Science.gov

Sample records for additionally future studies

  1. Future Spacelift Requirements Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This study addresses future space applications and the derived requirements these potential applications will have on future spacelift systems. This NASA sponsored activity is a comprehensive study of potential missions including those of the military, civil, and commercial users. The study objectively evaluated the key architectural requirements for future launch systems. The results of this study are technical, economic, and policy analyses of future spacelift systems. It is intended to assist NASA and DOD decision-makers in planning technical investments and establishing policy for future U.S. spacelift systems.

  2. Additional Technologies and Investigations for Provision of Future Aeronautical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Tricia; Jin, Jenny; Berger, Jason; Henriksen, Steve

    2008-01-01

    The following NASA Contractor Report documents the in-depth studies on select technologies that could support long-term aeronautical mobile communications operating concepts. This work was performed during the third and final phase of NASA s Technology Assessment for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)/EUROCONTROL Future Communications Study (FCS) under a multiyear NASA contract. It includes the associated findings of ITT Corporation and NASA Glenn Research Center to the FAA as of the end of May 2007. The activities documented in this report focus on three final technology candidates identified by the United States, and were completed before sufficient information about two additional technology candidates proposed by EUROCONTROL was made available. A separate report to be published by NASA/CR-2008-215144, entitled Final Report on Technology Investigations for Provision of Future Aeronautical Communications will include an assessment of all five final candidate technologies considered by the U.S. agencies (FAA and NASA) and EUROCONTROL. It will also provide an overview of the entire technology assessment process, including final recommendations. All three phases of this work were performed in compliance with the Terms of Reference for the Action Plan number 17 (AP-17) cooperative research agreement among EUROCONTROL, FAA, and NASA along with the general guidance of the FAA and EUROCONTROL available throughout this study.

  3. Addition polyimide end cap study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    The characterization of addition polyimides with various end caps for adhesive applications at 120-250 C environments is discussed. Oligometric polyimides were prepared from 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,3'-methylenedianiline which were end-capped with functionally reactive moities which cause crosslinking when the oligomers are heated to 200-400 C. The syntheses of the oligomers are outlined. The thermolysis of the oligomers was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and the resulting polymers were characterized by differential thermal analysis and adhesive performance. The adhesive data include lap shear strengths on titanium 6-4 adherends both before and after aging for 1000 hours at 121 C and/or 232 C.

  4. Development of Future Curriculum via Futures Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siraj, Saedah; Abdullah, Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim

    2011-01-01

    Observation on best future choices is not something that happens by chance; in fact, it should be carried out through careful planning driven by research. Therefore, observation on future curriculum would also involve in-depth research on future possibilities and their impact. Policy makers and curriculum developers of institutions or even the…

  5. 17 CFR 41.25 - Additional conditions for trading for security futures products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... trading for security futures products. 41.25 Section 41.25 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SECURITY FUTURES PRODUCTS Requirements and Standards for Listing Security Futures Products § 41.25 Additional conditions for trading for security futures products. (a)...

  6. Sustainability of the Sugar Industry: Future Value Addition from Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With changing sugar markets in the U.S. and around the world, innovation and environmental protection through value-addition and diversification will be crucial for the sustainability of the sugarcane industry. Commercial sucrose has very high purity (>99.9%) making it the purest organic substance ...

  7. 17 CFR 1.23 - Interest of futures commission merchant in segregated futures customer funds; additions and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interest of futures commission merchant in segregated futures customer funds; additions and withdrawals. 1.23 Section 1.23 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY...

  8. Additional EIPC Study Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W; Gotham, Douglas J.; Luciani, Ralph L.

    2014-12-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 14 topics was developed for further analysis. This paper brings together the earlier interim reports of the first 13 topics plus one additional topic into a single final report.

  9. 17 CFR 1.23 - Interest of futures commission merchant in segregated funds; additions and withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interest of futures commission merchant in segregated funds; additions and withdrawals. 1.23 Section 1.23 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Customers' Money, Securities, and Property §...

  10. 17 CFR 1.23 - Interest of futures commission merchant in segregated funds; additions and withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Interest of futures commission merchant in segregated funds; additions and withdrawals. 1.23 Section 1.23 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Customers' Money, Securities, and Property §...

  11. Future Studies and Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jeanne

    1981-01-01

    Compares and discusses implications of future scenarios proposed by Herman Kahn and the Hudson River Institute and by the Club of Rome. Includes a decision-tree exercise appropriate for the classroom which involves five different future scenarios. (DC)

  12. Urban phenological studies - Past, present, future.

    PubMed

    Jochner, Susanne; Menzel, Annette

    2015-08-01

    Phenology is believed to be a suitable bio-indicator to track climate change. Based on the strong statistical association between phenology and temperature phenological observations provide an inexpensive means for the temporal and spatial analysis of the urban heat island. However, other environmental factors might also weaken this relationship. In addition, the investigation of urban phenology allows an estimation of future phenology from current information since cities with their amplified temperatures may serve as a proxy for future conditions. Nevertheless, the design of spatial compared to long-term studies might be influenced by different factors which should be taken into consideration when interpreting results from a specific study. In general, plants located in urban areas tend to flush and bloom earlier than in the countryside. What are the consequences of these urban-rural differences? This review will document existing findings on urban phenology and will highlight areas in which further research is needed. PMID:25624020

  13. Resources for Gifted Students Studying the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallent-Runnels, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the rationale for studying futures education and resources and methods to support these studies. The author presents several reasons to study futures education, some good Web sites that teachers and students can use, and lists a few books about the future accompanied by brief descriptions. Some suggested activities and tips…

  14. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  15. Future Studies in the K-12 Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, John D.

    This guide is designed to help elementary and secondary school teachers and curriculum developers plan units on the future. It is presented in five sections. Section I discusses the origins of the modern futures movement and the concepts of future studies, time dimensions, global approach, self-fulfilling and self-defeating forecasts, and types of…

  16. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.; Sandor, D.; Wiser, R.; Schneider, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  17. Future payload technology requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Technology advances needed for an overall mission model standpoint as well as those for individual shuttle payloads are defined. The technology advances relate to the mission scientific equipment, spacecraft subsystems that functionally support this equipment, and other payload-related equipment, software, and environment necessary to meet broad program objectives. In the interest of obtaining commonality of requirements, the study was structured according to technology categories rather than in terms of individual payloads.

  18. Renewable Electricity Futures Study - Volume One

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hand, Maureen; Mai, Treui; Baldwin, Sam; Brinkman, Greg; Sandor, Debbie; Denholm, Paul; Heath, Garvin; Wiser, Ryan

    2016-06-01

    Renewable Electricity Futures Study - Volume One. This is part of a series of four volumes describing exploring a high-penetration renewable electricity future for the United States of America. This data set is provides data for the entire volume one document and includes all data for the charts and graphs included in the document.

  19. 17 CFR 1.23 - Interest of futures commission merchant in segregated futures customer funds; additions and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE... base, the general trading activity of the customers, the types of markets and products traded by the customers, the proprietary trading of the futures commission merchant, the general volatility and...

  20. Structure Property Studies for Additively Manufactured Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Milenski, Helen M; Schmalzer, Andrew Michael; Kelly, Daniel

    2015-08-17

    Since the invention of modern Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes engineers and designers have worked hard to capitalize on the unique building capabilities that AM allows. By being able to customize the interior fill of parts it is now possible to design components with a controlled density and customized internal structure. The creation of new polymers and polymer composites allow for even greater control over the mechanical properties of AM parts. One of the key reasons to explore AM, is to bring about a new paradigm in part design, where materials can be strategically optimized in a way that conventional subtractive methods cannot achieve. The two processes investigated in my research were the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process and the Direct Ink Write (DIW) process. The objectives of the research were to determine the impact of in-fill density and morphology on the mechanical properties of FDM parts, and to determine if DIW printed samples could be produced where the filament diameter was varied while the overall density remained constant.

  1. The role and future of the Laser Technology in the Additive Manufacturing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Gideon N.

    The Additive Manufacturing (AM) was, in the early days, strongly inspired by upcoming laser technologies. The trend to apply lasers in manufacturing in the 1970's might be also be seen as the ignition point, as is evident in early precedent patents. During the evolvement of AM processes, many new systems based on various physical principals were evident; alternative energy sources for AM are in use today. Starting with the 'historical' background followed by a detailed classification analyzing the enablers in use, relevant laser technologies have been identified. This paper focuses on powder bed technologies for plastics and metals as the relevant Laser technology. It concentrates on laser influences and state-of-the-art knowledge. The paper will present a generalized, 'big picture' overview indicating 'lessons learned' and where future emphasis should be focused. Opportunities and challenges, including actual development status, will be described in view of the desired outcomes. Finally, future research challenges and conclusions will be stated and several relevant references for further readings will be given.

  2. Status of the Future Circular Collider Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedikt, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Following the 2013 update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the international Future Circular Collider (FCC) Study has been launched by CERN as host institute, to design an energy frontier hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new 80-100 km tunnel with a centre-of-mass energy of about 100 TeV, an order of magnitude beyond the LHC's, as a long-term goal. The FCC study also includes the design of a 90-350 GeV high-luminosity lepton collider (FCC-ee) installed in the same tunnel, serving as Higgs, top and Z factory, as a potential intermediate step, as well as an electron-proton collider option (FCC-he). The physics cases for such machines will be assessed and concepts for experiments will be developed in time for the next update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics by the end of 2018. The presentation will summarize the status of machine designs and parameters and discuss the essential technical components to be developed in the frame of the FCC study. Key elements are superconducting accelerator-dipole magnets with a field of 16 T for the hadron collider and high-power, high-efficiency RF systems for the lepton collider. In addition the unprecedented beam power presents special challenges for the hadron collider for all aspects of beam handling and machine protection. First conclusions of geological investigations and implementation studies will be presented. The status of the FCC collaboration and the further planning for the study will be outlined.

  3. 17 CFR 1.23 - Interest of futures commission merchant in segregated funds; additions and withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest of futures commission... Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Customers' Money, Securities, and Property § 1.23 Interest of futures commission merchant in...

  4. EPA's future midwestern landscapes (FML) study

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's ecological research program is initiating research to characterize ecosystem services and enable their routine consideration in environmental management and policy. The "Future Midwestern Landscapes (FML) Study" is one of four place-based studies being planned. Over a 13-st...

  5. Future Development - The PHE Improvement Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmie, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    The results of this study will be usd by KSC to provide a basis for upgrades that will enhance user operability and safety in future versions of the Propellant Handlers Ensemble or implemented as "drop-in" improvements to the existing Propellant Handlers Ensemble inventory.

  6. Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158633.html Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study Neither extra chemotherapy drug nor add-on ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Additional treatments for locally advanced pancreatic cancer don't appear to boost survival, a new ...

  7. Additive Manufacturing in Production: A Study Case Applying Technical Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ituarte, Iñigo Flores; Coatanea, Eric; Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Partanen, Jouni

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is expanding the manufacturing capabilities. However, quality of AM produced parts is dependent on a number of machine, geometry and process parameters. The variability of these parameters affects the manufacturing drastically and therefore standardized processes and harmonized methodologies need to be developed to characterize the technology for end use applications and enable the technology for manufacturing. This research proposes a composite methodology integrating Taguchi Design of Experiments, multi-objective optimization and statistical process control, to optimize the manufacturing process and fulfil multiple requirements imposed to an arbitrary geometry. The proposed methodology aims to characterize AM technology depending upon manufacturing process variables as well as to perform a comparative assessment of three AM technologies (Selective Laser Sintering, Laser Stereolithography and Polyjet). Results indicate that only one machine, laser-based Stereolithography, was feasible to fulfil simultaneously macro and micro level geometrical requirements but mechanical properties were not at required level. Future research will study a single AM system at the time to characterize AM machine technical capabilities and stimulate pre-normative initiatives of the technology for end use applications.

  8. 17 CFR 41.25 - Additional conditions for trading for security futures products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... requiring the daily reporting of market data. (2) Regulatory trading halts. The rules of a designated... that a regulatory halt has been instituted for the underlying security; and (ii) Trading of a security futures product based on a narrow-based security index shall be halted at all times that a regulatory...

  9. MAGNETOMETRY, SELF-POTENTIAL, AND SEISMIC - ADDITIONAL GEOPHYSICAL METHODS HAVING POTENTIALLY SIGNIFICANT FUTURE UTILIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods can provide important information in agricultural settings, and the use of these techniques are becoming more and more widespread. Magnetrometry, self-potential, and seismic are three geophysical methods, all of which have the potential for substantial future use in agriculture, ...

  10. A Study of Additional Costs of Second Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly

    A study was conducted whose primary aim was to identify and explain additional costs incurred by Alberta, Canada school jurisdictions providing second language instruction in 1980. Additional costs were defined as those which would not have been incurred had the second language program not been in existence. Three types of additional costs were…

  11. Handbook for Conducting Future Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Delta Kappa, Bloomington, IN.

    This handbook is designed to aid school administrators, policy-makers, and teachers in bringing a "futures orientation" to their schools. The first part of the book describes a "futuring process" developed as a tool for examining alternative future probabilities. It consists of a series of diverging and converging techniques that alternately…

  12. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

  13. Studying Stellar Halos with Future Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greggio, Laura; Falomo, Renato; Uslenghi, Michela

    2015-08-01

    Stellar halos around galaxies retain fundamental evidence of the processes which lead to their build up. Sophisticated models of galaxy formation in a cosmological context yield quantitative predictions about various observable characteristics, including the amount of substructure, the slope of radial mass profiles and three dimensional shapes, and the properties of the stellar populations in the galaxies halos. The comparison of such models with the observations leads to constraints on the general picture of galaxy formation in the hierarchical Universe, as well as on the physical processes taking place in the halos formation. With the current observing facilities, stellar halos can be effectively probed only for a limited number of nearby galaxies. In this contribution we illustrate the progress which we expect in this field with the future large aperture ground based telescopes (E-ELT and TNT), and with JWST. In particular we adress the following issues: (I) the characterization of the stellar populations in the halos innermost regions and substructures, (ii) the measurement of the halos profiles and shapes , and the halos mass content, (iii) the study of Globular Clusters inhabiting the halos of distant galaxies. In order to assess the expected capabilities of future facilities we present the results of a set of simulated images to evaluate to which level of accuracy it will be possible to probe the halos of distant galaxies.

  14. RERF databases and implications for future studies.

    PubMed

    Katayama, H

    2012-10-01

    Many studies have been conducted by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) to assess the radiation effects on human beings of atomic bombs, and numerous data have been collected, including records of medical examinations and questionnaires, analytical results, inventories of biosamples and published or unpublished documentation. Some of those data have been stored and analysed since the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (later reorganised as RERF) was established in 1947. RERF has made an effort to establish an archival database system so that an RERF researcher can access data at any time without difficulty. Under development is a new database system with the capability to handle a very large amount of data and permit future bioinformatics analyses of data, such as that required in genomics and proteomics analyses. PMID:22914332

  15. The Pathogen-Host Interactions database (PHI-base): additions and future developments

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Martin; Pant, Rashmi; Raghunath, Arathi; Irvine, Alistair G.; Pedro, Helder; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E.

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly evolving pathogens cause a diverse array of diseases and epidemics that threaten crop yield, food security as well as human, animal and ecosystem health. To combat infection greater comparative knowledge is required on the pathogenic process in multiple species. The Pathogen-Host Interactions database (PHI-base) catalogues experimentally verified pathogenicity, virulence and effector genes from bacterial, fungal and protist pathogens. Mutant phenotypes are associated with gene information. The included pathogens infect a wide range of hosts including humans, animals, plants, insects, fish and other fungi. The current version, PHI-base 3.6, available at http://www.phi-base.org, stores information on 2875 genes, 4102 interactions, 110 host species, 160 pathogenic species (103 plant, 3 fungal and 54 animal infecting species) and 181 diseases drawn from 1243 references. Phenotypic and gene function information has been obtained by manual curation of the peer-reviewed literature. A controlled vocabulary consisting of nine high-level phenotype terms permits comparisons and data analysis across the taxonomic space. PHI-base phenotypes were mapped via their associated gene information to reference genomes available in Ensembl Genomes. Virulence genes and hotspots can be visualized directly in genome browsers. Future plans for PHI-base include development of tools facilitating community-led curation and inclusion of the corresponding host target(s). PMID:25414340

  16. The Pathogen-Host Interactions database (PHI-base): additions and future developments.

    PubMed

    Urban, Martin; Pant, Rashmi; Raghunath, Arathi; Irvine, Alistair G; Pedro, Helder; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly evolving pathogens cause a diverse array of diseases and epidemics that threaten crop yield, food security as well as human, animal and ecosystem health. To combat infection greater comparative knowledge is required on the pathogenic process in multiple species. The Pathogen-Host Interactions database (PHI-base) catalogues experimentally verified pathogenicity, virulence and effector genes from bacterial, fungal and protist pathogens. Mutant phenotypes are associated with gene information. The included pathogens infect a wide range of hosts including humans, animals, plants, insects, fish and other fungi. The current version, PHI-base 3.6, available at http://www.phi-base.org, stores information on 2875 genes, 4102 interactions, 110 host species, 160 pathogenic species (103 plant, 3 fungal and 54 animal infecting species) and 181 diseases drawn from 1243 references. Phenotypic and gene function information has been obtained by manual curation of the peer-reviewed literature. A controlled vocabulary consisting of nine high-level phenotype terms permits comparisons and data analysis across the taxonomic space. PHI-base phenotypes were mapped via their associated gene information to reference genomes available in Ensembl Genomes. Virulence genes and hotspots can be visualized directly in genome browsers. Future plans for PHI-base include development of tools facilitating community-led curation and inclusion of the corresponding host target(s). PMID:25414340

  17. Futures markets and petroleum supply. A study of heating oil futures

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, R.D.

    1986-04-02

    The study evaluates the month-to-month performance of the wholesale heating oil market in the East Coast region over the past three winters as influenced by the price of heating oil futures traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) for New York Harbor delivery. The economic basis for the analysis is derived from a conceptual model of petroleum refiner and marketer behavior. In this model, futures trading and cash market plans are described as being jointly formulated to maximize profits and minimize risk. A comparison of price and inventory levels indicated by the model for a ''no futures'' and a ''futures'' case provides an indication of how the introduction of futures trading may have influenced petroleum markets. The study demonstrates that the ''no futures'' model provides a better explanation of actual cash market prices than does the ''futures'' model, but that the ''futures'' model provides a better explanation of inventory levels. Estimates of inventory change support a finding that petroleum suppliers are using futures to manage risk in a manner consistent with the ''futures'' model described in this paper. The fact that the ''no futures'' model provides a marginally better explanation of cash prices, however, suggests that risk attitudes still influence the petroleum supply and demand decisions of many market participants. The ''no futures'' model always performs best when the futures price is used to represent price expectations, underscoring the importance of the futures market as an information source, even to those businesses that do not trade in futures. At the same time, the magnitudes of the differences between the ''futures'' and the ''no futures'' estimates of cash prices and primary inventory change are very small, suggesting the overall influence of futures trading on petroleum supply has not been great. This conclusion is consistent with industry reports that refiners are only peripherally in the refined product futures markets.

  18. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1. Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.; Baldwin, S.; DeMeo, E.; Reilly, J. M.; Mai, T.; Arent, D.; Porro, G.; Meshek, M.; Sandor, D.

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  19. Seismic studies for Fermilab future collider projects

    SciTech Connect

    Lauh, J.; Shiltsev, V.

    1997-11-01

    Ground motion can cause significant beam emittance growth and orbit oscillations in large hadron colliders due to a vibration of numerous focusing magnets. Larger accelerator ring circumference leads to smaller revolution frequency and, e.g. for the Fermilab Very Large Hadron Collider(VLHC) 50-150 Hz vibrations are of particular interest as they are resonant with the beam betatron frequency. Seismic measurements at an existing large accelerator under operation can help to estimate the vibrations generated by the technical systems in future machines. Comparison of noisy and quiet microseismic conditions might be useful for proper choice of technical solutions for future colliders. This article presents results of wide-band seismic measurements at the Fermilab site, namely, in the tunnel of the Tevatron and on the surface nearby, and in two deep tunnels in the Illinois dolomite which is though to be a possible geological environment of the future accelerators.

  20. Airframe Noise Studies: Review and Future Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rackl, Robert G.; Miller, Gregory; Guo, Yueping; Yamamoto, Kingo

    2005-01-01

    This report contains the following information: 1) a review of airframe noise research performed under NASA's Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) program up to the year 2000, 2) a comparison of the year 1992 airframe noise predictions with those using a year 2000 baseline, 3) an assessment of various airframe noise reduction concepts as applied to the year 2000 baseline predictions, and 4) prioritized recommendations for future airframe noise reduction work. NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Program was the software used for all noise predictions and assessments. For future work, the recommendations for the immediate future focus on the development of design tools sensitive to airframe noise treatment effects and on improving the basic understanding of noise generation by the landing gear as well as on its reduction.

  1. Future Missions to Study Signposts of Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, Wesley A.

    2011-01-01

    This talk will focus on debris disks, will compare ground and space and will discuss 2 proposed missions, Exoplanetary Circumstellar Environments And Disk Explorer (EXCEDE) and Zodiac II. At least 2 missions have been proposed for disk imaging. The technology is largely in hand today. A small mission would do excellent disk science, and would test technology for a future large mission for planets.

  2. 3D Printing, Additive Manufacturing, and Solid Freeform Fabrication: The Technologies of the Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaman, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Starting in the late 1980's, several new technologies were created that have the potential to revolutionize manufacturing. These technologies are, for the most part, additive processes that build up parts layer by layer. In addition, the processes that are being touted for hard-core manufacturing are primarily laser or e-beam based processes. This presentation gives a brief history of Additive Manufacturing and gives an assessment for these technologies. These technologies initially grew out of a commercial need for rapid prototyping. This market has a different requirement for process and quality control than traditional manufacturing. The relatively poor process control of the existing commercial Additive Manufacturing equipment is a vestige of this history. This presentation discusses this history and improvements in quality over time. The emphasis will be on Additive Manufacturing processes that are being considered for direct manufacturing, which is a different market than the 3D Printing ``Makerbot'' market. Topics discussed include past and present machine sensors, materials, and operational methods that were used in the past and those that are used today to create manufactured parts. Finally, a discussion of new methods and future directions of AM is presented.

  3. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.; Wiser, R.; Sandor, D.; Brinkman, G.; Heath, G.; Denholm, P.; Hostick, D.J.; Darghouth, N.; Schlosser, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  4. Chemical warfare, past and future. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Tzihor, A.

    1992-05-15

    World War I was arena for the first use of chemical warfare. The enormous tactical success brought about by this first time use of chemical weapons caused the continued development of more sophisticated tactics and weapons in this category of unconventional warfare. This phenomenon has carried through to today. However, at present, because of technological developments, the global economic situation, and political factors, coupled with the inability of the western world to control the proliferation of chemical weapons, a situation weapon of mass destruction. Recent use by Iraq against Kurdish civilian indicates that chemical warfare is no longer limited to the battlefield. The western nations have a need to understand the risk. This paper conducts an analysis of past lessons and the factors which will affect the use of chemical warfare in the future. From this analysis, the paper reaches conclusions concerning the significant threat chemical weapons pose for the entire world in the not too distant future.

  5. Electrostatic Levitation for Studies of Additive Manufactured Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Tramel, Terri

    2014-01-01

    The electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is a unique facility for investigators studying high temperature materials. The laboratory boasts two levitators in which samples can be levitated, heated, melted, undercooled, and resolidified. Electrostatic levitation minimizes gravitational effects and allows materials to be studied without contact with a container or instrumentation. The lab also has a high temperature emissivity measurement system, which provides normal spectral and normal total emissivity measurements at use temperature. The ESL lab has been instrumental in many pioneering materials investigations of thermophysical properties, e.g., creep measurements, solidification, triggered nucleation, and emissivity at high temperatures. Research in the ESL lab has already led to the development of advanced high temperature materials for aerospace applications, coatings for rocket nozzles, improved medical and industrial optics, metallic glasses, ablatives for reentry vehicles, and materials with memory. Modeling of additive manufacturing materials processing is necessary for the study of their resulting materials properties. In addition, the modeling of the selective laser melting processes and its materials property predictions are also underway. Unfortunately, there is very little data for the properties of these materials, especially of the materials in the liquid state. Some method to measure thermophysical properties of additive manufacturing materials is necessary. The ESL lab is ideal for these studies. The lab can provide surface tension and viscosity of molten materials, density measurements, emissivity measurements, and even creep strength measurements. The ESL lab can also determine melting temperature, surface temperatures, and phase transition temperatures of additive manufactured materials. This presentation will provide background on the ESL lab and its capabilities, provide an approach to using the ESL

  6. Additional EIPC Study Analysis: Interim Report on High Priority Topics

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W

    2013-11-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 13 topics was developed for further analysis; this paper discusses the first five.

  7. BIG FROG WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND ADDITIONS, TENNESSEE AND GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, John F.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey was made of the Big Frog Wilderness Study Area and additions, Tennessee-Georgia. Geochemical sampling found traces of gold, zinc, copper, and arsenic in rocks, stream sediments, and panned concentrates, but not in sufficient quantities to indicate the presence of deposits of these metals. The results of the survey indicate that there is little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral deposits within the study area. The only apparent resources are nonmetallic commodities including rock suitable for construction materials, and small amounts of sand and gravel; however, these commodities are found in abundance outside the study area. A potential may exist for oil and natural gas at great depths, but this cannot be evaluated by the present study.

  8. Recommended Protocol for Round Robin Studies in Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Brown, Christopher U.; Slotwinski, John

    2016-01-01

    One way to improve confidence and encourage proliferation of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and parts is by generating more high quality data describing the performance of AM processes and parts. Many in the AM community see round robin studies as a way to generate large data sets while distributing the cost among the participants, thereby reducing the cost to individual users. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has conducted and participated in several of these AM round robin studies. While the results of these studies are interesting and informative, many of the lessons learned in conducting these studies concern the logistics and methods of the study and unique issues presented by AM. Existing standards for conducting interlaboratory studies of measurement methods, along with NIST’s experience, form the basis for recommended protocols for conducting AM round robin studies. The role of round robin studies in AM qualification, some of the limitations of round robin studies, and the potential benefit of less formal collaborative experiments where multiple factors, AM machine being only one, are varied simultaneously are also discussed. PMID:27274602

  9. Genotoxicity studies of the food additive ester gum.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A; Agarwal, K; Chakrabarti, J

    1992-07-01

    Ester gum (EG) is used in citrus oil-based beverage flavourings as a weighting or colouring agent. In the present study, concentrations of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight were administered orally to male Swiss albino mice, and sister chromatid exchange and chromosomal aberration were used as the cytogenetic endpoints to determine the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of the food additive. Although EG was weakly clastogenic and could induce a marginal increase in sister chromatid exchange frequencies, it was not a potential health hazard at the doses tested. PMID:1521837

  10. Making intelligent systems team players: Additional case studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra L.; Rhoads, Ron W.

    1993-01-01

    Observations from a case study of intelligent systems are reported as part of a multi-year interdisciplinary effort to provide guidance and assistance for designers of intelligent systems and their user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted to investigate issues in designing intelligent fault management systems in aerospace applications for effective human-computer interaction. The results of the initial study are documented in two NASA technical memoranda: TM 104738 Making Intelligent Systems Team Players: Case Studies and Design Issues, Volumes 1 and 2; and TM 104751, Making Intelligent Systems Team Players: Overview for Designers. The objective of this additional study was to broaden the investigation of human-computer interaction design issues beyond the focus on monitoring and fault detection in the initial study. The results of this second study are documented which is intended as a supplement to the original design guidance documents. These results should be of interest to designers of intelligent systems for use in real-time operations, and to researchers in the areas of human-computer interaction and artificial intelligence.

  11. RAMSEYS DRAFT WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND ADDITION, VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys of the Ramseys Draft Wilderness Study Area and adjoining roadless area addition in George Washington National Forest in the western valley and ridge province, Augusta and Highland Counties, Virginia, were done. The surveys outlined three small areas containing anomalous amounts of copper, lead, and zinc related to stratabound red-bed copper mineralization, but these occurrences are not large and are not considered as having mineral-resource potential. The area contains abundant sandstone suitable for construction materials and shale suitable for making brick, tile, and other low-grade ceramic products, but these commodities occur in abundance outside the wilderness study area. Structural conditions are probably favorable for the accumulation of natural gas, but exploratory drilling has not been done sufficiently near the area to evaluate the gas potential.

  12. Study of highly integrated payload architectures for future planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Stefan; Moorhouse, Joseph; Mieremet, Arjan L.; Collon, Maximilien; Montella, Jarno; Beijersbergen, Marco; Harris, J.; van den Berg, Marcel L.; Atzei, Alessandro; Lyngvi, Aleksander; Renton, Daniel; Erd, Christian; Falkner, Peter

    2004-11-01

    Future planetary missions will require advanced, smart, low resource payloads and satellites to enable the exploration of our solar system in a more frequent, timely and multi-mission manner. A viable route towards low resource science instrumentation is the concept of Highly Integrated Payload Suites (HIPS), which was introduced during the re-assessment of the payload of the BepiColombo (BC) Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO). Considerable mass and power savings were demonstrated throughout the instrumentation by improved definition of the instrument design, a higher level of integration, and identification of resource drivers. The higher integration and associated synergy effects permitted optimisation of the payload performance at minimum investment while still meeting the demanding science requirements. For the specific example of the BepiColombo MPO, the mass reduction by designing the instruments towards a Highly Integrated Payload Suite was found to be about 60%. This has endorsed the acceptance of a number of additional instruments as core payload of the BC MPO thereby enhancing the scientific return. This promising strategic approach and concept is now applied to a set of planetary mission studies for future exploration of the solar system. Innovative technologies, miniaturised electronics and advanced remote sensing technologies are the baseline for a generic approach to payload integration, which is here investigated also in the context of largely differing mission requirements. A review of the approach and the implications to the generic concept as found from the applications to the mission studies are presented.

  13. Black Studies: "Swaggering into the Future"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    The author talks about a new generation of Ph.D.'s that is advancing the field with a multidisciplinary approach. Like their predecessors who worked to establish black studies as a respected academic discipline, today's Ph.D. students are also attracted to the social mission of the field. But younger black-studies scholars are willing to work with…

  14. The Future of American Indian Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apodaca, Paul

    2011-01-01

    American Indian studies celebrates forty years at a conference in conjunction with a campuswide effort to recognize the development of interdisciplinary studies programs in the second half of the twentieth century. Interdisciplinary programs (IDPs) are a major aspect of the progress of academics in the United States. The author's point at the…

  15. Future manned systems advanced avionics study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawamura, Bob; Radke, Kathie

    1992-01-01

    COTS+ was defined in this study as commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products, ruggedized and militarized components, and COTS technology. This study cites the benefits of integrating COTS+ in space, postulates a COTS+ integration methodology, and develops requirements and an architecture to achieve integration. Developmental needs and concerns were identified throughout the study; these needs, concerns, and recommendations relative to their abatement are subsequently presented for further action and study. The COTS+ concept appears workable in part or in totality. No COTS+ technology gaps were identified; however, radiation tolerance was cited as a concern, and the deferred maintenance issue resurfaced. Further study is recommended to explore COTS+ cost-effectiveness, maintenance philosophy, needs, concerns, and utility metrics. The generation of a development plan to further investigate and integrate COTS+ technology is recommended. A COTS+ transitional integration program is recommended. Sponsoring and establishing technology maturation programs and COTS+ engineering and standards committees are deemed necessary and are recommended for furthering COTS+ integration in space.

  16. Earth Matters: Studies for Our Global Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Pamela; Doyle, Andrea

    Through 12 readings and 32 activities this curriculum material introduces high school students to issues of the global environment and society, while both challenging them to critically evaluate the issues and motivating them to develop solutions. The materials are cited as being applicable to social studies, science, math, language arts, and…

  17. Experimental Study of Additives on Viscosity biodiesel at Low Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajar, Berkah; Sukarno

    2015-09-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to find out the viscosity of additive and biodiesel fuel mixture in the temperature range from 283 K to 318 K. Solutions to reduce the viscosity of biodiesel is to add the biodiesel with some additive. The viscosity was measured using a Brookfield Rheometer DV-II. The additives were the generic additive (Diethyl Ether/DDE) and the commercial additive Viscoplex 10-330 CFI. Each biodiesel blends had a concentration of the mixture: 0.0; 0.25; 0.5; 0.75; 1.0; and 1.25% vol. Temperature of biodiesel was controlled from 40°C to 0°C. The viscosity of biodiesel and additive mixture at a constant temperature can be approximated by a polynomial equation and at a constant concentration by exponential equation. The optimum mixture is at 0.75% for diethyl ether and 0.5% for viscoplex.

  18. Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study. Results from Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Phil Patterson, Phil; Singh, Margaret; Plotkin, Steve; Moore, Jim

    2007-03-09

    Presentation reporting Phase 1 results, 3/9/2007. Projecting the future role of advanced drivetrains and fuels in the light vehicle market is inherently difficult, given the uncertainty (and likely volatility) of future oil prices, inadequate understanding of likely consumer response to new technologies, the relative infancy of several important new technologies with inevitable future changes in their performance and costs, and the importance — and uncertainty — of future government marketplace interventions (e.g., new regulatory standards or vehicle purchase incentives). The Multi-Path Transportation Futures (MP) Study has attempted to improve our understanding of this future role by examining several scenarios of vehicle costs, fuel prices, government subsidies, and other key factors. These are projections, not forecasts, in that they try to answer a series of “what if” questions without assigning probabilities to most of the basic assumptions.

  19. Studies of the Future Aged. An International Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friis, Henning; Sheppard, Harold L., Ed.

    These six papers report on future-oriented studies of the situation of the elderly. "Changing Elderly in a Changing Society: Danish Elderly in the Next Century" (Henning Friis) reports on research dealing with preferences of the future elderly for their life when they grow older. "Aging Effectively: Meeting the Challenge of an Aging World" (J.…

  20. Health studies indicate MTBE is safe gasoline additive

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.V.

    1993-09-01

    Implementation of the oxygenated fuels program by EPA in 39 metropolitan areas, including Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska, in the winter of 1992, encountered some unexpected difficulties. Complaints of headaches, dizziness, nausea, and irritated eyes started in Fairbanks, jumped to Anchorage, and popped up in various locations in the lower 48 states. The suspected culprit behind these complaints was the main additive for oxygenation of gasoline is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). A test program, hastily organized in response to these complaints, has indicated that MTBE is a safe gasoline additive. However, official certification of the safety of MTBE is still awaited.

  1. Study of Mothers' Anxieties Related to Their Children's Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgar, Sengul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to study anxieties of mothers related to their children's future. Qualitative method was used in order to study anxieties of mothers from different socio-economic levels. Sample of the study participants are 129 mothers living in Istanbul. 32 of those mothers are from upper socio-economic level, 57, from middle…

  2. Challenging Futures Studies To Enhance Participatory River Basin Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Helm, R.

    Can the field of futures research help advance participatory management of river basins? This question is supposed to be answered by the present study of which this paper will mainly address the theoretical and conceptual point of view. The 2000 EU Framework directive on water emphasises at least two aspects that will mark the future management of river basins: the need for long-term planning, and a demand for participation. Neither the former nor the latter are new concepts as such, but its combination is in some sense revolutionary. Can long-term plans be made (and implemented) in a participative way, what tools could be useful in this respect, and does this lead to a satisfactory situation in terms of both reaching physical targets and enhancing social-institutional manageability? A possibly rich way to enter the discussion is to challenge futures research as a concept and a practice for enabling multiple stakeholders to design appropriate policies. Futures research is the overall field in which several methods and techniques (like scenario analysis) are mobilised to systematically think through and/or design the future. As such they have proven to be rich exercises to trigger ideas, stimulate debate and design desirable futures (and how to get there). More importantly these exercises have the capability to reconstitute actor relations, and by nature go beyond the institutional boundaries. Arguably the relation between futures research and the planning process is rather distant. Understandably commitments on the direct implementation of the results are hardly ever made, but its impact on changes in the capabilities of the network of actors involved may be large. As a hypothesis we consider that the distant link between an image of the future and the implementation in policy creates sufficient distance for actors to participate (in terms of responsibilities, legal constraints, etc.) and generate potentials, and enough degrees of freedom needed for a successful

  3. Projecting the self into the future in individuals with schizophrenia: a preliminary cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Raffard, Stéphane; Bortolon, Catherine; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Gardes, Jeanne; Gely-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Capdevielle, Delphine; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-07-01

    The ability to project oneself into the future contributes to development and maintenance of a coherent sense of identity. If recent research has revealed that schizophrenia is associated with difficulties envisioning the future, little is known about patients' future self-representations. In this study, 27 participants with schizophrenia and 26 healthy controls were asked to simulate mental representations of plausible and highly significant future events (self-defining future projections, SDFPs) that they anticipate to happen in their personal future. Main results showed that schizophrenia patients had difficulties in reflecting on the broader meaning and implications of imagined future events. In addition, and contrary to our hypothesis, a large majority of SDFPs in schizophrenia patients were positive events, including achievements, relationship, and leisure contents. Interestingly, patients and controls did not differ on the perceived probability that these events will occur in the future. Our results suggest that schizophrenia patients have an exaggerated positive perception of their future selves. Together, these findings lend support to the idea that past and future self-defining representations have both similar and distinct characteristics in schizophrenia. PMID:26274839

  4. A general review of concepts for reducing skin friction, including recommendations for future studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, M. C.; Ash, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Four main concepts which have significantly reduced skin friction in experimental studies are discussed; suction, gaseous injection, particle additives, and compliant wall. It is considered possible that each of these concepts could be developed and applied in viable skin friction reduction systems for aircraft application. Problem areas with each concept are discussed, and recommendations for future studies are made.

  5. Future volcanic lake research: revealing secrets from poorly studied lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouwet, D.; Tassi, F.; Mora-Amador, R. A.

    2012-04-01

    Volcanic lake research boosted after the 1986 Lake Nyos lethal gas burst, a limnic rather than volcanic event. This led to the formation of the IAVCEI-Commission on Volcanic Lakes, which grew out into a multi-disciplinary scientific community since the 1990's. At Lake Nyos, a degassing pipe is functional since 2001, and two additional pipes were added in 2011, aimed to prevent further limnic eruption events. There are between 150 and 200 volcanic lakes on Earth. Some acidic crater lakes topping active magmatic-hydrothermal systems are monitored continuously or discontinuously. Such detailed studies have shown their usefulness in volcanic surveillance (e.g. Ruapehu, Yugama-Kusatsu-Shiran, Poás). Others are "Nyos-type" lakes, with possible gas accumulation in bottom waters and thus potentially hazardous. "Nyos-type" lakes tend to remain stably stratified in tropical and sub-tropical climates (meromictic), leading to long-term gas build-up and thus higher potential risk. In temperate climates, such lakes tend to turn over in winter (monomictic), and thus liberating its gas charge yearly. We line out research strategies for the different types of lakes. We believe a complementary, multi-disciplinary approach (geochemistry, geophysics, limnology, biology, statistics, etc.) will lead to new insights and ideas, which can be the base for future following-up and monitoring. After 25 years of pioneering studies on rather few lakes, the scientific community should be challenged to study the many poorly studied volcanic lakes, in order to better constrain the related hazard, based on probabilistic approaches.

  6. A future without health? Health dimension in global scenario studies.

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Pim; Huynen, Maud

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the health dimension and sociocultural, economic, and ecological determinants of health in existing global scenario studies. Not even half of the 31 scenarios reviewed gave a good description of future health developments and the different scenario studies did not handle health in a consistent way. Most of the global driving forces of health are addressed adequately in the selected scenarios, however, and it therefore would have been possible to describe the future developments in health as an outcome of these multiple driving forces. To provide examples on how future health can be incorporated in existing scenarios, we linked the sociocultural, economic, and environmental developments described in three sets of scenarios (special report on emission scenarios (SRES), global environmental outlook-3 (GEO3), and world water scenarios (WWS)) to three potential, but imaginary, health futures ("age of emerging infectious diseases", "age of medical technology", and "age of sustained health"). This paper provides useful insights into how to deal with future health in scenarios and shows that a comprehensive picture of future health evolves when all important driving forces and pressures are taken into account. PMID:14997242

  7. Future Directions for Business Education: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesten, Cyril A.; Lambrecht, Judith J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to synthesize perceptions from the field about current issues and to propose future directions for the field of business education. Method: A modified three-stage Delphi study was carried out with business educators who attended national conferences and/or belonged to national professional organizations.…

  8. The Albuquerque Story. Future Schools Study Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Robert L.; And Others

    This report summarizes chronologically a three-year ESEA Title III project to study the types of schools needed for the future. The major recommendation of the study was that an educational park should be established in the downtown area to provide enriched opportunities for pupils from widely different backgrounds and to serve as an experimental…

  9. Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... of gastroenterology-pancreatology at Beaujon Hospital, in Clichy, France. The study was funded by the pharmaceutical company ... D., department of gastroenterology-pancreatology, Beaujon Hospital, Clichy, France; Deborah Schrag, M.D., M.P.H., chief ...

