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Sample records for additionally analytical instruments

  1. Analytical Instrument Obsolescence Examined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggin, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    The threat of instrument obsolescence and tight federal budgets have conspired to threaten the existence of research analytical laboratories. Despite these and other handicaps most existing laboratories expect to keep operating in support of basic research, though there may be serious penalties in the future unless funds are forthcoming. (Author)

  2. Instrumentation: Analytical Capabilities on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westall, Frances; Allen, Carl; Braiser, Martin; Farmer, Jack; Massell, Wulf; Agee, Carl B.; Steele, Andrew; Fortson, Russ

    1998-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars will consist of a series of long-term missions, with early missions focusing upon establishing the Mars base, and undertaking basic field reconnaissance. A capable laboratory on Mars is an essential element in the exploration strategy. Analytical equipment both in the field and in the laboratory serves to extend the senses of the crew and help them sharpen their sampling skills as they learn to recognize rocks in the field and understand their geologic context and significance. On-site sample analyses allow results to be incorporated into evolving surface exploration plans and strategies, which will be developing in real-time as we learn more about Mars. Early Mars missions will focus on reconnaissance EVAs to collect rock and soil samples, maximizing the amount of Mars material returned to Earth. Later missions will be increasingly devoted to both extensive field campaigns and laboratory analyses. The capabilities and equipment described below will be built up at the Mars base incrementally over many missions, with science payloads and investigative infrastructure being partitioned among launch opportunities. This discussion considers what we require to measure, observe, and explore on a new planetary territory. Alternatively, what do we need to know and how do we equip ourselves to provide ample capabilities to acquire these data? Suggestions follow describing specific instruments that we could use. Appendix 5 lists a strawman science instrument payload, and a feasibility study of equipment transportation into the field on pressurized or unpressurized rovers.

  3. Microfabricated field calibration assembly for analytical instruments

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Alex L.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Moorman, Matthew W.; Rodacy, Philip J.; Simonson, Robert J.

    2011-03-29

    A microfabricated field calibration assembly for use in calibrating analytical instruments and sensor systems. The assembly comprises a circuit board comprising one or more resistively heatable microbridge elements, an interface device that enables addressable heating of the microbridge elements, and, in some embodiments, a means for positioning the circuit board within an inlet structure of an analytical instrument or sensor system.

  4. Analytical techniques and instrumentation: A compilation. [analytical instrumentation, materials performance, and systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Technical information is presented covering the areas of: (1) analytical instrumentation useful in the analysis of physical phenomena; (2) analytical techniques used to determine the performance of materials; and (3) systems and component analyses for design and quality control.

  5. Analytic Method for Computing Instrument Pointing Jitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David

    2003-01-01

    A new method of calculating the root-mean-square (rms) pointing jitter of a scientific instrument (e.g., a camera, radar antenna, or telescope) is introduced based on a state-space concept. In comparison with the prior method of calculating the rms pointing jitter, the present method involves significantly less computation. The rms pointing jitter of an instrument (the square root of the jitter variance shown in the figure) is an important physical quantity which impacts the design of the instrument, its actuators, controls, sensory components, and sensor- output-sampling circuitry. Using the Sirlin, San Martin, and Lucke definition of pointing jitter, the prior method of computing the rms pointing jitter involves a frequency-domain integral of a rational polynomial multiplied by a transcendental weighting function, necessitating the use of numerical-integration techniques. In practice, numerical integration complicates the problem of calculating the rms pointing error. In contrast, the state-space method provides exact analytic expressions that can be evaluated without numerical integration.

  6. Analytical techniques and instrumentation: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Technical information on developments in instrumentation is arranged into four sections: (1) instrumentation for analysis; (2) analysis of matter; (3) analysis of electrical and mechanical phenomena; and (4) structural analysis. Patent information for two of the instruments described is presented.

  7. Application of radioactive sources in analytical instruments for planetary exploration.

    PubMed

    Economou, Thanasis E

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes have been used in analytical instrumentation for planetary exploration since the very beginning of the space age. An Alpha Scattering Instrument (ASI) on board the Surveyor 5, 6 and 7 spacecrafts used the isotope (242)Cm to obtain the chemical composition of the lunar surface material in 1960s. The Alpha Proton X-ray Spectrometers (APXS) used on several mission to Mars (Pathfinder, Mars-96, Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) and on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the next mission to Mars in 2011 and on the Rosetta mission to a comet) are improved derivatives of the original ASI, complimented with an X-ray mode and using the longer lived (244)Cm isotope. (57)Co, (55)Fe and many other radioisotopes have been used in several missions carrying XRF and Mössbauer instruments. In addition, (238)Pu isotope is exclusively being used in most of the space missions for heating and power generation. PMID:19850487

  8. Characterizing nonconstant instrumental variance in emerging miniaturized analytical techniques.

    PubMed

    Noblitt, Scott D; Berg, Kathleen E; Cate, David M; Henry, Charles S

    2016-04-01

    Measurement variance is a crucial aspect of quantitative chemical analysis. Variance directly affects important analytical figures of merit, including detection limit, quantitation limit, and confidence intervals. Most reported analyses for emerging analytical techniques implicitly assume constant variance (homoskedasticity) by using unweighted regression calibrations. Despite the assumption of constant variance, it is known that most instruments exhibit heteroskedasticity, where variance changes with signal intensity. Ignoring nonconstant variance results in suboptimal calibrations, invalid uncertainty estimates, and incorrect detection limits. Three techniques where homoskedasticity is often assumed were covered in this work to evaluate if heteroskedasticity had a significant quantitative impact-naked-eye, distance-based detection using paper-based analytical devices (PADs), cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV) with disposable carbon-ink electrode devices, and microchip electrophoresis (MCE) with conductivity detection. Despite these techniques representing a wide range of chemistries and precision, heteroskedastic behavior was confirmed for each. The general variance forms were analyzed, and recommendations for accounting for nonconstant variance discussed. Monte Carlo simulations of instrument responses were performed to quantify the benefits of weighted regression, and the sensitivity to uncertainty in the variance function was tested. Results show that heteroskedasticity should be considered during development of new techniques; even moderate uncertainty (30%) in the variance function still results in weighted regression outperforming unweighted regressions. We recommend utilizing the power model of variance because it is easy to apply, requires little additional experimentation, and produces higher-precision results and more reliable uncertainty estimates than assuming homoskedasticity. PMID:26995641

  9. Study on bending behaviour of nickel–titanium rotary endodontic instruments by analytical and numerical analyses

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, C C; Liou, J U; Wen, P H; Peng, C C; Liu, T S

    2013-01-01

    Aim To develop analytical models and analyse the stress distribution and flexibility of nickel–titanium (NiTi) instruments subject to bending forces. Methodology The analytical method was used to analyse the behaviours of NiTi instruments under bending forces. Two NiTi instruments (RaCe and Mani NRT) with different cross-sections and geometries were considered. Analytical results were derived using Euler–Bernoulli nonlinear differential equations that took into account the screw pitch variation of these NiTi instruments. In addition, the nonlinear deformation analysis based on the analytical model and the finite element nonlinear analysis was carried out. Numerical results are obtained by carrying out a finite element method. Results According to analytical results, the maximum curvature of the instrument occurs near the instrument tip. Results of the finite element analysis revealed that the position of maximum von Mises stress was near the instrument tip. Therefore, the proposed analytical model can be used to predict the position of maximum curvature in the instrument where fracture may occur. Finally, results of analytical and numerical models were compatible. Conclusion The proposed analytical model was validated by numerical results in analysing bending deformation of NiTi instruments. The analytical model is useful in the design and analysis of instruments. The proposed theoretical model is effective in studying the flexibility of NiTi instruments. Compared with the finite element method, the analytical model can deal conveniently and effectively with the subject of bending behaviour of rotary NiTi endodontic instruments. PMID:23173762

  10. Analytical Electrochemistry: Theory and Instrumentation of Dynamic Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dennis C.

    1980-01-01

    Emphasizes trends in the development of six topics concerning analytical electrochemistry, including books and reviews (34 references cited), mass transfer (59), charge transfer (25), surface effects (33), homogeneous reactions (21), and instrumentation (31). (CS)

  11. Method and apparatus for continuous fluid leak monitoring and detection in analytical instruments and instrument systems

    DOEpatents

    Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.

    2010-07-13

    A method and device are disclosed that provide for detection of fluid leaks in analytical instruments and instrument systems. The leak detection device includes a collection tube, a fluid absorbing material, and a circuit that electrically couples to an indicator device. When assembled, the leak detection device detects and monitors for fluid leaks, providing a preselected response in conjunction with the indicator device when contacted by a fluid.

  12. Novel approaches to the construction of miniaturized analytical instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, Marc D.; Otoole, Ronald P.; Coldiron, Shelley J.; Deninger, William D.; Deinhammer, Randall S.; Burns, Stanley G.; Bastiaans, Glenn J.; Braymen, Steve D.; Shanks, Howard R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design, construction, preliminary testing, and potential applications of three forms of miniaturized analytical instrumentation. The first is an optical fiber instrument for monitoring pH and other cations in aqueous solutions. The instrument couples chemically selective indicators that were immobilized at porous polymeric films with a hardware package that provides the excitation light source, required optical components, and detection and data processing hardware. The second is a new form of a piezoelectric mass sensor. The sensor was fabricated by the deposition of a thin (5.5 micron) film of piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AIN). The completed deposition process yields a thin film resonator (TFR) that is shaped as a 400 micron square and supports a standing bulk acoustic wave in a longitudinal mode at frequencies of approx. 1 GHz. Various deposition and vapor sorption studies indicate that the mass sensitivity of the TFR's rival those of the most sensitive mass sensors currently available, though offering such performance in a markedly smaller device. The third couples a novel form of liquid chromatography with microlithographic miniaturization techniques. The status of the miniaturization effort, the goal of which is to achieve chip-scale separations, is briefly discussed.

  13. Two-dimensional convolute integers for analytical instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, T. R.

    1982-01-01

    As new analytical instruments and techniques emerge with increased dimensionality, a corresponding need is seen for data processing logic which can appropriately address the data. Two-dimensional measurements reveal enhanced unknown mixture analysis capability as a result of the greater spectral information content over two one-dimensional methods taken separately. It is noted that two-dimensional convolute integers are merely an extension of the work by Savitzky and Golay (1964). It is shown that these low-pass, high-pass and band-pass digital filters are truly two-dimensional and that they can be applied in a manner identical with their one-dimensional counterpart, that is, a weighted nearest-neighbor, moving average with zero phase shifting, convoluted integer (universal number) weighting coefficients.

  14. CheMin: A Definitive Mineralogy Instrument in the Analytical Laboratory of the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Feldman, S.; Collins, S.

    2005-01-01

    An important goal of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL '09) mission is the determination of definitive mineralogy and chemical composition. CheMin is a miniature X-ray diffraction/X-ray fluorescence (XRD/XRF) instrument that has been chosen for the analytical laboratory of MSL. CheMin utilizes a miniature microfocus source cobalt X-ray tube, a transmission sample cell and an energy-discriminating X-ray sensitive CCD to produce simultaneous 2-D X-ray diffraction patterns and X-ray fluorescence spectra from powdered or crushed samples. A diagrammatic view of the instrument is shown. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  15. Portable 24-analyte surface plasmon resonance instruments for rapid, versatile biodetection.

    PubMed

    Chinowsky, Timothy M; Soelberg, Scott D; Baker, Paul; Swanson, Nathaneal R; Kauffman, Peter; Mactutis, Anthony; Grow, Michael S; Atmar, Robert; Yee, Sinclair S; Furlong, Clement E

    2007-04-15

    Field use of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors for environmental and defense applications such as detection and identification of biological warfare agents has been hampered by lack of rugged, portable, high-performance instrumentation. To meet this need, we have developed compact multi-analyte SPR instruments based on Texas Instruments' Spreeta sensing chips. The instruments weigh 3 kg and are built into clamshell enclosures measuring 28 cm x 22 cm x 13 cm. Functions are divided between an electronics unit in the base of the box and a fluidics assembly in the lid. Automated valves and pumps implement an injection loop flow system that allows sensors to be exposed to sample, rinsed, and treated with additional reagents (such as secondary antibodies) under computer control. Injected samples flow over the surfaces of eight sensor chips fastened into a temperature-controlled silicone flowcell. Each chip has 3 sensing regions, for a total detection of 24 areas that can be simultaneously monitored by SPR. Coating these areas with appropriate antibodies or other receptors allows a sample to be screened for up to 24 different substances simultaneously. The instruments report refractive index (RI) values every second, with a typical noise level of 1-3 x 10(-6) RI units. The design of the device is described, and performance is illustrated with detection of six distinct analytes ranging from small molecules to whole microbes during the course of a single experiment. PMID:17223032

  16. Algorithms for a hand-held miniature x-ray fluorescence analytical instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, W.T.; Newman, D.; Ziemba, F.

    1998-12-31

    The purpose of this joint program was to provide technical assistance with the development of a Miniature X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analytical Instrument. This new XRF instrument is designed to overcome the weaknesses of spectrometers commercially available at the present time. Currently available XRF spectrometers (for a complete list see reference 1) convert spectral information to sample composition using the influence coefficients technique or the fundamental parameters method. They require either a standard sample with composition relatively close to the unknown or a detailed knowledge of the sample matrix. They also require a highly-trained operator and the results often depend on the capabilities of the operator. In addition, almost all existing field-portable, hand-held instruments use radioactive sources for excitation. Regulatory limits on such sources restrict them such that they can only provide relatively weak excitation. This limits all current hand-held XRF instruments to poor detection limits and/or long data collection times, in addition to the licensing requirements and disposal problems for radioactive sources. The new XRF instrument was developed jointly by Quantrad Sensor, Inc., the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and the Department of Energy (DOE). This report describes the analysis algorithms developed by NRL for the new instrument and the software which embodies them.

  17. Promoting Active Learning by Practicing the "Self-Assembly" of Model Analytical Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algar, W. Russ; Krull, Ulrich J.

    2010-01-01

    In our upper-year instrumental analytical chemistry course, we have developed "cut-and-paste" exercises where students "build" models of analytical instruments from individual schematic images of components. These exercises encourage active learning by students. Instead of trying to memorize diagrams, students are required to think deeply about…

  18. Merging Old and New: An Instrumentation-Based Introductory Analytical Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Mark B.

    2015-01-01

    An instrumentation-based laboratory curriculum combining traditional unknown analyses with student-designed projects has been developed for an introductory analytical chemistry course. In the first half of the course, students develop laboratory skills and instrumental proficiency by rotating through six different instruments performing…

  19. Review of emergency radiological instrumentation and analytical methods at NMSS-licensee sites

    SciTech Connect

    Herrington, W.N.; Kathren, R.L.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Jamison, J.D.

    1984-08-01

    This report provides a brief review of emergency radiological monitoring instrumentation capabilities based on visits to Nuclear Materials Safety and Safeguards (NMSS) licensees and on a review of the open literature. Recommendations based on findings are made with regard to instrument design and operation, training, calibration, testing, analytical methods, sampling procedures, and quality assurance. An assessment of currently available instrumentation is made with respect to types of instruments, instrument specifications, future needs of NRC/NMSS licensees as seen by instrument manufacturers an extent to which those needs will be met. 27 references.

  20. Chemometric study of the influence of instrumental parameters on ESI-MS analyte response using full factorial design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raji, M. A.; Schug, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Full factorial experimental design technique was used to study the main effects and the interaction effects between instrumental parameters in two mass spectrometers equipped with conventional electrospray ion sources (Thermo LCQ Deca XP and Shimadzu LCMS 2010). Four major parameters (spray voltage, ion transfer capillary temperature, ion transfer capillary voltage, and tube lens voltage) were investigated in both instruments for their contribution to analyte response, leading to a total of 16 experiments performed for each instrument. Significant parameters were identified by plotting the cumulative probability of each treatment against the estimated effects in normal plots. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to evaluate the statistical significance of the effects of the parameters on ESI-MS analyte response. The results reveal a number of important interactions in addition to the main effects for each instrument. In all the experiments performed, the tube lens voltage (or Q-array dc voltage in LCMS 2010) was found to have significant effects on analyte response in both instruments. The tube lens voltage was also found to interact with the capillary temperature in the case of the LCQ Deca XP and with the spray voltage in the case of the LCMS 2010. The results of these experiments provide important considerations in the instrumental optimization of ionization response for ESI-MS analysis.

  1. Data Acquisition Programming (LabVIEW): An Aid to Teaching Instrumental Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gostowski, Rudy

    A course was developed at Austin Peay State University (Tennessee) which offered an opportunity for hands-on experience with the essential components of modern analytical instruments. The course aimed to provide college students with the skills necessary to construct a simple model instrument, including the design and fabrication of electronic…

  2. Development of data sets for the validation of analytical instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, S.L.R.; Cox, M.G.; Forbes, A.B.; Butler, B.P.

    1994-05-01

    Analytical chemistry makes use of a wide range of basic statistical operations, including means; standard deviations; significance tests based on assumed distributions; and linear, polynomial, and multivariate regression. The effects of limited numerical precision, poor choice of algorithm, and extreme dynamic range of these common statistical operations are discussed. The effects of incorrect choice of algorithm on calculations of basic statistical parameters and calibration lines are illustrated by examples. Some approaches to validation of such software are considered. The preparation of reference data sets for testing statistical software is discussed. The use of {open_quote}null space{close_quote} methods for producing reference data sets is described, and an example is given. These data sets have well-characterized properties and can be used to test the accuracy of basic statistical procedures. Specific properties that are controlled include the numerical precision required to represent the sets exactly and the analytically correct answers. A further property of some of the data sets under development is the predictability of the deviation from the expected results from poor choice of algorithm. 6 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Assessment of economic instruments for countries with low municipal waste management performance: An approach based on the analytic hierarchy process.

    PubMed

    Kling, Maximilian; Seyring, Nicole; Tzanova, Polia

    2016-09-01

    Economic instruments provide significant potential for countries with low municipal waste management performance in decreasing landfill rates and increasing recycling rates for municipal waste. In this research, strengths and weaknesses of landfill tax, pay-as-you-throw charging systems, deposit-refund systems and extended producer responsibility schemes are compared, focusing on conditions in countries with low waste management performance. In order to prioritise instruments for implementation in these countries, the analytic hierarchy process is applied using results of a literature review as input for the comparison. The assessment reveals that pay-as-you-throw is the most preferable instrument when utility-related criteria are regarded (wb = 0.35; analytic hierarchy process distributive mode; absolute comparison) mainly owing to its waste prevention effect, closely followed by landfill tax (wb = 0.32). Deposit-refund systems (wb = 0.17) and extended producer responsibility (wb = 0.16) rank third and fourth, with marginal differences owing to their similar nature. When cost-related criteria are additionally included in the comparison, landfill tax seems to provide the highest utility-cost ratio. Data from literature concerning cost (contrary to utility-related criteria) is currently not sufficiently available for a robust ranking according to the utility-cost ratio. In general, the analytic hierarchy process is seen as a suitable method for assessing economic instruments in waste management. Independent from the chosen analytic hierarchy process mode, results provide valuable indications for policy-makers on the application of economic instruments, as well as on their specific strengths and weaknesses. Nevertheless, the instruments need to be put in the country-specific context along with the results of this analytic hierarchy process application before practical decisions are made. PMID:27121417

  4. Martian Soil Delivery to Analytical Instrument on Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Robotic Arm of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander released a sample of Martian soil onto a screened opening of the lander's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) during the 12th Martian day, or sol, since landing (June 6, 2008). TEGA did not confirm that any of the sample had passed through the screen.

    The Robotic Arm Camera took this image on Sol 12. Soil from the sample delivery is visible on the sloped surface of TEGA, which has a series of parallel doors. The two doors for the targeted cell of TEGA are the one positioned vertically, at far right, and the one partially open just to the left of that one. The soil between those two doors is resting on a screen designed to let fine particles through while keeping bigger ones Efrom clogging the interior of the instrument. Each door is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) long.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Incorporating Students' Self-Designed, Research-Based Analytical Chemistry Projects into the Instrumentation Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Ruomei

    2015-01-01

    In a typical chemistry instrumentation laboratory, students learn analytical techniques through a well-developed procedure. Such an approach, however, does not engage students in a creative endeavor. To foster the intrinsic motivation of students' desire to learn, improve their confidence in self-directed learning activities and enhance their…

  6. Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the…

  7. Validation of New Instrumentation for Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometric Determination of Organic Serum Analytes

    PubMed Central

    Ellerbe, P.; Phinney, C. S.; Sniegoski, L. T.; Welch, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    A major activity in the 20 year collaboration between the Analytical Chemistry Division at NIST and the College of American Pathologists (CAP) has been the development of highly accurate and precise “definitive” methods for important clinical analytes in human serum. Definitive methods for organic analytes use isotope dilution/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and require a mass spectrometer capable of making highly precise measurements of the ratio between the ion intensities of a characteristic ion from the analyte of interest and its stable-isotope-labeled analog. Recently, the mass spectrometer used for 20 years for definitive method development and measurements was replaced with a modern instrument capable of automated operation, with accompanying gains in convenience and sample throughput. Switching to the new instrument required modifications of measurement protocols, acceptance criteria, and ratio calculations with background corrections to go along with automated instrument operation. Results demonstrated that the two instruments gave comparable results for measurements of both urea and cholesterol in samples from various serum-based Standard Reference Materials [SRMs] and College of American Pathologists materials.

  8. Instruments Used in Doctoral Dissertations in Educational Sciences in Turkey: Quality of Research and Analytical Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadag, Engin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the level of quality and types of analytical errors for measurement instruments used [i.e., interview forms, achievement tests and scales] in doctoral dissertations produced in educational sciences in Turkey. The study was designed to determine the levels of factors concerning quality in research methods and the…

  9. Evolutionary developments in x ray and electron energy loss microanalysis instrumentation for the analytical electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaluzec, Nester J.

    Developments in instrumentation for both X ray Dispersive and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (XEDS/EELS) over the last ten years have given the experimentalist a greatly enhanced set of analytical tools for characterization. Microanalysts have waited for nearly two decades now in the hope of getting a true analytical microscope and the development of 300 to 400 kV instruments should have allowed us to attain this goal. Unfortunately, this has not generally been the case. While there have been some major improvements in the techniques, there has also been some devolution in the modern AEM (Analytical Electron Microscope). In XEDS, the majority of today's instruments are still plagued by the hole count effect, which was first described in detail over fifteen years ago. The magnitude of this problem can still reach the 20 percent level for medium atomic number species in a conventional off-the-shelf intermediate voltage AEM. This is an absurd situation and the manufacturers should be severely criticized. Part of the blame, however, also rests on the AEM community for not having come up with a universally agreed upon standard test procedure. Fortunately, such a test procedure is in the early stages of refinement. The proposed test specimen consists of an evaporated Cr film approx. 500 to 1000A thick supported upon a 3mm diameter Molybdenum 200 micron aperture.

  10. Development of an Analytical Method for Quantitative Determination of Atmospheric Particles By Laap-TOF Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemayel, R.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Hellebust, S.; Gligorovski, S.; Wortham, H.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the chemical composition of the atmospheric particles is of paramount importance in order to understand their impact on the health and climate. Hence, there is an imperative need for the development of appropriate analytical methods of analysis for the on-line, time-resolved measurements of atmospheric particles. Laser Ablation Aerosol Particle Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (LAAP-TOF-MS) allows a real time qualitative analysis of nanoparticles of differing composition and size. LAAP-TOF-MS is aimed for on-line and continuous measurements of atmospheric particles with the fast time resolution in order of millisecond. This system uses a 193 nm excimer laser for particle ablation/ionization and a 403 nm scattering laser for sizing (and single particle detection/triggering). The charged ions are then extracted into a bi-polar Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer. Here we present an analytical methodology for quantitative determination of the composition and size-distribution of the particles by LAAP-TOF instrument. We developed and validate an analytical methodology of this high time resolution instrument by comparison with the conventional analysis systems with lower time resolution (electronic microscopy, optical counters…) with final aim to render the methodology quantitative. This was performed with the aid of other instruments for on-line and off-line measurement such as Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer, electronic microscopy... Validation of the analytical method was performed under laboratory conditions by detection and identification of the targeted main types such as SiO2, CeO2, and TiO2

  11. Percutaneous Dorsal Instrumentation of Vertebral Burst Fractures: Value of Additional Percutaneous Intravertebral Reposition—Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Antonio; Schmuck, Maya; Noriega, David C.; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Baroud, Gamal; Oberkircher, Ludwig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The treatment of vertebral burst fractures is still controversial. The aim of the study is to evaluate the purpose of additional percutaneous intravertebral reduction when combined with dorsal instrumentation. Methods. In this biomechanical cadaver study twenty-eight spine segments (T11-L3) were used (male donors, mean age 64.9 ± 6.5 years). Burst fractures of L1 were generated using a standardised protocol. After fracture all spines were allocated to four similar groups and randomised according to surgical techniques (posterior instrumentation; posterior instrumentation + intravertebral reduction device + cement augmentation; posterior instrumentation + intravertebral reduction device without cement; and intravertebral reduction device + cement augmentation). After treatment, 100000 cycles (100–600 N, 3 Hz) were applied using a servohydraulic loading frame. Results. Overall anatomical restoration was better in all groups where the intravertebral reduction device was used (p < 0.05). In particular, it was possible to restore central endplates (p > 0.05). All techniques decreased narrowing of the spinal canal. After loading, clearance could be maintained in all groups fitted with the intravertebral reduction device. Narrowing increased in the group treated with dorsal instrumentation. Conclusions. For height and anatomical restoration, the combination of an intravertebral reduction device with dorsal instrumentation showed significantly better results than sole dorsal instrumentation. PMID:26137481

  12. Insights into the varnishes of historical musical instruments using synchrotron micro-analytical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echard, J.-P.; Cotte, M.; Dooryhee, E.; Bertrand, L.

    2008-07-01

    Though ancient violins and other stringed instruments are often revered for the beauty of their varnishes, the varnishing techniques are not much known. In particular, very few detailed varnish analyses have been published so far. Since 2002, a research program at the Musée de la musique (Paris) is dedicated to a detailed description of varnishes on famous ancient musical instruments using a series of novel analytical methods. For the first time, results are presented on the study of the varnish from a late 16th century Venetian lute, using synchrotron micro-analytical methods. Identification of both organic and inorganic compounds distributed within the individual layers of a varnish microsample has been performed using spatially resolved synchrotron Fourier transform infrared microscopy. The univocal identification of the mineral phases is obtained through synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. The materials identified may be of utmost importance to understand the varnishing process and its similarities with some painting techniques. In particular, the proteinaceous binding medium and the calcium sulfate components (bassanite and anhydrite) that have been identified in the lower layers of the varnish microsample could be related, to a certain extent, to the ground materials of earlier Italian paintings.

  13. An Alpha-p-x Analytical Instrument for Lunar Resource Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Economou, T. E.; Turkevich, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    An instrument using alpha backscattering, alpha-proton nuclear reactions, and x-ray production by alpha particles and other auxiliary sources can be used on lunar landers to provide detailed analytical information concerning the lunar surface material. This information is important scientifically and can be the basis for utilizing efficiently lunar resources to build lunar colonies in the future. This alpha particle instrument uses radioactive isotopes, silicon detectors for the alpha and proton modes, and mercuric iodide detectors operating at room temperature for the x-ray mode. The alpha and proton modes of the instrument can provide an analysis for all elements (except hydrogen) present in amounts greater than about 1 percent by atom. These modes have excellent sensitivity and accuracy for the lighter elements, in particular, directly determining the amount of oxygen in the lunar soil. This is an element of paramount significance for the lunar resource mission. The x-ray mode makes possible a determination of Ti, Fe, and other important metals with even greater accuracy. In general, the x-ray mode provides increased sensitivity for heavier elements, in many cases achieving a sensitivity of several hundred ppm.

  14. Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Pyeloplasty Using Additional 2 mm Instruments: A Comparison with Conventional Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Sung Ho; Lee, Dong-Gi; Lee, Jun Ho; Baek, Min Ki; Jeong, Byong Chang; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Despite a recent surge in the performance of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS), concerns remain about performing LESS pyeloplasty (LESS-P) because of the technical difficulty in suturing. We report our techniques and initial experiences with LESS-P using additional needlescopic instruments and compare the results with conventional laparoscopic pyeloplasty (CL-P). Materials and Methods Nine patients undergoing LESS-P were matched 2:1 with regard to age and side of surgery to a previous cohort of 18 patients who underwent CL-P. In both groups, the operating procedures were performed equally except for the number of access points. In the LESS-P group, we made a single 2 cm incision at the umbilicus and used a homemade port. We also used additional 2 mm needlescopic instruments at the subcostal area to facilitate suturing and the ureteral stenting. Results The preoperative characteristics were comparable in both groups. Postoperatively, no significant differences were noted between the LESS-P and CL-P cases in regard to length of stay, estimated blood loss, analgesics required, and complications. But, LESS-P was associated with a shorter operative time (252.2 vs. 309.7 minutes, p=0.044) and less pain on postoperative day one (numeric rating scale 3.7 vs. 5.6, p=0.024). The success rate was 94% with CL-P (median, 23 months) and 100% with LESS-P (median, 14 months). Conclusions Our initial experiences suggest that LESS-P is a feasible and safe procedure. The use of additional 2 mm instruments can help to overcome the difficulties associated with LESS surgery. PMID:22025957

  15. Ion Mobility Drift Spectrometer (IMDS) as a flight analytical instrument technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, D. R.; Carle, G. C.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of the history and abundances of the biogenic elements and their compounds throughout the solar system can provide the exobiologists with a basis for understanding the conditions necessary for chemical evolution and the origin of life. The Ion Mobility Drift Spectrometer is an ion molecule reactor coupled with an ion drift spectrometer. Sample molecules are ionized to form product ions in the reactant region. An electric field moves the ions through a drift region against the flow of a drift gas where they are separated according to their size and structure producing an ion mobility spectrum. These spectra provide the IMDS with virtually universal sample identification capability. To conform to the rigid limits of weight, volume and consumables placed on flight instrumentation, several aspects of the IMDS must be studied and redesigned for flight use. In addition to miniaturization of the instrument, a reduction in the high flow rates used for the drift gas is an obvious necessary consideration. The effect of drastically reduced drift flow rates on IMDS spectra was investigated by lowering flow rates from 500ml/min to 50ml/min. Changes in peak shape, drift time and total spectra were studied at each flow rate.

  16. Investigation of helium addition for laser-induced plasma spectroscopy of pure gas phase systems: Analyte interactions and signal enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, C. A.; Diwakar, P. K.; Hahn, D. W.

    2007-12-01

    The role of helium addition on the analyte signal enhancement in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for analysis of pure gaseous systems was examined using carbon and hydrogen atomic emission lines. Increased analyte response, as measured by peak-to-base and signal-to-noise ratios, was observed with increasing helium addition, with maximum enhancement approaching a factor of 7. Additional measurements revealed a significant decrease in plasma electron density with increasing helium addition. To explore the mechanisms of analyte signal enhancement, the helium emission lines were also examined and found to be effectively quenched with nitrogen addition. In consideration of the data, it is concluded that the role of metastable helium is not as important as the overall changes in plasma properties, namely electron density and laser-plasma coupling. Helium addition is concluded to affect the electron density via Penning ionization, as well as to play a role in the initial plasma breakdown processes.

  17. Analytical optimal controls for the state constrained addition and removal of cryoprotective agents

    PubMed Central

    Chicone, Carmen C.; Critser, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Cryobiology is a field with enormous scientific, financial and even cultural impact. Successful cryopreservation of cells and tissues depends on the equilibration of these materials with high concentrations of permeating chemicals (CPAs) such as glycerol or 1,2 propylene glycol. Because cells and tissues are exposed to highly anisosmotic conditions, the resulting gradients cause large volume fluctuations that have been shown to damage cells and tissues. On the other hand, there is evidence that toxicity to these high levels of chemicals is time dependent, and therefore it is ideal to minimize exposure time as well. Because solute and solvent flux is governed by a system of ordinary differential equations, CPA addition and removal from cells is an ideal context for the application of optimal control theory. Recently, we presented a mathematical synthesis of the optimal controls for the ODE system commonly used in cryobiology in the absence of state constraints and showed that controls defined by this synthesis were optimal. Here we define the appropriate model, analytically extend the previous theory to one encompassing state constraints, and as an example apply this to the critical and clinically important cell type of human oocytes, where current methodologies are either difficult to implement or have very limited success rates. We show that an enormous increase in equilibration efficiency can be achieved under the new protocols when compared to classic protocols, potentially allowing a greatly increased survival rate for human oocytes, and pointing to a direction for the cryopreservation of many other cell types. PMID:22527943

  18. CheMin: A Definitive Mineralogy Instrument in the Analytical Laboratory of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL '09)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D. L.; Chiprera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.

    2005-01-01

    An important goal of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL 09) mission is the determination of definitive mineralogy and chemical composition. CheMin is a miniature X-ray diffraction/X-ray fluorescence (XRD/XRF) instrument that has been chosen for the analytical laboratory of MSL. CheMin utilizes a miniature microfocus source cobalt X-ray tube, a transmission sample cell and an energy-discriminating X-ray sensitive CCD to produce simultaneous 2-D X-ray diffraction patterns and X-ray fluorescence spectra from powdered or crushed samples. A diagrammatic view of the instrument is shown.

  19. Digital Education Governance: Data Visualization, Predictive Analytics, and "Real-Time" Policy Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Educational institutions and governing practices are increasingly augmented with digital database technologies that function as new kinds of policy instruments. This article surveys and maps the landscape of digital policy instrumentation in education and provides two detailed case studies of new digital data systems. The Learning Curve is a…

  20. Generalized net analyte signal standard addition as a novel method for simultaneous determination: application in spectrophotometric determination of some pesticides.

    PubMed

    Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Saeb, Elhameh; Vallipour, Javad; Bamorowat, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of three neonicotinoid insecticides (acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam) by a novel method named generalized net analyte signal standard addition method (GNASSAM) in some binary and ternary synthetic mixtures was investigated. For this purpose, standard addition was performed using a single standard solution consisting of a mixture of standards of all analytes. Savings in time and amount of used materials are some of the advantages of this method. All determinations showed appropriate applicability of this method with less than 5% error. This method may be applied for linearly dependent data in the presence of known interferents. The GNASSAM combines the advantages of both the generalized standard addition method and net analyte signal; therefore, it may be a proper alternative for some other multivariate methods. PMID:24672886

  1. INSTRUMENTS MEASURING PERCEIVED RACISM/RACIAL DISCRIMINATION: REVIEW AND CRITIQUE OF FACTOR ANALYTIC TECHNIQUES

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Rahshida

    2015-01-01

    Several compendiums of instruments that measure perceived racism and/or discrimination are present in the literature. Other works have reviewed the psychometric properties of these instruments in terms of validity and reliability and have indicated if the instrument was factor analyzed. However, little attention has been given to the quality of the factor analysis performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exploratory factor analyses done on instruments measuring perceived racism/racial discrimination using guidelines from experts in psychometric theory. The techniques used for factor analysis were reviewed and critiqued and the adequacy of reporting was evaluated. Internet search engines and four electronic abstract databases were used to identify 16 relevant instruments that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Principal component analysis was the most frequent method of extraction (81%). Sample sizes were adequate for factor analysis in 81 percent of studies. The majority of studies reported appropriate criteria for the acceptance of un-rotated factors (81%) and justified the rotation method (75%). Exactly 94 percent of studies reported partially acceptable criteria for the acceptance of rotated factors. The majority of articles (69%) reported adequate coefficient alphas for the resultant subscales. In 81 percent of the studies, the conceptualized dimensions were supported by factor analysis. PMID:25626225

  2. Instrumental Analysis of Biodiesel Content in Commercial Diesel Blends: An Experiment for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Z. Vivian; Buchman, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of replacing petroleum fuels with renewable biofuels has drawn significant public interest. Many states have imposed biodiesel mandates or incentives to use commercial biodiesel blends. We present an inquiry-driven experiment where students are given the tasks to gather samples, develop analytical methods using various instrumental…

  3. Black Boxes in Analytical Chemistry: University Students' Misconceptions of Instrumental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbo, Antonio Domenech; Adelantado, Jose Vicente Gimeno; Reig, Francisco Bosch

    2010-01-01

    Misconceptions of chemistry and chemical engineering university students concerning instrumental analysis have been established from coordinated tests, tutorial interviews and laboratory lessons. Misconceptions can be divided into: (1) formal, involving specific concepts and formulations within the general frame of chemistry; (2)…

  4. Build Your Own Photometer: A Guided-Inquiry Experiment to Introduce Analytical Instrumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jessie J.; Nun´ez, Jose´ R. Rodríguez; Maxwell, E. Jane; Algar, W. Russ

    2016-01-01

    A guided-inquiry project designed to teach students the basics of spectrophotometric instrumentation at the second year level is presented. Students design, build, program, and test their own single-wavelength, submersible photometer using low-cost light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and inexpensive household items. A series of structured prelaboratory…

  5. A Guide for Selecting Bilingual Bicultural Resource Materials: The Analytic Instrument. [Volume III].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Michael

    This is the third of three volumes reporting a project to develop an instrument to evaluate instructional materials used in bilingual education, community language education, and bicultural education programs in Australian schools. The project had three purposes: (1) to examine the research literature on the development of models and instruments…

  6. INVESTIGATION OF RESPONSE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DIFFERENT TYPES OF TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON (TOC) ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have long been used to estimate the amount of natural organic matter (NOM) found in raw and finished drinking water. In recent years, computer automation and improved instrumental analysis technologies have created a ...

  7. IMPROVED ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE FOR THE DETERMINATION OF GAS AND AQUEOUS PHASE HYDROGEN PEROXIDE: INSTRUMENT MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document describes the construction and operation of an automated instrument package designed to measure gaseous and aqueous phase hydrogen peroxide. The chemical determination relies on the peroxidase-mediated conversion of p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid to 6,6'-dihydroxy-3,3'-b...

  8. STRMDEPL08 - An Extended Version of STRMDEPL with Additional Analytical Solutions to Calculate Streamflow Depletion by Nearby Pumping Wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Howard W.

    2008-01-01

    STRMDEPL, a one-dimensional model using two analytical solutions to calculate streamflow depletion by a nearby pumping well, was extended to account for two additional analytical solutions. The extended program is named STRMDEPL08. The original program incorporated solutions for a stream that fully penetrates the aquifer with and without streambed resistance to ground-water flow. The modified program includes solutions for a partially penetrating stream with streambed resistance and for a stream in an aquitard subjected to pumping from an underlying leaky aquifer. The code also was modified to allow the user to input pumping variations at other than 1-day intervals. The modified code is shown to correctly evaluate the analytical solutions and to provide correct results for half-day time intervals.

  9. VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT: REVIEW AND SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE GUIDES, PROCEDURES, AND PROTOCOLS

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, A.

    2008-12-17

    This document proposes to provide a listing of available sources which can be used to validate analytical methods and/or instrumentation for beryllium determination. A literature review was conducted of available standard methods and publications used for method validation and/or quality control. A comprehensive listing of the articles, papers, and books reviewed is given in Appendix 1. Available validation documents and guides are listed in the appendix; each has a brief description of application and use. In the referenced sources, there are varying approaches to validation and varying descriptions of validation at different stages in method development. This discussion focuses on validation and verification of fully developed methods and instrumentation that have been offered up for use or approval by other laboratories or official consensus bodies such as ASTM International, the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). This review was conducted as part of a collaborative effort to investigate and improve the state of validation for measuring beryllium in the workplace and the environment. Documents and publications from the United States and Europe are included. Unless otherwise specified, all documents were published in English.

  10. Validation of analytical methods and instrumentation for beryllium measurement: review and summary of available guides, procedures, and protocols.

    PubMed

    Ekechukwu, Amy; Hendricks, Warren; White, Kenneth T; Liabastre, Albert; Archuleta, Melecita; Hoover, Mark D

    2009-12-01

    This document provides a listing of available sources that can be used to validate analytical methods and/or instrumentation for beryllium determination. A literature review was conducted of available standard methods and publications used for method validation and/or quality control. An annotated listing of the articles, papers, and books reviewed is given in the Appendix. Available validation documents and guides are listed therein; each has a brief description of application and use. In the referenced sources, there are varying approaches to validation and varying descriptions of the validation process at different stages in method development. This discussion focuses on validation and verification of fully developed methods and instrumentation that have been offered for use or approval by other laboratories or official consensus bodies such as ASTM International, the International Standards Organization, the International Electrotechnical Commission, and the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. This review was conducted as part of a collaborative effort to investigate and improve the state of validation for measuring beryllium in the workplace and the environment. Documents and publications from the United States and Europe are included. PMID:19894179

  11. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  12. VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT: REVIEW AND SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE GUIDES, PROCEDURES, AND PROTOCOLS

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-05-27

    Method validation is the process of evaluating whether an analytical method is acceptable for its intended purpose. For pharmaceutical methods, guidelines from the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH), and the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) provide a framework for performing such valications. In general, methods for regulatory compliance must include studies on specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, range, detection limit, quantitation limit, and robustness. Elements of these guidelines are readily adapted to the issue of validation for beryllium sampling and analysis. This document provides a listing of available sources which can be used to validate analytical methods and/or instrumentation for beryllium determination. A literature review was conducted of available standard methods and publications used for method validation and/or quality control. A comprehensive listing of the articles, papers and books reviewed is given in the Appendix. Available validation documents and guides are listed therein; each has a brief description of application and use. In the referenced sources, there are varying approches to validation and varying descriptions of the valication process at different stages in method development. This discussion focuses on valication and verification of fully developed methods and instrumentation that have been offered up for use or approval by other laboratories or official consensus bodies such as ASTM International, the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). This review was conducted as part of a collaborative effort to investigate and improve the state of validation for measuring beryllium in the workplace and the environment. Documents and publications from the United States and Europe are included. Unless otherwise specified, all referenced documents were published in English.

  13. Analytical display design for flight tasks conducted under instrument meteorological conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A relatively straightforward, nearly algorithmic procedure for deriving model-based pilot-centered display requirements is presented. A pilot model based on modern control theory serves as the backbone of the design methodology, which is specifically directed toward the synthesis of head-down, electronic cockpit display formats. Some novel applications of the optimal pilot model are discussed, including the generation of vehicle-handling-qualities levels via numerical pilot-opinion ratings. An analytical design example is offered which aids in the definition of a format for the electronic display to be used in a UH-1H helicopter in a landing-approach task involving longitudinal and lateral degrees of freedom. It is proposed that the design procedure offers a systematic means for generating candidate display formats and flight-director laws for simulator evaluation.

  14. Meta-Analytic Guidelines for Evaluating Single-Item Reliabilities of Personality Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Spörrle, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Personality is an important predictor of various outcomes in many social science disciplines. However, when personality traits are not the principal focus of research, for example, in global comparative surveys, it is often not possible to assess them extensively. In this article, we first provide an overview of the advantages and challenges of single-item measures of personality, a rationale for their construction, and a summary of alternative ways of assessing their reliability. Second, using seven diverse samples (Ntotal = 4,263) we develop the SIMP-G, the German adaptation of the Single-Item Measures of Personality, an instrument assessing the Big Five with one item per trait, and evaluate its validity and reliability. Third, we integrate previous research and our data into a first meta-analysis of single-item reliabilities of personality measures, and provide researchers with guidelines and recommendations for the evaluation of single-item reliabilities. PMID:23996850

  15. H-point standard additions method for simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids with simultaneous addition of two analytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givianrad, M. H.; Saber-Tehrani, M.; Aberoomand-Azar, P.; Mohagheghian, M.

    2011-03-01

    The applicability of H-point standard additions method (HPSAM) to the resolving of overlapping spectra corresponding to the sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is verified by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The results show that the H-point standard additions method with simultaneous addition of both analytes is suitable for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in aqueous media. The results of applying the H-point standard additions method showed that the two drugs could be determined simultaneously with the concentration ratios of sulfamethoxazole to trimethoprim varying from 1:18 to 16:1 in the mixed samples. Also, the limits of detections were 0.58 and 0.37 μmol L -1 for sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, respectively. In addition the means of the calculated RSD (%) were 1.63 and 2.01 for SMX and TMP, respectively in synthetic mixtures. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in some synthetic, pharmaceutical formulation and biological fluid samples.

