNETS Processing of Carnets § 114.24 Additions. When an A.T.A. or TECRO/AIT carnet has been issued,...

  20. 78 FR 22209 - Additional Synthetic Drug Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 26 Additional Synthetic Drug Testing AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... NRC amend its Fitness for Duty program regulations to amend drug testing requirements to test for additional synthetic drugs currently not included in the regulations. The NRC determined that the...

  1. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  2. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  3. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  4. French and English Together: An "Additive" Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltshire, Jessica; Harbon, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of the "additive" experience of a bilingual French-English curriculum at Killarney Heights Public School in New South Wales. Predictably, the well-supported "additive" nature of the languages program model elicited positive reactions regarding educational success. The paper also explores issues for administration,…

  5. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  6. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  7. 42 CFR 52a.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52a.9 Section 52a.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.9 Additional conditions. The Director may, with respect to any grant...

  8. 42 CFR 52a.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52a.9 Section 52a.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.9 Additional conditions. The Director may, with respect to any grant...

  9. 42 CFR 52a.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52a.9 Section 52a.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.9 Additional conditions. The Director may, with respect to any grant...

  10. 42 CFR 52b.13 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52b.13 Section 52b.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.13 Additional conditions. The Director may with respect to any...

  11. 42 CFR 52b.13 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52b.13 Section 52b.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.13 Additional conditions. The Director may with respect to any...

  12. 42 CFR 52b.13 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52b.13 Section 52b.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.13 Additional conditions. The Director may with respect to any...

  13. 42 CFR 52a.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52a.9 Section 52a.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.9 Additional conditions. The Director may, with respect to any grant...

  14. 42 CFR 52b.13 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52b.13 Section 52b.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.13 Additional conditions. The Director may with respect to any...

  15. 42 CFR 52a.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52a.9 Section 52a.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.9 Additional conditions. The Director may, with respect to any grant...

  16. 45 CFR 400.106 - Additional services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Additional services. 400.106 Section 400.106 Public... AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Medical Assistance Scope of Medical Services § 400.106 Additional services. If a State or local jurisdiction...

  17. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a)...

  18. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a)...

  19. 49 CFR 377.209 - Additional charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional charges. 377.209 Section 377.209... CHARGES Extension of Credit to Shippers by Motor Common Carriers, Water Common Carriers, and Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.209 Additional charges. When a carrier— (a) Has collected the amount...

  20. 49 CFR 377.209 - Additional charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional charges. 377.209 Section 377.209... CHARGES Extension of Credit to Shippers by Motor Common Carriers, Water Common Carriers, and Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.209 Additional charges. When a carrier— (a) Has collected the amount...

  1. 42 CFR 52b.13 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52b.13 Section 52b.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.13 Additional conditions. The Director may with respect to any...

  2. Addition and Subtraction, and Algorithms in General

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielker, David

    2007-01-01

    The juxtaposition of articles by Ian Thompson and Ian Sugarman in "MT202" on addition and subtraction respectively engendered some bemused thoughts in this author, who for some years has been sheltered from controversy by retirement. In this article, Fielker shares some thoughts on addition and subtraction raised by Thompson and Sugarman in their…

  3. Developing Multiplicative Thinking from Additive Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Jennifer M.; Andreasen, Janet B.

    2013-01-01

    As students progress through elementary school, they encounter mathematics concepts that shift from additive to multiplicative situations (NCTM 2000). When they encounter fraction problems that require multiplicative thinking, they tend to incorrectly extend additive properties from whole numbers (Post et al. 1985). As a result, topics such as …

  4. 75 FR 2510 - Procurement List: Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List: Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add to the Procurement List services to be provided by...

  5. 75 FR 6869 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-12

    ...@AbilityOne.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 12/11/2009 (74 FR 65758) and 12/18/2009 (74 FR... rules that are applicable to the public. Notices of hearings #0;and investigations, committee meetings...; ] COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions...

  6. 76 FR 19978 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a service to the Procurement List that will be furnished...

  7. 78 FR 65617 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... 9/13/2013 (78 FR 56680) and 9/20/2013 (78 FR 57844), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  8. 76 FR 5142 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... Procurement List. Service Type/Location: Base Operations Support Service Directorate of Public Works (DPW... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the Procurement...