  10. NMR relaxometry study of plaster mortar with polymer additives

    SciTech Connect

    Jumate, E.; Manea, D.; Moldovan, D.; Fechete, R.

    2013-11-13

    The cement mixed with water forms a plastic paste or slurry which stiffness in time and finally hardens into a resistant stone. The addition of sand aggregates, polymers (Walocel) and/or calcium carbonate will modify dramatically the final mortar mechanic and thermal properties. The hydration processes can be observed using the 1D NMR measurements of transverse T{sub 2} relaxation times distributions analysed by a Laplace inversion algorithm. These distributions were obtained for mortar pasta measured at 2 hours after preparation then at 3, 7 and 28 days after preparation. Multiple components are identified in the T{sub 2} distributions. These can be associated with the proton bounded chemical or physical to the mortar minerals characterized by a short T{sub 2} relaxation time and to water protons in pores with three different pore sizes as observed from SEM images. The evaporation process is faster in the first hours after preparation, while the mortar hydration (bonding of water molecules to mortar minerals) can be still observed after days or months from preparation. Finally, the mechanic resistance was correlated with the transverse T{sub 2} relaxation rates corresponding to the bound water.

  11. Ocean Studies Board annual report 1989 and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The major activities of the Ocean Studies Board of the National Research Council for 1989 are reviewed. The following are discussed: the Navy Panel, the CO2 Panel, the Committee on the Ocean's Role in Global Change, the Committee on the Coastal Ocean, the Workshop on Issues of U.S. Marine Fisheries, and the Continental Margins Workshop Committee. Future plans are covered.

  12. Future Orientation, School Contexts, and Problem Behaviors: A Multilevel Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Pan; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    The association between future orientation and problem behaviors has received extensive empirical attention; however, previous work has not considered school contextual influences on this link. Using a sample of N = 9,163 9th to 12th graders (51.0% females) from N = 85 high schools of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the…

  13. Future Midwestern Landscapes Study: Introduction and Solicitation for Collaboration

    EPA Science Inventory

    An introduction to the U.S. EPA Future Midwest Landscape Study was given to the Great Lakes Aquatic Gap group to seek input on development of fish-related ecosystem service indicators for FML, and to seek collaborators and access to data sets being compiled by the Aquatic Gap pro...

  14. Future Multiwavelength Studies with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.

    2011-01-01

    With two and a half years of experience, Fermi LAT contributions to multiwavelength studies have become an integral part of many astrophysical research projects. Future efforts will benefit from (1) Deeper LAT exposures} resulting in more sources; (2) More high-energy, high-angular resolution photons, giving better source locations and imaging; (3) Faster analysis of variability and announcements to the community; and (4) Longer time series for studies of variable source properties in comparison to other wavelengths.

  15. Cost effectiveness and delivery study for future HIV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barth-Jones, D C; Cheng, H; Kang, L Y; Kenya, Patrick R; Odera, D; Mosqueira, N R; Mendoza, W; Portela, M C; Brito, C; Tangcharoensathien, V; Akaleephan, C; Supantamart, S; Patcharanarumol, W; de Macedo Brigido, L F; Fonseca, M G P; Sanchez, M; Chang, M-L; Osmanov, S; Avrett, S; Esparza, J; Griffiths, U

    2005-09-01

    Research teams from five countries, Brazil, China, Kenya, Peru and Thailand, have initiated a policy-maker survey on vaccine delivery, cost studies for future HIV vaccination programmes, and associated simulation modeling exercises analysing the relative cost-effectiveness of potential HIV vaccination strategies. The survey assesses challenges and opportunities for future country-level HIV vaccination strategies, providing data on the vaccine characteristics (e.g. vaccine efficacies for susceptibility, infectiousness and disease progression) and vaccination programme strategies to be considered in the cost-effectiveness modeling analyses. The study will provide decision-makers with modeling data on vaccination policy considerations that will assist in developing country-level capacities for future HIV vaccine policy adoption and effective delivery systems, and will help delineate the long-term financial requirements for sustainable HIV vaccination programmes. The WHO-UNAIDS HIV Vaccine Initiative and the collaborating researchers welcome comments or questions from policy makers, health professionals and other stakeholders in the public and private sectors about this effort to help advance policy and capacity related to future potential HIV vaccines. PMID:16103763

  16. Air Quality Study Using Satellites - Current Capability and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.; Joiner, Joanna; Gleason, James; Liu, Xiong; Torres, Omar; Krotkov, Nickolay; Ziemke, Jerry; Chandra, Sushil

    2008-01-01

    Satellite instruments have had great success in monitoring the stratospheric ozone and in understanding the processes that control its daily to decadal scale variations. This field is now reaching its zenith with a number of satellite instruments from the US, Europe and Canada capping several decades of active research in this field. The primary public policy imperative of this research was to make reliable prediction of increases in biologically active surface UV radiation due to human activity. By contrast retrieval from satellite data of atmospheric constituents and photo-chemically active radiation that affect air quality is a new and growing field that is presenting us with unique challenges in measurement and data interpretation. A key distinction compared to stratospheric sensors is the greatly enhanced role of clouds, aerosols, and surfaces (CAS) in determining the quality and quantity of useful data that is available for air quality research. In our presentation we will use data from several sensors that are currently flying on the A-train satellite constellation, including OMI, MODIS, CLOUDSAT, and CALIPSO, to highlight that CAS can have both positive and negative effects on the information content of satellite measurements. This is in sharp contrast to other fields of remote sensing where CAS are usually considered an interference except in those cases when they are the primary subject of study. Our analysis has revealed that in the reflected wavelengths one often sees much further down into the atmosphere, through most cirrus, than one does in the emitted wavelengths. The lower level clouds provide a nice background against which one can track long-range transport of trace gases and aerosols. In addition, differences in trace gas columns estimated over cloudy and adjacent clear pixels can be used to measure boundary layer trace gases. However, in order to take full advantage of these features it will be necessary to greatly advance our understanding of

  17. Study of future world markets for agricultural aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gobetz, F. W.; Assarabowski, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The future world market for US-manufactured agricultural aircraft was studied and the technology needs for foreign markets were identified. Special emphasis was placed on the developing country market, but the developed countries and the communist group were also included in the forecasts. Aircraft needs were projected to the year 2000 by a method which accounted for field size, crop production, treated area, productivity, and attrition of the fleet. A special scenario involving a significant shift toward aerial fertilization was also considered. An operations analysis was conducted to compare the relative application costs of various existing and hypothetical future aircraft. A case study was made of Colombia as an example of a developing country in which aviation is emerging as an important industry.

  18. Conceptual Study of Intelligent Data Archives of the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; Kempler, Steve; Lynnes, Chris; McConaughy, Gail; McDonald, Ken; Kiang, Richard; Calvo, Sherri; Harberts, Robert; Roelofs, Larry; Sun, Donglian; Clemence, Lara (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    A conceptual architecture study is under way to address the problem of getting the most scientific value from the large volumes of Earth and space science data that NASA expects to accumulate in the future. This involves efficient storage and access, but goes beyond that to facilitate intelligent data understanding and utilization through modeling realistic virtual entities with predictive capabilities. The objective of the study is to formulate ideas and concepts and to provide recommendations that lead to prototyping and implementation in the period from 2010 to 2020. The approach consists of the definition of future scenarios and needs for data usage in applications (in consultation with scientific and applications users), projection of advances in technologies, and an abstraction of an intelligent archive architecture. Strategic evolution is considered in various areas such as storage, data, information and knowledge management, data ingest and mining, user interfaces, and advances in intelligent data understanding algorithms.

  19. Ocean Studies Board annual report 1989 and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The major activities of the Ocean Studies Board of the National Research Council for 1989 are reviewed. The following are discussed: the Navy Panel, the CO2 Panel, the Committee on the Ocean`s Role in Global Change, the Committee on the Coastal Ocean, the Workshop on Issues of U.S. Marine Fisheries, and the Continental Margins Workshop Committee. Future plans are covered.

  20. Multi-path transportation futures study: Results from Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Phil; Singh, Margaret; Plotkin, Steve; Moore, Jim

    2007-03-09

    This PowerPoint briefing provides documentation and details for Phase 1 of the Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study, which compares alternative ways to make significant reductions in oil use and carbon emissions from U.S. light vehicles to 2050. Phase I, completed in 2006, was a scoping study, aimed at identifying key analytic issues and constructing a study design. The Phase 1 analysis included an evaluation of several pathways and scenarios; however, these analyses were limited in number and scope and were designed to be preliminary.

  1. Spermine metabolism and radiation-derived reactive oxygen species for future therapeutic implications in cancer: an additive or adaptive response.

    PubMed

    Amendola, Roberto; Cervelli, Manuela; Tempera, Giampiero; Fratini, Emiliano; Varesio, Luigi; Mariottini, Paolo; Agostinelli, Enzo

    2014-03-01

    Destruction of cells by irradiation-induced radical formation is one of the most frequent interventions in cancer therapy. An alternative to irradiation-induced radical formation is in principle drug-induced formation of radicals, and the formation of toxic metabolites by enzyme catalyzed reactions. Thus, combination therapy targeting polyamine metabolism could represent a promising strategy to fight hyper-proliferative disease. The aim of this work is to discuss and evaluate whether the presence of a DNA damage provoked by enzymatic ROS overproduction may act as an additive or adaptive response upon radiation and combination of hyperthermia with lysosomotropic compounds may improve the cytocidal effect of polyamines oxidation metabolites. Low level of X-irradiations delivers challenging dose of damage and an additive or adaptive response with the chronic damage induced by spermine oxidase overexpression depending on the deficiency of the DNA repair mechanisms. Since reactive oxygen species lead to membrane destabilization and cell death, we discuss the effects of BSAO and spermine association in multidrug resistant cells that resulted more sensitive to spermine metabolites than their wild-type counterparts, due to an increased mitochondrial activity. Since mammal spermine oxidase is differentially activated in a tissue specific manner, and cancer cells can differ in term of DNA repair capability, it could be of interest to open a scientific debate to use combinatory treatments to alter spermine metabolism and deliver differential response. PMID:23999645

  2. Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing in NASA: An Overview of Current Projects and Future Initiatives for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    NASA, including each Mission Directorate, is investing in, experimenting with, and/or utilizing AM across a broad spectrum of applications and projects; Centers have created and are continuing to create partnerships with industry, other Government Agencies, other Centers, and Universities; In-house additive manufacturing capability enables rapid iteration of the entire design, development and testing process, increasing innovation and reducing risk and cost to projects; For deep space exploration, AM offers significant reduction to logistics costs and risk by providing ability to create on demand; There are challenges: Overwhelming message from recent JANNAF AM for Propulsion Applications TIM was "certification."; NASA will continue to work with our partners to address this and other challenges to advance the state of the art in AM and incorporate these capabilities into an array of applications from aerospace to science missions to deep space exploration.

  3. Less is often more, but not always: additional evidence that familiarity breeds contempt and a call for future research.

    PubMed

    Norton, Michael I; Frost, Jeana H; Ariely, Dan

    2013-12-01

    Ullrich, Krueger, Brod, and Groschupf (2013)-using a replication of the trait paradigm from Norton, Frost, and Ariely (2007)-suggest that less information does not always equal greater liking. We first ground the current debate in a larger historical debate in social psychology regarding the merits of configural versus algebraic models of person perception. We next review (a) related research that has suggested that more information can in some cases lead to more liking and (b) a large body of "real world" data-from friendships, daters, married couples, employment, celebrities, and politics-that suggests that more information often leads to less liking. We then provide an additional replication of our "less is more" effect, using a slight variation of the trait-list paradigm. The existing data suggest a need for further integrative explorations of when familiarity leads to contempt or liking or has no effect. PMID:24295381

  4. Recent results and future prospects for asteroseismic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miglio, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    In the last decade the study and interpretation of global oscillations in stars has undergone a dramatic development thanks to the advent of space-based telescopes such as CoRoT and Kepler. In this contribution I will review our endeavours towards a detailed understanding of stellar structure and evolution and I will discuss the symbiosis between stellar seismology and both exoplanetary and Galactic science. I will then emphasise the wider significance of asteroseismology as a tool for testing stellar physics, with examples on how seismic predictions depend on our (often poor) knowledge of the relevant physics. Future prospects in the light of future ambitious space missions such as NASA-TESS and ESA-Plato will also be briefly presented.

  5. Mission to the Moon: An ESA study on future exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicarro, A. F.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing worldwide interest in the continuation of lunar exploration has convinced ESA to carry out an investigation of the motivations to return to the Moon to establish a permanent or a semi-permanent manned lunar base. This study also considers the possible role Europe could play in the future exploration and possible utilization of the Moon. The study concentrated in this first phase mainly on scientific questions, leaving technological issues such as transportation, the role of humans, infrastructure, and policy matters to a later phase. It only partially considered questions relating to the exploitation of lunar resources and the impact of human activities on science.

  6. Acute Pancreatitis: Landmark Studies, Management Decisions, and the Future.

    PubMed

    Banks, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in the last 50 years in the diagnosis and treatment of acute pancreatitis. Many landmark studies have been published and have focused on the classification of acute pancreatitis, markers of severity, important roles of imaging and endoscopy, and improvements in our treatment. This report will review several landmark studies, describe ongoing controversies in management decisions including standards of early fluid resuscitation and appropriate use of enteral feeding, and outline what will be required in the future to improve the care of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:27077712

  7. Prazosin addition to fluvoxamine: A preclinical study and open clinical trial in OCD.

    PubMed

    Feenstra, Matthijs G P; Klompmakers, André; Figee, Martijn; Fluitman, Sjoerd; Vulink, Nienke; Westenberg, Herman G M; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-02-01

    The efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) in psychiatric disorders may be "augmented" through the addition of atypical antipsychotic drugs. A synergistic increase in dopamine (DA) release in the prefrontal cortex has been suggested to underlie this augmentation effect, though the mechanism of action is not clear yet. We used in vivo microdialysis in rats to study DA release following the administration of combinations of fluvoxamine (10 mg/kg) and quetiapine (10 mg/kg) with various monoamine-related drugs. The results confirmed that the selective 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-100635 (0.05 mg/kg) partially blocked the fluvoxamine-quetiapine synergistic effect (maximum DA increase dropped from 325% to 214%). A novel finding is that the α1-adrenergic blocker prazosin (1 mg/kg), combined with fluvoxamine, partially mimicked the effect of augmentation (maximum DA increase 205%; area-under-the-curve 163%). As this suggested that prazosin augmentation might be tested in a clinical study, we performed an open clinical trial of prazosin 20 mg addition to SRI in therapy-resistant patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder applying for neurosurgery. A small, non-significant reduction in Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores was observed in 10 patients and one patient was classified as a responder with a reduction in Y-BOCS scores of more than 25%. We suggest that future clinical studies augmenting SRIs with an α1-adrenergic blocker in less treatment resistant cases should be considered. The clinical trial "Prazosin in combination with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor for patients with Obsessive Compulsive disorder: an open label study" was registered at 24/05/2011 under trial number ISRCTN61562706: http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN61562706. PMID:26712326

  8. Khat Use and Neurobehavioral Functions: Suggestions for Future Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Richard; al’Absi, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a rich body of research available regarding the effect of acute and chronic khat dosing in animal models, research on the behavioral and cognitive effects of khat in human subjects is not extensive and several of the available studies have been done only in the context of observational and single-case studies. In light of the absence of a substantial literature on the neurobehavioral deficits associated with khat use and to provide a context that could be used to identify themes for future research we review previous research that has focused on other stimulant drugs. This review highlights multiple areas of neurocognitive deficit that have been identified in previous studies of individuals who have been chronic users of stimulants, such as amphetamines and methamphetamines. The review highlights a substantial body of evidence demonstrating a wide range of learning and memory impairments including deficits that persist during abstinence from active drug use. This review does not imply a similar khat effect, but due to some similarities pharmacologically between the active components of khat (cathinone and cathine) and amphetamines, future studies examining these same domains of cognitive functioning in chronic khat users and abstinent khat users appears to be warranted, if possible using some of the same or similar laboratory measures. PMID:20553832

  9. SOFIA: A Promising Resource for Future Nova Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helton, L. A.; Sofia Science Team

    2014-12-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a 2.5-m telescope carried on board a Boeing 747-SP aircraft. Optimized for observations from infrared through sub-mm wavelengths, SOFIA observes from an altitude of 37,000 - 45,000 feet, above 99% of the atmospheric water vapor. The Observatory's complement of instruments possesses a broad range of capabilities, many of which are especially well suited for observations of classical novae, recurrent novae, and other cataclysmic variables. Here we present a selection of the instruments available on board SOFIA that may prove to be very useful for future novae studies.

  10. An empirical study on information spillover effects between the Chinese copper futures market and spot market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangli; Cheng, Siwei; Wang, Shouyang; Hong, Yongmiao; Li, Yi

    2008-02-01

    This study employs a parametric approach based on TGARCH and GARCH models to estimate the VaR of the copper futures market and spot market in China. Considering the short selling mechanism in the futures market, the paper introduces two new notions: upside VaR and extreme upside risk spillover. And downside VaR and upside VaR are examined by using the above approach. Also, we use Kupiec’s [P.H. Kupiec, Techniques for verifying the accuracy of risk measurement models, Journal of Derivatives 3 (1995) 73-84] backtest to test the power of our approaches. In addition, we investigate information spillover effects between the futures market and the spot market by employing a linear Granger causality test, and Granger causality tests in mean, volatility and risk respectively. Moreover, we also investigate the relationship between the futures market and the spot market by using a test based on a kernel function. Empirical results indicate that there exist significant two-way spillovers between the futures market and the spot market, and the spillovers from the futures market to the spot market are much more striking.

  11. Human Robotic Study at Houghton Crater - virtual reality study from NASA Ames (FFC) Future Fight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Human Robotic Study at Houghton Crater - virtual reality study from NASA Ames (FFC) Future Fight Central simulator tower L-R: Dr Geoffrey Briggs; Jen Jasper (seated); Dr Jan Akins and Mr. Tony Gross, Ames

  12. Studying inflation with future space-based gravitational wave detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Jinno, Ryusuke; Moroi, Takeo; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: moroi@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-12-01

    Motivated by recent progress in our understanding of the B-mode polarization of cosmic microwave background (CMB), which provides important information about the inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs), we study the possibility to acquire information about the early universe using future space-based gravitational wave (GW) detectors. We perform a detailed statistical analysis to estimate how well we can determine the reheating temperature after inflation as well as the amplitude, the tensor spectral index, and the running of the inflationary gravitational waves. We discuss how the accuracies depend on noise parameters of the detector and the minimum frequency available in the analysis. Implication of such a study on the test of inflation models is also discussed.

  13. Real cases study through computer applications for futures Agricultural Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moratiel, R.; Durán, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    One of the huge concerns on the higher engineer education is the lag of real cases study that the future professionals need in the work and corporation market. This concern was reflected in Bologna higher education system including recommendations in this respect. The knowhow as why this or other methodology is one of the keys to resolve this problem. In the last courses given in Department of Crop Production, at the Agronomy Engineer School of Madrid (Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos, UPM) we have developed more than one hundred applications in Microsoft Excel®. Our aim was to show different real scenarios which the future Agronomic Engineers can be found in their professional life and with items related to crop production field. In order to achieve our target, each application in Excel presents a file text in which is explained the theoretical concepts and the objectives, as well as some resources used from Excel syntax. In this way, the student can understand and use of such application, even they can modify and customize it for a real case presented in their context and/or master project. This electronic monograph gives an answer to the need to manage data in several real scenarios showed in lectures, calculus resolution, information analysis and manage worksheets in a professional and student level.

  14. Genetic studies of Crohn's disease: Past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jimmy Z.; Anderson, Carl A.

    2014-01-01

    The exact aetiology of Crohn's disease is unknown, though it is clear from early epidemiological studies that a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors contributes to an individual's disease susceptibility. Here, we review the history of gene-mapping studies of Crohn's disease, from the linkage-based studies that first implicated the NOD2 locus, through to modern-day genome-wide association studies that have discovered over 140 loci associated with Crohn's disease and yielded novel insights into the biological pathways underlying pathogenesis. We describe on-going and future gene-mapping studies that utilise next generation sequencing technology to pinpoint causal variants and identify rare genetic variation underlying Crohn's disease risk. We comment on the utility of genetic markers for predicting an individual's disease risk and discuss their potential for identifying novel drug targets and influencing disease management. Finally, we describe how these studies have shaped and continue to shape our understanding of the genetic architecture of Crohn's disease. PMID:24913378

  15. Study of wood plastic composite in the presence of nitrogen containing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, K. M. Idriss; Khan, Mubarak A.; Husain, M. M.

    1994-10-01

    Effect of nitrogen-containing additives in the study of wood plastic composites of MMA with simul and mango wood of Bangladesh has been investigated. Nine different additives were used and the additives containing carboamide group induce the highest tensile strength to the composite.

  16. Coupled Climate Model Appraisal a Benchmark for Future Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T J; AchutaRao, K; Bader, D; Covey, C; Doutriaux, C M; Fiorino, M; Gleckler, P J; Sperber, K R; Taylor, K E

    2005-08-22

    The Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) has produced an extensive appraisal of simulations of present-day climate by eleven representative coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models (OAGCMs) which were developed during the period 1995-2002. Because projections of potential future global climate change are derived chiefly from OAGCMs, there is a continuing need to test the credibility of these predictions by evaluating model performance in simulating the historically observed climate. For example, such an evaluation is an integral part of the periodic assessments of climate change that are reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The PCMDI appraisal thus provides a useful benchmark for future studies of this type. The appraisal mainly analyzed multi-decadal simulations of present-day climate by models that employed diverse representations of climate processes for atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land, as well as different techniques for coupling these components (see Table). The selected models were a subset of those entered in phase 2 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP2, Covey et al. 2003). For these ''CMIP2+ models'', more atmospheric or oceanic variables were provided than the minimum requirements for participation in CMIP2. However, the appraisal only considered those climate variables that were supplied from most of the CMIP2+ models. The appraisal focused on three facets of the simulations of current global climate: (1) secular trends in simulation time series which would be indicative of a problematical ''coupled climate drift''; (2) comparisons of temporally averaged fields of simulated atmospheric and oceanic climate variables with available observational climatologies; and (3) correspondences between simulated and observed modes of climatic variability. Highlights of these climatic aspects manifested by different CMIP2+ simulations are briefly discussed here.

  17. International Scoping Study of a Future Accelerator NeutrinoComplex

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2006-06-21

    The International Scoping Study (ISS), launched at NuFact05 to evaluate the physics case for a future neutrino facility, along with options for the accelerator complex and detectors, is laying the foundations for a subsequent conceptual-design study. It is hosted by Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) and organized by the international community, with participants from Europe, Japan, and the U.S. Here we cover the work of the Accelerator Working Group. For the 4-MW proton driver, linacs, synchrotrons, and Fixed-Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) rings are considered. For targets, issues of both liquid-metal and solid materials are examined. For beam conditioning, (phase rotation, bunching, and ionization cooling), we evaluate schemes both with and without cooling, the latter based on scaling-FFAG rings. For acceleration, we examine scaling FFAGs and hybrid systems comprising linacs, dogbone RLAs, and non-scaling FFAGs. For the decay ring, we consider racetrack and triangular shapes, the latter capable of simultaneously illuminating two different detectors at different long baselines. Comparisons are made between various technical approaches to identify optimum design choices.

  18. Requirement sensitivity studies for a future Landsat sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zhaoyu; Montanaro, Matthew; Gerace, Aaron; Schott, John R.; Markham, Brian

    2015-09-01

    The Landsat program has collected imagery of the Earth for the past 40 years. Although both Landsat 7 and 8 are currently operating on-orbit, the next generation Landsat mission is already being planned. Concept studies for this mission include reproducing the Landsat 8 design (mainly push-broom imaging architecture). The definition of science requirements is an important step towards the development of instrument specifications. At this early stage, a re-evaluation of the Landsat requirements is beneficial since they might be flexible enough to relax in some areas to possibly save on manufacturing costs or may need to be tightened in other areas to produce better science products. The investigations presented here focused on spatial aliasing and spectral banding effects. The specifications of these two key performance requirements were taken from the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor as a starting point for the analyses. They were then adjusted to determine their effects on the final image products through the use of standard radiometry equations and synthetic Earth scene data. The results of the modeling efforts for these two requirements concepts are presented here and could be used as a template for future instrument studies.

  19. Feasibility study of an image slicer for future space application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcines, A.; Ichimoto, K.

    2014-08-01

    This communication presents the feasibility study of an image slicer for future space missions, especially for the integral field unit (IFU) of the SUVIT (Solar UV-Visible-IR telescope) spectro-polarimeter on board the Japanese-led solar space mission Solar-C as a backup option. The MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera) image slicer concept, originally developed for the European Solar Telescope, has been adapted to the SUVIT requirements. The IFU will reorganizes a 2-D field of view of 10 x 10 arcsec2 into three slits of 0.18 arcsec width by 185.12 arcsec length using flat slicer mirrors of 100 μm width. The layout of MuSICa for Solar-C is telecentric and offers an optical quality limited by diffraction. The entrance for the SUVIT spectro-polarimeter is composed by the three IFU slits and one ordinal long slit to study, using high resolution spectro-polarimetry, the solar atmosphere (Photosphere and Chromosphere) within a spectral range between 520 nm (optionally 280 nm) and 1,100 nm.

  20. Increased Risk of Additional Cancers Among Patients with Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, James D.; Ma, Grace L.; Baumgartner, Joel M.; Madlensky, Lisa; Burgoyne, Adam M.; Tang, Chih-Min; Martinez, Maria Elena; Sicklick, Jason K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are considered non-hereditary or sporadic. However, single-institution studies suggest that GIST patients develop additional malignancies with increased frequencies. We hypothesized that we could gain greater insight into possible associations between GIST and other malignancies using a national cancer database inquiry. Methods Patients diagnosed with GIST (2001–2011) in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database were included. Standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to quantify cancer risks incurred by GIST patients before and after GIST diagnoses, respectively, when compared with the general U.S. population. Results Of 6,112 GIST patients, 1,047 (17.1%) had additional cancers. There were significant increases in overall cancer rates: 44% (SPR=1.44) before diagnosis and 66% (SIR=1.66) after GIST diagnoses. Malignancies with significantly increased occurrence both before/after diagnoses included other sarcomas (SPR=5.24/SIR=4.02), neuroendocrine-carcinoid tumors (SPR=3.56/SIR=4.79), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (SPR=1.69/SIR=1.76), and colorectal adenocarcinoma (SPR=1.51/SIR=2.16). Esophageal adenocarcinoma (SPR=12.0), bladder adenocarcinoma (SPR=7.51), melanoma (SPR=1.46), and prostate adenocarcinoma (SPR=1.20) were significantly more common only before GIST. Ovarian carcinoma (SIR=8.72), small intestine adenocarcinoma (SIR=5.89), papillary thyroid cancer (SIR=5.16), renal cell carcinoma (SIR=4.46), hepatobiliary adenocarcinomas (SIR=3.10), gastric adenocarcinoma (SIR=2.70), pancreatic adenocarcinoma (SIR=2.03), uterine adenocarcinoma (SIR=1.96), non-small cell lung cancer (SIR=1.74), and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (SIR=1.65) were significantly more common only after GIST. Conclusion This is the first population-based study to characterize the associations and temporal relationships between GIST and other cancers, both by site and

  1. Nuclear Structure Studies at the Future FAIR facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, Berta

    2010-04-26

    This article is intended to be an introduction to studies of nuclear structure at the future FAIR facility. It addresses interested readers not necessarily expert in the field. It outlines the physics aims and experiments to be carried out at FAIR in the field of nuclear structure and astrophysics. Starting with a brief description of what can be achieved in experiments with intense, high quality stable beams the article leads the reader to how beams of unstable radioactive nuclei will be produced and exploited at FAIR. The characteristics of the beams from the main separation device, the Super-FRS, are outlined and the limitations they impose on experiment are discussed. The various setups at the three experimental branches associated with the Super-FRS are described. The aims of the various experimental setups, how they complement each other and the physics they will address are all explained. The concept of the r-process of nucleosynthesis is outlined at the beginning and used as a running example of how useful it will be to be able to carry out experiments with beams of short-lived, exotic ions.

  2. Future X-ray Missions to Study Relativistic Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2011-09-01

    In order to revolutionize the current understanding of the high energy universe, a number of new X-ray missions are being developed and planned. Among them, e-ROSITA/SRG, NuSTAR, ASTROSAT, GEMS and ASTRO-H will be realized in the next decade. And then, much larger missions, such as IXO, have been proposed for the 2020's. NuSTAR and ASTRO-H will open up completely new field of spatial studies of non-thermal emission above 10 keV by hard X-ray telescopes. They will also uniquely allow mapping of the spatial extent of the hard X-ray emission in diffuse sources, thus tracing the sites of particle acceleration in structures ranging in size from clusters of galaxies down to supernova remnants. Multi-wavelength spectra by ASTROSAT and ASTRO-H are indispensable to understand physical processes in high energy phenomena, such as particle acceleration in the Universe. Imaging spectroscopy with an energy resolution <5-7 eV brought by the micro-calorimeter onboard ASTRO-H can reveal line broadening and Doppler shifts due to turbulent or bulk velocities in extended sources. GEMS will perform the first sensitive X-ray polarization survey of several classes of X-ray emitting sources characterized by strong gravitational or magnetic fields. Here we present the key science goals for future X-ray missions designed to address a number of fundamental questions in contemporary astrophysics.

  3. A Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory: Study Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postman, Marc; Thronson, Harley A.; Feinberg, Lee; Redding, David; Stahl, H. Philip

    2015-01-01

    The scientific drivers for very high angular resolution coupled with very high sensitivity and wavefront stability in the UV and optical wavelength regime have been well established. These include characterization of exoplanets in the habitable zones of solar type stars, probing the physical properties of the circumgalactic medium around z < 2 galaxies, and resolving stellar populations across a broad range of galactic environments. The 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the 2013 NASA Science Mission Directorate 30-Year Roadmap identified a large-aperture UVOIR observatory as a priority future space mission. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI team has extended several earlier studies of the technology and engineering requirements needed to design and build a single filled aperture 10-meter class space-based telescope that can enable these ambitious scientific observations. We present here an overview of our new technical work including a brief summary of the reference science drivers as well as in-depth investigations of the viable telescope architectures, the requirements on thermal control and active wavefront control systems, and the range of possible launch configurations.

  4. The global status of freshwater fish age validation studies and a prioritization framework for future research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Kevin L.; Hamel, Martin J.; Pegg, Mark A.; Spurgeon, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Age information derived from calcified structures is commonly used to estimate recruitment, growth, and mortality for fish populations. Validation of daily or annual marks on age structures is often assumed, presumably due to a lack of general knowledge concerning the status of age validation studies. Therefore, the current status of freshwater fish age validation studies was summarized to show where additional effort is needed, and increase the accessibility of validation studies to researchers. In total, 1351 original peer-reviewed articles were reviewed from freshwater systems that studied age in fish. Periodicity and age validation studies were found for 88 freshwater species comprising 21 fish families. The number of age validation studies has increased over the last 30 years following previous calls for more research; however, few species have validated structures spanning all life stages. In addition, few fishes of conservation concern have validated ageing structures. A prioritization framework, using a combination of eight characteristics, is offered to direct future age validation studies and close the validation information gap. Additional study, using the offered prioritization framework, and increased availability of published studies that incorporate uncertainty when presenting research results dealing with age information are needed.

  5. Design Study of Wafer Seals for Future Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H.; Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; DeMange, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Future hypersonic vehicles require high temperature, dynamic seals in advanced hypersonic engines and on the vehicle airframe to seal the perimeters of movable panels, flaps, and doors. Current seals do not meet the demanding requirements of these applications, so NASA Glenn Research Center is developing improved designs to overcome these shortfalls. An advanced ceramic wafer seal design has shown promise in meeting these needs. Results from a design of experiments study performed on this seal revealed that several installation variables played a role in determining the amount of leakage past the seals. Lower leakage rates were achieved by using a tighter groove width around the seals, a higher seal preload, a tighter wafer height tolerance, and a looser groove length. During flow testing, a seal activating pressure acting behind the wafers combined with simulated vibrations to seat the seals more effectively against the sealing surface and produce lower leakage rates. A seal geometry study revealed comparable leakage for full-scale wafers with 0.125 and 0.25 in. thicknesses. For applications in which lower part counts are desired, fewer 0.25-in.-thick wafers may be able to be used in place of 0.125-in.-thick wafers while achieving similar performance. Tests performed on wafers with a rounded edge (0.5 in. radius) in contact with the sealing surface resulted in flow rates twice as high as those for wafers with a flat edge. Half-size wafers had leakage rates approximately three times higher than those for full-size wafers.

  6. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  7. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  8. Neptune and Triton: A Study in Future Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, M. D.; Malaska, M. J.; Hosseini, S.; Mcgranaghan, R.; Fernandes, P. A.; Fougere, N.; Clegg, R. N.; Scully, J.; Alibay, F.; Ries, P.; Craig, P. L.; Hutchins, M. L.; Leonard, J.; Uckert, K.; Patthoff, A.; Girazian, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Neptune provides a unique natural laboratory for studying the dynamics of ice giants. Last visited by Voyager 2 in 1989, Neptune and its moon Triton hold important clues to the evolution of the solar system. The Voyager 2 flyby revealed Neptune to be a dynamic world with large storms, unparalleled wind speeds, and an unusual magnetic field. Triton, Neptune's largest satellite, is believed to be a captured Kuiper Belt Object with a thin atmosphere and possible sub-surface ocean. Further study of the farthest planet in our solar system could offer new insights into the dynamics of ice-giant exoplanets, and help us understand their complex atmospheres. The diverse science questions associated with Neptune and Triton motivate the complex and exciting mission proposed in this study. The proposed mission follows the guidelines of the 2013-2022 Planetary Science Decadal Survey, and optimizes the number of high priority science goals achieved, while still maintaining low mission costs. High priority science goals include understanding the structure, composition, and dynamics of Neptune's atmosphere and magnetosphere, as well as analyzing the surface of Triton. With a budget of $1.5 billion, the mission hosts an atmospheric probe and suite of instruments equipped with technologies significantly more advanced than those carried by Voyager 2. Additionally, the mission offers improved spatial coverage and higher resolution measurements than any previously achieved at Neptune. The proposed spacecraft would complete an orbital tour of Neptune and execute several close flybys of Triton. Further study of Neptune and Triton will provide exciting insights into what lies on the edge of our solar system and beyond. This study was prepared in conjunction with Jet Propulsion Laboratory's 2013 Planetary Science Summer School.

  9. Economic study of future aircraft fuels (1970-2000)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, A. D., III

    1972-01-01

    Future aircraft fuels are evaluated in terms of fuel resource availability and pricing, processing methods, and economic projections over the period 1970-2000. Liquefied hydrogen, methane and propane are examined as potential turbine engine aircraft fuels relative to current JP fuel.

  10. The Study of the Future: An Agenda for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Wayne I., Ed.

    This collection of 18 papers is concerned with the beliefs, methods, practices, and results associated with the type of forecasting which has become known in the last 10 to 15 years as "futures research." Topics discussed include: (1) forecasting methodology; (2) the validity of forecasting systems; (3) unforeseen developments; (4) forecasting in…

  11. A direct anatomical study of additional renal arteries in a Colombian mestizo population.

    PubMed

    Saldarriaga, B; Pérez, A F; Ballesteros, L E

    2008-05-01

    Traditional anatomy describes each kidney as receiving irrigation from a single renal artery. However, current literature reports great variability in renal blood supply, the number of renal arteries mentioned being the most frequently found variation. Such variation has great implications when surgery is indicated, such as in renal transplants, uroradiological procedures, renovascular hypertension, renal trauma and hydronephrosis. This article pretends to determine the frequency of additional renal arteries and their morphological expression in Colombian population in a cross-sectional study. A total of 196 of renal blocks were analysed from autopsies carried out in the Bucaramanga Institute of Forensic Medicine, Colombia; these renal blocks were processed by the injection- corrosion technique. The average age of the people being studied was 33.8 +/- 15.6 years; 85.4% of them were male and the rest female. An additional renal artery was found in 22.3% of the whole population and two additional ones were found in 2.6% of the same sample. The additional renal artery was most frequently found on the left side. The additional artery arose from the aorta's lateral aspect (52.4%); these additional arteries usually entered the renal parenchyma through the hilum. No difference was established according to gender. Nearly a third of the Colombian population presents one additional renal artery and about 3% of the same population presents two additional renal arteries. Most of them reached the kidney through its hilar region. PMID:18521812

  12. Counterfactual thinking: an fMRI study on changing the past for a better future

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ning; Ampe, Lisa; Baetens, Kris; Van Overwalle, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that a brain network mainly associated with episodic memory has a more general function in imagining oneself in another time, place or perspective (e.g. episodic future thought, theory of mind, default mode). If this is true, counterfactual thinking (e.g. ‘If I had left the office earlier, I wouldn’t have missed my train.’) should also activate this network. Present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explores the common and distinct neural activity of counterfactual and episodic thinking by directly comparing the imagining of upward counterfactuals (creating better outcomes for negative past events) with the re-experiencing of negative past events and the imagining of positive future events. Results confirm that episodic and counterfactual thinking share a common brain network, involving a core memory network (hippocampal area, temporal lobes, midline, and lateral parietal lobes) and prefrontal areas that might be related to mentalizing (medial prefrontal cortex) and performance monitoring (right prefrontal cortex). In contrast to episodic past and future thinking, counterfactual thinking recruits some of these areas more strongly and extensively, and additionally activates the bilateral inferior parietal lobe and posterior medial frontal cortex. We discuss these findings in view of recent fMRI evidence on the working of episodic memory and theory of mind. PMID:22403155

  13. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bryan Mound Salt Dome, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.T.; Magorian, T.R.; Ahmad, S.

    1994-11-01

    This report revises the original report that was published in 1980. Some of the topics covered in the earlier report were provisional and it is now practicable to reexamine them using new or revised geotechnical data and that obtained from SPR cavern operations, which involves 16 new caverns. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences as compared with the 1980 report and more definition in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major southeast-northwest trending anomalous zone. The original interpretation was of westward tilt of the dome, this revision shows a tilt to the southeast, consistent with other gravity and seismic data. This interpretation refines the evaluation of additional cavern space, by adding more salt buffer and allowing several more caverns. Additional storage space is constrained on this nearly full dome because of low-lying peripheral wetlands, but 60 MMBBL or more of additional volume could be gained in six or more new caverns. Subsidence values at Bryan Mound are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging about 11 mm/yr (0.4 in/yr), but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values are about the same as survey measurement accuracy. Periodic flooding is a continuing threat because of the coastal proximity and because peripheral portions of the site are at elevations less than 15 ft. This threat may increase slightly as future subsidence lowers the surface, but the amount is apt to be small. Caprock integrity may be affected by structural features, especially the faulting associated with anomalous zones. Injection wells have not been used extensively at Bryan Mound, but could be a practicable solution to future brine disposal needs. Environmental issues center on the areas of low elevation that are below 15 feet above mean sea level: the coastal proximity and lowland environment combined with the potential for flooding create conditions that require continuing surveillance.

  14. Planetary X-ray studies: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella

    2016-07-01

    Our solar system is a fascinating physics laboratory and X-ray observations are now firmly established as a powerful diagnostic tool of the multiple processes taking place in it. The science that X-rays reveal encompasses solar, space plasma and planetary physics, and the response of bodies in the solar system to the impact of the Sun's activity. This talk will review what we know from past observations and what we expect to learn in the short, medium and long term. Observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton have demonstrated that the origin of Jupiter's bright soft X-ray aurorae lies in the Charge eXchange (CX) process, likely to involve the interaction with atmospheric neutrals of local magnetospheric ions, as well as those carried in the solar wind. At higher energies electron bremsstrahlung is thought to be the X-ray emitting mechanism, while the whole planetary disk acts as a mirror for the solar X-ray flux via Thomson and fluorescent scattering. This 'X-ray mirror' phenomenon is all that is observed from Saturn's disk, which otherwise lacks X-ray auroral features. The Earth's X-ray aurora is bright and variable and mostly due to electron bremsstrahlung and line emission from atmospheric species. Un-magnetised planets, Venus and Mars, do not show X-ray aurorae but display the interesting combination of mirroring the solar X-ray flux and producing X-rays by Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX) in their exospheres. These processes respond to different solar stimulation (photons and solar wind plasma respectively) hence their relative contributions are seen to vary according to the Sun's output. Present and future of planetary X-ray studies are very bright. We are preparing for the arrival of the Juno mission at Jupiter this summer and for coordinated observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton on the approach and later during Juno's orbital phase. These will allow direct correlation of the local plasma conditions with the X-ray emissions and the establishment of the

  15. Feasibility study for a future Austrian lightning nano-satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwingenschuh, Konrad; Jaffer, Ghulam; Koudelka, O.; Khan, S.; Grant, C.; Unterberger, M.; Lichtenegger, Herbert; Macher, W.; Hausleitner, W.