  16. Experimental model and analytic solution for real-time observation of vehicle's additional steer angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Li, Liang; Pan, Deng; Cao, Chengmao; Song, Jian

    2014-03-01

    The current research of real-time observation for vehicle roll steer angle and compliance steer angle(both of them comprehensively referred as the additional steer angle in this paper) mainly employs the linear vehicle dynamic model, in which only the lateral acceleration of vehicle body is considered. The observation accuracy resorting to this method cannot meet the requirements of vehicle real-time stability control, especially under extreme driving conditions. The paper explores the solution resorting to experimental method. Firstly, a multi-body dynamic model of a passenger car is built based on the ADAMS/Car software, whose dynamic accuracy is verified by the same vehicle's roadway test data of steady static circular test. Based on this simulation platform, several influencing factors of additional steer angle under different driving conditions are quantitatively analyzed. Then ɛ-SVR algorithm is employed to build the additional steer angle prediction model, whose input vectors mainly include the sensor information of standard electronic stability control system(ESC). The method of typical slalom tests and FMVSS 126 tests are adopted to make simulation, train model and test model's generalization performance. The test result shows that the influence of lateral acceleration on additional steer angle is maximal (the magnitude up to 1°), followed by the longitudinal acceleration-deceleration and the road wave amplitude (the magnitude up to 0.3°). Moreover, both the prediction accuracy and the calculation real-time of the model can meet the control requirements of ESC. This research expands the accurate observation methods of the additional steer angle under extreme driving conditions.

  17. Using instrumental variables to estimate a Cox's proportional hazards regression subject to additive confounding

    PubMed Central

    Tosteson, Tor D.; Morden, Nancy E.; Stukel, Therese A.; O'Malley, A. James

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of treatment effects is one of the primary goals of statistics in medicine. Estimation based on observational studies is subject to confounding. Statistical methods for controlling bias due to confounding include regression adjustment, propensity scores and inverse probability weighted estimators. These methods require that all confounders are recorded in the data. The method of instrumental variables (IVs) can eliminate bias in observational studies even in the absence of information on confounders. We propose a method for integrating IVs within the framework of Cox's proportional hazards model and demonstrate the conditions under which it recovers the causal effect of treatment. The methodology is based on the approximate orthogonality of an instrument with unobserved confounders among those at risk. We derive an estimator as the solution to an estimating equation that resembles the score equation of the partial likelihood in much the same way as the traditional IV estimator resembles the normal equations. To justify this IV estimator for a Cox model we perform simulations to evaluate its operating characteristics. Finally, we apply the estimator to an observational study of the effect of coronary catheterization on survival. PMID:25506259

  18. Net analyte signal standard addition method for simultaneous determination of sulphadiazine and trimethoprim in bovine milk and veterinary medicines.

    PubMed

    Hajian, Reza; Mousavi, Esmat; Shams, Nafiseh

    2013-06-01

    Net analyte signal standard addition method has been used for the simultaneous determination of sulphadiazine and trimethoprim by spectrophotometry in some bovine milk and veterinary medicines. The method combines the advantages of standard addition method with the net analyte signal concept which enables the extraction of information concerning a certain analyte from spectra of multi-component mixtures. This method has some advantages such as the use of a full spectrum realisation, therefore it does not require calibration and prediction step and only a few measurements require for the determination. Cloud point extraction based on the phenomenon of solubilisation used for extraction of sulphadiazine and trimethoprim in bovine milk. It is based on the induction of micellar organised media by using Triton X-100 as an extraction solvent. At the optimum conditions, the norm of NAS vectors increased linearly with concentrations in the range of 1.0-150.0 μmolL(-1) for both sulphadiazine and trimethoprim. The limits of detection (LOD) for sulphadiazine and trimethoprim were 0.86 and 0.92 μmolL(-1), respectively. PMID:23411170

  19. Net analyte signal standard addition method (NASSAM) as a novel spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric technique for simultaneous determination, application to assay of melatonin and pyridoxine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Bastami, Mohammad

    2010-02-01

    In this work a new modification of the standard addition method called "net analyte signal standard addition method (NASSAM)" is presented for the simultaneous spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric analysis. The proposed method combines the advantages of standard addition method with those of net analyte signal concept. The method can be applied for the determination of analyte in the presence of known interferents. The accuracy of the predictions against H-point standard addition method is not dependent on the shape of the analyte and interferent spectra. The method was successfully applied to simultaneous spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric determination of pyridoxine (PY) and melatonin (MT) in synthetic mixtures and in a pharmaceutical formulation.

  20. Complex of the new generation of the instrumental analytical approaches to prevent dangerous bioterrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodub, Nickolaj F.; Shavanova, Kateryna; Karpiuk, Andrii

    2014-10-01

    The real manifestations of biowarfare were only during local military conflicts. In previous times the danger with this factor forms through activation of terrorist organizations. To prevent non-desirable consequences and to preserve the lives and health of people it is necessary to provide constant control by the application of complex of the new generation of the instrumental devices based on the principles of biosensorics which allow rapid revealing step by step: total toxicity of environmental objects, presence of appropriate groups and specific chemical substances among them. It is demonstrated simple and rapid estimation of the total toxicity through the control of the intensity of chlorophyll fluorescence (IChF) by the direct or remote ways by the device "Floratest" (Ukraine). There is possible on the basis of IChF curve of growing plants from some territory during appropriate period to reveal appearance of toxic substances in this area. Their presence in more local cases may be done by using bioluminescent bacteria (pure Ukrainian strains) or/and controlling short term Daphnia living medium by developed portable chemiluminometer. For the revealing of some groups of toxic elements it is recommended the cerium oxide ISFETs based enzymatic biosensors. The last and devices based on SPR ("Plasmotest", Ukraine), porous silicon (with the registration of biospecific interaction macromolecules by luminescence or electro conductivity) and some nano-metal oxides were realized in immune biosensors at the determination of content of number of mycotoxins, some microorganisms (Salmonella spp.) and diagnostics of viral disease (retroviral leucosis). We present the main characteristics of the above mentioned devices and give confirmation that all the analysis meets practice demands. Overall time of analysis is in range 10 min and it is very simple and may be realized in field conditions.

  1. Analytical Instrument for Determining the Composition of Surface Materials and Ices in the Solar System: Mini-CIDEX to TIDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Holland, Paul M.; Stimac, Robert M.; Takeuchi, Noreshige

    2004-01-01

    Exobiology experiments onboard spacecraft or space probes often require the detection and identification of a wide range of chemical species over vast concentration ranges. These experiments must be carried out under severely limited conditions utilizing minimal resources. The mini-Cometary Ice and Dust Experiment (mini-CIDEX) instrument was developed for the chemical analysis of a cometary environment. It combined a Gas Chromatograph (GC) with a helium-based Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) to fulfill the analytical requirements of a cometary exobiology mission: universal response; ppb sensitivity; low mass, volume, and consumables. Mini-CIDEX has evolved into the Titan Ice and Dust Experiment (TIDE) for the chemical analysis of the surface (liquid and solid) and lower atmosphere of Titan. The complexity of the analyses will be similar to the comet application with a heavier emphasis on organic molecules. TIDE is a component of the Titan Orbiter Aero-Rover Mission (TOAM) proposed to NASA's New Visions Program. Advances to the Mini-CIDEX technology for the Titan application and the analytical capabilities of TIDE will be presented.

  2. Analytical performance of benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence instrumentation for multielemental analysis of wine samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalipi, Rogerta; Marguí, Eva; Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola; Depero, Laura E.

    2016-06-01

    Recent technological improvements have led to a widespread adoption of benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence systems (TXRF) for analysis of liquid samples. However, benchtop TXRF systems usually present limited sensitivity compared with high-scale instrumentation which can restrict its application in some fields. The aim of the present work was to evaluate and compare the analytical capabilities of two TXRF systems, equipped with low power Mo and W target X-ray tubes, for multielemental analysis of wine samples. Using the Mo-TXRF system, the detection limits for most elements were one order of magnitude lower than those attained using the W-TXRF system. For the detection of high Z elements like Cd and Ag, however, W-TXRF remains a very good option due to the possibility of K-Lines detection. Accuracy and precision of the obtained results have been evaluated analyzing spiked real wine samples and comparing the TXRF results with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). In general, good agreement was obtained between ICP-OES and TXRF results for the analysis of both red and white wine samples except for light elements (i.e., K) which TXRF concentrations were underestimated. However, a further achievement of analytical quality of TXRF results can be achieved if wine analysis is performed after dilution of the sample with de-ionized water.

  3. Terahertz imaging and tomography as efficient instruments for testing polymer additive manufacturing objects.

    PubMed

    Perraud, J B; Obaton, A F; Bou-Sleiman, J; Recur, B; Balacey, H; Darracq, F; Guillet, J P; Mounaix, P

    2016-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technology is not only used to make 3D objects but also for rapid prototyping. In industry and laboratories, quality controls for these objects are necessary though difficult to implement compared to classical methods of fabrication because the layer-by-layer printing allows for very complex object manufacturing that is unachievable with standard tools. Furthermore, AM can induce unknown or unexpected defects. Consequently, we demonstrate terahertz (THz) imaging as an innovative method for 2D inspection of polymer materials. Moreover, THz tomography may be considered as an alternative to x-ray tomography and cheaper 3D imaging for routine control. This paper proposes an experimental study of 3D polymer objects obtained by additive manufacturing techniques. This approach allows us to characterize defects and to control dimensions by volumetric measurements on 3D data reconstructed by tomography. PMID:27140357

  4. Application of the correlation constrained multivariate curve resolution alternating least-squares method for analyte quantitation in the presence of unexpected interferences using first-order instrumental data.

    PubMed

    Goicoechea, Héctor C; Olivieri, Alejandro C; Tauler, Romà

    2010-03-01

    Correlation constrained multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares is shown to be a feasible method for processing first-order instrumental data and achieve analyte quantitation in the presence of unexpected interferences. Both for simulated and experimental data sets, the proposed method could correctly retrieve the analyte and interference spectral profiles and perform accurate estimations of analyte concentrations in test samples. Since no information concerning the interferences was present in calibration samples, the proposed multivariate calibration approach including the correlation constraint facilitates the achievement of the so-called second-order advantage for the analyte of interest, which is known to be present for more complex higher-order richer instrumental data. The proposed method is tested using a simulated data set and two experimental data systems, one for the determination of ascorbic acid in powder juices using UV-visible absorption spectral data, and another for the determination of tetracycline in serum samples using fluorescence emission spectroscopy. PMID:20174722

  5. The Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2002 Tropical Ozone Climatology. 3; Instrumentation and Station-to-Station Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacqueline C.; Smit, Herman G. J.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Johnson, Bryan J.; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Schmidlin, Francis J.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Since 1998 the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project has collected more than 2000 ozone profiles from a dozen tropical and subtropical sites using balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes. The data (with accompanying pressure-temperature-humidity soundings) are archived. Analysis of ozonesonde imprecision within the SHADOZ dataset revealed that variations in ozonesonde technique could lead to station-to-station biases in the measurements. In this paper imprecisions and accuracy in the SHADOZ dataset are examined in light of new data. When SHADOZ total ozone column amounts are compared to version 8 TOMS (2004 release), discrepancies between sonde and satellite datasets decline 1-2 percentage points on average, compared to version 7 TOMS. Variability among stations is evaluated using total ozone normalized to TOMS and results of laboratory tests on ozonesondes (JOSE-2O00, Julich Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment). Ozone deviations from a standard instrument in the JOSE flight simulation chamber resemble those of SHADOZ station data relative to a SHADOZ-defined climatological reference. Certain systematic variations in SHADOZ ozone profiles are accounted for by differences in solution composition, data processing and instrument (manufacturer). Instrument bias leads to a greater ozone measurement above 25 km over Nairobi and to lower total column ozone at three Pacific sites compared to other SHADOZ stations at 0-20 deg.S.

  6. A Review of Level 2 Parent-Report Instruments Used to Screen Children Aged 1.5-5 for Autism: A Meta-Analytic Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Justin; Strand, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized meta-analytic procedures to estimate the diagnostic validity of instruments used to screen young children, ages 1.5-5 years, for autism. Five scales met inclusion criteria, and data from 18 studies contributed the meta-analysis. Results revealed that 4 of 5 scales met criteria for "good" validity, including two…

  7. Instrumentation '79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Surveys the state of commerical development of analytical instrumentation as reflected by the Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy. Includes optical spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, magnetic spectrometers, and x-ray. (Author/MA)

  8. The tabletting machine as an analytical instrument: qualification of the tabletting machine and the instrumentation with respect to the determination of punch separation and validation of the calibration procedures.

    PubMed

    Belda, P M; Mielck, J B

    1999-05-01

    The quality of the determination of punch separation in an eccentric tabletting machine equipped with two inductive displacement transducers was carefully investigated, since this tabletting machine is used as an 'analytical instrument' for the evaluation of the compression behaviour of pharmaceutical materials. For a quasistatic calibration procedure using gauge blocks, the repeatability under standard conditions and the robustness against variations in machine settings, installation conditions, equipment and methods were examined. The readings during calibration can be easily influenced by machine parameters as a result of deficiencies in the construction of the machine and in the mode of instrumentation. The poor plane-parallelism of the punch faces has a further negative effect on the accuracy of punch separation. In addition, the response at loading to lower and higher forces as during calibration was investigated. While at loading up to 100 N, the response of the system to the gauge blocks is systematically influenced by punch separation, for slow manually applied punch-to-punch loading up to 16.5 kN at a broad range of penetration depths, no significant effects were observed in the region of interest for tabletting. To get an indication of the transferability of the calibration and the determination of punch deformation to normal operating conditions, the lateral tilting of the punches during dynamic idle runs, punch-to-punch loading, and compression of microcrystalline cellulose was analyzed. A transfer of the response derived from punch-to-punch compression to tabletting conditions seems to be possible, although this must be questioned on grounds of theoretical considerations. From all the experiments performed, a total error of about +/- 30 microns must be assessed for the determination of punch separation. PMID:10382107

  9. A Factor-Analytic Validity Study of the Blumberg-Amidon "Teacher Perceptions of Supervisor-Teacher Conferences" Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirois, Herman A.; Gable, Robert K.

    An instrument, developed in 1965 by Arthur Blumberg and Edmund Amidon to measure teacher perceptions of supervisory conferences, has presented problems of reliability to researchers. The problem has stemmed from the lack of a valid and reliable scoring method for the instrument. The instrument was administered to 31 in-service teachers, Grades…

  10. The tabletting machine as an analytical instrument: qualification of the measurement devices for punch forces and validation of the calibration procedures.

    PubMed

    Belda, P M; Mielck, J B

    1998-11-01

    The quality of force measurement in an eccentric tabletting machine equipped with piezo-electric load washers mounted under pre-stress at the upper and lower punches, and the reliability of their calibration in situ and under working conditions were carefully investigated, since this tabletting machine is used as an 'analytical instrument' for the evaluation of the compression behaviour of pharmaceutical materials. For a quasistatic calibration procedure the repeatability under standard conditions and the robustness against variations in machine settings, installation conditions, equipment and handling were evaluated. Two differently constructed reference load cells equipped with strain gauges were used for the calibration of the upper punch sensor. The lower punch sensor was calibrated against the upper one. Except for a mechanical hysteresis, owing to uneven stress distribution over the piezo-electric sensors, the results of the quasistatic measurements are assessed to be satisfactory. In addition, dynamic calibrations were performed. One of the strain-gauged load cells was used in addition to two piezo-electric load washers installed without pre-stress. The dynamic behaviour of all the transducers used is deficient. While for the piezo-electric sensors a significant change in the slope of the calibration function with respect to the quasistatic behaviour was observed, for the strain-gauged load cell a pronounced hysteresis must be noted. Comparing the dynamic behaviour at different profiles of rates of force development generated by variations in machine speed and by maximum force setting, the variability in the sensitivity of the upper and lower punch piezo-electric load washers is comparatively small. PMID:9885312

  11. Analytical techniques for retrieval of atmospheric composition with the quadrupole mass spectrometer of the Sample Analysis at Mars instrument suite on Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B. Franz, Heather; G. Trainer, Melissa; H. Wong, Michael; L. K. Manning, Heidi; C. Stern, Jennifer; R. Mahaffy, Paul; K. Atreya, Sushil; Benna, Mehdi; G. Conrad, Pamela; N. Harpold, Dan; A. Leshin, Laurie; A. Malespin, Charles; P. McKay, Christopher; Thomas Nolan, J.; Raaen, Eric

    2014-06-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite is the largest scientific payload on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover, which landed in Mars' Gale Crater in August 2012. As a miniature geochemical laboratory, SAM is well-equipped to address multiple aspects of MSL's primary science goal, characterizing the potential past or present habitability of Gale Crater. Atmospheric measurements support this goal through compositional investigations relevant to martian climate evolution. SAM instruments include a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and a gas chromatograph that are used to analyze martian atmospheric gases as well as volatiles released by pyrolysis of solid surface materials (Mahaffy et al., 2012). This report presents analytical methods for retrieving the chemical and isotopic composition of Mars' atmosphere from measurements obtained with SAM's quadrupole mass spectrometer. It provides empirical calibration constants for computing volume mixing ratios of the most abundant atmospheric species and analytical functions to correct for instrument artifacts and to characterize measurement uncertainties. Finally, we discuss differences in volume mixing ratios of the martian atmosphere as determined by SAM (Mahaffy et al., 2013) and Viking (Owen et al., 1977; Oyama and Berdahl, 1977) from an analytical perspective. Although the focus of this paper is atmospheric observations, much of the material concerning corrections for instrumental effects also applies to reduction of data acquired with SAM from analysis of solid samples. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument measures the composition of the martian atmosphere. Rigorous calibration of SAM's mass spectrometer was performed with relevant gas mixtures. Calibration included derivation of a new model to correct for electron multiplier effects. Volume mixing ratios for Ar and N2 obtained with SAM differ from those obtained with Viking. Differences between SAM and Viking

  12. Analytical display design for flight tasks conducted under instrument meteorological conditions. [human factors engineering of pilot performance for display device design in instrument landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Paramount to proper utilization of electronic displays is a method for determining pilot-centered display requirements. Display design should be viewed fundamentally as a guidance and control problem which has interactions with the designer's knowledge of human psychomotor activity. From this standpoint, reliable analytical models of human pilots as information processors and controllers can provide valuable insight into the display design process. A relatively straightforward, nearly algorithmic procedure for deriving model-based, pilot-centered display requirements was developed and is presented. The optimal or control theoretic pilot model serves as the backbone of the design methodology, which is specifically directed toward the synthesis of head-down, electronic, cockpit display formats. Some novel applications of the optimal pilot model are discussed. An analytical design example is offered which defines a format for the electronic display to be used in a UH-1H helicopter in a landing approach task involving longitudinal and lateral degrees of freedom.

  13. Mapping the Terrains of the Europe of Knowledge: An Analytical Framework of Ideas, Institutions, Instruments, and Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Meng-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    This editorial introduces how we may begin to analytically study the shifting terrains of the Europe of Knowledge. Knowledge policies--higher education, research, and innovation--are integral to many sectors, and changes in the ways in which knowledge is governed will inevitably alter the shape and contents of other policy domains. The…

  14. A Factor-Analytic Validity Study of the Blumberg-Amidon "Teacher Perceptions of Supervisor-Teacher Conferences" Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirois, Herman A.; Gable, Robert K.

    1979-01-01

    It was found that the Blumberg-Amidon instrument, which was administered to 31 randomly selected in-service teachers, grades K-12, is a two-factor or two-scale measure (Relationships, Productivity) which may also be interpreted as a one-scale measure (Productive Relationships), each with a high degree of reliability. (Author/NQ)

  15. Establishment of a reference collection of additives and an analytical handbook of reference data to support enforcement of EU regulations on food contact plastics.

    PubMed

    van Lierop, B; Castle, L; Feigenbaum, A; Ehlert, K; Boenke, A

    1998-10-01

    A collection has been made of additives that are required as analytical standards for enforcement of European Union legislation on food contact plastics. The 100 additives have been characterized by mass spectrometry, infra-red spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to provide reference spectra. Gas chromatographic retention times have been recorded to facilitate identification by retention index. This information has been further supplemented by physico-chemical data. Finally, chromatographic methods have been used to indicate the presence of any impurities in the commercial chemicals. Samples of the reference substances are available on request and the collection of spectra and other information will be made available in printed format and on-line through the Internet. This paper gives an overview of the work done to establish the reference collection and the spectral atlas, which together will assist enforcement laboratories in the characterization of plastics and the selection of analytical methods for additives that may migrate. PMID:10211194

  16. A Critical Review of Screening and Diagnostic Instruments for Autism Spectrum Disorders in People with Sensory Impairments in Addition to Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vaan, Gitta; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Hoevenaars-van den Boom, Marella; Antonissen, Anneke; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Instruments that are used for diagnosing of, or screening for, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may not be applicable to people with sensory disabilities in addition to intellectual disabilities. First, because they do not account for equifinality, the possibility that different conditions may lead to the same outcome. Second, because they do not…

  17. The role of methanol addition to water samples in reducing analyte adsorption and matrix effects in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Liu, Yucan; Duan, Jinming; Saint, Christopher P; Mulcahy, Dennis

    2015-04-10

    Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis coupled simply with water filtering before injection has proven to be a simple, economic and time-saving method for analyzing trace-level organic pollutants in aqueous environments. However, the linearity, precision and detection limits of such methods for late-eluting analytes were found to be much poorer than for early-eluting ones due to adsorption of the analytes in the operating system, such as sample vial, flow path and sample loop, creating problems in quantitative analysis. Addition of methanol (MeOH) into water samples as a modifier was shown to be effective in alleviating or even eliminating the negative effect on signal intensity for the late-eluting analytes and at the same time being able to reduce certain matrix effects for real water samples. Based on the maximum detection signal intensity obtained on desorption of the analytes with MeOH addition, the ratio of the detection signal intensity without addition of MeOH to the maximum intensity can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of methanol addition. Accordingly, the values of <50%, 50-80%, 80-120% could be used to indicate strong, medium and no effects, respectively. Based on this concept, an external matrix-matched calibration method with the addition of MeOH has been successfully established for analyzing fifteen pesticides with diverse physico-chemical properties in surface and groundwater with good linearity (r(2): 0.9929-0.9996), precision (intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD): 1.4-10.7%, inter-day RSD: 1.5-9.4%), accuracy (76.9-126.7%) and low limits of detection (0.003-0.028μg/L). PMID:25748540

  18. An analytical approach to the problem of inverse optimization with additive objective functions: an application to human prehension

    PubMed Central

    Pesin, Yakov B.; Niu, Xun; Latash, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of what is being optimized in human actions with respect to various aspects of human movements and different motor tasks. From the mathematical point of view this problem consists of finding an unknown objective function given the values at which it reaches its minimum. This problem is called the inverse optimization problem. Until now the main approach to this problems has been the cut-and-try method, which consists of introducing an objective function and checking how it reflects the experimental data. Using this approach, different objective functions have been proposed for the same motor action. In the current paper we focus on inverse optimization problems with additive objective functions and linear constraints. Such problems are typical in human movement science. The problem of muscle (or finger) force sharing is an example. For such problems we obtain sufficient conditions for uniqueness and propose a method for determining the objective functions. To illustrate our method we analyze the problem of force sharing among the fingers in a grasping task. We estimate the objective function from the experimental data and show that it can predict the force-sharing pattern for a vast range of external forces and torques applied to the grasped object. The resulting objective function is quadratic with essentially non-zero linear terms. PMID:19902213

  19. Phase II Fort Ord Landfill Demonstration Task 8 - Refinement of In-line Instrumental Analytical Tools to Evaluate their Operational Utility and Regulatory Acceptance

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, P F

    2006-04-03

    The overall objective of this project is the continued development, installation, and testing of continuous water sampling and analysis technologies for application to on-site monitoring of groundwater treatment systems and remediation sites. In a previous project, an on-line analytical system (OLAS) for multistream water sampling was installed at the Fort Ord Operable Unit 2 Groundwater Treatment System, with the objective of developing a simplified analytical method for detection of Compounds of Concern at that plant, and continuous sampling of up to twelve locations in the treatment system, from raw influent waters to treated effluent. Earlier implementations of the water sampling and processing system (Analytical Sampling and Analysis Platform, A A+RT, Milpitas, CA) depended on off-line integrators that produced paper plots of chromatograms, and sent summary tables to a host computer for archiving. We developed a basic LabVIEW (National Instruments, Inc., Austin, TX) based gas chromatography control and data acquisition system that was the foundation for further development and integration with the ASAP system. Advantages of this integration include electronic archiving of all raw chromatographic data, and a flexible programming environment to support development of improved ASAP operation and automated reporting. The initial goals of integrating the preexisting LabVIEW chromatography control system with the ASAP, and demonstration of a simplified, site-specific analytical method were successfully achieved. However, although the principal objective of this system was assembly of an analytical system that would allow plant operators an up-to-the-minute view of the plant's performance, several obstacles remained. Data reduction with the base LabVIEW system was limited to peak detection and simple tabular output, patterned after commercial chromatography integrators, with compound retention times and peak areas. Preparation of calibration curves, method detection

  20. Cisapride a green analytical reagent for rapid and sensitive determination of bromate in drinking water, bread and flour additives by oxidative coupling spectrophotometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Okab, Riyad Ahmed

    2013-02-01

    Green analytical methods using Cisapride (CPE) as green analytical reagent was investigated in this work. Rapid, simple, and sensitive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of bromate in water sample, bread and flour additives were developed. The proposed methods based on the oxidative coupling between phenoxazine and Cisapride in the presence of bromate to form red colored product with max at 520 nm. Phenoxazine and Cisapride and its reaction products were found to be environmentally friendly under the optimum experimental condition. The method obeys beers law in concentration range 0.11-4.00 g ml-1 and molar absorptivity 1.41 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1. All variables have been optimized and the presented reaction sequences were applied to the analysis of bromate in water, bread and flour additive samples. The performance of these method was evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test to find out the significance of proposed methods over the reference method. The combination of pharmaceutical drugs reagents with low concentration create some unique green chemical analyses.

  1. Cisapride a green analytical reagent for rapid and sensitive determination of bromate in drinking water, bread and flour additives by oxidative coupling spectrophotometric methods.

    PubMed

    Al Okab, Riyad Ahmed

    2013-02-15

    Green analytical methods using Cisapride (CPE) as green analytical reagent was investigated in this work. Rapid, simple, and sensitive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of bromate in water sample, bread and flour additives were developed. The proposed methods based on the oxidative coupling between phenoxazine and Cisapride in the presence of bromate to form red colored product with max at 520 nm. Phenoxazine and Cisapride and its reaction products were found to be environmentally friendly under the optimum experimental condition. The method obeys beers law in concentration range 0.11-4.00 g ml(-1) and molar absorptivity 1.41 × 10(4) L mol(-1)cm(-1). All variables have been optimized and the presented reaction sequences were applied to the analysis of bromate in water, bread and flour additive samples. The performance of these method was evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test to find out the significance of proposed methods over the reference method. The combination of pharmaceutical drugs reagents with low concentration create some unique green chemical analyses. PMID:23261631

  2. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  3. Multi-site study of additive genetic effects on fractional anisotropy of cerebral white matter: comparing meta and mega analytical approaches for data pooling

    PubMed Central

    Kochunov, Peter; Jahanshad, Neda; Sprooten, Emma; Nichols, Thomas E.; Mandl, René C.; Almasy, Laura; Booth, Tom; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Curran, Joanne E.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dimitrova, Rali; Duggirala, Ravi; Fox, Peter T.; Hong, L. Elliot; Landman, Bennett A.; Lemaitre, Hervé; Lopez, Lorna; Martin, Nicholas G.; McMahon, Katie L.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Olvera, Rene L.; Peterson, Charles P.; Starr, John M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Toga, Arthur W.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Wright, Margaret J.; Wright, Susan N.; Bastin, Mark E.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Kahn, René S.; den Braber, Anouk; de Geus, Eco JC; Deary, Ian J.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Blangero, John; van ’t Ent, Dennis; Thompson, Paul M.; Glahn, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Combining datasets across independent studies can boost statistical power by increasing the numbers of observations and can achieve more accurate estimates of effect sizes. This is especially important for genetic studies where a large number of observations are required to obtain sufficient power to detect and replicate genetic effects. There is a need to develop and evaluate methods for joint-analytical analyses of rich datasets collected in imaging genetics studies. The ENIGMA-DTI consortium is developing and evaluating approaches for obtaining pooled estimates of heritability through meta-and mega-genetic analytical approaches, to estimate the general additive genetic contributions to the intersubject variance in fractional anisotropy (FA) measured from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We used the ENIGMA-DTI data harmonization protocol for uniform processing of DTI data from multiple sites. We evaluated this protocol in five family-based cohorts providing data from a total of 2248 children and adults (ages: 9–85) collected with various imaging protocols. We used the imaging genetics analysis tool, SOLAR-Eclipse, to combine twin and family data from Dutch, Australian and Mexican-American cohorts into one large “mega-family”. We showed that heritability estimates may vary from one cohort to another. We used two meta-analytical (the sample-size and standard-error weighted) approaches and a mega-genetic analysis to calculate heritability estimates across-population. We performed leave-one-out analysis of the joint estimates of heritability, removing a different cohort each time to understand the estimate variability. Overall, meta- and mega-genetic analyses of heritability produced robust estimates of heritability. PMID:24657781

  4. Analytical considerations for the use of the paleothermometer tetraether index(86) and the branched vs isoprenoid tetraether index regarding the choice of cleanup and instrumental conditions.

    PubMed

    Escala, Marina; Fietz, Susanne; Rueda, Gemma; Rosell-Melé, Antoni

    2009-04-01

    The tetraether index of tetraethers consisting of 86 carbons (TEX(86)) is a novel proxy applied to obtain paleotemperature reconstructions from marine and lacustrine settings. It is usually applied alongside the branched vs isoprenoid tetraether (BIT) index, which provides paleoenvironmental information as well as information on the reliability of TEX(86). Both indices are calculated via the analysis of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers or GDGTs by means of high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/APCI-MS). Here we test the performance of alternative methods for sample cleanup and instrumental analysis. In particular, we evaluate using alkaline hydrolysis as an alternative cleanup step to alumina column fractionation and show that the resulting TEX(86) and BIT are statistically equivalent. We also test two different adsorbents in the activated or deactivated state for preparative column fractionation and show that any of them can be used to measure TEX(86) but that a certain discrimination between GDGTs used in the BIT index can occur. Regarding the mass spectrometer design, an ion-trap is shown to be as precise as a quadrupole mass spectrometer for GDGT analysis. Some differences are observed for TEX(86) and especially for BIT values obtained from both MS designs. We provide evidence that the APCI conditions are at least partly responsible for these differences. We recommend caution when comparing BIT values among laboratories as this index seems to be especially sensitive to analytical conditions. PMID:19275173

  5. Analytical Enantioseparation of β-Substituted-2-Phenylpropionic Acids by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin as Chiral Mobile Phase Additive.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shengqiang; Zhang, Hu; Yan, Jizhong

    2016-04-01

    Analytical enantioseparation of five β-substituted-2-phenylpropionic acids by high-performance liquid chromatography with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) as chiral mobile phase additive was established in this paper, and chromatographic retention mechanism was studied. The effects of various factors such as the organic modifier, different ODS C18 columns and concentration of HP-β-CD were investigated. The chiral mobile phase was composed of methanol or acetonitrile and 0.5% triethylamine acetate buffer at pH 3.0 added with 25 mmol L(-1) of HP-β-CD, and baseline separations could be reached for all racemates. As for chromatographic retention mechanism, it was found that there was a negative correlation between the concentration of HP-β-CD in mobile phase and the retention factor under constant pH value and column temperature. PMID:26755500

  6. Rapid Quantification of Melamine in Different Brands/Types of Milk Powders Using Standard Addition Net Analyte Signal and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bang-Cheng; Cai, Chen-Bo; Shi, Wei; Xu, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Multivariate calibration (MVC) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have demonstrated potential for rapid analysis of melamine in various dairy products. However, the practical application of ordinary MVC can be largely restricted because the prediction of a new sample from an uncalibrated batch would be subject to a significant bias due to matrix effect. In this study, the feasibility of using NIR spectroscopy and the standard addition (SA) net analyte signal (NAS) method (SANAS) for rapid quantification of melamine in different brands/types of milk powders was investigated. In SANAS, the NAS vector of melamine in an unknown sample as well as in a series of samples added with melamine standards was calculated and then the Euclidean norms of series standards were used to build a straightforward univariate regression model. The analysis results of 10 different brands/types of milk powders with melamine levels 0~0.12% (w/w) indicate that SANAS obtained accurate results with the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) values ranging from 0.0012 to 0.0029. An additional advantage of NAS is to visualize and control the possible unwanted variations during standard addition. The proposed method will provide a practically useful tool for rapid and nondestructive quantification of melamine in different brands/types of milk powders. PMID:27525154

  7. Rapid Quantification of Melamine in Different Brands/Types of Milk Powders Using Standard Addition Net Analyte Signal and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Multivariate calibration (MVC) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have demonstrated potential for rapid analysis of melamine in various dairy products. However, the practical application of ordinary MVC can be largely restricted because the prediction of a new sample from an uncalibrated batch would be subject to a significant bias due to matrix effect. In this study, the feasibility of using NIR spectroscopy and the standard addition (SA) net analyte signal (NAS) method (SANAS) for rapid quantification of melamine in different brands/types of milk powders was investigated. In SANAS, the NAS vector of melamine in an unknown sample as well as in a series of samples added with melamine standards was calculated and then the Euclidean norms of series standards were used to build a straightforward univariate regression model. The analysis results of 10 different brands/types of milk powders with melamine levels 0~0.12% (w/w) indicate that SANAS obtained accurate results with the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) values ranging from 0.0012 to 0.0029. An additional advantage of NAS is to visualize and control the possible unwanted variations during standard addition. The proposed method will provide a practically useful tool for rapid and nondestructive quantification of melamine in different brands/types of milk powders. PMID:27525154

  8. Analytical Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    In the Analytical Microscopy group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we combine two complementary areas of analytical microscopy--electron microscopy and proximal-probe techniques--and use a variety of state-of-the-art imaging and analytical tools. We also design and build custom instrumentation and develop novel techniques that provide unique capabilities for studying materials and devices. In our work, we collaborate with you to solve materials- and device-related R&D problems. This sheet summarizes the uses and features of four major tools: transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, the dual-beam focused-ion-beam workstation, and scanning probe microscopy.

  9. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis for geochemical analyses of terrestrial impact structures: current analytical procedures at the university of vienna geochemistry activation analysis laboratory.

    PubMed

    Mader, Dieter; Koeberl, Christian

    2009-12-01

    The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Gamma Spectroscopy Laboratory at the Department of Lithospheric Research, University of Vienna, has been upgraded in the year 2006. This paper describes the sample preparation, new instrumentation and data evaluation for hundreds of rock samples of two terrestrial impact structures. The measurement and data evaluation are done by using Genie 2000 and a custom-made batch software for the used analysis sequences. PMID:19481467

  10. Analytical characterization of a new mobile X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction instrument combined with a pigment identification case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Voorde, Lien; Vekemans, Bart; Verhaeven, Eddy; Tack, Pieter; De Wolf, Robin; Garrevoet, Jan; Vandenabeele, Peter; Vincze, Laszlo

    2015-08-01

    A new, commercially available, mobile system combining X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence has been evaluated which enables both elemental analysis and phase identification simultaneously. The instrument makes use of a copper or molybdenum based miniature X-ray tube and a silicon-Pin diode energy-dispersive detector to count the photons originating from the samples. The X-ray tube and detector are both mounted on an X-ray diffraction protractor in a Bragg-Brentano θ:θ geometry. The mobile instrument is one of the lightest and most compact instruments of its kind (3.5 kg) and it is thus very useful for in situ purposes such as the direct (non-destructive) analysis of cultural heritage objects which need to be analyzed on site without any displacement. The supplied software allows both the operation of the instrument for data collection and in-depth data analysis using the International Centre for Diffraction Data database. This paper focuses on the characterization of the instrument, combined with a case study on pigment identification and an illustrative example for the analysis of lead alloyed printing letters. The results show that this commercially available light-weight instrument is able to identify the main crystalline phases non-destructively, present in a variety of samples, with a high degree of flexibility regarding sample size and position.

  11. Evaluating Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Technology in Planetary Exploration: Demonstrating Instrument Stability and Understanding Analytical Constraints and Limits for Basaltic Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K. E.; Hodges, K. V.; Evans, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    While large-footprint X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instruments are reliable providers of elemental information about geologic samples, handheld XRF instruments are currently being developed that enable the collection of geochemical data in the field in short time periods (approx.60 seconds) [1]. These detectors are lightweight (1.3kg) and can provide elemental abundances of major rock forming elements heavier than Na. While handheld XRF detectors were originally developed for use in mining, we are working with commercially available instruments as prototypes to explore how portable XRF technology may enable planetary field science [2,3,4]. If an astronaut or robotic explorer visited another planetary surface, the ability to obtain and evaluate geochemical data in real-time would be invaluable, especially in the high-grading of samples to determine which should be returned to Earth. We present our results on the evaluation of handheld XRF technology as a geochemical tool in the context of planetary exploration.

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Heavy Metals in Children's Toys and Jewelry: A Multi-Instrument, Multitechnique Exercise in Analytical Chemistry and Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Lauren E.; Hillyer, Margot M.; Leopold, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    For most chemistry curricula, laboratory-based activities in quantitative and instrumental analysis continue to be an important aspect of student development/training, one that can be more effective if conceptual understanding is delivered through an inquiry-based process relating the material to relevant issues of public interest and student…

  13. Determination of Unknown Concentrations of Sodium Acetate Using the Method of Standard Addition and Proton NMR: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajabzadeh, Massy

    2012-01-01

    In this experiment, students learn how to find the unknown concentration of sodium acetate using both the graphical treatment of standard addition and the standard addition equation. In the graphical treatment of standard addition, the peak area of the methyl peak in each of the sodium acetate standard solutions is found by integration using…

  14. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation, Cl. Thermoluminescence: Part II. Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manche, Emanuel P.

    1979-01-01

    Presents part two on the use of the detection of thermoluminescence as an analytical tool for the chemistry laboratory and allied science. This part discusses instrumentation used and investigates recent developments in instrumentation for thermoluminescence. (HM)

  15. Sputter-induced cross-contamination in analytical AES and XPS instrumentation: utilization of the effect for the in situ deposition of ultrathin functional layers.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, Uwe

    2013-09-01

    Cross-contamination is observed on sample surfaces by Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy if multiple samples are mounted on one sample holder and a neighbouring sample was sputter depth profiling. During sputter depth profiling, sputtered material is deposited on inner surfaces of the instrument. In a secondary sputter process, which is due to species leaving the primary sputter target with higher kinetic energy, the previously deposited material is transported from the inner surfaces to the other samples mounted on the sample holder. This reflective sputtering is utilized to deposit ultrathin layers on sample surfaces for X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy binding energy referencing purposes and to build up ultrathin conductive layers to make possible Auger electron spectroscopy measurements on insulating samples. PMID:23462980

  16. Study of a unique 16th century Antwerp majolica floor in the Rameyenhof castle's chapel by means of X-ray fluorescence and portable Raman analytical instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Voorde, Lien; Vandevijvere, Melissa; Vekemans, Bart; Van Pevenage, Jolien; Caen, Joost; Vandenabeele, Peter; Van Espen, Piet; Vincze, Laszlo

    2014-12-01

    The most unique and only known 16th century Antwerp majolica tile floor in Belgium is situated in a tower of the Rameyenhof castle (Gestel, Belgium). This exceptional work of art has recently been investigated in situ by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Raman spectroscopy in order to study the material characteristics. This study reports on the result of the analyses based on the novel combination of non-destructive and portable instrumentation, including a handheld XRF spectrometer for obtaining elemental information and a mobile Raman spectrometer for retrieving structural and molecular information on the floor tiles in the Rameyenhof castle and on a second, similar medallion, which is stored in the Rubens House museum in Antwerp (Belgium). The investigated material, majolica, is a type of ceramic, which fascinated many people and potters throughout history by its beauty and colourful appearance. In this study the characteristic major/minor and trace element signature of 16th century Antwerp majolica is determined and the pigments used for the colourful paintings present on the floor are identified. Furthermore, based on the elemental fingerprint of the white glaze, and in particular on the presence of zinc in the tiles - an element that was not used for making 16th century majolica - valuable information about the originality of the chapel floor and the two central medallions is acquired.

  17. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Graczyk, D.G.; Lindahl, P.C.; Boparai, A.S.

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year 1991 (October 1990 through September 1991). This is the eighth annual report for the ACL. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, the ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques.

  18. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory: Progress report for FY 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Graczyk, D.G.; Lindahl, P.C.; Erickson, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for fiscal year 1988 (October 1987 through September 1988). The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, the ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques.

  19. RHIC instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T. J.; Witkover, R. L.

    1998-12-10

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 10{sup 11} protons to 250 GeV, or 10{sup 9} fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test.

  20. RHIC instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, T. J.; Witkover, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 1011 protons to 250 GeV, or 109 fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test.

  1. RHIC instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T.J.; Witkover, R.L.

    1998-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 10{sup 11} protons to 250 GeV, or 10{sup 9} fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  3. Microtechnology for instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Mariella, R.

    1998-01-01

    For the last two decades, the majority of research and development at LLNL in microtechnology has focused on photonics devices and bulk micromachining, including miccroelectro-mechanical systems and associated areas. For the last ten years, we have used these capabilities to address our analytical instrumentation needs. Just as the miniature photonics have enable the fabrication of analytical instruments that are either higher performance, smaller, more portable, or are combinations of these. Examples of these are our portable thermal cyclers for DNA analysis, our hand-held gas chromatograph, our flow-stream-waveguide-based flow cytometer, and our etched-microchannel electrophoresis systems. This presentation will describe these and related developments.

  4. Trends in Analytical Scale Separations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, James W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the instrumentation and practice of analytical scale operations. Emphasizes detection devices and procedures in gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, electrophoresis, supercritical fluid chromatography, and field-flow fractionation. (JN)

  5. Analytical techniques for instrument design - matrix methods

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.A.

    1997-09-01

    We take the traditional Cooper-Nathans approach, as has been applied for many years for steady-state triple-axis spectrometers, and consider its generalisation to other inelastic scattering spectrometers. This involves a number of simple manipulations of exponentials of quadratic forms. In particular, we discuss a toolbox of matrix manipulations that can be performed on the 6- dimensional Cooper-Nathans matrix: diagonalisation (Moller-Nielsen method), coordinate changes e.g. from ({Delta}k{sub I},{Delta}k{sub F} to {Delta}E, {Delta}Q & 2 dummy variables), integration of one or more variables (e.g. over such dummy variables), integration subject to linear constraints (e.g. Bragg`s Law for analysers), inversion to give the variance-covariance matrix, and so on. We show how these tools can be combined to solve a number of important problems, within the narrow-band limit and the gaussian approximation. We will argue that a generalised program that can handle multiple different spectrometers could (and should) be written in parallel to the Monte-Carlo packages that are becoming available. We will also discuss the complementarity between detailed Monte-Carlo calculations and the approach presented here. In particular, Monte-Carlo methods traditionally simulate the real experiment as performed in practice, given a model scattering law, while the Cooper-Nathans method asks the inverse question: given that a neutron turns up in a particular spectrometer configuration (e.g. angle and time of flight), what is the probability distribution of possible scattering events at the sample? The Monte-Carlo approach could be applied in the same spirit to this question.

  6. Analytical techniques for instrument design -- Matrix methods

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.A.