  9. 76 FR 26279 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add services to the Procurement List that will be provided...

  10. 77 FR 37659 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... interested persons an opportunity to submit comments on the proposed actions. Revision On 5/25/2012 (77 FR... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the procurement...

  11. 77 FR 69598 - Procurement List Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed addition to the procurement list. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a service to the Procurement List that will be provided by...

  12. Asthma and anaphylactoid reactions to food additives.

    PubMed Central

    Tarlo, S. M.; Sussman, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Presumed allergic reactions to hidden food additives are both controversial and important. Clinical manifestations include asthma, urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylactic-anaphylactoid events. Most adverse reactions are caused by just a few additives, such as sulfites and monosodium glutamate. Diagnosis is suspected from the history and confirmed by specific challenge. The treatment is specific avoidance. PMID:8499792

  13. 12 CFR 619.9010 - Additional security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional security. 619.9010 Section 619.9010 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9010 Additional security. Supplementary collateral to the primary security taken in connection with the loan....

  14. 16 CFR 436.9 - Additional prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional prohibitions. 436.9 Section 436.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS CONCERNING FRANCHISING Prohibitions § 436.9 Additional prohibitions. It is an unfair or deceptive act...

  15. 77 FR 37658 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Revision On 5/25/2012 (77 FR 31335-31336), the Committee for Purchase From People Who... addition must be received on or before June 25, 2012. Additions On 4/13/2012 (77 FR 22289-22290) and 4/20/2012 (77 FR 23665-23666), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely...

  16. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The... health and to minimize danger to life or property....

  17. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The... health and to minimize danger to life or property....

  18. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The... health and to minimize danger to life or property....

  19. 40 CFR 412.37 - Additional measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2009-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Additional measures. 412.37 Section 412.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFO) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dairy Cows and Cattle Other Than Veal Calves § 412.37 Additional...

  20. 75 FR 51757 - Procurement List Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 7/9/2010 (75 FR 39497-39499), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase...

  1. 75 FR 68328 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed addition to the Procurement List... Received on or Before: 12/6/2010. ADDRESSES: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or...

  2. 75 FR 8927 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed addition to the Procurement List... before: March 29, 2010. ADDRESSES: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely...

  3. 78 FR 32632 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... 4/5/2013 (78 FR 20622-20623), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase from People Who are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  4. 77 FR 44220 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement List... nonprofit agency employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities. DATES: Comments Must...

  5. 78 FR 63967 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... 8/9/2013 (78 FR 48656-48657), 8/16/2013 (78 FR 50040), and 8/23/ 2013 (78 FR 52512-52513), the... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  6. 77 FR 29596 - Procurement List Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the... that will be furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other...

  7. 78 FR 7412 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List... nonprofit agency employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities. DATES: Comments Must...

  8. 77 FR 77037 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 10/12/2012 (77 FR 62219-62220), 10/19/2012 (77 FR 64326-64327) and 11/9/2012 (77 FR 67343-67344), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase...

  9. 77 FR 77038 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List... furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities....

  10. 77 FR 49784 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the... provided by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities....

  11. 77 FR 56813 - Procurement List, Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List, Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List... furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe...

  12. 77 FR 41377 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement List... nonprofit agency employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities. DATES: Comments Must...

  13. 78 FR 50040 - Procurement List, Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List, Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List... nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities. DATES: Comments...

  14. 42 CFR 59.214 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 59.214 Section 59.214 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.214 Additional conditions. The Secretary may...

  15. 42 CFR 59.12 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 59.12 Section 59.12 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.12 Additional conditions. The Secretary may,...

  16. 42 CFR 59.12 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 59.12 Section 59.12 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.12 Additional conditions. The Secretary may,...

  17. 42 CFR 59.214 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 59.214 Section 59.214 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.214 Additional conditions. The Secretary may...

  18. 42 CFR 59.214 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 59.214 Section 59.214 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.214 Additional conditions. The Secretary may...

  19. 42 CFR 59.12 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 59.12 Section 59.12 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.12 Additional conditions. The Secretary may,...

  20. 42 CFR 59.12 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 59.12 Section 59.12 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.12 Additional conditions. The Secretary may,...