    A feasibility study for an Austrian lightning nano-satellite is presented. The satellite will carry a radio-frequency receiver payload for the investigation of electromagnetic signatures produced by lightning strokes. A special emphasis will be on the investigation of transient electromagnetic waves in VHF range (20-40MHz) known as sferics. The onboard RF lightning triggering system will be a special capability of the nano-satellite. The lightning experiment will also observe VHF signals of ionospheric and magnetospheric origin. Adaptive filters will be developed to differentiate terrestrial electromagnetic impulsive signals from ionospheric or magnetospheric signals. One of the major problems using a nano-satellite is to integrate the lightning experiment antenna, receiver and data acquisition unit into the nano-satellite structure. Using a gravity gradient boom as a lightning antenna can increase the sensitivity and directional capability. A major part of this study is devoted to the design of a combined gravity-gradient boom and a sferics antenna. The compact structure of a nano-satellite faces special EMC issues e.g., impulsive electromagnetic events from DC converters. The low power and mass budget of a nano-satellite requires merging of the satellite housekeeping and lightning experiment units. The Lightning nano-satellite team has participated in various space missions (HUYGENS, DEMETER, PHOBOS, CLUSTER) investigating electromagnetic phenomena. The data of these missions will be used to test the hardand software of the lightning experiment before the launch. Further tests with a satellite mock-up, high frequency electronics and gravity gradient boom acting as lightning antenna will be carried out in a high voltage chamber, where artificial lightning can be generated. Additionally ground based and balloon-borne tests are planned with the satellite engineering model using terrestrial lightning.

  16. Additional short-term plutonium urinary excretion data from the 1945-1947 plutonium injection studies

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W.D.; Gautier, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The amount of plutonium excreted per day following intravenous injection was shown to be significantly higher than predicted by the Langham power function model. Each of the Los Alamos National Laboratory notebooks used to record the original analytical data was studied for details that could influence the findings. It was discovered there were additional urine excretion data for case HP-3. This report presents the additional data, as well as data on case HP-6. (ACR)

  17. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity. 1710.253 Section 1710.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253...

  18. Evaluating Drugs and Food Additives for Public Use: A Case Studies Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Sheridan V.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a case study used in an introductory college biology course that provides a basis for generating debate on an issue concerning the regulation of controversial food additives and prescription drugs. The case study contained within this article deals with drug screening, specifically with information related to thalidomide. (CS)

  19. A Parametric Study on Using Active Debris Removal to Stabilize the Future LEO Debris Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent analyses of the instability of the orbital debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 have reignited the interest in using active debris removal (ADR) to remediate the environment. There are; however, monumental technical, resources, operational, legal, and political challenges in making economically viable ADR a reality. Before a consensus on the need for ADR can be reached, a careful analysis of the effectiveness of ADR must be conducted. The goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of using ADR to preserve the future environment and to guide its implementation to maximize the benefit-cost ratio. This paper describes a comprehensive sensitivity study on using ADR to stabilize the future LEO debris environment. The NASA long-term, orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND, is used to quantify the effects of many key parameters. These parameters include (1) the starting epoch of ADR implementation, (2) various target selection criteria, (3) the benefits of collision avoidance maneuvers, (4) the consequence of targeting specific inclination or altitude regimes, (5) the consequence of targeting specific classes of vehicles, and (6) the timescale of removal. Additional analyses on the importance of postmission disposal and how future launches might affect the requirements to stabilize the environment are also included.

  20. Fitting additive hazards models for case-cohort studies: a multiple imputation approach.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jinhyouk; Harel, Ofer; Kang, Sangwook

    2016-07-30

    In this paper, we consider fitting semiparametric additive hazards models for case-cohort studies using a multiple imputation approach. In a case-cohort study, main exposure variables are measured only on some selected subjects, but other covariates are often available for the whole cohort. We consider this as a special case of a missing covariate by design. We propose to employ a popular incomplete data method, multiple imputation, for estimation of the regression parameters in additive hazards models. For imputation models, an imputation modeling procedure based on a rejection sampling is developed. A simple imputation modeling that can naturally be applied to a general missing-at-random situation is also considered and compared with the rejection sampling method via extensive simulation studies. In addition, a misspecification aspect in imputation modeling is investigated. The proposed procedures are illustrated using a cancer data example. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26194861

  1. [TG-FTIR study on pyrolysis of wheat-straw with abundant CaO additives].

    PubMed

    Han, Long; Wang, Qin-Hui; Yang, Yu-Kun; Yu, Chun-Jiang; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Luo, Zhong-Yang

    2011-04-01

    Biomass pyrolysis in presence of abundant CaO additives is a fundamental process prior to CaO sorption enhanced gasification in biomass-based zero emission system. In the present study, thermogravimetric Fourier transform infrared (TG-FTIR) analysis was adopted to examine the effects of CaO additives on the mass loss process and volatiles evolution of wheat-straw pyrolysis. Observations from TG and FTIR analyses simultaneously demonstrated a two-stage process for CaO catalyzed wheat-straw pyrolysis, different from the single stage process for pure wheat-straw pyrolysis. CaO additives could not only absorb the released CO2 but also reduce the yields of tar species such as toluene, phenol, and formic acid in the first stage, resulting in decreased mass loss and maximum mass loss rate in this stage with an increase in CaO addition. The second stage was attributed to the CaCO3 decomposition and the mass loss and maximum mass loss rate increased with increasing amount of CaO additives. The results of the present study demonstrated the great potential of CaO additives to capture CO2 and reduce tars yields in biomass-based zero emission system. The gasification temperature in the system should be lowered down to avoid CaCO3 decomposition. PMID:21714234

  2. Current perspectives and the future of domestication studies

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Greger; Piperno, Dolores R.; Allaby, Robin G.; Purugganan, Michael D.; Andersson, Leif; Arroyo-Kalin, Manuel; Barton, Loukas; Climer Vigueira, Cynthia; Denham, Tim; Dobney, Keith; Doust, Andrew N.; Gepts, Paul; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Gremillion, Kristen J.; Lucas, Leilani; Lukens, Lewis; Marshall, Fiona B.; Olsen, Kenneth M.; Pires, J. Chris; Richerson, Peter J.; Rubio de Casas, Rafael; Sanjur, Oris I.; Thomas, Mark G.; Fuller, Dorian Q.

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to overstate the cultural and biological impacts that the domestication of plants and animals has had on our species. Fundamental questions regarding where, when, and how many times domestication took place have been of primary interest within a wide range of academic disciplines. Within the last two decades, the advent of new archaeological and genetic techniques has revolutionized our understanding of the pattern and process of domestication and agricultural origins that led to our modern way of life. In the spring of 2011, 25 scholars with a central interest in domestication representing the fields of genetics, archaeobotany, zooarchaeology, geoarchaeology, and archaeology met at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center to discuss recent domestication research progress and identify challenges for the future. In this introduction to the resulting Special Feature, we present the state of the art in the field by discussing what is known about the spatial and temporal patterns of domestication, and controversies surrounding the speed, intentionality, and evolutionary aspects of the domestication process. We then highlight three key challenges for future research. We conclude by arguing that although recent progress has been impressive, the next decade will yield even more substantial insights not only into how domestication took place, but also when and where it did, and where and why it did not. PMID:24757054

  3. Future orbital transfer vehicle technology study. Volume 2: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. E.

    1982-01-01

    Missions for future orbit transfer vehicles (1995-2010) are identified and the technology, operations and vehicle concepts that satisfy the transportation requirements are defined. Comparison of reusable space and ground based LO2/LH2 OTV's was made. Both vehicles used advanced space engines and aero assist capability. The SB OTV provided advantages in life cycle cost, performance and potential for improvement. Comparison of an all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet with a fleet of LO2/LH2 OTVs and electric OTV's was also made. The normal growth technology electric OTV used silicon cells with heavy shielding and argon ion thrusters. This provided a 23% advantage in total transportation cost. The impact of accelerated technology was considered in terms of improvements in performance and cost effectiveness. The accelerated technology electric vehicle used GaAs cells and annealing but did not result in the mixed fleet being any cheaper than an all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet. It is concluded that reusable LO2/LH2 OTV's can serve all general purpose cargo roles between LEO and GEO for the forseeable future. The most significant technology for the second generation vehicle would be space debris protection, on-orbit propellant storage and transfer and on-orbit maintenance capability.

  4. Current perspectives and the future of domestication studies.

    PubMed

    Larson, Greger; Piperno, Dolores R; Allaby, Robin G; Purugganan, Michael D; Andersson, Leif; Arroyo-Kalin, Manuel; Barton, Loukas; Climer Vigueira, Cynthia; Denham, Tim; Dobney, Keith; Doust, Andrew N; Gepts, Paul; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Gremillion, Kristen J; Lucas, Leilani; Lukens, Lewis; Marshall, Fiona B; Olsen, Kenneth M; Pires, J Chris; Richerson, Peter J; Rubio de Casas, Rafael; Sanjur, Oris I; Thomas, Mark G; Fuller, Dorian Q

    2014-04-29

    It is difficult to overstate the cultural and biological impacts that the domestication of plants and animals has had on our species. Fundamental questions regarding where, when, and how many times domestication took place have been of primary interest within a wide range of academic disciplines. Within the last two decades, the advent of new archaeological and genetic techniques has revolutionized our understanding of the pattern and process of domestication and agricultural origins that led to our modern way of life. In the spring of 2011, 25 scholars with a central interest in domestication representing the fields of genetics, archaeobotany, zooarchaeology, geoarchaeology, and archaeology met at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center to discuss recent domestication research progress and identify challenges for the future. In this introduction to the resulting Special Feature, we present the state of the art in the field by discussing what is known about the spatial and temporal patterns of domestication, and controversies surrounding the speed, intentionality, and evolutionary aspects of the domestication process. We then highlight three key challenges for future research. We conclude by arguing that although recent progress has been impressive, the next decade will yield even more substantial insights not only into how domestication took place, but also when and where it did, and where and why it did not. PMID:24757054

  5. SHEEP MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND CUCAMONGA WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, James G.; Ridenour, James

    1984-01-01

    The Sheep Mountain Wilderness Study Area and Cucamonga Wilderness and additions encompass approximately 104 sq mi of the eastern San Gabriel Mountains, Los Angeles and San Bernardino Counties, California. A mineral survey indicates areas of probable and substantiated tungsten and gold resource potential for parts of the Sheep Mountain Wilderness Study Area and an area of probable tungsten and gold resource potential in the Cucamonga Wilderness and additions. The rugged topography, withdrawal of lands from mineral entry to protect watershed, and restricted entry of lands during periods of high fire danger have contributed to the continuing decline in mineral exploration. The geologic setting precludes the presence of energy resources.

  6. Influence of Polarization on Carbohydrate Hydration: A Comparative Study Using Additive and Polarizable Force Fields.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Poonam; Mallajosyula, Sairam S

    2016-07-14

    Carbohydrates are known to closely modulate their surrounding solvent structures and influence solvation dynamics. Spectroscopic investigations studying far-IR regions (below 1000 cm(-1)) have observed spectral shifts in the libration band (around 600 cm(-1)) of water in the presence of monosaccharides and polysaccharides. In this paper, we use molecular dynamics simulations to gain atomistic insight into carbohydrate-water interactions and to specifically highlight the differences between additive (nonpolarizable) and polarizable simulations. A total of six monosaccharide systems, α and β anomers of glucose, galactose, and mannose, were studied using additive and polarizable Chemistry at HARvard Macromolecular Mechanics (CHARMM) carbohydrate force fields. Solvents were modeled using three additive water models TIP3P, TIP4P, and TIP5P in additive simulations and polarizable water model SWM4 in polarizable simulations. The presence of carbohydrate has a significant effect on the microscopic water structure, with the effects being pronounced for proximal water molecules. Notably, disruption of the tetrahedral arrangement of proximal water molecules was observed due to the formation of strong carbohydrate-water hydrogen bonds in both additive and polarizable simulations. However, the inclusion of polarization resulted in significant water-bridge occupancies, improved ordered water structures (tetrahedral order parameter), and longer carbohydrate-water H-bond correlations as compared to those for additive simulations. Additionally, polarizable simulations also allowed the calculation of power spectra from the dipole-dipole autocorrelation function, which corresponds to the IR spectra. From the power spectra, we could identify spectral signatures differentiating the proximal and bulk water structures, which could not be captured from additive simulations. PMID:27266974

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems. Operations and Transmission Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, Michael; Ela, Erik; Hein, Jeff; Schneider, Thomas; Brinkman, Gregory; Denholm, Paul

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2. Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, Chad; Bain, Richard; Chapman, Jamie; Denholm, Paul; Drury, Easan; Hall, Douglas G.; Lantz, Eric; Margolis, Robert; Thresher, Robert; Sandor, Debra; Bishop, Norman A.; Brown, Stephen R.; Felker, Fort; Fernandez, Steven J.; Goodrich, Alan C.; Hagerman, George; Heath, Garvin; O'Neil, Sean; Paquette, Joshua; Tegen, Suzanne; Young, Katherine

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  9. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3. End-Use Electricity Demand

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, Donna; Belzer, David B.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Markel, Tony; Marnay, Chris; Kintner-Meyer, Michael

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  10. Exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies: Key findings and future recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Lisa K.; Dionisio, Kathie L.; Burke, Janet; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Hodas, Natasha; Rich, David Q.; Turpin, Barbara J.; Jones, Rena R.; Mannshardt, Elizabeth; Kumar, Naresh; Beevers, Sean D.; Özkaynak, Halûk

    2014-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies of the health effects of exposure to ambient air pollution use measurements from central-site monitors as their exposure estimate. However, measurements from central-site monitors may lack the spatial and temporal resolution required to capture exposure variability in a study population, thus resulting in exposure error and biased estimates. Articles in this dedicated issue examine various approaches to predict or assign exposures to ambient pollutants. These methods include: combining existing central-site pollution measurements with local- and/or regional-scale air quality models to create new or “hybrid” models for pollutant exposure estimates, and using exposure models to account for factors such as infiltration of pollutants indoors and human activity patterns. Key findings from these articles are summarized to provide lessons learned and recommendations for additional research on improving exposure estimation approaches for future epidemiological studies. In summary, when compared to use of central-site monitoring data, the enhanced spatial resolution of air quality or exposure models can have an impact on resultant health effect estimates, especially for pollutants derived from local sources such as traffic (e.g. EC, CO, and NOx). In addition, the optimal exposure estimation approach also depends upon the epidemiological study design. We recommend that future research develop pollutant-specific infiltration data (including for PM species), and improve existing data on human time-activity patterns, and exposure to local source (e.g. traffic), in order to enhance human exposure modeling estimates. We also recommend comparing how various approaches to exposure estimation characterize relationships between multiple pollutants in time and space, and investigating the impact of improved exposure estimates in chronic health studies. PMID:24084756

  11. Discoveries about Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from Satellite and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) and a Future Perspective on NASA's Ozone Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne

    2003-01-01

    We have been producing near-real tropical tropospheric ozone ('TTO') data from TOMS since 1997 with Prof. Hudson and students at the University of Maryland. Maps for 1996-2000 for the operational Earth-Probe instrument reside at: . We also have archived 'TTO' data from the Nimbus 7/TOMS satellite (1979-1992). The tropics is a region strongly influenced by natural variability and anthropogenic activity and the satellite data have been used to track biomass burning pollution and to detect interannual variability and climate signals in ozone. We look forward to future ozone sensors from NASA; four will be launched in 2004 as part of the EOS AURA Mission. The satellite view of chemical-dynamical interactions in tropospheric ozone is not adequate to capture vertical variability. Thus, in 1998, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, NOAA's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) and a team of international sponsors established the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) project to address the gap in tropical ozone soundings. SHADOZ augments launches at selected sites and provides a public archive of ozonesonde data from twelve tropical and subtropical stations at http://croc.nsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz. The stations are: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; R,union Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil, Malindi, Kenya; Paramaribo, Surinam. From the first 3-4 years of data (presently greater than 1700 sondes), the following features emerge: (a) highly variable tropospheric ozone; (b) a zonal wave-one pattern in tropospheric column ozone; (c) tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays strong convective signatures.

  12. Introducing future engineers to sustainable ecology problems: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipkowski, A.

    2011-12-01

    The problem of Earth environmental destruction by human activities is becoming dangerous. Engineers responsible for the production of any goods should be well aware of the negative influence of their activities on the state of the planet. This is why the understanding of ecological problems is essential for people responsible for production and industrial design. The energy, which they consume, is increasing the greenhouse effect and the waste poisons the environment. So far, most courses on ecology are offered to specialists in environmental engineering. These courses are filled with many details. The Warsaw Academy of Computer Science, Management and Administration teaches students in the direction of management and production engineering. Upon completion, the students receive the degree of 'engineer'. Their future work will mainly concern management of different types of industrial enterprises and they will be responsible for organising it in such a way as to avoid a dangerous contribution to environmental pollution and climate change. This is why it was decided to introduce a new course entitled 'Principles of Ecology and Environmental Management'. This course is quite broad, concerning almost all technical, law and organisational aspects of the problem. The presentation is made in a spectacular way, aiming to convince students that their future activity must be environmentally friendly. It contains information about international activities in ecology, legal aspects concerning pollution, technical and information methods of monitoring and, finally, the description of 'green' solutions. Altogether, 27 hours of lectures and 15 hours of discussions and students' presentations complete the course. Details of this course are described in this paper.

  13. Studies of Tonsils in Basic and Clinical Perspectives: From the Past to the Future.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Keiji; Ichimiya, Shingo; Kamekura, Ryuta; Nagaya, Tomonori; Jitsukawa, Sumito; Matsumiya, Hiroshi; Takano, Kenichi; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    The tonsils are located at the entrance of the pharynx as a cardinal constituent of Waldeyer's ring, taking part not only in local immune responses, but also in systemic immunity. Functional deficits of tonsils primarily underlie the pathogenesis of various characteristic disorders, including tonsillar focal infections such as palmoplantar pustulosis and IgA nephropathy, in addition to the highly prevalent sleep disorder called obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Although the mechanisms underlying these disorders remain unknown, the tonsils have long been postulated as a unique and enigmatic immune organ. Lymphoid cells and tissues from surgically resected tonsils are often employed to analyze the human immune response from a retrospective view. This approach has provided much new fundamental evidence for understanding innate and acquired immune responses, thereby facilitating further studies in the fields of mucosal immunity and specific humoral immunity originating in the germinal center. Future studies of the tonsils in basic and clinical research are expected to reveal the mechanisms of tonsil-related disorders as well as the nature of human immunity. In this review, which is primarily based on our original research over the past 3 decades, we summarize our findings and discuss the future prospects of studies focusing on the tonsils. PMID:27116026

  14. Generating Scenarios of Addition and Subtraction: A Study of Japanese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinda, Shigehiro

    2013-01-01

    Students are presented with problems involving three scenario types of addition and subtraction in elementary mathematics: one dynamic ("Change") and two static ("Combine, Compare"). Previous studies have indicated that the dynamic type is easier for school children, whereas the static types are more difficult and comprehended only gradually…

  15. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity. 1710.253 Section 1710.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND...

  16. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity. 1710.253 Section 1710.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND...

  17. Experimental study of combustion of decane, dodecane and hexadecane with polymeric and nano-particle additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghamari, Mohsen; Ratner, Albert

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that adding combustible nano-particles could have promising effects on increasing burning rate of liquid fuels. Combustible nano-particles could enhance the heat conduction and mixing within the droplet. Polymers have also higher burning rate than regular hydrocarbon fuels because of having the flame closer to the droplet surface. Therefore adding polymeric additive could have the potential to increase the burning rate. In this study, combustion of stationary fuel droplets of n-Decane, n-Dodecane and n-Hexadecane doped with different percentages of a long chain polymer and also a very fine nano carbon was examined and compared with the pure hydrocarbon behavior. In contrast with hydrocarbon droplets with no polymer addition, several zones of combustion including a slow and steady burning zone, a strong swelling zone and a final fast and fairly steady combustion zone were also detected. In addition, increasing polymer percentage resulted in a more extended swelling zone and shorter slow burning zone in addition to a shorter total burning time. Addition of nano-particles also resulted in an overall increased burning rate and shortened burning time which is due to enhanced heat conduction within the droplet.

  18. Anatomically ordered tapping interferes more with one-digit addition than two-digit addition: a dual-task fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Firat; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-01

    Fingers are used as canonical representations for numbers across cultures. In previous imaging studies, it was shown that arithmetic processing activates neural resources that are known to participate in finger movements. Additionally, in one dual-task study, it was shown that anatomically ordered finger tapping disrupts addition and subtraction more than multiplication, possibly due to a long-lasting effect of early finger counting experiences on the neural correlates and organization of addition and subtraction processes. How arithmetic task difficulty and tapping complexity affect the concurrent performance is still unclear. If early finger counting experiences have bearing on the neural correlates of arithmetic in adults, then one would expect anatomically and non-anatomically ordered tapping to have different interference effects, given that finger counting is usually anatomically ordered. To unravel these issues, we studied how (1) arithmetic task difficulty and (2) the complexity of the finger tapping sequence (anatomical vs. non-anatomical ordering) affect concurrent performance and use of key neural circuits using a mixed block/event-related dual-task fMRI design with adult participants. The results suggest that complexity of the tapping sequence modulates interference on addition, and that one-digit addition (fact retrieval), compared to two-digit addition (calculation), is more affected from anatomically ordered tapping. The region-of-interest analysis showed higher left angular gyrus BOLD response for one-digit compared to two-digit addition, and in no-tapping conditions than dual tapping conditions. The results support a specific association between addition fact retrieval and anatomically ordered finger movements in adults, possibly due to finger counting strategies that deploy anatomically ordered finger movements early in the development. PMID:26410214

  19. Study on the Future Internet System through Analysis of SCADA Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jae-Gu; Jung, Sungmo; Kim, Seoksoo

    Research on the future Internet is focused on establishing standards by solving problems through various projects and accepting various requirements. In this study, the SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) environment, closely related with national infrastructure, is analyzed in order to explore requirements of the future Internet and then those of the SCADA network. Also, this study provides SCADA system environments for the future Internet.

  20. Future orbital transfer vehicle technology study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. E.

    1982-01-01

    Reusable space and ground based LO2/LH2 OTV's, both advanced space engines and aero assist capability were compared. The SB OTV provided advantages in life cycle cost, performance and potential for improvement. An all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet was also compared with a fleet of LO2/.H2 OTV's and electric OTV's. The normal growth technology electric OTV used silicon cells with heavy shielding and argon ion thrusters. In this case, the LO2/LH2 OTV fleet provided a 23% advantage in total transportation cost. An accelerated technology LF2/LH2 OTV provided improvements in performance relative to LO2/.H2 OTV but has higher DDT&E cost which negated its cost effectiveness. The accelerated technology electric vehicle used GaAs cells and annealing but still did not result in the mixed fleet being any cheaper than an all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet. It is concluded that reusable LO2/LH2 OTV's can serve all general purpose cargo roles between LEO and GEO for the forseeable future. The most significant technology for the second generation vehicle would be space debris protection, on orbit propellant storage and transfer and on orbit maintenance capability.

  1. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-10-01

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. The observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys.

  2. Microstructural Study Of Zinc Hot Dip Galvanized Coatings with Titanium Additions In The Zinc Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konidaris, S.; Pistofidis, N.; Vourlias, G.; Pavlidou, E.; Stergiou, A.; Stergioudis, G.; Polychroniadis, E. K.

    2007-04-01

    Zinc hot-dip galvanizing is a method for protecting iron and steel against corrosion. Galvanizing with pure Zn or Zn with additions like Ni, Al, Pb and Bi has been extensively studied, but there is a lack of scientific information about other additions. The present work examines the effect of a 0.5 wt% Ti addition in the Zn melt. The samples were exposed to accelerated corrosion in a salt spray chamber (SSC). The microstructure and chemical composition of the coatings were determined by Optical Microscopy, XRD and SEM associated with an EDS Analyzer. The results indicate that the coatings have a typical morphology, while Zn-Ti phases were also detected.

  3. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. The observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys. PMID:26446425

  4. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-10-08

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. In conclusion, the observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys.

  5. Neural mechanisms to predict subjective level of fatigue in the future: a magnetoencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Akira; Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue is a major contributor to workplace accidents, morbidity, and mortality. To prevent the disruption of homeostasis and to concurrently accomplish an assigned workload, it is essential to control the level of workload based on the subjective estimation of the level of fatigue that will be experienced in the near future. In this study, we aimed to clarify the neural mechanisms related to predicting subjective levels of fatigue that would be experienced 60 min later, using magnetoencephalography. Sixteen healthy male volunteers participated in this study. In relation to the prediction, a decrease of alpha band power in the right Brodmann’s area (BA) 40 and BA 9 at 1200 to 1350 ms and that in the right BA 9 at 1350 to 1500 ms, and a decrease of gamma band power in the right BA 10 at 1500 to 1650 ms were observed. In addition, the decreased level of alpha band power in BA 9 at 1200 to 1350 ms was positively associated with the daily level of fatigue. These findings may help increase our understanding of the neural mechanisms activated to indicate the need to take a rest based on the prediction of the subjective fatigue in the future. PMID:27112115

  6. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  7. Studies of levels of biogenic amines in meat samples in relation to the content of additives.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Aneta; Kowalska, Sylwia; Szłyk, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The impact of meat additives on the concentration of biogenic amines and the quality of meat was studied. Fresh white and red meat samples were fortified with the following food additives: citric and lactic acids, disodium diphosphate, sodium nitrite, sodium metabisulphite, potassium sorbate, sodium chloride, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (propyl gallate) and butylated hydroxyanisole. The content of spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and 2-phenylethylamine was determined by capillary isotachophoretic methods in meat samples (fresh and fortified) during four days of storage at 4°C. The results were applied to estimate the impact of the tested additives on the formation of biogenic amines in white and red meat. For all tested meats, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride and disodium diphosphate showed the best inhibition. However, cadaverine and putrescine were characterised by the biggest changes in concentration during the storage time of all the additives. Based on the presented data for the content of biogenic amines in meat samples analysed as a function of storage time and additives, we suggest that cadaverine and putrescine have a significant impact on meat quality. PMID:26515667

  8. a Study on the Role of Sintering Additives for Fabrication of sic Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Han Ki; Lee, Young Ju; Cho, Ho Jun; Kim, Tae Gyu

    Silicon carbide (SiC) materials have been extensively studied for high temperature components in advanced energy system and advanced gas turbine. The SiC ceramics have been fabricated by a NITE (Nano Infiltration Transient Eutectic Phase) Process, using Nano-SiC powder. The sintering additives used for forming liquid phase under sintering process, used the sintering additives ratios were an Al2O3-Y2O3 system or add SiO2 contents. A major R&D focus for the SiC ceramics is the production to obtain high purity SiC ceramics. In this study, we investigated roles of the sintering additives(Al2O3:Y2O3) to fabrication of the SiC ceramics. The effects of SiO2 contents and density properties of the SiC ceramics were also investigated. To investigate the effects of SiO2, Al2O3/Y2O3 composition were fixed and then SiO2 ratios were changed as several kinds, and to confirm the effects of sintering additives ratios (Al2O3:Y2O3) they were changed between 4:6 and 6:4 in x wt.%.

  9. Qualitative Research in the Foreseeable Future: No Study Left Behind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinders, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Questions efficacy of Department of Education's recent decision to support only studies using quantitative experimental research designs. Describes advantages of qualitative research. (Contains 23 references.) (PKP)

  10. Using epidemiology to regulate food additives: saccharin case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Cordle, F; Miller, S A

    1984-01-01

    The increasing use of nonnutritive sweeteners and the widely publicized 1969 ban on cyclamate led to additional investigations in rodents of the carcinogenic potential of saccharin. Preliminary results of a long-term feeding study indicated formation of bladder tumors in rodents, and collective experimental evidence has demonstrated that high doses of the synthetic sweetener saccharin can cause bladder cancer in rodents. Based on the results of that and other rodent studies indicating an increased risk of bladder cancer associated with saccharin, the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration announced the agency's intention to propose a ban on saccharin. This intention was made known in April 1977 under the Delaney Clause of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The clause essentially states that no additive shall be deemed safe if it is found to induce cancer in man or animals, or if it is found, after tests appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animals. Also in 1977, a group of epidemiologists began to assess the available epidemiologic information to determine the potential human risk. This report describes the assessment of several human epidemiologic studies available then and the results of more recent epidemiologic studies. PMID:6431484

  11. The Role of Future Time Perspective in Psychological Contracts: A Study among Older Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Jansen, Paul G. W.; van der Velde, Mandy E. G.; de Lange, Annet H.; Rousseau, Denise M.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N = 176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates relations between psychological contract fulfillment…

  12. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems: Operations and Transmission Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hein, J.; Schneider, T.; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  13. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, C.; Bain, R.; Chapman, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Hall, D.G.; Lantz, E.; Margolis, R.; Thresher, R.; Sandor, D.; Bishop, N.A.; Brown, S.R.; Cada, G.F.; Felker, F.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  14. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3: End-Use Electricity Demand

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, D.; Belzer, D.B.; Hadley, S.W.; Markel, T.; Marnay, C.; Kintner-Meyer, M.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  15. The Future of Native Studies: A Modest Manifesto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Melissa K.

    2011-01-01

    In the author's presentation at the gathering and celebration of forty years of the American Indian Studies Center, she focused on emerging, positive trends and developments in Native American/American Indian/indigenous studies (NAS) and on areas to move toward as educators expand the field in order to make it more current and relevant to the…

  16. A Self-Study on Preparing Future School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, William C.; Riley, Ann T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a self-study project that goes beyond the surface of praxis to examine the internal academic teaching process of a PK-12 school leader educator. The study systematically relates one professor's intrapersonal struggle and professional challenge in addressing his lived contradiction of teaching aspiring school leaders. Results…

  17. Biochemical Studies in Suicide Victims: Current Findings and Future Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Michael; Stanley, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    Reviews relevant neurochemical findings in postmortem suicide studies, looking specifically at association between serotonergic dysfunction and suicide. Explores relative strengths and weaknesses of studies and provides overview regarding advantages and shortcomings of given technique or approach. Notes that data presented in review provide…

  18. Studies of Expansive Learning: Foundations, Findings and Future Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engestrom, Yrjo; Sannino, Annalisa

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines studies based on the theory of expansive learning, formulated in 1987. In recent years the theory has been used in a wide variety of studies and interventions. The theory builds on foundational ideas put forward by Vygotsky, Leont'ev, Il'enkov, and Davydov, key figures in the Russian school of cultural-historical activity…

  19. Reimagining the Curriculum: Future Teachers and Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillion, JoAnn; Malewski, Erik L.; Sharma, Suniti; Wang, Yuxiang

    2009-01-01

    Universities in the United States and elsewhere offer study abroad programs to meet requirements that graduates have cross-cultural competencies and an international perspective on their discipline. Study abroad courses and field experiences for preservice teachers address two major challenges specific to the teaching profession: (1) how to…

  20. Study of asphalt/asphaltene precipitation during addition of solvents to West Sak crude

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J.C.; Patil, S.L.; Kamath, V.A. )

    1990-07-01

    In this study, experimental data on the amount of asphalt and asphaltene precipitation due to addition of solvents to West Sak crude were gathered. The first set of tests were conducted for two types of West Sak stock tank oils. Solvents used include: ethane, carbon dioxide, propane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-heptane, Prudhoe Bay natural gas (PBG) and natural gas liquids (NGL). Effect of solvent to oil dilution ratio on the amount of precipitation was studied. Alteration of crude oil composition due to asphalt precipitation was measured using gas-liquid chromatography. A second set of experiments were conducted to measure asphaltene precipitation due to addition of CO{sub 2} to live (recombined) West Sak crude.

  1. Future Facilities for Gamma-Ray Pulsar Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    Pulsars seen at gamma-ray energies offer insight into particle acceleration to very high energies, along with information about the geometry and interaction processes in the magnetospheres of these rotating neutron stars. During the next decade, a number of new gamma-ray facilities will become available for pulsar studies. This brief review describes the motivation for gamma-ray pulsar studies, the opportunities for such studies, and some specific discussion of the capabilities of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) for pulsar measurements.

  2. Future studies of planetary rings by space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    Recent space probe observations of the rings of Jupiter and Saturn have furnished a substantial enhancement of the current understanding of the outer planets' rings. Voyager 2 offers further opportunities for the study of the Neptune and Uranus ring systems. The Galileo mission to Jupiter furnishes the first opportunity for long term space probe studies of a planetary ring system. It is suggested that an appropriately instrumented Saturn orbiter would not only provide a similar opportunity for the study of the Saturn rings, but may also be the only means by which to adequately address the nature of the diverse phenomena displayed by this prototypical planetary ring system.

  3. A Study of Aluminum Combustion in Solids, Powders, Foams, Additively-Manufactured Lattices, and Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, James; Trammell, Norman; Batteh, Jad; Curran, Nicholas; Rogers, John; Littrell, Donald

    2015-06-01

    This study examines the fireball characteristics, blast parameters, and combustion efficiency of explosively-shocked aluminum-based materials. The materials included structural and non-structural aluminum forms - such as solid cylinders, foams, additively-manufactured lattices, and powders - and some polytetrafluoroethylene-aluminum (PTFE-Al) composites. The materials were explosively dispersed in a small blast chamber, and the blast properties and products were measured with pressure transducers, thermocouples, slow and fast ultraviolet/visible spectrometers, and high-speed video.

  4. Spectra-temporal patterns underlying mental addition: an ERP and ERD/ERS study.

    PubMed

    Ku, Yixuan; Hong, Bo; Gao, Xiaorong; Gao, Shangkai

    2010-03-12

    Functional neuroimaging data have shown that mental calculation involves fronto-parietal areas that are composed of different subsystems shared with other cognitive functions such as working memory and language. Event-related potential (ERP) analysis has also indicated sequential information changes during the calculation process. However, little is known about the dynamic properties of oscillatory networks in this process. In the present study, we applied both ERP and event-related (de-)synchronization (ERS/ERD) analyses to EEG data recorded from normal human subjects performing tasks for sequential visual/auditory mental addition. Results in the study indicate that the late positive components (LPCs) can be decomposed into two separate parts. The earlier element LPC1 (around 360ms) reflects the computing attribute and is more prominent in calculation tasks. The later element LPC2 (around 590ms) indicates an effect of number size and appears larger only in a more complex 2-digit addition task. The theta ERS and alpha ERD show modality-independent frontal and parietal differential patterns between the mental addition and control groups, and discrepancies are noted in the beta ERD between the 2-digit and 1-digit mental addition groups. The 2-digit addition (both visual and auditory) results in similar beta ERD patterns to the auditory control, which may indicate a reliance on auditory-related resources in mental arithmetic, especially with increasing task difficulty. These results coincide with the theory of simple calculation relying on the visuospatial process and complex calculation depending on the phonological process. PMID:20105450

  5. A study of correlations between crude oil spot and futures markets: A rolling sample test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Wan, Jieqiu

    2011-10-01

    In this article, we investigate the asymmetries of exceedance correlations and cross-correlations between West Texas Intermediate (WTI) spot and futures markets. First, employing the test statistic proposed by Hong et al. [Asymmetries in stock returns: statistical tests and economic evaluation, Review of Financial Studies 20 (2007) 1547-1581], we find that the exceedance correlations were overall symmetric. However, the results from rolling windows show that some occasional events could induce the significant asymmetries of the exceedance correlations. Second, employing the test statistic proposed by Podobnik et al. [Quantifying cross-correlations using local and global detrending approaches, European Physics Journal B 71 (2009) 243-250], we find that the cross-correlations were significant even for large lagged orders. Using the detrended cross-correlation analysis proposed by Podobnik and Stanley [Detrended cross-correlation analysis: a new method for analyzing two nonstationary time series, Physics Review Letters 100 (2008) 084102], we find that the cross-correlations were weakly persistent and were stronger between spot and futures contract with larger maturity. Our results from rolling sample test also show the apparent effects of the exogenous events. Additionally, we have some relevant discussions on the obtained evidence.

  6. Impact of future urbanization on a hot summer: a case study of Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Shai; Georgescu, Matei; Alfasi, Nurit; Kloog, Itai

    2015-12-01

    Israel's population is projected to increase significantly through the middle of the current century, requiring further expansion of the built environment to accommodate additional inhabitants and accompanying urban infrastructure. This study examines the climatic impacts of future urban expansion through simulated near-surface temperature and energy flux components associated with built environment growth. The Weather Research and Forecasting model was used to simulate present day extreme summertime conditions, at 1-km resolution, utilizing contemporary urban representation. To determine impacts associated with the physical growth of the urban environment, sensitivity simulations, also at 1-km resolution, incorporating projected changes in urban areas for Israel-based national development plans, were performed. Spatially and diurnally averaged at the national scale, projected urbanization is shown to increase summertime temperatures 0.4-0.8 °C, with greater temperature rise in northern compared to southern parts of the country. Across the diurnal cycle, urban impacts on near-surface warming are minimal during daytime hours, but exceed 3 °C across many urban locales during nighttime hours. The results presented here demonstrate the spatio-temporal impact of future urban expansion in Israel on temperature. The magnitude of these changes highlight the need for strategically designed regional and national planning to alleviate potentially deleterious climatic impacts associated with the physical growth of the built environment.

  7. Building for the future: essential infrastructure for rodent ageing studies.

    PubMed

    Wells, Sara E; Bellantuono, Ilaria

    2016-08-01

    When planning ageing research using rodent models, the logistics of supply, long term housing and infrastructure provision are important factors to take into consideration. These issues need to be prioritised to ensure they meet the requirements of experiments which potentially will not be completed for several years. Although these issues are not unique to this discipline, the longevity of experiments and indeed the animals, requires a high level of consistency and sustainability to be maintained throughout lengthy periods of time. Moreover, the need to access aged stock or material for more immediate experiments poses many issues for the completion of pilot studies and/or short term intervention studies on older models. In this article, we highlight the increasing demand for ageing research, the resources and infrastructure involved, and the need for large-scale collaborative programmes to advance studies in both a timely and a cost-effective way. PMID:27221665

  8. Mineral resources of the Buffalo Hump and Sand Dunes Addition Wilderness Study Areas, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, A.B.; Barbon, H.N.; Kulik, D.M. ); McDonnell, J.R. Jr. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a study to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources and appraise the identified resources of the Buffalo Hump and Sand Dunes Addition Wilderness Study Areas, southwestern Wyoming, There are no mines, prospects, or mineralized areas nor any producing oil or gas wells; however, there are occurrences of coal, claystone and shale, and sand. There is a moderate resource potential for oil shale and natural gas and a low resource potential for oil, for metals, including uranium, and for geothermal sources.