    1997-12-31

    The authors take the traditional Cooper-Nathans approach, as has been applied for many years for steady-state triple-axis spectrometers, and consider its generalization to other inelastic scattering spectrometers. This involves a number of simple manipulations of exponentials of quadratic forms. In particular, they discuss a toolbox of matrix manipulations that can be performed on the 6-dimensional Cooper-Nathans matrix. They show how these tools can be combined to solve a number of important problems, within the narrow-band limit and the gaussian approximation. They will argue that a generalized program that can handle multiple different spectrometers could (and should) be written in parallel to the Monte-Carlo packages that are becoming available. They also discuss the complementarity between detailed Monte-Carlo calculations and the approach presented here. In particular, Monte-Carlo methods traditionally simulate the real experiment as performed in practice, given a model scattering law, while the Cooper-Nathans method asks the inverse question: given that a neutron turns up in a particular spectrometer configuration (e.g. angle and time of flight), what is the probability distribution of possible scattering events at the sample? The Monte-Carlo approach could be applied in the same spirit to this question.

  7. Analytical instruments, ionization sources, and ionization methods

    DOEpatents

    Atkinson, David A.; Mottishaw, Paul

    2006-04-11

    Methods and apparatus for simultaneous vaporization and ionization of a sample in a spectrometer prior to introducing the sample into the drift tube of the analyzer are disclosed. The apparatus includes a vaporization/ionization source having an electrically conductive conduit configured to receive sample particulate which is conveyed to a discharge end of the conduit. Positioned proximate to the discharge end of the conduit is an electrically conductive reference device. The conduit and the reference device act as electrodes and have an electrical potential maintained between them sufficient to cause a corona effect, which will cause at least partial simultaneous ionization and vaporization of the sample particulate. The electrical potential can be maintained to establish a continuous corona, or can be held slightly below the breakdown potential such that arrival of particulate at the point of proximity of the electrodes disrupts the potential, causing arcing and the corona effect. The electrical potential can also be varied to cause periodic arcing between the electrodes such that particulate passing through the arc is simultaneously vaporized and ionized. The invention further includes a spectrometer containing the source. The invention is particularly useful for ion mobility spectrometers and atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometers.

  8. Analytical instrument with apparatus for sample concentrating

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, Solomon

    1989-01-01

    A system for analysis of trace concentrations of contaminants in air includes a portable liquid chromatograph and a preconcentrator for the contaminants to be analyzed. The preconcentrator includes a sample bag having an inlet valve and an outlet valve for collecting an air sample. When the sample is collected the sample bag is connected in series with a sorbing apparatus in a recirculation loop. The sorbing apparatus has an inner gas-permeable container containing a sorbent material and an outer gas-impermeable container. The sample is circulated through the outer container and around the inner container for trapping and preconcentrating the contaminants in the sorbent material. The sorbent material may be a liquid having the same composition as the mobile phase of the chromatograph for direct injection thereinto. Alternatively, the sorbent material may be a porous, solid body, to which mobile phase liquid is added after preconcentration of the contaminants for dissolving the contaminants, the liquid solution then being withdrawn for injection into the chromatograph.

  9. Powder Handling Device for Analytical Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarrazin, Philippe C. (Inventor); Blake, David F. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and system for causing a powder sample in a sample holder to undergo at least one of three motions (vibration, rotation and translation) at a selected motion frequency in order to present several views of an individual grain of the sample. One or more measurements of diffraction, fluorescence, spectroscopic interaction, transmission, absorption and/or reflection can be made on the sample, using light in a selected wavelength region.

  10. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Jensen, K.J.

    1985-12-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of technical support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques. The purpose of this report is to summarize the technical and administrative activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year 1985 (October 1984 through September 1985). This is the second annual report for the ACL. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Instrument Attitude Precision Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

  12. A concentration dependent auto-relay-recognition by the same analyte: a dual fluorescence switch-on by hydrogen sulfide via Michael addition followed by reduction and staining for bio-activity.

    PubMed

    Das, Avijit Kumar; Goswami, Shyamaprosad; Dutta, Gorachand; Maity, Sibaprasad; Mandal, Tarun kanti; Khanra, Kalyani; Bhattacharyya, Nandan

    2016-01-14

    H2S is shown, for the first time, to play an extraordinary dual role due to its nucleophilicity and reducing property with our single chemosensor, PND [4-(piperidin-1-yl) naphthalene-1,2-dione]. The initial nucleophilic attack via Michael addition (a lower concentration of H2S, blue fluorescence) is followed by the reduction of the 1,2-diketo functionality (a higher concentration of H2S, green fluorescence). This chemosensor, which also shows biological response, is remarkably effective in sensing the same analyte (H2S) at its different concentrations in a relay pathway via a fluorescence "off-on-on" mechanism, and this is also supported by DFT calculation and Cyclic voltammograms. PMID:26510406

  13. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Jensen, K.J.; Stetter, J.R.

    1985-03-01

    Technical and administrative activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) are reported for fiscal year 1984. The ACL is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of technical support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL is administratively within the Chemical Technology Division, the principal user, but provides technical support for all of the technical divisions and programs at ANL. The ACL has three technical groups - Chemical Analysis, Instrumental Analysis, and Organic Analysis. Under technical activities 26 projects are briefly described. Under professional activities, a list is presented for publications and reports, oral presentations, awards and meetings attended. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Gyroscopic Instruments for Instrument Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brombacher, W G; Trent, W C

    1938-01-01

    The gyroscopic instruments commonly used in instrument flying in the United States are the turn indicator, the directional gyro, the gyromagnetic compass, the gyroscopic horizon, and the automatic pilot. These instruments are described. Performance data and the method of testing in the laboratory are given for the turn indicator, the directional gyro, and the gyroscopic horizon. Apparatus for driving the instruments is discussed.

  15. Industrial Analytics Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Industrial Analytics Corporation

    2004-01-30

    The lost foam casting process is sensitive to the properties of the EPS patterns used for the casting operation. In this project Industrial Analytics Corporation (IAC) has developed a new low voltage x-ray instrument for x-ray radiography of very low mass EPS patterns. IAC has also developed a transmitted visible light method for characterizing the properties of EPS patterns. The systems developed are also applicable to other low density materials including graphite foams.

  16. Review of Instrumented Indentation

    PubMed Central

    VanLandingham, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumented indentation, also known as depth-sensing indentation or nanoindentation, is increasingly being used to probe the mechanical response of materials from metals and ceramics to polymeric and biological materials. The additional levels of control, sensitivity, and data acquisition offered by instrumented indentation systems have resulted in numerous advances in materials science, particularly regarding fundamental mechanisms of mechanical behavior at micrometer and even sub-micrometer length scales. Continued improvements of instrumented indentation testing towards absolute quantification of a wide range of material properties and behavior will require advances in instrument calibration, measurement protocols, and analysis tools and techniques. In this paper, an overview of instrumented indentation is given with regard to current instrument technology and analysis methods. Research efforts at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) aimed at improving the related measurement science are discussed.

  17. Analytical testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flannelly, W. G.; Fabunmi, J. A.; Nagy, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical methods for combining flight acceleration and strain data with shake test mobility data to predict the effects of structural changes on flight vibrations and strains are presented. This integration of structural dynamic analysis with flight performance is referred to as analytical testing. The objective of this methodology is to analytically estimate the results of flight testing contemplated structural changes with minimum flying and change trials. The category of changes to the aircraft includes mass, stiffness, absorbers, isolators, and active suppressors. Examples of applying the analytical testing methodology using flight test and shake test data measured on an AH-1G helicopter are included. The techniques and procedures for vibration testing and modal analysis are also described.

  18. Minimum Analytical Chemistry Requirements for Pit Manufacturing at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Moy, Ming M.; Leasure, Craig S.

    1998-08-01

    Analytical chemistry is one of several capabilities necessary for executing the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Analytical chemistry capabilities reside in the Chemistry Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility and Plutonium Facility (TA-55). These analytical capabilities support plutonium recovery operations, plutonium metallurgy, and waste management. Analytical chemistry capabilities at both nuclear facilities are currently being configured to support pit manufacturing. This document summarizes the minimum analytical chemistry capabilities required to sustain pit manufacturing at LANL. By the year 2004, approximately $16 million will be required to procure analytical instrumentation to support pit manufacturing. In addition, $8.5 million will be required to procure glovebox enclosures. An estimated 50% increase in costs has been included for installation of analytical instruments and glovebox enclosures. However, no general and administrative (G and A) taxes have been included. If an additional 42.5/0 G and A tax were to be incurred, approximately $35 million would be required over the next five years to prepare analytical chemistry to support a 50-pit-per-year manufacturing capability by the year 2004.

  19. Cordless Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    Black & Decker's new cordless lightweight battery powered precision instruments, adapted from NASA's Apollo Lunar Landing program, have been designed to give surgeons optimum freedom and versatility in the operating room. Orthopedic instrument line includes a drill, a driver/reamer and a sagittal saw. All provide up to 20 minutes on a single charge. Power pack is the instrument's handle which is removable for recharging. Microprocessor controlled recharging unit can recharge two power packs together in 30 minutes. Instruments can be gas sterilized, steam-sterilized in an autoclave or immersed for easy cleaning.

  20. Monitoring Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology (Environmental Control Issue), 1977

    1977-01-01

    This section contains a listing of the manufacturers of environmental monitoring instruments. The manufacturers are listed alphabetically under product headings. Addresses are included in a different section. (MA)

  1. SURVEY INSTRUMENT

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, C J

    1954-01-19

    This pulse-type survey instrument is suitable for readily detecting {alpha} particles in the presence of high {beta} and {gamma} backgrounds. The instruments may also be used to survey for neutrons, {beta} particles and {gamma} rays by employing suitably designed interchangeable probes and selecting an operating potential to correspond to the particular probe.

  2. Analytical Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses analytical searching, a process that enables searchers of electronic resources to develop a planned strategy by combining words or phrases with Boolean operators. Defines simple and complex searching, and describes search strategies developed with Boolean logic and truncation. Provides guidelines for teaching students analytical…

  3. Mass spectrometers: instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

    1992-09-01

    Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a

  4. Automation of analytical isotachophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thormann, Wolfgang

    1985-01-01

    The basic features of automation of analytical isotachophoresis (ITP) are reviewed. Experimental setups consisting of narrow bore tubes which are self-stabilized against thermal convection are considered. Sample detection in free solution is discussed, listing the detector systems presently used or expected to be of potential use in the near future. The combination of a universal detector measuring the evolution of ITP zone structures with detector systems specific to desired components is proposed as a concept of an automated chemical analyzer based on ITP. Possible miniaturization of such an instrument by means of microlithographic techniques is discussed.

  5. An Eight-Eyed Version of Hawkins and Shohet's Clinical Supervision Model: The Addition of the Cognitive Analytic Therapy Concept of the "Observing Eye/I" as the "Observing Us"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darongkamas, Jurai; John, Christopher; Walker, Mark James

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes incorporating the concept of the "observing eye/I", from cognitive analytic therapy (CAT), to Hawkins and Shohet's seven modes of supervision, comprising their transtheoretical model of supervision. Each mode is described alongside explicit examples relating to CAT. This modification using a key idea from CAT (in…

  6. Analytical Chemistry and the Microchip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Robert K.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical techniques used at various points in making microchips are described. They include: Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (silicon purity); optical emission spectroscopy (quantitative thin-film composition); X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (chemical changes in thin films); wet chemistry, instrumental analysis (process chemicals);…

  7. Astronomical instruments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, R. N.

    Indian astronomers have devised a number of instruments and the most important of these is the armillary sphere. The earliest armillary spheres were very simple instruments. Ptolemy in his Almagest enumerates at least three. The simplest of all was the equinoctial armilla. They had also the solstitial armilla which was a double ring, erected in the plane of the meridian with a rotating inner circle. This was used to measure the solar altitude.

  8. Oceanographic Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Developed under NASA contract, the Fast Repetition Rate (FRR) fluorometer is a computer-controlled instrument for measuring the fluorescence of phytoplankton, microscopic plant forms that provide sustenance for animal life in the oceans. The fluorometer sensor is towed by ship through the water and the resulting printouts are compared with satellite data. The instrument is non-destructive and can be used in situ, providing scientific information on ocean activity and productivity.

  9. Analytical sedimentology

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.W. . Dept. of Geology); McConchie, D.M. . Centre for Coastal Management)

    1994-01-01

    Both a self instruction manual and a cookbook'' guide to field and laboratory analytical procedures, this book provides an essential reference for non-specialists. With a minimum of mathematics and virtually no theory, it introduces practitioners to easy, inexpensive options for sample collection and preparation, data acquisition, analytic protocols, result interpretation and verification techniques. This step-by-step guide considers the advantages and limitations of different procedures, discusses safety and troubleshooting, and explains support skills like mapping, photography and report writing. It also offers managers, off-site engineers and others using sediments data a quick course in commissioning studies and making the most of the reports. This manual will answer the growing needs of practitioners in the field, either alone or accompanied by Practical Sedimentology, which surveys the science of sedimentology and provides a basic overview of the principles behind the applications.

  10. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev. 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

  11. Development and validation of a dynamic range-extended LC-MS/MS multi-analyte method for 11 different postmortem matrices for redistribution studies applying solvent calibration and additional (13)C isotope monitoring.

    PubMed

    Staeheli, Sandra N; Poetzsch, Michael; Kraemer, Thomas; Steuer, Andrea E

    2015-11-01

    Postmortem redistribution (PMR) is one of numerous problems in postmortem toxicology making correct interpretation of measured drug concentrations difficult or even impossible. Time-dependent PMR in peripheral blood and especially in tissue samples is still under-explored. For further investigation, an easy applicable method for the simultaneous quantitation of over 80 forensically relevant compounds in 11 different postmortem matrices should be developed and validated overcoming the challenges of high inter-matrix and intra-matrix concentration variances. Biopsy samples (20 mg) or body fluids (20 μL) were spiked with an analyte mix and deuterated internal standards, extracted by liquid-liquid extraction, and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). For highest applicability, an easy solvent calibration was used. Furthermore, time-consuming dilution of high concentration samples showing detector saturation was circumvented by two overlapping calibration curves using (12)C isotope monitoring for low concentrations and (13)C isotopes for high concentration, respectively. The method was validated according to international guidelines with modifications. Matrix effects and extraction efficiency were strongly matrix and analyte dependent. In general, brain and adipose tissue produced the highest matrix effects, whereas cerebrospinal fluid showed the least matrix effects. Accuracy and precision results were rather matrix independent with some exceptions. Despite using an external solvent calibration, the accuracy requirements were fulfilled for 66 to 81 % of the 83 analytes. Depending on the matrix, 75-93 % of the analytes showed intra-day precisions at <20 %. (12)C and (13)C calibrations gave comparable results and proved to be a useful tool in expanding the dynamic range. PMID:26396081

  12. The DKIST Instrumentation Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woeger, Friedrich

    2016-05-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope with its four meter diameter aperture will be the largest telescope in the world for solar observations when it is commissioned in the year 2019. In order to harness its scientific potential immediately, DKIST will integrate five instruments that each will provide unique functionality to measure properties of the solar atmosphere at unprecedented spatial resolution.In this paper we discuss the unique capabilities in the DKIST instrument suite that consists of the Visible Broadband Imager (VBI), the Visible Spectro-Polarimeter (ViSP), the Visible Tunable Filter (VTF), the Diffraction-Limited Near-Infrared Spectro-Polarimeter (DL-NIRSP), and the Cryogenic Near-Infrared Spectro-Polarimeter (Cryo-NIRSP).In addition, we will explain the facility's approach to supporting high spatial resolution data acquisition with multiple instruments simultaneously by means of the Facility Instrument Distribution Optics. This system of wavelength separating and interchangeable beamsplitters will enable a variety of different ways to optically configure the light beam to the instruments. This approach ensures that the DKIST instruments can use their individual advantages in a multitude of different observing scenarios. The DKIST instrumentation suite will enable crucial new insights into complex physical processes that occur on spatial scales that are smaller than any solar structure observed in the past.

  13. Foundations of measurement and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshawsky, Isidore

    1990-01-01

    The user of instrumentation has provided an understanding of the factors that influence instrument performance, selection, and application, and of the methods of interpreting and presenting the results of measurements. Such understanding is prerequisite to the successful attainment of the best compromise among reliability, accuracy, speed, cost, and importance of the measurement operation in achieving the ultimate goal of a project. Some subjects covered are dimensions; units; sources of measurement error; methods of describing and estimating accuracy; deduction and presentation of results through empirical equations, including the method of least squares; experimental and analytical methods of determining the static and dynamic behavior of instrumentation systems, including the use of analogs.

  14. Research Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The GENETI-SCANNER, newest product of Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc. (PSI), rapidly scans slides, locates, digitizes, measures and classifies specific objects and events in research and diagnostic applications. Founded by former NASA employees, PSI's primary product line is based on NASA image processing technology. The instruments karyotype - a process employed in analysis and classification of chromosomes - using a video camera mounted on a microscope. Images are digitized, enabling chromosome image enhancement. The system enables karyotyping to be done significantly faster, increasing productivity and lowering costs. Product is no longer being manufactured.

  15. Instrumented SSH

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Scott; Campbell, Scott

    2009-05-27

    NERSC recently undertook a project to access and analyze Secure Shell (SSH) related data. This includes authentication data such as user names and key fingerprints, interactive session data such as keystrokes and responses, and information about noninteractive sessions such as commands executed and files transferred. Historically, this data has been inaccessible with traditional network monitoring techniques, but with a modification to the SSH daemon, this data can be passed directly to intrusion detection systems for analysis. The instrumented version of SSH is now running on all NERSC production systems. This paper describes the project, details about how SSH was instrumented, and the initial results of putting this in production.

  16. Geoscience instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, E. A. (Editor); Mercanti, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    Geoscience instrumentation systems are considered along with questions of geoscience environment, signal processing, data processing, and design problems. Instrument platforms are examined, taking into account ground platforms, airborne platforms, ocean platforms, and space platforms. In situ and laboratory sensors described include acoustic wave sensors, age sensors, atmospheric constituent sensors, biological sensors, cloud particle sensors, electric field sensors, electromagnetic field sensors, precision geodetic sensors, gravity sensors, ground constituent sensors, horizon sensors, humidity sensors, ion and electron sensors, magnetic field sensors, tide sensors, and wind sensors. Remote sensors are discussed, giving attention to sensing techniques, acoustic echo-sounders, gamma ray sensors, optical sensors, radar sensors, and microwave radiometric sensors.

  17. Extending the turbidity record: making additional use of continuous data from turbidity, acoustic-Doppler, and laser diffraction instruments and suspended-sediment samples in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voichick, Nicholas; Topping, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Turbidity is a measure of the scattering and absorption of light in water, which in rivers is primarily caused by particles, usually sediment, suspended in the water. Turbidity varies significantly with differences in the design of the instrument measuring turbidity, a point that is illustrated in this study by side-by-side comparisons of two different models of instruments. Turbidity also varies with changes in the physical parameters of the particles in the water, such as concentration, grain size, grain shape, and color. A turbidity instrument that is commonly used for continuous monitoring of rivers has a light source in the near-infrared range (860±30 nanometers) and a detector oriented 90 degrees from the incident light path. This type of optical turbidity instrument has a limited measurement range (depending on pathlength) that is unable to capture the high turbidity levels of rivers that carry high suspended-sediment loads. The Colorado River in Grand Canyon is one such river, in which approximately 60 percent of the range in suspended-sediment concentration during the study period had unmeasurable turbidity using this type of optical instrument. Although some optical turbidimeters using backscatter or other techniques can measure higher concentrations of suspended sediment than the models used in this study, the maximum turbidity measurable using these other turbidimeters may still be exceeded in conditions of especially high concentrations of suspended silt and clay. In Grand Canyon, the existing optical turbidity instruments remain in use in part to provide consistency over time as new techniques are investigated. As a result, during these periods of high suspended-sediment concentration, turbidity values that could not be measured with the optical turbidity instruments were instead estimated from concurrent acoustic attenuation data collected using side-looking acoustic-Doppler profiler (ADP) instruments. Extending the turbidity record to the full

  18. Instrumental Analysis in Environmental Chemistry - Gas Phase Detection Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Donald H.; Meyers, Philip A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses advances made in chemical analysis instrumentation used in environmental monitoring. This first of two articles is concerned with analytical instrumentation in which detection and dispersion depend ultimately on the properties of gaseous molecules. (JR)

  19. Caesium sputter ion source compatible with commercial SIMS instruments.

    SciTech Connect

    Belykh, S. F.; Palitsin, V. V.; Veryovkin, I. V.; Kovarsky, A. P.; Chang, R. J. H.; Adriaens, A.; Dowsett, M. G.; Adams, F.; Materials Science Division; Univ. Warwick; Ioffe Physical-Technical Inst.; Ghent Univ.; Univ. Antwerp

    2006-01-01

    A simple design for a caesium sputter cluster ion source compatible with commercially available secondary ion mass spectrometers is reported. This source has been tested with the Cameca IMS 4f instrument using the cluster Si{sub n}{sup -} and Cu{sub n}{sup -} ions, and will shortly be retrofitted to the floating low energy ion gun (FLIG) of the type used on the Cameca 4500/4550 quadruple instruments. Our experiments with surface characterization and depth profiling conducted to date demonstrate improvements of analytical capabilities of the SIMS instrument due to the non-additive enhancement of secondary ion emission and shorter ion ranges of polyatomic projectiles compared to atomic ions with the same impact energy.

  20. Instrumental Surveillance of Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. A.; And Others

    The role analytical instrumentation performs in the surveillance and control of the quality of water resources is reviewed. Commonly performed analyses may range from simple tests for physical parameters to more highly sophisticated radiological or spectrophotometric methods. This publication explores many of these types of water quality analyses…

  1. Weather Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  2. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  3. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  4. Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice. PMID:17579968

  5. Challenges for Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, James J.; Kielman, Joseph

    2009-09-23

    Visual analytics has seen unprecedented growth in its first five years of mainstream existence. Great progress has been made in a short time, yet great challenges must be met in the next decade to provide new technologies that will be widely accepted by societies throughout the world. This paper sets the stage for some of those challenges in an effort to provide the stimulus for the research, both basic and applied, to address and exceed the envisioned potential for visual analytics technologies. We start with a brief summary of the initial challenges, followed by a discussion of the initial driving domains and applications, as well as additional applications and domains that have been a part of recent rapid expansion of visual analytics usage. We look at the common characteristics of several tools illustrating emerging visual analytics technologies, and conclude with the top ten challenges for the field of study. We encourage feedback and collaborative participation by members of the research community, the wide array of user communities, and private industry.

  6. Analytical advantages of multivariate data processing. One, two, three, infinity?

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Alejandro C

    2008-08-01

    Multidimensional data are being abundantly produced by modern analytical instrumentation, calling for new and powerful data-processing techniques. Research in the last two decades has resulted in the development of a multitude of different processing algorithms, each equipped with its own sophisticated artillery. Analysts have slowly discovered that this body of knowledge can be appropriately classified, and that common aspects pervade all these seemingly different ways of analyzing data. As a result, going from univariate data (a single datum per sample, employed in the well-known classical univariate calibration) to multivariate data (data arrays per sample of increasingly complex structure and number of dimensions) is known to provide a gain in sensitivity and selectivity, combined with analytical advantages which cannot be overestimated. The first-order advantage, achieved using vector sample data, allows analysts to flag new samples which cannot be adequately modeled with the current calibration set. The second-order advantage, achieved with second- (or higher-) order sample data, allows one not only to mark new samples containing components which do not occur in the calibration phase but also to model their contribution to the overall signal, and most importantly, to accurately quantitate the calibrated analyte(s). No additional analytical advantages appear to be known for third-order data processing. Future research may permit, among other interesting issues, to assess if this "1, 2, 3, infinity" situation of multivariate calibration is really true. PMID:18613646

  7. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  8. Electrochemical Detection of Multiple Bioprocess Analytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauh, R. David

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus that includes highly miniaturized thin-film electrochemical sensor array has been demonstrated as a prototype of instruments for simultaneous detection of multiple substances of interest (analytes) and measurement of acidity or alkalinity in bioprocess streams. Measurements of pH and of concentrations of nutrients and wastes in cell-culture media, made by use of these instruments, are to be used as feedback for optimizing the growth of cells or the production of desired substances by the cultured cells. The apparatus is designed to utilize samples of minimal volume so as to minimize any perturbation of monitored processes. The apparatus can function in a potentiometric mode (for measuring pH), an amperometric mode (detecting analytes via oxidation/reduction reactions), or both. The sensor array is planar and includes multiple thin-film microelectrodes covered with hydrous iridium oxide. The oxide layer on each electrode serves as both a protective and electrochemical transducing layer. In its transducing role, the oxide provides electrical conductivity for amperometric measurement or pH response for potentiometric measurement. The oxide on an electrode can also serve as a matrix for one or more enzymes that render the electrode sensitive to a specific analyte. In addition to transducing electrodes, the array includes electrodes for potential control. The array can be fabricated by techniques familiar to the microelectronics industry. The sensor array is housed in a thin-film liquid-flow cell that has a total volume of about 100 mL. The flow cell is connected to a computer-controlled subsystem that periodically draws samples from the bioprocess stream to be monitored. Before entering the cell, each 100-mL sample is subjected to tangential-flow filtration to remove particles. In the present version of the apparatus, the electrodes are operated under control by a potentiostat and are used to simultaneously measure the pH and the concentration of glucose

  9. Nutritional Lipidomics: Molecular Metabolism, Analytics, and Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; Zivkovic, Angela M.; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne; Watkins, Steve M.; Nording, Malin L.; Hammock, Bruce D.; German, J. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The field of lipidomics is providing nutritional science a more comprehensive view of lipid intermediates. Lipidomics research takes advantage of the increase in accuracy and sensitivity of mass detection of mass spectrometry with new bioinformatics toolsets to characterize the structures and abundances of complex lipids. Yet, translating lipidomics to practice via nutritional interventions is still in its infancy. No single instrumentation platform is able to solve the varying analytical challenges of the different molecular lipid species. Biochemical pathways of lipid metabolism remain incomplete and the tools to map lipid compositional data to pathways are still being assembled. Biology itself is dauntingly complex and simply separating biological structures remains a key challenge to lipidomics. Nonetheless, the strategy of combining tandem analytical methods to perform the sensitive, high-throughput, quantitative and comprehensive analysis of lipid metabolites of very large numbers of molecules is poised to drive the field forward rapidly. Among the next steps for nutrition to understand the changes in structures, compositions and function of lipid biomolecules in response to diet is to describe their distribution within discrete functional compartments-lipoproteins. Additionally, lipidomics must tackle the task of assigning the functions of lipids as signaling molecules, nutrient sensors, and intermediates of metabolic pathways. PMID:23818328

  10. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  11. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  12. Design parameters for borehole strain instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladwin, Michael T.; Hart, Rhodes

    1985-01-01

    The response of a borehole strain meter to hydrostatic and shear deformations in an isotropic medium is calculated to facilitate optimum instrument design and produce instrument response factors for parameters typically encountered in installed instruments. Results for an empty borehole are first compared with results for an instrument in intimate contact with the surrounding rock. The effects of the grout used to install the instrument are then examined. Where possible, analytic forms for the response factors are given. Results for typical installations are then presented in graphical form for optimizing instrument design in an environment of known elastic parameters. Alternatively, the results may be applied in the measurement of unknown strain signals, to correct for instrument response or to provide in-situ estimates of the elastic properties of the environment by examination of observed strain response to known strain signals.

  13. Optical Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

  14. INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-12-31

    Many DOE applications would significantly benefit from the availability of robust and convenient instrumentation for trace-level actinide monitoring and analysis. This project focuses on developing new instrumentation for on-line or at-line monitoring for actinides with isotopic analysis capability. In addition, analytical protocols for a novel concentration method for actinides are being investigated. These efforts focus on demonstrating these techniques using uranium. In addition to its value in the analytical laboratory, the combination of a simple concentration technique with a robust isotopic monitor could provide a powerful method for addressing a number of outstanding DOE needs. Potential applications include monitors for waste water and sewage treatment systems influent and effluent, and the ability to determine the isotopic content of transuranic species in low-activity waste fractions for waste classification and product acceptance. For example, the need for improved monitoring for uranium, plutonium, and americium in treatment plant influent is clearly identified in need RF-ER11. With some additional sample pretreatment, such technology could also impact materials characterization needs by providing on-site isotopic analyses in a system that is smaller and significantly less complex than inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

  15. Accommodating subject and instrument variations in spectroscopic determinations

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Michael J.; Rowe, Robert K.; Thomas, Edward V.

    2006-08-29

    A method and apparatus for measuring a biological attribute, such as the concentration of an analyte, particularly a blood analyte in tissue such as glucose. The method utilizes spectrographic techniques in conjunction with an improved instrument-tailored or subject-tailored calibration model. In a calibration phase, calibration model data is modified to reduce or eliminate instrument-specific attributes, resulting in a calibration data set modeling intra-instrument or intra-subject variation. In a prediction phase, the prediction process is tailored for each target instrument separately using a minimal number of spectral measurements from each instrument or subject.

  16. Guideline implementation: surgical instrument cleaning.

    PubMed

    Cowperthwaite, Liz; Holm, Rebecca L

    2015-05-01

    Cleaning, decontaminating, and handling instructions for instruments vary widely based on the type of instrument and the manufacturer. Processing instruments in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions can help prevent damage and keep devices in good working order. Most importantly, proper cleaning and disinfection may prevent transmission of pathogenic organisms from a contaminated device to a patient or health care worker. The updated AORN "Guideline for cleaning and care of surgical instruments" provides guidance on cleaning, decontaminating, transporting, inspecting, and storing instruments. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel implement appropriate instrument care protocols in their practice settings. The key points address timely cleaning and decontamination of instruments after use; appropriate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning parameters for the decontamination area; processing of ophthalmic instruments and laryngoscopes; and precautions to take with instruments used in cases of suspected prion disease. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. PMID:25946180

  17. Radiological instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, S.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Seibentritt, C.R. Jr.

    1986-12-23

    An instrument is described for measuring radiation, particularly nuclear radiation, comprising: a radiation sensitive structure pivoted toward one end and including a pair of elongated solid members contiguously joined together along their length dimensions and having a common planar interface therebetween. One of the pairs of members is comprised of radiochromic material whose index of refraction changes due to anomolous dispersion as a result of being exposed to nuclear radiation. The pair of members further has mutually different indices of refraction with the member having the larger index of refraction further being transparent for the passage of light and of energy therethrough; means located toward the other end of the structure for varying the angle of longitudinal elevation of the pair of members; means for generating and projecting a beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction. The beam of light is projected toward the planar interface where it is reflected out of the other end of the same member as a first output beam; means projecting a portion of the beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction where it traverses therethrough without reflection and out of the other end of the same member as a second output beam; and means adjacent the structure for receiving the first and second output beams, whereby a calibrated change in the angle of elevation of the structure between positions of equal intensity of the first and second output beams prior to and following exposure provides a measure of the radiation sensed due to a change of refraction of the radiochromic material.

  18. Spectroscopic Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, Hans-Joachim

    The selection of a spectrographic system including the detector is governed by several aspects: - Wavelength region of interest - Low or high-resolution studies, survey spectra, line intensities only or detailed line profiles - Weak or strong emitter, which usually is equivalent to having a plasma of low or high density - Low or high time resolution, which basically determines the detector and only to a lesser degree the throughput of the system - Stigmatic or astigmatic image of the plasma in the exit plane Spectrometers with the exception of instruments for the X-ray region typically consist of: - An entrance slit (width w en, area A E) - A dispersive element - An optical system, which forms a spectrally dispersed image of the entrance slit in the exit plane - A detector in the exit plane Figure 3.1 illustrates a schematic layout. Dispersing elements are prisms, gratings, interferometers, and crystals. The imaging system consists usually of a lens L1 (or mirror M1) collimating the radiation from the entrance slit, and a lens L2 (or mirror M2) focusing the radiation in the exit (image) plane. Mirrors have the advantage of no chromatic aberration and can also be used at shorter wavelengths where glasses, quartz, and crystals absorb the radiation. Unfortunately, their reflectivity decreases at short wavelengths; this can be remedied to some degree by reducing the number of reflecting surfaces and employing spherical or even toroidal gratings which combine focusing and dispersing properties. The optical system (L1, L2) or (M1, M2) becomes unnecessary.

  19. Earth Viewing Applications Laboratory (EVAL). Instrument catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    There were 87 instruments described that are used in earth observation, with an additional 51 instruments containing references to programs and their major functions. These instruments were selected from such sources as: (1) earth observation flight program, (2) operational satellite improvement programs, (3) advanced application flight experiment program, (4) shuttle experiment definition program, and (5) earth observation aircraft program.

  20. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  1. Analytical Chemistry (edited by R. Kellner, J.- M. Mermet, M. Otto, and H. M. Widmer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Reviewed By Robert Q.

    2000-04-01

    marginal notes. The text is divided into 5 parts (General Topics, Chemical Analysis, Physical Analysis, Computer-Based Analytical Chemistry, and Total Analysis Systems), 16 sections, and many chapters and subsections, all numbered and with headings for easy reference. The book provides comprehensive coverage of analytical science. Many curricula in North America cling to the tired notion of one semester of classical analytical (wet) chemistry followed by a second semester of instrumental analysis, and publishers continue to respond by publishing separate texts for each course. The Europeans, in contrast, have a text that bridges this artificial gap. Included are chapters and subsections on chemical equilibrium, electronic and vibrational spectroscopy, separations, and electrochemistry (found in most first courses in analytical chemistry). The authors also address atomic spectroscopy in all of its forms, luminescence, mass spectrometry, NMR spectrometry, surface analysis, thermal methods, activation analysis, and automated methods of analysis (found in most instrumental courses). Additional, uncommon chapters on chemical and biochemical sensors, immunoassay, chemometrics, miniaturized systems, and process analytical chemistry point toward the present and future of analytical science. The only glaring omission in comparison to other instrumental texts is in the area of measurement systems and electronics. No mention is made of the analytical laboratory, such as descriptions of glassware calibration and suggested experiments, as is found in most quantitative analysis texts in the U.S. The dangers in any multi-authored book include an uneven treatment of topics and a lack of cohesiveness and logical development of topics. I found some evidence of these problems in Analytical Chemistry. My first reaction to the Table of Contents and the grouping of chapters was "Where is ?" and "What about ?" While the order of topics in an analytical chemistry course always is open to debate

  2. Laboratory Techniques in Geology: Embedding Analytical Methods into the Undergraduate Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baedke, S. J.; Johnson, E. A.; Kearns, L. E.; Mazza, S. E.; Gazel, E.

    2014-12-01

    Paid summer REU experiences successfully engage undergraduate students in research and encourage them to continue to graduate school and scientific careers. However these programs only accommodate a limited number of students due to funding constraints, faculty time commitments, and limited access to needed instrumentation. At JMU, the Department of Geology and Environmental Science has embedded undergraduate research into the curriculum. Each student fulfilling a BS in Geology or a BA in Earth Science completes 3 credits of research, including a 1-credit course on scientific communication, 2 credits of research or internship, followed by a presentation of that research. Our department has successfully acquired many analytical instruments and now has an XRD, SEM/EDS, FTIR, handheld Raman, AA, ion chromatograph, and an IRMS. To give as many students as possible an overview to the scientific uses and operation methods for these instruments, we revived a laboratory methods course that includes theory and practical use of instrumentation at JMU, plus XRF sample preparation and analysis training at Virginia Tech during a 1-day field trip. In addition to practical training, projects included analytical concepts such as evaluating analytical vs. natural uncertainty, determining error on multiple measurements, signal-to-noise ratio, and evaluating data quality. State funding through the 4-VA program helped pay for analytical supplies and support for students to complete research projects over the summer or during the next academic year using instrumentation from the course. This course exemplifies an alternative path to broadening participation in undergraduate research and creating stronger partnerships between PUI's and research universities.

  3. Let's Talk... Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2012-01-01

    Talk about analytics seems to be everywhere. Everyone is talking about analytics. Yet even with all the talk, many in higher education have questions about--and objections to--using analytics in colleges and universities. In this article, the author explores the use of analytics in, and all around, higher education. (Contains 1 note.)

  4. Analytics for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeill, Sheila; Campbell, Lorna M.; Hawksey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the development and use of analytics in the context of education. Using Buckingham Shum's three levels of analytics, the authors present a critical analysis of current developments in the domain of learning analytics, and contrast the potential value of analytics research and development with real world…

  5. Zach's instruments and their characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    The astronomically interested Duke Ernst II von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg (1745-1804) hired Baron Franz Xaver von Zach (1754-1832) as court astronomer in 1786. Immediatedly Zach started to make plans for instrumentation for a new observatory. But first they travelled with their instruments (a 2-foot Ramsden transit instrument, the Sisson quadrant, three Hadley sextants, two achromatic refractors and chronometers) to southern France. In Hyàres a tower of the wall around the town was converted into an observatory in 1787. For the building of the new observatory Zach had chosen a place outside of Gotha on the top of the Seeberg. The three main instruments were an 8-foot transit instrument made by Ramsden, a northern and southern mural quadrant made by Sisson and a zenith sector made by Cary, in addition an 8-foot circle made by Ramsden. By analysing the whole instrumentation of Gotha observatory, we can see a change around 1800 in the kind of instruments, from quadrants and sextants to the full circles and from the transit instrument to the meridian circle. The decline of the Gotha observatory started with the early death of the Duke in 1804 and the subsequent departure of Zach in 1806.

  6. Instrumental musicians' hazards.

    PubMed

    Hoppmann, R A

    2001-01-01

    In the last two decades, injuries to instrumental musicians have been well documented. Major categories of performance-related injuries include musculoskeletal overuse, nerve entrapment/thoracic outlet syndrome, and focal dystonia. Other areas of concern to instrumentalists include hypermobility, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, and hearing loss. This chapter reviews the epidemiology, risk factors, physical exam, treatment, and prevention of common problems of instrumentalists. Emphasis is placed on the team approach of treatment and prevention and the need for close collaboration of the various health professionals, music educators, and performers. Additional resources are presented for those interested in pursuing performing arts medicine in greater detail. PMID:11567922

  7. Biochemical Applications in the Analytical Chemistry Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Cynthia; Ruttencutter, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    An HPLC and a UV-visible spectrophotometer are identified as instruments that helps to incorporate more biologically-relevant experiments into the course, in order to increase the students understanding of selected biochemistry topics and enhances their ability to apply an analytical approach to biochemical problems. The experiment teaches…

  8. Pods: a Powder Delivery System for Mars In-situ Organic, Mineralogic and Isotopic Analysis Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, C. P.; Bryson, C. E.; Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D. F.

    2005-01-01

    Many Mars in situ instruments require fine-grained high-fidelity samples of rocks or soil. Included are instruments for the determination of mineralogy as well as organic and isotopic chemistry. Powder can be obtained as a primary objective of a sample collection system (e.g., by collecting powder as a surface is abraded by a rotary abrasion tool (RAT)), or as a secondary objective (e.g, by collecting drill powder as a core is drilled). In the latter case, a properly designed system could be used to monitor drilling in real time as well as to deliver powder to analytical instruments which would perform complementary analyses to those later performed on the intact core. In addition, once a core or other sample is collected, a system that could transfer intelligently collected subsamples of power from the intact core to a suite of analytical instruments would be highly desirable. We have conceptualized, developed and tested a breadboard Powder Delivery System (PoDS) intended to satisfy the collection, processing and distribution requirements of powder samples for Mars in-situ mineralogic, organic and isotopic measurement instruments.

  9. Analytical instrument with apparatus and method for sample concentrating

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, S.

    1986-08-04

    A system for analysis of trace concentrations of contaminants in air includes a portable liquid chromatograph and a preconcentrator for the contaminants to be analyzed. The preconcentrator includes a sample bag having an inlet valve and an outlet valve for collecting an air sample. When the sample is collected the sample bag is connected in series with a sorbing apparatus in a recirculation loop. The sorbing apparatus has an inner gas-permeable container containing a sorbent material and an outer gas-impermeable container. The sample is circulated through the outer container and around the inner container for trapping and preconcentrating the contaminants in the sorbent material. The sorbent material may be a liquid having the same composition as the mobile phase of the chromatograph for direct injection thereinto. Alternatively, the sorbent material may be a porous, solid body, to which mobile phase liquid is added after preconcentration of the contaminants for dissolving the contaminants, the liquid solution then being withdrawn for injection into the chromatograph.

  10. Teaching Analytical Method Development in an Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanigan, Katherine C.

    2008-01-01

    Method development and assessment, central components of carrying out chemical research, require problem-solving skills. This article describes a pedagogical approach for teaching these skills through the adaptation of published experiments and application of group-meeting style discussions to the curriculum of an undergraduate instrumental…

  11. Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques for Environmental and Life Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frontasyeva, Marina

    2010-01-01

    The role of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) in Environmental and Life Sciences is discussed. Examples of radioanalytical investigations at the IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor in Dubna illustrate the environmental, biomedical, geochemical and industrial applications of instrumental neutron activation analysis.

  12. Modern analytical supercritical fluid chromatography using columns packed with sub-2 μm particles: a tutorial.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Lucie; Perrenoud, Alexandre Grand-Guillaume; Francois, Isabelle; West, Caroline; Lesellier, Eric; Guillarme, Davy

    2014-05-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of the possibilities, limitations and analytical conditions of modern analytical supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) using columns packed with sub-2 μm particles. In particular, it gives a detailed overview of commercially available modern SFC instrumentation and the detectors that can be employed (UV, MS, ELSD, FID, etc.). Some advice on the choice of the stationary phase dimensions and chemistries, the nature of the mobile phase (choice of organic modifier and additives) and its flow rate as well as the backpressure and temperature are also provided. Finally, several groups of potentially problematic compounds, including lipophilic compounds, hydrophilic substances and basic drugs, are discussed in detail. All these families of analytes can be resolved with SFC but require specific analytical conditions. PMID:24759745

  13. Development of TPS flight test and operational instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnahan, K. R.; Hartman, G. J.; Neuner, G. J.

    1975-01-01

    Thermal and flow sensor instrumentation was developed for use as an integral part of the space shuttle orbiter reusable thermal protection system. The effort was performed in three tasks: a study to determine the optimum instruments and instrument installations for the space shuttle orbiter RSI and RCC TPS; tests and/or analysis to determine the instrument installations to minimize measurement errors; and analysis using data from the test program for comparison to analytical methods. A detailed review of existing state of the art instrumentation in industry was performed to determine the baseline for the departure of the research effort. From this information, detailed criteria for thermal protection system instrumentation were developed.

  14. Instrumenting the Intelligence Analysis Process

    SciTech Connect

    Hampson, Ernest; Cowley, Paula J.

    2005-05-02

    The Advanced Research and Development Activity initiated the Novel Intelligence from Massive Data (NIMD) program to develop advanced analytic technologies and methodologies. In order to support this objective, researchers and developers need to understand what analysts do and how they do it. In the past, this knowledge generally was acquired through subjective feedback from analysts. NIMD established the innovative Glass Box Analysis (GBA) Project to instrument a live intelligence mission and unobtrusively capture and objectively study the analysis process. Instrumenting the analysis process requires tailor-made software hooks that grab data from a myriad of disparate application operations and feed into a complex relational database and hierarchical file store to collect, store, retrieve, and distribute analytic data in a manner that maximizes researchers’ understanding. A key to success is determining the correct data to collect and aggregate low-level data into meaningful analytic events. This paper will examine how the GBA team solved some of these challenges, continues to address others, and supports a growing user community in establishing their own GBA environments and/or studying the data generated by GBA analysts working in the Glass Box.

  15. Low activated incore instrument

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, D.E.

    1994-04-19

    Instrumentation is described for nuclear reactor head-mounted incore instrumentation systems fabricated of low nuclear cross section materials (i.e., zirconium or titanium). The instrumentation emits less radiation than that fabricated of conventional materials. 9 figures.

  16. Analytical sensor redundancy assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulcare, D. B.; Downing, L. E.; Smith, M. K.

    1988-01-01

    The rationale and mechanization of sensor fault tolerance based on analytical redundancy principles are described. The concept involves the substitution of software procedures, such as an observer algorithm, to supplant additional hardware components. The observer synthesizes values of sensor states in lieu of their direct measurement. Such information can then be used, for example, to determine which of two disagreeing sensors is more correct, thus enhancing sensor fault survivability. Here a stability augmentation system is used as an example application, with required modifications being made to a quadruplex digital flight control system. The impact on software structure and the resultant revalidation effort are illustrated as well. Also, the use of an observer algorithm for wind gust filtering of the angle-of-attack sensor signal is presented.