  9. Building Futures: The Head Start Impact Study. Research Design Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Shapiro, Gary; Broene, Pam; Cook, Ronna; Friedman, Janet; Heid, Camilla

    Along with the rapid expansion over the past decade of Head Start, a program providing comprehensive early childhood development services to low-income children, their families, and their communities, has come the demand for rigorous research to demonstrate program effectiveness. This report describes the proposed design of a national study of the…

  10. The Future of Leisure Studies in Research Universities: Administrators' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dustin, Daniel; Collins, Rachel; Schultz, Jeremy; Browne, Laurie; Schwab, Keri; Rose, Jeff; Timmerman, Danielle; Altschuler, Ben; Jostad, Jeremy; Spencer, Callie; Newman, Jackie; Bricker, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the content of a three-day administrative summit held at Zion Ponderosa Resort in southern Utah in late September 2010. Department chairs, heads, and deans representing 13 universities across North America offering leisure studies doctoral degrees, master's degrees, and undergraduate professional preparation degrees…

  11. A Study of Florida's Future Needs for Architects: 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Bruce D.; Wittenberg, Dennis

    During the past decade, Florida has become the fastest growing large state in the United States. This growth has resulted in a parallel increase in the demand for architectural services. The objective of this study was to employ several types of quantitative assessment of Florida's need for registered architects and then compare the need obtained…

  12. Avenues of access to future science teachers: An interview study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Richard

    2007-12-01

    This research study explored the experiences of individuals who chose careers in secondary science education by examining two cohorts of science education students in a teacher credential program and a group of current secondary science teachers in their first five years of teaching. Issues of how these individuals became interested in science education and the characteristics common among them were examined. This study explored the educational experiences that appeared to contribute to people becoming science teachers. This study also explored the participants' motivation and key turning point moments that appeared to contribute to their choice to pursue a career in science education. The research design used in this study was a two-year, semi-structured interview protocol. Research was conducted at one main university site and within one local unified school district. During the 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 academic years, twenty-five secondary science pre-service teacher candidates at a University of California were interviewed, and during the 2005-2006 academic year, twenty-five current practicing science teachers within a Southern California unified school district were also interviewed. Data collection consisted of interviews with the fifty participants typically between 30-45 minutes in length. The EZ-Text software program was employed to aid in the analysis of the transcribed interview data. This study found that much of the previous research on the characteristics of entrants to teaching in general was supported, but that some specific differences exist among science teachers and the general population of teachers. The majority of the participants had exposure to internships or tutoring experiences and indicated that this made them more willing to pursue science teaching as a profession. This study found that high achieving female students constituted the entire female portion of the sample and cited teaching as a friendly avenue for females in science. Teacher

  13. Additional Treatment Services in a Cocaine Treatment Study: Level of Services Obtained and Impact on Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Worley, Matthew; Gallop, Robert; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly; Ring-Kurtz, Sarah; Present, Julie; Weiss, Roger D.; Crits-Christoph, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the level of additional treatment services obtained by patients enrolled in the NIDA Cocaine Collaborative Study, a multi-center efficacy trial of four treatments for cocaine dependence, and to determine whether these services impact treatment outcome. Cocaine-dependent patients (N = 487) were recruited at five sites and randomly assigned to six months of one of four psychosocial treatments. Assessments were made at baseline, monthly during treatment, and at follow-ups at 9, 12, 15, and 18 months post-randomization. On average, patients received little or no additional treatment services during active treatment (first 6 months), but the rate of obtaining most services increased during the follow-up phase (month 7 to 18). In general, the treatment groups did not differ in the rates of obtaining non-protocol services. For all treatment groups, patients with greater psychiatric severity received more medical and psychiatric services during active treatment and follow-up. Use of treatment services was unrelated to drug use outcomes during active treatment. However, during the follow-up period, increased use of psychiatric medication, 12-step attendance, and 12-step participation was related to less drug use. The results suggest that during uncontrolled follow-up phases, additional non-protocol services may potentially confound the interpretation of treatment group comparisons in drug use outcomes. PMID:18463998

  14. The future of sociobiology: Counting babies or studying proximate mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Crawford, C B

    1993-05-01

    Much of the debate over applying the theory of evolution to the study of human behaviour has died down because most critics now realize that the political ramifications of sociobiology are no more, or no less, than those of behaviourism, psychoanalysis or cognitive science. But controversy remains. It is scientific, and concerns the 'proper' way to do human sociobiology. I contrast the perspective of those sociobiologists who use the approach of behavioural ecology, and who have come to be known as 'darwinian anthropologists' or 'darwinian social scientists', with their critics, who refer to themselves as evolutionary or 'darwinian psychologists', describe the research methods that each uses, and ask if those issues must also be confronted by those studying animals. PMID:21236141

  15. Studies of future readout links for the CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Gerry; Beccati, Barbara; Behrens, Ulf; Biery, Kurt; Bouffet, Olivier; Branson, James; Bukowiec, Sebastian; Cano, Eric; Cheung, Harry; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Deldicque, Christian; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, Robert; Hatton, Derek; Holzner, Andre; Hwong, Yi Ling; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius K.; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schwick, Christoph; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, Michal; Sumorok, Konstanty

    2011-12-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment has developed an electrical implementation of the S-LINK64 extension (Simple Link Interface 64 bit) operating at 400 MB/s in order to read out the detector. This paper studies a possible replacement of the existing S-LINK64 implementation by an optical link, based on 10 Gigabit Ethernet in order to fulfil larger throughput, replace aging hardware and simplify an architecture. A prototype transmitter unit has been developed based on the FPGA Altera PCI Express Development Kit with a custom firmware. A standard PC has been acted as receiving unit. The data transfer has been implemented on a stack of protocols: RDP over IP over Ethernet. This allows receiving the data by standard hardware components like PCs or network switches and NICs. The first test proved that basic exchange of the packets between transmitter and receiving unit works. The paper summarizes the status of these studies.

  16. Ocean Studies Board annual report 1988 and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Ocean Studies Board of the National Research Council monitors the status and needs of ocean sciences and assists U.S. government agencies in the development and maintenance of ocean research programs. The major activities of 1988 are reviewed on the following: Navy Review Panel, NOAA Review Panel, CO2 Panel, International Ocean Science Policy Group, Ocean Climate Research Committee, The Continental Margins Workshop Committee, and the Exclusive Economic Zone.

  17. Ocean Studies Board annual report 1988 and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    The Ocean Studies Board of the National Research Council monitors the status and needs of ocean sciences and assists U.S. government agencies in the development and maintenance of ocean research programs. The major activities of 1988 are reviewed on the following: Navy Review Panel, NOAA Review Panel, CO2 Panel, International Ocean Science Policy Group, Ocean Climate Research Committee, The Continental Margins Workshop Committee, and the Exclusive Economic Zone.

  18. Animal venom studies: Current benefits and future developments.

    PubMed

    Utkin, Yuri N

    2015-05-26

    Poisonous organisms are represented in many taxa, including kingdom Animalia. During evolution, animals have developed special organs for production and injection of venoms. Animal venoms are complex mixtures, compositions of which depend on species producing venom. The most known and studied poisonous terrestrial animals are snakes, scorpions and spiders. Among marine animals, these are jellyfishes, anemones and cone snails. The toxic substances in the venom of these animals are mainly of protein and peptide origin. Recent studies have indicated that the single venom may contain up to several hundred different components producing diverse physiological effects. Bites or stings by certain poisonous species result in severe envenomations leading in some cases to death. This raises the problem of bite treatment. The most effective treatment so far is the application of antivenoms. To enhance the effectiveness of such treatments, the knowledge of venom composition is needed. On the other hand, venoms contain substances with unique biological properties, which can be used both in basic science and in clinical applications. The best example of toxin application in basic science is α-bungarotoxin the discovery of which made a big impact on the studies of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Today compositions of venom from many species have already been examined. Based on these data, one can conclude that venoms contain a large number of individual components belonging to a limited number of structural types. Often minor changes in the amino acid sequence give rise to new biological properties. Change in the living conditions of poisonous animals lead to alterations in the composition of venoms resulting in appearance of new toxins. At the same time introduction of new methods of proteomics and genomics lead to discoveries of new compounds, which may serve as research tools or as templates for the development of novel drugs. The application of these sensitive and

  19. Animal venom studies: Current benefits and future developments

    PubMed Central

    Utkin, Yuri N

    2015-01-01

    Poisonous organisms are represented in many taxa, including kingdom Animalia. During evolution, animals have developed special organs for production and injection of venoms. Animal venoms are complex mixtures, compositions of which depend on species producing venom. The most known and studied poisonous terrestrial animals are snakes, scorpions and spiders. Among marine animals, these are jellyfishes, anemones and cone snails. The toxic substances in the venom of these animals are mainly of protein and peptide origin. Recent studies have indicated that the single venom may contain up to several hundred different components producing diverse physiological effects. Bites or stings by certain poisonous species result in severe envenomations leading in some cases to death. This raises the problem of bite treatment. The most effective treatment so far is the application of antivenoms. To enhance the effectiveness of such treatments, the knowledge of venom composition is needed. On the other hand, venoms contain substances with unique biological properties, which can be used both in basic science and in clinical applications. The best example of toxin application in basic science is α-bungarotoxin the discovery of which made a big impact on the studies of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Today compositions of venom from many species have already been examined. Based on these data, one can conclude that venoms contain a large number of individual components belonging to a limited number of structural types. Often minor changes in the amino acid sequence give rise to new biological properties. Change in the living conditions of poisonous animals lead to alterations in the composition of venoms resulting in appearance of new toxins. At the same time introduction of new methods of proteomics and genomics lead to discoveries of new compounds, which may serve as research tools or as templates for the development of novel drugs. The application of these sensitive and

  20. Multi-path transportation futures study : vehicle characterization and scenario analyses.

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S. E.; Singh, M. K.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering; ORNL

    2009-12-03

    Projecting the future role of advanced drivetrains and fuels in the light vehicle market is inherently difficult, given the uncertainty (and likely volatility) of future oil prices, inadequate understanding of likely consumer response to new technologies, the relative infancy of several important new technologies with inevitable future changes in their performance and costs, and the importance - and uncertainty - of future government marketplace interventions (e.g., new regulatory standards or vehicle purchase incentives). This Multi-Path Transportation Futures (MP) Study has attempted to improve our understanding of this future role by examining several scenarios of vehicle costs, fuel prices, government subsidies, and other key factors. These are projections, not forecasts, in that they try to answer a series of 'what if' questions without assigning probabilities to most of the basic assumptions.

  1. Methods for studying the zebrafish brain: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Cameron; Bartoszek, Ewelina M; Yaksi, Emre

    2015-07-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of the most promising new model organisms. The increasing popularity of this amazing small vertebrate is evident from the exponentially growing numbers of research articles, funded projects and new discoveries associated with the use of zebrafish for studying development, brain function, human diseases and screening for new drugs. Thanks to the development of novel technologies, the range of zebrafish research is constantly expanding with new tools synergistically enhancing traditional techniques. In this review we will highlight the past and present techniques which have made, and continue to make, zebrafish an attractive model organism for various fields of biology, with a specific focus on neuroscience. PMID:25900095

  2. Inquiry Into Terminal Decline: Five Objectives for Future Study

    PubMed Central

    Gerstorf, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Notions of terminal decline propose that late-life change is primarily driven by processes closely tied to pathology and mortality rather than chronological age. We use the rationales of longitudinal research as outlined by Baltes and Nesselroade (Baltes, P., & Nesselroade, J. [1979]. History and rationale of longitudinal research. In J. R. Nesselroade & P. Baltes (Eds.), Longitudinal research in the study of behavior and development [pp. 1–39]. San Diego, CA: Academic Press) as a framework for organizing research on terminal decline. In doing so, we note that there are relatively robust descriptions of terminal decline across a variety of different domains, as well as the extent of interindividual differences in the levels of function, rates of change, and timing of terminal decline (research rationales 1 and 2). However, there is much more to learn about the interrelations among change in different domains, the underlying mechanisms of change, and the factors that contribute to interindividual differences in change (research rationales 3–5). Needed are new study designs and analytical models that better address the structural, temporal, and causal interrelations that contribute to and protect against terminal decline. PMID:23704220

  3. The God Factor of the Community College Ecological System: Future Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jerry L.

    A rationale and plan are presented for implementing a futures approach in many areas of community college activities. After the introduction, the paper cites several characteristics of the community college and its mission which mandate planned experimentation and innovation. Next, the relationship of future studies to the educational system as a…

  4. GM1 Ganglioside: Past Studies and Future Potential.

    PubMed

    Aureli, Massimo; Mauri, Laura; Ciampa, Maria Grazia; Prinetti, Alessandro; Toffano, Gino; Secchieri, Cynthia; Sonnino, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    Gangliosides (sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids) are abundant in neurons of all animal species and play important roles in many cell physiological processes, including differentiation, memory control, cell signaling, neuronal protection, neuronal recovery, and apoptosis. Gangliosides also function as anchors or entry points for various toxins, bacteria, viruses, and autoantibodies. GM1, a ganglioside component of mammalian brains, is present mainly in neurons. GM1 is one of the best studied gangliosides, and our understanding of its properties is extensive. Simple and rapid procedures are available for preparation of GM1 as a natural compound on a large scale, or as a derivative containing an isotopic radionuclide or a specific probe. Great research interest in the properties of GM1 arose from the discovery in the early 1970s of its role as receptor for the bacterial toxin responsible for cholera pathogenesis. PMID:25762012

  5. Future Far-UV Studies of Hot White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, M. A.

    We are beginning to understand the evolution of the hot white dwarfs, but even with telescopes such as IUE and HST, we have still only observed a modest number of the most interesting objects with the spectral resolution and signal-to-noise required. This is in part arises from the intense competition for HST time, against both optical and IR observations as well as other far-UV bids. A key requirement of any new far-UV telescope is sufficient sensitivity to observe most of the ~100 or so brightest hot white dwarfs at high spectral resolution. A spectral resolving power of at least 30,000 is required for studies of white dwarfs. First it is necessary to detect and resolve photospheric, circumstellar and interstellar absorption features. Interstellar/circumstellar features may have several components that can only be separated in velocity space. For example, it is interesting to note that IUE was unable to resolve the photospheric and circumstellar CIV components of G191-B2B, discovered by the HST STIS instrument, leading to a serious overestimate of the carbon abundance in this star. There may be similar components in other stars observed only by IUE. In those stars that have highly stratified atmospheres, the detailed shape of the absorption lines is sensitive to the atmospheric structure. High-resolution observations of the line shapes can provide us with a direct probe of atmospheric structure.

  6. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-10-08

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused bymore » a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. In conclusion, the observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys.« less

  7. Isomeric Selective Studies of the Dominant Addition Channel in OH Initiated Oxidation of Isoprene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, B.; Bugarin, A.; Connell, B.; North, S. W.

    2009-12-01

    We report the first isomeric selective study of the dominant isomeric pathway in the OH initiated oxidation of isoprene in the presence of O2 and NO using the Laser Photolysis-Laser Induced Fluorescence (LP-LIF) technique. The photolysis of monodeuterated/non deuterated 2-iodo-2-methyl-but-3-en-1-ol results exclusively in the dominant OH-isoprene addition product, providing important insight into the oxidation mechanism. Based on kinetic analysis of OH cycling experiments we have determined the rate constant for O2 addition to the hydroxy alkyl radical to be (1.0±0.5) × 10^(-12) cm^(3) s^(-1) and we find a value of (8.05±2.3) × 10^(-12) cm^(3) s^(-1) for the overall reaction rate constant of the hydroxy peroxy radical with NO. We also report the first clear experimental evidence of the (E-) form of the δ-hydroxyalkoxy channel through isotopic labeling experiments and quantify its branching ratio to be 0.1±0.025. Since it corresponds to missing carbon balance in isoprene oxidation, we have been able to identify some of the missing carbon balance. Since our measured isomeric selective rate constants for the dominant outer channel in OH initiated isoprene chemistry are similar to the overall rate constants derived from non isomeric kinetics, we predict that the remaining outer addition channel will have similar reactivity. We have extended this study to the OH initiated oxidation of 1,3-butadiene. We have obtained isomeric selective rate constants on the dominant channel of the butadiene oxidation chemistry and measured the branching ratio for the δ-hydroxyalkoxy channel. These results on butadiene studies will be discussed.

  8. Immunotoxic effects of the color additive caramel color III: immune function studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Houben, G F; Penninks, A H; Seinen, W; Vos, J G; Van Loveren, H

    1993-01-01

    Administration of the color additive caramel color III (AC) may cause a reduction in total white blood cell counts in rats due to reduced lymphocyte counts. Beside lymphopenia, several other effects in rat have been described. The effects are caused by the imidazole derivative 2-acetyl-4(5)-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole (THI) and occur in rats fed a diet low in vitamin B6. In the present paper, immune function studies on AC and THI with rats fed a diet low, but not deficient in vitamin B6 are presented and discussed. Rats were exposed to 0.4 or 4% AC or to 5.72 ppm THI in drinking water during and for 28 days prior to the start of immune function assays. Resistance to Trichinella spiralis was examined in an oral infection model and clearance of Listeria monocytogenes upon an intravenous infection was studied. In addition, natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity of splenic and nonadherent peritoneal cells and the antibody response to sheep red blood cells were studied. From the results it is concluded that exposure of rats to AC or THI influenced various immune function parameters. Thymus-dependent immunity was suppressed, while parameters of the nonspecific resistance were also affected, as shown by a decreased natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the spleen and an enhanced clearance of L. monocytogenes. PMID:8432426

  9. Improving wound care simulation with the addition of odor: a descriptive, quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Roberson, Donna W; Neil, Janice A; Bryant, Elizabeth T

    2008-08-01

    Improving problem-solving skills and expertise in complex clinical care provision requires engaging students in the learning process--a challenging goal when clinical practicums and supervisors are limited. High-fidelity simulation has created many new opportunities for educating healthcare professionals. Because addressing malodorous wounds is a common problem that may be difficult to "teach," a descriptive, quasi-experimental simulation study was conducted. Following completion of a wound care simulation and Laerdal's Simulation Experience Evaluation Tool by 137 undergraduate nursing students, 50 control subjects were randomly selected and 49 volunteer students (experimental group) participated in a wound care simulation after one of three cheeses with a strong odor was added to simulate a malodorous wound. Compared to the control group, study group responses were significantly better (P <0.001) for eight of the 12 survey variables tested and indicated the addition of odor was beneficial in enhancing the perceived realism and value of the simulation. Students responded that the addition of odor in the simulation laboratory improved realism and they felt better prepared to handle malodorous wounds in a clinical setting. An unanticipated outcome was the enhanced feeling of involvement associated with paired care teams as opposed to working in larger groups. The results of this study indicate that wound care education outcomes improve when nursing students are able to practice using a multi-sensorial wound care simulation model. PMID:18716340

  10. Particle and energy transport studies on TFTR and implications for helium ash in future fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Bell, R.E.; Grek, B.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1992-12-31

    Particle and energy transport in tokamak plasmas have long been subjects of vigorous investigation. Present-day measurement techniques permit radially resolved studies of the transport of electron perturbations, low- and high-Z impurities, and energy. In addition, developments in transport theory provide tools that can be brought to bear on transport issues. Here, we examine local particle transport measurements of electrons, fully-stripped thermal helium, and helium-like iron in balanced-injection L-mode and enhanced confinement deuterium plasmas on TFTR of the same plasma current, toroidal field, and auxiliary heating power. He{sup 2{plus}} and Fe{sup 24{plus}} transport has been studied with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, while electron transport has been studied by analyzing the perturbed electron flux following the same helium puff used for the He{sup 2{plus}} studies. By examining the electron and He{sup 2{plus}} responses following the same gas puff in the same plasmas, an unambiguous comparison of the transport of the two species has been made. The local energy transport has been examined with power balance analysis, allowing for comparisons to the local thermal fluxes. Some particle and energy transport results from the Supershot have been compared to a transport model based on a quasilinear picture of electrostatic toroidal drift-type microinstabilities. Finally, implications for future fusion reactors of the observed correlation between thermal transport and helium particle transport is discussed.

  11. Episodic future thinking in semantic dementia: a cognitive and FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Viard, Armelle; Piolino, Pascale; Belliard, Serge; de La Sayette, Vincent; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Semantic dementia (SD) is characterized by gradual loss of semantic memory. While episodic autobiographical memory seems relatively preserved, behavioral studies suggest that episodic future thinking is impaired. We used fMRI to measure brain activity in four SD patients (JPL, EP, LL, EG) while they envisioned future events and remembered personal past events. Twelve healthy elders served as controls. Episodic quality, emotion, mental imagery and level of consciousness (via remember/know judgements) were checked at debriefing. We analyzed the future compared to the past for each patient. All patients presented lateral temporal atrophy, but varied in terms of frontal and anterior hippocampal atrophy. Patient JPL presented atrophy in bilateral superior medial frontal gyri and left anterior hippocampus and was unable to engage in episodic future thinking, despite hyperactivations in frontal and occipital regions. Patient EP presented no atrophy in the anterior hippocampus, but atrophy in bilateral superior medial frontal gyrus and had difficulties to engage in episodic future thinking. Patient LL presented atrophy in left anterior hippocampus, but hyperactivated its right counterpart for future compared to past thinking, permitting her to project efficiently in the future in an episodic way. Patient EG presented no atrophy in the superior medial frontal gyri or anterior hippocampi and was able to engage in episodic future thinking. Altogether, patients' future projections differed depending on the severity and localization of their atrophy. The functional integrity of bilateral superior medial frontal gyri and anterior hippocampus appear crucial for episodic future thinking: atrophy of both structures strongly impairs future projection, while integrity of these structures or hyperactivation of residual tissue normalizes episodic future projection. PMID:25333997

  12. Episodic Future Thinking in Semantic Dementia: A Cognitive and fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Viard, Armelle; Piolino, Pascale; Belliard, Serge; de La Sayette, Vincent; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Semantic dementia (SD) is characterized by gradual loss of semantic memory. While episodic autobiographical memory seems relatively preserved, behavioral studies suggest that episodic future thinking is impaired. We used fMRI to measure brain activity in four SD patients (JPL, EP, LL, EG) while they envisioned future events and remembered personal past events. Twelve healthy elders served as controls. Episodic quality, emotion, mental imagery and level of consciousness (via remember/know judgements) were checked at debriefing. We analyzed the future compared to the past for each patient. All patients presented lateral temporal atrophy, but varied in terms of frontal and anterior hippocampal atrophy. Patient JPL presented atrophy in bilateral superior medial frontal gyri and left anterior hippocampus and was unable to engage in episodic future thinking, despite hyperactivations in frontal and occipital regions. Patient EP presented no atrophy in the anterior hippocampus, but atrophy in bilateral superior medial frontal gyrus and had difficulties to engage in episodic future thinking. Patient LL presented atrophy in left anterior hippocampus, but hyperactivated its right counterpart for future compared to past thinking, permitting her to project efficiently in the future in an episodic way. Patient EG presented no atrophy in the superior medial frontal gyri or anterior hippocampi and was able to engage in episodic future thinking. Altogether, patients' future projections differed depending on the severity and localization of their atrophy. The functional integrity of bilateral superior medial frontal gyri and anterior hippocampus appear crucial for episodic future thinking: atrophy of both structures strongly impairs future projection, while integrity of these structures or hyperactivation of residual tissue normalizes episodic future projection. PMID:25333997

  13. A water soluble additive to suppress respirable dust from concrete-cutting chainsaws: a case study.

    PubMed

    Summers, Michael P; Parmigiani, John P

    2015-01-01

    Respirable dust is of particular concern in the construction industry because it contains crystalline silica. Respirable forms of silica are a severe health threat because they heighten the risk of numerous respirable diseases. Concrete cutting, a common work practice in the construction industry, is a major contributor to dust generation. No studies have been found that focus on the dust suppression of concrete-cutting chainsaws, presumably because, during normal operation water is supplied continuously and copiously to the dust generation points. However, there is a desire to better understand dust creation at low water flow rates. In this case study, a water-soluble surfactant additive was used in the chainsaw's water supply. Cutting was performed on a free-standing concrete wall in a covered outdoor lab with a hand-held, gas-powered, concrete-cutting chainsaw. Air was sampled at the operator's lapel, and around the concrete wall to simulate nearby personnel. Two additive concentrations were tested (2.0% and 0.2%), across a range of fluid flow rates (0.38-3.8 Lpm [0.1-1.0 gpm] at 0.38 Lpm [0.1 gpm] increments). Results indicate that when a lower concentration of additive is used exposure levels increase. However, all exposure levels, once adjusted for 3 hours of continuous cutting in an 8-hour work shift, are below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 5 mg/m(3). Estimates were made using trend lines to predict the fluid flow rates that would cause respirable dust exposure to exceed both the OSHA PEL and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) threshold limit value (TLV). PMID:25714034

  14. Augmenting a Waste Glass Mixture Experiment Study with Additional Glass Components and Experimental Runs

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F. ); Cooley, Scott K. ); Peeler, David K.; Vienna, John D. ); Edwards, Tommy B.

    2002-01-01

    A glass composition variation study (CVS) for high-level waste (HLW) stored in Idaho is being statistically designed and performed in phases over several years. The purpose of the CVS is to investigate and model how HLW-glass properties depend on glass composition. The resulting glass property-composition models will be used to develop desirable glass formulations and for other purposes. Phases 1 and 2 of the CVS have been completed and are briefly described. This paper focuses on the CVS Phase 3 experimental design, which was chosen to augment the Phase 1 and 2 data with additional data points, as well as to account for additional glass components not studied in Phases 1 and/or 2. In total, 16 glass components were varied in the Phase 3 experimental design. The paper describes how these Phase 3 experimental design augmentation challenges were addressed using the previous data, preliminary property-composition models, and statistical mixture experiment and optimal experimental design methods and software.

  15. Can we predict future change from long-term watershed studies? Fraser Experimental Forest case study

    SciTech Connect

    Stottlemyer, R.; Troendle, C.A.

    1995-06-01

    The Fraser Experimental Forest (FEF) has nine gauged watersheds, some monitored continuously since the early 1940`s. Hydrographs are dominated by snowmelt with >70% discharge variation accounted for by snow water equivalent. Mean annual flow is cyclic over a ten-year period. Climate models suggest that peak streamwater discharge and its timing respond to temperature change. FEF results suggest simulated climate changes are unlikely to shift the hydrograph magnitude outside of normal variability, but the time of peak discharge is sensitive to anticipated climate change. The fate of atmospheric contaminant input has been studied >10 y. Hydrologic variation accounts for most of the variation in surface water ion concentration and flux. The FEF record suggests that watershed-level nutrient study will not be very sensitive to projected future change in atmospheric contaminant input or climate.

  16. Role of sulfite additives in wine induced asthma: single dose and cumulative dose studies

    PubMed Central

    Vally, H; Thompson, P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Wine appears to be a significant trigger for asthma. Although sulfite additives have been implicated as a major cause of wine induced asthma, direct evidence is limited. Two studies were undertaken to assess sulfite reactivity in wine sensitive asthmatics. The first study assessed sensitivity to sulfites in wine using a single dose sulfited wine challenge protocol followed by a double blind, placebo controlled challenge. In the second study a cumulative dose sulfited wine challenge protocol was employed to establish if wine sensitive asthmatics as a group have an increased sensitivity to sulfites.
METHODS—In study 1, 24 asthmatic patients with a strong history of wine induced asthma were screened. Subjects showing positive responses to single blind high sulfite (300 ppm) wine challenge were rechallenged on separate days in a double blind, placebo controlled fashion with wines of varying sulfite levels to characterise their responses to these drinks. In study 2, wine sensitive asthmatic patients (n=12) and control asthmatics (n=6) were challenged cumulatively with wine containing increasing concentrations of sulfite in order to characterise further their sensitivity to sulfites in wine.
RESULTS—Four of the 24 self-reporting wine sensitive asthmatic patients were found to respond to sulfite additives in wine when challenged in a single dose fashion (study 1). In the double blind dose-response study all four had a significant fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (>15% from baseline) following exposure to wine containing 300 ppm sulfite, but did not respond to wines containing 20, 75 or 150 ppm sulfite. Responses were maximal at 5 minutes (mean (SD) maximal decline in FEV1 28.7 (13)%) and took 15-60 minutes to return to baseline levels. In the cumulative dose-response study (study 2) no significant difference was observed in any of the lung function parameters measured (FEV1, peak expiratory flow (PEF), mid phase forced expiratory

  17. Characterization studies on the additives mixed L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haja Hameed, A. S.; Karthikeyan, C.; Ravi, G.; Rohani, S.

    2011-04-01

    L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP), potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) mixed LAP (LAP:KSCN) and sodium sulfite (Na 2SO 3) mixed LAP (LAP:Na 2SO 3) single crystals were grown by slow cooling technique. The effect of microbial contamination and coloration on the growth solutions was studied. The crystalline powders of the grown crystals were examined by X-ray diffraction and the lattice parameters of the crystals were estimated. From the FTIR spectroscopic analysis, various functional group frequencies associated with the crystals were assigned. Vickers microhardness studies were done on {1 0 0} faces for pure and additives mixed LAP crystals. From the preliminary surface second harmonic generation (SHG) results, it was found that the SHG intensity at (1 0 0) face of LAP:KSCN crystal was much stronger than that of pure LAP.

  18. The guanidine and maleic acid (1:1) complex. The additional theoretical and experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, Marek; Dudzic, Damian

    2012-04-01

    On the basis of experimental literature data the theoretical studies for guanidinium and maleic acid complex with using DFT method are performed. In these studies the experimental X-ray data for two different forms of investigated crystal were used. During the geometry optimization process one equilibrium structure was found, only. According to this result the infrared spectrum for one theoretical molecule was calculated. On the basis of potential energy distribution (PED) analysis the clear-cut assignments of observed bands were performed. For the calculated molecule with energy minimum the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) were obtained and graphically illustrated. The energy difference (GAP) between HOMO and LUMO was analyzed. Additionally, the nonlinear properties of this molecule were calculated. The α and β (first and second order) hyperpolarizability values are obtained. On the basis of these results the title crystal was classified as new second order NLO generator.

  19. Study of Fuel Property Effects Using Future Low Emissions Heavy Duty Truck Engine Hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Sharon

    2000-08-20

    Fuel properties have had substantial impact on engine emissions. Fuel impact varies with engine technology. An assessment of fuel impact on future low emission designs was needed as part of an EMAEPA-API study effort

  20. Impact of contacting study authors to obtain additional data for systematic reviews: diagnostic accuracy studies for hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Seventeen of 172 included studies in a recent systematic review of blood tests for hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis reported diagnostic accuracy results discordant from 2 × 2 tables, and 60 studies reported inadequate data to construct 2 × 2 tables. This study explores the yield of contacting authors of diagnostic accuracy studies and impact on the systematic review findings. Methods Sixty-six corresponding authors were sent letters requesting additional information or clarification of data from 77 studies. Data received from the authors were synthesized with data included in the previous review, and diagnostic accuracy sensitivities, specificities, and positive and likelihood ratios were recalculated. Results Of the 66 authors, 68% were successfully contacted and 42% provided additional data for 29 out of 77 studies (38%). All authors who provided data at all did so by the third emailed request (ten authors provided data after one request). Authors of more recent studies were more likely to be located and provide data compared to authors of older studies. The effects of requests for additional data on the conclusions regarding the utility of blood tests to identify patients with clinically significant fibrosis or cirrhosis were generally small for ten out of 12 tests. Additional data resulted in reclassification (using median likelihood ratio estimates) from less useful to moderately useful or vice versa for the remaining two blood tests and enabled the calculation of an estimate for a third blood test for which previously the data had been insufficient to do so. We did not identify a clear pattern for the directional impact of additional data on estimates of diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions We successfully contacted and received results from 42% of authors who provided data for 38% of included studies. Contacting authors of studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of serum biomarkers for hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in hepatitis C patients

  1. A combined toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles and vitamin C in food additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanli; Yuan, Lulu; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Li, Chenchen; Fang, Jie; Sui, Keke; Liu, Yuanfang; Wu, Minghong

    2014-11-01

    At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the cytotoxicity significantly compared with that of the ZnO only NPs. When the cells were exposed to ZnO NPs at a concentration less than 15 mg L-1, or to Vc at a concentration less than 300 mg L-1, there was no significant cytotoxicity, both in the case of gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) and neural stem cells (NSCs). However, when 15 mg L-1 of ZnO NPs and 300 mg L-1 of Vc were introduced to cells together, the cell viability decreased sharply indicating significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the significant increase in toxicity was also shown in the in vivo experiments. The dose of the ZnO NPs and Vc used in the in vivo study was calculated according to the state of food and nutrition enhancer standard. After repeated oral exposure to ZnO NPs plus Vc, the injury of the liver and kidneys in mice has been indicated by the change of these indices. These findings demonstrate that the synergistic toxicity presented in a complex system is essential for the toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of nanofood.At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the

  2. Ecoclimatic indicators to study crop suitability in present and future climatic conditionsTIC CONDITIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caubel, Julie; Garcia de Cortazar Atauri, Inaki; Huard, Frédéric; Launay, Marie; Ripoche, Dominique; Gouache, David; Bancal, Marie-Odile; Graux, Anne-Isabelle; De Noblet, Nathalie

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is expected to affect both regional and global food production through changes in overall agroclimatic conditions. It is therefore necessary to develop simple tools of crop suitability diagnosis in a given area so that stakeholders can envisage land use adaptations under climate change conditions. The most common way to investigate potential impacts of climate on the evolution of agrosystems is to make use of an array of agroclimatic indicators, which provide synthetic information derived from climatic variables and calculated within fixed periods (i.e. January first - 31th July). However, the information obtained during these periods does not enable to take account of the plant response to climate. In this work, we present some results of the research program ORACLE (Opportunities and Risks of Agrosystems & forests in response to CLimate, socio-economic and policy changEs in France (and Europe). We proposed a suite of relevant ecoclimatic indicators, based on temperature and rainfall, in order to evaluate crop suitability for both present and new climatic conditions. Ecoclimatic indicators are agroclimatic indicators (e.g., grain heat stress) calculated during specific phenological phases so as to take account of the plant response to climate (e.g., the grain filling period, flowering- harvest). These indicators are linked with the ecophysiological processes they characterize (for e.g., the grain filling). To represent this methodology, we studied the suitability of winter wheat in future climatic conditions through three distinct French sites, Toulouse, Dijon and Versailles. Indicators have been calculated using climatic data from 1950 to 2100 simulated by the global climate model ARPEGE forced by a greenhouse effect corresponding to the SRES A1B scenario. The Quantile-Quantile downscaling method was applied to obtain data for the three locations. Phenological stages (emergence, ear 1 cm, flowering, beginning of grain filling and harvest) have been

  3. Ecoclimatic indicators to study crop suitability in present and future climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caubel, Julie; Garcia de Cortazar Atauri, Inaki; Huard, Frédéric; Launay, Marie; Ripoche, Dominique; Gouache, David; Bancal, Marie-Odile; Graux, Anne-Isabelle; De Noblet, Nathalie

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is expected to affect both regional and global food production through changes in overall agroclimatic conditions. It is therefore necessary to develop simple tools of crop suitability diagnosis in a given area so that stakeholders can envisage land use adaptations under climate change conditions. The most common way to investigate potential impacts of climate on the evolution of agrosystems is to make use of an array of agroclimatic indicators, which provide synthetic information derived from climatic variables and calculated within fixed periods (i.e. January first - 31th July). However, the information obtained during these periods does not enable to take account of the plant response to climate. In this work, we present some results of the research program ORACLE (Opportunities and Risks of Agrosystems & forests in response to CLimate, socio-economic and policy changEs in France (and Europe). We proposed a suite of relevant ecoclimatic indicators, based on temperature and rainfall, in order to evaluate crop suitability for both present and new climatic conditions. Ecoclimatic indicators are agroclimatic indicators (e.g., grain heat stress) calculated during specific phenological phases so as to take account of the plant response to climate (e.g., the grain filling period, flowering- harvest). These indicators are linked with the ecophysiological processes they characterize (for e.g., the grain filling). To represent this methodology, we studied the suitability of winter wheat in future climatic conditions through three distinct French sites, Toulouse, Dijon and Versailles. Indicators have been calculated using climatic data from 1950 to 2100 simulated by the global climate model ARPEGE forced by a greenhouse effect corresponding to the SRES A1B scenario. The Quantile-Quantile downscaling method was applied to obtain data for the three locations. Phenological stages (emergence, ear 1 cm, flowering, beginning of grain filling and harvest) have been

  4. A study of pyrazines in cigarettes and how additives might be used to enhance tobacco addiction

    PubMed Central

    Alpert, Hillel R; Agaku, Israel T; Connolly, Gregory N

    2016-01-01

    Background Nicotine is known as the drug that is responsible for the addicted behaviour of tobacco users, but it has poor reinforcing effects when administered alone. Tobacco product design features enhance abuse liability by (A) optimising the dynamic delivery of nicotine to central nervous system receptors, and affecting smokers’ withdrawal symptoms, mood and behaviour; and (B) effecting conditioned learning, through sensory cues, including aroma, touch and visual stimulation, to create perceptions of pending nicotine reward. This study examines the use of additives called ‘pyrazines’, which may enhance abuse potential, their introduction in ‘lights’ and subsequently in the highly market successful Marlboro Lights (Gold) cigarettes and eventually many major brands. Methods We conducted internal tobacco industry research using online databases in conjunction with published scientific literature research, based on an iterative feedback process. Results Tobacco manufacturers developed the use of a range of compounds, including pyrazines, in order to enhance ‘light’ cigarette products’ acceptance and sales. Pyrazines with chemosensory and pharmacological effects were incorporated in the first ‘full-flavour, low-tar’ product achieving high market success. Such additives may enhance dependence by helping to optimise nicotine delivery and dosing and through cueing and learned behaviour. Conclusions Cigarette additives and ingredients with chemosensory effects that promote addiction by acting synergistically with nicotine, increasing product appeal, easing smoking initiation, discouraging cessation or promoting relapse should be regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Current models of tobacco abuse liability could be revised to include more explicit roles with regard to non-nicotine constituents that enhance abuse potential. PMID:26063608

  5. Additional follow-up telephone counselling and initial smoking relapse: a longitudinal, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Zuo, Fang; Liu, Qinghui; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Changxi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking cessation services can help smokers to quit; however, many smoking relapse cases occur over time. Initial relapse prevention should play an important role in achieving the goal of long-term smoking cessation. Several studies have focused on the effect of extended telephone support in relapse prevention, but the conclusions remain conflicting. Design and setting From October 2008 to August 2013, a longitudinal, controlled study was performed in a large general hospital of Beijing. Participants The smokers who sought treatment at our smoking cessation clinic were non-randomised and divided into 2 groups: face-to-face individual counselling group (FC group), and face-to-face individual counselling plus telephone follow-up counselling group (FCF group). No pharmacotherapy was offered. Outcomes The timing of initial smoking relapse was compared between FC and FCF groups. Predictors of initial relapse were investigated during the first 180 days, using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Of 547 eligible male smokers who volunteered to participate, 457 participants (117 in FC group and 340 in FCF group) achieved at least 24 h abstinence. The majority of the lapse episodes occurred during the first 2 weeks after the quit date. Smokers who did not receive the follow-up telephone counselling (FC group) tended to relapse to smoking earlier than those smokers who received the additional follow-up telephone counselling (FCF group), and the log-rank test was statistically significant (p=0.003). A Cox regression model showed that, in the FCF group, being married, and having a lower Fagerström test score, normal body mass index and doctor-diagnosed tobacco-related chronic diseases, were significantly independent protective predictors of smoking relapse. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that additional follow-up telephone counselling might be an effective strategy in preventing relapse. Further research is still

  6. A Mechanistic Study of Halogen Addition and Photoelimination from π-Conjugated Tellurophenes.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Elisa I; Lanterna, Anabel E; Lough, Alan J; Scaiano, Juan C; Seferos, Dwight S

    2016-03-01

    The ability to drive reactivity using visible light is of importance for many disciplines of chemistry and has significant implications for sustainable chemistry. Identifying photochemically active compounds and understanding photochemical mechanisms is important for the development of useful materials for synthesis and catalysis. Here we report a series of photoactive diphenyltellurophene compounds bearing electron-withdrawing and electron-donating substituents synthesized by alkyne coupling/ring closing or palladium-catalyzed ipso-arylation chemistry. The redox chemistry of these compounds was studied with respect to oxidative addition and photoelimination of bromine, which is of importance for energy storage reactions involving X2. The oxidative addition reaction mechanism was studied using density functional theory, the results of which support a three-step mechanism involving the formation of an initial η(1) association complex, a monobrominated intermediate, and finally the dibrominated product. All of the tellurophene derivatives undergo photoreduction using 430, 447, or 617 nm light depending on the absorption properties of the compound. Compounds bearing electron-withdrawing substituents have the highest photochemical quantum efficiencies in the presence of an alkene trap, with efficiencies of up to 42.4% for a pentafluorophenyl-functionalized tellurophene. The photoelimination reaction was studied in detail through bromine trapping experiments and laser flash photolysis, and a mechanism is proposed. The photoreaction, which occurs by release of bromine radicals, is competitive with intersystem crossing to the triplet state of the brominated species, as evidenced by the formation of singlet oxygen. These findings should be useful for the design of new photochemically active compounds supported by main-group elements. PMID:26853739

  7. Study of mandible reconstruction using a fibula flap with application of additive manufacturing technology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to establish surgical guiding techniques for completing mandible lesion resection and reconstruction of the mandible defect area with fibula sections in one surgery by applying additive manufacturing technology, which can reduce the surgical duration and enhance the surgical accuracy and success rate. Methods A computer assisted mandible reconstruction planning (CAMRP) program was used to calculate the optimal cutting length and number of fibula pieces and design the fixtures for mandible cutting, registration, and arrangement of the fibula segments. The mandible cutting and registering fixtures were then generated using an additive manufacturing system. The CAMRP calculated the optimal fibula cutting length and number of segments based on the location and length of the defective portion of the mandible. The mandible cutting jig was generated according to the boundary surface of the lesion resection on the mandible STL model. The fibular cutting fixture was based on the length of each segment, and the registered fixture was used to quickly arrange the fibula pieces into the shape of the defect area. In this study, the mandibular lesion was reconstructed using registered fibular sections in one step, and the method is very easy to perform. Results and conclusion The application of additive manufacturing technology provided customized models and the cutting fixtures and registered fixtures, which can improve the efficiency of clinical application. This study showed that the cutting fixture helped to rapidly complete lesion resection and fibula cutting, and the registered fixture enabled arrangement of the fibula pieces and allowed completion of the mandible reconstruction in a timely manner. Our method can overcome the disadvantages of traditional surgery, which requires a long and different course of treatment and is liable to cause error. With the help of optimal cutting planning by the CAMRP and the 3D printed mandible resection jig and

  8. Resources allocation in healthcare for cancer: a case study using generalised additive mixed models.

    PubMed

    Musio, Monica; Sauleau, Erik A; Augustin, Nicole H

    2012-11-01

    Our aim is to develop a method for helping resources re-allocation in healthcare linked to cancer, in order to replan the allocation of providers. Ageing of the population has a considerable impact on the use of health resources because aged people require more specialised medical care due notably to cancer. We propose a method useful to monitor changes of cancer incidence in space and time taking into account two age categories, according to healthcar general organisation. We use generalised additive mixed models with a Poisson response, according to the methodology presented in Wood, Generalised additive models: an introduction with R. Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2006. Besides one-dimensional smooth functions accounting for non-linear effects of covariates, the space-time interaction can be modelled using scale invariant smoothers. Incidence data collected by a general cancer registry between 1992 and 2007 in a specific area of France is studied. Our best model exhibits a strong increase of the incidence of cancer along time and an obvious spatial pattern for people more than 70 years with a higher incidence in the central band of the region. This is a strong argument for re-allocating resources for old people cancer care in this sub-region. PMID:23242683

  9. Covalent binding of aniline to humic substances. 2. 15N NMR studies of nucleophilic addition reactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Pettigrew, P.J.; Goldenberg, W.S.; Weber, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    Aromatic amines are known to undergo covalent binding with humic substances in the environment. Although previous studies have examined reaction conditions and proposed mechanisms, there has been no direct spectroscopic evidence for the covalent binding of the amines to the functional groups in humic substances. In order to further elucidate the reaction mechanisms, the Suwannee River and IHSS soil fulvic and humic acids were reacted with 15N-labeled aniline at pH 6 and analyzed using 15N NMR spectrometry. Aniline underwent nucleophilic addition reactions with the quinone and other carbonyl groups in the samples and became incorporated in the form of anilinohydroquinone, anilinoquinone, anilide, imine, and heterocyclic nitrogen, the latter comprising 50% or more of the bound amine. The anilide and anilinohydroquinone nitrogens were determined to be susceptible to chemical exchange by ammonia. In the case of Suwannee River fulvic acid, reaction under anoxic conditions and pretreatment with sodium borohydride or hydroxylamine prior to reaction under oxic conditions resulted in a decrease in the proportion of anilinohydroquinone nitrogen incorporated. The relative decrease in the incorporation of anilinohydroquinone nitrogen with respect to anilinoquinone nitrogen under anoxic conditions suggested that inter- or intramolecular redox reactions accompanied the nucleophilic addition reactions.