  17. Analytical modelling of Thirty Meter Telescope optics polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anche, Ramya M.; Anupama, G. C.; Reddy, Krishna; Sen, Asoke; Sankarasubramanian, K.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Sengupta, Sujan; Skidmore, Warren; Atwood, Jenny; Tirupathi, Sivarani; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan

    2015-06-01

    The polarization introduced due to Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) optics is calculated using an analytical model. Mueller matrices are also generated for each optical element using Zemax, based on which the instrumental polarization due to the entire system at the focal plane is estimated and compared with the analytical model. This study is significant in the estimation of the telescope sensitivity and also has great implications for future instruments.

  18. Evaluating musical instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-04-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians.

  19. Multimedia Analysis plus Visual Analytics = Multimedia Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Chinchor, Nancy; Thomas, James J.; Wong, Pak C.; Christel, Michael; Ribarsky, Martin W.

    2010-10-01

    Multimedia analysis has focused on images, video, and to some extent audio and has made progress in single channels excluding text. Visual analytics has focused on the user interaction with data during the analytic process plus the fundamental mathematics and has continued to treat text as did its precursor, information visualization. The general problem we address in this tutorial is the combining of multimedia analysis and visual analytics to deal with multimedia information gathered from different sources, with different goals or objectives, and containing all media types and combinations in common usage.

  20. Analytical Aspects of the Implementation of Biomarkers in Clinical Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shipkova, Maria; López, Olga Millán; Picard, Nicolas; Noceti, Ofelia; Sommerer, Claudia; Christians, Uwe; Wieland, Eberhard

    2016-04-01

    In response to the urgent need for new reliable biomarkers to complement the guidance of the immunosuppressive therapy, a huge number of biomarker candidates to be implemented in clinical practice have been introduced to the transplant community. This includes a diverse range of molecules with very different molecular weights, chemical and physical properties, ex vivo stabilities, in vivo kinetic behaviors, and levels of similarity to other molecules, etc. In addition, a large body of different analytical techniques and assay protocols can be used to measure biomarkers. Sometimes, a complex software-based data evaluation is a prerequisite for appropriate interpretation of the results and for their reporting. Although some analytical procedures are of great value for research purposes, they may be too complex for implementation in a clinical setting. Whereas the proof of "fitness for purpose" is appropriate for validation of biomarker assays used in exploratory drug development studies, a higher level of analytical validation must be achieved and eventually advanced analytical performance might be necessary before diagnostic application in transplantation medicine. A high level of consistency of results between laboratories and between methods (if applicable) should be obtained and maintained to make biomarkers effective instruments in support of therapeutic decisions. This overview focuses on preanalytical and analytical aspects to be considered for the implementation of new biomarkers for adjusting immunosuppression in a clinical setting and highlights critical points to be addressed on the way to make them suitable as diagnostic tools. These include but are not limited to appropriate method validation, standardization, education, automation, and commercialization. PMID:26418704

  1. Analytical Challenges in Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glajch, Joseph L.

    1986-01-01

    Highlights five major analytical areas (electrophoresis, immunoassay, chromatographic separations, protein and DNA sequencing, and molecular structures determination) and discusses how analytical chemistry could further improve these techniques and thereby have a major impact on biotechnology. (JN)

  2. Analyticity without Differentiability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirillova, Evgenia; Spindler, Karlheinz

    2008-01-01

    In this article we derive all salient properties of analytic functions, including the analytic version of the inverse function theorem, using only the most elementary convergence properties of series. Not even the notion of differentiability is required to do so. Instead, analytical arguments are replaced by combinatorial arguments exhibiting…

  3. Major developments in clinical chemical instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Caraway, W T

    1981-07-01

    The introduction of instrumentation into the clinical chemistry laboratory is reviewed for the period extending from about 1890 to 1960. Topics covered, from a historical point of view, include the microscope, analytical balance, and centrifuge, colorimetry and spectrophotometry, flame photometry, gasometric analysis, pH, electrophoresis, chromatography, radioisotopes, and automation. PMID:7035606

  4. New and emerging analytical techniques for marine biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Burgess, J Grant

    2012-02-01

    Marine biotechnology is the industrial, medical or environmental application of biological resources from the sea. Since the marine environment is the most biologically and chemically diverse habitat on the planet, marine biotechnology has, in recent years delivered a growing number of major therapeutic products, industrial and environmental applications and analytical tools. These range from the use of a snail toxin to develop a pain control drug, metabolites from a sea squirt to develop an anti-cancer therapeutic, and marine enzymes to remove bacterial biofilms. In addition, well known and broadly used analytical techniques are derived from marine molecules or enzymes, including green fluorescence protein gene tagging methods and heat resistant polymerases used in the polymerase chain reaction. Advances in bacterial identification, metabolic profiling and physical handling of cells are being revolutionised by techniques such as mass spectrometric analysis of bacterial proteins. Advances in instrumentation and a combination of these physical advances with progress in proteomics and bioinformatics are accelerating our ability to harness biology for commercial gain. Single cell Raman spectroscopy and microfluidics are two emerging techniques which are also discussed elsewhere in this issue. In this review, we provide a brief survey and update of the most powerful and rapidly growing analytical techniques as used in marine biotechnology, together with some promising examples of less well known earlier stage methods which may make a bigger impact in the future. PMID:22265377

  5. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  6. Astronomical Instruments in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  7. ZBLAN Viscosity Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, William

    2001-01-01

    The past year's contribution from Dr. Kaukler's experimental effort consists of these 5 parts: a) Construction and proof-of-concept testing of a novel shearing plate viscometer designed to produce small shear rates and operate at elevated temperatures; b) Preparing nonlinear polymeric materials to serve as standards of nonlinear Theological behavior; c) Measurements and evaluation of above materials for nonlinear rheometric behavior at room temperature using commercial spinning cone and plate viscometers available in the lab; d) Preparing specimens from various forms of pitch for quantitative comparative testing in a Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer, Thermal Mechanical Analyzer; and Archeological Analyzer; e) Arranging to have sets of pitch specimens tested using the various instruments listed above, from different manufacturers, to form a baseline of the viscosity variation with temperature using the different test modes offered by these instruments by compiling the data collected from the various test results. Our focus in this project is the shear thinning behavior of ZBLAN glass over a wide range of temperature. Experimentally, there are no standard techniques to perform such measurements on glasses, particularly at elevated temperatures. Literature reviews to date have shown that shear thinning in certain glasses appears to occur, but no data is available for ZBLAN glass. The best techniques to find shear thinning behavior require the application of very low rates of shear. In addition, because the onset of the thinning behavior occurs at an unknown elevated temperature, the instruments used in this study must provide controlled low rates of shear and do so for temperatures approaching 600 C. In this regard, a novel shearing parallel plate viscometer was designed and a prototype built and tested.

  8. Mars Miniature Science Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soon Sam; Hayati, Samad; Lavery, David; McBrid, Karen

    2006-01-01

    For robotic Mars missions, all the science information is gathered through on-board miniature instruments that have been developed through many years of R&D. Compared to laboratory counterparts, the rover instruments require miniaturization, such as low mass (1-2 kg), low power (> 10 W) and compact (1-2 liter), yet with comparable sensitivity. Since early 1990's, NASA recognized the need for the miniature instruments and launched several instrument R&D programs, e.g., PIDDP (Planetary Instrument Definition and Development). However, until 1998, most of the instrument R&D programs supported only up to a breadboard level (TRL 3, 4) and there is a need to carry such instruments to flight qualifiable status (TU 5, 6) to respond to flight AOs (Announcement of Opportunity). Most of flight AOs have only limited time and financial resources, and can not afford such instrument development processes. To bridge the gap between instrument R&D programs and the flight instrument needs, NASA's Mars Technology Program (MTP) created advanced instrumentation program, Mars Instrument Development Project (MIDP). MIDP candidate instruments are selected through NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process [l]. For example, MIDP 161998-2000) selected and developed 10 instruments, MIDP II (2003-2005) 16 instruments, and MIDP III (2004-2006) II instruments.Working with PIs, JPL has been managing the MIDP tasks since September 1998. All the instruments being developed under MIDP have been selected through a highly competitive NRA process, and employ state-of-the-art technology. So far, four MIDP funded instruments have been selected by two Mars missions (these instruments have further been discussed in this paper).

  9. Afterword: Instruments as media, media as instruments.

    PubMed

    Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2016-06-01

    The collection of essays comes under the heading of two catchwords: instruments and media. This Afterword looks at their interaction and roles in exploring the characteristics of living beings throughout history, especially their melding and gliding into each other. Before turning to the papers, I will make some more general remarks on instruments and media in scientific, and in particular, biological research. PMID:27053536

  10. Piping inspection instrument carriage

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

    1993-09-20

    This invention is comprised of a pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler or other locomotion means for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has means mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and means for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has means for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.

  11. A novel instrument for quantitative nanoanalytics involving complementary X-ray methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lubeck, J.; Beckhoff, B.; Fliegauf, R.; Holfelder, I.; Hoenicke, P.; Mueller, M.; Pollakowski, B.; Reinhardt, F.; Weser, J.

    2013-04-15

    A novel ultra-high vacuum instrument for X-ray reflectometry and spectrometry-related techniques for nanoanalytics by means of synchrotron radiation has been constructed and commissioned. This versatile instrument was developed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's national metrology institute, and includes a 9-axis manipulator that allows for an independent alignment of the samples with respect to all degrees of freedom. In addition, a rotational and translational movement of several photodiodes as well as a translational movement of an aperture system in and out of the beam is provided. Thus, the new instrument enables various analytical techniques based on energy dispersive X-ray detectors such as reference-free X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), total-reflection XRF, grazing-incidence XRF in addition to optional X-ray reflectometry measurements or polarization-dependent X-ray absorption fine structure analyses. With this instrument samples having a size of up to 100 mm Multiplication-Sign 100 mm can be analyzed with respect to their mass deposition, elemental or spatial composition, or the species in order to probe surface contamination, layer composition and thickness, the depth profile of matrix elements or implants, the species of nanolayers, nanoparticles or buried interfaces as well as the molecular orientation of bonds. Selected applications of this advanced ultra-high vacuum instrument demonstrate both its flexibility and capability.

  12. Micro-Computer Controlled Instrument Process and Billing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, Gary C.; Nunlist, Rudi

    1984-01-01

    A microcomputer-controlled system for instrument processing and billing for complex analytical instruments funded by multiple sources in the University of California at Berkeley's College of Chemistry is described and its potential applications in other administrative situations are outlined. (MSE)

  13. Recommendations for fluorescence instrument qualification: the new ASTM Standard Guide.

    PubMed

    DeRose, Paul C; Resch-Genger, Ute

    2010-03-01

    Aimed at improving quality assurance and quantitation for modern fluorescence techniques, ASTM International (ASTM) is about to release a Standard Guide for Fluorescence, reviewed here. The guide's main focus is on steady state fluorometry, for which available standards and instrument characterization procedures are discussed along with their purpose, suitability, and general instructions for use. These include the most relevant instrument properties needing qualification, such as linearity and spectral responsivity of the detection system, spectral irradiance reaching the sample, wavelength accuracy, sensitivity or limit of detection for an analyte, and day-to-day performance verification. With proper consideration of method-inherent requirements and limitations, many of these procedures and standards can be adapted to other fluorescence techniques. In addition, procedures for the determination of other relevant fluorometric quantities including fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes are briefly introduced. The guide is a clear and concise reference geared for users of fluorescence instrumentation at all levels of experience and is intended to aid in the ongoing standardization of fluorescence measurements. PMID:20136134

  14. Analytical Chemistry in Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Mary A.; Ullman, Alan H.

    1988-01-01

    Clarifies the roles of a practicing analytical chemist in industry: quality control, methods and technique development, troubleshooting, research, and chemical analysis. Lists criteria for success in industry. (ML)

  15. Infrared Instrument for Detecting Hydrogen Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Ihlefeld, Curtis; Immer, Christopher; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Cox, Robert; Taylor, John

    2006-01-01

    The figure shows an instrument incorporating an infrared camera for detecting small hydrogen fires. The instrument has been developed as an improved replacement for prior infrared and ultraviolet instruments used to detect hydrogen fires. The need for this or any such instrument arises because hydrogen fires (e.g., those associated with leaks from tanks, valves, and ducts) pose a great danger, yet they emit so little visible light that they are mostly undetectable by the unaided human eye. The main performance advantage offered by the present instrument over prior hydrogen-fire-detecting instruments lies in its greater ability to avoid false alarms by discriminating against reflected infrared light, including that originating in (1) the Sun, (2) welding torches, and (3) deliberately ignited hydrogen flames (e.g., ullage-burn-off flames) that are nearby but outside the field of view intended to be monitored by the instrument. Like prior such instruments, this instrument is based mostly on the principle of detecting infrared emission above a threshold level. However, in addition, this instrument utilizes information on the spatial distribution of infrared light from a source that it detects. Because the combination of spatial and threshold information about a flame tends to constitute a unique signature that differs from that of reflected infrared light originating in a source not in the field of view, the incidence of false alarms is reduced substantially below that of related prior threshold- based instruments.

  16. Regional Instrumentation Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromie, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the activities of regional instrumentation centers that utilize the state-of-the-art instruments and methodology in basic scientific research. The emphasis is on the centers involved in mass spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, lasers, and accelerators. (SA)

  17. Woodwind Instrument Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperl, Gary

    1980-01-01

    The author presents a simple maintenance program for woodwind instruments which includes the care of tendon corks, the need for oiling keys, and methods of preventing cracks in woodwind instruments. (KC)

  18. Autoclaving of lubricated dental instruments.

    PubMed

    Hegna, I K; Kardel, K; Kardel, M

    1978-03-01

    Test organisms forced mechanically into lubricated, rotating dental instruments (handpieces) were all killed during autoclaving at 134 degrees C for 8 min, even when protected by serum and oil. The test organisms were: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus. Also when testing the sterility of autoclaved simulated instrument surfaces (brass cylinders and pieces of a cotton fabric) which had been inoculated with bacteria and dried before they were sprayed with oil, there was no growth of the test organisms. In addition to the other test organisms, spores of Bacillus subtilis and Gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria isolated from used handpieces that had been exposed to several autoclavings were used. Some of the handpieces that had been left to dry after use in the dentist's office before they were autoclaved, were shown not to be sterile. Therefore, the authors suggest that autoclaving of the instruments should take place shortly after use and prescribed cleaning. PMID:274800

  19. Existing technology transfer report: analytical capabilities. Appendix B. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, K.C.

    1984-06-01

    The overall objective of the on-going analytical efforts was to develop in-house expertise and analytical capability for the analysis of coal and coal-derived products in support of SRC-I process technology. The approach taken and work accomplished involved: identification of test methods and associated equipment; review and implementation of analytical facility plan; evaluation of existing instrumentation; evaluation and purchase of new instruments; training of laboratory personnel; validation or development of analytical methods; development of standard product work-up methods and development of analytical protocol for detailed characterization of SRC-I solid and liquid products. This volume contains Appendix B with the following attachments: solvent separation procedure A; Wilsonville solvent separation procedure, distillation separation procedure; solvent separation modified Wilsonville Procedure W; statistical comparison of 3 solvent separation procedures; methods development for column chromatography, and application of gas chromatography to characterization of a hydrogen donor solvent; and high performance liquid chromatographic procedure.

  20. Existing technology transfer report: analytical capabilities. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, K.C.

    1984-06-01

    The overall objective of the on-going analytical efforts was to develop in-house expertise and analytical capability for the analysis of coal and coal-derived products in support of SRC-I process technology. The approach taken and work accomplished involved: identification of test methods and associated equipment; review and implementation of analytical facility plan; evaluation of existing instrumentation; evaluation and purchase of new instruments; training of laboratory personnel; validation or development of analytical methods; development of standard product work-up methods; and development of analytical protocol for detailed characterization of SRC-I solid and liquid products. Expertise in analytical chemistry was developed by organizing historical knowledge and assimilating new knowledge as it became available from inside and outside research facilities and the chemical literature. The data were then used to define analytical methods, instrumentation, space, staff needed to create a functional coal analysis laboratory. This report summarizes the direction and progress of the analytical development efforts during the period 1974 to 1980. 2 references, 5 figures.

  1. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  2. Nuclear analytical techniques in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Cesareo, R.

    1988-01-01

    This book acquaints one with the fundamental principles and the instrumentation relevant to analytical technique based on atomic and nuclear physics, as well as present and future biomedical applications. Besides providing a theoretical description of the physical phenomena, a large part of the book is devoted to applications in the medical and biological field, particularly in hematology, forensic medicine and environmental science. This volume reviews methods such as the possibility of carrying out rapid multi-element analysis of trace elements on biomedical samples, in vitro and in vivo, by XRF-analysis; the ability of the PIXE-microprobe to analyze in detail and to map trace elements in fragments of biomedical samples or inside the cells; the potentiality of in vivo nuclear activation analysis for diagnostic purposes. Finally, techniques are described such as radiation scattering (elastic and inelastic scattering) and attenuation measurements which will undoubtedly see great development in the immediate future.

  3. The Instrumental Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeates, Devin Rodney

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to enable better predictive models by engaging raw experimental data through the Instrumental Model. The Instrumental Model captures the protocols and procedures of experimental data analysis. The approach is formalized by encoding the Instrumental Model in an XML record. Decoupling the raw experimental data from…

  4. Process Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callis, James B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses process analytical chemistry as a discipline designed to supply quantitative and qualitative information about a chemical process. Encourages academic institutions to examine this field for employment opportunities for students. Describes the five areas of process analytical chemistry, including off-line, at-line, on-line, in-line, and…

  5. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Shen, Han-Wei; Pascucci, Valerio

    2012-05-08

    Extreme-scale visual analytics (VA) is about applying VA to extreme-scale data. The articles in this special issue examine advances related to extreme-scale VA problems, their analytical and computational challenges, and their real-world applications.

  6. Learning Analytics Considered Harmful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dringus, Laurie P.

    2012-01-01

    This essay is written to present a prospective stance on how learning analytics, as a core evaluative approach, must help instructors uncover the important trends and evidence of quality learner data in the online course. A critique is presented of strategic and tactical issues of learning analytics. The approach to the critique is taken through…

  7. Analytical mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  8. Analytical mass spectrometry. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  9. Validating Analytical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)

  10. Teaching the Analytical Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Using a survey of 138 writing programs, I argue that we must be more explicit about what we think students should get out of analysis to make it more likely that students will transfer their analytical skills to different settings. To ensure our students take analytical skills with them at the end of the semester, we must simplify the task we…

  11. Signals: Applying Academic Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Academic analytics helps address the public's desire for institutional accountability with regard to student success, given the widespread concern over the cost of higher education and the difficult economic and budgetary conditions prevailing worldwide. Purdue University's Signals project applies the principles of analytics widely used in…

  12. Performance acceptance test of a portable instrument to detect uranium in water at the DOE Advanced Waste Water Treatment Plant, Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.S.; Weeks, S.J.

    1997-03-28

    The Eppendorf-Biotronik Model IC 2001-2, a portable field ruggedized ion chromatography instrument, was rigorously tested at the DOE Advanced Waste Water Treatment Plant, Fernald, Ohio. This instrument rapidly detected the uranium concentration in water, and has a detection limit in the low ppb range without using the sample concentrating feature. The test set of samples analyzed included: ``Real World`` water samples from the AWWT containing uranium concentrations in the 9--110 ppb range, a sample blank, and a performance evaluation sample. The AWWT samples contained sets of both raw water and acid-preserved water samples. Selected samples were analyzed in quadruplicate to asses the instrument`s precision, and these results were compared with the results from an off-site confirmatory laboratory to assess the instrument`s accuracy. Additional comparisons with on-site laboratory instruments, Chemcheck KPA-11 and Scintrex UA-3 are reported. Overall, the Eppendorf-Biotronik IC 2001-2 performed exceptionally well providing a detection limit in the low ppb region (< 10 ppb) and giving rapid (< 5 minutes) accurate and reproducible analytical results for the AWWT, ``real world``, water samples with uranium concentrations in the region of interest (10--40 ppb). The per sample operating cost for this instrument is equivalent to the per sample cost for the currently used KPA. The time required to analyze a sample and provide a result is approximately the same for the CI 2001-2, KPA, and Scintrex instruments.

  13. Facilitating Research and Learning in Petrology and Geochemistry through Classroom Applications of Remotely Operable Research Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    Bringing the use of cutting-edge research tools into student classroom experiences has long been a popular educational strategy in the geosciences and other STEM disciplines. The NSF CCLI and TUES programs have funded a large number of projects that placed research-grade instrumentation at educational institutions for instructional use and use in supporting undergraduate research activities. While student and faculty response to these activities has largely been positive, a range of challenges exist related to their educational effectiveness. Many of the obstacles these approaches have faced relate to "scaling up" of research mentoring experiences (e.g., providing training and time for use for an entire classroom of students, as opposed to one or two), and to time tradeoffs associated with providing technical training for effective instrument use versus course content coverage. The biggest challenge has often been simple logistics: a single instrument, housed in a different space, is difficult to integrate effectively into instructional activities. My CCLI-funded project sought primarily to knock down the logistical obstacles to research instrument use by taking advantage of remote instrument operation technologies, which allow the in-classroom use of networked analytical tools. Remote use of electron microprobe and SEM instruments of the Florida Center for Analytical Electron Microscopy (FCAEM) in Miami, FL was integrated into two geoscience courses at USF in Tampa, FL. Remote operation permitted the development of whole-class laboratory exercises to familiarize students with the tools, their function, and their capabilities; and it allowed students to collect high-quality chemical and image data on their own prepared samples in the classroom during laboratory periods. These activities improve student engagement in the course, appear to improve learning of key concepts in mineralogy and petrology, and have led to students pursuing independent research projects, as

  14. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed. PMID:26631024

  15. Present status of aircraft instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1932-01-01

    This report gives a brief description of the present state of development and of the performance characteristics of instruments included in the following group: speed instruments, altitude instruments, navigation instruments, power-plant instruments, oxygen instruments, instruments for aerial photography, fog-flying instruments, general problems, summary of instrument and research problems. The items considered under performance include sensitivity, scale errors, effects of temperature and pressure, effects of acceleration and vibration, time lag, damping, leaks, elastic defects, and friction.

  16. Design sensitivity derivatives for isoparametric elements by analytical and semi-analytical approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, Kenneth W.; El-Sayed, Mohamed E. M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical approach for incorporating design sensitivity calculations directly into the finite element analysis. The formulation depends on the implicit differentiation approach and requires few additional calculations to obtain the design sensitivity derivatives. In order to evaluate this approach, it is compared with the semi-analytical approach which is based on commonly used finite difference formulations. Both approaches are implemented to calculate the design sensitivities for continuum and structural isoparametric elements. To demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the developed analytical approach compared to the semi-analytical approach, some test cases using different structural and continuum element types are presented.

  17. Analytical laboratory quality audits

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, William D.

    2001-06-11

    Analytical Laboratory Quality Audits are designed to improve laboratory performance. The success of the audit, as for many activities, is based on adequate preparation, precise performance, well documented and insightful reporting, and productive follow-up. Adequate preparation starts with definition of the purpose, scope, and authority for the audit and the primary standards against which the laboratory quality program will be tested. The scope and technical processes involved lead to determining the needed audit team resources. Contact is made with the auditee and a formal audit plan is developed, approved and sent to the auditee laboratory management. Review of the auditee's quality manual, key procedures and historical information during preparation leads to better checklist development and more efficient and effective use of the limited time for data gathering during the audit itself. The audit begins with the opening meeting that sets the stage for the interactions between the audit team and the laboratory staff. Arrangements are worked out for the necessary interviews and examination of processes and records. The information developed during the audit is recorded on the checklists. Laboratory management is kept informed of issues during the audit so there are no surprises at the closing meeting. The audit report documents whether the management control systems are effective. In addition to findings of nonconformance, positive reinforcement of exemplary practices provides balance and fairness. Audit closure begins with receipt and evaluation of proposed corrective actions from the nonconformances identified in the audit report. After corrective actions are accepted, their implementation is verified. Upon closure of the corrective actions, the audit is officially closed.

  18. Instrumentation Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, Michelle; Miake-Lye, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The Instrumentation Working Group compiled a summary of measurement techniques applicable to gas turbine engine aerosol precursors and particulates. An assessment was made of the limits, accuracy, applicability, and technology readiness of the various techniques. Despite advances made in emissions characterization of aircraft engines, uncertainties still exist in the mechanisms by which aerosols and particulates are produced in the near-field engine exhaust. To adequately assess current understanding of the formation of sulfuric acid aerosols in the exhaust plumes of gas turbine engines, measurements are required to determine the degree and importance of sulfur oxidation in the turbine and at the engine exit. Ideally, concentrations of all sulfur species would be acquired, with emphasis on SO2 and SO3. Numerous options exist for extractive and non-extractive measurement of SO2 at the engine exit, most of which are well developed. SO2 measurements should be performed first to place an upper bound on the percentage of SO2 oxidation. If extractive and non-extractive techniques indicate that a large amount of the fuel sulfur is not detected as SO2, then efforts are needed to improve techniques for SO3 measurements. Additional work will be required to account for the fuel sulfur in the engine exhaust. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CI-MS) measurements need to be pursued, although a careful assessment needs to be made of the sampling line impact on the extracted sample composition. Efforts should also be placed on implementing non-intrusive techniques and extending their capabilities by maximizing exhaust coverage for line-of-sight measurements, as well as development of 2-D techniques, where feasible. Recommendations were made to continue engine exit and combustor measurements of particulates. Particulate measurements should include particle size distribution, mass fraction, hydration properties, and volatile fraction. However, methods to ensure that unaltered

  19. Building Adoption of Visual Analytics Software

    SciTech Connect

    Chinchor, Nancy; Cook, Kristin A.; Scholtz, Jean

    2012-01-05

    Adoption of technology is always difficult. Issues such as having the infrastructure necessary to support the technology, training for users, integrating the technology into current processes and tools, and having the time, managerial support, and necessary funds need to be addressed. In addition to these issues, the adoption of visual analytics tools presents specific challenges that need to be addressed. This paper discusses technology adoption challenges and approaches for visual analytics technologies.

  20. Enzymes in Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Myer M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents tabular information concerning recent research in the field of enzymes in analytic chemistry, with methods, substrate or reaction catalyzed, assay, comments and references listed. The table refers to 128 references. Also listed are 13 general citations. (CS)

  1. Analytical techniques: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation, containing articles on a number of analytical techniques for quality control engineers and laboratory workers, is presented. Data cover techniques for testing electronic, mechanical, and optical systems, nondestructive testing techniques, and gas analysis techniques.

  2. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  3. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Potok, Thomas E; Pullum, Laura L; Ramanathan, Arvind; Shipman, Galen M; Thornton, Peter E

    2013-01-01

    Given the scale and complexity of today s data, visual analytics is rapidly becoming a necessity rather than an option for comprehensive exploratory analysis. In this paper, we provide an overview of three applications of visual analytics for addressing the challenges of analyzing climate, text streams, and biosurveilance data. These systems feature varying levels of interaction and high performance computing technology integration to permit exploratory analysis of large and complex data of global significance.

  4. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Analytical Response

    SciTech Connect

    E.C. Nielsen

    2003-04-01

    The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is authorized by the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan to coordinate all off-site radiological response assistance to state and local government s, in the event of a major radiological emergency in the United States. The FRMAC is established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, to coordinate all Federal assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of radiological environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis, quality assurance, and dose assessment. During an emergency response, the initial analytical data is provided by portable field instrumentation. As incident responders scale up their response based on the seriousness of the incident, local analytical assets and mobile laboratories add additional capability and capacity. During the intermediate phase of the response, data quality objectives and measurement quality objectives are more rigorous. These higher objectives will require the use of larger laboratories, with greater capacity and enhanced capabilities. These labs may be geographically distant from the incident, which will increase sample management challenges. This paper addresses emergency radioanalytical capability and capacity and its utilization during FRMAC operations.

  5. Wet chemistry instrument prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A wet chemistry instrument prototype for detecting amino acids in planetary soil samples was developed. The importance of amino acids and their condensation products to the development of life forms is explained. The characteristics of the instrument and the tests which were conducted to determine the materials compatibility are described. Diagrams are provided to show the construction of the instrument. Data obtained from the performance tests are reported.

  6. Instrument performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Swinth, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    Deficiencies exist in both the performance and the quality of health physics instruments. Recognizing the implications of such deficiencies for the protection of workers and the public, in the early 1980s the DOE and the NRC encouraged the development of a performance standard and established a program to test a series of instruments against criteria in the standard. The purpose of the testing was to establish the practicality of the criteria in the standard, to determine the performance of a cross section of available instruments, and to establish a testing capability. Over 100 instruments were tested, resulting in a practical standard and an understanding of the deficiencies in available instruments. In parallel with the instrument testing, a value-impact study clearly established the benefits of implementing a formal testing program. An ad hoc committee also met several times to establish recommendations for the voluntary implementation of a testing program based on the studies and the performance standard. For several reasons, a formal program did not materialize. Ongoing tests and studies have supported the development of specific instruments and have helped specific clients understand the performance of their instruments. The purpose of this presentation is to trace the history of instrument testing to date and suggest the benefits of a centralized formal program.

  7. Satellite oceanography - The instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that no instrument is sensitive to only one oceanographic variable; rather, each responds to a combination of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. This complicates data interpretation and usually requires that a number of observations, each sensitive to somewhat different phenomena, be combined to provide unambiguous information. The distinction between active and passive instruments is described. A block diagram illustrating the steps necessary to convert data from satellite instruments into oceanographic information is included, as is a diagram illustrating the operation of a radio-frequency radiometer. Attention is also given to the satellites that carry the various oceanographic instruments.

  8. Instrument validation project

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, B.A.; Daymo, E.A.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Zhang, J.

    1996-06-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Project W-211 is responsible for providing the system capabilities to remove radioactive waste from ten double-shell tanks used to store radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project is also responsible for measuring tank waste slurry properties prior to injection into pipeline systems, including the Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System. This report summarizes studies of the appropriateness of the instrumentation specified for use in Project W-211. The instruments were evaluated in a test loop with simulated slurries that covered the range of properties specified in the functional design criteria. The results of the study indicate that the compact nature of the baseline Project W-211 loop does not result in reduced instrumental accuracy resulting from poor flow profile development. Of the baseline instrumentation, the Micromotion densimeter, the Moore Industries thermocouple, the Fischer and Porter magnetic flow meter, and the Red Valve Pressure transducer meet the desired instrumental accuracy. An alternate magnetic flow meter (Yokagawa) gave nearly identical results as the baseline fischer and Porter. The Micromotion flow meter did not meet the desired instrument accuracy but could potentially be calibrated so that it would meet the criteria. The Nametre on-line viscometer did not meet the desired instrumental accuracy and is not recommended as a quantitative instrument although it does provide qualitative information. The recommended minimum set of instrumentation necessary to ensure the slurry meets the Project W-058 acceptance criteria is the Micromotion mass flow meter and delta pressure cells.

  9. Space applications instrumentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minzner, R. A.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    A compendium of resumes of 158 instrument systems or experiments, of particular interest to space applications, is presented. Each resume exists in a standardized format, permitting entries for 26 administrative items and 39 scientific or engineering items. The resumes are organized into forty groups determined by the forty spacecraft with which the instruments are associated. The resumes are followed by six different cross indexes, each organized alphabetically according to one of the following catagories: instrument name, acronym, name of principal investigator, name of organization employing the principal investigator, assigned experiment number, and spacecraft name. The resumes are associated with a computerized instrument resume search and retrieval system.

  10. Medical Problem-Solving Assessment: A Review of Methods and Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vu, Nu Viet

    1979-01-01

    Different methods and instruments used to assess medical problem solving are discussed. Various features of the instruments are compared and suggestions for additional data are made, in order to ensure maximum efficiency in the choice of instruments. (Author/MH)

  11. The Clementine instrument complement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.

    1993-01-01

    The recent successes of the Galileo solid-state imaging (SSI) experiment at the Moon and Gaspra show the utility of multispectral imaging of planetary objects. 'Clementine' is the planetary community's 'code name' for the SDIO (Space Defense Initiative Organization), mission to the Moon and the asteroid Geographos. This mission is designed as a long term stressing test on sensors and space systems developed for SDIO. In the course of this test Clementine will obtain science data using a varied and powerful array of remote sensing instruments which were developed by or for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California. Clementine carries five cameras, one for navigation and four for science experiments. In addition, a laser ranger is included which will serve as a laser altimeter. The Clementine cameras cover a wider range of spatial resolutions and wavelength range than did Galileo and are almost ideally suited to mapping of mafic rock types as are present on the Moon and expected at Geographos. Calibration of the cameras will occur at the sensor calibration laboratory at LLNL. In flight calibrations, using standard stars and other standards should improve the stated accuracies. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) include the following noise sources: shot noise, calibration error, digitization noise, readout noise, and frame transfer noise (where applicable). The achieved SNRs are a balance between detector saturation and acceptable image smear. The 'worst' case uses the longest possible integration times.

  12. Surgical instrument similarity metrics and tray analysis for multi-sensor instrument identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Bernhard; Schellenberg, Tobias; Franke, Stefan; Dänzer, Stefan; Neumuth, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    A robust identification of the instrument currently used by the surgeon is crucial for the automatic modeling and analysis of surgical procedures. Various approaches for intra-operative surgical instrument identification have been presented, mostly based on radio-frequency identification (RFID) or endoscopic video analysis. A novel approach is to identify the instruments on the instrument table of the scrub nurse with a combination of video and weight information. In a previous article, we successfully followed this approach and applied it to multiple instances of an ear, nose and throat (ENT) procedure and the surgical tray used therein. In this article, we present a metric for the suitability of the instruments of a surgical tray for identification by video and weight analysis and apply it to twelve trays of four different surgical domains (abdominal surgery, neurosurgery, orthopedics and urology). The used trays were digitized at the central sterile services department of the hospital. The results illustrate that surgical trays differ in their suitability for the approach. In general, additional weight information can significantly contribute to the successful identification of surgical instruments. Additionally, for ten different surgical instruments, ten exemplars of each instrument were tested for their weight differences. The samples indicate high weight variability in instruments with identical brand and model number. The results present a new metric for approaches aiming towards intra-operative surgical instrument detection and imply consequences for algorithms exploiting video and weight information for identification purposes.

  13. Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benna, Mehdi; Nolan, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Simulator (SAMSIM) is a numerical model dedicated to plan and validate operations of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the surface of Mars. The SAM instrument suite, currently operating on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), is an analytical laboratory designed to investigate the chemical and isotopic composition of the atmosphere and volatiles extracted from solid samples. SAMSIM was developed using Matlab and Simulink libraries of MathWorks Inc. to provide MSL mission planners with accurate predictions of the instrument electrical, thermal, mechanical, and fluid responses to scripted commands. This tool is a first example of a multi-purpose, full-scale numerical modeling of a flight instrument with the purpose of supplementing or even eliminating entirely the need for a hardware engineer model during instrument development and operation. SAMSIM simulates the complex interactions that occur between the instrument Command and Data Handling unit (C&DH) and all subsystems during the execution of experiment sequences. A typical SAM experiment takes many hours to complete and involves hundreds of components. During the simulation, the electrical, mechanical, thermal, and gas dynamics states of each hardware component are accurately modeled and propagated within the simulation environment at faster than real time. This allows the simulation, in just a few minutes, of experiment sequences that takes many hours to execute on the real instrument. The SAMSIM model is divided into five distinct but interacting modules: software, mechanical, thermal, gas flow, and electrical modules. The software module simulates the instrument C&DH by executing a customized version of the instrument flight software in a Matlab environment. The inputs and outputs to this synthetic C&DH are mapped to virtual sensors and command lines that mimic in their structure and connectivity the layout of the instrument harnesses. This module executes

  14. Next generation Advanced Laser Fluorometry (ALF) for characterization of natural aquatic environments: new instruments.

    PubMed

    Chekalyuk, Alexander; Hafez, Mark

    2013-06-17

    The new optical design allows single- or multi-wavelength excitation of laser-stimulated emission (LSE), provides optimized LSE optical collection for spectral and temporal analyses, and incorporates swappable modules for flow-through and small-volume sample measurements. The basic instrument configuration uses 510 nm laser excitation for assessments of chlorophyll-a, phycobiliprotein pigments, variable fluorescence (F(v)/F(m)) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in CDOM-rich waters. The three-laser instrument configuration (375, 405, and 510 nm excitation) provides additional Fv/Fm measurements with 405 nm excitation, CDOM assessments in a broad concentration range, and potential for spectral discrimination between oil and CDOM fluorescence. The new measurement protocols, analytical algorithms and examples of laboratory and field measurements are discussed. PMID:23787609

  15. Developing Guidelines for Assessing Visual Analytics Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtz, Jean

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we develop guidelines for evaluating visual analytic environments based on a synthesis of reviews for the entries to the 2009 Visual Analytics Science and Technology (VAST) Symposium Challenge and from a user study with professional intelligence analysts. By analyzing the 2009 VAST Challenge reviews we gained a better understanding of what is important to our reviewers, both visualization researchers and professional analysts. We also report on a small user study with professional analysts to determine the important factors that they use in evaluating visual analysis systems. We then looked at guidelines developed by researchers in various domains and synthesized these into an initial set for use by others in the community. In a second part of the user study, we looked at guidelines for a new aspect of visual analytic systems – the generation of reports. Future visual analytic systems have been challenged to help analysts generate their reports. In our study we worked with analysts to understand the criteria they used to evaluate the quality of analytic reports. We propose that this knowledge will be useful as researchers look at systems to automate some of the report generation.1 Based on these efforts, we produced some initial guidelines for evaluating visual analytic environment and for evaluation of analytic reports. It is important to understand that these guidelines are initial drafts and are limited in scope because of the type of tasks for which the visual analytic systems used in the studies in this paper were designed. More research and refinement is needed by the Visual Analytics Community to provide additional evaluation guidelines for different types of visual analytic environments.

  16. Inclusion Practice Priorities Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montie, Jo; And Others

    This instrument was developed to assist individuals or teams to review best practice indicators regarding the development of inclusive school communities and to establish priority targets for improvement. The instrument covers three areas: (1) school community issues, (2) team issues, and (3) classroom issues. For each area, there is a review…

  17. Affective Involvement Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemlech, Johanna K.

    1970-01-01

    The Affective Involvement Instrument (AII) describes and classifies affective involvement in the process of decision-making as it occurs during classroom activities such as role-playing or group discussions. The thirty-celled instrument behaviorizes the six processes involved in decision-making and combines them with the taxonomic levels of the…

  18. Developments in Electrochemical Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osteryoung, Janet

    1982-01-01

    Discusses developments in electrochemical instrumentation, including the role of computers, measurement/control instruments, present needs and future prospects. Indicates that microprocessors are used primarily for data processing, and that progress depends on noninstrumental factors such as electrode materials. (Author/JN)

  19. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Progress Report for FY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Boparai, A.S.; Bowers, D.L.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1994 (October 1993 through September 1994). This annual report is the eleventh for the ACL and describes continuing effort on projects, work on new projects, and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. The ACL also has a research program in analytical chemistry, conducts instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems. Some routine or standard analyses are done, but it is common for the Argonne programs to generate unique problems that require significant development of methods and adaption of techniques to obtain useful analytical data. The ACL has four technical groups -- Chemical Analysis, Instrumental Analysis, Organic Analysis, and Environmental Analysis -- which together include about 45 technical staff members. Talents and interests of staff members cross the group lines, as do many projects within the ACL. The Chemical Analysis Group uses wet- chemical and instrumental methods for elemental, compositional, and isotopic determinations in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples and provides specialized analytical services. Major instruments in this group include an ion chromatograph (IC), an inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometer (ICP/AES), spectrophotometers, mass spectrometers (including gas-analysis and thermal-ionization mass spectrometers), emission spectrographs, autotitrators, sulfur and carbon determinators, and a kinetic phosphorescence uranium analyzer.

  20. Autonomous, In-situ Instrumentation for Continuous Measurement of Dissolved Copper and Zinc in Aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Z.; Holm, C. E.; Groshong, H.; Yannasch, H.; Johnson, K.

    2008-12-01

    Quantifying trace metal concentrations in aquatic systems is complicated, costly, and prone to contamination artifacts. Consequently, very little is known about high-frequency temporal variability (hours-to-days) in metal concentrations. Such data can be used to assess the origin, fate and impact of toxic trace metals such as copper and zinc. We have developed autonomous, in-situ instrumentation to measure dissolved copper and zinc concentrations, suitable for deployment on time scales from weeks to a month. Both instruments use the commercially available in-situ nitrate analyzer (YSI 9600) as the base platform. Micro solenoid pumps take in sample and dispense reagent, standard, and blank solutions. Filtration (0.45 μm) and acidification (pH ~1.7) permit a measurement of total dissolved metal. The copper instrument features a custom-made photomultiplier (PMT) based detector and flow-cell. Copper is detected through chemiluminescence of 1-10- phenanthroline. The zinc instrument features a custom-made PMT and LED-based fluorometric detector and flow-cell. Zinc is detected using the fluorescent probe Fluo-Zin3. Averaged over all in-situ estuarine deployments, the copper instrument has a detection limit of 0.8 nM ±0.3 nM, a sample precision of 11% (n=612), and an accuracy of 17% (compared to discrete samples n=27). The instrument is capable of functioning autonomously for 25 days when sampling every hour and calibrating every six hours. Based on bench tests, the zinc instrument has a detection limit of ~2 nM and a sample precision better than 2%. The hardware and analytical approach can be easily modified to detect additional metals by chemiluminescence (e.g. Co, Fe, Mn) and fluorescence (e.g. Al, Cd).

  1. Thermally isolated well instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Engelder, P.D.

    1984-04-03

    A well instrument is isolated from the high temperatures of a surrounding earth formation by enclosing the instrument within a heat insulative jacket structure, preferably a dewar having spaced walls with a vacuum therebetween, with a heat sink contained in the jacket above the instrument assembly, and with a heat pipe extending upwardly from the instrument assembly to the heat sink and containing a fluid which by evaporation at a lower point and condensation at a higher point will conduct heat upwardly from the instrument assembly to the heat sink but not downwardly therebetween. The heat pipe preferably projects upwardly beyond a top portion of the insulating jacket to the location of a convector element which is exposed to the temperature of fluid or air at the outside of the insulating jacket to transmit heat from within the jacket to its exterior but not in a reverse direction.

  2. Aeronautic Instruments. Section II : Altitude Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mears, A H; Henrickson, H B; Brombacher, W G

    1923-01-01

    This report is Section two of a series of reports on aeronautic instruments (Technical Report nos. 125 to 132, inclusive). This section discusses briefly barometric altitude determinations, and describes in detail the principal types of altimeters and barographs used in aeronautics during the recent war. This is followed by a discussion of performance requirements for such instruments and an account of the methods of testing developed by the Bureau of Standards. The report concludes with a brief account of the results of recent investigations. For accurate measurements of altitude, reference must also be made to thermometer readings of atmospheric temperature, since the altitude is not fixed by atmospheric pressure alone. This matter is discussed in connection with barometric altitude determination.

  3. Advances in analytical chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendale, W. F.; Congo, Richard T.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of computer programs based on multivariate statistical algorithms makes possible obtaining reliable information from long data vectors that contain large amounts of extraneous information, for example, noise and/or analytes that we do not wish to control. Three examples are described. Each of these applications requires the use of techniques characteristic of modern analytical chemistry. The first example, using a quantitative or analytical model, describes the determination of the acid dissociation constant for 2,2'-pyridyl thiophene using archived data. The second example describes an investigation to determine the active biocidal species of iodine in aqueous solutions. The third example is taken from a research program directed toward advanced fiber-optic chemical sensors. The second and third examples require heuristic or empirical models.

  4. New instrumentation in percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Joseph W.; Canales, Benjamin K.

    2010-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the procedure of choice for removing large, complex, and/or multiple renal calculi. Since its first description in 1976, PCNL techniques and equipment have evolved to maximize procedural efficacy, safety, and reproducibility. We reviewed current literature from January 2004 to November 2009 using Medline search regarding PCNL instrumentation and technology. Additional equipment discovered during the review process without published Medline evidence was summarized from manufacturer brochures and data. Included in this review are summaries of intracorporeal lithotriptors and accessory equipment, stone manipulation devices, PCNL tract sealants, and a digital rigid nephroscope. The evolution of these devices from their predecessors has increased the instrumentation options for the treating urologist and may represent more effective technology for the percutaneous treatment of large renal stones. PMID:21116361

  5. Frontiers in analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Amato, I.

    1988-12-15

    Doing more with less was the modus operandi of R. Buckminster Fuller, the late science genius, and inventor of such things as the geodesic dome. In late September, chemists described their own version of this maxim--learning more chemistry from less material and in less time--in a symposium titled Frontiers in Analytical Chemistry at the 196th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Los Angeles. Symposium organizer Allen J. Bard of the University of Texas at Austin assembled six speakers, himself among them, to survey pretty widely different areas of analytical chemistry.

  6. Application of X-ray fluorescence analytical techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nečemer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Ščančar, Janez; Jaćimović, Radojko; Simčič, Jurij; Pelicon, Primož; Budnar, Miloš; Jeran, Zvonka; Pongrac, Paula; Regvar, Marjana; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina

    2008-11-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs the use of higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Progress in the field is however handicapped by limited knowledge of the biological processes involved in plant metal uptake, translocation, tolerance and plant-microbe-soil interactions; therefore a better understanding of the basic biological mechanisms involved in plant/microbe/soil/contaminant interactions would allow further optimization of phytoremediation technologies. In view of the needs of global environmental protection, it is important that in phytoremediation and plant biology studies the analytical procedures for elemental determination in plant tissues and soil should be fast and cheap, with simple sample preparation, and of adequate accuracy and reproducibility. The aim of this study was therefore to present the main characteristics, sample preparation protocols and applications of X-ray fluorescence-based analytical techniques (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry—EDXRF, total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry—TXRF and micro-proton induced X-ray emission—micro-PIXE). Element concentrations in plant leaves from metal polluted and non-polluted sites, as well as standard reference materials, were analyzed by the mentioned techniques, and additionally by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of X-ray fluorescence-based techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies. It is the EDXRF, which is recommended as suitable to be used in the analyses of a large number of samples, because it is multi-elemental, requires only simple preparation of sample material, and it is analytically comparable to the most frequently used instrumental chemical techniques. The TXRF is compatible to FAAS in sample preparation, but relative to AAS it is fast

  7. Ion Mobility-Derived Collision Cross Section As an Additional Measure for Lipid Fingerprinting and Identification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in analytical and computational chemistry, lipid identification remains a significant challenge in lipidomics. Ion-mobility spectrometry provides an accurate measure of the molecules’ rotationally averaged collision cross-section (CCS) in the gas phase and is thus related to ionic shape. Here, we investigate the use of CCS as a highly specific molecular descriptor for identifying lipids in biological samples. Using traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry (MS), we measured the CCS values of over 200 lipids within multiple chemical classes. CCS values derived from ion mobility were not affected by instrument settings or chromatographic conditions, and they were highly reproducible on instruments located in independent laboratories (interlaboratory RSD < 3% for 98% of molecules). CCS values were used as additional molecular descriptors to identify brain lipids using a variety of traditional lipidomic approaches. The addition of CCS improved the reproducibility of analysis in a liquid chromatography-MS workflow and maximized the separation of isobaric species and the signal-to-noise ratio in direct-MS analyses (e.g., “shotgun” lipidomics and MS imaging). These results indicate that adding CCS to databases and lipidomics workflows increases the specificity and selectivity of analysis, thus improving the confidence in lipid identification compared to traditional analytical approaches. The CCS/accurate-mass database described here is made publicly available. PMID:25495617

  8. Build an effective group for instrumentation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fullen, W.E.

    1988-08-01

    An instrumentation group is needed, either as an independent company or as part of a larger engineering or engineering/construction company. Ideally, such a group has many multitalented individuals to cover field instrumentation, electrical wiring, programmable controllers, single loop controllers, distributive control systems, configuration, software programming, computer aided drafting, communication links, advanced control, and additional support from all other disciplines. There are many occasions when, for short periods, there is a need for other engineering disciplines such as electrical, piping, structural, civil and architectural on instrumentation systems projects.

  9. Absolute optical instruments without spherical symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyc, Tomáš; Dao, H. L.; Danner, Aaron J.

    2015-11-01

    Until now, the known set of absolute optical instruments has been limited to those containing high levels of symmetry. Here, we demonstrate a method of mathematically constructing refractive index profiles that result in asymmetric absolute optical instruments. The method is based on the analogy between geometrical optics and classical mechanics and employs Lagrangians that separate in Cartesian coordinates. In addition, our method can be used to construct the index profiles of most previously known absolute optical instruments, as well as infinitely many different ones.

  10. Aircraft Speed Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1933-01-01

    This report presents a concise survey of the measurement of air speed and ground speed on board aircraft. Special attention is paid to the pitot-static air-speed meter which is the standard in the United States for airplanes. Air-speed meters of the rotating vane type are also discussed in considerable detail on account of their value as flight test instruments and as service instruments for airships. Methods of ground-speed measurement are treated briefly, with reference to the more important instruments. A bibliography on air-speed measurement concludes the report.

  11. Instrument intercomparisons and assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albritton, D. L.; Zander, R. J.; Farmer, C. B.; Hilsenrath, E.; Mankin, W. G.; Murcray, D. G.; Pollitt, S.; Robbins, D. E.; Roscoe, H.

    Over the past few years, several field campaigns were devoted to the goal of assessing instrument reliability, as opposed to solely obtaining data to answer a geophysical question. Some examples of the formal instrument intercomparisons that have occurred in the past decade and those that are planned for the very near future are listed chronologically. Balloon-borne techniques and instruments that address the height profiles of the trace species in the lower stratosphere are emphasized. Beginning with the most extensively studied trace constituent, the approach taken and the results obtained, are described. The current status of the measurement capabilities are summarized, and the needs for future intercomparisons and assessments are listed.

  12. Writing Instrument Profiles for Mastery of Instrumental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Daniel; Fernandez, Jorge; Nalliah, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Because of the rapidly changing nature of chemical instrumentation, students must be trained in how to learn and understand new instruments. Toward this end, students are asked to create small instrument manuals, or instrument profiles, for the major pieces of equipment studied during an instrumental analysis course. This writing-intensive process…

  13. Analytical Services Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Church, Shane; Nigbor, Mike; Hillman, Daniel

    2005-03-30

    Analytical Services Management System (ASMS) provides sample management services. Sample management includes sample planning for analytical requests, sample tracking for shipping and receiving by the laboratory, receipt of the analytical data deliverable, processing the deliverable and payment of the laboratory conducting the analyses. ASMS is a web based application that provides the ability to manage these activities at multiple locations for different customers. ASMS provides for the assignment of single to multiple samples for standard chemical and radiochemical analyses. ASMS is a flexible system which allows the users to request analyses by line item code. Line item codes are selected based on the Basic Ordering Agreement (BOA) format for contracting with participating laboratories. ASMS also allows contracting with non-BOA laboratories using a similar line item code contracting format for their services. ASMS allows sample and analysis tracking from sample planning and collection in the field through sample shipment, laboratory sample receipt, laboratory analysis and submittal of the requested analyses, electronic data transfer, and payment of the laboratories for the completed analyses. The software when in operation contains business sensitive material that is used as a principal portion of the Kaiser Analytical Management Services business model. The software version provided is the most recent version, however the copy of the application does not contain business sensitive data from the associated Oracle tables such as contract information or price per line item code.

  14. Analytical Services Management System

    2005-03-30

    Analytical Services Management System (ASMS) provides sample management services. Sample management includes sample planning for analytical requests, sample tracking for shipping and receiving by the laboratory, receipt of the analytical data deliverable, processing the deliverable and payment of the laboratory conducting the analyses. ASMS is a web based application that provides the ability to manage these activities at multiple locations for different customers. ASMS provides for the assignment of single to multiple samples for standardmore » chemical and radiochemical analyses. ASMS is a flexible system which allows the users to request analyses by line item code. Line item codes are selected based on the Basic Ordering Agreement (BOA) format for contracting with participating laboratories. ASMS also allows contracting with non-BOA laboratories using a similar line item code contracting format for their services. ASMS allows sample and analysis tracking from sample planning and collection in the field through sample shipment, laboratory sample receipt, laboratory analysis and submittal of the requested analyses, electronic data transfer, and payment of the laboratories for the completed analyses. The software when in operation contains business sensitive material that is used as a principal portion of the Kaiser Analytical Management Services business model. The software version provided is the most recent version, however the copy of the application does not contain business sensitive data from the associated Oracle tables such as contract information or price per line item code.« less

  15. Analytics: Changing the Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2013-01-01

    In this third and concluding discussion on analytics, the author notes that we live in an information culture. We are accustomed to having information instantly available and accessible, along with feedback and recommendations. We want to know what people think and like (or dislike). We want to know how we compare with "others like me."…

  16. Social Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham Shum, Simon; Ferguson, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We propose that the design and implementation of effective "Social Learning Analytics (SLA)" present significant challenges and opportunities for both research and enterprise, in three important respects. The first is that the learning landscape is extraordinarily turbulent at present, in no small part due to technological drivers. Online social…

  17. Ada & the Analytical Engine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Elisabeth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a brief history of Ada Byron King, Countess of Lovelace, focusing on her primary role in the development of the Analytical Engine--the world's first computer. Describes the Ada Project (TAP), a centralized World Wide Web site that serves as a clearinghouse for information related to women in computing, and provides a Web address for…

  18. Low cost instrumentation amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    Amplifier can be used for many applications requiring high input impedance and common mode rejection, low drift, and gain accuracy on order of one percent. Performance of inexpensive amplifier approaches that of some commercial instrumentation amplifiers in many specifications.

  19. NPP: The Five Instruments

    NASA Video Gallery

    The NPP satellite has 5 instruments on board: VIIRS, CERES, CrIS, ATMS, and OMPS. Each one will deliver a specific set of data helping weather prediction and climate studies. This video is a quick ...

  20. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  1. AIR Instrument Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, I. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.; Goldhagen, P.; Shinn, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    The large number of radiation types composing the atmospheric radiation requires a complicated combination of instrument types to fully characterize the environment. A completely satisfactory combination has not as yet been flown and would require a large capital outlay to develop. In that the funds of the current project were limited to essential integration costs, an international collaboration was formed with partners from six countries and fourteen different institutions with their own financial support for their participation. Instruments were chosen to cover sensitivity to all radiation types with enough differential sensitivity to separate individual components. Some instruments were chosen as important to specify the physical field component and other instruments were chosen on the basis that they could be useful in dosimetric evaluation. In the present paper we will discuss the final experimental flight package for the ER-2 flight campaign.

  2. CALIPSO Instrument Operational

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-18

    CALIPSO Instrument Operational Thursday, September 11, 2014 The CALIPSO payload is back in data acquisition mode as of Wednesday, September 17, 2014.  CALIPSO data processing has returned to a nominal state, and...

  3. Cardiovascular instrumentation for spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Polhemus, J. T.; Ganiaris, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    The observation mechanisms dealing with pressure, flow, morphology, temperature, etc. are discussed. The approach taken in the performance of this study was to (1) review ground and space-flight data on cardiovascular function, including earlier related ground-based and space-flight animal studies, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and recent bed-rest studies, (2) review cardiovascular measurement parameters required to assess individual performance and physiological alternations during space flight, (3) perform an instrumentation survey including a literature search as well as personal contact with the applicable investigators, (4) assess instrumentation applicability with respect to the established criteria, and (5) recommend future research and development activity. It is concluded that, for the most part, the required instrumentation technology is available but that mission-peculiar criteria will require modifications to adapt the applicable instrumentation to a space-flight configuration.

  4. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, progress report for FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 (October 1992 through September 1993). This annual report is the tenth for the ACL and describes continuing effort on projects, work on new projects, and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. The ACL also has research programs in analytical chemistry, conducts instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems. Some routine or standard analyses are done, but it is common for the Argonne programs to generate unique problems that require development or modification of methods and adaption of techniques to obtain useful analytical data. The ACL is administratively within the Chemical Technology Division (CMT), its principal ANL client, but provides technical support for many of the technical divisions and programs at ANL. The ACL has four technical groups--Chemical Analysis, Instrumental Analysis, Organic Analysis, and Environmental Analysis--which together include about 45 technical staff members. Talents and interests of staff members cross the group lines, as do many projects within the ACL.

  5. Hydrothermal Alteration Mineralogy Characterized Through Multiple Analytical Methods: Implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, S.; Hynek, B. M.; Kierein-Young, K. S.; Avard, G.; Alvarado-Induni, G.

    2015-12-01

    Proper characterization of mineralogy is an essential part of geologic interpretation. This process becomes even more critical when attempting to interpret the history of a region remotely, via satellites and/or landed spacecraft. Orbiters and landed missions to Mars carry with them a wide range of analytical tools to aid in the interpretation of Mars' geologic history. However, many instruments make a single type of measurement (e.g., APXS: elemental chemistry; XRD: mineralogy), and multiple data sets must be utilized to develop a comprehensive understanding of a sample. Hydrothermal alteration products often exist in intimate mixtures, and vary widely across a site due to changing pH, temperature, and fluid/gas chemistries. These characteristics require that we develop a detailed understanding regarding the possible mineral mixtures that may exist, and their detectability in different instrument data sets. This comparative analysis study utilized several analytical methods on existing or planned Mars rovers (XRD Raman, LIBS, Mössbauer, and APXS) combined with additional characterization (thin section, VNIR, XRF, SEM-EMP) to develop a comprehensive suite of data for hydrothermal alteration products collected from Poás and Turrialba volcanoes in Costa Rica. Analyzing the same samples across a wide range of instruments allows for direct comparisons of results, and identification of instrumentation "blind spots." This provides insight into the ability of in-situ analyses to comprehensively characterize sites on Mars exhibiting putative hydrothermal characteristics, such as the silica and sulfate deposits at Gusev crater [eg: Squyres et al., 2008], as well as valuable information for future mission planning and data interpretation. References: Squyres et al. (2008), Detection of Silica-Rich Deposits on Mars, Science, 320, 1063-1067, doi:10.1126/science.1155429.

  6. Instrumentation Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, Michelle; Miake-Lye, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The Instrumentation Working Group compiled a summary of measurement techniques applicable to gas turbine engine aerosol precursors and particulates. An assessment was made of the limits, accuracy, applicability, and technology readiness of the various techniques. Despite advances made in emissions characterization of aircraft engines, uncertainties still exist in the mechanisms by which aerosols and particulates are produced in the near-field engine exhaust. To adequately assess current understanding of the formation of sulfuric acid aerosols in the exhaust plumes of gas turbine engines, measurements are required to determine the degree and importance of sulfur oxidation in the turbine and at the engine exit. Ideally, concentrations of all sulfur species would be acquired, with emphasis on SO2 and SO3. Numerous options exist for extractive and non-extractive measurement of SO2 at the engine exit, most of which are well developed. SO2 measurements should be performed first to place an upper bound on the percentage of SO2 oxidation. If extractive and non-extractive techniques indicate that a large amount of the fuel sulfur is not detected as SO2, then efforts are needed to improve techniques for SO3 measurements. Additional work will be required to account for the fuel sulfur in the engine exhaust. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CI-MS) measurements need to be pursued, although a careful assessment needs to be made of the sampling line impact on the extracted sample composition. Efforts should also be placed on implementing non-intrusive techniques and extending their capabilities by maximizing exhaust coverage for line-of-sight measurements, as well as development of 2-D techniques, where feasible. Recommendations were made to continue engine exit and combustor measurements of particulates. Particulate measurements should include particle size distribution, mass fraction, hydration properties, and volatile fraction. However, methods to ensure that unaltered

  7. Aeronautic Instruments. Section III : Aircraft Speed Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Franklin L; Stearns, H O

    1923-01-01

    Part 1 contains a discussion and description of the various types of air speed measuring instruments. The authors then give general specifications and performance requirements with the results of tests on air speed indicators at the Bureau of Standards. Part 2 reports methods and laboratory apparatus used at the Bureau of Standards to make static tests. Methods are also given of combining wind tunnel tests with static tests. Consideration is also given to free flight tests. Part 3 discusses the problem of finding suitable methods for the purpose of measuring the speed of aircraft relative to the ground.

  8. Experimenting with woodwind instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presto, Michael C.

    2007-05-01

    Simple experiments involving musical instruments of the woodwind family can be used to demonstrate the basic physics of vibrating air columns in resonance tubes using nothing more than straightforward measurements and data collection hardware and software. More involved experimentation with the same equipment can provide insight into the effects of holes in the tubing and other factors that make simple tubes useful as musical instruments.

  9. Modeling of Musical Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Rolf; Hansen, Uwe

    Signal processing techniques in acoustics address many concerns. Included are such things as wave propagation variables, amplitude considerations, spectral content, wavelength, and phase. Phase is primarily of concern when waves interact with each other, as well as with a medium, and the imposition of boundary conditions leads to normal mode vibrations. Such conditions are prevalent in all musical instruments, and thus relevant signal processing techniques are essential to both understanding and modeling the structure of musical instruments and the sound radiated.

  10. Instrumentation in Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Barp, Eric A; Erickson, John G; Reese, Eric R

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, arthroscopic procedures of the foot and ankle have seen a significant increase in both indications and popularity. Furthermore, technological advances in video quality, fluid management, and other arthroscopy-specific instruments continue to make arthroscopic procedures more effective with reproducible outcomes. As surgeons continue to use this approach, it is important that they have a complete understanding of the instrumentation available to them, including their indications and limitations. PMID:27599434

  11. Perspectives on the future of analytical mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Basic, C.; Freeman, J.A.; Yost, R.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Unlike the secrecy of the early scientists of Oak Ridge, the free exchange of ideas between scientists at the 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry led to the open discussion of new areas of instrumental development, new interfacing techniques, and increasingly challenging analytical problems. Chief among these challenges is the search for improved methods of analysis of high molecular weight species as questions of biochemical concern enter the realm of analytical MS (mass spectrometry). Furthermore, increasing attention is being focused on the use of chemical reactions in both the gas and solution phases to enhance the analytical capabilities of MS. By highlighting the interests of young mass spectrometrists, the symposium organizers succeeded not only in presenting the future areas of research in analytical MS but in introducing the people who will be pursuing these directives.

  12. Directory of Analytical Methods, Department 1820

    SciTech Connect

    Whan, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Materials Characterization Department performs chemical, physical, and thermophysical analyses in support of programs throughout the Laboratories. The department has a wide variety of techniques and instruments staffed by experienced personnel available for these analyses, and we strive to maintain near state-of-the-art technology by continued updates. We have prepared this Directory of Analytical Methods in order to acquaint you with our capabilities and to help you identify personnel who can assist with your analytical needs. The descriptions of the various capabilities are requester-oriented and have been limited in length and detail. Emphasis has been placed on applications and limitations with notations of estimated analysis time and alternative or related techniques. A short, simplified discussion of underlying principles is also presented along with references if more detail is desired. The contents of this document have been organized in the order: bulky analysis, microanalysis, surface analysis, optical and thermal property measurements.

  13. Advanced optical instruments technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Mike; Chrisp, Michael; Cheng, Li-Jen; Eng, Sverre; Glavich, Thomas; Goad, Larry; Jones, Bill; Kaarat, Philip; Nein, Max; Robinson, William

    1992-01-01

    The science objectives for proposed NASA missions for the next decades push the state of the art in sensitivity and spatial resolution over a wide range of wavelengths, including the x-ray to the submillimeter. While some of the proposed missions are larger and more sensitive versions of familiar concepts, such as the next generation space telescope, others use concepts, common on the Earth, but new to space, such as optical interferometry, in order to provide spatial resolutions impossible with other concepts. However, despite their architecture, the performance of all of the proposed missions depends critically on the back-end instruments that process the collected energy to produce scientifically interesting outputs. The Advanced Optical Instruments Technology panel was chartered with defining technology development plans that would best improve optical instrument performance for future astrophysics missions. At this workshop the optical instrument was defined as the set of optical components that reimage the light from the telescope onto the detectors to provide information about the spatial, spectral, and polarization properties of the light. This definition was used to distinguish the optical instrument technology issues from those associated with the telescope, which were covered by a separate panel. The panel identified several areas for optical component technology development: diffraction gratings; tunable filters; interferometric beam combiners; optical materials; and fiber optics. The panel also determined that stray light suppression instruments, such as coronagraphs and nulling interferometers, were in need of general development to support future astrophysics needs.

  14. [The instrument for thermography].

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Shinsuke

    2014-07-01

    Thermography is an imaging method using the instrument to detect infrared rays emitted from the body surface, and to plot them as a distribution diagram of the temperature information. Therefore, a thermographic instrument can be assumed to measure the skin temperature of the diseased region. Such an instrument is a useful device for noninvasive and objective assessment of various diseases. Examination using a thermographic instrument can assess the autonomic dysfunction by measuring the skin blood flow involved with the sympathetic innervation. Thermography is useful in assisting the determination of the therapeutic effect. However, autonomic dysfunction should be confirmed correctly with the assessment of thermatome that shows abnormal thermal distribution in the region of the disease. Thermography should make noticeable the difference between the body temperature of abnormal and normal sites, and show the alteration of temperature. Monitoring using thermography is useful to determine the effect of sympathetic nerve block. If a thermographic instrument is used, it is important that examiners should understand the function of the instrument, as well as its advantages and disadvantages. PMID:25098130

  15. FTIR instrumentation to monitor vapors from Shuttle tile waterproofing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattson, C. B.; Schwindt, C. J.

    1995-11-01

    The Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles and blankets are waterproofed using DimethylEthoxySilane (DMEX) in the Orbiter Processing Facilities (OPF). DMES has a Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for exposure of personnel to vapor concentration in air of 0.5 ppm. The OPF high bay cannot be opened for normal work after a waterproofing operation until the DMES concentration is verified by measurement to be below the TLV. On several occasions the high bay has been kept closed for up to 8 hours following waterproofing operations due to high DMES measurements. In addition, the Miran 203 and Miran 1 BX infrared analyzers calibrated at different wavelengths gave different readings under the same conditions. There was reason to believe that some of the high DMES concentration readings were caused by interference form water and ethanol vapors. The Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) was asked to test the existing DMES instruments and identify the best qualified instrument. In addition the TVDL was requested to develop instrumentation to ensure the OPF high bay could be opened safely as soon as possible after a waterproofing operation. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer instrument developed for an earlier project was reprogrammed to measure DMES vapor along with ethanol, water, and several common solvent vapors. The FTIR was then used to perform a series of laboratory and field tests to evaluate the performance of the single wavelength IR instruments in use. The results demonstrated that the single wavelength IR instruments did respond to ethanol and water vapors, more or less depending on the analytical IR wavelength selected. The FTIR was able to separate the responses to DMES, water and ethanol, and give consistent readings for the DMES vapor concentration. The FTIR was then deployed to the OPF to monitor real waterproofing operations. The FTIR was also used to measure the time for DMES to evaporate from TPS tile under a range of humidity

  16. FTIR instrumentation to monitor vapors from Shuttle tile waterproofing materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, C. B.; Schwindt, C. J.

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles and blankets are waterproofed using DimethylEthoxySilane (DMEX) in the Orbiter Processing Facilities (OPF). DMES has a Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for exposure of personnel to vapor concentration in air of 0.5 ppm. The OPF high bay cannot be opened for normal work after a waterproofing operation until the DMES concentration is verified by measurement to be below the TLV. On several occasions the high bay has been kept closed for up to 8 hours following waterproofing operations due to high DMES measurements. In addition, the Miran 203 and Miran 1 BX infrared analyzers calibrated at different wavelengths gave different readings under the same conditions. There was reason to believe that some of the high DMES concentration readings were caused by interference form water and ethanol vapors. The Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) was asked to test the existing DMES instruments and identify the best qualified instrument. In addition the TVDL was requested to develop instrumentation to ensure the OPF high bay could be opened safely as soon as possible after a waterproofing operation. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer instrument developed for an earlier project was reprogrammed to measure DMES vapor along with ethanol, water, and several common solvent vapors. The FTIR was then used to perform a series of laboratory and field tests to evaluate the performance of the single wavelength IR instruments in use. The results demonstrated that the single wavelength IR instruments did respond to ethanol and water vapors, more or less depending on the analytical IR wavelength selected. The FTIR was able to separate the responses to DMES, water and ethanol, and give consistent readings for the DMES vapor concentration. The FTIR was then deployed to the OPF to monitor real waterproofing operations. The FTIR was also used to measure the time for DMES to evaporate from TPS tile under a range of humidity

  17. Evaluation of a multicapillary electrophoresis instrument for mitochondrial DNA typing.

    PubMed

    Stewart, John E B; Aagaard, Patricia J; Pokorak, Eric G; Polanskey, Deborah; Budowle, Bruce

    2003-05-01

    Laser-induced detection of fluorescent labeled PCR products and multi-wavelength detection (i.e., multicolor analysis) enables rapid generation of mtDNA sequencing profiles. Traditionally, polyacrylamide slab gels have been used as the electrophoretic medium for mtDNA sequencing in forensic analyses. Replacement of slab gel electrophoresis with capillary electrophoresis (CE) can facilitate automation of the analytical process. Automation and high throughput can be further enhanced by using multicapillary electrophoretic systems. The use of the ABI Prism 3100 Genetic Analyzer (ABI 3100, Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) as well as the ABI Prism 310 Genetic Analyzer (ABI 310, Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) were evaluated for mtDNA sequencing capabilities and compared with sequencing results obtained on the platform currently in use in the FBI Laboratory (the ABI Prism 377 DNA Sequencer, ABI 377, Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). Various studies were performed to assess the utility of the ABI 3100, as well as the ABI 310 for mtDNA sequencing. The tests included: comparisons of results obtained among the ABI 3100, the ABI 310 and the ABI 377 instruments; comparisons of results obtained within and between capillary arrays; evaluation of capillary length; evaluation of sample injection time; evaluation of the resolution of mixtures/heteroplasmic samples; and evaluation of the sensitivity of detection of a minor component with reduced template on the ABI 3100. In addition, other studies were performed to improve sample preparation; these included: comparison of template suppression reagent (TSR, Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) versus formamide; the use of Performa DTR Gel Filtration Cartridges (Edge BioSystems Inc., Gaithersburg, MD) versus Centri-Sep Spin Columns (Princeton Separations, Adelphia, NJ) for product purification after cycle sequencing; and sample stability after denaturation. The data support that valid and reliable results can be obtained

  18. Aeronautic Instruments. Section V : Power Plant Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, G E; Sylvander, R C; Mueller, E F; Wilhelm, R M; Eaton, H N; Warner, John A C

    1923-01-01

    Part 1 gives a general discussion of the uses, principles, construction, and operation of airplane tachometers. Detailed description of all available instruments, both foreign and domestic, are given. Part 2 describes methods of tests and effect of various conditions encountered in airplane flight such as change of temperature, vibration, tilting, and reduced air pressure. Part 3 describes the principal types of distance reading thermometers for aircraft engines, including an explanation of the physical principles involved in the functioning of the instruments and proper filling of the bulbs. Performance requirements and testing methods are given and a discussion of the source of error and results of tests. Part 4 gives methods of tests and calibration, also requirements of gauges of this type for the pressure measurement of the air pressure in gasoline tanks and the engine oil pressure on airplanes. Part 5 describes two types of gasoline gauges, the float type and the pressure type. Methods of testing and calibrating gasoline depth gauges are given. The Schroeder, R. A. E., and the Mark II flowmeters are described.

  19. A bond graph model for the sample extraction/injection system of a microsized gas chromatographic instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jie; Wang, Wanjun; Murphy, Michael C.; Overton, Edward

    1996-09-01

    A bond graph model of the sample extraction/injection system of a prototype portable gas chromatographic instrument has been developed. In addition to performing the same functions as current portable gas chromatographs (GCs), the new generation of GC instruments is designed to perform extraction of analytes from liquid and solid samples. The prototype instrument achieves these improvements by taking of advantage of microfabrication technologies and microprocessor control in the design. A novel sample extraction/injection module is essential to the improved performance of the portable instrument, which will include microfabricated components such as inlets, interface chips, fluid channels, control valves, optimal heater/sensor combinations, and multiport connectors. In order to achieve the desired analytical performance, all of the major components are heated to 250 °C during different stages of a sample analysis. Predicting the performance of the system in this operating regime requires the modeling and analysis of system behavior in two interacting energy domains, fluid and thermal. This article represents the first effort to understand the dynamic behavior of the thermofluid aspect of micro-GC instruments and one of the first attempts to apply the widely-used bond graph technique to modeling and analysis of microsized thermofluid systems. Simulation results using the bond graph model closely match available experimental data, with differences typically less than 10%. This demonstrates that fluid dynamic theory for macroscale systems, and the bond graph method based on it, can be readily applied to microscale systems with these dimensions. The bond graph method can be a useful computer-aided design tool for the development of a new generation of truly integrated micro-GC instruments and sensors fabricated with micromachining technology.

  20. Social Learning Analytics: Navigating the Changing Settings of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Laat, Maarten; Prinsen, Fleur R.

    2014-01-01

    Current trends and challenges in higher education (HE) require a reorientation towards openness, technology use and active student participation. In this article we will introduce Social Learning Analytics (SLA) as instrumental in formative assessment practices, aimed at supporting and strengthening students as active learners in increasingly open…

  1. Contributions of Analytical Chemistry to the Clinical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skogerboe, Kristen J.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights several analytical techniques that are being used in state-of-the-art clinical labs. Illustrates how other advances in instrumentation may contribute to clinical chemistry in the future. Topics include: biosensors, polarization spectroscopy, chemiluminescence, fluorescence, photothermal deflection, and chromatography in clinical…

  2. Analytical Chemistry of Surfaces: Part II. Electron Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hercules, David M.; Hercules, Shirley H.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses two surface techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Focuses on fundamental aspects of each technique, important features of instrumentation, and some examples of how ESCA and AES have been applied to analytical surface problems. (JN)

  3. Analytical caustic surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1987-01-01

    This document discusses the determination of caustic surfaces in terms of rays, reflectors, and wavefronts. Analytical caustics are obtained as a family of lines, a set of points, and several types of equations for geometries encountered in optics and microwave applications. Standard methods of differential geometry are applied under different approaches: directly to reflector surfaces, and alternatively, to wavefronts, to obtain analytical caustics of two sheets or branches. Gauss/Seidel aberrations are introduced into the wavefront approach, forcing the retention of all three coefficients of both the first- and the second-fundamental forms of differential geometry. An existing method for obtaining caustic surfaces through exploitation of the singularities in flux density is examined, and several constant-intensity contour maps are developed using only the intrinsic Gaussian, mean, and normal curvatures of the reflector. Numerous references are provided for extending the material of the present document to the morphologies of caustics and their associated diffraction patterns.

  4. Requirements for Predictive Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2012-03-01

    It is important to have a clear understanding of how traditional Business Intelligence (BI) and analytics are different and how they fit together in optimizing organizational decision making. With tradition BI, activities are focused primarily on providing context to enhance a known set of information through aggregation, data cleansing and delivery mechanisms. As these organizations mature their BI ecosystems, they achieve a clearer picture of the key performance indicators signaling the relative health of their operations. Organizations that embark on activities surrounding predictive analytics and data mining go beyond simply presenting the data in a manner that will allow decisions makers to have a complete context around the information. These organizations generate models based on known information and then apply other organizational data against these models to reveal unknown information.

  5. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  6. Analytic holographic superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, Christopher P.

    2010-06-01

    We investigate a holographic superconductor that admits an analytic treatment near the phase transition. In the dual 3+1-dimensional field theory, the phase transition occurs when a scalar operator of scaling dimension two gets a vacuum expectation value. We calculate current-current correlation functions along with the speed of second sound near the critical temperature. We also make some remarks about critical exponents. An analytic treatment is possible because an underlying Heun equation describing the zero mode of the phase transition has a polynomial solution. Amusingly, the treatment here may generalize for an order parameter with any integer spin, and we propose a Lagrangian for a spin-two holographic superconductor.

  7. Avatars in Analytical Gaming

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Cowell, Amanda K.

    2009-08-29

    This paper discusses the design and use of anthropomorphic computer characters as nonplayer characters (NPC’s) within analytical games. These new environments allow avatars to play a central role in supporting training and education goals instead of planning the supporting cast role. This new ‘science’ of gaming, driven by high-powered but inexpensive computers, dedicated graphics processors and realistic game engines, enables game developers to create learning and training opportunities on par with expensive real-world training scenarios. However, there needs to be care and attention placed on how avatars are represented and thus perceived. A taxonomy of non-verbal behavior is presented and its application to analytical gaming discussed.

  8. SMAP Instrument Mechanical System Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slimko, Eric; French, Richard; Riggs, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, scheduled for launch by the end of 2014, is being developed to measure the soil moisture and soil freeze/thaw state on a global scale over a three-year period. The accuracy, resolution, and global coverage of SMAP measurements are invaluable across many science and applications disciplines including hydrology, climate, carbon cycle, and the meteorological, environment, and ecology applications communities. The SMAP observatory is composed of a despun bus and a spinning instrument platform that includes both a deployable 6 meter aperture low structural frequency Astromesh reflector and a spin control system. The instrument section has engendered challenging mechanical system issues associated with the antenna deployment, flexible antenna pointing in the context of a multitude of disturbances, spun section mass properties, spin control system development, and overall integration with the flight system on both mechanical and control system levels. Moreover, the multitude of organizations involved, including two major vendors providing the spin subsystem and reflector boom assembly plus the flight system mechanical and guidance, navigation, and control teams, has led to several unique system engineering challenges. Capturing the key physics associated with the function of the flight system has been challenging due to the many different domains that are applicable. Key interfaces and operational concepts have led to complex negotiations because of the large number of organizations that integrate with the instrument mechanical system. Additionally, the verification and validation concerns associated with the mechanical system have had required far-reaching involvement from both the flight system and other subsystems. The SMAP instrument mechanical systems engineering issues and their solutions are described in this paper.

  9. Optimal calibration of instrumented treadmills using an instrumented pole.

    PubMed

    Sloot, L H; Houdijk, H; van der Krogt, M M; Harlaar, J

    2016-08-01

    Calibration of instrumented treadmills is imperative for accurate measurement of ground reaction forces and center of pressure (COP). A protocol using an instrumented pole has been shown to considerably increase force and COP accuracy. This study examined how this protocol can be further optimized to maximize accuracy, by varying the measurement time and number of spots, using nonlinear approaches to calculate the calibration matrix and by correcting for potential inhomogeneity in the distribution of COP errors across the treadmill's surface. The accuracy increased with addition of spots and correction for the inhomogeneous distribution across the belt surface, decreased with reduction of measurement time, and did not improve by including nonlinear terms. Most of these methods improved the overall accuracy only to a limited extent, suggesting that the maximal accuracy is approached given the treadmill's inherent mechanical limitations. However, both correction for position dependence of the accuracy as well as its optimization within the walking area are found to be valuable additions to the standard calibration process. PMID:27180211

  10. Competing on analytics.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    We all know the power of the killer app. It's not just a support tool; it's a strategic weapon. Companies questing for killer apps generally focus all their firepower on the one area that promises to create the greatest competitive advantage. But a new breed of organization has upped the stakes: Amazon, Harrah's, Capital One, and the Boston Red Sox have all dominated their fields by deploying industrial-strength analytics across a wide variety of activities. At a time when firms in many industries offer similar products and use comparable technologies, business processes are among the few remaining points of differentiation--and analytics competitors wring every last drop of value from those processes. Employees hired for their expertise with numbers or trained to recognize their importance are armed with the best evidence and the best quantitative tools. As a result, they make the best decisions. In companies that compete on analytics, senior executives make it clear--from the top down--that analytics is central to strategy. Such organizations launch multiple initiatives involving complex data and statistical analysis, and quantitative activity is managed atthe enterprise (not departmental) level. In this article, professor Thomas H. Davenport lays out the characteristics and practices of these statistical masters and describes some of the very substantial changes other companies must undergo in order to compete on quantitative turf. As one would expect, the transformation requires a significant investment in technology, the accumulation of massive stores of data, and the formulation of company-wide strategies for managing the data. But, at least as important, it also requires executives' vocal, unswerving commitment and willingness to change the way employees think, work, and are treated. PMID:16447373

  11. Integrated Array/Metadata Analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misev, Dimitar; Baumann, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Data comes in various forms and types, and integration usually presents a problem that is often simply ignored and solved with ad-hoc solutions. Multidimensional arrays are an ubiquitous data type, that we find at the core of virtually all science and engineering domains, as sensor, model, image, statistics data. Naturally, arrays are richly described by and intertwined with additional metadata (alphanumeric relational data, XML, JSON, etc). Database systems, however, a fundamental building block of what we call "Big Data", lack adequate support for modelling and expressing these array data/metadata relationships. Array analytics is hence quite primitive or non-existent at all in modern relational DBMS. Recognizing this, we extended SQL with a new SQL/MDA part seamlessly integrating multidimensional array analytics into the standard database query language. We demonstrate the benefits of SQL/MDA with real-world examples executed in ASQLDB, an open-source mediator system based on HSQLDB and rasdaman, that already implements SQL/MDA.

  12. Competing on talent analytics.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Thomas H; Harris, Jeanne; Shapiro, Jeremy

    2010-10-01

    Do investments in your employees actually affect workforce performance? Who are your top performers? How can you empower and motivate other employees to excel? Leading-edge companies such as Google, Best Buy, Procter & Gamble, and Sysco use sophisticated data-collection technology and analysis to answer these questions, leveraging a range of analytics to improve the way they attract and retain talent, connect their employee data to business performance, differentiate themselves from competitors, and more. The authors present the six key ways in which companies track, analyze, and use data about their people-ranging from a simple baseline of metrics to monitor the organization's overall health to custom modeling for predicting future head count depending on various "what if" scenarios. They go on to show that companies competing on talent analytics manage data and technology at an enterprise level, support what analytical leaders do, choose realistic targets for analysis, and hire analysts with strong interpersonal skills as well as broad expertise. PMID:20929194

  13. Aging and analytical performances evolution of a gas chromatographic system at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, J.-Y.; Szopa, C.; Millan, M.; Coscia, D.; Cabane, M.; Belmahdi, I.; Buch, A.; Dequaire, T.; Coll, P.; Teinturier, S.; Mahaffy, P.

    2015-10-01

    Health data from the gas chromatography (GC) module onboard the SAM instrument [1] will be presented to assess the analytical performances evolution of a GC device in Martian environment through 3 years.

  14. Opening Remarks for "Analytical Chemistry, Monitoring, and Environmental Fate and Transport" Session at Fluoros 2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    There have been a number of revolutionary developments during the past decade that have led to a much more comprehensive understanding of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the environment. Improvements in analytical instrumentation have made liquid chromatography tri...

  15. The keyboard instruments.

    PubMed

    Manchester, Ralph A

    2014-06-01

    Now that the field of performing arts medicine has been in existence for over three decades, we are approaching a key point: we should start to see more articles that bring together the data that have been collected from several studies in order to draw more robust conclusions. Review articles and their more structured relative, the meta-analysis, can help to improve our understanding of a particular topic, comparing and synthesizing the results of previous research that has been done on that subject area. One way this could be done would be to review the research that has been carried out on the performance-related problems associated with playing a particular instrument or group of instruments. While I am not going to do that myself, I hope that others will. In this editorial, I will do a very selective review of the playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) associated with one instrument group (the keyboard instruments), focusing on the most played instrument in that group (the piano;). PMID:24925170

  16. Issues in Shuttle System Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, George

    2004-01-01

    The purose: a) Customer's perspective on Space Shuttle Return to Flight instrumentation; b) Focus on the difficult instrumentation issues; and c) Enable a discussion of new technologies (i.e.- NANO/MEMS/Small Tech) that could enhance Shuttle instrumentation posture. The T-10 Umbilical allows the vehicle instruments to be monitored and recorded prior to each launch and retract during launch.Launch Complex Instrumentation are instruments needed for assessment of Launch Commit Criteria (LCC) Salt-air and launch environments are issues. Instrumentation (Drag-On Instrumentation) can be added as needed to the vehicle for non-flight use. The current Roll-out Fatigue Testing is a primary example.

  17. Ternary complexes in analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Babko, A K

    1968-08-01

    Reactions between a complex AB and a third component C do not always proceed by a displacement mechanism governed by the energy difference of the chemical bonds A-B and A-C. The third component often becomes part of the complex, forming a mixed co-ordination sphere or ternary complex. The properties of this ternary complex ABC are not additive functions of the properties of AB and AC. Such reactions are important in many methods in analytical chemistry, particularly in photometric analysis, extractive separation, masking, etc. The general properties of the four basic types of ternary complex are reviewed and examples given. The four types comprise the systems (a) metal ion, electronegative ligand, organic base, (b) one metal ion, two different electronegative ligands, (c) ternary heteropoly acids, and (d) two different metal ions, one ligand. PMID:18960358

  18. Laser light scattering instrument advanced technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. F.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this advanced technology development (ATD) project has been to provide sturdy, miniaturized laser light scattering (LLS) instrumentation for use in microgravity experiments. To do this, we assessed user requirements, explored the capabilities of existing and prospective laser light scattering hardware, and both coordinated and participated in the hardware and software advances needed for a flight hardware instrument. We have successfully breadboarded and evaluated an engineering version of a single-angle glove-box instrument which uses solid state detectors and lasers, along with fiber optics, for beam delivery and detection. Additionally, we have provided the specifications and written verification procedures necessary for procuring a miniature multi-angle LLS instrument which will be used by the flight hardware project which resulted from this work and from this project's interaction with the laser light scattering community.

  19. An Innovative Universal Screw Removal Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Elmadağ, Mehmet; Uzer, Gökçer; Acar, Mehmet Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present the clinical benefits of an instrument designed to facilitate removal of polyaxial screws during revision surgery. Methods All polyaxial screws can be removed without additional materials or a large amount of debridement using our newly designed instrument. Forty-two screws were removed from five patients without any complications using this instrument. Results We removed the cap screws and rods from the 42 polyaxial screws in five patients and made them monoaxial using the new screw removal apparatus. The screws and rods were removed quickly in a minimally invasive way with no complications. No damage to the pedicle or surrounding soft tissue occurred during screw removal. No neurogenic changes developed during revision surgery after changing the screws. Conclusion This newly designed screw removal instrument was used safely and effectively to remove all polyaxial and monoaxial pedicle screws. PMID:25883660

  20. Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Johan

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument is a trace gas monitoring instrument in the line of GOME (ERS-2) and Sciamachy (ENVISAT). Following these instruments, OMI provides UV-visible spectroscopy with a resolution sufficient to separate out the various absorbing trace gases (using DOAS or `Full' retrieval), but shaped as an imaging spectrometer. This means that a two dimensional detector is used where one dimension records the spectrum and the other images the swath. The scanning mechanism from the GOME and Sciamachy is not required anymore and there are considerable advantages with respect to simultaneous measurement of swath pixels, polarisation and obtainable swath width. The OMI consortium for a phase B is formed by Fokker Space & Systems and TPD in the Netherlands and VTT in Finland. In the presentation UV-visible atmospheric remote sensing will be placed in perspective and the OMI will be explaned.

  1. Nonmetallic Diaphragms for Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, H N; Buckingham, C T

    1925-01-01

    This report, the second of a series of reports relating to the general subject of instrument diaphragms. The first report of the series was published as Technical Report no. 165, "diaphragms for aeronautic instruments," and comprised an outline of historical developments and theoretical principles. The present report relates entirely to nonmetallic diaphragms, the use of which in certain types of pressure elements has been increasing for some time. Little, if any, information has been available to aid the designer of instruments using this form of pressure element. It was to attempt to meet the need for such information that the investigation reported in this paper was undertaken. The report describes the various materials which have been used as nonmetallic diaphragms, discusses the factors which affect the performance of the diaphragms and gives the results of tests made for the purpose of investigating the effect produced by these factors.