  10. Toxicogenomics concepts and applications to study hepatic effects of food additives and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Stierum, Rob . E-mail: stierum@voeding.tno.nl; Heijne, Wilbert; Kienhuis, Anne; Ommen, Ben van; Groten, John

    2005-09-01

    Transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are genomics technologies with great potential in toxicological sciences. Toxicogenomics involves the integration of conventional toxicological examinations with gene, protein or metabolite expression profiles. An overview together with selected examples of the possibilities of genomics in toxicology is given. The expectations raised by toxicogenomics are earlier and more sensitive detection of toxicity. Furthermore, toxicogenomics will provide a better understanding of the mechanism of toxicity and may facilitate the prediction of toxicity of unknown compounds. Mechanism-based markers of toxicity can be discovered and improved interspecies and in vitro-in vivo extrapolations will drive model developments in toxicology. Toxicological assessment of chemical mixtures will benefit from the new molecular biological tools. In our laboratory, toxicogenomics is predominantly applied for elucidation of mechanisms of action and discovery of novel pathway-supported mechanism-based markers of liver toxicity. In addition, we aim to integrate transcriptome, proteome and metabolome data, supported by bioinformatics to develop a systems biology approach for toxicology. Transcriptomics and proteomics studies on bromobenzene-mediated hepatotoxicity in the rat are discussed. Finally, an example is shown in which gene expression profiling together with conventional biochemistry led to the discovery of novel markers for the hepatic effects of the food additives butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole.

  11. Assessment of Nano Cellulose from Peach Palm Residue as Potential Food Additive: Part II: Preliminary Studies.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Dayanne Regina Mendes; Mendonça, Márcia Helena; Helm, Cristiane Vieira; Magalhães, Washington L E; de Muniz, Graciela Ines Bonzon; Kestur, Satyanarayana G

    2015-09-01

    High consumption of dietary fibers in the diet is related to the reduction of the risk of non-transmitting of chronic diseases, prevention of the constipation etc. Rich diets in dietary fibers promote beneficial effects for the metabolism. Considering the above and recognizing the multifaceted advantages of nano materials, there have been many attempts in recent times to use the nano materials in the food sector including as food additive. However, whenever new product for human and animal consumption is developed, it has to be tested for their effectiveness regarding improvement in the health of consumers, safety aspects and side effects. However, before it is tried with human beings, normally such materials would be assessed through biological tests on a living organism to understand its effect on health condition of the consumer. Accordingly, based on the authors' finding reported in a previous paper, this paper presents body weight, biochemical (glucose, cholesterol and lipid profile in blood, analysis of feces) and histological tests carried out with biomass based cellulose nano fibrils prepared by the authors for its possible use as food additive. Preliminary results of the study with mice have clearly brought out potential of these fibers for the said purpose. PMID:26344977

  12. Discovering the Future of the Case Study Method in Evaluation Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    1994-01-01

    It is assumed that evaluators of the future will still be interested in case study methodology. Scenarios that ignore a case study method, that look back to a distinctive case study method, and that see the case study method as an integrating force in the qualitative-quantitative debate are explored. (SLD)

  13. Comparative study of dimensional accuracy of different impression techniques using addition silicone impression material.

    PubMed

    Penaflor, C F; Semacio, R C; De Las Alas, L T; Uy, H G

    1998-01-01

    This study compared dimensional accuracy of the single, double with spacer, double with cut-out and double mix impression technique using addition silicone impression material. A typhodont containing Ivorine teeth model with six (6) full-crown tooth preparations were used as the positive control. Two stone replication models for each impression technique were made as test materials. Accuracy of the techniques were assessed by measuring four dimensions on the stone dies poured from the impression of the Ivorine teeth model. Results indicated that most of the measurements for the height, width and diameter slightly decreased and a few increased compared with the Ivorine teeth model. The double with cut-out and double mix technique presents the least difference from the master model as compared to the two latter impression techniques. PMID:10202524

  14. Spectroscopic studies of nucleic acid additions during seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tapp, Maeling; Sullivan, Rick; Dennis, Patrick; Naik, Rajesh R.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of adding nucleic acids to gold seeds during the growth stage of either nanospheres or nanorods was investigated using UV-Vis spectroscopy to reveal any oligonucleotide base or structure-specific effects on nanoparticle growth kinetics or plasmonic signatures. Spectral data indicate that the presence of DNA duplexes during seed ageing drastically accelerated nanosphere growth while the addition of single-stranded polyadenine at any point during seed ageing induces nanosphere aggregation. For seeds added to a gold nanorod growth solution, single-stranded polythymine induces a modest blue-shift in the longitudinal peak wavelength. Moreover, a particular sequence comprised of 50% thymine bases was found to induce a faster, more dramatic blue-shift in the longitudinal peak wavelength compared to any of the homopolymer incubation cases. Monomeric forms of the nucleic acids, however, do not yield discernable spectral differences in any of the gold suspensions studied. PMID:25960601

  15. Study on Friction and Wear Properties of Silver Matrix Brush Material with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Wenfang; Hong, Yu; Wu, Yucheng

    2013-07-01

    Friction and wear processes of AgCuX (G, CF and AlN) composites-CuAgV alloy friction pair and effects of different additive content in silver based composite on friction and wear behavior are studied in this paper. The microstructure of the brush wear surface is observed by SEM. The results show that when graphite content is up to 9 wt.%, Ag-Cu-CF-G composite exhibits the best wear properties; when the content of aluminum nitride is up to 0.5 wt.%, Ag-Cu-AlN-G composites has the most comprehensive performance. The wear loss of both composites arises with the increase of both pressure and speed, but when speed reaches a critical value, the increased amplitude of wear loss tends to be steady.

  16. Genetic assessment of additional endophenotypes from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Tiffany A; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Calkins, Monica E; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Light, Gregory A; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D; Seidman, Larry J; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Stone, William S; Sugar, Catherine A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Turetsky, Bruce I; Braff, David L

    2016-01-01

    The Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study (COGS-1) has previously reported our efforts to characterize the genetic architecture of 12 primary endophenotypes for schizophrenia. We now report the characterization of 13 additional measures derived from the same endophenotype test paradigms in the COGS-1 families. Nine of the measures were found to discriminate between schizophrenia patients and controls, were significantly heritable (31 to 62%), and were sufficiently independent of previously assessed endophenotypes, demonstrating utility as additional endophenotypes. Genotyping via a custom array of 1536 SNPs from 94 candidate genes identified associations for CTNNA2, ERBB4, GRID1, GRID2, GRIK3, GRIK4, GRIN2B, NOS1AP, NRG1, and RELN across multiple endophenotypes. An experiment-wide p value of 0.003 suggested that the associations across all SNPs and endophenotypes collectively exceeded chance. Linkage analyses performed using a genome-wide SNP array further identified significant or suggestive linkage for six of the candidate endophenotypes, with several genes of interest located beneath the linkage peaks (e.g., CSMD1, DISC1, DLGAP2, GRIK2, GRIN3A, and SLC6A3). While the partial convergence of the association and linkage likely reflects differences in density of gene coverage provided by the distinct genotyping platforms, it is also likely an indication of the differential contribution of rare and common variants for some genes and methodological differences in detection ability. Still, many of the genes implicated by COGS through endophenotypes have been identified by independent studies of common, rare, and de novo variation in schizophrenia, all converging on a functional genetic network related to glutamatergic neurotransmission that warrants further investigation. PMID:26597662

  17. Serum Potassium and Glucose Regulation in the ADDITION-Leicester Screening Study

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Patrice; Bodicoat, Danielle H.; Quinn, Lauren M.; Zaccardi, Francesco; Webb, David R.; Khunti, Kamlesh; Davies, Melanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Previous observational studies have shown conflicting results between plasma K+ concentrations and risk of type 2 diabetes. To help clarify the evidence we aimed to determine whether an association existed between serum K+ and glucose regulation within a UK multiethnic population. Methods. Participants were recruited as part of the ADDITION Leicester study, a population based screening study. Individuals from primary care between the age of 40 and 75 years if White European or 25 and 75 years if South Asian or Afro Caribbean were recruited. Tests for associations between baseline characteristics and K+ quartiles were conducted using linear regression models. Results. Data showed individuals in the lowest K+ quartile had significantly greater 2-hour glucose levels (0.53 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.70, P ≤ 0.001) than those in the highest K+ quartile. This estimation did not change with adjustment for potential confounders. Conversely, participants in the lowest K+ quartile had a 0.14% lower HbA1c (95% CI −0.19 to −0.10: P ≤ 0.001) compared to those in the highest K+ quartile. Conclusion. This cross-sectional analysis demonstrated that lower K+ was associated with greater 2 hr glucose. The data supports the possibility that K+ may influence glucose regulation and further research is warranted. PMID:25883988

  18. Study of triallyl phosphate as an electrolyte additive for high voltage lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, J.; Madec, L.; Ma, L.; Ellis, L. D.; Qiu, W.; Nelson, K. J.; Lu, Z.; Dahn, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    The role of triallyl phosphate as an electrolyte additive in Li(Ni0.42Mn0.42Co0.16)O2/graphite pouch cells was studied using ex-situ gas measurements, ultra high precision coulometry, automated storage experiments, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, long-term cycling and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cells containing triallyl phosphate produced less gas during formation, cycling and storage than control cells. The use of triallyl phosphate led to higher coulombic efficiency and smaller charge endpoint capacity slippage during ultra high precision charger testing. Cells containing triallyl phosphate showed smaller potential drop during 500 h storage at 40 °C and 60 °C and the voltage drop decreased as the triallyl phosphate content in the electrolyte increased. However, large amounts of triallyl phosphate (>3% by weight in the electrolyte) led to large impedance after cycling and storage. Symmetric cell studies showed large amounts of triallyl phosphate (5% or more) led to significant impedance increase at both negative and positive electrodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies suggested that the high impedance came from the polymerization of triallyl phosphate molecules which formed thick solid electrolyte interphase films at the surfaces of both negative and positive electrodes. An optimal amount of 2%-3% triallyl phosphate led to better capacity retention during long term cycling.

  19. Additional weight load increases freezing of gait episodes in Parkinson's disease; an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Mensink, Senja H G; Nonnekes, Jorik; van Bon, Geert; Snijders, Anke H; Duysens, Jacques; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Oude Nijhuis, Lars B

    2014-05-01

    Freezing of gait is an episodic gait disorder,characterized by the inability to generate effective forward stepping movements. The pathophysiology underlying freezing of gait remains insufficiently understood, and this hampers the development of better treatment strategies.Preliminary evidence suggests that impaired force control during walking may contribute to freezing episodes, with difficulty to unload the swing leg and initiate the swing phase. Here, we used external loading to manipulate force control and to investigate its influence on freezing of gait.Twelve Parkinson's disease patients with freezing of gait performed three contrasting tasks: (1) loaded gait while wearing a belt fortified with lead weights; (2) weight supported gait using a parachute harness connected to a rigid metal cable running above the gait trajectory; and (3)normal gait. Gait tasks were used to provoke freezing episodes, including rapid 360° turns. Freezing episodes were quantified using blinded, videotaped clinical assessment. Furthermore, ground reaction forces and body kinematics were recorded. Loading significantly increased the mean number of freezing episodes per trial compared to the normal gait condition (P<0.05), but the effect of weight support was not consistent. Loading particularly increased the number of freezing episodes during rapid short steps. Step length was significantly smaller during loaded gait compared to normal gait (P<0.05), but changes in anticipatory postural adjustments were not different.Our results may point to impaired force control playing a key role in freezing of gait. Future studies should further investigate the mechanism, i.e., the contribution of deficient load feedback, and evaluate which forms of weight support might offer treatment opportunities. PMID:24658705

  20. A methodology for the preliminary scoping of future changes in ecosystem services, with an illustration from the future midwestern landscapes study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The product is a white paper defining a methodology for the preliminary scoping of future changes in ecosystem services, with an Illustration from the Future Midwestern Landscapes Study. The scoping method develops a hierarchy of relevant societal values, identifies the ecosyste...

  1. Beyond speculative robot ethics: a vision assessment study on the future of the robotic caretaker.

    PubMed

    van der Plas, Arjanna; Smits, Martijntje; Wehrmann, Caroline

    2010-11-01

    In this article we develop a dialogue model for robot technology experts and designated users to discuss visions on the future of robotics in long-term care. Our vision assessment study aims for more distinguished and more informed visions on future robots. Surprisingly, our experiment also led to some promising co-designed robot concepts in which jointly articulated moral guidelines are embedded. With our model, we think to have designed an interesting response on a recent call for a less speculative ethics of technology by encouraging discussions about the quality of positive and negative visions on the future of robotics. PMID:21069593

  2. Experimental Study of Disruption of Columnar Grains During Rapid Solidification in Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manogharan, Guha; Yelamanchi, Bharat; Aman, Ronald; Mahbooba, Zaynab

    2016-03-01

    Over the years, many studies have been conducted to study and analyze the grain structures of metal alloys during additive manufacturing to improve mechanical properties. In particular, columnar grains are observed predominantly during rapid solidification of molten metal. This leads to lower mechanical properties and requires expensive secondary heat-treatment processes. This study is aimed at disrupting the formation of columnar grain growth during rapid solidification using ultrasonic vibration and analyzes the effects on grain structure and mechanical properties. A gas-metal arc welder mounted on a Rep-Rap-based low-cost metal 3 Dimension printer was used to deposit ER70S-6 mild steel layers on a plate. A contact-type ultrasonic transducer with a control system to vary the frequency and power of the vibration was used. The effects of ultrasonic vibration were determined from the statistical analysis of microstructure and micro-indentation techniques on the deposited layer and heat-affected zone. It was found that both frequency and interaction between frequency and power had significant impact on the refinement of average grain size up to 10.64% and increased the number of grains by approximately 41.78%. Analysis of micro-indentation tests showed that there was an increase of approximately 14.30% in micro-hardness due to the applied frequency during rapid solidification. A pole diagram shows that application of vibration causes randomization of grain orientation. Along with the results from this study, further efforts in modeling and experimentation of multi-directional vibrations would lead to a better understanding of disrupting columnar grains in applications that use mechanical vibrations, such as welding, directed energy deposition, brazing, etc.

  3. In Situ Biological Contamination Studies of the Moon: Implications for Future Planetary Protection and Life Detection Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Lupisella, Mark; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA and ESA have outlined visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic precursor missions to prepare for, and support a human return to the Moon, and future human exploration of Mars and other destinations. One of the guiding principles for exploration is to pursue compelling scientific questions about the origin and evolution of life. The search for life on objects such as Mars will require that all spacecraft and instrumentation be sufficiently cleaned and sterilized prior to launch to ensure that the scientific integrity of extraterrestrial samples is not jeopardized by terrestrial organic contamination. Under the Committee on Space Research's (COSPAR's) current planetary protection policy for the Moon, no sterilization procedures are required for outbound lunar spacecraft, nor is there yet a planetary protection category for human missions. Future in situ investigations of a variety of locations on the Moon by highly sensitive instruments designed to search for biologically derived organic compounds would help assess the contamination of the Moon by lunar spacecraft. These studies could also provide valuable "ground truth" data for Mars sample return missions and help define planetary protection requirements for future Mars bound spacecraft carrying life detection experiments. In addition, studies of the impact of terrestrial contamination of the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts could provide valuable data to help refine future Mars surface exploration plans for a human mission to Mars.

  4. Synthesis, Characterization, Molecular Modeling, and DNA Interaction Studies of Copper Complex Containing Food Additive Carmoisine Dye.

    PubMed

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Akbari, Alireza; Jamshidbeigi, Mina; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2016-06-01

    A copper complex of carmoisine dye; [Cu(carmoisine)2(H2O)2]; was synthesized and characterized by using physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The binding of this complex with calf thymus (ct) DNA was investigated by circular dichroism, absorption studies, emission spectroscopy, and viscosity measurements. UV-vis results confirmed that the Cu complex interacted with DNA to form a ground-state complex and the observed binding constant (2× 10(4) M(-1)) is more in keeping with the groove bindings with DNA. Furthermore, the viscosity measurement result showed that the addition of complex causes no significant change on DNA viscosity and it indicated that the intercalation mode is ruled out. The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by van't Hoff equation, which demonstrated that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions played major roles in the reaction. The results of circular dichroism (CD) suggested that the complex can change the conformation of DNA from B-like form toward A-like conformation. The cytotoxicity studies of the carmoisine dye and its copper complex indicated that both of them had anticancer effects on HT-29 (colon cancer) cell line and they may be new candidates for treatment of the colon cancer. PMID:27152751

  5. Percutaneous Dorsal Instrumentation of Vertebral Burst Fractures: Value of Additional Percutaneous Intravertebral Reposition—Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Antonio; Schmuck, Maya; Noriega, David C.; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Baroud, Gamal; Oberkircher, Ludwig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The treatment of vertebral burst fractures is still controversial. The aim of the study is to evaluate the purpose of additional percutaneous intravertebral reduction when combined with dorsal instrumentation. Methods. In this biomechanical cadaver study twenty-eight spine segments (T11-L3) were used (male donors, mean age 64.9 ± 6.5 years). Burst fractures of L1 were generated using a standardised protocol. After fracture all spines were allocated to four similar groups and randomised according to surgical techniques (posterior instrumentation; posterior instrumentation + intravertebral reduction device + cement augmentation; posterior instrumentation + intravertebral reduction device without cement; and intravertebral reduction device + cement augmentation). After treatment, 100000 cycles (100–600 N, 3 Hz) were applied using a servohydraulic loading frame. Results. Overall anatomical restoration was better in all groups where the intravertebral reduction device was used (p < 0.05). In particular, it was possible to restore central endplates (p > 0.05). All techniques decreased narrowing of the spinal canal. After loading, clearance could be maintained in all groups fitted with the intravertebral reduction device. Narrowing increased in the group treated with dorsal instrumentation. Conclusions. For height and anatomical restoration, the combination of an intravertebral reduction device with dorsal instrumentation showed significantly better results than sole dorsal instrumentation. PMID:26137481

  6. Density functional theory study of the effects of alloying additions on sulfur adsorption on nickel surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyi, Oleksandr I.; Chen, Zhong; Kulish, Vadym V.; Bai, Kewu; Wu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Reactions of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with Nickel/Ytrria-doped zirconia (Ni/YDZ) anode materials might cause degradation of the performance of solid oxide fuel cells when S containing fuels are used. In this paper, we employ density functional theory to investigate S adsorption on metal (M)-doped and undoped Ni(0 0 1) and Ni(1 1 1) surfaces. Based on the performed calculations, we analyze the effects of 12 alloying additions (Ag, Au, Al, Bi, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Sn, Sb, V, and Zn) on the temperature of transition between clean (S atoms do not adsorb on the surfaces) and contaminated (S atoms can adsorb on the surfaces spontaneously) M-doped Ni surfaces for different concentrations of H2S in the fuel. Predicted results are consistent with many experimental studies relevant to S poisoning of both Ni/YDZ and M-doped Ni/YDZ anode materials. This study is important to understand S poisoning phenomena and to develop new S tolerant anode materials.

  7. Egocentrism and Development of Students' Identity (On the Example of Studying of Future Teachers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gromova, Chulpan R.; Alimbekov, Akmatali

    2015-01-01

    Relevance of the studied problem is that the nature of interrelation between an index of an egocentrism and characteristics of identity isn't studied. Secondly, special trainings of decentration for students--future teachers are not developed. The article is directed to study the structure of the first-third year students' identity, connection…

  8. Using laser diagnostics for studying the injection of a dry additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunov, Iu. M.; Zhilin, V. G.; Liuliukin, V. I.; Mostinskii, I. L.; Putin, Iu. A.

    1987-02-01

    In MHD generators using an ionizing additive, the uniform injection of the additive into the combustion chamber and the dispersity of the injected particles are important. Some of the problems associated with the injection of an ionizing additive can be alleviated by using dry additives. In the experiment reported here, an He-Ne laser was used to monitor the injection of potash powder with an average size of 40 microns. It is shown that laser diagnostics can be successfully used to determine the mean particle diameter and variation of the powder flow rate with time.

  9. Evaluation of additional head of biceps brachii: a study with autopsy material.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, L E; Forero, P L; Buitrago, E R

    2014-05-01

    Additional head of the biceps brachii (AHBB) has been reported in different population groups with a frequency of 1-25%. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and morphologic expression of the AHBB as determined in a sample of the Colombian population. An exploration was conducted with 106 arms corresponding to unclaimed corpses autopsied at Institute of Legal and Forensic Medicine of Bucaramanga, Colombia. Using medial incision involvingskin, subcutaneous tissue, and brachial fascia, the heads of the biceps and their innervating branches were visualised. One AHBB was observed in 21 (19.8%) of the arms evaluated, with non-significant difference (p = 0.568) per side of presentation: 11 (52.4%) cases on the right side and 10 (47.6%) on the left side. All AHBBs were originated in the infero-medial segment of the humerus, with a mean thickness of 17.8 ± 6.8 mm. In 4 (19%) cases the fascicle was thin, less than 10 mm; in 7 (33.3%) cases it was of medium thickness, between 11 and 20 mm, whereas in 47.6% it was longer than 20 mm. The length of the AHBB was 118.3 ± 26.8 mm; its motor point supplied by the musculocutaneous nerve was located at 101.3 ± 20.9 mm of the bi-epicondylar line. The incidence of AHBB in this study is located at the upper segment of what has been reportedin the literature and could be a morphologic trait of the Colombian population; in agreement with prior studies, the origin was the infero-medial surface of the humerus. PMID:24902098

  10. Artificial lightweight aggregates as utilization for future ashes - A case study.

    PubMed

    Sarabèr, Angelo; Overhof, Robert; Green, Terry; Pels, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In the future, more electricity in the Netherlands will be produced using coal with co-combustion. Due to this, the generated annual ash volume will increase and the chemical composition will be influenced. One of the options for utilization if present markets are saturated and for use of fly ashes with different compositions, is as raw material for lightweight aggregates. This was selected as one of the best utilizations options regarding potential ash volume to be applied, environmental aspects and status of technology. Because of this, a study has been performed to assess the potential utilization of fly ash for the production of lightweight aggregate. Lightweight aggregate has been produced in a laboratory scale rotary kiln. The raw material consisted of class F fly ash with high free lime content. An addition of 8% clay was necessary to get green pellets with sufficient green strength. The basic properties of the produced lightweight aggregate and its behaviour in concrete have been investigated. The concrete has a good compressive strength and its leaching behaviour meets the most stringent requirements of Dutch environmental regulations. The carbon foot print of concrete will be negatively influenced if only the concrete itself is taken into account, but the reduction of the volume weight has advantages regarding design, transport emissions and isolation properties which may counteract this. In the Dutch situation the operational costs are higher than expected potential selling price for the LWA, which implies that the gate fee for the fly ash is negative. PMID:21963657

  11. Lunar Lander project: A study on future manned missions to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    This project is based on designing a small lunar probe which will conduct research relating to future manned missions to the moon. The basic design calls for two experiments to be run. The first of these experiments is an enclosed environment section which will be exposed to solar radiation while on the moon. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the effect of radiation on an enclosed environment and how different shielding materials can be used to moderate this effect. The eight compartments will have the following covering materials: glass, polarized glass, plexiglass, polyurethane, and boron impregnated versions of the polyurethane and plexiglass. The enclosed atmosphere will be sampled by a mass spectrometer to determine elemental breakdown of its primary constituents. This is needed so that an accurate atmospheric processing system can be designed for a manned mission. The second experiment is a seismic study of the moon. A small penetrating probe will be shot into the lunar surface and data will be collected onboard the lander by an electronic seismograph which will store the data in the data storage unit for retrieval and transmission once every twenty-three hours. The project is designed to last ten years with possible extended life for an additional nine years at which point power requirements prevent proper functioning of the various systems.

  12. Additional Language Teaching within the International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebreton, Marlène

    2014-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme supports the learning of languages and cultures, but the role of the additional language within this programme is often unclear. There remains a great variability in schools regarding the frequency of lessons and the way that the additional language is taught within the Primary Years…

  13. Beyond the Call of Duty: A Qualitative Study of Teachers' Additional Responsibilities Related to Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Marla E.; Madsen, Nikki; Oliphant, Jennifer A.; Resnick, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Seven focus groups were conducted with sexuality educators in Minnesota to explore ways that teaching sexuality education differs from teaching other health education content and to determine if additional supports or resources are needed for sexuality educators. Teachers described many specific additional responsibilities or concerns related to…

  14. Experimental study of combustion characteristics of nanoscale metal and metal oxide additives in biofuel (ethanol)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the combustion behavior of nano-aluminum (n-Al) and nano-aluminum oxide (n-Al2O3) particles stably suspended in biofuel (ethanol) as a secondary energy carrier was conducted. The heat of combustion (HoC) was studied using a modified static bomb calorimeter system. Combustion element composition and surface morphology were evaluated using a SEM/EDS system. N-Al and n-Al2O3 particles of 50- and 36-nm diameters, respectively, were utilized in this investigation. Combustion experiments were performed with volume fractions of 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10% for n-Al, and 0.5, 1, 3, and 5% for n-Al2O3. The results indicate that the amount of heat released from ethanol combustion increases almost linearly with n-Al concentration. N-Al volume fractions of 1 and 3% did not show enhancement in the average volumetric HoC, but higher volume fractions of 5, 7, and 10% increased the volumetric HoC by 5.82, 8.65, and 15.31%, respectively. N-Al2O3 and heavily passivated n-Al additives did not participate in combustion reactively, and there was no contribution from Al2O3 to the HoC in the tests. A combustion model that utilized Chemical Equilibrium with Applications was conducted as well and was shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:21711760

  15. A theoretical study of wave dispersion and thermal conduction for HMX/additive interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2014-04-01

    The wave dispersion rule for non-uniform material is useful for ultrasonic inspection and engine life prediction, and also is key in achieving an understanding of the energy dissipation and thermal conduction properties of solid material. On the basis of linear response theory and molecular dynamics, we derive a set of formulas for calculating the wave dispersion rate of interface systems, and study four kinds of interfaces inside plastic bonded explosives: HMX/{HMX, TATB, F2312, F2313}. (HMX: octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine; TATB: 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene; F2312, F2313: fluoropolymers). The wave dispersion rate is obtained over a wide frequency range from kHz to PHz. We find that at low frequency, the rate is proportional to the square of the frequency, and at high frequency, the rate couples with the molecular vibration modes at the interface. By using the results, the thermal conductivities of HMX/additive interfaces are derived, and a physical model is built for describing the total thermal conductivity of mixture explosives, including HMX multi-particle systems and {TATB, F2312, F2313}-coated HMX.

  16. Addition reaction of alkyl radical to C60 fullerene: Density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto; Kawabata, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Functionalized fullerenes are known as a high-performance molecules. In this study, the alkyl-functionalized fullerenes (denoted by R-C60) have been investigated by means of the density functional theory (DFT) method to elucidate the effects of functionalization on the electronic states of fullerene. Also, the reaction mechanism of alkyl radicals with C60 was investigated. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl radicals (denoted by n = 1-4, where n means the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl radical) were examined as alkyl radicals. The DFT calculation showed that the alkyl radical binds to the carbon atom of C60 at the on-top site, and a strong C-C single bond is formed. The binding energies of alkyl radicals to C60 were distributed in the range of 31.8-35.1 kcal mol-1 at the CAM-B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level. It was found that the activation barrier exists before alkyl addition, the barrier heights were calculated to be 2.1-2.8 kcal mol-1. The electronic states of R-C60 complexes were discussed on the basis of the theoretical results.

  17. Ecological Optimization and Parametric Study of an Irreversible Regenerative Modified Brayton Cycle with Isothermal Heat Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Sudhir K.; Kaushik, Subhash C.; Tiwari, Vivek

    2003-12-01

    An ecological optimization along with a detailed parametric study of an irreversible regenerative Brayton heat engine with isothermal heat addition have been carried out with external as well as internal irreversibilities. The ecological function is defined as the power output minus the power loss (irreversibility) which is ambient temperature times the entropy generation rate. The external irreversibility is due to finite temperature difference between the heat engine and the external reservoirs while the internal irreversibilities are due to nonisentropic compression and expansion processes in the compressor and the turbine respectively and the regenerative heat loss. The ecological function is found to be an increasing function of the isothermal-, sink- and regenerative-side effectiveness, isothermal-side inlet temperature, component efficiencies and sink-side temperature while it is found to be a decreasing function of the isobaric-side temperature and effectiveness and the working fluid heat capacitance rate. The effects of the isobaric-side effectiveness are found to be more than those of the other parameters and the effects of turbine efficiency are found to be more than those of the compressor efficiency on all the performance parameters of the cycle.

  18. Theoretical study of addition reactions of carbene, silylene, and germylene to carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ying-Ying; Su, Ming-Der

    2004-08-01

    A theoretical study of the mechanism of the reaction of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) with carbene (H 2C), silylene (H 2Si), and germylene (H 2Ge) has been carried out using a two-layered ONIOM(B3LYP/6-311G ∗:PM3) approach. The main findings are as follows: (1) The computational results based on the method used in this work are in good agreement with recent theoretical findings [Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41 (2002) 1853]. That is, SWCNTs with H 2C, H 2Si, and H 2Ge addends favor opened structures rather than three-membered rings. (2) The greater the atomic number of the carbene center, the larger the activation energy and the less exothermic (or the more endothermic) the cycloaddition reaction becomes. Therefore, addition to the C dbnd C bond of a SWCNT is more difficult the heavier the carbene center. (3) The theoretical observations suggest that the singlet-triplet splitting of a carbene can be used as a guide to its reactivity during the SWCNT cycloaddition process.

  19. A history of futures: A review of scenario use in water policy studies in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Haasnoot, M.; Middelkoop, H.

    2012-01-01

    The future of human life in the world's river deltas depends on the success of water management. To deal with uncertainties about the future, policymakers in the Netherlands have used scenarios to develop water management strategies for the coastal zone of the Rhine–Meuse delta. In this paper we reflect on six decades of scenario use in the Netherlands, and provide recommendations for future studies. Based on two criteria, ‘Decision robustness’ and ‘Learning success’, we conclude that (1) the possibilities for robust decisionmaking increased through a paradigm shift from predicting to exploring futures, but the scenario method is not yet fully exploited for decisionmaking under uncertainty; and (2) the scenarios enabled learning about possible impacts of developments and effectiveness of policy options. New scenario approaches are emerging to deal with the deep uncertainties water managers are currently facing. PMID:23471143

  20. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  1. Grain protein concentration and harvestable protein under future climate conditions. A study of 108 spring barley accessions.

    PubMed

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine H; Gislum, René; Jørgensen, Johannes R; Mikkelsen, Teis N; Stockmarr, Anders; Jørgensen, Rikke B

    2016-04-01

    In the present study a set of 108 spring barley (H. vulgareL.) accessions were cultivated under predicted future levels of temperature and [CO2] as single factors and in combination (IPCC, AR5, RCP8.5). Across all genotypes, elevated [CO2] (700 ppm day/night) slightly decreased protein concentration by 5%, while elevated temperature (+5 °C day/night) substantially increased protein concentration by 29%. The combined treatment increased protein concentration across accessions by 8%. This was an increase less than predicted from strictly additive effects of the individual treatments. Despite the increase in grain protein concentration, the decrease in grain yield at combined elevated temperature and elevated [CO2] resulted in 23% less harvestable protein. There was variation in the response of the 108 accessions, which might be exploited to at least maintain if not increase harvestable grain protein under future climate change conditions. PMID:26889013

  2. Review of Current Studies in Instructional Design Theory in Korea: Major Trends and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cheolil; Yeon, Eunkyoung

    2009-01-01

    This article reviewed recent studies of instructional design theory in Korea to explore major trends and suggest future directions. Based on the analysis of 40 articles from the "Journal of Educational Technology" between 1994 and 2006, this study identified six trends: little emphasis on the conceptualization of instructional design theory;…

  3. The Role of Individual Interest and Future Goals during the First Years of University Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikkonen, Johanna; Ruohoniemi, Mirja; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 28 university students from two different fields--the humanities and veterinary medicine--were interviewed. The aim was to explore the role of individual interest and future goals during the first two years of university study through retrospective interviews. The results showed that, while support from the learning environment was…

  4. Amalgamation of Future Time Orientation, Epistemological Beliefs, Achievement Goals and Study Strategies: Empirical Evidence Established

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recently research evidence emphasizes two main lines of inquiry, namely the relations between future time perspective (FTP), achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance) and study processing strategies, and the relations between epistemological beliefs, achievement goals and study processing strategies.…

  5. Fortification of yogurts with different antioxidant preservatives: A comparative study between natural and synthetic additives.

    PubMed

    Caleja, Cristina; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Carocho, Márcio; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-11-01

    Consumers demand more and more so-called "natural" products and, therefore, the aim of this work was to compare the effects of natural versus synthetic antioxidant preservatives in yogurts. Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) decoctions were tested as natural additives, while potassium sorbate (E202) was used as a synthetic additive. The fortification of yogurts with natural and synthetic antioxidants did not cause significant changes in the yoghurt pH and nutritional value, in comparison with control samples (yogurt without any additive). However, the fortified yogurts showed higher antioxidant activity, mainly the yogurts with natural additives (and among these, the ones with chamomile decoction). Overall, it can be concluded that plant decoctions can be used to develop novel yogurts, by replacing synthetic preservatives and improving the antioxidant properties of the final product, without changing the nutritional profile. PMID:27211646

  6. ALUM ADDITION AND STEP-FEED STUDIES IN OXYGEN-ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A plug flow, O2-activated sludge process was operated with alum addition to remove phosphorus and with lime addition to prevent the process pH from decreasing below 6.4. The O2 reactor was operated at F/M ratios between 0.18 to 0.24 gm of BOD5/gm of MLVSS/day in a typical co-curr...

  7. Chemostat Studies of TCE-Dehalogenating Anaerobic Consortia under Excess and Limited Electron Donor Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semprini, L.; Azizian, M.; Green, J.; Mayer-Blackwell, K.; Spormann, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Two cultures - the Victoria Strain (VS) and the Evanite Strain (EV), enriched with the organohalide respiring bacteria Dehalococcoides mccartyi - were grown in chemostats for more than 4 years at a mean cell residence time of 50 days. The slow doubling rate represents growth likely experienced in the subsurface. The chemostats were fed formate as an electron donor and trichloroethene (TCE) as the terminal electron acceptor. Under excess formate conditions, stable operation was observed with respect to TCE transformation, steady-state hydrogen (H2) concentrations (40 nM), and the structure of the dehalogenating community. Both cultures completely transformed TCE to ethene, with minor amounts of vinyl chloride (VC) observed, along with acetate formation. When formate was limited, TCE was transformed incompletely to ethene (40-60%) and VC (60- 40%), and H2 concentrations ranged from 1 to 3 nM. The acetate concentration dropped below detection. Batch kinetic studies of TCE transformation with chemostat harvested cells found transformation rates of c-DCE and VC were greatly reduced when the cells were grown with limited formate. Upon increasing formate addition to the chemostats, from limited to excess, essentially complete transformation of TCE to ethene was achieved. The increase in formate was associated with an increase in H2 concentration and the production of acetate. Results of batch kinetic tests showed increases in transformation rates for TCE and c-DCE by factors of 3.5 and 2.5, respectively, while VC rates increased by factors of 33 to 500, over a six month period. Molecular analysis of chemostat samples is being performed to quantify the changes in copy numbers of reductase genes and to determine whether shifts in the strains of Dehalococcoides mccartyi where responsible for the observed rate increases. The results demonstrate the importance of electron donor supply for successful in-situ remediation.

  8. A study of the electrochemistry of nickel hydroxide electrodes with various additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wen-Hua; Ke, Jia-Jun; Yu, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Deng-Jun

    Nickel composite electrodes (NCE) with various additives are prepared by a chemical impregnation method from nitrate solutions on sintered porous plaques. The electrochemical properties, such as utilization of active material, swelling and the discharge potential of the nickel oxide electrode (NOE) are determined mainly through the composition of the active material and the characteristics of nickel plaques. Most additives (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cd, Co, Li and Al hydroxide) exert effects on the discharge potential and swelling of the NOE. Chemical co-precipitation with the addition of calcium, zinc, magnesium and barium hydroxide increases the discharge potential by more than 20 mV, but that with zinc hydroxide results in an obvious decrease of active-material utilization and that with calcium and magnesium hydroxide produces a larger increase of electrode thickness. The effects of anion additives are also examined. Less than 1% mol of NiS in the active material increases the discharge potential. Cadmium, cobalt and zinc hydroxide are excellent additives for preventing swelling of the NCE. Slow voltammetry (0.2 mV s -1) in 6 M KOH is applied to characterize the oxygen-evolving potential of the NCE. The difference between the oxygen-evolution potential and the potential of the oxidation peak for the NCE with additives of calcium, lithium, barium and aluminium hydroxide is at least + 60 mV.

  9. 78 FR 68461 - Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Guidance for Industry: Studies to Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti- Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and...

  10. A NASA study of the impact of technology on future carrier based tactical aircraft - Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. B., III

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of technology on future carrier based tactical aircraft. The results were used in the Center for Naval Analysis Future Carrier Study. The NASA Team designed three classes of aircraft ('Fighter', 'Attack', and 'Multimission') with two different technology levels. The Multimission aircraft were further analyzed by examining the penalty on the aircraft for both catapult launch/arrested landing recovery (Cat/trap) and short take-off/vertical landing (STOVL). The study showed the so-called STOVL penalty was reduced by engine technology and the next generation Strike Fighter will pay more penalty for Cat/trap than for STOVL capability.

  11. Maltreated children's representations of mother and an additional caregiver: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Manashko, Shany; Besser, Avi; Priel, Beatriz

    2009-04-01

    In the current longitudinal investigation, we explored the continuity of and changes in the mental representations of the mother and an additional caregiver among forty-five 9- to 11-year-old children who had been severely maltreated and subsequently placed in long-term residential care as well as the relationships between the content and structure of these representations and teacher's assessments of the child's externalizing and internalizing symptoms. At Time 1, a nonmaltreated comparison group was assessed concomitantly. Compared to nonmaltreated children, maltreated children scored higher for externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and their maternal representations were found to be significantly less benevolent and integrated and more punitive. In addition, among the maltreated children, the additional caregiver representations were found to be more benevolent and integrated, and less punitive, than the maternal representations. After 30 months, the maltreated children's levels of externalizing and internalizing symptoms diminished, their maternal representations become more benevolent and less punitive, and the additional caregiver representations became less benevolent. Moreover, the Benevolence of the additional caregiver representation was found to predict these children's changes in externalizing symptoms beyond the effects of their symptomatology and its associations with the Benevolence of these representations at Time 1. PMID:19220720

  12. Study of the commonality of space vehicle applications to future national needs (unclassified portion)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A midterm progress report was presented on the study of commonality of space vehicle applications to future national needs. Two of the four objectives in the entire study were discussed. The first one involved deriving functional requirements for space systems based on future needs and environments for the military and civilian communities. Possible space initiatives based on extrapolations of technology were compiled without regard as to need but only with respect to feasibility, given the advanced state of technology which could exist through the year 2,000. The second one involved matching the initiatives against the requirements, developing a methodology to match and select the initiatives with each of the separate plans based on the future environments, and deriving common features of the military and civilian support requirements for these programs.

  13. Modelling the impacts of climate change on future rates of soil erosion: a case study from the north of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullan, Donal; Favis-Mortlock, Dave

    2010-05-01

    Soil erosion by water is not currently a major issue in Ireland, owing to the predominance of permanent grassland and hence year-round protection of the soil from rainfall and runoff. When the land cover is removed following tillage, however, the soil becomes exposed to the forces of rainfall and flowing water, and ‘a window of opportunity' is presented for soil erosion to occur. Past evidence suggests tillage was once more important than pasture in Irish agriculture, with a shift from livestock husbandry towards intensive arable farming prompting soil erosion. Insufficient protection of the soil following tillage is therefore a key ingredient in the development of soil erosion on agricultural land, as is a sufficient supply of rainfall to exploit the exposed soil. Any changes to the frequency of tillage or the amount/intensity of rainfall may therefore be expected to increase future soil erosion rates. The potential exists for such changes to increase Irish soil erosion rates under future climate change. Increased rainfall intensity and greater winter rainfall amounts are projected for Ireland, which may result in increased runoff from agricultural land. In addition, projected increases in annual temperatures may cause a shift in land use to accommodate a possible introduction of crops suited to the warmer conditions. Therefore any changes from the current predominance of permanent grassland to arable farming will increase tillage and therefore reduce protection of the soil from erosion. This study examines the impacts of future climate change on soil erosion by modelling future erosion rates using the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model (Flanagan and Nearing, 1995) for a site in the north of Ireland. Most previous studies of soil erosion under future climate change (eg. Favis-Mortlock and Boardman, 1995; Pruski and Nearing, 2002; Kim et al, 2009) use raw General Circulation Model (GCM) output to perturb the erosion model to represent changed climate

  14. Mechanical characterization of filler sandcretes with rice husk ash additions. Study applied to Senegal

    SciTech Connect

    Cisse, I.K.; Laquerbe, M.

    2000-01-01

    To capitalize on the local materials of Senegal (agricultural and industrial wastes, residual fines from crushing process, sands from dunes, etc.), rise husk ash and residues of industrial and agricultural wastes have been used as additions in sandcretes. The mechanical resistance of sandcrete blocks obtained when unground ash (and notably the ground ash) is added reveals that there is an increase in performance over the classic mortar blocks. In addition, the use of unground rice husk ash enables production of a lightweight sandcrete with insulating properties, at a reduced cost. The ash pozzolanic reactivity explains the high strengths obtained.

  15. Study of the impact of cruise and passenger ships on a Mediterranean port city air quality - Study of future emission mitigation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liora, Natalia; Poupkou, Anastasia; Kontos, Serafim; Giannaros, Christos; Melas, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    An increase of the passenger ships traffic is expected in the Mediterranean Sea as targeted by the EU Blue Growth initiative. This increase is expected to impact the Mediterranean port-cities air quality considering not only the conventional atmospheric pollutants but also the toxic ones that are emitted by the ships (e.g. Nickel). The aim of this study is the estimation of the present and future time pollutant emissions from cruise and passenger maritime transport in the port area of Thessaloniki (Greece) as well as the impact of those emissions on the city air quality. Cruise and passenger ship emissions have been estimated for the year 2013 over a 100m spatial resolution grid which covers the greater port area of Thessaloniki. Emissions have been estimated for the following macro-pollutants; NOx, SO2, NMVOC, CO, CO2 and particulate matter (PM). In addition, the most important micro-pollutants studied in this work are As, Cd, Pb, Ni and Benzo(a)pyrene for which air quality limits have been set by the EU. Emissions have been estimated for three operation modes; cruising, maneuvering and hotelling. For the calculation of the present time maritime emissions, the activity data used were provided by the Thessaloniki Port Authority S.A. Moreover, future pollutant emissions are estimated using the future activity data provided by the Port Authority and the IMO legislation for shipping in the future. In addition, two mitigation emission scenarios are examined; the use of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a fuel used by ships and the implementation of cold ironing which is the electrification of ships during hotelling mode leading to the elimination of the corresponding emissions. The impact of the present and future passenger ship emissions on the air quality of Thessaloniki is examined with the use of the model CALPUFF applied over the 100m spatial resolution grid using the meteorology of WRF. Simulations of the modeling system are performed for four different emission

  16. Computational study of the rate constants and free energies of intramolecular radical addition to substituted anilines

    PubMed Central

    Seddiqzai, Meriam; Dahmen, Tobias; Sure, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Summary The intramolecular radical addition to aniline derivatives was investigated by DFT calculations. The computational methods were benchmarked by comparing the calculated values of the rate constant for the 5-exo cyclization of the hexenyl radical with the experimental values. The dispersion-corrected PW6B95-D3 functional provided very good results with deviations for the free activation barrier compared to the experimental values of only about 0.5 kcal mol−1 and was therefore employed in further calculations. Corrections for intramolecular London dispersion and solvation effects in the quantum chemical treatment are essential to obtain consistent and accurate theoretical data. For the investigated radical addition reaction it turned out that the polarity of the molecules is important and that a combination of electrophilic radicals with preferably nucleophilic arenes results in the highest rate constants. This is opposite to the Minisci reaction where the radical acts as nucleophile and the arene as electrophile. The substitution at the N-atom of the aniline is crucial. Methyl substitution leads to slower addition than phenyl substitution. Carbamates as substituents are suitable only when the radical center is not too electrophilic. No correlations between free reaction barriers and energies (ΔG ‡ and ΔG R) are found. Addition reactions leading to indanes or dihydrobenzofurans are too slow to be useful synthetically. PMID:24062821

  17. Study on automatic optical element addition or deletion in lens optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xuemin; Wang, Yongtian; Hao, Qun

    2002-09-01

    Two lens form parameters, quantifying the symmetry of the optical system and the optical power distribution among the individual lens elements, are used as the criteria for automatic element addition or deletion in lens optimization. The scheme based on the criteria is described in this paper. Design examples are provided, which demonstrate that the scheme is practicable.

  18. Teaching Young Children Decomposition Strategies to Solve Addition Problems: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Zi-Juan

    2012-01-01

    The ability to count has traditionally been considered an important milestone in children's development of number sense. However, using counting (e.g., counting on, counting all) strategies to solve addition problems is not the best way for children to achieve their full mathematical potential and to prepare them to develop more complex and…

  19. Computational study of the rate constants and free energies of intramolecular radical addition to substituted anilines.

    PubMed

    Gansäuer, Andreas; Seddiqzai, Meriam; Dahmen, Tobias; Sure, Rebecca; Grimme, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The intramolecular radical addition to aniline derivatives was investigated by DFT calculations. The computational methods were benchmarked by comparing the calculated values of the rate constant for the 5-exo cyclization of the hexenyl radical with the experimental values. The dispersion-corrected PW6B95-D3 functional provided very good results with deviations for the free activation barrier compared to the experimental values of only about 0.5 kcal mol(-1) and was therefore employed in further calculations. Corrections for intramolecular London dispersion and solvation effects in the quantum chemical treatment are essential to obtain consistent and accurate theoretical data. For the investigated radical addition reaction it turned out that the polarity of the molecules is important and that a combination of electrophilic radicals with preferably nucleophilic arenes results in the highest rate constants. This is opposite to the Minisci reaction where the radical acts as nucleophile and the arene as electrophile. The substitution at the N-atom of the aniline is crucial. Methyl substitution leads to slower addition than phenyl substitution. Carbamates as substituents are suitable only when the radical center is not too electrophilic. No correlations between free reaction barriers and energies (ΔG (‡) and ΔG R) are found. Addition reactions leading to indanes or dihydrobenzofurans are too slow to be useful synthetically. PMID:24062821

  20. Vector generalized additive models for extreme rainfall data analysis (study case rainfall data in Indramayu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utami, Eka Putri Nur; Wigena, Aji Hamim; Djuraidah, Anik

    2016-02-01

    Rainfall pattern are good indicators for potential disasters. Global Circulation Model (GCM) contains global scale information that can be used to predict the rainfall data. Statistical downscaling (SD) utilizes the global scale information to make inferences in the local scale. Essentially, SD can be used to predict local scale variables based on global scale variables. SD requires a method to accommodate non linear effects and extreme values. Extreme value Theory (EVT) can be used to analyze the extreme value. One of methods to identify the extreme events is peak over threshold that follows Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). The vector generalized additive model (VGAM) is an extension of the generalized additive model. It is able to accommodate linear or nonlinear effects by involving more than one additive predictors. The advantage of VGAM is to handle multi response models. The key idea of VGAM are iteratively reweighted least square for maximum likelihood estimation, penalized smoothing, fisher scoring and additive models. This works aims to analyze extreme rainfall data in Indramayu using VGAM. The results show that the VGAM with GPD is able to predict extreme rainfall data accurately. The prediction in February is very close to the actual value at quantile 75.

  1. Studies on the Food Additive Propyl Gallate: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Jorge; Garrido, E. Manuela; Borges, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are additives largely used in industry for delaying, retarding, or preventing the development of oxidative deterioration. Propyl gallate (E310) is a phenolic antioxidant extensively used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. A series of lab experiments have been developed to teach students about the importance and…

  2. Mapping of the Lunokhod-1 Landing Site: A Case Study for Future Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachevtseva, I.; Oberst, J.; Konopikhin, A.; Shingareva, K.; Gusakova, E.; Kokhanov, A.; Baskakova, M.; Peters, O.; Scholten, F.; Wählisch, M.; Robinson, M.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction. Luna-17 landed on November 17, 1970 and deployed Lunokhod-1, the first remotely operated roving vehicle ever to explore a planetary surface. Within 332 days, the vehicle conquered a traverse of approx. 10 km. The rover was equipped with a navigation camera system as well as a scanner camera with which panoramic images were obtained. From separated stations, stereoscopic views were obtained. The history of the Lunokhods came back into focus recently, when the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter [1] obtained images from orbit at highest resolutions of 0.5-0.25 m/pixel. The Luna-17 landing platform as well as the roving vehicles at their final resting positions can clearly be identified. In addition, the rover tracks are clearly visible in most areas. From LRO stereo images, digital elevation model (DEM) of the Lunokhod-1 landing site areas have been derived [2]. These are useful to study the topographic profile and slopes of the traverse. The data are also useful to study the 3-D morphology of craters in the surroundings. Methodology. Lunokhod-1 area mapping have been done using GIS techniques. With CraterTools [3] we digitized craters in the Lunokhod-1 traverse area and created a geodatabase, which consists at this moment of about 45,000 craters including their diameters and depths, obtained from the DEM [4]. The LRO DEM also was used to measure traverse. We used automatic GIS functions for calculating various surface parameters of the Lunokhod-1 area surface including slopes, roughness, crater cumulative and spatial densities, and prepared respective thematic maps. We also measured relative depth (ratio D/H) and inner slopes of craters and classified craters by their morphological type using automatic and visual methods. Vertical profiles through several craters using the high resolution DEM have been done, and the results show good agreement with the topographic models with contours in 10cm that have been obtained from the Lunokhod-1 stereo images [5]. The

  3. Buildings of the Future Scoping Study: A Framework for Vision Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Na; Goins, John D.

    2015-02-01

    The Buildings of the Future Scoping Study, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Office, seeks to develop a vision for what U.S. mainstream commercial and residential buildings could become in 100 years. This effort is not intended to predict the future or develop a specific building design solution. Rather, it will explore future building attributes and offer possible pathways of future development. Whether we achieve a more sustainable built environment depends not just on technologies themselves, but on how effectively we envision the future and integrate these technologies in a balanced way that generates economic, social, and environmental value. A clear, compelling vision of future buildings will attract the right strategies, inspire innovation, and motivate action. This project will create a cross-disciplinary forum of thought leaders to share their views. The collective views will be integrated into a future building vision and published in September 2015. This report presents a research framework for the vision development effort based on a literature survey and gap analysis. This document has four objectives. First, it defines the project scope. Next, it identifies gaps in the existing visions and goals for buildings and discusses the possible reasons why some visions did not work out as hoped. Third, it proposes a framework to address those gaps in the vision development. Finally, it presents a plan for a series of panel discussions and interviews to explore a vision that mitigates problems with past building paradigms while addressing key areas that will affect buildings going forward.

  4. Reporting Crime Victimizations to the Police and the Incidence of Future Victimizations: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Ranapurwala, Shabbar I.; Berg, Mark T.; Casteel, Carri

    2016-01-01

    Background Law enforcement depends on cooperation from the public and crime victims to protect citizens and maintain public safety; however, many crimes are not reported to police because of fear of repercussions or because the crime is considered trivial. It is unclear how police reporting affects the incidence of future victimization. Objective To evaluate the association between reporting victimization to police and incident future victimization. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using National Crime Victimization Survey 2008–2012 data. Participants were 12+ years old household members who may or may not be victimized, were followed biannually for 3 years, and who completed at least one follow-up survey after their first reported victimization between 2008 and 2012. Crude and adjusted generalized linear mixed regression for survey data with Poisson link were used to compare rates of future victimization. Results Out of 18,657 eligible participants, 41% participants reported to their initial victimization to police and had a future victimization rate of 42.8/100 person-years (PY) (95% CI: 40.7, 44.8). The future victimization rate of those who did not report to the police (59%) was 55.0/100 PY (95% CI: 53.0, 57.0). The adjusted rate ratio comparing police reporting to not reporting was 0.78 (95%CI: 0.72, 0.84) for all future victimizations, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.90) for interpersonal violence, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.78) for thefts, and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.07) for burglaries. Conclusions Reporting victimization to police is associated with fewer future victimization, underscoring the importance of police reporting in crime prevention. This association may be attributed to police action and victim services provisions resulting from reporting. PMID:27466811

  5. An additional study and implementation of tone calibrated technique of modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rafferty, W.; Bechtel, L. K.; Lay, N. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Tone Calibrated Technique (TCT) was shown to be theoretically free from an error floor, and is only limited, in practice, by implementation constraints. The concept of the TCT transmission scheme along with a baseband implementation of a suitable demodulator is introduced. Two techniques for the generation of the TCT signal are considered: a Manchester source encoding scheme (MTCT) and a subcarrier based technique (STCT). The results are summarized for the TCT link computer simulation. The hardware implementation of the MTCT system is addressed and the digital signal processing design considerations involved in satisfying the modulator/demodulator requirements are outlined. The program findings are discussed and future direction are suggested based on conclusions made regarding the suitability of the TCT system for the transmission channel presently under consideration.

  6. Choices and Chances: A Study of Pupils' Choices and Future Career Intentions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryrie, A. C.; And Others

    This book is the first result of a research project involving a study of the process by which young people move through secondary school into work or advanced education. The process of subject choice which takes place at the end of the second year of the Scottish secondary system and the students' intentions for the future, at this stage, are…

  7. A Case Study of College Persistence for the Dean's Future Scholars Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beattie, James W.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study supplemented by quantitative data was employed to explore the understandings that 13 undergraduate students from a single Dean's Future Scholars (DFS) cohort held concerning the contributions of the six major components of DFS to their persistence into the second semester of their sophomore year of college at the…

  8. Looking toward the Future: A Case Study of Open Source Software in the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quamen, Harvey

    2006-01-01

    In this article Harvey Quamen examines how the philosophy of open source software might be of particular benefit to humanities scholars in the near future--particularly for academic journals with limited financial resources. To this end he provides a case study in which he describes his use of open source technology (MySQL database software and…

  9. Studies on Written Corrective Feedback: Theoretical Perspectives, Empirical Evidence, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting; Jiang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    The role of written corrective feedback (WCF) in the process of acquiring a second language (L2) has been an issue of considerable controversies over past decades. This article intends to provide a critical review of the increasing number of WCF studies thus far and to inspire new perspectives for future research. It starts by briefly tracing the…

  10. Film Study and the Teaching of English: Technology and the Future of Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Brian

    1988-01-01

    Offers six predictions on the interrelated development of film technology and film study in the teaching of English. Sees the instructional centrality of the video cassette recorder in the near future, progressing to microcomputers, laser disks, and hybrid spoken-written-graphic text. (MM)

  11. China and the World in 2010: An Introduction to Futures Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Selena; Young, Jocelyn; Mukai, Gary

    This curriculum unit aims to introduce students to the study of the future by teaching about some of the tools that futurists use. Through the small group activities in the unit, students will become familiar with and proficient in using the following tools: historical analogy, trend extrapolation, cross-impact matrix, and decision-maker's…

  12. Human Robotic (Virtual) study of houghton crater from NASA AMES Future Flight Central (FFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Human Robotic (Virtual) study of houghton crater from NASA AMES Future Flight Central (FFC) Simulator tower L-R: Dr Stephen Hoffman, JSC (seated); Dr. Kelly Snook, Ames/JSC: Dr Jeffry Moersch, Univ of Tenn; and Dr Jim Saunders, Auburn

  13. A laboratory study of the perceived benefit of additional noise attenuation by houses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flindell, I. H.

    1983-01-01

    Two Experiments were conducted to investigate the perceived benefit of additional house attenuation against aircraft flyover noise. First, subjects made annoyance judgments in a simulated living room while an operative window with real and dummy storm windows was manipulated in full view of those subjects. Second, subjects made annoyance judgments in an anechoic audiometric test chamber of frequency shaped noise signals having spectra closely matched to those of the aircraft flyover noises reproduced in the first experiment. These stimuli represented the aircraft flyover noises in levels and spectra but without the situational and visual cues present in the simulated living room. Perceptual constancy theory implies that annoyance tends to remain constant despite reductions in noise level caused by additional attenuation of which the subjects are fully aware. This theory was supported when account was taken for a reported annoyance overestimation for certain spectra and for a simulated condition cue overreaction.

  14. Enhanced flux pinning in MOCVD-YBCO films through Zr-additions:Systematic feasibility studies

    SciTech Connect

    Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Specht, Eliot D; Kim, Kyunghoon; Zhang, Yifei; Cantoni, Claudia; Zuev, Yuri L; Goyal, Amit; Christen, David K; Maroni, Victor A.

    2009-01-01

    Systematic effects of Zr additions on the structural and flux pinning properties of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) films deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been investigated. Detailed characterization, conducted by coordinated transport, x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses, and imaging Raman microscopy have revealed trends in the resulting property/performance correlations of these films with respect to varying mole percentages (mol%) of added Zr. For compositions {le} 7.5 mol%, Zr additions lead to improved in-field critical current density, as well as extra correlated pinning along the c-axis direction of the YBCO films via the formation of columnar, self-assembled stacks of BaZrO{sub 3} nanodots.

  15. Enhanced flux pinning in MOCVD-YBCO films through Zr additions : systematic feasibility studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Aytug, T.; Paranthaman, M.; Specht, E. D.; Zhang, Y.; Kim, K.; Zuev, Y. L.; Cantoni, C.; Goyal, A.; Christen, D. K.; Maroni, V. A.; Chen, Y.; Selvamanickam, V.; ORNL; SuperPower, Inc.

    2010-01-01

    Systematic effects of Zr additions on the structural and flux pinning properties of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) films deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been investigated. Detailed characterization, conducted by coordinated transport, x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses, and imaging Raman microscopy have revealed trends in the resulting property/performance correlations of these films with respect to varying mole percentages (mol%) of added Zr. For compositions {le} 7.5 mol%, Zr additions lead to improved in-field critical current density, as well as extra correlated pinning along the c-axis direction of the YBCO films via the formation of columnar, self-assembled stacks of BaZrO{sub 3} nanodots.

  16. Indolyne Experimental and Computational Studies: Synthetic Applications and Origins of Selectivities of Nucleophilic Additions

    PubMed Central

    Im, G-Yoon J.; Bronner, Sarah M.; Goetz, Adam E.; Paton, Robert S.; Cheong, Paul H.-Y.; Houk, K. N.; Garg, Neil K.

    2010-01-01

    Efficient syntheses of 4,5-, 5,6-, and 6,7-indolyne precursors beginning from commercially available hydroxyindole derivatives are reported. The synthetic routes are versatile and allow access to indolyne precursors that remain unsubstituted on the pyrrole ring. Indolynes can be generated under mild fluoride-mediated conditions, trapped by a variety of nucleophilic reagents, and used to access a number of novel substituted indoles. Nucleophilic addition reactions to indolynes proceed with varying degrees of regioselectivity; distortion energies control regioselectivity and provide a simple model to predict the regioselectivity in the nucleophilic additions to indolynes and other unsymmetrical arynes. This model has led to the design of a substituted 4,5-indolyne that exhibits enhanced nucleophilic regioselectivity. PMID:21114321

  17. Structural changes in gluten protein structure after addition of emulsifier. A Raman spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, Evelina G.; Gómez, Analía V.; Añón, María C.; Puppo, María C.

    2011-06-01

    Food protein product, gluten protein, was chemically modified by varying levels of sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL); and the extent of modifications (secondary and tertiary structures) of this protein was analyzed by using Raman spectroscopy. Analysis of the Amide I band showed an increase in its intensity mainly after the addition of the 0.25% of SSL to wheat flour to produced modified gluten protein, pointing the formation of a more ordered structure. Side chain vibrations also confirmed the observed changes.

  18. A design study for the addition of higher order parametric discrete elements to NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    The addition of discrete elements to NASTRAN poses significant interface problems with the level 15.1 assembly modules and geometry modules. Potential problems in designing new modules for higher-order parametric discrete elements are reviewed in both areas. An assembly procedure is suggested that separates grid point degrees of freedom on the basis of admissibility. New geometric input data are described that facilitate the definition of surfaces in parametric space.

  19. Load bearing and stiffness tailored NiTi implants produced by additive manufacturing: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmanian, Rasool; Shayesteh Moghaddam, Narges; Haberland, Christoph; Dean, David; Miller, Michael; Elahinia, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Common metals for stable long-term implants (e.g. stainless steel, Titanium and Titanium alloys) are much stiffer than spongy cancellous and even stiffer than cortical bone. When bone and implant are loaded this stiffness mismatch results in stress shielding and as a consequence, degradation of surrounding bony structure can lead to disassociation of the implant. Due to its lower stiffness and high reversible deformability, which is associated with the superelastic behavior, NiTi is an attractive biomaterial for load bearing implants. However, the stiffness of austenitic Nitinol is closer to that of bone but still too high. Additive manufacturing provides, in addition to the fabrication of patient specific implants, the ability to solve the stiffness mismatch by adding engineered porosity to the implant. This in turn allows for the design of different stiffness profiles in one implant tailored to the physiological load conditions. This work covers a fundamental approach to bring this vision to reality. At first modeling of the mechanical behavior of different scaffold designs are presented as a proof of concept of stiffness tailoring. Based on these results different Nitinol scaffolds can be produced by additive manufacturing.

  20. Magnetic Force Microscopy Study of Zr2Co11 -Based Nanocrystalline Materials: Effect of Mo Addition

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yue, Lanping; Jin, Yunlong; Zhang, Wenyong; Sellmyer, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Tmore » he addition of Molybdenum was used to modify the nanostructure and enhance coercivity of rare-earth-free Zr2Co11-based nanocrystalline permanent magnets. he effect of Mo addition on magnetic domain structures of melt spun nanocrystalline Zr16Co84-xMox(x=0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0) ribbons has been investigated. It was found that magnetic properties and local domain structures are strongly influenced by Mo doping. he coercivity of the samples increases with the increase in Mo content (x≤1.5). he maximum energy product(BH)maxincreases with increasingxfrom 0.5 MGOe forx=0to a maximum value of 4.2 MGOe forx=1.5. he smallest domain size with a relatively short magnetic correlation length of 128 nm and largest root-mean-square phase shiftΦrmsvalue of 0.66° are observed for thex=1.5. he optimal Mo addition promotes magnetic domain structure refinement and thus leads to a significant increase in coercivity and energy product in this sample.« less

  1. Parameters and pitfalls to consider in the conduct of food additive research, Carrageenan as a case study.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Myra L

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides guidance on the conduct of new in vivo and in vitro studies on high molecular weight food additives, with carrageenan, the widely used food additive, as a case study. It is important to understand the physical/chemical properties and to verify the identity/purity, molecular weight and homogeneity/stability of the additive in the vehicle for oral delivery. The strong binding of CGN to protein in rodent chow or infant formula results in no gastrointestinal tract exposure to free CGN. It is recommended that doses of high Mw non-caloric, non-nutritive additives not exceed 5% by weight of total solid diet to avoid potential nutritional effects. Addition of some high Mw additives at high concentrations to liquid nutritional supplements increases viscosity and may affect palatability, caloric intake and body weight gain. In in vitro studies, the use of well-characterized, relevant cell types and the appropriate composition of the culture media are necessary for proper conduct and interpretation. CGN is bound to media protein and not freely accessible to cells in vitro. Interpretation of new studies on food additives should consider the interaction of food additives with the vehicle components and the appropriateness of the animal or cell model and dose-response. PMID:26615870

  2. The Future of Stellar Populations Studies in the Milky Way and the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Steven R.

    2010-04-01

    The last decade has seen enormous progress in understanding the structure of the Milky Way and neighboring galaxies via the production of large-scale digital surveys of the sky like 2MASS and SDSS, as well as specialized, counterpart imaging surveys of other Local Group systems. Apart from providing snaphots of galaxy structure, these “cartographic” surveys lend insights into the formation and evolution of galaxies when supplemented with additional data (e.g., spectroscopy, astrometry) and when referenced to theoretical models and simulations of galaxy evolution. These increasingly sophisticated simulations are making ever more specific predictions about the detailed chemistry and dynamics of stellar populations in galaxies. To fully exploit, test and constrain these theoretical ventures demands similar commitments of observational effort as has been plied into the previous imaging surveys to fill out other dimensions of parameter space with statistically significant intensity. Fortunately the future of large-scale stellar population studies is bright with a number of grand projects on the horizon that collectively will contribute a breathtaking volume of information on individual stars in Local Group galaxies. These projects include: (1) additional imaging surveys, such as Pan-STARRS, SkyMapper and LSST, which, apart from providing deep, multicolor imaging, yield time series data useful for revealing variable stars (including critical standard candles, like RR Lyrae variables) and creating large-scale, deep proper motion catalogs; (2) higher accuracy, space-based astrometric missions, such as Gaia and SIM-Lite, which stand to provide critical, high precision dynamical data on stars in the Milky Way and its satellites; and (3) large-scale spectroscopic surveys provided by RAVE, APOGEE, HERMES, LAMOST, and the Gaia spectrometer, which will yield not only enormous numbers of stellar radial velocities, but extremely comprehensive views of the chemistry of stellar

  3. Studies of vertex tracking with SOI pixel sensors for future lepton colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, Marco; Contarato, Devis; Denes, Peter; Liko, Dietrich; Mattiazzo, Serena; Pantano, Devis

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a study of vertex tracking with a beam hodoscope consisting of three layers of monolithic pixel sensors in SOI technology on high-resistivity substrate. We study the track extrapolation accuracy, two-track separation and vertex reconstruction accuracy in π- Cu interactions with 150 and 300 GeV/c pions at the CERN SPS. Results are discussed in the context of vertex tracking at future lepton colliders.

  4. Early Additional Immune-Modulators for Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia in Children: An Observation Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Churl; Rhim, Jung-Woo; Shin, Myung-Seok; Kang, Jin-Han

    2014-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia is a self-limiting disease, but some patients complain of progressive pneumonia, despite of appropriate antibiotic treatment. We aimed to introduce the role of immune-modulators (corticosteroid and/or intravenous immunoglobulin, IVIG) treatment for childhood MP pneumonia based on previous our experiences. Materials and Methods A retrospective case series analysis for 183 children with MP pneumonia was performed. MP pneumonia patients were diagnosed by two Immunoglobulin M (IgM) tests: the micro-particle agglutination method (≥1:40) and the cold agglutination test (≥1:4), and were examined twice at the initial admission and at discharge. Among 183 MP pneumonia patients, 90 patients with persistent fever for over 48 hours after admission or those with severe respiratory symptoms and signs received additional prednisolone (82 patients, 1 mg/kg/day) or intravenous methylprednisolone (8 patients, 5-10 mg/kg/day) with antibiotics. Four patients with aggravated clinical symptoms and chest radiographic findings after corticosteroid treatment received IVIG (1 g/kg/day, 1-2 doses). Results Mean age of 183 patients was 5.5 ± 3.2 years (6 months-15 years), and the male: female ratio was 1.1:1 (96:87). Fifty-seven patients (31%) were seroconverters and 126 seropositive patients showed increased diagnostic IgM antibody titres during admission (over 4 folds). The majority of the patients who received corticosteroids (86/90 cases) showed rapid defervescence within 48 hours with improved clinical symptoms, regardless of the used antibiotics. Also, 4 patients who received additional IVIG improved both clinically and radiographically within 2 days without adverse reaction. Conclusions In the era of macrolide-resistant MP strains, early additional immune-modulator therapy with antibiotics might prevent from the disease progression and reduce the disease morbidity without adverse reaction. PMID:25566403

  5. A near-infrared spectroscopic study of young field ultracool dwarfs: additional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allers, K. N.; Liu, M. C.

    We present additional analysis of the classification system presented in \\citet{allers13}. We refer the reader to \\citet{allers13} for a detailed discussion of our near-IR spectral type and gravity classification system. Here, we address questions and comments from participants of the Brown Dwarfs Come of Age meeting. In particular, we examine the effects of binarity and metallicity on our classification system. We also present our classification of Pleiades brown dwarfs using published spectra. Lastly, we determine SpTs and calculate gravity-sensitive indices for the BT-Settl atmospheric models and compare them to observations.

  6. The influence of bioaugmentation and biosurfactant addition on bioremediation efficiency of diesel-oil contaminated soil: feasibility during field studies.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Alicja; Ambrożewicz, Damian; Sydow, Mateusz; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    The study focused on assessing the influence of bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids on diesel oil biodegradation efficiency during field studies. Initial laboratory studies (measurement of emitted CO2 and dehydrogenase activity) were carried out in order to select the consortium for bioaugmentation as well as to evaluate the most appropriate concentration of rhamnolipids. The selected consortium consisted of following bacterial taxa: Aeromonas hydrophila, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, Gordonia sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Rhodococcus equi, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Xanthomonas sp. It was established that the application of rhamnolipids at 150 mg/kg of soil was most appropriate in terms of dehydrogenase activity. Based on the obtained results, four treatment methods were designed and tested during 365 days of field studies: I) natural attenuation; II) addition of rhamnolipids; III) bioaugmentation; IV) bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids. It was observed that bioaugmentation contributed to the highest diesel oil biodegradation efficiency, whereas the addition of rhamnolipids did not notably influence the treatment process. PMID:24291585

  7. [Impact of HAPO study findings on future diagnostics and therapy of gestational diabetes].

    PubMed

    Schäfer-Graf, Ute

    2009-01-01

    The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study is a trial on a high evidence level that included 25,000 women recruited in 15 centers all over the world who underwent a 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) at 24-32 weeks of gestation. Data remained blinded if the fasting plasma glucose level was below 105 mg/dl (5.8 mmol/l) and the 2-hour plasma glucose level was below 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l). The aim of the study was to clarify whether maternal hyperglycemia less severe than that in diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The results indicate a continuous association of maternal glucose levels below those diagnostic of diabetes with an adverse outcome, with the strongest risk for increased birth weight and cord blood serum C peptide levels indicating fetal hyperinsulinism. Additionally an increased risk for maternal complications like preeclampsia was seen. Like in many biological processes, there were no obvious thresholds at which risks increased. An international expert committee proposed how to transfer the HAPO data into criteria for the oGTT in pregnancy for the future diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) which will be based on acute pregnancy problems in contrast to the recent Carpenter and Coustan criteria. The availability of uniform, internationally accepted and applied GDM criteria will provide more clinical and legal security for the caregivers which will be a big advantage also in Germany where a wide diversity of GDM criteria is used. Beside the threshold discussion, the HAPO data are of enormous relevance for Germany. The HAPO data will significantly influence the decision of the German Health Authorities whether to finally establish a general screening for GDM as obligatory part of prenatal care. A report from the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) which was ordered from the German Health Authorities describes--mainly based on the HAPO Study

  8. ECOTOX database; new additions and future direction

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ECOTOXicology database (ECOTOX) is a comprehensive, publicly available knowledgebase developed and maintained by ORD/NHEERL. It is used for environmental toxicity data on aquatic life, terrestrial plants and wildlife. Publications are identified for potential applicability af...

  9. Kaolinite flocculation induced by smectite addition - a transmission X-ray microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Zbik, Marek S; Song, Yen-Fang; Frost, Ray L

    2010-09-01

    The influence of smectite addition on kaolinite suspensions in water was investigated by transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Sedimentation test screening was also conducted. Micrographs were processed by the STatistic IMage Analysing (STIMAN) program and structural parameters were calculated. From the results of the sedimentation tests important influences of small smectite additions to about 3wt.% on kaolinite suspension flocculation has been found. In order to determine the reason for this smectite impact on kaolinite suspension, macroscopic behaviour micro-structural examination using Transmission X-ray Microscope (TXM) and SEM has been undertaken. TXM & SEM micrographs of freeze-dried kaolinite-smectite suspensions with up to 20% smectite showed a high degree of orientation of the fabric made of highly oriented particles and greatest density when 3wt.% of smectite was added to the 10wt.% dense kaolinite suspension. In contrast, suspensions containing pure kaolinite do not show such platelet mutual orientation but homogenous network of randomly oriented kaolinite platelets. This suggests that in kaolinite-smectite suspensions, smectite forms highly oriented basic framework into which kaolinite platelets may bond in face to face preferential contacts strengthening structure and allowing them to show plastic behaviour which is cause of platelets orientation. PMID:20621806

  10. A socio-economic method for estimating future air pollutant emissions—Chicago case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Zhining; Williams, Allen; Donaghy, Kieran; Hewings, Geoffrey

    This paper presents the development of an econometric-emission model to formulate future anthropogenic emission inventories for different societal and climate change scenarios. Our approach is to formulate the emission projections for a given scenario into growth factors that can be used to project forward the 1999 National Emission Inventory (NEI99). The process involves (1) mapping NEI99 source classification code (SCC)-based emissions into the sector or standard industrial classification (SIC)-based representation used by the econometric model, (2) developing a sectoral emission intensity (EMI) defined as the sector emissions per unit of sector economic output and the mechanism to consider EMI variations over time, (3) using the resulting EMI with econometric models and future emission activities to project future emissions, (4) and then mapping the emissions back to the original NEI99 format. As a case study, we apply the model to project emissions in the Chicago metropolitan area. The results show that the model is a fast, flexible, yet reasonable tool to produce a wide range of emission scenarios that are specific to regions, and would prove valuable for future air quality and other impact studies.

  11. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bayou Choctaw salt dome, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.T.; Magorian, T.R.; Byrne, K.O.; Denzler, S.

    1993-09-01

    This report revises and updates the geologic site characterization report that was published in 1980. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major east-west trending shear zone, not mapped in the 1980 report. Excessive gas influx in Caverns 18 and 20 may be associated with this shear zone. Subsidence values at Bayou Choctaw are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging only about 10 mm/yr but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values often approximate measurement accuracy. Periodic, temporary flooding is a continuing concern because of the low site elevation (less than 10 ft), and this may intensify as future subsidence lowers the surface even further. Cavern 4 was re-sonared in 1992 and the profiles suggest that significant change has not occurred since 1980, thereby reducing the uncertainty of possible overburden collapse -- as occurred at Cavern 7 in 1954. Other potential integrity issues persist, such as the proximity of Cavern 20 to the dome edge, and the narrow web separating Caverns 15 and 17. Injection wells have been used for the disposal of brine but have been only marginally effective thus far; recompletions into more permeable lower Pleistocene gravels may be a practical way of increasing injection capacity and brinefield efficiency. Cavern storage space is limited on this already crowded dome, but 15 MMBBL could be gained by enlarging Cavern 19 and by constructing a new cavern beneath and slightly north of abandoned Cavern 13. Environmental issues center on the low site elevation: the backswamp environment combined with the potential for periodic flooding create conditions that will require continuing surveillance.

  12. Evaluation of Herbal Medicines: Value Addition to Traditional Medicines Through Metabolism, Pharmacokinetic and Safety Studies.

    PubMed

    Thelingwani, Roslyn; Masimirembwa, Collen

    2014-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of herbal medicines remain major issues of concern especially in the developing world where the use is high. The World Health Organisation estimates up to 80% of the population in Africa relies on herbal medicines for treatment of many diseases. Minimum safety evaluations need to be done for both the herbal and conventional drugs, in particular when there is a high likelihood of co-administration. This is particularly important in Africa where there is increased access to antiretrovirals in the treatment of HIV/AIDS, which are being used in a population background characterized by rampant use of herbal medicines. Many techniques used in the discovery and evaluation of conventional drugs can be adapted to herbal medicines. Such evaluations will add value to herbal medicines as doctors and patients will be better informed on which drugs and herbal medicines to take or not take together. This can also lead to the adoption of guidelines by regulatory agents such as the European Medicines Agency (EMA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and governmental agencies controlling the use of medicines. Of current interest is the evaluation of drug-herb interactions (DHI) involving the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of medicines where there is a promising possibility to adopt the current FDA and EMA guidelines on the evaluation of herbal medicines for drug-drug interactions (DDI). In this review we demonstrate progress made so far in DHI and point to possible future developments that will contribute to the safe use of herbal medicines. PMID:25658125

  13. Spitzer to the Rescue! Improved Ephemerides Preserve K2 Planets for Future Studies With JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Werner, Michael W.; Beichman, Charles A.; Benneke, Björn; Christiansen, Jessie; Crossfield, Ian; Gorjian, Varoujan; Knutson, Heather; Krick, Jessica; Livingston, John H.; Petigura, Erik; Spitzer/K2 Study Team

    2016-06-01

    The NASA K2 mission has detected hundreds of planet candidates, including dozens of tantalizing targets for future atmospheric characterization with the James Webb Space Telescope. However, the future transit windows for the longest period planet candidates are poorly constrained because these planets transit only a few times during a 70-80 day K2 observing campaign. We are reducing the uncertainties in the transit times of these planets by conducting follow-up transit observations with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. In addition to reducing the typical timing uncertainty by a factor of five, our Spitzer/IRAC observations allow us to place coarse limits on possible color-dependent differences in transit depth. I will discuss our target selection process and present the results of our ongoing 450-hr Spitzer program. We have already observed 26 transit opportunities of 21 planets and we have an additional three stars scheduled for observation this spring.This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  14. Professional Competence Development of the Social Work Specialists in the Period of Study in the System of Additional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davletkaliev, Denis Kuanyshevich; Zueva, Natalia Konstantinovna; Lebedeva, Natalya Vasilevna; Mkrtumova, Irina Vladimirovna; Timofeeva, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work is the study of psychological-pedagogical approaches to the understanding of the idea of professional competence of social work specialists as well as the role of study in the system of additional educations in professional-personal development of the listeners. In the process of study of this problem we define main…

  15. Preliminary study of neutron absorption by concrete with boron carbide addition

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Yusof Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Zali, Nurazila Mat; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Yazid, Hafizal; Ariffin, Fatin Nabilah Tajul; Ahmad, Sahrim; Hamid, Roszilah; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz

    2014-02-12

    Concrete has become a conventional material in construction of nuclear reactor due to its properties like safety and low cost. Boron carbide was added as additives in the concrete construction as it has a good neutron absorption property. The sample preparation for concrete was produced with different weight percent of boron carbide powder content. The neutron absorption rate of these samples was determined by using a fast neutron source of Americium-241/Be (Am-Be 241) and detection with a portable backscattering neutron detector. Concrete with 20 wt % of boron carbide shows the lowest count of neutron transmitted and this indicates the most neutrons have been absorbed by the concrete. Higher boron carbide content may affect the concrete strength and other properties.

  16. A study of the effects of an additional sound source on RASS performance

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, R.L.

    1998-12-31

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program continuously operates a nine panel 915 MHz wind profiler with Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS), measuring wind profiles for 50 minutes and virtual temperature profiles for the remaining 10 minutes during each hour. It is well recognized that one of the principal limits on RASS performance is high horizontal wind speed that moves the acoustic wave front sufficiently to prevent the microwave energy produced by the radar and scattered from the acoustic wave from being reflected back t the radar antenna. With this limitation in mind, the ARM program purchased an additional, portable acoustic source that could be mounted on a small trailer and placed in strategic locations to enhance the RASS performance (when it was not being used for spare parts). A test of the resulting improvement in RASS performance was performed during the period 1995--1997.

  17. Additive Manufacturing of a Microbial Fuel Cell—A detailed study

    PubMed Central

    Calignano, Flaviana; Tommasi, Tonia; Manfredi, Diego; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary society we observe an everlasting permeation of electron devices, smartphones, portable computing tools. The tiniest living organisms on Earth could become the key to address this challenge: energy generation by bacterial processes from renewable stocks/waste through devices such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the application of this solution was limited by a moderately low efficiency. We explored the limits, if any, of additive manufacturing (AM) technology to fabricate a fully AM-based powering device, exploiting low density, open porosities able to host the microbes, systems easy to fuel continuously and to run safely. We obtained an optimal energy recovery close to 3 kWh m−3 per day that can power sensors and low-power appliances, allowing data processing and transmission from remote/harsh environments. PMID:26611142

  18. THERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF THE NICKEL ADDITION IN ZINC HOT-DIP GALVANIZING BATHS

    SciTech Connect

    Pistofidis, N.; Vourlias, G.