  2. Eigenvalues and musical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howle, V. E.; Trefethen, Lloyd N.

    2001-10-01

    Most musical instruments are built from physical systems that oscillate at certain natural frequencies. The frequencies are the imaginary parts of the eigenvalues of a linear operator, and the decay rates are the negatives of the real parts, so it ought to be possible to give an approximate idea of the sound of a musical instrument by a single plot of points in the complex plane. Nevertheless, the authors are unaware of any such picture that has ever appeared in print. This paper attempts to fill that gap by plotting eigenvalues for simple models of a guitar string, a flute, a clarinet, a kettledrum, and a musical bell. For the drum and the bell, simple idealized models have eigenvalues that are irrationally related, but as the actual instruments have evolved over the generations, the leading five or six eigenvalues have moved around the complex plane so that their relative positions are musically pleasing.

  3. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  4. An analytic model for the Phobos surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, Thomas C.

    1991-01-01

    Analytic expressions are derived to model the surface topography and the normal to the surface of Phobos. The analytic expressions are comprised of a spherical harmonic expansion for the global figure of Phobos, augmented by addition terms for the large crater Stickney and other craters. Over 300 craters were measured in more than 100 Viking Orbiter images to produce the model. In general, the largest craters were measured since they have a significant effect on topography. The topographic model derived has a global spatial and topographic accuracy ranging from about 100 m in areas having the highest resolution and convergent, stereo coverage, up to 500 m in the poorest areas.

  5. Analytic estimates of coupling in damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    Raubenheimer, T.O.; Ruth, R.D.

    1989-03-01

    In this paper we present analytic formulas to estimate the vertical emittance in weakly coupled electron/positron storage rings. We consider contributions from both the vertical dispersion and linear coupling of the betatron motions. In addition to simple expressions for random misalignments and rotations of the magnets, formulas are presented to calculate the vertical emittance blowup due to orbit distortions. The orbit distortions are assumed to be caused by random misalignments, but because the closed orbit is correlated from point to point, the effects must be treated differently. We consider only corrected orbits. Finally, the analytic expressions are compared with computer simulations of storage rings with random misalignments. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Interfacing to accelerator instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    As the sensory system for an accelerator, the beam instrumentation provides a tremendous amount of diagnostic information. Access to this information can vary from periodic spot checks by operators to high bandwidth data acquisition during studies. In this paper, example applications will illustrate the requirements on interfaces between the control system and the instrumentation hardware. A survey of the major accelerator facilities will identify the most popular interface standards. The impact of developments such as isochronous protocols and embedded digital signal processing will also be discussed.

  7. [Hardening of dental instruments].

    PubMed

    Gerasev, G P

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of prolonging the service life of stomatological instruments by the local hardening of their working parts is discussed. Such hardening should be achieved by using hard and wear-resistant materials. The examples of hardening dental elevators and hard-alloy dental drills are given. New trends in the local hardening of instruments are the treatment of their working parts with laser beams, the application of coating on their surface by the gas-detonation method. The results of research work and trials are presented. PMID:7300627

  8. Advanced sensors and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calloway, Raymond S.; Zimmerman, Joe E.; Douglas, Kevin R.; Morrison, Rusty

    1990-01-01

    NASA is currently investigating the readiness of Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation to meet the requirements of new initiatives in space. The following technical objectives and technologies are briefly discussed: smart and nonintrusive sensors; onboard signal and data processing; high capacity and rate adaptive data acquisition systems; onboard computing; high capacity and rate onboard storage; efficient onboard data distribution; high capacity telemetry; ground and flight test support instrumentation; power distribution; and workstations, video/lighting. The requirements for high fidelity data (accuracy, frequency, quantity, spatial resolution) in hostile environments will continue to push the technology developers and users to extend the performance of their products and to develop new generations.

  9. Instrumentation in medical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.T.

    1995-05-01

    The demand for clinical use of accelerated heavy charged-particle (proton and light-ion) beams for cancer treatment is now burgeoning worldwide. Clinical trials are underway at more than a dozen accelerators. Several hospital-based accelerator facilities dedicated to radiation treatment of human cancer have been constructed, and their number is growing. Many instruments in medical systems have been developed for modifying extracted particle beams for clinical application, monitoring the delivery of the treatment beams, and controlling the treatment processes to ensure patient safety. These in turn demand new developments of instruments in controlling beam extraction, beam tuning, and beam transportation at the medical systems.

  10. Lightning Instrumentation at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colon, Jose L.; Eng, D.

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes lightning phenomena with a brief explanation of lightning generation and lightning activity as related to KSC. An analysis of the instrumentation used at launching Pads 39 A&B for measurements of lightning effects is included with alternatives and recommendations to improve the protection system and upgrade the actual instrumentation system. An architecture for a new data collection system to replace the present one is also included. A novel architecture to obtain lightning current information from several sensors using only one high speed recording channel while monitoring all sensors to replace the actual manual lightning current recorders and a novel device for the protection system are described.

  11. Ocean Observation Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Airborne Ocean Color Imager (AOCI) was developed by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. for Ames Research Center under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract as a simulator for an advanced oceanographic satellite instrument. The instrument measures water temperature and detects water color in nine wavelengths. Water color indicates chlorophyll content or phytoplankton. After EOCAP assistance and technical improvements, the AOCI was successfully commercialized by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. One version provides commercial fishing fleets with information about fish locations, and the other is used for oceanographic research.

  12. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  13. Instrumentation in wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takashima, K.

    1986-01-01

    Requirements in designing instrumentation systems and measurements of various physical quantities in wind tunnels are surveyed. Emphasis is given to sensors used for measuring pressure, temperature, and angle, and the measurements of air turbulence and boundary layers. Instrumentation in wind tunnels require accuracy, fast response, diversity and operational simplicity. Measurements of force, pressure, attitude angle, free flow, pressure distribution, and temperature are illustrated by a table, and a block diagram. The LDV (laser Doppler velocimeter) method for measuring air turbulence and flow velocity and measurement of skin friction and flow fields using laser holograms are discussed. The future potential of these techniques is studied.

  14. Inspector-instrument interface in portable NDA instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1981-01-01

    Recent electronics technology advances make it possible to design sophisticated instruments in small packages for convenient field implementation. This report describes an inspector-instrument interface design which allows communication of procedures, responses, and results between the instrument and user. The interface has been incorporated into new spent-fuel instrumentation and a battery-powered multichannel analyzer.

  15. Inspector-instrument interface in portable NDA instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1981-01-01

    Recent electronics technology advances make it possible to design sophisticated instruments in small packages for convenient field implementation. An inspector-instrument interface design that allows communication of procedures, responses, and results between the instrument and user is presented. This capability has been incorporated into new spent-fuel instrumentation and a battery-powered multichannel analyzer.

  16. MERRA Analytic Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnase, J. L.; Duffy, D. Q.; McInerney, M. A.; Tamkin, G. S.; Thompson, J. H.; Gill, R.; Grieg, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    MERRA Analytic Services (MERRA/AS) is a cyberinfrastructure resource for developing and evaluating a new generation of climate data analysis capabilities. MERRA/AS supports OBS4MIP activities by reducing the time spent in the preparation of Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data used in data-model intercomparison. It also provides a testbed for experimental development of high-performance analytics. MERRA/AS is a cloud-based service built around the Virtual Climate Data Server (vCDS) technology that is currently used by the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) to deliver Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) data to the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). Crucial to its effectiveness, MERRA/AS's servers will use a workflow-generated realizable object capability to perform analyses over the MERRA data using the MapReduce approach to parallel storage-based computation. The results produced by these operations will be stored by the vCDS, which will also be able to host code sets for those who wish to explore the use of MapReduce for more advanced analytics. While the work described here will focus on the MERRA collection, these technologies can be used to publish other reanalysis, observational, and ancillary OBS4MIP data to ESGF and, importantly, offer an architectural approach to climate data services that can be generalized to applications and customers beyond the traditional climate research community. In this presentation, we describe our approach, experiences, lessons learned,and plans for the future.; (A) MERRA/AS software stack. (B) Example MERRA/AS interfaces.

  17. LISA Pathfinder Instrument Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, Felipe

    2010-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is an ESA-launched demonstration mission of key technologies required for the joint NASA-ESA gravitational wave observatory in space, LISA. As part of the LPF interferometry investigations, analytic models of noise sources and corresponding noise subtraction techniques have been developed to correct for effects like the coupling of test mass jitter into displacement readout, and fluctuations of the laser frequency or optical pathlength difference. Ground testing of pre-flight hardware of the Optical Metrology subsystem is currently ongoing at the Albert Einstein Institute Hannover. In collaboration with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the LPF mission data analysis tool LTPDA is being used to analyze the data product of these tests. Furthermore, the noise subtraction techniques and in-flight experiment runs for noise characterization are being defined as part of the mission experiment master plan. We will present the data analysis outcome of preflight hardware ground tests and possible noise subtraction strategies for in-flight instrument operations.

  18. Introduction to Instrumental Analysis of Water Pollutants. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This course is designed for those requiring an introduction to instruments commonly used in water pollution analyses. Examples are: pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen meters, spectrophotometers, turbidimeters, carbon analyzer, and gas chromatographs. Students should have a basic knowledge of analytical chemistry. (CO)

  19. The Use of Field Portable Instrumentation in Preparing for the Next Generation of Lunar Surface Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Rogers, A. D.; Evans, C. A.; McAdam, A.; Garry, W. B.; Carter, L.; Graff, T.; Scheidt, S.; Glotch, T. D.; Zeigler, R.; Niles, P.; Abell, P.

    2016-05-01

    While Apollo sample collection was enabled by basic sampling tools, in situ analytical instrumentation is now being developed for fieldwork. It is critical that the lunar community develop this technology for the future of lunar surface exploration.

  20. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, S.A.

    1994-12-31

    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  1. Instrument for Textbook Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huetteman, Julie Doidge

    An instrument to assist in assessing textbooks was created to provide a concise format for comparison and evaluation. Textbook characteristics were selected to illustrate content and proportion of characteristics of textbooks. Nine textbook characteristics were selected for quantifying the content areas of textbooks: (1) number of pages in the…

  2. Music: Instrumental Techniques, Percussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Jesse

    A course in introduction to music emphasizing harmony is presented. The approach used is a laboratory approach in which pupils will develop skill in playing percussion instruments, sing, listen to, read and compose music with emphasis on elementary concepts of harmony. Course objectives include: (1) The student will recognize duple, triple,…

  3. Music: Instrumental Techniques, Strings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Philip

    A course in music which emphasizes harmony is presented. The approach used is a laboratory one in which pupils will develop skill in playing orchestral string instruments, sing, listen to, read and compose music with emphasis on elementary concepts of harmony. Course objectives include: (1) The student will select the title of a familiar melody…

  4. Portable dynamic fundus instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Gerald R. (Inventor); Meehan, Richard T. (Inventor); Hunter, Norwood R. (Inventor); Caputo, Michael P. (Inventor); Gibson, C. Robert (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A portable diagnostic image analysis instrument is disclosed for retinal funduscopy in which an eye fundus image is optically processed by a lens system to a charge coupled device (CCD) which produces recordable and viewable output data and is simultaneously viewable on an electronic view finder. The fundus image is processed to develop a representation of the vessel or vessels from the output data.

  5. Instrument for assaying radiation

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2016-03-22

    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  6. AC resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  7. AC Resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

  8. Instrument Measures Ocular Counterrolling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitan, Barry M.; Reschke, Millard F.; Spector, Lawrence N.

    1991-01-01

    Compact, battery-powered, noninvasive unit replaces several pieces of equipment and operator. Instrument that looks like pair of goggles with small extension box measures ocular counterrotation. Called "otolith tilt-translation reinterpretation" (OTTR) goggles, used in studies of space motion sickness. Also adapted to use on Earth and determine extent of impairment in patients who have impaired otolith functions.

  9. Elementary Instrumental Music Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dolores A.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Our former Elementary Instrumental Music Program for 4th-6th graders was costly and ineffective. Students were bused to a high school in the middle of the instructional day--costs (time and transportation) were not compensatory with the program, which was experiencing a significant drop-out rate.…

  10. HARMONI instrument control electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigante, José V.; Rodríguez Ramos, Luis F.; Zins, Gerard; Schnetler, Hermine; Pecontal, Arlette; Herreros, José Miguel; Clarke, Fraser; Bryson, Ian; Thatte, Niranjan

    2014-07-01

    HARMONI is an integral field spectrograph working at visible and near-infrared wavelengths over a range of spatial scales from ground layer corrected to fully diffraction-limited. The instrument has been chosen to be part of the first-light complement at the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). This paper describes the instrument control electronics to be developed at IAC. The large size of the HARMONI instrument, its cryogenic operation, and the fact that it must operate with enhanced reliability is a challenge from the point of view of the control electronics design. The present paper describes a design proposal based on the current instrument requirements and intended to be fully compliant with the ESO E-ELT standards, as well as with the European EMC and safety standards. The modularity of the design and the use of COTS standard hardware will benefit the project in several aspects, as reduced costs, shorter schedule by the use of commercially available components, and improved quality by the use of well proven solutions.

  11. University Reactor Instrumentation Grant

    SciTech Connect

    S. M. Bajorek

    2000-02-01

    A noble gas air monitoring system was purchased through the University Reactor Instrumentation Grant Program. This monitor was installed in the Kansas State TRIGA reactor bay at a location near the top surface of the reactor pool according to recommendation by the supplier. This system is now functional and has been incorporated into the facility license.

  12. Designing Intelligent Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Erner, Philip M.; Frasso, Scott

    2007-11-01

    Remote science operations require automated systems that can both act and react with minimal human intervention. One such vision is that of an intelligent instrument that collects data in an automated fashion, and based on what it learns, decides which new measurements to take. This innovation implements experimental design and unites it with data analysis in such a way that it completes the cycle of learning. This cycle is the basis of the Scientific Method. The three basic steps of this cycle are hypothesis generation, inquiry, and inference. Hypothesis generation is implemented by artificially supplying the instrument with a parameterized set of possible hypotheses that might be used to describe the physical system. The act of inquiry is handled by an inquiry engine that relies on Bayesian adaptive exploration where the optimal experiment is chosen as the one which maximizes the expected information gain. The inference engine is implemented using the nested sampling algorithm, which provides the inquiry engine with a set of posterior samples from which the expected information gain can be estimated. With these computational structures in place, the instrument will refine its hypotheses, and repeat the learning cycle by taking measurements until the system under study is described within a pre-specified tolerance. We will demonstrate our first attempts toward achieving this goal with an intelligent instrument constructed using the LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT robotics platform.

  13. Experimenting with Woodwind Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    Simple experiments involving musical instruments of the woodwind family can be used to demonstrate the basic physics of vibrating air columns in resonance tubes using nothing more than straightforward measurements and data collection hardware and software. More involved experimentation with the same equipment can provide insight into the effects…

  14. University Reactor Instrumentation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vernetson, W.G.

    1992-11-01

    Recognizing that the University Reactor Instrumentation Program was developed in response to widespread needs in the academic community for modernization and improvement of research and training reactors at institutions such as the University of Florida, the items proposed to be supported by this grant over its two year period have been selected as those most likely to reduce foreed outages, to meet regulatory concerns that had been expressed in recent years by Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspectors or to correct other facility problems and limitations. Department of Energy Grant Number DE-FG07-90ER129969 was provided to the University of Florida Training Reactor(UFTR) facility through the US Department of Energy's University Reactor Instrumentation Program. The original proposal submitted in February, 1990 requested support for UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment upgrades for seven items in the amount of $107,530 with $13,800 of this amount to be the subject of cost sharing by the University of Florida and $93,730 requested as support from the Department of Energy. A breakdown of the items requested and total cost for the proposed UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment improvements is presented.

  15. Instrument measures cloud cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    Eight solar sensing cells comprise inexpensive monitoring instrument. Four cells always track Sun while other four face sky and clouds. On overcast day, cloud-irradiance sensors generate as much short-circuit current as Sun sensor cells. As clouds disappear, output of cloud sensors decreases. Ratio of two sensor type outputs determines fractional cloud cover.

  16. Process Instrumentation. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, A. O., III; Fowler, Malcolm

    This module provides instructional materials that are designed to help teachers train students in job skills for entry-level jobs as instrumentation technicians. This text addresses the basics of troubleshooting control loops, and the transducers, transmitters, signal conditioners, control valves, and controllers that enable process systems to…

  17. Rain radar instrument definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Nicolas; Chenebault, J.; Suinot, Noel; Mancini, Paolo L.

    1996-12-01

    As a result of a pre-phase a study, founded by ESA, this paper presents the definition of a spaceborne Rain Radar, candidate instrument for earth explorer precipitation mission. Based upon the description of user requirements for such a dedicated mission, a mission analysis defines the most suitable space segment. At system level, a parametric analysis compares pros and cons of instrument concepts associated with rain rate retrieval algorithms in order to select the most performing one. Several trade-off analysis at subsystem level leads then to the definition of the proposed design. In particular, as pulse compression is implemented in order to increase the radar sensitivity, the selected method to achieve a pulse response with a side-lobe level below--60 dB is presented. Antenna is another critical rain radar subsystem and several designs are com pared: direct radiating array, single or dual reflector illuminated by single or dual feed arrays. At least, feasibility of centralized amplification using TWTA is compared with criticality of Tx/Rx modules for distributed amplification. Mass and power budgets of the designed instrument are summarized as well as standard deviations and bias of simulated rain rate retrieval profiles. The feasibility of a compliant rain radar instrument is therefore demonstrated.

  18. Flaws of drug instrumentalization.

    PubMed

    Swendsen, Joel; Le Moal, Michel

    2011-12-01

    The adaptive use of drugs, or "drug instrumentalization," is presented as a reality that the scientific literature has largely ignored. In this commentary, we demonstrate why this concept has limited value from the standpoint of nosology, why it should not be viewed as "adaptive," and why it has dangerous implications for policy and public health efforts. PMID:22074977

  19. Music: Instrumental Techniques, Woodwinds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Melvin

    A course in introduction to music emphasizing modes and forms is presented. The approach used is a laboratory approach in which pupils will develop skill in playing wood-wind instruments, sing, listen to, read and compose music with emphasis on identification of elementary concepts of mode and form. Course objectives include: (1) pupil will select…

  20. Analytical and Computational Aspects of Collaborative Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia M.; Lewis, Robert Michael

    2000-01-01

    Bilevel problem formulations have received considerable attention as an approach to multidisciplinary optimization in engineering. We examine the analytical and computational properties of one such approach, collaborative optimization. The resulting system-level optimization problems suffer from inherent computational difficulties due to the bilevel nature of the method. Most notably, it is impossible to characterize and hence identify solutions of the system-level problems because the standard first-order conditions for solutions of constrained optimization problems do not hold. The analytical features of the system-level problem make it difficult to apply conventional nonlinear programming algorithms. Simple examples illustrate the analysis and the algorithmic consequences for optimization methods. We conclude with additional observations on the practical implications of the analytical and computational properties of collaborative optimization.

  1. Quality Indicators for Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Stoyanov, Slavi; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a framework of quality indicators for learning analytics that aims to standardise the evaluation of learning analytics tools and to provide a mean to capture evidence for the impact of learning analytics on educational practices in a standardised manner. The criteria of the framework and its quality indicators are based on…

  2. Learning Analytics: Readiness and Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Norm

    2013-01-01

    This position paper introduces the relatively new field of learning analytics, first by considering the relevant meanings of both "learning" and "analytics," and then by looking at two main levels at which learning analytics can be or has been implemented in educational organizations. Although integrated turnkey systems or…

  3. The analytic renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Finite temperature Euclidean two-point functions in quantum mechanics or quantum field theory are characterized by a discrete set of Fourier coefficients Gk, k ∈ Z, associated with the Matsubara frequencies νk = 2 πk / β. We show that analyticity implies that the coefficients Gk must satisfy an infinite number of model-independent linear equations that we write down explicitly. In particular, we construct "Analytic Renormalization Group" linear maps Aμ which, for any choice of cut-off μ, allow to express the low energy Fourier coefficients for |νk | < μ (with the possible exception of the zero mode G0), together with the real-time correlators and spectral functions, in terms of the high energy Fourier coefficients for |νk | ≥ μ. Operating a simple numerical algorithm, we show that the exact universal linear constraints on Gk can be used to systematically improve any random approximate data set obtained, for example, from Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results are illustrated on several explicit examples.

  4. Instrumentation for interstellar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruntman, M.

    The time has arrived for designing, building, and instrumenting a spacecraft for a dedicated foray into interstellar space surrounding our star, the Sun. This region was probed in the past by remote techniques and it will be explored in situ by the Interstellar Probe mission. The mission will significantly advance our understanding of the nature of the local interstellar medium and explore the distant frontier of the solar system by revealing the details of the interaction between the Sun and Galaxy. This mission will also be an important practical step toward interstellar flight of the future. Reaching interstellar space in reasonable time requires high escape velocities and will likely be enabled by non-chemical propulsion such as nuclear-powered electric propulsion or solar sailing. Unusually high spacecraft velocities, enormous distances from the Sun, and non-chemical propulsion will significantly influence the design of the mission, spacecraft and scientific instrumentation. We will review measurement objectives of the first mission into interstellar space and outline constrains on the instrumentation. Measurement of particles, fields, and dust in the interstellar medium will be complemented by search for complex molecules and remote sensing capabilities in various spectral bands. A "look" back at our solar system will also be a glimpse of wh at a flyby mission of the distant future would encounter in approaching another star. The instrumentation for interstellar exploration presents numerous challenges. Mass, telemetry, and power constraints would place a premium on miniaturization and autonom . There are, however,y physical limits on how small the sensors could be. New instrument concepts may be required to achieve the desired measurement capabilities under the stringent constraints of a realistic interstellar mission.

  5. Instrumentation for interstellar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruntman, Mike

    2004-01-01

    The time has arrived for designing, building, and instrumenting a spacecraft for a dedicated foray into the galactic environment surrounding our star, the sun. This region was probed in the past by remote techniques and it will be explored in situ by the NASA's planned Interstellar Probe mission. The mission will significantly advance our understanding of the nature of the local interstellar medium and explore the distant frontier of the solar system by revealing the details of the interaction between the sun and the Galaxy. This mission will also be an important practical step toward interstellar flight of the future. Reaching interstellar space in reasonable time requires high escape velocities and will likely be enabled by non-chemical propulsion such as nuclear-powered electric propulsion or solar sailing. Unusually high spacecraft velocities, enormous distances from the Sun, and non-chemical propulsion will significantly influence design of the mission, spacecraft, and scientific instrumentation. We will review measurement objectives of the first dedicated mission into interstellar space and outline constraints on the instrumentation. Measurement of particles, fields, and dust in the interstellar medium will be complemented by search for complex organic molecules and remote sensing capabilities in various spectral bands. A "look" back at our solar system will also be a glimpse of what a truly-interstellar mission of the distant future would encounter in approaching a target star. The instrumentation for interstellar exploration presents numerous challenges. Mass, telemetry, and power constraints would place a premium on miniaturization and autonomy. There are, however, physical limits on how small the sensors could be. New instrument concepts may be required to achieve the desired measurement capabilities under the stringent constraints of a realistic interstellar mission.

  6. Review of Factor Analytic Studies Examining Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuster, Jill; Perry, Adrienne; Bebko, James; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2014-01-01

    Factor analytic studies have been conducted to examine the inter-relationships and degree of overlap among symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This paper reviewed 36 factor analytic studies that have examined ASD symptoms, using 13 different instruments. Studies were grouped into three categories: Studies with all DSM-IV symptoms, studies…

  7. The forensic validity of visual analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbacher, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    The wider use of visualization and visual analytics in wide ranging fields has led to the need for visual analytics capabilities to be legally admissible, especially when applied to digital forensics. This brings the need to consider legal implications when performing visual analytics, an issue not traditionally examined in visualization and visual analytics techniques and research. While digital data is generally admissible under the Federal Rules of Evidence [10][21], a comprehensive validation of the digital evidence is considered prudent. A comprehensive validation requires validation of the digital data under rules for authentication, hearsay, best evidence rule, and privilege. Additional issues with digital data arise when exploring digital data related to admissibility and the validity of what information was examined, to what extent, and whether the analysis process was sufficiently covered by a search warrant. For instance, a search warrant generally covers very narrow requirements as to what law enforcement is allowed to examine and acquire during an investigation. When searching a hard drive for child pornography, how admissible is evidence of an unrelated crime, i.e. drug dealing. This is further complicated by the concept of "in plain view". When performing an analysis of a hard drive what would be considered "in plain view" when analyzing a hard drive. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the issues of digital forensics and the related issues as they apply to visual analytics and identify how visual analytics techniques fit into the digital forensics analysis process, how visual analytics techniques can improve the legal admissibility of digital data, and identify what research is needed to further improve this process. The goal of this paper is to open up consideration of legal ramifications among the visualization community; the author is not a lawyer and the discussions are not meant to be inclusive of all differences in laws between states and

  8. Analytical Chemistry (edited by R. Kellner, J.- M. Mermet, M. Otto, and H. M. Widmer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Reviewed By Robert Q.

    2000-04-01

    marginal notes. The text is divided into 5 parts (General Topics, Chemical Analysis, Physical Analysis, Computer-Based Analytical Chemistry, and Total Analysis Systems), 16 sections, and many chapters and subsections, all numbered and with headings for easy reference. The book provides comprehensive coverage of analytical science. Many curricula in North America cling to the tired notion of one semester of classical analytical (wet) chemistry followed by a second semester of instrumental analysis, and publishers continue to respond by publishing separate texts for each course. The Europeans, in contrast, have a text that bridges this artificial gap. Included are chapters and subsections on chemical equilibrium, electronic and vibrational spectroscopy, separations, and electrochemistry (found in most first courses in analytical chemistry). The authors also address atomic spectroscopy in all of its forms, luminescence, mass spectrometry, NMR spectrometry, surface analysis, thermal methods, activation analysis, and automated methods of analysis (found in most instrumental courses). Additional, uncommon chapters on chemical and biochemical sensors, immunoassay, chemometrics, miniaturized systems, and process analytical chemistry point toward the present and future of analytical science. The only glaring omission in comparison to other instrumental texts is in the area of measurement systems and electronics. No mention is made of the analytical laboratory, such as descriptions of glassware calibration and suggested experiments, as is found in most quantitative analysis texts in the U.S. The dangers in any multi-authored book include an uneven treatment of topics and a lack of cohesiveness and logical development of topics. I found some evidence of these problems in Analytical Chemistry. My first reaction to the Table of Contents and the grouping of chapters was "Where is ?" and "What about ?" While the order of topics in an analytical chemistry course always is open to debate

  9. Determination of plastic additives in packaging by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Moreta, Cristina; Tena, María-Teresa

    2015-10-01

    A simple and sensitive analytical method for the determination of several plastic additives in multilayer packaging based on solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to variable wavelength (VWD) and time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) detectors is presented. The proposed method allows the simultaneous determination of fourteen additives belonging to different families such as antioxidants, slip agents and light stabilizers, as well as two oxidation products in only 9min. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, matrix effect error, detection and quantification limits, repeatability and intermediate precision. The instrumental method showed satisfactory repeatability and intermediate precision at concentrations closed to LOQ with RSDs less than 7 and 20%, respectively, and LODs until 5000 times more sensitive than other GC-FID and HPLC-VWD methods previously reported. Also, focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) was optimized and evaluated to extract plastic additives from packaging. Extraction results obtained by FUSLE and SLE were compared to those obtained by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). All extraction methods showed excellent extraction efficiency for slip agents, however quantitative recovery of all analytes was achieved only by SLE with just 5ml of hexane for 10h. Finally, the selected method was applied to the analysis of packaging samples where erucamide, Irgafos 168, oxidized Irgafos 168, Irganox 1076 and Irganox 1010 were detected and quantified. PMID:26319625

  10. Status of the JWST/NIRSpec instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkmann, Stephan M.; Ferruit, Pierre; Alves de Oliveira, Catarina; Böker, Torsten; De Marchi, Guido; Giardino, Giovanna; Sirianni, Marco; Stuhlinger, Martin; Jensen, Peter; Rumler, Peter; Falcolini, Massimo; te Plate, Maurice B. J.; Cresci, Giovanni; Dorner, Bernhard; Ehrenwinkler, Ralf; Gnata, Xavier; Wettemann, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) is one of the four instruments on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), scheduled for launch in 2018. NIRSpec has been designed and built by the European Space Agency (ESA) with Airbus Defense and Space Germany as prime contractor. The instrument covers the wavelength range from 0.6 to 5.3 micron and will be able to obtain spectra of more than 100 astronomical objects simultaneously by means of a configurable array of micro-shutters. It also features an integral field unit and a suite of slits for high contrast spectroscopy of individual objects. The extensive ground calibration campaign of NIRSpec was completed in Summer 2013, after which it was delivered to NASA for integration into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM). We highlight the major results from the instrument level calibration campaign which demonstrated full compliance with all opto-mechanical performance requirements. In addition, we present the current status of the instrument, describe the ongoing preparations for the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) test campaign to begin in June 2014, and briefly discuss plans for the pending exchange of the detector and micro-shutter assemblies following the first ISIM test cycle.

  11. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  12. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  13. VERDE Analytic Modules

    2008-01-15

    The Verde Analytic Modules permit the user to ingest openly available data feeds about phenomenology (storm tracks, wind, precipitation, earthquake, wildfires, and similar natural and manmade power grid disruptions and forecast power outages, restoration times, customers outaged, and key facilities that will lose power. Damage areas are predicted using historic damage criteria of the affected area. The modules use a cellular automata approach to estimating the distribution circuits assigned to geo-located substations. Population estimates servedmore » within the service areas are located within 1 km grid cells and converted to customer counts by conversion through demographic estimation of households and commercial firms within the population cells. Restoration times are estimated by agent-based simulation of restoration crews working according to utility published prioritization calibrated by historic performance.« less

  14. VERDE Analytic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-15

    The Verde Analytic Modules permit the user to ingest openly available data feeds about phenomenology (storm tracks, wind, precipitation, earthquake, wildfires, and similar natural and manmade power grid disruptions and forecast power outages, restoration times, customers outaged, and key facilities that will lose power. Damage areas are predicted using historic damage criteria of the affected area. The modules use a cellular automata approach to estimating the distribution circuits assigned to geo-located substations. Population estimates served within the service areas are located within 1 km grid cells and converted to customer counts by conversion through demographic estimation of households and commercial firms within the population cells. Restoration times are estimated by agent-based simulation of restoration crews working according to utility published prioritization calibrated by historic performance.

  15. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  16. Analytical approaches for traditional chinese medicines exhibiting antineoplastic activity.

    PubMed

    Tsai, T H

    2001-11-25

    Traditional Chinese medicines have attracted great interest in recent researchers as alternative antineoplastic therapies. This review focuses on analytical approaches to various aspects of the antineoplastic ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines. Emphasis will be put on the processes of biological sample extraction, separation, clean-up steps and the detection. The problems of the extraction solvent selection and different types of column chromatography are also discussed. The instruments considered are gas chromatography, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) connected with various detectors (ultraviolet, fluorescence, electrochemistry, mass, etc.). In addition, determinations of antineoplastic herbal ingredients, including camptothecin, taxol (paclitaxel), vinblastine. vincristine, podophyllotoxin, colchicine, and their related compounds, such as irinotecan, SN-38, topotecan, 9-aminocamptothecin, docetaxel (taxotere) and etoposide, are briefly summarized. These drugs are structurally based on the herbal ingredients, and some of them are in trials for clinical use. Evaluation of potential antineoplastic herbal ingredients, such as harringtonine, berberine, emodin, genistein, berbamine, daphnoretin, and irisquinone, are currently investigated in laboratories. Other folk medicines are excluded from this paper because their antineoplastic ingredients are unknown. PMID:11817032

  17. Evaluation methodology for comparing memory and communication of analytic processes in visual analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, Eric D; Goodall, John R

    2014-01-01

    Provenance tools can help capture and represent the history of analytic processes. In addition to supporting analytic performance, provenance tools can be used to support memory of the process and communication of the steps to others. Objective evaluation methods are needed to evaluate how well provenance tools support analyst s memory and communication of analytic processes. In this paper, we present several methods for the evaluation of process memory, and we discuss the advantages and limitations of each. We discuss methods for determining a baseline process for comparison, and we describe various methods that can be used to elicit process recall, step ordering, and time estimations. Additionally, we discuss methods for conducting quantitative and qualitative analyses of process memory. By organizing possible memory evaluation methods and providing a meta-analysis of the potential benefits and drawbacks of different approaches, this paper can inform study design and encourage objective evaluation of process memory and communication.

  18. THE ARCADE 2 INSTRUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Kogut, A.; Mirel, P.; Wollack, E.; Levin, S.; Seiffert, M.; Limon, M.; Lubin, P.; Villela, T.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2011-04-01

    The second generation Absolute Radiometer for Cosmology, Astrophysics, and Diffuse Emission (ARCADE 2) instrument is a balloon-borne experiment to measure the radiometric temperature of the cosmic microwave background and Galactic and extragalactic emission at six frequencies from 3 to 90 GHz. ARCADE 2 utilizes a double-nulled design where emission from the sky is compared to that from an external cryogenic full-aperture blackbody calibrator by cryogenic switching radiometers containing internal blackbody reference loads. In order to further minimize sources of systematic error, ARCADE 2 features a cold fully open aperture with all radiometrically active components maintained at near 2.7 K without windows or other warm objects, achieved through a novel thermal design. We discuss the design and performance of the ARCADE 2 instrument in its 2005 and 2006 flights.

  19. An ice lithography instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  20. Impact dynamics instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormck, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    One of the tasks specified in the NASA Langley controlled impact demonstration (CID) work package was to furnish dynamic instrumentation sensors. The types of instrumentation sensors required were accelerometers for aircraft structural loads measurements, seat belt load cells to measure anthropomorphic dummy responses to the aircraft impact, and strain gage bending bridges to measure the aircraft fuselage and wing bending during impact. The objective in the selection of dynamic instrumentation for the CID was to provide 352 of the highest quality transducers and remain within budget allocation. The transducers that were selected for the CID evaluation process were each subjected to rigorous laboratory acceptance tests and to aircraft fuselage section drop tests at the LaRC Impact Dynamics Research Facility. Data compiled from this series of tests showed the selected transducers to be best suited for the CID mission requirement. The transducers installation technique on the airframe proved successful. The transducer quality assurance was guaranteed through rigorous acceptance testing. Data acquired was 97.0%.

  1. Mandolin Family Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, David J.; Rossing, Thomas D.

    The mandolin family of instruments consists of plucked chordophones, each having eight strings in four double courses. With the exception of the mandobass, the courses are tuned in intervals of fifths, as are the strings in violin family instruments. The soprano member of the family is the mandolin, tuned G3-D4-A4-E5. The alto member of the family is the mandola, tuned C3-G3-D4-A4. The mandola is usually referred to simply as the mandola in the USA, but is called the tenor mandola in Europe. The tenor member of the family is the octave mandolin, tuned G2-D3-A3-E4. It is referred to as the octave mandolin in the USA, and as the octave mandola in Europe. The baritone member of the family is the mandocello, or mandoloncello, tuned C2-G2-D3-A3. A variant of the mandocello not common in the USA is the five-course liuto moderno, or simply liuto, designed for solo repertoire. Its courses are tuned C2-G2-D3-A3-E4. A mandobass was also made by more than one manufacturer during the early twentieth century, though none are manufactured today. They were fretted instruments with single string courses tuned E1-A1-D2-G2. There are currently a few luthiers making piccolo mandolins, tuned C4-G4-D5-A5.

  2. Embedded instrumentation systems architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visnevski, Nikita A.

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes the operational concept of the Embedded Instrumentation Systems Architecture (EISA) that is being developed for Test and Evaluation (T&E) applications. The architecture addresses such future T&E requirements as interoperability, flexibility, and non-intrusiveness. These are the ultimate requirements that support continuous T&E objectives. In this paper, we demonstrate that these objectives can be met by decoupling the Embedded Instrumentation (EI) system into an on-board and an off-board component. An on-board component is responsible for sampling, pre-processing, buffering, and transmitting data to the off-board component. The latter is responsible for aggregating, post-processing, and storing test data as well as providing access to the data via a clearly defined interface including such aspects as security, user authentication and access control. The power of the EISA architecture approach is in its inherent ability to support virtual instrumentation as well as enabling interoperability with such important T&E systems as Integrated Network-Enhanced Telemetry (iNET), Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA) and other relevant Department of Defense initiatives.

  3. Instrumentation and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaishi, C.V.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-12-01

    This Technology Status Report describes research and accomplishments for the Instrumentation and Diagnostics (I D) Projects within the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Program of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). Process understanding and control can be improved through the development of advanced instrumentation and diagnostics. The thrust of the I D Projects is to further develop existing measurement and control techniques for application to advanced coal-based technologies. Project highlights are: an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) instrument has been developed to analyze trace elements in gasification and combustion process streams. An in situ two-color Mie scattering technique with LSS can simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and elemental composition of coal particles during combustion. A high-temperature, fluorescence thermometry technique has accurately measured gas temperatures during field testing in combustion and gasification environments. Expert systems have been developed to improve the control of advanced coal-based processes. Capacitance flowmeters were developed to determine the mass flowrate, solid volume fraction, and particle velocities of coal slurries. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  4. An ice lithography instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2011-06-15

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  5. An ice lithography instrument.

    PubMed

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J A

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines. PMID:21721733

  6. An ice lithography instrument

    PubMed Central

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines. PMID:21721733

  7. Borehole survey instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, H.E.; Lin, J.W. III; Macha, E.S.; Smither, M.A.

    1984-12-04

    A borehole survey instrument is provided having a meniscus type floating compass member with indicia thereon for indicating azimuth and inclination. A light source is disposed below the indicia for illuminating the indicia upward through the liquid through which the meniscus type floating compass member floats. A lens system is provided for focusing the image of the illuminated compass member upon a film disposed below the compass member. This arrangement permits the centering post for the compass member to be of minimum diameter consistent with rigidity requirements and permits a high angle compass member to indicate angles of inclination approaching ninety degrees. A multiple light bulb light source is utilized and each light bulb is mounted in a manner which permits a single light bulb to illuminate the entire compass member. A hand-held programming and diagnostic unit is provided which may be momentarily electrically mated with the borehole survey tool to input a programmed timed delay and diagnostically test both the condition of the light bulbs utilized as the illumination source and the state of the batteries within the instrument. This hand-held programmable unit eliminates all the mechanical programming switches and permits the instrument to be completely sealed from the pressure, fluids and contaminants normally found in a well bore.

  8. SABER instrument design update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esplin, Roy W.; Zollinger, Lorin; Batty, J. Clair; Folkman, Steve; Roosta, Mehrdad; Tansock, Joseph J.; Jensen, Mark; Stauder, John; Miller, Jim; Vanek, Michael; Robinson, Don

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes the design of a 10-channel infrared (1.27 to 16.9 micrometers ) radiometer instrument known as SABER (sounding of the atmosphere using broadband emission radiometry) that will measure earth-limb emissions from the TIMED (thermosphere- ionosphere-mesosphere energetics and dynamics) satellite. The instrument telescope, designed to reject stray light from the earth and the atmosphere, is an on-axis Cassegrain design with a clam shell reimager and a one-axis scan mirror. The telescope is cooled below 210 K by a dedicated radiator. The focal plane assembly (consisting of a filter array, a detector array, a Lyot stop, and a window) is cooled to 75 K by a miniature cryogenic refrigerator. The conductive heat load on the refrigerator is minimized by a Kevlar support system that thermally isolates the focal plane assembly from the telescope. Kevlar is also used to thermally isolate the telescope from the spacecraft. Instrument responsivity drifts due to changes in telescope and focal plane temperatures as well as other causes are neutralized by an in-flight calibration system. The detector array consists of discrete HgCdTe, InSb, and InGaAs detectors. Two InGaAs detectors are a new long wavelength type, made by EG&G, that have a long wavelength cutoff of 2.33 micrometers at 77 K.

  9. Simulation visualization through dynamic instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bisset, K.R.

    1998-09-01

    The goal of the instrument composition system is to allow a simulation user to dynamically create instruments as a simulation executes. Instruments can include graphical displays, data collectors, and debugging aides. Instruments are made up of small building blocks which can be easily combined into larger, more complex instruments. Through the sue of an Attribute Server (a distributed publication/subscription mechanism), the actors and instruments in a simulation can interact without direct knowledge of each other. Instead, each actor publishes the attributes which it has available. An instrument subscribes to the attributes in which it is interested, and is notified whenever the value of one of these attribute changes. An instrument can also publish attributes for use by other instruments. Since the Attribute Server is distributed, the publisher of an attribute need not execute on the same machine as the subscriber. This allows CPU intensive data visualization to execute on separate machines from the simulation, minimizing the impact on the simulation.

  10. Data Filtering in Instrumental Analyses with Applications to Optical Spectroscopy and Chemical Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Most measurement techniques have some limitations imposed by a sensor's signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Thus, in analytical chemistry, methods for enhancing the SNR are of crucial importance and can be ensured experimentally or established via pre-treatment of digitized data. In many analytical curricula, instrumental techniques are given preference…

  11. COMPARISON OF RESPONSE OF 9977 TEST PACKAGES TO ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A; Tsu-Te Wu, T

    2007-12-05

    Each of the hypothetical accident test cases for the 9977 prototypes was included in the battery of finite element structural analyses performed for the package. Comparison of the experimental and analytical results provides a means of confirming that the analytical model correctly represents the physical behavior of the package. The ability of the analytical model to correctly predict the performance of the foam overpack material for the crush test is of particular interest. The dissipation of energy in the crushing process determines the deceleration of the package upon impact and the duration of the impact. In addition, if the analytical model correctly models the foam behavior, the predicted deformation of the package will match that measured on the test articles. This study compares the deformations of the test packages with the analytical predictions. In addition, the impact acceleration and impact duration for the test articles are compared with those predicted by the analyses.

  12. Analytic integrable systems: Analytic normalization and embedding flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang

    In this paper we mainly study the existence of analytic normalization and the normal form of finite dimensional complete analytic integrable dynamical systems. More details, we will prove that any complete analytic integrable diffeomorphism F(x)=Bx+f(x) in (Cn,0) with B having eigenvalues not modulus 1 and f(x)=O(|) is locally analytically conjugate to its normal form. Meanwhile, we also prove that any complete analytic integrable differential system x˙=Ax+f(x) in (Cn,0) with A having nonzero eigenvalues and f(x)=O(|) is locally analytically conjugate to its normal form. Furthermore we will prove that any complete analytic integrable diffeomorphism defined on an analytic manifold can be embedded in a complete analytic integrable flow. We note that parts of our results are the improvement of Moser's one in J. Moser, The analytic invariants of an area-preserving mapping near a hyperbolic fixed point, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 9 (1956) 673-692 and of Poincaré's one in H. Poincaré, Sur l'intégration des équations différentielles du premier order et du premier degré, II, Rend. Circ. Mat. Palermo 11 (1897) 193-239. These results also improve the ones in Xiang Zhang, Analytic normalization of analytic integrable systems and the embedding flows, J. Differential Equations 244 (2008) 1080-1092 in the sense that the linear part of the systems can be nonhyperbolic, and the one in N.T. Zung, Convergence versus integrability in Poincaré-Dulac normal form, Math. Res. Lett. 9 (2002) 217-228 in the way that our paper presents the concrete expression of the normal form in a restricted case.

  13. FHR Process Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactors (FHRs) are entering into early phase engineering development. Initial candidate technologies have been identified to measure all of the required process variables. The purpose of this paper is to describe the proposed measurement techniques in sufficient detail to enable assessment of the proposed instrumentation suite and to support development of the component technologies. This paper builds upon the instrumentation chapter of the recently published FHR technology development roadmap. Locating instruments outside of the intense core radiation and high-temperature fluoride salt environment significantly decreases their environmental tolerance requirements. Under operating conditions, FHR primary coolant salt is a transparent, low-vapor-pressure liquid. Consequently, FHRs can employ standoff optical measurements from above the salt pool to assess in-vessel conditions. For example, the core outlet temperature can be measured by observing the fuel s blackbody emission. Similarly, the intensity of the core s Cerenkov glow indicates the fission power level. Short-lived activation of the primary coolant provides another means for standoff measurements of process variables. The primary coolant flow and neutron flux can be measured using gamma spectroscopy along the primary coolant piping. FHR operation entails a number of process measurements. Reactor thermal power and core reactivity are the most significant variables for process control. Thermal power can be determined by measuring the primary coolant mass flow rate and temperature rise across the core. The leading candidate technologies for primary coolant temperature measurement are Au-Pt thermocouples and Johnson noise thermometry. Clamp-on ultrasonic flow measurement, that includes high-temperature tolerant standoffs, is a potential coolant flow measurement technique. Also, the salt redox condition will be monitored as an indicator of its corrosiveness. Both

  14. Characterization of Analytical Reference Glass-1 (ARG-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.L.

    1993-12-01

    High-level radioactive waste may be immobilized in borosilicate glass at the West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Aiken, South Carolina, and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), Richland, Washington. The vitrified waste form will be stored in stainless steel canisters before its eventual transfer to a geologic repository for long-term disposal. Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) (DOE 1993), Section 1.1.2 requires that the waste form producers must report the measured chemical composition of the vitrified waste in their production records before disposal. Chemical analysis of glass waste forms is receiving increased attention due to qualification requirements of vitrified waste forms. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been supporting the glass producers` analytical laboratories by a continuing program of multilaboratory analytical testing using interlaboratory ``round robin`` methods. At the PNL Materials Characterization Center Analytical Round Robin 4 workshop ``Analysis of Nuclear Waste Glass and Related Materials,`` January 16--17, 1990, Pleasanton, California, the meeting attendees decided that simulated nuclear waste analytical reference glasses were needed for use as analytical standards. Use of common standard analytical reference materials would allow the glass producers` analytical laboratories to calibrate procedures and instrumentation, to control laboratory performance and conduct self-appraisals, and to help qualify their various waste forms.

  15. Test set of gaseous analytes at Hanford tank farms

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    DOE has stored toxic and radioactive waste materials in large underground tanks. When the vapors in the tank headspaces vent to the open atmosphere a potentially dangerous situation can occur for personnel in the area. An open-path atmospheric pollution monitor is being developed to monitor the open air space above these tanks. In developing this infrared spectra monitor as a safety alert instrument, it is important to know what hazardous gases, called the Analytes of Concern, are most likely to be found in dangerous concentrations. The monitor must consider other gases which could interfere with measurements of the Analytes of Concern. The total list of gases called the Test Set Analytes form the basis for testing the pollution monitor. Prior measurements in 54 tank headspaces have detected 102 toxic air pollutants (TAPs) and over 1000 other analytes. The hazardous Analytes are ranked herein by a Hazardous Atmosphere Rating which combines their measured concentration, their density relative to air, and the concentration at which they become dangerous. The top 20 toxic air pollutants, as ranked by the Hazardous Atmosphere Rating, and the top 20 other analytes, in terms of measured concentrations, are analyzed for possible inclusion in the Test Set Analytes. Of these 40 gases, 20 are selected. To these 20 gases are added the 6 omnipresent atmospheric gases with the highest concentrations, since their spectra could interfere with measurements of the other spectra. The 26 Test Set Analytes are divided into a Primary Set and a Secondary Set. The Primary Set, gases which must be detectable by the monitor, includes the 6 atmospheric gases and the 6 hazardous gases which have been measured at dangerous concentrations. The Secondary Set gases need not be monitored at this time. The infrared spectra indicates that the pollution monitor will detect all 26 Test Set Analytes by thermal emission and will detect 15 Test Set Analytes by laser absorption.

  16. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  17. The Dog Ate My Homework: A Cooperative Learning Project for Instrumental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giancarlo, Leanna C.; Slunt, Kelli M.

    2004-01-01

    A real-life experience that provides an ideal opportunity to combine problem-solving skills, critical thinking, and collaborative learning is described in the content of a realistic instrumental analysis laboratory. This practical experiment can be used in an instrumental analysis or analytical course.

  18. Serendipity: Genesis of the Electrochemical Instrumentation at Princeton Applied Research Corporation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flato, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    Princeton Applied Research Corporation (PAR) was a small electronic instrument company in early 1960s but once they entered electrochemistry they were very successful. Since then they have developed and designed successful instruments with their tremendous knowledge and have made great contribution to the field of analytical chemistry.

  19. CARMENES instrument overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Seifert, W.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Antona Jiménez, R.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Azzaro, M.; Bauer, F.; Barrado, D.; Becerril, S.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Benítez, D.; Berdiñas, Z. M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Casal, E.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Czesla, S.; Doellinger, M.; Dreizler, S.; Feiz, C.; Fernández, M.; Galadí, D.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; García-Piquer, A.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Garrido, R.; Gesa, L.; Gómez Galera, V.; González Álvarez, E.; González Hernández, J. I.; Grözinger, U.; Guàrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; de Guindos, E.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Hagen, H.-J.; Hatzes, A. P.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Helmling, J.; Henning, T.; Hermann, D.; Hernández Castaño, L.; Herrero, E.; Hidalgo, D.; Holgado, G.; Huber, A.; Huber, K. F.; Jeffers, S.; Joergens, V.; de Juan, E.; Kehr, M.; Klein, R.; Kürster, M.; Lamert, A.; Lalitha, S.; Laun, W.; Lemke, U.; Lenzen, R.; López del Fresno, Mauro; López Martí, B.; López-Santiago, J.; Mall, U.; Mandel, H.; Martín, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Martínez-Rodríguez, H.; Marvin, C. J.; Mathar, R. J.; Mirabet, E.; Montes, D.; Morales Muñoz, R.; Moya, A.; Naranjo, V.; Ofir, A.; Oreiro, R.; Pallé, E.; Panduro, J.; Passegger, V.-M.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Pérez Medialdea, D.; Perger, M.; Pluto, M.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Redondo, P.; Reffert, S.; Reinhardt, S.; Rhode, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Rodríguez-Pérez, E.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rosich, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sarmiento, L. F.; Schäfer, S.; Schiller, J.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Storz, C.; Stürmer, J.; Suárez, J. C.; Ulbrich, R. G.; Veredas, G.; Wagner, K.; Winkler, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Zechmeister, M.; Abellán de Paco, F. J.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; del Burgo, C.; Klutsch, A.; Lizon, J. L.; López-Morales, M.; Morales, J. C.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Tulloch, S. M.; Xu, W.

    2014-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the CARMENES instrument and of the survey that will be carried out with it during the first years of operation. CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation radial-velocity instrument under construction for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is conducting a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~ 300 M dwarfs with the completed instrument. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate echelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. The spectrographs are housed in vacuum tanks providing the temperature-stabilized environments necessary to enable a 1 m/s radial velocity precision employing a simultaneous calibration with an emission-line lamp or with a Fabry-Perot etalon. For mid-M to late-M spectral types, the wavelength range around 1.0 μm (Y band) is the most important wavelength region for radial velocity work. Therefore, the efficiency of CARMENES has been optimized in this range. The CARMENES instrument consists of two spectrographs, one equipped with a 4k x 4k pixel CCD for the range 0.55 - 1.05 μm, and one with two 2k x 2k pixel HgCdTe detectors for the range from 0.95 - 1.7μm. Each spectrograph will be coupled to the 3.5m telescope with two optical fibers, one for the target, and one for calibration light. The front end contains a dichroic beam splitter and an atmospheric dispersion corrector, to feed the light into the fibers leading to the spectrographs. Guiding is performed with a separate camera; on-axis as well as off-axis guiding modes are implemented. Fibers with octagonal cross-section are employed to ensure good stability of the output in the presence of residual guiding errors. The

  20. Updated Guidelines for ANSS Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. R.; Hutt, C. R.; Gee, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    In 2008 the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and cooperating universities and institutions issued USGS Open-File Report 2008-1262 (OFR) containing detailed guidelines for the performance of instrumentation to be used by the ANSS. Here we report an update underway to these guidelines to take account of lessons learned, changing technology, and expanding user desires; in a few instances, performance matters that are very hard to test in practice are either modified or removed. Instrument classes are defined in the OFR in terms of amplitude resolution and cost; because relevant technologies have advanced substantially in these six years and a number of groups have begun to explore the use of relatively inexpensive, entirely host installed and operated Class C systems, the guidelines for strong-motion sensors are being expanded to include detailed guidelines for them rather than just anticipating them. As always, Class A systems will form the state-of-the-art backbone of any network, with Class B filling in spatially and in areas otherwise not covered well. Class C systems would be an additional step in making networks denser by providing very inexpensive hardware, installation, and maintenance to fill in additionally between Class A and B sites, for example in a high-seismicity urban area, with Class A sites every 4-6 km, Class B every 2-3 km, and Class C at <1 km spacing. Class C devices would be both installed and maintained by hosts, not institutions, and therefore also would be economical for extending coverage in regions with widely spaced or rare large seismicity, such as the central and eastern U.S.

  1. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  2. Analytic streamline calculations on linear tetrahedra

    SciTech Connect

    Diachin, D.P.; Herzog, J.A.

    1997-06-01

    Analytic solutions for streamlines within tetrahedra are used to define operators that accurately and efficiently compute streamlines. The method presented here is based on linear interpolation, and therefore produces exact results for linear velocity fields. In addition, the method requires less computation than the forward Euler numerical method. Results are presented that compare accuracy measurements of the method with forward Euler and fourth order Runge-Kutta applied to both a linear and a nonlinear velocity field.

  3. Analytic sequential methods for detecting network intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinjia; Walker, Ernest

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an analytic sequential methods for detecting port-scan attackers which routinely perform random "portscans" of IP addresses to find vulnerable servers to compromise. In addition to rigorously control the probability of falsely implicating benign remote hosts as malicious, our method performs significantly faster than other current solutions. We have developed explicit formulae for quick determination of the parameters of the new detection algorithm.

  4. Management of surgical instruments with radio frequency identification tags.

    PubMed

    Kusuda, Kaori; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Ohnishi, Akiko; Tanaka, Kiyohito; Komino, Masaru; Honda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shinichi; Okubo, Takashi; Tripette, Julien; Ohta, Yuji

    2016-03-14

    Purpose - To prevent malpractices, medical staff has adopted inventory time-outs and/or checklists. Accurate inventory and maintenance of surgical instruments decreases the risk of operating room miscounting and malfunction. In our previous study, an individual management of surgical instruments was accomplished using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate a new management method of RFID-tagged instruments. Design/methodology/approach - The management system of RFID-tagged surgical instruments was used for 27 months in clinical areas. In total, 13 study participants assembled surgical trays in the central sterile supply department. Findings - While using the management system, trays were assembled 94 times. During this period, no assembly errors occurred. An instrument malfunction had occurred after the 19th, 56th, and 73th uses, no malfunction caused by the RFID tags, and usage history had been recorded. Additionally, the time it took to assemble surgical trays was recorded, and the long-term usability of the management system was evaluated. Originality/value - The system could record the number of uses and the defective history of each surgical instrument. In addition, the history of the frequency of instruments being transferred from one tray to another was recorded. The results suggest that our system can be used to manage instruments safely. Additionally, the management system was acquired of the learning effect and the usability on daily maintenance. This finding suggests that the management system examined here ensures surgical instrument and tray assembly quality. PMID:26959900

  5. Biomedical Applications of the APPS-IV Analytical Plotter

    PubMed Central

    Passauer, James L.; Niedzwiadek, Harry A.; Molander, Craig W.

    1980-01-01

    Photogrammetry, the science of extracting information from photography and imagery, offers the biomedical field virtually unlimited aid in the quantitative, non-contact evaluation of body form, function, and detail. The APPS-IV Analytical Plotter, developed by Autometric, Inc., can serve as a mensuration tool in the extraction of detail from photography. The APPS-IV is a microprocessor-controlled, cost-effective photogrammetric instrument which places few demands on a modest host computer. The use of analytical techniques provides a significant advance over traditional analog methods in speed and accuracy of measurement.

  6. Instrumentation: Software-Driven Instrumentation: The New Wave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salit, M. L.; Parsons, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    Software-driven instrumentation makes measurements that demand a computer as an integral part of either control, data acquisition, or data reduction. The structure of such instrumentation, hardware requirements, and software requirements are discussed. Examples of software-driven instrumentation (such as wavelength-modulated continuum source…

  7. An Approximate Analytic Expression for the Flux Density of Scintillation Light at the Photocathode

    SciTech Connect

    Braverman, Joshua B; Harrison, Mark J; Ziock, Klaus-Peter

    2012-01-01

    The flux density of light exiting scintillator crystals is an important factor affecting the performance of radiation detectors, and is of particular importance for position sensitive instruments. Recent work by T. Woldemichael developed an analytic expression for the shape of the light spot at the bottom of a single crystal [1]. However, the results are of limited utility because there is generally a light pipe and photomultiplier entrance window between the bottom of the crystal and the photocathode. In this study, we expand Woldemichael s theory to include materials each with different indices of refraction and compare the adjusted light spot shape theory to GEANT 4 simulations [2]. Additionally, light reflection losses from index of refraction changes were also taken into account. We found that the simulations closely agree with the adjusted theory.

  8. Mechanical properties of additively manufactured octagonal honeycombs.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, R; Sadighi, M; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A A

    2016-12-01

    Honeycomb structures have found numerous applications as structural and biomedical materials due to their favourable properties such as low weight, high stiffness, and porosity. Application of additive manufacturing and 3D printing techniques allows for manufacturing of honeycombs with arbitrary shape and wall thickness, opening the way for optimizing the mechanical and physical properties for specific applications. In this study, the mechanical properties of honeycomb structures with a new geometry, called octagonal honeycomb, were investigated using analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. An additive manufacturing technique, namely fused deposition modelling, was used to fabricate the honeycomb from polylactic acid (PLA). The honeycombs structures were then mechanically tested under compression and the mechanical properties of the structures were determined. In addition, the Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories were used for deriving analytical relationships for elastic modulus, yield stress, Poisson's ratio, and buckling stress of this new design of honeycomb structures. Finite element models were also created to analyse the mechanical behaviour of the honeycombs computationally. The analytical solutions obtained using Timoshenko beam theory were close to computational results in terms of elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and yield stress, especially for relative densities smaller than 25%. The analytical solutions based on the Timoshenko analytical solution and the computational results were in good agreement with experimental observations. Finally, the elastic properties of the proposed honeycomb structure were compared to those of other honeycomb structures such as square, triangular, hexagonal, mixed, diamond, and Kagome. The octagonal honeycomb showed yield stress and elastic modulus values very close to those of regular hexagonal honeycombs and lower than the other considered honeycombs. PMID:27612831

  9. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  10. Hanford transuranic analytical capability

    SciTech Connect

    McVey, C.B.

    1995-02-24

    With the current DOE focus on ER/WM programs, an increase in the quantity of waste samples that requires detailed analysis is forecasted. One of the prime areas of growth is the demand for DOE environmental protocol analyses of TRU waste samples. Currently there is no laboratory capacity to support analysis of TRU waste samples in excess of 200 nCi/gm. This study recommends that an interim solution be undertaken to provide these services. By adding two glove boxes in room 11A of 222S the interim waste analytical needs can be met for a period of four to five years or until a front end facility is erected at or near the 222-S facility. The yearly average of samples is projected to be approximately 600 samples. The figure has changed significantly due to budget changes and has been downgraded from 10,000 samples to the 600 level. Until these budget and sample projection changes become firmer, a long term option is not recommended at this time. A revision to this document is recommended by March 1996 to review the long term option and sample projections.

  11. Analytics for Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Christopher J.; Chan, Leanne Jade G.; Nhan, Melissa; Adams, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Realizing the promise of metabolic engineering has been slowed by challenges related to moving beyond proof-of-concept examples to robust and economically viable systems. Key to advancing metabolic engineering beyond trial-and-error research is access to parts with well-defined performance metrics that can be readily applied in vastly different contexts with predictable effects. As the field now stands, research depends greatly on analytical tools that assay target molecules, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites across different hosts and pathways. Screening technologies yield specific information for many thousands of strain variants, while deep omics analysis provides a systems-level view of the cell factory. Efforts focused on a combination of these analyses yield quantitative information of dynamic processes between parts and the host chassis that drive the next engineering steps. Overall, the data generated from these types of assays aid better decision-making at the design and strain construction stages to speed progress in metabolic engineering research. PMID:26442249

  12. The Assessment Journey: Defining and Refining Instrument Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Ann Marie; Carr, Michael T.; Gallo, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Designing and implementing assessment instruments are ongoing challenges for physical educators. The initial design phase includes asking the question, "What do I want the students to know and/or be able to do?" Seemingly, the question is direct and should lead to a concrete answer. In addition to designing assessment instruments, one of the most…

  13. LBL's Pollution Instrumentation Comparability Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, R. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Contained are condensed excerpts from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Survey of Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring. The survey describes instrumentation used to analyze air and water quality, radiation emissions, and biomedical impacts. (BB)

  14. Instruments for Water Quality Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballinger, Dwight G.

    1972-01-01

    Presents information regarding available instruments for industries and agencies who must monitor numerous aquatic parameters. Charts denote examples of parameters sampled, testing methods, range and accuracy of test methods, cost analysis, and reliability of instruments. (BL)

  15. Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

  16. Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, H. John

    2004-01-01

    The topics addressed in this viewgraph presentation include information on 1) Historic instruments at Goddard; 2) Integrated Design Capability at Goddard; 3) The Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL).

  17. Diamonds for beam instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Griesmayer, Erich

    2013-04-19

    Diamond is perhaps the most versatile, efficient and radiation tolerant material available for use in beam detectors with a correspondingly wide range of applications in beam instrumentation. Numerous practical applications have demonstrated and exploited the sensitivity of diamond to charged particles, photons and neutrons. In this paper, a brief description of a generic diamond detector is given and the interaction of the CVD diamond detector material with protons, electrons, photons and neutrons is presented. Latest results of the interaction of sCVD diamond with 14 MeV mono-energetic neutrons are shown.

  18. Diaphragms for Aeronautic Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersey, M D

    1924-01-01

    This investigation was carried out at the request of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and comprises an outline of historical developments and theoretical principles, together with a discussion of expedients for making the most effective use of existing diaphragms actuated by the hydrostatic pressure form an essential element of a great variety instruments for aeronautic and other technical purposes. The various physical data needed as a foundation for rational methods of diaphragm design have not, however, been available hitherto except in the most fragmentary form.

  19. Biomagnetic instrumentation and measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iufer, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The instruments and techniques of biomagnetic measurement have progressed greatly in the past 15 years and are now of a quality appropriate to clinical applications. The paper reports on recent developments in the design and application of SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometers to biomagnetic measurement. The discussion covers biomagnetic field levels, magnetocardiography, magnetic susceptibility plethysmography, ambient noise and sensor types, principles of operation of a SQUID magnetometer, and laboratory techniques. Of the many promising applications of noninvasive biomagnetic measurement, magnetocardiography is the most advanced and the most likely to find clinical application in the near future.

  20. Instrument Quality Control.

    PubMed

    Jayakody, Chatura; Hull-Ryde, Emily A

    2016-01-01

    Well-defined quality control (QC) processes are used to determine whether a certain procedure or action conforms to a widely accepted standard and/or set of guidelines, and are important components of any laboratory quality assurance program (Popa-Burke et al., J Biomol Screen 14: 1017-1030, 2009). In this chapter, we describe QC procedures useful for monitoring the accuracy and precision of laboratory instrumentation, most notably automated liquid dispensers. Two techniques, gravimetric QC and photometric QC, are highlighted in this chapter. When used together, these simple techniques provide a robust process for evaluating liquid handler accuracy and precision, and critically underpin high-quality research programs. PMID:27316990

  1. Instrumentation of UALR labscale hybrid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Andrew B.; Teague, Warfield; Wright, Ann M.; Wilson, Edmond W.

    2006-05-01

    The Central Arkansas Combustion Group has used a NASA EPSCoR grant to improve the instrumentation and control of its labscale hybrid rocket facility. The research group investigates fundamental aspects of combustion in hybrid rocket motors. This paper describes the new instrumentation, provides examples of measurements taken, and describes novel instrumentation which is in the process of development. A six degree-of-freedom thrust system measures the total work done during a burn to compare the efficiency of fuels and fuel additives. The new system measures the forces and moments in three spatial dimensions. An accurate measure of thrust oscillations will lead to better understanding of the cause and eventual minimization of the oscillations. Plume spectrometers are employed to determine and measure the reaction intermediates and products of combustion at the exhaust. The new control system features an oxygen mass flow controller, which allows the accurate measurement of the oxidant introduced into the motor.

  2. CIRCE: a new approach to performance management of optical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philoreau, Sandrine; Simeoni, Denis; Miras, Didier; Papegay, Y.; De Sousa, J.

    1996-10-01

    This paper introduces the 'complex instruments ranking with a new computational environment' or CIRCE software tool for aiding elaboration and exploitation of analytic models for performance management of optical instruments. CIRCE is currently developed by the optical instrument preliminary design team at the Aerospatiale Company's Cannes, France, Center, in cooperation with the Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique' or INRIA at the nearby Science Park of Sophia Antipolis. As a multiprogram tool, CIRCE incorporates the requirements at all stages of optical instrument development, from conception through manufacturing. It affords an original approach to creation and operation of performance models that facilitates know- how conservation through introduction of the notions of concepts (relations bases) and models (computation tree). It eases out the everyday tasks of engineers owing to generating capabilities for performance budgets or parametric analyses and to automatic numeric code generation.

  3. Keyboard Emulation For Computerized Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, P. M.; Crouch, S. R.

    1989-01-01

    Keyboard emulator has interface at same level as manual keyboard entry. Since communication and control take place at high intelligence level in instrument, all instrument circuitry fully utilized. Little knowledge of instrument circuitry necessary, since only task interface performs is key closure. All existing logic and error checking still performed by instrument, minimizing workload of laboratory microcomputer. Timing constraints for interface operation minimal at keyboard entry level.

  4. Surface composition mapping radiometer instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The design, development, and fabrication of a three-channel scanning radiometer are discussed. The instrument was flown on Nimbus 5 satellite and measured infrared energy in the 8.3 to 9.3, 10.2 to 11.2, and 0.8 to 1.1 micron spectral regions. The instrument parameters are presented. Theoretical discussions of the instrument subassemblies are provided. Operational details of the mechanical and electrical portions of the instrument are included.

  5. A new innovative instrument for space plasma instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbert, Roy B.

    1993-01-01

    The Faraday Ring Ammeter was the subject of this grant for a new innovative instrument for space plasma instrumentation. This report summarizes our progress in this work. Briefly, we have conducted an intensive series of experiments and trials over three years, testing some five configurations of the instrument to measure currents, resulting in two Ph.D. theses, supported by this grant, and two flight configurations of the instrument. The first flight would have been on a NASA-Air Force collaborative sounding rocket, but was not flown because of instrumental difficulties. The second has been successfully integrated on the NASA Auroral Turbulence payload which is to be launched in February, 1994.

  6. A review of instrumentation kinematics of engine-driven nickel-titanium instruments.

    PubMed

    Çapar, I D; Arslan, H

    2016-02-01

    Over the years, NiTi alloys have become indispensable materials in endodontic treatment. With technological advancements in metallurgy, manufacturers have attempted to produce instruments with enhanced features. In parallel with these developments, endodontic motors have undergone improvements in terms of torque control and kinematics that are adjustable in different directions. This review presents an overview of the advancements in instrumentation kinematics and the effect of instrumentation kinematics on root canal shaping procedures and instrument performance. The literature search for this narrative review was conducted in Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science using the keywords 'kinematics and endodontics' and 'reciprocation and endodontics'. In addition, historical literature was searched using the keyword 'nickel-titanium and endodontics'. Overall, 143 articles were included up to 2015. PMID:25630977

  7. Miniature spectroscopic instrumentation: Applications to biology and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, Christina P.; Mattley, Yvette; DeFrece, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Spectroscopy is a fundamental analytical tool utilized throughout all of the sciences. For chemistry and biology alone, there are thousands of applications. In the past two decades there have been monumental advances in the miniaturization of components used in spectrophotometric systems. The key components include detector arrays, laser diodes, and fiber optics. Currently, there are numerous commercially available miniature spectrometer systems as well as discrete components that are used by researchers in designing their own systems. A comprehensive summary of current instrumentation available for the design and development of miniaturized spectroscopy applications is described, including detectors, wavelength discriminating components, light sources, and sampling assemblies. Recommendations are made for designing spectrometer systems for specific applications. Current literature is reviewed for chemical and biological applications specifically using miniaturized spectrometer systems with the focus being on ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectrometers. The applications include laboratory applications, environmental sensing, on-site industrial analyses, botany and ecology applications, and finally clinical and biochemical studies. Additionally, microspectrometers, two-dimensional arrays, and photonics crystals are discussed in regards to their future role in chemistry and biology applications.

  8. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  9. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  10. Spacecraft instrument calibration and stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, J. C.; Feldman, P.; Hudson, R.; Lean, J.; Madden, R.; Mcmaster, L.; Mount, G.; Rottman, G.; Simon, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    The following topics are covered: instrument degradation; the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) Experiment; the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS); the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 1 (SAGE-1) and SAGE-2 instruments; the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UV ozone and near infrared airglow instruments; and the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS).

  11. Instruments for Water Quality Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sidney L.; Mack, Dick A.

    1975-01-01

    This discussion gives a general picture of the instrumentation available or being developed for measuring the four major categories of water pollutants: metals, nutrients, pesticides and oxygen demand. The instruments are classified as follows: manually operated laboratory analyzers, automated laboratory instrumentation, manual field monitors, and…

  12. Instrument Remote Control via the Astronomical Instrument Markup Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sall, Ken; Ames, Troy; Warsaw, Craig; Koons, Lisa; Shafer, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project ongoing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Information Systems Center (ISC) supports NASA's mission by defining an adaptive intranet-based framework that provides robust interactive and distributed control and monitoring of remote instruments. An astronomical IRC architecture that combines the platform-independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of Extensible Markup Language (XML) to express hierarchical data in an equally platform-independent, as well as human readable manner, has been developed. This architecture is implemented using a variety of XML support tools and Application Programming Interfaces (API) written in Java. IRC will enable trusted astronomers from around the world to easily access infrared instruments (e.g., telescopes, cameras, and spectrometers) located in remote, inhospitable environments, such as the South Pole, a high Chilean mountaintop, or an airborne observatory aboard a Boeing 747. Using IRC's frameworks, an astronomer or other scientist can easily define the type of onboard instrument, control the instrument remotely, and return monitoring data all through the intranet. The Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (AIML) is the first implementation of the more general Instrument Markup Language (IML). The key aspects of our approach to instrument description and control applies to many domains, from medical instruments to machine assembly lines. The concepts behind AIML apply equally well to the description and control of instruments in general. IRC enables us to apply our techniques to several instruments, preferably from different observatories.

  13. MODIS instrument status and operational activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, William L.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Salomonson, Vincent V.

    2004-10-01

    The Terra MODIS and Aqua MODIS have been successfully operated on-orbit for a total of more than six and a half years, collecting data for the science and applications communities to develop and enhance their understanding of the Earth/atmosphere system and to support studies of the climate and climate changes. Since its launch in December 1999, the Terra MODIS has experienced several changes of its operational configuration either caused by the failure of individual electronics subsystems or purposely switched for better signal response or data quality. Excluding minor anomalies related to instrument reset events during initial on-orbit operation, the Aqua MODIS has been operating in a single configuration since its launch in May 2002. There are approximately 40 science products that are being produced using the calibrated data sets from each instrument. In addition, several products are generated using the combined observations from both instruments. This paper provides an overview of Terra and Aqua MODIS instrument status and summarizes those on-orbit operational activities designed and implemented to provide and support instrument calibration and characterization. The assessments of instrument performance are based on the use of on-board calibrators (OBC) and other activities specially developed and implemented by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) at NASA/GSFC. Both instruments are performing well. During four and a half years of Terra MODIS on-orbit operation, 11 detectors became noisy and one inoperable out of a total of 490 detectors. Except for band 6 at 1.6m that had many inoperable detectors (identified pre-launch and immediately after launch), there have been no new noisy or inoperable detectors in Aqua MODIS during its two years of on-orbit operation. The sensors' spectral and spatial performance have also been very stable.

  14. Unexpected Analyte Oxidation during Desorption Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pasilis, Sofie P; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2008-01-01

    During the analysis of surface spotted analytes using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS), abundant ions are sometimes observed that appear to be the result of oxygen addition reactions. In this investigation, the effect of sample aging, the ambient lab environment, spray voltage, analyte surface concentration, and surface type on this oxidative modification of spotted analytes, exemplified by tamoxifen and reserpine, during analysis by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was studied. Simple exposure of the samples to air and to ambient lighting increased the extent of oxidation. Increased spray voltage lead also to increased analyte oxidation, possibly as a result of oxidative species formed electrochemically at the emitter electrode or in the gas - phase by discharge processes. These oxidative species are carried by the spray and impinge on and react with the sampled analyte during desorption/ionization. The relative abundance of oxidized species was more significant for analysis of deposited analyte having a relatively low surface concentration. Increasing spray solvent flow rate and addition of hydroquinone as a redox buffer to the spray solvent were found to decrease, but not entirely eliminate, analyte oxidation during analysis. The major parameters that both minimize and maximize analyte oxidation were identified and DESI-MS operational recommendations to avoid these unwanted reactions are suggested.

  15. The QUIET Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, T.; Kangaslahti, P.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leitch, E. M.; Wollack, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ( approx 1 deg.) . Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4 m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 micro Ks(exp 1/2)) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0.1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 micro Ks(exp 1/2) at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0.01 (QUIET Collaboration 2012) The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range l approximately equals 25-975 . These are the largest HEMT-ba.sed arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument,

  16. Instrumentation for Submillimeter Polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dragovan, M.; Novak, G.

    1984-01-01

    During the last two years three instruments were built and operated for detection of polarization in the submillimeter to millimeter wavelength bands. In principle, simply rotating a polarizing grid in front of the detector would be sufficient to determine the state of linear polarization. In practice severe systematic problems are found with this approach. Everything in the light path has potential for inducing polarization. The telescope, apertures in the lightpath, and the Winston light collectors all introduce systematic errors. (The polarization/depolarization induced by these devices is due to diffraction and the finite conductivity of the metals used). Two of the polarimeters are for use on the KAO; the third is for the IRTF on Mauna Kea. The airplane polarimeters, M1 and M2, were specifically designed to minimize the systematic errors. The ground based polarimeter uses our f/35 photometer with an external polarizing grid as the analyzer. With all three instruments the key to success is the data collector and analysis scheme.

  17. An Instrumental Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Think of guitars and you think of rock and country music, or the vigorous rhythms of the gypsy flamenco, or perhaps the classical strumming of a Segovia. About the last thing you would associate with guitars is aerospace technology. Yet there is a connection. A whole family of quality guitars is an outgrowth of helicopter rotor research conducted for the military services and NASA by an aerospace contractor. These musical spinoffs, commercially available and rapidly gaining in popularity, are the Ovation guitar line, manufactured by Ovation Instruments, Inc., Bloomfield, Connecticut. Ovation Instruments is a subsidiary of Kaman Corporation, a diversified company originally formed to develop and build helicopters. A helicopter's rotor system, with thousands of moving parts, is highly susceptible to vibration. For rotor efficiency, vibration must be "dampened," or reduced. Like other helicopter builders, Kaman Corporation spent years of research toward that end. The technology thus developed, together with the availability of staff experts in vibration engineering, sparked an idea in the mind of the company's president and founder, Charles H. Karnan. A guitarist of professional caliber, Kaman reasoned that vibration-dampening technology could be turned around to enhance vibration and thereby produce a guitar with superior sound.

  18. The QUIET Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, C.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ({approx}1{sup o}). Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2}) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0:1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2} at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0:01. The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range {ell} {approx} 25 -- 975. These are the largest HEMT-based arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument.

  19. Tunable lasers and their application in analytical chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinfeld, J. I.

    1975-01-01

    The impact that laser techniques might have in chemical analysis is examined. Absorption, scattering, and heterodyne detection is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the advantages of using frequency-tunable sources, and dye solution lasers are regarded as the outstanding example of this type of laser. Types of spectroscopy that can be carried out with lasers are discussed along with the ultimate sensitivity or minimum detectable concentration of molecules that can be achieved with each method. Analytical applications include laser microprobe analysis, remote sensing and instrumental methods such as laser-Raman spectroscopy, atomic absorption/fluorescence spectrometry, fluorescence assay techniques, optoacoustic spectroscopy, and polarization measurements. The application of lasers to spectroscopic methods of analysis would seem to be a rewarding field both for research in analytical chemistry and for investments in instrument manufacturing.

  20. Analytical model of internally coupled ears.

    PubMed

    Vossen, Christine; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; van Hemmen, J Leo

    2010-08-01

    Lizards and many birds possess a specialized hearing mechanism: internally coupled ears where the tympanic membranes connect through a large mouth cavity so that the vibrations of the tympanic membranes influence each other. This coupling enhances the phase differences and creates amplitude differences in the tympanic membrane vibrations. Both cues show strong directionality. The work presented herein sets out the derivation of a three dimensional analytical model of internally coupled ears that allows for calculation of a complete vibration profile of the membranes. The analytical model additionally provides the opportunity to incorporate the effect of the asymmetrically attached columella, which leads to the activation of higher membrane vibration modes. Incorporating this effect, the analytical model can explain measurements taken from the tympanic membrane of a living lizard, for example, data demonstrating an asymmetrical spatial pattern of membrane vibration. As the analytical calculations show, the internally coupled ears increase the directional response, appearing in large directional internal amplitude differences (iAD) and in large internal time differences (iTD). Numerical simulations of the eigenfunctions in an exemplary, realistically reconstructed mouth cavity further estimate the effects of its complex geometry. PMID:20707461

  1. Analytical aspects of the CEEM soil project.

    PubMed

    Muntau, H; Rehnert, A; Desaules, A; Wagner, G; Theocharopoulos, S; Quevauviller, P

    2001-01-01

    In the past, exercises aiming at an assessment of data uncertainty in environmental analysis were usually restricted to the analysis step, while sampling and pre-analytical sample treatment was largely ignored. Collaborative studies on the quantification of sampling errors require, besides a suitable and well characterized test site, the availability of a reference laboratory for the analysis of all of the samples taken in the context of the study by all participants and also test methods which do not contribute large and variable uncertainties due to long and complex analytical methodologies. Here we summarize the major analytical aspects of a European project on the identification and quantification of sampling influences on the determination of lead, cadmium, copper and zinc in soil. The participant group included the leading soil analysis laboratories in Europe; the test site at Dornach (CH) was well suited for the purpose and showed high metal gradients and differentiated land use. The analytical methods (wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and solid-state Zeeman AAS) used in the study showed stable performance characteristics within the confidence interval of the certified reference materials used for the measurement quality control over the entire project period. Additionally, double-blind tests on split samples showed agreement of data in very narrow limits thus demonstrating the reliability of the reference database. PMID:11213186

  2. Analytical advances in pharmaceutical impurity profiling.

    PubMed

    Holm, René; Elder, David P

    2016-05-25

    Impurities will be present in all drug substances and drug products, i.e. nothing is 100% pure if one looks in enough depth. The current regulatory guidance on impurities accepts this, and for drug products with a dose of less than 2g/day identification of impurities is set at 0.1% levels and above (ICH Q3B(R2), 2006). For some impurities, this is a simple undertaking as generally available analytical techniques can address the prevailing analytical challenges; whereas, for others this may be much more challenging requiring more sophisticated analytical approaches. The present review provides an insight into current development of analytical techniques to investigate and quantify impurities in drug substances and drug products providing discussion of progress particular within the field of chromatography to ensure separation of and quantification of those related impurities. Further, a section is devoted to the identification of classical impurities, but in addition, inorganic (metal residues) and solid state impurities are also discussed. Risk control strategies for pharmaceutical impurities aligned with several of the ICH guidelines, are also discussed. PMID:26690047

  3. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  4. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  5. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  6. Ophthalmic instruments: an assessment of radiation emissions and potential hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, O.L.; Memmen, J.E.; Waxler, M.

    1988-12-01

    This report discusses the following: the optical radiation emitted by a variety of ophthalmic instruments were measured and compared to current safety standards. In addition, a survey of clinical diagnostic examination times was conducted to compare exposure safe times to visible lesion threshold. It was demonstrated that excessive levels of ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) radiation could be emitted and should be eliminated. Several of the instruments emitted levels of visible radiation that resulted in very short safe times and could exceed the visible lesion threshold. Four experiments demonstrated instrument operating conditions that would reduce the potential for ocular hazards from ophthalmic instruments.

  7. Sources Sought for Innovative Scientific Instrumentation for Scientific Lunar Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C.

    1993-01-01

    Lunar rovers should be designed as integrated scientific measurement systems that address scientific goals as their main objective. Scientific goals for lunar rovers are presented. Teleoperated robotic field geologists will allow the science team to make discoveries using a wide range of sensory data collected by electronic 'eyes' and sophisticated scientific instrumentation. rovers need to operate in geologically interesting terrain (rock outcrops) and to identify and closely examine interesting rock samples. Enough flight-ready instruments are available to fly on the first mission, but additional instrument development based on emerging technology is desirable. Various instruments that need to be developed for later missions are described.

  8. Dynamic Stability Instrumentation System (DSIS). Volume 3; User Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Taumi S.; Boyden, Richmond P.; Dress, David A.; Jordan, Thomas L.

    1996-01-01

    The paper is an operating manual for the Dynamic Stability Instrumentation System in specific NASA Langley wind tunnels. The instrumentation system performs either a synchronous demodulation or a Fast Fourier Transform on dynamic balance strain gage signals, and ultimately computes aerodynamic coefficients. The dynamic balance converts sting motor rotation into pitch or yaw plane or roll axis oscillation, with timing information provided by a shaft encoder. Additional instruments control model attitude and balance temperature and monitor sting vibrations. Other instruments perform self-calibration and diagnostics. Procedures for conducting calibrations and wind-off and wind-on tests are listed.

  9. A Multilaboratory Comparison of Calibration Accuracy and the Performance of External References in Analytical Ultracentrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huaying; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Alfonso, Carlos; Arisaka, Fumio; Attali, Ilan; Bain, David L.; Bakhtina, Marina M.; Becker, Donald F.; Bedwell, Gregory J.; Bekdemir, Ahmet; Besong, Tabot M. D.; Birck, Catherine; Brautigam, Chad A.; Brennerman, William; Byron, Olwyn; Bzowska, Agnieszka; Chaires, Jonathan B.; Chaton, Catherine T.; Cölfen, Helmut; Connaghan, Keith D.; Crowley, Kimberly A.; Curth, Ute; Daviter, Tina; Dean, William L.; Díez, Ana I.; Ebel, Christine; Eckert, Debra M.; Eisele, Leslie E.; Eisenstein, Edward; England, Patrick; Escalante, Carlos; Fagan, Jeffrey A.; Fairman, Robert; Finn, Ron M.; Fischle, Wolfgang; de la Torre, José García; Gor, Jayesh; Gustafsson, Henning; Hall, Damien; Harding, Stephen E.; Cifre, José G. Hernández; Herr, Andrew B.; Howell, Elizabeth E.; Isaac, Richard S.; Jao, Shu-Chuan; Jose, Davis; Kim, Soon-Jong; Kokona, Bashkim; Kornblatt, Jack A.; Kosek, Dalibor; Krayukhina, Elena; Krzizike, Daniel; Kusznir, Eric A.; Kwon, Hyewon; Larson, Adam; Laue, Thomas M.; Le Roy, Aline; Leech, Andrew P.; Lilie, Hauke; Luger, Karolin; Luque-Ortega, Juan R.; Ma, Jia; May, Carrie A.; Maynard, Ernest L.; Modrak-Wojcik, Anna; Mok, Yee-Foong; Mücke, Norbert; Nagel-Steger, Luitgard; Narlikar, Geeta J.; Noda, Masanori; Nourse, Amanda; Obsil, Tomas; Park, Chad K.; Park, Jin-Ku; Pawelek, Peter D.; Perdue, Erby E.; Perkins, Stephen J.; Perugini, Matthew A.; Peterson, Craig L.; Peverelli, Martin G.; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Prag, Gali; Prevelige, Peter E.; Raynal, Bertrand D. E.; Rezabkova, Lenka; Richter, Klaus; Ringel, Alison E.; Rosenberg, Rose; Rowe, Arthur J.; Rufer, Arne C.; Scott, David J.; Seravalli, Javier G.; Solovyova, Alexandra S.; Song, Renjie; Staunton, David; Stoddard, Caitlin; Stott, Katherine; Strauss, Holger M.; Streicher, Werner W.; Sumida, John P.; Swygert, Sarah G.; Szczepanowski, Roman H.; Tessmer, Ingrid; Toth, Ronald T.; Tripathy, Ashutosh; Uchiyama, Susumu; Uebel, Stephan F. W.; Unzai, Satoru; Gruber, Anna Vitlin; von Hippel, Peter H.; Wandrey, Christine; Wang, Szu-Huan; Weitzel, Steven E.; Wielgus-Kutrowska, Beata; Wolberger, Cynthia; Wolff, Martin; Wright, Edward; Wu, Yu-Sung; Wubben, Jacinta M.; Schuck, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a first principles based method to determine absolute sedimentation coefficients and buoyant molar masses of macromolecules and their complexes, reporting on their size and shape in free solution. The purpose of this multi-laboratory study was to establish the precision and accuracy of basic data dimensions in AUC and validate previously proposed calibration techniques. Three kits of AUC cell assemblies containing radial and temperature calibration tools and a bovine serum albumin (BSA) reference sample were shared among 67 laboratories, generating 129 comprehensive data sets. These allowed for an assessment of many parameters of instrument performance, including accuracy of the reported scan time after the start of centrifugation, the accuracy of the temperature calibration, and the accuracy of the radial magnification. The range of sedimentation coefficients obtained for BSA monomer in different instruments and using different optical systems was from 3.655 S to 4.949 S, with a mean and standard deviation of (4.304 ± 0.188) S (4.4%). After the combined application of correction factors derived from the external calibration references for elapsed time, scan velocity, temperature, and radial magnification, the range of s-values was reduced 7-fold with a mean of 4.325 S and a 6-fold reduced standard deviation of ± 0.030 S (0.7%). In addition, the large data set provided an opportunity to determine the instrument-to-instrument variation of the absolute radial positions reported in the scan files, the precision of photometric or refractometric signal magnitudes, and the precision of the calculated apparent molar mass of BSA monomer and the fraction of BSA dimers. These results highlight the necessity and effectiveness of independent calibration of basic AUC data dimensions for reliable quantitative studies. PMID:25997164

  10. A multilaboratory comparison of calibration accuracy and the performance of external references in analytical ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huaying; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Alfonso, Carlos; Arisaka, Fumio; Attali, Ilan; Bain, David L; Bakhtina, Marina M; Becker, Donald F; Bedwell, Gregory J; Bekdemir, Ahmet; Besong, Tabot M D; Birck, Catherine; Brautigam, Chad A; Brennerman, William; Byron, Olwyn; Bzowska, Agnieszka; Chaires, Jonathan B; Chaton, Catherine T; Cölfen, Helmut; Connaghan, Keith D; Crowley, Kimberly A; Curth, Ute; Daviter, Tina; Dean, William L; Díez, Ana I; Ebel, Christine; Eckert, Debra M; Eisele, Leslie E; Eisenstein, Edward; England, Patrick; Escalante, Carlos; Fagan, Jeffrey A; Fairman, Robert; Finn, Ron M; Fischle, Wolfgang; de la Torre, José García; Gor, Jayesh; Gustafsson, Henning; Hall, Damien; Harding, Stephen E; Cifre, José G Hernández; Herr, Andrew B; Howell, Elizabeth E; Isaac, Richard S; Jao, Shu-Chuan; Jose, Davis; Kim, Soon-Jong; Kokona, Bashkim; Kornblatt, Jack A; Kosek, Dalibor; Krayukhina, Elena; Krzizike, Daniel; Kusznir, Eric A; Kwon, Hyewon; Larson, Adam; Laue, Thomas M; Le Roy, Aline; Leech, Andrew P; Lilie, Hauke; Luger, Karolin; Luque-Ortega, Juan R; Ma, Jia; May, Carrie A; Maynard, Ernest L; Modrak-Wojcik, Anna; Mok, Yee-Foong; Mücke, Norbert; Nagel-Steger, Luitgard; Narlikar, Geeta J; Noda, Masanori; Nourse, Amanda; Obsil, Tomas; Park, Chad K; Park, Jin-Ku; Pawelek, Peter D; Perdue, Erby E; Perkins, Stephen J; Perugini, Matthew A; Peterson, Craig L; Peverelli, Martin G; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Prag, Gali; Prevelige, Peter E; Raynal, Bertrand D E; Rezabkova, Lenka; Richter, Klaus; Ringel, Alison E; Rosenberg, Rose; Rowe, Arthur J; Rufer, Arne C; Scott, David J; Seravalli, Javier G; Solovyova, Alexandra S; Song, Renjie; Staunton, David; Stoddard, Caitlin; Stott, Katherine; Strauss, Holger M; Streicher, Werner W; Sumida, John P; Swygert, Sarah G; Szczepanowski, Roman H; Tessmer, Ingrid; Toth, Ronald T; Tripathy, Ashutosh; Uchiyama, Susumu; Uebel, Stephan F W; Unzai, Satoru; Gruber, Anna Vitlin; von Hippel, Peter H; Wandrey, Christine; Wang, Szu-Huan; Weitzel, Steven E; Wielgus-Kutrowska, Beata; Wolberger, Cynthia; Wolff, Martin; Wright, Edward; Wu, Yu-Sung; Wubben, Jacinta M; Schuck, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a first principles based method to determine absolute sedimentation coefficients and buoyant molar masses of macromolecules and their complexes, reporting on their size and shape in free solution. The purpose of this multi-laboratory study was to establish the precision and accuracy of basic data dimensions in AUC and validate previously proposed calibration techniques. Three kits of AUC cell assemblies containing radial and temperature calibration tools and a bovine serum albumin (BSA) reference sample were shared among 67 laboratories, generating 129 comprehensive data sets. These allowed for an assessment of many parameters of instrument performance, including accuracy of the reported scan time after the start of centrifugation, the accuracy of the temperature calibration, and the accuracy of the radial magnification. The range of sedimentation coefficients obtained for BSA monomer in different instruments and using different optical systems was from 3.655 S to 4.949 S, with a mean and standard deviation of (4.304 ± 0.188) S (4.4%). After the combined application of correction factors derived from the external calibration references for elapsed time, scan velocity, temperature, and radial magnification, the range of s-values was reduced 7-fold with a mean of 4.325 S and a 6-fold reduced standard deviation of ± 0.030 S (0.7%). In addition, the large data set provided an opportunity to determine the instrument-to-instrument variation of the absolute radial positions reported in the scan files, the precision of photometric or refractometric signal magnitudes, and the precision of the calculated apparent molar mass of BSA monomer and the fraction of BSA dimers. These results highlight the necessity and effectiveness of independent calibration of basic AUC data dimensions for reliable quantitative studies. PMID:25997164

  11. The vertical accelerometer, a new instrument for air navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laboccetta, Letterio

    1923-01-01

    This report endeavors to show the possibility of determining the rate of acceleration and the advantage of having such an accelerometer in addition to other aviation instruments. Most of the discussions concern balloons.