    2010-01-21

    A usual practice during zinc hot-dip galvanizing is the addition of nickel in the liquid zinc which is used to inhibit the Sandelin effect. Its action is due to the fact that the zeta(zeta) phase of the Fe-Zn system is replaced by the TAU(tau) phase of the Fe-Zn-Ni system. In the present work an attempt is made to explain the formation of the TAU phase with thermodynamics. For this reason the Gibbs free energy changes for TAU and zeta phases were calculated. The excess free energy for the system was calculated with the Redlich-Kister polyonyme. From this calculation it was deduced that the Gibbs energy change for the tau phase is negative. As a result its formation is spontaneous.

  19. Preliminary study of neutron absorption by concrete with boron carbide addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Yusof; Ariffin, Fatin Nabilah Tajul; Hamid, Roszilah; Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Zali, Nurazila Mat; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Yazid, Hafizal; Ahmad, Sahrim; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz

    2014-02-01

    Concrete has become a conventional material in construction of nuclear reactor due to its properties like safety and low cost. Boron carbide was added as additives in the concrete construction as it has a good neutron absorption property. The sample preparation for concrete was produced with different weight percent of boron carbide powder content. The neutron absorption rate of these samples was determined by using a fast neutron source of Americium-241/Be (Am-Be 241) and detection with a portable backscattering neutron detector. Concrete with 20 wt % of boron carbide shows the lowest count of neutron transmitted and this indicates the most neutrons have been absorbed by the concrete. Higher boron carbide content may affect the concrete strength and other properties.

  20. Sulphur diffusion in β-NiAl and effect of Pt additive: an ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuiying

    2016-02-01

    Diffusivities of detrimental impurity sulfur (S) in stoichiometric and Pt doped β-NiAl were evaluated using density functional theory calculations. The apparent activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of diffusivity via the next nearest neighbour (NNN) and interstitial jumps were evaluated to identify possible preferred diffusion mechanism(s). By calculating the electron localization function (ELF), the bonding characteristics of S with its surrounding atoms were assessed for the diffusion process. By comparison with the experimental results, the S diffusion through the NNN vacancy-mediated mechanism is found to be favoured. Addition of Pt in β-NiAl was found to significantly reduce the S diffusivity, and an associated electronic effect was explored. The elucidation of the above mechanisms may shed light on the development of new Pt-modified doped β-NiAl bond coats that can extend the life of oxidation resistant and thermal barrier coatings.

  1. Additive Manufacturing of a Microbial Fuel Cell--A detailed study.

    PubMed

    Calignano, Flaviana; Tommasi, Tonia; Manfredi, Diego; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary society we observe an everlasting permeation of electron devices, smartphones, portable computing tools. The tiniest living organisms on Earth could become the key to address this challenge: energy generation by bacterial processes from renewable stocks/waste through devices such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the application of this solution was limited by a moderately low efficiency. We explored the limits, if any, of additive manufacturing (AM) technology to fabricate a fully AM-based powering device, exploiting low density, open porosities able to host the microbes, systems easy to fuel continuously and to run safely. We obtained an optimal energy recovery close to 3 kWh m(-3) per day that can power sensors and low-power appliances, allowing data processing and transmission from remote/harsh environments. PMID:26611142

  2. Additive Manufacturing of a Microbial Fuel Cell—A detailed study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calignano, Flaviana; Tommasi, Tonia; Manfredi, Diego; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    In contemporary society we observe an everlasting permeation of electron devices, smartphones, portable computing tools. The tiniest living organisms on Earth could become the key to address this challenge: energy generation by bacterial processes from renewable stocks/waste through devices such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the application of this solution was limited by a moderately low efficiency. We explored the limits, if any, of additive manufacturing (AM) technology to fabricate a fully AM-based powering device, exploiting low density, open porosities able to host the microbes, systems easy to fuel continuously and to run safely. We obtained an optimal energy recovery close to 3 kWh m-3 per day that can power sensors and low-power appliances, allowing data processing and transmission from remote/harsh environments.

  3. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy. PMID:27424134

  4. Spectroscopic Evidence for Covalent Binding of Sulfadiazine to Natural Soils via 1,4-nucleophilic addition (Michael Type Addition) studied by Spin Labeling ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    Among different classes of veterinary pharmaceuticals, Sulfadiazine (SDZ) is widely used in animal husbandry. Its residues were detected in different environmental compartments. However, soil is a hot spot for SDZ as it receives a large portion of excreted compounds through the application of manure during soil fertilization. Ample studies on the fate of SDZ in soils showed that a large portion forms nonextractable residues (NER) along with transformation products and a low mineralization (Mueller et al., 2013). A common observation was an initially fast formation of NER up to 10% of the applied amount promptly after the application of SDZ to soil, and this portion increased up to 50% within a few days (Mueller et al., 2013; Nowak et al., 2011). A common finding for SDZ, as for other sulfonamides, was biphasic kinetics of the formation of NER, which was attributed to the occurrence of two reaction processes: a rapid, often reversible process and a slower, irreversible process (Weber et al., 1996). A single-phase reaction process was also established under anaerobic treatment (Gulkowska et al., 2014). A major focus of this work is to elucidate a reaction mechanism of covalent binding of SDZ to soil that is currently required to estimate a risk of NER formed by SDZ in soils for human health. Taking into account a key role of the amine functional groups of SDZ on its reactivity in soil, nitroxide radicals with the sewed aromatic or aliphatic amines labeled soil samples and then, were investigated by means of ESR spectroscopy. 2,5,5-Trimethyl-2-(3-aminophenyl)pyrrolidin-1-yloxy and 4-amino-2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl modeled decomposition products of SDZ with the aromatic and aliphatic amines, respectively. The application of the defined combination of both spin labels (SL) to different soils well simulated a change of a paramagnetic signal of soil organic radicals interacted with SDZ. After their application to soil, SL were found in soil sites characterized

  5. Spectroscopic Evidence for Covalent Binding of Sulfadiazine to Natural Soils via 1,4-nucleophilic addition (Michael Type Addition) studied by Spin Labeling ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    Among different classes of veterinary pharmaceuticals, Sulfadiazine (SDZ) is widely used in animal husbandry. Its residues were detected in different environmental compartments. However, soil is a hot spot for SDZ as it receives a large portion of excreted compounds through the application of manure during soil fertilization. Ample studies on the fate of SDZ in soils showed that a large portion forms nonextractable residues (NER) along with transformation products and a low mineralization (Mueller et al., 2013). A common observation was an initially fast formation of NER up to 10% of the applied amount promptly after the application of SDZ to soil, and this portion increased up to 50% within a few days (Mueller et al., 2013; Nowak et al., 2011). A common finding for SDZ, as for other sulfonamides, was biphasic kinetics of the formation of NER, which was attributed to the occurrence of two reaction processes: a rapid, often reversible process and a slower, irreversible process (Weber et al., 1996). A single-phase reaction process was also established under anaerobic treatment (Gulkowska et al., 2014). A major focus of this work is to elucidate a reaction mechanism of covalent binding of SDZ to soil that is currently required to estimate a risk of NER formed by SDZ in soils for human health. Taking into account a key role of the amine functional groups of SDZ on its reactivity in soil, nitroxide radicals with the sewed aromatic or aliphatic amines labeled soil samples and then, were investigated by means of ESR spectroscopy. 2,5,5-Trimethyl-2-(3-aminophenyl)pyrrolidin-1-yloxy and 4-amino-2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl modeled decomposition products of SDZ with the aromatic and aliphatic amines, respectively. The application of the defined combination of both spin labels (SL) to different soils well simulated a change of a paramagnetic signal of soil organic radicals interacted with SDZ. After their application to soil, SL were found in soil sites characterized

  6. Te Rita Papesch: Case Study of an Exemplary Learner of Maori as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratima, Matiu Tai; Papesch, Te Rita

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the life experiences of one exemplar adult second language Maori learner--Te Rita Papesch. Te Rita was one of 17 participants who were interviewed as a part of the first author's PhD study which sought to answer the question: what factors lead to the development of proficiency in te reo Maori amongst adult…

  7. Study of NiO cathode modified by ZnO additive for MCFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bo; Li, Fei; Yu, Qing-chun; Chen, Gang; Zhao, Bin-yuan; Hu, Ke-ao

    The preparation and subsequent oxidation of nickel cathodes modified by impregnation with zinc oxide (ZnO) were evaluated by surface and bulk analysis. The electrochemical behaviors of ZnO impregnated NiO cathodes was also evaluated in a molten 62 mol% Li 2CO 3 + 38 mol% K 2CO 3 eutectic at 650 °C by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as a function of ZnO content and immersion time. The ZnO impregnated nickel cathodes showed the similar porosity, pore size distribution and morphology to the reference nickel cathode. The stability tests of ZnO impregnated NiO cathodes showed that the ZnO additive could dramatically reduce the solubility of NiO in a eutectic carbonate mixture under the standard cathode gas condition. The impedance spectra for cathode materials show important variations during the 100 h of immersion. The incorporation of lithium in its structure and the low dissolution of nickel oxide and zinc oxide are responsible of these changes. After that, the structure reaches a stable state. The cathode material having 2 mol% of ZnO showed a very low dissolution and a good catalytic efficiency close to the NiO value. We thought that 2 mol% ZnO/NiO materials would be able to adapt as alternative cathode materials for MCFCs.

  8. Generalized linear and generalized additive models in studies of species distributions: Setting the scene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guisan, A.; Edwards, T.C., Jr.; Hastie, T.

    2002-01-01

    An important statistical development of the last 30 years has been the advance in regression analysis provided by generalized linear models (GLMs) and generalized additive models (GAMs). Here we introduce a series of papers prepared within the framework of an international workshop entitled: Advances in GLMs/GAMs modeling: from species distribution to environmental management, held in Riederalp, Switzerland, 6-11 August 2001. We first discuss some general uses of statistical models in ecology, as well as provide a short review of several key examples of the use of GLMs and GAMs in ecological modeling efforts. We next present an overview of GLMs and GAMs, and discuss some of their related statistics used for predictor selection, model diagnostics, and evaluation. Included is a discussion of several new approaches applicable to GLMs and GAMs, such as ridge regression, an alternative to stepwise selection of predictors, and methods for the identification of interactions by a combined use of regression trees and several other approaches. We close with an overview of the papers and how we feel they advance our understanding of their application to ecological modeling. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Numerical study of the effect of water addition on gas explosion.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuntao; Zeng, Wen

    2010-02-15

    Through amending the SENKIN code of CHEMKIN III chemical kinetics package, a computational model of gas explosion in a constant volume bomb was built, and the detailed reaction mechanism (GRI-Mech 3.0) was adopted. The mole fraction profiles of reactants, some selected free radicals and catastrophic gases in the process of gas explosion were analyzed by this model. Furthermore, through the sensitivity analysis of the reaction mechanism of gas explosion, the dominant reactions that affect gas explosion and the formation of catastrophic gases were found out. At the same time, the inhibition mechanisms of water on gas explosion and the formation of catastrophic gases were analyzed. The results show that the induced explosion time is prolonged, and the mole fractions of reactant species such as CH(4), O(2) and catastrophic gases such as CO, CO(2) and NO are decreased as water is added to the mixed gas. With the water fraction in the mixed gas increasing, the sensitivities of the dominant reactions contributing to CH(4), CO(2) are decreased and the sensitivity coefficients of CH(4), CO and NO mole fractions are also decreased. The inhibition of gas explosion with water addition can be ascribed to the significant decrease of H, O and OH in the process of gas explosion due to the water presence. PMID:19811873

  10. Chromosome studies in the aquatic monocots of Myanmar: A brief review with additional records

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Myanmar (Burma) constitutes a significant component of the Indo-Myanmar biodiversity hotspot, with elements of the Indian, the Indochina, and the Sino-Japanese floristic regions, yet thus far only a few reliable sources of the country's flora have been available. As a part of a contribution for the floristic inventory of Myanmar, since it is important in a floristic survey to obtain as much information as possible, in addition to previous two reports, here we present three more chromosome counts in the aquatic monocots of Myanmar: Limnocharis flava with 2n = 20, Sagittaria trifolia with 2n = 22 (Alismataceae), and Potamogeton distinctus × Potamogeton nodosus with 2n = 52 (Potamogetonaceae); the third one is new to science. A brief review of cytological researches in the floristic regions' 45 non-hybrid aquatic monocots plus well investigated two inter-specific hybrids that are recorded in Myanmar is given, indicating that the further works with a focus on species in Myanmar that has infra-specific chromosome variation in the floristic regions will address the precise evolutionary history of the aquatic flora of Myanmar. PMID:24891826

  11. Exploratory studies of extended storage of apheresis platelets in a platelet additive solution (PAS).

    PubMed

    Slichter, Sherrill J; Corson, Jill; Jones, Mary Kay; Christoffel, Todd; Pellham, Esther; Bailey, S Lawrence; Bolgiano, Doug

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the poststorage viability of apheresis platelets stored for up to 18 days in 80% platelet additive solution (PAS)/20% plasma, 117 healthy subjects donated platelets using the Haemonetics MCS+, COBE Spectra (Spectra), or Trima Accel (Trima) systems. Control platelets from the same subjects were compared with their stored test PAS platelets by radiolabeling their stored and control platelets with either (51)chromium or (111)indium. Trima platelets met Food and Drug Administration poststorage platelet viability criteria for only 7 days vs almost 13 days for Haemonetics platelets; ie, platelet recoveries after these storage times averaged 44 ± 3% vs 49 ± 3% and survivals were 5.4 ± 0.3 vs 4.6 ± 0.3 days, respectively. The differences in storage duration are likely related to both the collection system and the storage bag. The Spectra and Trima platelets were hyperconcentrated during collection, and PAS was added, whereas the Haemonetics platelets were elutriated with PAS, which may have resulted in less collection injury. When Spectra and Trima platelets were stored in Haemonetics' bags, poststorage viability was significantly improved. Platelet viability is better maintained in vitro than in vivo, allowing substantial increases in platelet storage times. However, implementation will require resolution of potential bacterial overgrowth during storage. PMID:24258816

  12. Urban Growth Scenarios of a Future MEGA City: Case Study Ahmedabad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, A.; Kraus, V.; Steinnocher, K.

    2016-06-01

    The study of urban areas and their development focuses on cities, their physical and demographic expansion and the tensions and impacts that go along with urban growth. Especially in developing countries and emerging national economies like India, consistent and up to date information or other planning relevant data all too often is not available. With its Smart Cities Mission, the Indian government places great importance on the future developments of Indian urban areas and pays tribute to the large-scale rural to urban migration. The potentials of urban remote sensing and its contribution to urban planning are discussed and related to the Indian Smart Cities Mission. A case study is presented showing urban remote sensing based information products for the city of Ahmedabad. Resulting urban growth scenarios are presented, hotspots identified and future action alternatives proposed.

  13. The use of NASA GEOS Global Analysis in MM5/WRF Initialization: Current Studies and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pu, Zhao-Xia; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2004-01-01

    An effort has been made at NASA/GSFC to use the Goddard Earth Observing system (GEOS) global analysis in generating the initial and boundary conditions for MM5/WRF simulation. This linkage between GEOS global analysis and MM5/WRF models has made possible for a few useful applications. As one of the sample studies, a series of MM5 simulations were conducted to test the sensitivity of initial and boundary conditions to MM5 simulated precipitation over the eastern; USA. Global analyses horn different operational centers (e.g., NCEP, ECMWF, I U ASA/GSFCj were used to provide first guess field and boundary conditions for MM5. Numerical simulations were performed for one- week period over the eastern coast areas of USA. the distribution and quantities of MM5 simulated precipitation were compared. Results will be presented in the workshop. In addition,other applications from recent and future studies will also be addressed.

  14. Study of nuclear reactions in laser plasmas at future ELI-NP facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzalone, G.; Altana, C.; Anzalone, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cavallaro, M.; Gizzi, L. A.; Labate, L.; Lamia, L.; Mascali, D.; Muoio, A.; Negoita, F.; Odorici, F.; Petrascu, H.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Tudisco, S.

    2016-05-01

    In this contribution we will present the future activities that our collaboration will carry out at ELI-NP (Extreme Light Infrastructure Nuclear Physics), the new multi peta-watt Laser facility, currently under construction at Bucharest (Romania). The activities concerns the study of nuclear reactions in laser plasmas. In this framework we proposed the construction of a new, general-purpose experimental set-up able to detect and identify neutrons and charged particles.

  15. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  16. Voice measures of workload in the advanced flight deck: Additional studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Sid J.; Alpert, Murray

    1989-01-01

    These studies investigated acoustical analysis of the voice as a measure of workload in individual operators. In the first study, voice samples were recorded from a single operator during high, medium, and low workload conditions. Mean amplitude, frequency, syllable duration, and emphasis all tended to increase as workload increased. In the second study, NASA test pilots performed a laboratory task, and used a flight simulator under differing work conditions. For two of the pilots, high workload in the simulator brought about greater amplitude, peak duration, and stress. In both the laboratory and simulator tasks, high workload tended to be associated with more statistically significant drop-offs in the acoustical measures than were lower workload levels. There was a great deal of intra-subject variability in the acoustical measures. The results suggested that in individual operators, increased workload might be revealed by high initial amplitude and frequency, followed by rapid drop-offs over time.

  17. Additional Study of Water Droplet Median Volume Diameter (MVD) Effects on Ice Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching; Anderson, David N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the result of an experimental study in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) to evaluate how well the MVD-independent effect identified previously might apply to SLD conditions in rime icing situations. Models were NACA 0012 wing sections with chords of 53.3 and 91.4 cm. Tests were conducted with a nominal airspeed of 77 m/s (150 kt) and a number of MVD's ranging from 15 to 100 m with LWC of 0.5 to 1 g/cu m. In the present study, ice shapes recorded from past studies and recent results at SLD and Appendix-C conditions are reviewed to show that droplet diameter is not important to rime ice shape for MVD of 30 microns or larger, but for less than 30 m drop sizes a rime ice shape transition from convex to wedge to spearhead type ice shape is observed.

  18. Study on Type C Coal Fly ash as an Additive to Molding Sand for Steel Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, Jayanthi

    2016-05-01

    Study of physio-chemical properties studies such as granulometric analysis, moisture, X ray fluorescence etc. were performed with Type C coal—combustion fly ash to investigate their potential as a distinct option for molding sand in foundry, thereby reducing the dependency on latter. Technological properties study such as compressive strength, tensile strength, permeability and compaction of various compositions of fly ash molding sand (10, 20 and 30 % fly ash substitute to chemically bonded sand) were performed and compared with silica molding sand. Steel casting production using this fly ash molding sand was done and the casting surface finish and typical casting parameters were assessed. It was noted that a good quality steel casting could be produced using type C fly ash molding sand, which effectively replaced 20 % of traditional molding sand and binders thereby providing greater financial profits to the foundry and an effective way of fly ash utilization (waste management).

  19. In situ vitrification and the effects of soil additives; A mixture experiment case study

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, G.F.; Shade, J.W. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a case study involving in situ vitrification (ISV), a process for immobilizing chemical or nuclear wastes in soil by melting-dissolving the contaminated soil into a glass block. One goal of the study was to investigate how viscosity and electrical conductivity were affected by mixing CaO and Na{sub 2}O with soil. A three-component constrained-region mixture experiment design was generated and the viscosity and electrical conductivity data collected. Several second-order mixture models were considered, and the Box-Cox transformation technique was applied to select property transformations. The fitted models were used to produce contour and component effects plots.

  20. Web-Based and Mobile Delivery of an Episodic Future Thinking Intervention for Overweight and Obese Families: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Kilanowski, Colleen K; Collins, R Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Background The bias toward immediate gratification is associated with maladaptive eating behaviors and has been cross-sectionally and prospectively related to obesity. Engaging in episodic future thinking, which involves mental self-projection to pre-experience future events, reduces this bias and energy intake in overweight/obese adults and children. To examine how episodic future thinking can be incorporated into clinical interventions, a Web-based system was created to provide training for adults and children in their everyday lives. Objective Our study examined the technical feasibility, usability, and acceptability of a Web-based system that is accessible by mobile devices and adapts episodic future thinking for delivery in family-based obesity interventions. Methods We recruited 20 parent-child dyads (N=40) from the surrounding community and randomized to episodic future thinking versus a nutritional information thinking control to test the feasibility of a 4-week Web-based intervention. Parents were 44.1 (SD 7.8) years of age with BMI of 34.2 (SD 6.8) kg/m2. Children were 11.0 (SD 1.3) years of age with BMI percentile of 96.0 (SD 1.8). Families met weekly with a case manager for 4 weeks and used the system daily. Adherence was collected through the Web-based system, and perceived acceptance of the Web-based system was assessed postintervention. Measurements of body composition and dietary intake were collected at baseline and after the 4 weeks of intervention. Results All 20 families completed the intervention and attended all sessions. Results showed parents and children had high adherence to the Web-based system and perceived it to be easy to use, useful, and helpful. No differences between conditions were found in adherence for parents (P=.65) or children (P=.27). In addition, results suggest that basic nutrition information along with episodic future thinking delivered through our Web-based system may reduce energy intake and weight. Conclusions We

  1. A review of approaches to the study of turbulence modification by means of non-Newtonian additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlassopoulos, Dimitris; Schowalter, William R.

    1987-12-01

    The addition of small amounts of polymers to Newtonian liquids under conditions of turbulent flow results in substantial reduction of skin friction. This phenomenon has been observed experimentally. It can be attributed to the unusual behavior of dilute polymer solutions in turbulent flows. A condensed review of topics relevent to theoretical study of drag reduction by non-Newtonian additives is presented. In addition, the techniques and results of experimental investigations of this phenomenon are examined. It is proposed that dilute solutions of polymers or surfactants can be rheologically characterized by measuring the secondary flow characteristics that occur in the neighborhood of an oscillating cylinder. Plans for conducting these measurements are presented.

  2. A Study of the Effect of Additional Reading Assistance on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillan-Sanderson, Nicole A.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a procedure one school district used to increase students' reading abilities through reviewing data and adjusting the instruction to give students intensive services, as needed. This school worked in a problem-solving team approach to develop a comprehensive team that followed the progression of student achievement.…

  3. Genome-Wide Association Study of Intelligence: Additive Effects of Novel Brain Expressed Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Sandra K.; Shtir, Corina; Doyle, Alysa E.; Mick, Eric; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James; Biederman, Joseph; Smalley, Susan L.; Cantor, Rita M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Nelson, Stanley F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to identify common genetic variants that are associated with human intelligence or general cognitive ability. Method: We performed a genome-wide association analysis with a dense set of 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and quantitative intelligence scores within an ancestrally…

  4. Nahuatl as a Classical, Foreign, and Additional Language: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Felice, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, participants learning an endangered language variety shared their experiences, thoughts, and feelings about the often complex and diverse language-learning process. I used phenomenological interviews in order to learn more about these English or Spanish language speakers' journey with the Nahuatl language. From first encounter to…

  5. CNV-based genome wide association study reveals additional variants contributing to meat quality in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pork quality is important both to the meat processing industry and consumers’ purchasing attitudes. Copy number variation (CNV) is a burgeoning kind of variant that may influence meat quality. Herein, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed between CNVs and meat quality traits in swine....

  6. The Aims and Objectives of the Monitoring the Future Study and Progress toward Fulfilling Them as of 2006. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper Paper 65

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John E.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring the Future is an ongoing program of research intended to assess the changing lifestyles, values, and preferences of American youth. This publication, from the occasional paper series, describes a study that monitors drug use and potential explanatory factors among American secondary school students, college students, and young adults.…

  7. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  8. Thermal analysis studies of Ge additive of Se-Te glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, M.; Abdel-Rahim, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Ge x Se50Te50- x ( x = 5, 15, 20, 35 at.%) bulk glasses were synthesized by the melt quenching method. The amorphous nature of the investigated glasses was determined by X-ray diffraction. Results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of the studied compositions under non-isothermal conditions were reported and discussed. The glass transition temperature ( T g), onset crystallization temperature ( T c), and crystallization peak temperature ( T p) were determined from DSC traces at different heating rates. It was found that the values of T g, T c, and T p rely on both composition and heating rate. A double crystallization stages were observed in the DSC results. Various kinetics parameters such as the glass transition energy ( E g), crystallization activation energy ( E c), and rate constant ( K p) were calculated. The glass-forming ability of the studied compositions was discussed as function of the determined kinetics parameters.

  9. Comparative study of glycine single crystals with additive of potassium nitrate in different concentration ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gujarati, Vivek P.; Deshpande, M. P.; Patel, Kamakshi R.; Chaki, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    Semi-organic crystals of Glycine Potassium Nitrate (GPN) with potential applications in Non linear optics (NLO) were grown using slow evaporation technique. Glycine and Potassium Nitrate were taken in three different concentration ratios of 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1 respectively. We checked the solubility of the material in distilled water at different temperatures and could observe the growth of crystals in 7 weeks time. Purity of the grown crystals was confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) and CHN analysis. GSN Powder X-ray diffraction pattern was recorded to confirm the crystalline nature. To confirm the applications of grown crystals in opto-electronics field, UV-Vis-NIR study was carried out. Dielectric properties of the samples were studied in between the frequency range 1Hz to 100 KHz.

  10. Brief reconnaissance study for the addition of hydropower for Riegel Dam, Trion, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, T.G. Jr.

    1982-05-10

    The feasibility of retrofitting the Riegel Dam near Trion, Georgia for power generation was examined. This dam has a developable head of 17 ft., was built in 1900 for supplying hydroelectric power for a textile mill, and currently provides cooling water to the mill. The study of environmental, institutional, safety and economic factors showed that hydroelectric power development at this site would require new generating equipment and that such retrofitting appears to be economically feasible. (LCL)

  11. Brief reconnaissance study for the addition of hydropower for Carr Fork Dam, Sassafras, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, T.G. Jr.

    1982-05-24

    The feasibility of retrofitting the Carr Fork Dam near Hazard, KY for power generation was examined. This dam has a developable head of 80 ft and was built in 1975 to provide flood protection. The study of environmental, institutional, safety, and economic factors showed that the total investment cost would be $909,600 and that hydroelectric power development at this site is not feasible unless a higher price could be obtained for the power sold. (LCL)

  12. A clinical comparative study of Cadiax Compact II and intraoral records using wax and addition silicone.

    PubMed

    Torabi, Kianoosh; Pour, Sasan Rasaei; Ahangari, Ahmad Hassan; Ghodsi, Safoura

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of mandibular movements is necessary to form the occlusal anatomical contour, analyze the temporomandibular joint status, and evaluate the patient's occlusion. This clinical study was conducted to compare the mandibular recording device Cadiax Compact II with routine intraoral records for measuring condylar inclinations. The results showed that the differences between Cadiax and intraoral records were statistically significant for all measurements. Cadiax measurements had a stronger correlation with silicone records. The quantities of recorded Bennett angles were lower and the values of sagittal condylar inclination were higher with Cadiax than with routine intraoral records. PMID:25390868

  13. ADHD symptoms, academic achievement, self-perception of academic competence and future orientation: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Scholtens, Sara; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Yang-Wallentin, Fan

    2013-06-01

    In the investigation of the effect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on school careers there is a need to study the role of adolescent and childhood ADHD symptoms and academic achievement, and to incorporate measures that include the individual's perspective. Our aim was to gain an overview of the long-term development of school careers in relation to ADHD symptoms. We studied associations between ADHD symptoms and academic achievement at different time-points and future orientation at the end of high school, and assessed the role of self-perceptions of academic competence in these associations. Participants were 192 children (47% girls) with a range of ADHD symptoms taken from a community sample. Collecting data at three time points, in 6th, 11th and 12th grade we tested a structural equation model. Results showed that ADHD symptoms in 6th grade negatively affected academic achievement concurrently and longitudinally. ADHD symptoms in 11th grade negatively affected concurrent academic achievement and academic self-perception and future orientation in 12th grade. Academic achievement had a positive influence on academic self-perception and future orientation. Given the other factors, self-perception of academic competence did not contribute to outcomes. We concluded that early ADHD symptoms may cast long shadows on young people's academic progress. This happens mainly by way of stability in symptoms and relations to early low academic achievement. PMID:23510262

  14. A study of current world telecommunications and a projection of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karageorgis, Costas

    1992-09-01

    Telecommunications today are important factors in economic and social progress. The last decades of the 20th century and the early years of the 21st have been characterized as the Information Age. Telecommunications, the movement of information through distances, is absolutely critical to the economic and military survival of nations. This thesis is an attempt to predict the future of telecommunications, by studying and analyzing the past and present. First it examines the meaning of telecommunications today and some basics of information transmission. The current status of telecommunications is then presented, by examining the regional profiles as they are divided by the International Telecommunications Union. A number of statistical studies are given, which present a thorough picture of current world telecommunications. In an effort to predict future industry trends, the competition among the three largest telecommunications markets, U.S.A., Japan and the European Community, is also considered by looking at their present telecommunications industry, the efforts they make to improve their technology, and their plans for future investment. Finally, some major technological trends including BISDN, the use of fiber technology in the communications loop, and the use of solitons are examined. The new Metropolitan Area Network Protocol, FDDI-2 is also reviewed.

  15. [Chewing gum as an additional agent in maintaining oral hygiene versus smoking status--preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Bachanek, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays chewing gum is widely used in different age groups, so complying with proper duration and frequency of chewing is an important factor influencing the state of masticatory system. The study involved 112 dental students of the Medical University of Lublin. Everyday use of chewing gum declared 47,32% of cases. Chewing time up to 10 minutes was stated in 23,08% of respondents, 11-20 minutes in 40,38% of interviewees. Among the examined students 17,3% smoked cigarettes. In smokers group 83,33% of questioned chewed the gum every day, while among non-smokers - 43,37%. Chewing time shorter than 10 minutes declared 22,22% of smokers and 23,26% of non-smokers, while chewing time between 11-20 minutes - 27,78% i 44,35% of smokers and non-smokers respectively. Obtained results indicate the need of carrying out further studies aimed at the nicotine influence on saliva parameters with respect to development of diseases of hard tooth tissues. PMID:23421028

  16. Study on the interaction of the toxic food additive carmoisine with serum albumins: a microcalorimetric investigation.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anirban; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2014-05-30

    The interaction of the synthetic azo dye and food colorant carmoisine with human and bovine serum albumins was studied by microcalorimetric techniques. A complete thermodynamic profile of the interaction was obtained from isothermal titration calorimetry studies. The equilibrium constant of the complexation process was of the order of 10(6)M(-1) and the binding stoichiometry was found to be 1:1 with both the serum albumins. The binding was driven by negative standard molar enthalpy and positive standard molar entropy contributions. The binding affinity was lower at higher salt concentrations in both cases but the same was dominated by mostly non-electrostatic forces at all salt concentrations. The polyelectrolytic forces contributed only 5-8% of the total standard molar Gibbs energy change. The standard molar enthalpy change enhanced whereas the standard molar entropic contribution decreased with rise in temperature but they compensated each other to keep the standard molar Gibbs energy change almost invariant. The negative standard molar heat capacity values suggested the involvement of a significant hydrophobic contribution in the complexation process. Besides, enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomenon was also observed in both the systems. The thermal stability of the serum proteins was found to be remarkably enhanced on binding to carmoisine. PMID:24742664

  17. Combined ab initio molecular dynamics and experimental studies of carbon atom addition to benzene.

    PubMed

    McKee, Michael L; Reisenauer, Hans Peter; Schreiner, Peter R

    2014-04-17

    Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics was used to explore the reactions between triplet and singlet carbon atoms with benzene. The computations reveal that, in the singlet C atom reaction, products are very exothermic where nearly every collision yields a product that is determined by the initial encounter geometry. The singlet C atom reaction does not follow the minimum energy path because the bimolecular reaction is controlled by dynamics (i.e., initial orientation of encounter). On the other hand, in a 10 K solid Ar matrix, ground state C((3)P) atoms do tend to follow RRKM kinetics. Thus, ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) results indicate that a significant fraction of C-H insertion occurs to form phenylcarbene whereas, in marked contrast to previous theoretical and experimental conclusions, the Ar matrix isolation studies indicate a large fraction of direct cycloheptatetraene formation, without the intermediacy of phenylcarbene. The AIMD calculations are more consistent with vaporized carbon atom experiments where labeling studies indicate the initial formation of phenylcarbene. This underlines that the availability of thermodynamic sinks can completely alter the observed reaction dynamics. PMID:24661002

  18. Active Target detectors for studies with exotic beams: Present and next future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittig, W.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Fritsch, A.; Abu-Nimeh, F.; Bazin, D.; Ahn, T.; Lynch, W. G.; Montes, F.; Shore, A.; Suzuki, D.; Usher, N.; Yurkon, J.; Kolata, J. J.; Howard, A.; Roberts, A. L.; Tang, X. D.; Becchetti, F. D.

    2015-06-01

    Reaccelerated radioactive beams near the Coulomb barrier, which are starting to be available from the ReA3 accelerator at NSCL and in next future at FRIB, will open up new opportunities for the study of nuclear structure near the drip lines. Efficient measurement techniques must be developed to compensate for the limited intensity of the most exotic beams. The Active-Target Time Projection Chamber (AT-TPC) constructed at MSU solves this problem by providing the increased luminosity of a thick target while maintaining a good energy resolution by tracking the reaction vertex over an essentially 4 π solid angle. The AT-TPC and similar detectors allow us to take full advantage of the radioactive ion beams at present and future nuclear physics facilities to explore the frontier of rare isotopes.

  19. Simulation studies of the high-energy component of a future imaging Cherenkov telescope array

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, S.; Hinton, J. A.

    2008-12-24

    The current generation of Imaging Atmospheric telescopes (IACTs) has demonstrated the power of the technique in an energy range between {approx}100 GeV up to several tens of TeV. At the high-energy end, these instruments are limited by photon statistics. Future arrays of IACTs such as CTA or AGIS are planned to push into the energy range beyond 100 TeV. Scientifically, this region is very promising, providing a probe of particles up to the 'knee' in the cosmic ray spectrum and access to an unexplored region in the spectra of nearby extragalactic sources. We present first results from our simulation studies of the high-energy part of a future IACT array and discuss the design parameters of such an array.

  20. Future water resources for food production in five South Asian river basins and potential for adaptation--a modeling study.

    PubMed

    Biemans, H; Speelman, L H; Ludwig, F; Moors, E J; Wiltshire, A J; Kumar, P; Gerten, D; Kabat, P

    2013-12-01

    The Indian subcontinent faces a population increase from 1.6 billion in 2000 towards 2 billion around 2050. Therefore, expansion of agricultural area combined with increases in productivity will be necessary to produce the food needed in the future. However, with pressure on water resources already being high, and potential effects of climate change still uncertain, the question rises whether there will be enough water resources available to sustain this production. The objective of this study is to make a spatially explicit quantitative analysis of water requirements and availability for current and future food production in five South Asian basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Godavari and Krishna), in the absence or presence of two different adaptation strategies: an overall improvement in irrigation efficiency, and an increase of reservoir storage capacity. The analysis is performed by using the coupled hydrology and crop production model LPJmL. It is found that the Godavari and Krishna basins will benefit most from an increased storage capacity, whereas in the Ganges and the Indus water scarcity mainly takes place in areas where this additional storage would not provide additional utility. Increasing the irrigation efficiency will be beneficial in all basins, but most in the Indus and Ganges, as it decreases the pressure on groundwater resources and decreases the fraction of food production that would become at risk because of water shortage. A combination of both options seems to be the best strategy in all basins. The large-scale model used in this study is suitable to identify hotspot areas and support the first step in the policy process, but the final design and implementation of adaptation options requires supporting studies at finer scales. PMID:23928370

  1. Shelf Life and Quality Study of Minced Tilapia with Nori and Hijiki Seaweeds as Natural Additives

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Ingridy Simone; Shirahigue, Ligianne Din; Ferraz de Arruda Sucasas, Lia; Anbe, Lika; da Cruz, Pedro Gomes; Gallo, Cláudio Rosa; Carpes, Solange Teresinha; Marques, Marcos José; Oetterer, Marília

    2014-01-01

    The extraction of mechanically separated meat has emerged as an attractive process. However, it increases the incorporation of oxygen and, consequently, of flavors due to rancidity. Thus, preservatives must be added. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf life of minced tilapia to replace synthetic preservatives with Hijiki and Nori seaweeds extracts. The application of the extracts had no effect on the chemical composition of the minced tilapia. The seaweed extracts had inhibitory effect on total volatile base nitrogen. The minced tilapia complied with the microbiological standard set by Brazilin law. The panelists detected no differences in the rancid aroma and only minor differences were detected in the color of the products. It can be concluded that the minced tilapia with added seaweed extracts were within quality standards during frozen storage. PMID:25478593

  2. Shelf life and quality study of minced tilapia with Nori and Hijiki seaweeds as natural additives.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ingridy Simone; Shirahigue, Ligianne Din; Ferraz de Arruda Sucasas, Lia; Anbe, Lika; da Cruz, Pedro Gomes; Gallo, Cláudio Rosa; Carpes, Solange Teresinha; Marques, Marcos José; Oetterer, Marília

    2014-01-01

    The extraction of mechanically separated meat has emerged as an attractive process. However, it increases the incorporation of oxygen and, consequently, of flavors due to rancidity. Thus, preservatives must be added. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf life of minced tilapia to replace synthetic preservatives with Hijiki and Nori seaweeds extracts. The application of the extracts had no effect on the chemical composition of the minced tilapia. The seaweed extracts had inhibitory effect on total volatile base nitrogen. The minced tilapia complied with the microbiological standard set by Brazilin law. The panelists detected no differences in the rancid aroma and only minor differences were detected in the color of the products. It can be concluded that the minced tilapia with added seaweed extracts were within quality standards during frozen storage. PMID:25478593

  3. l-carnitine as a Potential Additive in Blood Storage Solutions: A Study on Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Soumya, R; Carl, H; Vani, R

    2016-09-01

    Erythrocytes undergo various changes during storage (storage lesion) that in turn reduces their functioning and survival. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the storage lesion and antioxidants can be used to combat this stress. This study elucidates the effects of l-carnitine (LC) on erythrocytes of stored blood. Blood was obtained from male Wistar rats and stored (4 °C) for 20 days in CPDA-1 (citrate phosphate dextrose adenine) solution. Samples were divided into-(i) controls (ii) LC 10 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 10 mM) (iii) LC 30 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 30 mM) and (iv) LC 60 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 60 mM). Every fifth day, the biomarkers (haemoglobin, hemolysis, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation products) were analysed in erythrocytes. Hemoglobin and protein sulfhydryls were insignificant during storage indicative of the maintenance of hemoglobin and sulfhydryls in all groups. Superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels increased initially and decreased towards the end of storage. The levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase were lower in experimentals than controls during storage. l-carnitine assisted the enzymes by scavenging the reactive oxygen species produced. Hemolysis increased in all groups with storage, elucidating that l-carnitine could not completely protect lipids and proteins from oxidative stress. Hence, this study opens up new avenues of using l-carnitine as a component of storage solutions with combinations of antioxidants in order to maintain efficacy of erythrocytes. PMID:27429526

  4. Biological effect of food additive titanium dioxide nanoparticles on intestine: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Song, Zheng-Mei; Chen, Ni; Liu, Jia-Hui; Tang, Huan; Deng, Xiaoyong; Xi, Wen-Song; Han, Kai; Cao, Aoneng; Liu, Yuanfang; Wang, Haifang

    2015-10-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely found in food-related consumer products. Understanding the effect of TiO2 NPs on the intestinal barrier and absorption is essential and vital for the safety assessment of orally administrated TiO2 NPs. In this study, the cytotoxicity and translocation of two native TiO2 NPs, and these two TiO2 NPs pretreated with the digestion simulation fluid or bovine serum albumin were investigated in undifferentiated Caco-2 cells, differentiated Caco-2 cells and Caco-2 monolayer. TiO2 NPs with a concentration less than 200 µg ml(-1) did not induce any toxicity in differentiated cells and Caco-2 monolayer after 24 h exposure. However, TiO2 NPs pretreated with digestion simulation fluids at 200 µg ml(-1) inhibited the growth of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. Undifferentiated Caco-2 cells swallowed native TiO2 NPs easily, but not pretreated NPs, implying the protein coating on NPs impeded the cellular uptake. Compared with undifferentiated cells, differentiated ones possessed much lower uptake ability of these TiO2 NPs. Similarly, the traverse of TiO2 NPs through the Caco-2 monolayer was also negligible. Therefore, we infer the possibility of TiO2 NPs traversing through the intestine of animal or human after oral intake is quite low. This study provides valuable information for the risk assessment of TiO2 NPs in food. PMID:26106068

  5. Mechanistic study of secondary organic aerosol components formed from nucleophilic addition reactions of methacrylic acid epoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birdsall, A. W.; Miner, C. R.; Mael, L. E.; Elrod, M. J.