  12. Integrated battlefield-effects research for the National Training Center. Appendix B. Requirements design specification for the addition of nuclear and chemical capabilities to the National Training Center (NTC) Core Instrumentation Subsystem (CIS). Technical report, 13 June 1983-30 December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.; Ickler, J.; McKeown, P.; Metzger, L.; Plock, R.

    1984-12-31

    Research performed to evaluate and develop enhancements for integrated battlefield training at the U.S. Army National Training Center is described. These enhancements had been identified and concepts developed for their application in earlier phases of this research. This report consists of the basic volume summarizing the research tasks, approach, results, conclusions, and recommendations; plus twelve appendices. This document assumes that the requirements specified in the Core Instrumentation Subsystem Requirements Design Specification (RDS) dated 24 May 1982 with Live-Fire Supplement dated 1 December 1982 would be effective in the operational system used when implementing the requirements specified for nuclear/chemical processing. All basic requirements of the current 500 Player System with Live Fire enhancements, which accommodates a total of 400 players and 75 units per history (with a total of 1023 players across all histories) will be maintained in the 500 Player System which incorporates NBC capabilities.

  13. Applications of the Analytical Electron Microscope to Materials Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, J. I.

    1992-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the analytical electron microscope (AEM) as allowed investigators to obtain chemical and structural information from less than 50 nanometer diameter regions in thin samples of materials and to explore problems where reactions occur at boundaries and interfaces or within small particles or phases in bulk samples. Examples of the application of the AEM to materials science problems are presented in this paper and demonstrate the usefulness and the future potential of this instrument.

  14. Analytical techniques for direct identification of biosignatures and microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid, C.; Garcia-Descalzo, L.; Garcia-Lopez, E.; Postigo, M.; Alcazar, A.; Baquero, F.

    2012-09-01

    Rover missions to potentially habitable ecosystems require portable instruments that use minimal power, require no sample preparation, and provide suitably diagnostic information to an Earth-based exploration team. In exploration of terrestrial analogue environments of potentially habitable ecosystems it is important to screen rapidly for the presence of biosignatures and microorganisms and especially to identify them accurately. In this study, several analytical techniques for the direct identification of biosignatures and microorganisms in different Earth analogues of habitable ecosystems are compared.

  15. The Case for Assessment Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Cath

    2013-01-01

    Learning analytics is a relatively new field of inquiry and its precise meaning is both contested and fluid (Johnson, Smith, Willis, Levine & Haywood, 2011; LAK, n.d.). Ferguson (2012) suggests that the best working definition is that offered by the first Learning Analytics and Knowledge (LAK) conference: "the measurement, collection,…

  16. Understanding Education Involving Geovisual Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenliden, Linnea

    2013-01-01

    Handling the vast amounts of data and information available in contemporary society is a challenge. Geovisual Analytics provides technology designed to increase the effectiveness of information interpretation and analytical task solving. To date, little attention has been paid to the role such tools can play in education and to the extent to which…

  17. Time-of-flight diffractometer with multiple pulse overlap - an example for the application of modern tools for instrument design

    SciTech Connect

    Stuhr, U.; Bauer, G.S.; Wagner, W.

    1997-09-01

    A Time-of-Flight Diffractometer with high pulse rates, allowing multiple frame overlap, is a completely novel design of an instrument dedicated for high resolution strain-field mapping. We elaborated a detailed concept of this instrument applying analytical calculations and Monte Carlo computer simulations. Having established the instrument concept, the computer simulations will now be extended to optimize the total performance of the instrument. To illustrate the necessity and possibilities of applying modem tools for instrument design, we describe, as an example, the different steps towards the development of the detailed design of this instrument, which we intend to build at the Swiss spallation. source SINQ in the near future.

  18. XEUS mission and instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Peacock, Anthony J.; Parmar, Arvind N.; Beijersbergen, Marco W.

    2002-01-01

    The X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy mission (XEUS) is an ambitious project under study by the European Space Agency (ESA), which aims to probe the distant hot universe with comparable sensitivity to NGST and ALMA. The effective optical area and angular resolution required to perform this task is 30 m2 effective area and <5 inch angular resolution respectively at 1 keV. The single Wolter-I X-ray telescope having these characteristics will be equipped with large area semiconductor detectors and high-resolution cryogenic imaging spectrometers with 2 eV resolution at 1 keV. A novel approach to mission design has been developed, placing the detector instruments on one dedicated spacecraft and the optics on another. The International Space Station (ISS) with the best ever-available infrastructure in space will be used to expand the mirror diameter from 4.5 m to 10 m, by using the European Robotic Arm on the ISS. The detector spacecraft (DSC) uses solar-electric propulsion to maintain its position while flying in formation with the mirror spacecraft. The detector instruments are protected from straylight and contamination by sophisticated baffles and filters, and employing the Earth as a shield to make the most sensitive low energy X-ray observations of the heavily red-shifted universe. After completion of an initial observation phase lasting 5 years, the mirror spacecraft will be upgraded (basically expanded to a full 10 m diameter mirror) at the ISS, while the DSC is replaced by a new spacecraft with a new suite of detector instruments optimised to the full area XEUS mirror. An industrial feasibility study was successfully completed and identified no major problem area. Current activities focus on a full system level study and the necessary technology developments. XEUS is likely to become a truly global mission, involving many of the partners that have teamed up to build the ISS. Japan is already a major partner int the study of XEUS, with ISAS having its main

  19. Robotic servicing of EOS instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razzaghi, Andrea I.; Juberts, Maris

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses robotic servicing of the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) instruments. The goals of implementing a robotic servicing system on EOS would be to maintain the instruments throughout the required mission life and minimize life-cycle costs. To address robot servicing, an initial design concept has been developed which will be applied to a representative EOS instrument. This instrument will be used as a model for determining the most practical level of servicing of its parts, and how to design these parts for robot servicing. Using this representative EOS instrument as a model, a generic design scheme will be developed that can be applied to all EOS instruments. The first task is to determine how to identify which parts must be designed for robot servicing. Next, the requirements imposed on the instruments and the servicing robot when designing for robot serviceability must be examined.

  20. Characterisation of an inlet pre-injector laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the measurement of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novelli, A.; Hens, K.; Tatum Ernest, C.; Kubistin, D.; Regelin, E.; Elste, T.; Plass-Dülmer, C.; Martinez, M.; Lelieveld, J.; Harder, H.

    2014-10-01

    Atmospheric measurements of hydroxyl radicals (OH) are challenging due to a high reactivity and consequently low concentration. The importance of OH as an atmospheric oxidant has motivated a sustained effort leading to the development of a number of highly sensitive analytical techniques. Recent work has indicated that the laser-induced fluorescence of the OH molecules method based on the fluorescence assay by gas expansion technique (LIF-FAGE) for the measurement of atmospheric OH in some environments may be influenced by artificial OH generated within the instrument, and a chemical method to remove this interference was implemented in a LIF-FAGE system by Mao et al. (2012). While it is not clear whether other LIF-FAGE instruments suffer from the same interference, we have applied this method to our LIF-FAGE HORUS (Hydroxyl Radical Measurement Unit based on fluorescence Spectroscopy) system, and developed and deployed an inlet pre-injector (IPI) to determine the chemical zero level in the instrument via scavenging the ambient OH radical. We describe and characterise this technique in addition to its application at field sites in forested locations in Finland, Spain and Germany. Ambient measurements show that OH generated within the HORUS instrument is a non-negligible fraction of the total OH signal, which can comprise 30 to 80% during daytime and 60 to 100% during the night. The contribution of the background OH varied greatly between measurement sites and was likely related to the type and concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present at each particular location. Two inter-comparisons in contrasting environments between the HORUS instrument and two different chemical ionisation mass spectrometers (CIMS) are described to demonstrate the efficacy of IPI and the necessity of the chemical zeroing method for our LIF-FAGE instrument in such environments.

  1. Miniaturized Environmental Monitoring Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    C. B. Freidhoff

    1997-09-01

    The objective of the Mass Spectrograph on a Chip (MSOC) program is the development of a miniature, multi-species gas sensor fabricated using silicon micromachining technology which will be orders of magnitude smaller and lower power consumption than a conventional mass spectrometer. The sensing and discrimination of this gas sensor are based on an ionic mass spectrograph, using magnetic and/or electrostatic fields. The fields cause a spatial separation of the ions according to their respective mass-to-charge ratio. The fabrication of this device involves the combination of microelectronics with micromechanically built sensors and, ultimately, vacuum pumps. The prototype of a chemical sensor would revolutionize the method of performing environmental monitoring for both commercial and government applications. The portable unit decided upon was the miniaturized gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector, referred to as a GC/MS in the analytical marketplace.

  2. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  3. The identification of musical instruments through nucleus cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Grasmeder, M L; Lutman, M E

    2006-09-01

    In this study, self-reported ability to recognize musical instruments was investigated by means of a questionnaire, which was sent to a group of adult Nucleus cochlear implant users and a group of normally hearing subjects. In addition, spectrograms and electrodograms were produced and analysed for samples of music played on 10 different musical instruments. Self-reported ability to recognize some instruments was poor in the group of implant users, particularly for the saxophone, tuba and clarinet. Electrodograms showed that these instruments could only be identified using distorted spectral information or reduced temporal information. Other instruments, such as the drum and piano, could be identified using temporal information. Limited spectral resolution makes the recognition of musical instruments difficult for Nucleus implant users. PMID:18792382

  4. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  5. Sentinel-1 Instrument Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeij, Paul; Torres, Ramon; Geudtner, Dirk; Brown, Michael; Deghaye, Patrick; Navas-Traver, Ignacio; Ostergaard, Allan; Rommen, Bjorn; Floury, Nicolas; Davidson, Malcolm

    2013-03-01

    The forthcoming European Space Agency (ESA) Sentinel-1 (S-1) C-band SAR constellation will provide continuous all-weather day/night global coverage, with six days exact repetition time (near daily coverage over Europe and Canada) and with radar data delivery within 3 to 24 hours. These features open new possibilities for operational maritime services. The Sentinel-1 space segment has been designed and is being built by an industrial consortium with Thales Alenia Space Italia as prime contractor and EADS Astrium GmbH as C-SAR instrument responsible. It is expected that Sentinel-1A be launched in 2013. This paper will provide an overview of the Sentinel-1 system, the status and characteristics of the technical implementation. The key elements of the system supporting the maritime user community will be highlighted.

  6. Instrumentation and radiopharmaceutical validation.

    PubMed

    Zigler, S S

    2009-08-01

    Although the promise of new positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents is great, the process of bringing these agents to commercialization remains in its infancy. There are no PET products today that have gone through the full clinical and chemistry development process required to gain marketing approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The purpose of this paper was to review validation from the perspective of the chemistry, manufacturing and controls (CMC) section of an FDA filing, as well as the validation requirements described in FDA good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations, guidance documents and general chapters of the US Pharmacopeia (USP). The review includes discussion of validation from development to commercial production of PET radiopharmaceuticals with a special emphasis on equipment and instrumentation used in production and testing. The goal is to stimulate a dialog that leads to the standardization of industry practices and regulatory requirements for validation practices in PET. PMID:19834450

  7. Well surveying instrument sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Poquette, R.S.

    1981-01-20

    A surveying instrument sensor which includes a gimbal supported for rotation within a casing, a torquer coupled to rotate the gimbal with a first two-axis flexure suspended gyro supported on the gimbal with its spin axis perpendicular to the axis of the gimbal and one of its sensitive axes aligned with the axis of the gimbal, a second two-axis flexure suspended gyro disposed on the gimbal with its spin axis alinged with the axis of the gimbal and having two sensitive axes outputs orthogonal thereto. The output of the first gyro is coupled to the torquer to form a gimbal stabilized loop and the outputs and torquing inputs of the second gimbal coupled into rate capture loops with output signals obtained from the rate captured loops permitting fast and accurate surveying of a well pipe.

  8. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CORE INSTRUMENT

    DOEpatents

    Mims, L.S.

    1961-08-22

    A multi-purpose instrument for measuring neutron flux, coolant flow rate, and coolant temperature in a nuclear reactor is described. The device consists essentially of a hollow thimble containing a heat conducting element protruding from the inner wall, the element containing on its innermost end an amount of fissionsble materinl to function as a heat source when subjected to neutron flux irradiation. Thermocouple type temperature sensing means are placed on the heat conducting element adjacent the fissionable material and at a point spaced therefrom, and at a point on the thimble which is in contact with the coolant fluid. The temperature differentials measured between the thermocouples are determinative of the neutron flux, coolant flow, and temperature being measured. The device may be utilized as a probe or may be incorporated in a reactor core. (AE C)

  9. Portable musical instrument amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Christian, David E.

    1990-07-24

    The present invention relates to a musical instrument amplifier which is particularly useful for electric guitars. The amplifier has a rigid body for housing both the electronic system for amplifying and processing signals from the guitar and the system's power supply. An input plug connected to and projecting from the body is electrically coupled to the signal amplifying and processing system. When the plug is inserted into an output jack for an electric guitar, the body is rigidly carried by the guitar, and the guitar is operatively connected to the electrical amplifying and signal processing system without use of a loose interconnection cable. The amplifier is provided with an output jack, into which headphones are plugged to receive amplified signals from the guitar. By eliminating the conventional interconnection cable, the amplifier of the present invention can be used by musicians with increased flexibility and greater freedom of movement.

  10. LANDSAT instruments characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Work performed for the LANDSAT instrument characterization task in the areas of absolute radiometry, coherent noise analysis, and between-date smoothing is reported. Absolute radiometric calibration for LANDSAT-5 TM under ambient conditions was performed. The TM Radiometric Algorithms and Performance Program (TRAPP) was modified to create optional midscan data files and to match the TM Image Processing System (TIPS) algorithm for pulse determination. Several data reduction programs were developed, including a linear regression and its plotted result. A fast Fourier transformation study was conducted on the resequenced TM data. Subscenes of homogeneous water within scenes over Pensacola, Florida were used for testing the FFT on the resequenced data. Finally, a gain and pulse height stability study of LANDSAT 5 TM spectral bands was performed.

  11. Instrumented Architectural Simulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delagi, B. A.; Saraiya, N.; Nishimura, S.; Byrd, G.

    1987-01-01

    Simulation of systems at an architectural level can offer an effective way to study critical design choices if (1) the performance of the simulator is adequate to examine designs executing significant code bodies, not just toy problems or small application fragements, (2) the details of the simulation include the critical details of the design, (3) the view of the design presented by the simulator instrumentation leads to useful insights on the problems with the design, and (4) there is enough flexibility in the simulation system so that the asking of unplanned questions is not suppressed by the weight of the mechanics involved in making changes either in the design or its measurement. A simulation system with these goals is described together with the approach to its implementation. Its application to the study of a particular class of multiprocessor hardware system architectures is illustrated.

  12. Evaluation of two gas-dilution methods for instrument calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Two gas dilution methods were evaluated for use in the calibration of analytical instruments used in air pollution studies. A dual isotope fluorescence carbon monoxide analyzer was used as the transfer standard. The methods are not new but some modifications are described. The rotary injection gas dilution method was found to be more accurate than the closed loop method. Results by the two methods differed by 5 percent. This could not be accounted for by the random errors in the measurements. The methods avoid the problems associated with pressurized cylinders. Both methods have merit and have found a place in instrument calibration work.

  13. Impact of new instrumentation on advanced turbine research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of an orderly test program that progresses from the simplest stationary geometry to the more complex, three dimensional, rotating turbine stage. The instrumentation requirements for this evolution of testing are described. The heat transfer instrumentation is emphasized. Recent progress made in devising new measurement techniques has greatly improved the development and confirmation of more accurate analytical methods for the prediction of turbine performance and heat transfer. However, there remain challenging requirements for novel measurement techniques that could advance the future research to be done in rotating blade rows of turbomachines.

  14. Status of the Neutron Imaging and Diffraction Instrument IMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kockelmann, Winfried; Burca, Genoveva; Kelleher, Joe F.; Kabra, Saurabh; Zhang, Shu-Yan; Rhodes, Nigel J.; Schooneveld, Erik M.; Sykora, Jeff; Pooley, Daniel E.; Nightingale, Jim B.; Aliotta, Francesco; Ponterio, Rosa C.; Salvato, Gabriele; Tresoldi, Dario; Vasi, Cirino; McPhate, Jason B.; Tremsin, Anton S.

    A cold neutron imaging and diffraction instrument, IMAT, is currently being constructed at the ISIS second target station. IMAT will capitalize on time-of-flight transmission and diffraction techniques available at a pulsed neutron source. Analytical techniques will include neutron radiography, neutron tomography, energy-selective neutron imaging, and spatially resolved diffraction scans for residual strain and texture determination. Commissioning of the instrument will start in 2015, with time-resolving imaging detectors and two diffraction detector prototype modules. IMAT will be operated as a user facility for material science applications and will be open for developments of time-of-flight imaging methods.

  15. Ideology as instrument.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Michael; Karno, Donna

    2007-12-01

    Comments on the article by J. T. Jost, which argued that the end-of-ideology claims that emerged in the aftermath of World War II were both incorrect and detrimental to the field of political psychology. M. Glassman and D. Karno make three critical points. First, Jost objectified ideology as a grand strategy implemented at the individual level, rather than as an instrument used for a specific purpose in activity. In doing so, he set ideology up as an "object" that guides human behavior rather than as a rational part of human experience. Second, they take issue with the idea that, because somebody acts in a manner that can be categorized as ideological, there actually is such a thing as ideology separate from that event and/or political experience and that psychologists ought to understand the meaning of ideology in order to understand future human activities as outside observers. Third, Jost seems to see this objective ideology as a unidirectional, causal mechanism for activity, a mechanism that assumes individuals act according to ideology, which eclipses the possibility that immediate ideological positions are the residue of purposeful activity. Glassman and Karno suggest that it may be better to take a pluralistic view of ideology in human action. Where ideology does exist, it is as a purposeful instrument--part of a logically based action to meet some ends-in-view--a mixture of immediate goals tied to secondary belief systems (which have been integrated to serve the material purposes of the purveyors of these ideologies). So if we are to understand ideology, we can only understand it through its use in human activity. PMID:18085858

  16. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  17. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  18. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  19. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  20. Instruments for assessment of auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Frederick, J A; Killeen, M R

    1998-10-01

    The study of individual symptoms of schizophrenia, such as auditory hallucinations, can contribute to effective treatment strategies. We review existing instruments for the assessment of characteristics and dimensions of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders and describe their psychometric properties and implications for their use in clinical research and practice. In addition, three widely used global measurement scales for symptoms of schizophrenia, each of which contain questions that pertain to hallucinations, are included. PMID:9793212

  1. Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides a brief summary of the utility of a wideband active and passive (radar and radiometer, respectively) instrument (8-40 GHz) to support the snow science community. The effort seeks to improve snow measurements through advanced calibration and expanded frequency of active and passive sensors and to demonstrate their science utility through airborne retrievals of snow water equivalent (SWE). In addition the effort seeks to advance the technology readiness of broadband current sheet array (CSA) antenna technology for spaceflight applications.

  2. HYDROSAT - An instrument platform for hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsby, J. P.; Engman, E. T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses a multisensor satellite approach for the study of hydrological applications. Spectral as well as spatial and temporal characteristics of specific operational and planned instruments applicable to hydrology are presented. A hydrology specific series of sensors are proposed to fill the gaps not covered by the current and planned systems. We have called this hypothetical platform HYDROSAT. In addition, the trade-offs between a geostationary satellite and a polar orbiter are explored.

  3. Instrumentation and control systems, equipment location; instrumentation and control building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Instrumentation and control systems, equipment location; instrumentation and control building, instrumentation room, bays and console plan. Specifications No. Eng-04-353-55-72; drawing no. 60-09-12; sheet 110 of 148; file no. 1321/61. Stamped: Record drawing - as constructed. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Control Center, Test Area 1-115, near Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. Virtual Instrument Simulator for CERES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J.

    1997-01-01

    A benchtop virtual instrument simulator for CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) has been built at NASA, Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA. The CERES instruments will fly on several earth orbiting platforms notably NASDA's Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. CERES measures top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes using microprocessor controlled scanning radiometers. The CERES Virtual Instrument Simulator consists of electronic circuitry identical to the flight unit's twin microprocessors and telemetry interface to the supporting spacecraft electronics and two personal computers (PC) connected to the I/O ports that control azimuth and elevation gimbals. Software consists of the unmodified TRW developed Flight Code and Ground Support Software which serves as the instrument monitor and NASA/TRW developed engineering models of the scanners. The CERES Instrument Simulator will serve as a testbed for testing of custom instrument commands intended to solve in-flight anomalies of the instruments which could arise during the CERES mission. One of the supporting computers supports the telemetry display which monitors the simulator microprocessors during the development and testing of custom instrument commands. The CERES engineering development software models have been modified to provide a virtual instrument running on a second supporting computer linked in real time to the instrument flight microprocessor control ports. The CERES Instrument Simulator will be used to verify memory uploads by the CERES Flight Operations TEAM at NASA. Plots of the virtual scanner models match the actual instrument scan plots. A high speed logic analyzer has been used to track the performance of the flight microprocessor. The concept of using an identical but non-flight qualified microprocessor and electronics ensemble linked to a virtual instrument with identical system software affords a relatively inexpensive

  5. Virtual instrument simulator for CERES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, John J.

    1997-12-01

    A benchtop virtual instrument simulator for CERES (clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system) has been built at NASA, Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The CERES instruments will fly on several earth orbiting platforms notably NASDA's tropical rainfall measurement mission (TRMM) and NASA's Earth observing system (EOS) satellites. CERES measures top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes using microprocessor controlled scanning radiometers. The CERES virtual instrument simulator consists of electronic circuitry identical to the flight unit's twin microprocessors and telemetry interface to the supporting spacecraft electronics and two personal computers (PC) connected to the I/O ports that control azimuth and elevation gimbals. Software consists of the unmodified TRW developed flight code and ground support software which serves as the instrument monitor and NASA/TRW developed engineering models of the scanners. The CERES instrument simulator will serve as a testbed for testing of custom instrument commands intended to solve in-flight anomalies of the instruments which could arise during the CERES mission. One of the supporting computers supports the telemetry display which monitors the simulator microprocessors during the development and testing of custom instrument commands. The CERES engineering development software models have been modified to provide a virtual instrument running on a second supporting computer linked in real time to the instrument flight microprocessor control ports. The CERES instrument simulator will be used to verify memory uploads by the CERES flight operations TEAM at NASA. Plots of the virtual scanner models match the actual instrument scan plots. A high speed logic analyzer has been used to track the performance of the flight microprocessor. The concept of using an identical but non-flight qualified microprocessor and electronics ensemble linked to a virtual instrument with identical system software affords a relatively

  6. New software solutions for analytical spectroscopists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Antony N.

    1999-05-01

    Analytical spectroscopists must be computer literate to effectively carry out the tasks assigned to them. This has often been resisted within organizations with insufficient funds to equip their staff properly, a lack of desire to deliver the essential training and a basic resistance amongst staff to learn the new techniques required for computer assisted analysis. In the past these problems were compounded by seriously flawed software which was being sold for spectroscopic applications. Owing to the limited market for such complex products the analytical spectroscopist often was faced with buying incomplete and unstable tools if the price was to remain reasonable. Long product lead times meant spectrometer manufacturers often ended up offering systems running under outdated and sometimes obscure operating systems. Not only did this mean special staff training for each instrument where the knowledge gained on one system could not be transferred to the neighbouring system but these spectrometers were often only capable of running in a stand-alone mode, cut-off from the rest of the laboratory environment. Fortunately a number of developments in recent years have substantially changed this depressing picture. A true multi-tasking operating system with a simple graphical user interface, Microsoft Windows NT4, has now been widely introduced into the spectroscopic computing environment which has provided a desktop operating system which has proved to be more stable and robust as well as requiring better programming techniques of software vendors. The opening up of the Internet has provided an easy way to access new tools for data handling and has forced a substantial re-think about results delivery (for example Chemical MIME types, IUPAC spectroscopic data exchange standards). Improved computing power and cheaper hardware now allows large spectroscopic data sets to be handled without too many problems. This includes the ability to carry out chemometric operations in

  7. Pancreatitis Quality of Life Instrument: Development of a new instrument

    PubMed Central

    Bova, Carol; Barton, Bruce; Hartigan, Celia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The goal of this project was to develop the first disease-specific instrument for the evaluation of quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. Methods: Focus groups and interview sessions were conducted, with chronic pancreatitis patients, to identify items felt to impact quality of life which were subsequently formatted into a paper-and-pencil instrument. This instrument was used to conduct an online survey by an expert panel of pancreatologists to evaluate its content validity. Finally, the modified instrument was presented to patients during precognitive testing interviews to evaluate its clarity and appropriateness. Results: In total, 10 patients were enrolled in the focus groups and interview sessions where they identified 50 items. Once redundant items were removed, the 40 remaining items were made into a paper-and-pencil instrument referred to as the Pancreatitis Quality of Life Instrument. Through the processes of content validation and precognitive testing, the number of items in the instrument was reduced to 24. Conclusions: This marks the development of the first disease-specific instrument to evaluate quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. It includes unique features not found in generic instruments (economic factors, stigma, and spiritual factors). Although this marks a giant step forward, psychometric evaluation is still needed prior to its clinical use. PMID:26770703

  8. Advancements in the safe identification of explosives using a Raman handheld instrument (ACE-ID)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnó, Josep; Frunzi, Michael; Kittredge, Marina; Sparano, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify bulk solid and liquid phase unknown samples without the need to contact the substance. Materials can be identified through transparent and semi-translucent containers such as plastic and glass. ConOps in emergency response and military field applications require the redesign of conventional laboratory units for: field portability; shock, thermal and chemical attack resistance; easy and intuitive use in restrictive gear; reduced size, weight, and power. This article introduces a new handheld instrument (ACE-IDTM) designed to take Raman technology to the next level in terms of size, safety, speed, and analytical performance. ACE-ID is ruggedized for use in severe climates and terrains. It is lightweight and can be operated with just one hand. An intuitive software interface guides users through the entire identification process, making it easy-to-use by personnel of different skill levels including military explosive ordinance disposal technicians, civilian bomb squads and hazmat teams. Through the use of embedded advanced algorithms, the instrument is capable of providing fluorescence correction and analysis of binary mixtures. Instrument calibration is performed automatically upon startup without requiring user intervention. ACE-ID incorporates an optical rastering system that diffuses the laser energy over the sample. This important innovation significantly reduces the heat induced in dark samples and the probability of ignition of susceptible explosive materials. In this article, the explosives identification performance of the instrument will be provided in addition to a quantitative evaluation of the safety improvements derived from the reduced ignition probabilities.

  9. The Science of Analytic Reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Chinchor, Nancy; Pike, William A.

    2009-09-23

    The challenge of visually communicating analysis results is central to the ability of visual analytics tools to support decision making and knowledge construction. The benefit of emerging visual methods will be improved through more effective exchange of the insights generated through the use of visual analytics. This paper outlines the major requirements for next-generation reporting systems in terms of eight major research needs: the development of best practices, design automation, visual rhetoric, context and audience, connecting analysis to presentation, evidence and argument, collaborative environments, and interactive and dynamic documents. It also describes an emerging technology called Active Products that introduces new techniques for analytic process capture and dissemination.

  10. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  11. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  12. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  13. [Biologically active food additives].

    PubMed

    Velichko, M A; Shevchenko, V P

    1998-07-01

    More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776

  14. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  15. Hydrocarbon fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, S.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes the method of fuel storage or combustion, wherein the fuel supply contains small amounts of water, the step of adding to the fuel supply an additive comprising a blend of a hydrophilic agent chosen from the group of ethylene glycol, n-butyl alcohol, and cellosolve in the range of 22-37% by weight; ethoxylated nonylphenol in the range of 26-35% by weight; nonylphenol polyethylene glycol ether in the range of 32-43% by weight.

  16. Hanford analytical sample projections FY 1996 - FY 2001. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, S.M.

    1997-07-02

    This document summarizes the biannual Hanford sample projections for fiscal year 1997-2001. Sample projections are based on inputs submitted to Analytical Services covering Environmental Restoration, Tank Wastes Remediation Systems, Solid Wastes, Liquid Effluents, Spent Nuclear Fuels, Transition Projects, Site Monitoring, Industrial Hygiene, Analytical Services and miscellaneous Hanford support activities. In addition to this revision, details on Laboratory scale technology (development), Sample management, and Data management activities were requested. This information will be used by the Hanford Analytical Services program and the Sample Management Working Group to assure that laboratories and resources are available and effectively utilized to meet these documented needs.

  17. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  18. Implementation of an Environmental Focus in an Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum by the Addition of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atterholt, Cynthia; Butcher, David J.; Bacon, J. Roger; Kwochka, William R.; Woosley, Royce

    2000-12-01

    The Department Chemistry and Physics at Western Carolina University has added an environmental focus to its curriculum, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was identified as an essential tool in environmental analysis. GC-MS is used in undergraduate chemistry courses in: (i) the identification of synthesized compounds and natural products, (ii) monitoring compounds and their degradation in the environment, and (iii) analytical method development. In Organic Chemistry, the GC-MS is used to characterize natural products and the products of an environmentally benign chemical synthesis. In Environmental Chemistry, the GC-MS is used to identify compounds of environmental interest, such as pesticides in soil samples, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, and hydrocarbons in gasoline samples. In Instrumental Analysis I, students characterize numerous compounds in cigarette smoke using GC-MS. In Instrumental Analysis II, students are presented with an analytical chemistry problem for which they research protocols, collect samples, and perform the analyses. The GC-MS has been used to identify volatile compounds in a number of complex mixtures. Also, research in chemistry is a significant part of our curriculum, and numerous undergraduate students have used the GC-MS in their research. The addition of GC-MS has enhanced many of our undergraduate laboratory courses and student-led research projects.

  19. Gaseous analytes of concern at Hanford Tank Farms. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Large amounts of toxic and radioactive waste materials are stored in underground tanks at DOE sites. When the vapors in the tank headspaces vent to the open atmosphere a potentially dangerous situation can occur for personnel in the area. An open-path atmospheric pollution monitor is being developed for DOE to monitor the open air space above these tanks. In developing this monitor it is important to know what hazardous gases are most likely to be found in dangerous concentrations. These gases are called the Analytes of Concern. At the present time, measurements in eight tanks have detected thirty-one analytes in at least two tanks and fifteen analytes in only one tank. In addition to these gases, Carbon tetrachloride is considered to be an Analyte of Concern because it permeates the ground around the tanks. These Analytes are described and ranked according to a Hazard Index which combines their vapor pressure, density, and approximate danger level. The top sixteen ranked analytes which have been detected in at least two tanks comprise an {open_quotes}Analytes of Concern Test List{close_quotes} for determining the system performance of the atmospheric pollution monitor under development. A preliminary examination of the infrared spectra, barring atmospheric interferences, indicates that: The pollution monitor will detect all forty-seven Analytes!

  20. Evolution of Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliuk, Shannon; Makarov, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    We discuss the evolution of OrbitrapTM mass spectrometry (MS) from its birth in the late 1990s to its current role as one of the most prominent techniques for MS. The Orbitrap mass analyzer is the first high-performance mass analyzer that employs trapping of ions in electrostatic fields. Tight integration with the ion injection process enables the high-resolution, mass accuracy, and sensitivity that have become essential for addressing analytical needs in numerous areas of research, as well as in routine analysis. We examine three major families of instruments (related to the LTQ Orbitrap, Q Exactive, and Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometers) in the context of their historical development over the past ten eventful years. We discuss as well future trends and perspectives of Orbitrap MS. We illustrate the compelling potential of Orbitrap-based mass spectrometers as (ultra) high-resolution platforms, not only for high-end proteomic applications, but also for routine targeted analysis.

  1. An instrument for digital matrix photometry.

    PubMed

    Neeley, W E; Epstein, D; Zettner, A

    1981-10-01

    A new instrument was conceived and designed for quantitative measurement of chromophoric areas or colored spots such as are produced in (e.g.) thin-layer chromatography. The areas to be measured are subdivided grid-like into small subunits, and the absorbance of each of these is measured. The sum of absorbances for all subunits is directly proportional to the total amount of light-absorbing substances in a spot. The absorbances of the subunits are measured with a photodetector that contains hundreds of microscopically small photodiodes, arranged in a precise geometric array. The photodiode array is interfaced with a computer via an analog-to-digital converter for numerically integrating the individual signals from each photodiode. With this analytical system, quantitation of light-absorbing substance is accurate and precise for areas of different sizes, shapes, and internal irregularity. PMID:7285317

  2. Two Radiative/Thermochemical Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapphorn, Ralph M.; Janoff, Dwight D.; Shelley, Richard M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of absorption and emission complement thermal measurements. Two laboratory instruments for research in combustion and pyrolysis equipped for radiative as well as thermal measurements. One instrument essentially differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) modified to detect radiation emitted by flames. Provides means to evaluate limits of flammability of materials exhibiting exothermic reactions in DSC's. Other instrument used to determine pyrolysis properties of specimens exposed to various gases by measurement of infrared absorption spectra of pyrolysis products.

  3. Instrumentation in Frontal Sinus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tajudeen, Bobby A; Adappa, Nithin D

    2016-08-01

    Frontal recess dissection proposes many challenges to the surgeon. These challenges stem from its highly variable nature, small caliber, difficult visualization, and proximity to vital structures such as the skull base and orbit. As such, delicate mucosal-sparing dissection of the frontal recess with proper instrumentation is paramount to minimize scar formation and ensure patency. Here, the article explores key instrumentation in frontal recess surgery with an emphasis on hand instruments and adjunctive technologies. PMID:27329980

  4. Experimenting with string musical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2012-03-01

    What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a Science of Sound & Light course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when used in physics, represent reality that can actually be observed, in this case, the operation of string musical instruments.

  5. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  6. Radiological instrument. Patent Application

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, S.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Siebentritt, C.R.

    1985-10-10

    This patent application discloses a radiological measuring instrument including an angularly variable radiation-sensitive structure comprised of two blocks of material having a different index of refraction with one of the materials comprising a radiochromic substance whose refractive index changes through anomolous dispersion as a result of being exposed to radiation. The ratio of the two indices of refraction is selected to be close to unity, with the radiation-sensitive structure being pivotally adjusted so that light is directed into one end of the block comprising the material having the greater index of refraction. This element, moreover, is selected to be clear and transparent with the incident angle being close to the critical angle where total reflection of all incident light occurs. A portion of the incident light is furthermore projected through the clear transparent block without reflection, with the two beams emerging from the other end of the block, where they are detected. Exposure to radiation changes the index of refraction of the radiochromic block and accordingly the reflected energy emerging therefrom. Calibrated readjustment of the angle of incidence provides a measure of the sensed radiation.

  7. Halo vest instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huston, Dryver R.; Krag, Martin

    1996-05-01

    The halo vest is a head and neck immobilization system that is often used on patients that are recovering from cervical trauma or surgery. The halo vest system consists of a rigid halo that is firmly attached to the skull, an upright support structure for stabilization and immobilization, and a torso-enveloping vest. The main purpose of this study was to measure the forces that are carried by the halo-vest structure as the subject undergoes various activities of daily living and external loading for different vest designs. A tethered strain gage load cell based instrumentation system was used to take these load measurements on ten different subjects. Three different halo-vest systems were evaluated. The primary difference between the vests was the amount of torso coverage and the use of shoulder straps. The loads were measured, analyzed and used to compare the vests and to create a model of halo-vest-neck mechanics. Future applications of this technology to standalone data logging, pin-load measuring and biofeedback applications are discussed.

  8. The tissue diagnostic instrument

    PubMed Central

    Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A.; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peña, M. Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection. PMID:19485522

  9. Optical distance measuring instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An optical instrument, such as a stability monitor or a target range finder, uses an unstabilized laser to project a composite optical signal of coherent light having two naturally occurring longitudinal mode components. A beamsplitter divides the signal into a reference beam which is directed toward one photodetector and a transmitted beam which illuminates and is reflected from a distant target onto a second photodetector optically isolated from the first photodetector. Both photodetectors are operated on the square law principle to provide electrical signals modulated at a frequency equal to the separation between the frequencies of the two longitudinal mode components of the optical signal projected by the laser. Slight movement of the target may be detected and measured by electrically monitoring the phase difference between the two signals provided by the photodetectors and the range of the target measured with the aid of a microprocessor by changing the separation between the longitudinal modes by shifting the length of the resonator cavity in an iterative series of increments.

  10. The tissue diagnostic instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A.; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peña, M. Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

    2009-05-01

    Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection.

  11. Ultrasonics and space instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The design topic selected was an outgrowth of the experimental design work done in the Fluid Behavior in Space experiment, which relies on the measurement of minute changes of the pressure and temperature to obtain reasonably accurate volume determinations. An alternative method of volume determination is the use of ultrasonic imaging. An ultrasonic wave system is generated by wall mounted transducer arrays. The interior liquid configuration causes reflection and refraction of the pattern so that analysis of the received wave system provides a description of the configuration and hence volume. Both continuous and chirp probe beams were used in a laboratory experiment simulating a surface wetting propellant. The hardware included a simulated tank with gaseous voids, transmitting and receiving transducers, transmitters, receivers, computer interface, and computer. Analysis software was developed for image generation and interpretation of results. Space instrumentation was pursued in support of a number of experiments under development for GAS flights. The program included thirty undergraduate students pursuing major qualifying project work under the guidance of eight faculty supported by a teaching assistant. Both mechanical and electrical engineering students designed and built several microprocessor systems to measure parameters such as temperature, acceleration, pressure, velocity, and circulation in order to determine combustion products, vortex formation, gas entrainment, EMR emissions from thunderstorms, and milli-g-accelerations due to crew motions.

  12. Liposomes: Technologies and Analytical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesorka, Aldo; Orwar, Owe

    2008-07-01

    Liposomes are structurally and functionally some of the most versatile supramolecular assemblies in existence. Since the beginning of active research on lipid vesicles in 1965, the field has progressed enormously and applications are well established in several areas, such as drug and gene delivery. In the analytical sciences, liposomes serve a dual purpose: Either they are analytes, typically in quality-assessment procedures of liposome preparations, or they are functional components in a variety of new analytical systems. Liposome immunoassays, for example, benefit greatly from the amplification provided by encapsulated markers, and nanotube-interconnected liposome networks have emerged as ultrasmall-scale analytical devices. This review provides information about new developments in some of the most actively researched liposome-related topics.

  13. Laboratory Workhorse: The Analytical Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Douglas W.

    1979-01-01

    This report explains the importance of various analytical balances in the water or wastewater laboratory. Stressed is the proper procedure for utilizing the equipment as well as the mechanics involved in its operation. (CS)

  14. Analytic Methods in Investigative Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests an alternative proof by analytic methods, which is more accessible than rigorous proof based on Euclid's Elements, in which students need only apply standard methods of trigonometry to the data without introducing new points or lines. (KHR)

  15. Analytical Chemistry: A Literary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucy, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides an anthology of references to descriptions of analytical chemistry techniques from history, popular fiction, and film which can be used to capture student interest and frame discussions of chemical techniques. (WRM)

  16. Cautions Concerning Electronic Analytical Balances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bruce B.; Wells, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Cautions chemists to be wary of ferromagnetic samples (especially magnetized samples), stray electromagnetic radiation, dusty environments, and changing weather conditions. These and other conditions may alter readings obtained from electronic analytical balances. (JN)

  17. Instrumentation advances for transonic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobbitt, Percy J.

    1989-01-01

    New and improved instrumentation, like new and improved wind tunnels, provide capabilities which stimulate innovative research and discovery. During the past few years there have been a number of instrumentation developments which have aided and abetted the acquisition of more accurate aerodynamic data and have led to new physical insights as well. Some of these advances are reviewed, particularly in the area of thin film gages, hot wire anemometry, and laser instrumentation. A description is given of the instruments and/or techniques and some sample results are shown.

  18. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Surveys the range of electronic calculators currently available and their capabilities. Prices range from $20.00 to $800.00, and functions performed range from the four arithmetic operations to complex operations such as the computation of standard deviation, vector addition, and programs with up to 100 steps. (MLH)

  19. Functionalized magnetic nanoparticle analyte sensor

    DOEpatents

    Yantasee, Wassana; Warner, Maryin G; Warner, Cynthia L; Addleman, Raymond S; Fryxell, Glen E; Timchalk, Charles; Toloczko, Mychailo B

    2014-03-25

    A method and system for simply and efficiently determining quantities of a preselected material in a particular solution by the placement of at least one superparamagnetic nanoparticle having a specified functionalized organic material connected thereto into a particular sample solution, wherein preselected analytes attach to the functionalized organic groups, these superparamagnetic nanoparticles are then collected at a collection site and analyzed for the presence of a particular analyte.

  20. Visual Analytics Technology Transition Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtz, Jean; Cook, Kristin A.; Whiting, Mark A.; Lemon, Douglas K.; Greenblatt, Howard

    2009-09-23

    The authors provide a description of the transition process for visual analytic tools and contrast this with the transition process for more traditional software tools. This paper takes this into account and describes a user-oriented approach to technology transition including a discussion of key factors that should be considered and adapted to each situation. The progress made in transitioning visual analytic tools in the past five years is described and the challenges that remain are enumerated.