    2014-08-01

    Recently, methacrylic acid epoxide (MAE) has been proposed as a precursor to an important class of isoprene-derived compounds found in secondary organic aerosol (SOA): 2-methylglyceric acid (2-MG) and a set of oligomers, nitric acid esters and sulfuric acid esters related to 2-MG. However, the specific chemical mechanisms by which MAE could form these compounds have not been previously studied. In order to determine the relevance of these processes to atmospheric aerosol, MAE and 2-MG have been synthesized and a series of bulk solution-phase experiments aimed at studying the reactivity of MAE using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy have been performed. The present results indicate that the acid-catalyzed MAE reaction is more than 600 times slower than a similar reaction of an important isoprene-derived epoxide, but is still expected to be kinetically feasible in the atmosphere on more acidic SOA. The specific mechanism by which MAE leads to oligomers was identified, and the reactions of MAE with a number of atmospherically relevant nucleophiles were also investigated. Because the nucleophilic strengths of water, sulfate, alcohols (including 2-MG), and acids (including MAE and 2-MG) in their reactions with MAE were found to be of a similar magnitude, it is expected that a diverse variety of MAE + nucleophile product species may be formed on ambient SOA. Thus, the results indicate that epoxide chain reaction oligomerization will be limited by the presence of high concentrations of non-epoxide nucleophiles (such as water); this finding is consistent with previous environmental chamber investigations of the relative humidity-dependence of 2-MG-derived oligomerization processes and suggests that extensive oligomerization may not be likely on ambient SOA because of other competitive MAE reaction mechanisms.

  6. Mechanistic study of secondary organic aerosol components formed from nucleophilic addition reactions of methacrylic acid epoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birdsall, A. W.; Miner, C. R.; Mael, L. E.; Elrod, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, methacrylic acid epoxide (MAE) has been proposed as a precursor to an important class of isoprene-derived compounds found in secondary organic aerosol (SOA): 2-methylglyceric acid (2-MG) and a set of oligomers, nitric acid esters, and sulfuric acid esters related to 2-MG. However, the specific chemical mechanisms by which MAE could form these compounds have not been previously studied with experimental methods. In order to determine the relevance of these processes to atmospheric aerosol, MAE and 2-MG have been synthesized and a series of bulk solution-phase experiments aimed at studying the reactivity of MAE using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy have been performed. The present results indicate that the acid-catalyzed MAE reaction is more than 600 times slower than a similar reaction of an important isoprene-derived epoxide, but is still expected to be kinetically feasible in the atmosphere on more acidic SOA. The specific mechanism by which MAE leads to oligomers was identified, and the reactions of MAE with a number of atmospherically relevant nucleophiles were also investigated. Because the nucleophilic strengths of water, sulfate, alcohols (including 2-MG), and acids (including MAE and 2-MG) in their reactions with MAE were found to be of similar magnitudes, it is expected that a diverse variety of MAE + nucleophile product species may be formed on ambient SOA. Thus, the results indicate that epoxide chain reaction oligomerization will be limited by the presence of high concentrations of non-epoxide nucleophiles (such as water); this finding is consistent with previous environmental chamber investigations of the relative humidity dependence of 2-MG-derived oligomerization processes and suggests that extensive oligomerization may not be likely on ambient SOA because of other competitive MAE reaction mechanisms.

  7. Diurnal Cortisol Patterns, Future Diabetes, and Impaired Glucose Metabolism in the Whitehall II Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kivimäki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Context: The hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis is thought to play a role in type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, evidence for an association between cortisol and future glucose disturbance is sparse. Objective: The aim was to examine the association of diurnal cortisol secretion with future T2D and impaired glucose metabolism in a community-dwelling population. Design: This is a prospective cohort study of salivary cortisol measured at the 2002–2004 clinical examination of the Whitehall II study, United Kingdom. We measured cortisol (nmol/l) from six saliva samples obtained over the course of a day: at waking, +30 minutes, +2.5 hours, +8 hours, +12 hours, and bedtime. Participants who were normoglycemic in 2002–2004 (phase 7) were reexamined in 2012–2013 (phase 11). Setting: The occupational cohort was originally recruited in 1985–1988. Participants: A total of 3270 men and women with an average age of 60.85 years at phase 7 (2002–2004). Outcome Measures: Incident T2D and impaired fasting glucose in 2012–2013 were measured. Results: Raised evening cortisol at phase 7 was predictive of new-onset T2D at phase 11 (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–1.37) with a trend for a flatter slope in participants with incident T2D (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.99–1.33). When expanding this analysis to a broader category of glucose disturbance we found that a flattened diurnal cortisol slope at phase 7 was predictive of future impaired fasting glucose or T2D at phase 11 (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.02–1.22), as was high bedtime cortisol (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01–1.20). Conclusions: In this nonclinical population, alterations in diurnal cortisol patterns were predictive of future glucose disturbance. PMID:26647151

  8. Review of recent transgenic studies on abiotic stress tolerance and future molecular breeding in potato

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Akira; Huynh, Huu Duc; Endo, Tsukasa; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Global warming has become a major issue within the last decade. Traditional breeding programs for potato have focused on increasing productivity and quality and disease resistance, thus, modern cultivars have limited tolerance of abiotic stresses. The introgression of abiotic stress tolerance into modern cultivars is essential work for the future. Recently, many studies have investigated abiotic stress using transgenic techniques. This manuscript focuses on the study of abiotic stress, in particular drought, salinity and low temperature, during this century. Dividing studies into these three stress categories for this review was difficult. Thus, based on the study title and the transgene property, transgenic studies were classified into five categories in this review; oxidative scavengers, transcriptional factors, and above three abiotic categories. The review focuses on studies that investigate confer of stress tolerance and the identification of responsible factors, including wild relatives. From a practical application perspective, further evaluation of transgenic potato with abiotic stress tolerance is required. Although potato plants, including wild species, have a large potential for abiotic stress tolerance, exploration of the factors responsible for conferring this tolerance is still developing. Molecular breeding, including genetic engineering and conventional breeding using DNA markers, is expected to develop in the future. PMID:25931983

  9. The GATE studies - Assessing the potential of future small general aviation turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strack, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    Four studies have been completed that explore the opportunities for future General Aviation Turbine Engines (GATE) in the 150-1000 SHP class. These studies forecasted the potential impact of advanced technology turbine engines in the post-1988 market, identified important aircraft and missions, desirable engine sizes, engine performance and cost goals. Parametric evaluations of various engine cycles, configurations, design features, and advanced technology elements defined baseline conceptual engines for each of the important missions identified by the market analysis. Both fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft, and turboshaft, turboprop, and turbofan engines were considered. Key technology areas were recommended for NASA support in order to realize proposed improvements.

  10. Study of Air Pollution from Space Using TOMS: Challenges and Promises for Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2002-01-01

    A series of TOMS instruments built by NASA has flown on US, Russian, and Japanese satellites in the last 24 years. These instruments are well known for producing spectacular maps of the ozone hole that forms over Antarctica each spring. However, it is less well known that these instruments also provided first evidence that space-based measurements in UV of sufficiently high precision and accuracy can provide valuable information to study global air quality. We will use the TOMS experience to highlight the promises and challenges of future space-based missions designed specifically for air quality studies.

  11. A study of the prediscovery motion of Comet P/Ciffreo and its future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benest, D.; Ciffreo, J.; Heudier, J. L.

    1990-02-01

    The past and future motion of Comet P/Ciffreo (1985 XVI) is studied by means of orbital integrations, performed over several thousand years in the framework of the elliptic three-dimensional restricted three-body model, besides a more realistic restricted four-body model. Both the purely gravitational problem and trajectories are studied, taking into account the effects of simulated nongravitational forces. Although first data allowed to suppose that P/Ciffreo was a recently captured comet, the results show that its dynamical behavior corresponds to a relatively 'aged' object.

  12. A digital process for additive manufacturing of occlusal splints: a clinical pilot study.

    PubMed

    Salmi, Mika; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Tuomi, Jukka; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a digital process for manufacturing of occlusal splints. An alginate impression was taken from the upper and lower jaws of a patient with temporomandibular disorder owing to cross bite and wear of the teeth, and then digitized using a table laser scanner. The scanned model was repaired using the 3Data Expert software, and a splint was designed with the Viscam RP software. A splint was manufactured from a biocompatible liquid photopolymer by stereolithography. The system employed in the process was SLA 350. The splint was worn nightly for six months. The patient adapted to the splint well and found it comfortable to use. The splint relieved tension in the patient's bite muscles. No sign of tooth wear or significant splint wear was detected after six months of testing. Modern digital technology enables us to manufacture clinically functional occlusal splints, which might reduce costs, dental technician working time and chair-side time. Maximum-dimensional errors of approximately 1 mm were found at thin walls and sharp corners of the splint when compared with the digital model. PMID:23614943

  13. A digital process for additive manufacturing of occlusal splints: a clinical pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Mika; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Tuomi, Jukka; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a digital process for manufacturing of occlusal splints. An alginate impression was taken from the upper and lower jaws of a patient with temporomandibular disorder owing to cross bite and wear of the teeth, and then digitized using a table laser scanner. The scanned model was repaired using the 3Data Expert software, and a splint was designed with the Viscam RP software. A splint was manufactured from a biocompatible liquid photopolymer by stereolithography. The system employed in the process was SLA 350. The splint was worn nightly for six months. The patient adapted to the splint well and found it comfortable to use. The splint relieved tension in the patient's bite muscles. No sign of tooth wear or significant splint wear was detected after six months of testing. Modern digital technology enables us to manufacture clinically functional occlusal splints, which might reduce costs, dental technician working time and chair-side time. Maximum-dimensional errors of approximately 1 mm were found at thin walls and sharp corners of the splint when compared with the digital model. PMID:23614943

  14. Value addition of Palmyra palm and studies on the storage life.

    PubMed

    Chaurasiya, A K; Chakraborty, I; Saha, J

    2014-04-01

    Palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer L.) belonging to the family Palmae is referred to as tree of life with several uses including food, beverage, fibre, medicinal and timber. Unfortunately, the nutritionally enriched pulp of ripened palm has limited commercial use. Extraction of pulp has been accomplished by using water and heat to ensure maximum pulp recovery. Different recipes were tried for the preparation of two uncommon value added products like palm spread and palm toffee. On the basis of biochemical composition, organoleptic scores, microbial estimation and storage study both under ambient and refrigerated conditions; the suitable recipe was selected with the maximum acceptability. Gradual increase in total soluble solid (TSS), total sugar and reducing sugar while decrease in ascorbic acid, pH, β-carotene and protein content of processed products have been observed irrespective of storage condition. The results obtained from sensory evaluation and microbial status revealed that palm spread and toffee remained acceptable up to 9 months and 8 months, respectively at ambient temperature. The income per rupee investment for these two products was found to be remunerative. PMID:24741173

  15. Mass analysis addition to the Differential Ion Flux Probe (DIFP) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. H., Jr.; Jolley, Richard

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a technique to measure the characteristics of space plasmas under highly disturbed conditions; e.g., non-Maxwellian plasmas with strong drifting populations and plasmas contaminated by spacecraft outgassing. The approach, conducted in conjunction with current MSFC activities, is to extend the capabilities of the Differential Ion Flux Probe (DIFP) to include a high throughput mass measurement that does not require either high voltage or contamination sensitive devices such as channeltron electron multipliers or microchannel plates. This will significantly reduce the complexity and expense of instrument fabrication, testing, and integration of flight hardware compared to classical mass analyzers. The feasibility of the enhanced DIFP has been verified by using breadboard test models in a controlled plasma environment. The ability to manipulate particles through the instrument regardless of incident angle, energy, or ionic component has been amply demonstrated. The energy analysis mode is differential and leads directly to a time-of-flight mass measurement. With the new design, the DIFP will separate multiple ion streams and analyze each stream independently for ion flux intensity, velocity (including direction of motion), mass, and temperature (or energy distribution). In particular, such an instrument will be invaluable on follow-on electrodynamic TSS missions and, possibly, for environmental monitoring on the space station.

  16. The future of practical skills in undergraduate medical education – an explorative Delphi-Study

    PubMed Central

    Dannenberg, Katja Anne; Stroben, Fabian; Schröder, Therese; Thomas, Anke; Hautz, Wolf E.

    2016-01-01

    statement, 231 of the goals were assessed as relevant, and 57 were deemed irrelevant for the short-term future. Discussion: The theses on the future of healthcare, which were generated in this study and which were validated by numerous experts, provide indications of future developments of overall requirements for medical school graduates. For example, when applied to the content of the “Clinical-Practical Skills” NKLM chapter, they largely validate the future relevance of developing practical skills while also providing indications for their further development as applied to the consensus statement. PMID:27579362

  17. Neurobehavioral deficits in Persian Gulf veterans: additional evidence from a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Storzbach, D; Rohlman, D S; Anger, W K; Binder, L M; Campbell, K A

    2001-01-01

    Reports of low-concentration nerve gas exposures during the Gulf War (GW) have spurred concern about possible health consequences and symptoms reported by many returning veterans. The Portland Environmental Hazards Research Center is studying veterans from the northwest United States who report persistent, unexplained "Gulf War" symptoms (cases) and those who do not report those symptoms (controls). An epidemiological survey focused on exposures and symptoms was mailed to a random sample of GW veterans from Oregon and southwestern Washington. Volunteers recruited from survey respondents agreed to undergo a thorough medical examination and psychological and neurobehavioral assessment. Persistent symptoms with no medical explanation associated with Persian Gulf service (e.g., fatigue, muscle pain, memory deficits) beginning during or after the war qualified respondents as cases. The 239 cases with unexplained symptoms and the 112 controls without symptoms were administered a computerized assessment battery of 12 psychosocial and 6 neurobehavioral tests. Replicating and extending previous interim findings, a subgroup of veterans emerged from the initial analysis in the form of extreme outliers which produced a visually and quantitatively obvious bimodal distribution. This led, as it had previously, to analyses of the outliers as a separate group (labeled "slow ODTP"), which confirmed the initial findings of neurobehavioral differences between the outliers and the other cases and controls and provided more convincing evidence that the majority of cases who report neurobehavioral symptoms have no objective evidence of neurobehavioral deficits. However, the larger group of symptomatic veterans do have highly significant and compelling evidence of psychological distress based on scores from 11 separate psychological tests. Whereas the cases differed from the controls by poorer neurobehavioral test performance, extraction of the slow ODTP participants (almost all cases

  18. Preliminary Computational Study for Future Tests in the NASA Ames 9 foot' x 7 foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearl, Jason M.; Carter, Melissa B.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.; WInski, Courtney S.; Nayani, Sudheer N.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program, Commercial Supersonics Technology Project seeks to advance tools and techniques to make over-land supersonic flight feasible. In this study, preliminary computational results are presented for future tests in the NASA Ames 9 foot x 7 foot supersonic wind tunnel to be conducted in early 2016. Shock-plume interactions and their effect on pressure signature are examined for six model geometries. Near- field pressure signatures are assessed using the CFD code USM3D to model the proposed test geometries in free-air. Additionally, results obtained using the commercial grid generation software Pointwise Reigistered Trademark are compared to results using VGRID, the NASA Langley Research Center in-house mesh generation program.

  19. A Pilot Study to Examine the Effect of Additional Structured Outdoor Playtime on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Lyden, Kate; Goldsby, TaShauna; Mendoza, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The impact of additional structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; physical activity (PA) level is unclear. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the effects of increasing structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; PA levels. Eight full-day classrooms (n = 134 children) from two preschool programmes were randomised into a treatment…

  20. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE ADDITION ON MERCURY OXIDATION BY SCR CATALYST UNDER SIMULATED SUBBITUMINOUS COAL FLUE GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An entrained flow reactor is used to study the effect of addition of chlorine-containing species on the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hgo)by a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in simulated subbituminous coal combustion flue gas. The combustion flue gas was doped wit...

  1. Mapping photopolarimeter spectrometer instrument feasibility study for future planetary flight missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Evaluations are summarized directed towards defining optimal instrumentation for performing planetary polarization measurements from a spacecraft platform. An overview of the science rationale for polarimetric measurements is given to point out the importance of such measurements for future studies and exploration of the outer planets. The key instrument features required to perform the needed measurements are discussed and applied to the requirements for the Cassini mission to Saturn. The resultant conceptual design of a spectro-polarimeter photometer for Cassini is described in detail.

  2. A Basic Study Toward Optimization of LFC Resources in Future Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Yoshihiko; Masuda, Ryoichi; Sugita, Shinya

    Load frequency control (LFC) in future power systems, in which a large amount of solar photovoltaic generation is introduced, is studied. The constraints in LFC resources are classified as rate, simple, and energy limits. First the nonlinear transfer functions of the limiters are modeled using random noise input. Second the transfer functions of limiters are characterized by coefficients of necessary facilities (CoNF). Third the appropriateness of concept and identified value of CoNF is demonstrated through numerical simulations using a simple power system model. Also a way to control the contribution of existing and introducing resources to regulation of frequency fluctuation is proposed and demonstrated.

  3. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  4. International Recommendations for Training Future Toxicologic Pathologists Participating in Regulatory-Type, Nonclinical Toxicity Studies*

    PubMed Central

    Bolon, Brad; Barale-Thomas, Erio; Bradley, Alys; Ettlin, Robert A.; Franchi, Carla A.S.; George, Catherine; Giusti, Anna Maria; Hall, Robert; Jacobsen, Matthew; Konishi, Yoichi; Ledieu, David; Morton, Daniel; Park, Jae-Hak; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Vijayasarathi, S.K.; Wijnands, Marcel V.W.

    2010-01-01

    The International Federation of Societies of Toxicologic Pathologists (IFSTP) proposes a common global framework for training future toxicologic pathologists who will support regulatory-type nonclinical toxicology studies. Trainees optimally should undertake a scientific curriculum of at least 5 years at an accredited institution leading to a clinical degree (veterinary medicine or medicine). Trainees should then obtain 4 or more years of intensive pathology practice during a residency and/or on-the-job “apprenticeship,” at least 2 years of which must be focused on regulatory-type toxicologic pathology topics. Possession of a recognized pathology qualification (i.e., certification) is highly recommended. A non-clinical pathway (e.g., a graduate degree in medical biology or pathology) may be possible if medically trained pathologists are scarce, but this option is not optimal. Regular, lifelong continuing education (peer review of nonclinical studies, professional meetings, reading, short courses) will be necessary to maintain and enhance one’s understanding of current toxicologic pathology knowledge, skills, and tools. This framework should provide a rigorous yet flexible way to reliably train future toxicologic pathologists to generate, interpret, integrate, and communicate data in regulatory-type, nonclinical toxicology studies. PMID:22272030

  5. History and future of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS).

    PubMed

    Emerson, Amy; Ponté, Linnae; Jerome, Lisa; Doblin, Rick

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the teenage vision of the founder of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) that humanity's future would be aided by the therapeutic and spiritual potential of psychedelic substances. The article traces the trajectory of MAPS from inception in 1986 to its present, noting future goals with respect to research, outreach, and harm reduction. MAPS was created as a non-profit psychedelic pharmaceutical company in response to the 1985 scheduling of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Overcoming many hurdles, MAPS developed the first double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and plans for FDA prescription approval in 2021. MAPS' program of research expanded to include a trial of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety when facing life-threatening illness, observational studies of ibogaine in the treatment of addiction, and studies of MDMA for social anxiety in people with autism spectrum disorders. MAPS meets the challenges of drug development through a clinical research team led by a former Novartis drug development professional experienced in the conduct, monitoring, and analysis of clinical trials. MAPS' harm-reduction efforts are intended to avoid backlash and build a post-prohibition world by assisting non-medical users to transform difficult psychedelic experiences into opportunities for growth. PMID:24830183

  6. Future lunar mission Active X-ray Spectrometer development: Surface roughness and geometry studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, M.; Hasebe, N.; Kusano, H.; Nagaoka, H.; Kuwako, M.; Oyama, Y.; Shibamura, E.; Amano, Y.; Ohta, T.; Kim, K. J.; Lopes, J. A. M.

    2015-07-01

    The Active X-ray Spectrometer (AXS) is considered as one of the scientific payload candidates for a future Japanese mission, SELENE-2. The AXS consists of pyroelectric X-ray generators and a Silicon Drift Detector to conduct X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) on the Moon to measure major elements: Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe; minor elements: Na, K, P, S, Cr and Mn; and the trace element Ni depending on their concentration. Some factors such as roughness, grain size and porosity of sample, and the geometry of X-ray incidence, emission and energy will affect the XRF measurements precision. Basic studies on the XRF are required to develop the AXS. In this study, fused samples were used to make homogeneous samples free from the effect of grain size and porosity. Experimental and numerical studies on the XRF were conducted to evaluate the effects from incidence and emission angles and surface roughness. Angle geometry and surface roughness will be optimized for the design of the AXS on future missions from the results of the experiment and the numerical simulation.

  7. Hyperkyphotic Posture and Risk of Future Osteoporotic Fractures: The Rancho Bernardo Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mei-Hua; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Greendale, Gail A; Kado, Deborah M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction It is unknown whether kyphosis of the thoracic spine is an independent risk factor for future osteoporotic fractures. Materials and Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 596 community-dwelling women, 47–92 years of age. Between 1988 and 1991, BMD of the hip and spine and kyphosis were measured. Kyphosis was measured by counting the number of 1.7-cm blocks necessary to place under the occiput so participants could lie flat without neck hyperextension. New fractures were reported over an average follow-up of 4 years. Results Using a cut-off of at least one block, 18% of the participants had hyperkyphotic posture (range, one to nine blocks). There were 107 women who reported at least one new fracture (hip, spine, wrist, clavicle, shoulder, arm, hand, rib, pelvis, leg, or ankle). In logistic regression analyses, older women with hyperkyphotic posture (defined as at least one block) had a 1.7-fold increased risk of having a future fracture independent of age, prior fracture, and spine or hip BMD (95% CI: 1.00–2.97; p = 0.049). There was a significant trend of increasing fracture risk with increasing number of blocks, with ORs ranging from 1.5 to 2.6 as the number of blocks increased from one to at least three blocks compared with those with zero blocks (trend p = 0.03; models adjusted for age, baseline fracture, spine or hip BMD). Stratification by baseline fracture status and controlling for other possible confounders or past year falls did not change the results. Conclusions Whereas hyperkyphosis may often result from vertebral fractures, our study findings suggest that hyperkyphotic posture itself may be an important risk factor for future fractures, independent of low BMD or fracture history. PMID:16491290

  8. The Italian Spacegate: Study and innovative approaches to future generation transportation based on High Altitude Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Francesco; Bellomo, Alessandro; Bolle, Andrea; Vittori, Roberto

    2014-08-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the pre-feasibility studies carried out in 2012 on the concept of sub orbital and hypersonic, high altitude flight in support of future generation transportation. Currently, while the High Altitude Flight is mostly instrumental to touristic purposes and emphasizes the so called Spaceports as futuristic, customers-luring airports featured with all the support services, the “Spacegate” concept deals with scheduled traveling in the upper part of the atmosphere between two points over the Earth surface, with significant reduction of the transfer time. The first part of the paper provides a theoretical approach to the matter, by proposing an “operational” mapping of the atmosphere as well as of the different kinds of flight occurring at High Altitude. The second part of the paper addresses the problem of the limited human capability of maintaining an active control of the vehicle during the re-entry phase and introduces the “Spacegate” concept as the conical portion of the atmosphere above the landing site, whose surface delimits the spiral-descending trajectories that the pilot can travel for a safe re-entry. This paper further outlines the results of the preliminary definition of top level operational requirements and derived architecture functional modules in support to the “Spacegate” implementation. Special attention was given to the favorable geographic and climatic conditions of Italy that make this Country suitable enough for future experimental sub orbital flights and related operations. An initial analysis was performed on the regulatory backbone that has to be built to properly operate High Altitude Flight vehicles in Italy according to the concept of an Italian “Spacegate”. A Preliminary Master Plan/Road Map for the “Spacegate” has been laid out, with special emphasis to selected near term activities and support infrastructures necessary to be carried out to better refine the study in preparation

  9. A NASA study of the impact of technology on future sea based attack aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual aircraft design study was recently completed evaluating carrier-based, subsonic attack aircraft using contemporary and future technology assumptions. The study examined a configuration matrix that was made up of light and medium bomb loads, one and two man crews, internal and external weapons carriage, as well as conventional and flying wing planforms. Use of common technology assumptions, engine cycle simulation code, design mission, and consistent application of methods allow for direct comparison of the aircraft. This paper describes the design study ground rules and the aircraft designed. The aircraft descriptions include weights, dimensions, layout, design mission, design constraints, maneuver performance, and fallout mission performance. The strengths, and weaknesses of each aircraft are highlighted.

  10. Future Directions in the Study of Health Behavior among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Knoll, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The study of health behaviors and fostering health-behavior change is an important endeavor even in old age. The aim of this viewpoint article is threefold. First, we use a broad perspective for the definition of health behaviors to capture all relevant aspects of health-behavior change in older adults. Particularly, we suggest a distinction between proximal (e.g., physical activity) and distal health behaviors (e.g., social participation). Second, we recommend a stronger orientation towards processes in order to study health behaviors and the design of health-behavior change interventions. Third, we review the advantages of a developmental perspective in health psychology. Future directions in the study of health behavior among older adults are discussed. PMID:25660128

  11. Towards a Future Linear Collider and The Linear Collider Studies at CERN

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    During the week 18-22 October, more than 400 physicists will meet at CERN and in the CICG (International Conference Centre Geneva) to review the global progress towards a future linear collider. The 2010 International Workshop on Linear Colliders will study the physics, detectors and accelerator complex of a linear collider covering both the CLIC and ILC options. Among the topics presented and discussed will be the progress towards the CLIC Conceptual Design Report in 2011, the ILC Technical Design Report in 2012, physics and detector studies linked to these reports, and an increasing numbers of common working group activities. The seminar will give an overview of these topics and also CERN?s linear collider studies, focusing on current activities and initial plans for the period 2011-16. n.b: The Council Chamber is also reserved for this colloquium with a live transmission from the Main Auditorium.

  12. Past and Future Work on Radiobiology Mega Studies: A Case Study at Argonne National Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Benjamin; Wang, Qiong; Wanzer, Beau; Vogt, Stefan; Finney, Lydia; Yang, Ping Liu; Paunesku, Tatjana; Woloschak, Gayle

    2013-01-01

    Between 1952 and 1992 more than 200 large radiobiology studies were conducted in research institutes throughout Europe, North America and Japan to determine the effects of external irradiation and internal emitters on the life span and tissue toxicity development in animals. At Argonne National Laboratory, 22 external beam studies were conducted on nearly 700 beagle dogs and 50,000 mice between 1969 and 1992. These studies helped to characterize the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on lifespan, tumorigenesis, and mutagenesis across a range of doses and dosing patterns. The records and tissues collected at Argonne during that time period have been carefully preserved and redisseminated. Using these archived data ongoing statistical work has been done and continues to characterize quality of radiation, dose, dose rate, tissue, and gender specific differences in the radiation responses of exposed animals. The ongoing application of newly developed molecular biology techniques to the archived tissues has revealed gene specific mutation rates following exposure to ionizing irradiation. The original and ongoing work with this tissue archive is presented here as a case study of a more general trend in the radiobiology mega studies. These experiments helped form the modern understanding of radiation responses in animals, and continue to inform development of new radiation models. Recent archival efforts have facilitated open access to the data and materials produced by these studies and so a unique opportunity exists to expand this continued research. PMID:22004930

  13. Energizing Future Studies. Futures Information Interchange, Vol. V, No. 1, December 1977 [And] The Best from Futures Information Interchange, Vol. V, No. 2, April 1978 [And] Futures Information Interchange, Vol. VI, No. 1, 1978 [And] Futures Information Interchange, Vol. VI, No. 2, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Univ., Amherst. School of Education.

    The document is comprised of four newsletters which present a collection of essays, practical teaching methods, and learning activities introducing future studies into the classroom. Aimed at primary and secondary teachers, subject areas include forecasting methods, curriculum implementation and evaluation, innovative teaching materials and…

  14. Past and Future Work on Radiobiology Mega-Studies: A Case Study At Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, Benjamin; Wang, Qiong; Wanzer, Beau; Vogt, Stefan; Finney, Lydia; Yang, Ping Liu; Paunesku, Tatjana; Woloschak, Gayle

    2011-09-06

    Between 1952 and 1992, more than 200 large radiobiology studies were conducted in research institutes throughout Europe, North America, and Japan to determine the effects of external irradiation and internal emitters on the lifespan and tissue toxicity development in animals. At Argonne National Laboratory, 22 external beam studies were conducted on nearly 700 beagle dogs and 50,000 mice between 1969 and 1992. These studies helped to characterize the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on lifespan, tumorigenesis, and mutagenesis across a range of doses and dosing patterns. The records and tissues collected at Argonne during that time period have been carefully preserved and redisseminated. Using these archived data, ongoing statistical work has been done and continues to characterize quality of radiation, dose, dose rate, tissue, and gender-specific differences in the radiation responses of exposed animals. The ongoing application of newly-developed molecular biology techniques to the archived tissues has revealed gene-specific mutation rates following exposure to ionizing irradiation. The original and ongoing work with this tissue archive is presented here as a case study of a more general trend in the radiobiology megastudies. These experiments helped form the modern understanding of radiation responses in animals and continue to inform development of new radiation models. Recent archival efforts have facilitated open access to the data and materials produced by these studies, and so a unique opportunity exists to expand this continued research.

  15. Contributions to Future Stratospheric Climate Change: An Idealized Chemistry-Climate Model Sensitivity Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, M. M.; Braesicke, P.; Pyle, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of an idealized model sensitivity study, three of the main contributors to future stratospheric climate change are evaluated: increases in greenhouse gas concentrations, ozone recovery, and changing sea surface temperatures (SSTs). These three contributors are explored in combination and separately, to test the interactions between ozone and climate; the linearity of their contributions to stratospheric climate change is also assessed. In a simplified chemistry-climate model, stratospheric global mean temperature is most sensitive to CO2 doubling, followed by ozone depletion, then by increased SSTs. At polar latitudes, the Northern Hemisphere (NH) stratosphere is more sensitive to changes in CO2, SSTs and O3 than is the Southern Hemisphere (SH); the opposing responses to ozone depletion under low or high background CO2 concentrations, as seen with present-day SSTs, are much weaker and are not statistically significant under enhanced SSTs. Consistent with previous studies, the strength of the Brewer-Dobson circulation is found to increase in an idealized future climate; SSTs contribute most to this increase in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region, while CO2 and ozone changes contribute most in the stratosphere and mesosphere.

  16. Overview of Findings from the World Trade Center Disaster Outcome Study: Recommendations for Future Research after Exposure to Psychological Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Adams, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we review findings from the World Trade Center Disaster (WTCD) Outcomes Study, a prospective cohort study of 2,368 New York City (NYC) adults funded by the National Institutes of Health after the September 11 attacks. The findings reported were based on a baseline survey conducted one year after the disaster and a follow-up conducted two years post-disaster. One of the goals of this research was to assess the effectiveness of post-disaster treatments received by NYC residents following the attacks. Among the major findings of this study were the relatively small increase in mental health service utilization and the fact that only brief worksite interventions seemed to be an effective post-disaster treatment intervention. Specifically, those who received more conventional post-disaster interventions, such as formal psychotherapy sessions and/or psychotropic medicines, seemed to have poorer outcomes. Since this study was designed to assess treatment outcomes, use advanced measurement techniques, and incorporate propensity score matching to control for bias, these treatment findings were unexpected and raised clinical questions. Additional findings were also discussed related to minority group members, alcohol abuse, the onset and course of posttraumatic stress disorder post-disaster, and other findings. Future research is recommended to resolve the issues raised by this important study, especially as this relates to treatment outcomes. PMID:19278144

  17. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raguvarun, K.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Palanisamy, Suresh; Nagarajah, Romesh; Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic; Kapoor, Ajay

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength.

  18. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Raguvarun, K. Balasubramaniam, Krishnan Rajagopal, Prabhu; Palanisamy, Suresh; Nagarajah, Romesh; Kapoor, Ajay; Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic

    2015-03-31

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength.

  19. Studies on the effect of plasticiser and addition of toluene diisocyanate at different temperatures in composite propellant formulations.

    PubMed

    Jawalkar, S N; Mehilal; Ramesh, K; Radhakrishnan, K K; Bhattacharya, B

    2009-05-30

    Different composite propellant mixtures have been prepared using ammonium perchlorate, aluminium powder and hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene by varying the percentage of plasticiser and addition of toluene diisocyanate at different temperatures, and studied their different properties such as viscosity build-up, mechanical and ballistic properties and sensitivity. The data on different plasticiser level indicate that on decreasing the plasticiser content, there is a significant enhancement in end of mix viscosity, tensile strength and modulus while elongation decreases drastically. The data on sensitivity of the studied mixtures reveal that on decreasing the percentage of plasticiser, the sensitivity increases, accordingly. Further, the data on the effect of addition of TDI at different temperatures (35-60 degrees C) infer that on increasing the addition temperature of TDI there is a decrease in end of mix viscosity i.e. 800Pas at 35 degrees C to 448Pas at 60 degrees C. Moreover, there is no effect on mechanical and ballistic properties on higher temperature addition of TDI was observed. PMID:18835097

  20. Mental Time Travel into the Past and the Future in Healthy Aged Adults: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viard, Armelle; Chetelat, Gael; Lebreton, Karine; Desgranges, Beatrice; Landeau, Brigitte; de La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Remembering the past and envisioning the future rely on episodic memory which enables mental time travel. Studies in young adults indicate that past and future thinking share common cognitive and neural underpinnings. No imaging data is yet available in healthy aged subjects. Using fMRI, we scanned older subjects while they remembered personal…

  1. Factors Affecting Medial Temporal Lobe Engagement for Past and Future Episodic Events: An ALE Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viard, Armelle; Desgranges, Beatrice; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Remembering the past and envisioning the future are at the core of one's sense of identity. Neuroimaging studies investigating the neural substrates underlying past and future episodic events have been growing in number. However, the experimental paradigms used to select and elicit episodic events vary greatly, leading to disparate results,…

  2. Modeling future demand for energy resources: A study of residential electricity usage in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilagupta, Prapassara

    1999-12-01

    Thailand has a critical need for effective long-term energy planning because of the country's rapidly increasing energy consumption. In this study, the demand for electricity by the residential sector is modeled using a framework that provides detailed estimates of the timing and spatial distribution of changes in energy demand. A population model was developed based on the Cohort-Component method to provide estimates of population by age, sex and urban/non-urban residency in each province. A residential electricity end user model was developed to estimate future electricity usage in urban and non-urban households of the seventy-six provinces in Thailand during the period 1999--2019. Key variables in this model include population, the number of households, family household size, and characteristics of eleven types of electric household appliance such as usage intensity, input power, and saturation rate. The methodology employed in this study is a trending method which utilizes expert opinion to estimate future variables based on a percentage change from the most current value. This study shows that from 1994 to 2019 Thailand will experience an increase in population from 55.4 to 83.6 million. Large percentage population increases will take place in Bangkok, Nonthaburi, Samut Prakarn, Nakhon Pathom and Chonburi. At a national level, the residential electricity consumption will increase from approximately 19,000 to 8 1,000 GWh annually. Consumption in non-urban households will be larger than in urban households, with respective annual increases of 8.0% and 6.2% in 2019. The percent increase of the average annual electricity consumption will be four times the average annual percent population increase. Increased electricity demand is largely a function of increased population and increased demand for high-energy appliances such as air conditioners. In 1994, air conditioning was responsible for xx% of total residential electricity demand. This study estimates that in

  3. Comparative Analysis of Modeling Studies on China's Future Energy and Emissions Outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David

    2010-09-01

    The past decade has seen the development of various scenarios describing long-term patterns of future Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, with each new approach adding insights to our understanding of the changing dynamics of energy consumption and aggregate future energy trends. With the recent growing focus on China's energy use and emission mitigation potential, a range of Chinese outlook models have been developed across different institutions including in China's Energy Research Institute's 2050 China Energy and CO2 Emissions Report, McKinsey & Co's China's Green Revolution report, the UK Sussex Energy Group and Tyndall Centre's China's Energy Transition report, and the China-specific section of the IEA World Energy Outlook 2009. At the same time, the China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a bottom-up, end-use energy model for China with scenario analysis of energy and emission pathways out to 2050. A robust and credible energy and emission model will play a key role in informing policymakers by assessing efficiency policy impacts and understanding the dynamics of future energy consumption and energy saving and emission reduction potential. This is especially true for developing countries such as China, where uncertainties are greater while the economy continues to undergo rapid growth and industrialization. A slightly different assumption or storyline could result in significant discrepancies among different model results. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the key models in terms of their scope, methodologies, key driver assumptions and the associated findings. A comparative analysis of LBNL's energy end-use model scenarios with the five above studies was thus conducted to examine similarities and divergences in methodologies, scenario storylines, macroeconomic drivers and assumptions as well as aggregate energy and emission scenario results. Besides directly tracing different energy and CO{sub 2} savings potential

  4. Challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Mahmoud, Mansour Adam; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Alrasheedy, Alian; Alahmad, Amjad; Saleem, Fahad; Sheikh, Aziz; Murray, Michael; Bates, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Medication safety is a global concern among healthcare providers. However, the challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia have not been explored. Objectives We explored the perspectives of healthcare practitioners on current issues about medication safety in hospitals and community settings in Saudi Arabia in order to identify challenges to improving it and explore the future of medication safety practice. Methods A total of 65 physicians, pharmacists, academics and nurses attended a one-day meeting in March 2010, designed especially for the purpose of this study. The participants were divided into nine round-table discussion sessions. Three major themes were explored in these sessions, including: major factors contributing to medication safety problems, challenges to improving medication safety practice, and participants’ suggestions for improving medication safety. The round-table discussion sessions were videotaped and transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. Results The round-table discussions revealed that major factors contributing to medication safety problems included unrestricted public access to medications from various hospitals and community pharmacies, communication gaps between healthcare institutions, limited use of important technologies such as computerized provider order entry, and the lack of medication safety programs in hospitals. Challenges to current medication safety practice identified by participants included underreporting of medication errors and adverse drug reactions, multilingualism and differing backgrounds of healthcare professionals, lack of communication between healthcare providers and patients, and high workloads. Suggestions for improving medication safety practices in Saudi Arabia included continuous education for healthcare professionals and competency assessment focusing on medication safety, development of a culture that encourages medication error and adverse

  5. Atmospheric studies in complex terrain: a planning guide for future studies

    SciTech Connect

    Orgill, M.M.

    1981-02-01

    The objective of this study is to assist the US Department of Energy in Conducting its atmospheric studies in complex terrain (ASCOT0 by defining various complex terrain research systems and relating these options to specific landforms sites. This includes: (1) reviewing past meteorological and diffusion research on complex terrain; (2) relating specific terrain-induced airflow phenomena to specific landforms and time and space scales; (3) evaluating the technical difficulty of modeling and measuring terrain-induced airflow phenomena; and (4) avolving severdal research options and proposing candidate sites for continuing and expanding field and modeling work. To evolve research options using variable candidate sites, four areas were considered: site selection, terrain uniqueness and quantification, definition of research problems and research plans. 36 references, 111 figures, 20 tables.

  6. Accelerator mass spectrometry-enabled studies: current status and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Arjomand, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry is a detection platform with exceptional sensitivity compared with other bioanalytical platforms. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is widely used in archeology for radiocarbon dating applications. Early exploration of the biological and pharmaceutical applications of AMS began in the early 1990s. AMS has since demonstrated unique problem-solving ability in nutrition science, toxicology and pharmacology. AMS has also enabled the development of new applications, such as Phase 0 microdosing. Recent development of AMS-enabled applications has transformed this novelty research instrument to a valuable tool within the pharmaceutical industry. Although there is now greater awareness of AMS technology, recognition and appreciation of the range of AMS-enabled applications is still lacking, including study-design strategies. This review aims to provide further insight into the wide range of AMS-enabled applications. Examples of studies conducted over the past two decades will be presented, as well as prospects for the future of AMS. PMID:20440378

  7. Simulation studies of the impact of future observing systems on weather prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, R.; Kalnay, E.; Baker, W. E.; Susskind, J.; Reuter, D.; Halem, M.

    1985-01-01

    The features and preliminary results from a simulation system being implemented to develop realistic estimates of the impacts future data acquisition systems will have on large-scale numerical weather simulation are described. The new instruments may include advanced passive IR and microwave satellite sensors, as well as active scatterometer and lidar sounders. A main goal of the impact study is to identify those sensor systems which will provide the most benefit. The realism of the study is being enhanced by assimilating as much real-world data as possible and generating global weather maps for comparison with maps generated on the bases on the projected new, higher resolution data. Early results have indicated a preference for higher resolution wind data than for temperature data for making 1-5 day forecasts. The prime instrument candidate for collecting the data is lidar, provided the sensor resolution design goals are met.

  8. Radiotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: New Indications and Directions for Future Study.

    PubMed

    Ohri, Nitin; Dawson, Laura A; Krishnan, Sunil; Seong, Jinsil; Cheng, Jason C; Sarin, Shiv K; Kinkhabwala, Milan; Ahmed, Mansoor M; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Coleman, C Norman; Guha, Chandan

    2016-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide; its incidence is increasing in the United States. Depending on disease extent and underlying liver status, patients may be treated with local, locoregional, and/or systemic therapy. Recent data indicates that radiotherapy (RT) can play a meaningful role in the management of HCC. Here, we review published experiences using RT for HCC, including the use of radiosensitizers and stereotactic RT. We discuss methods for performing preclinical studies of RT for HCC and biomarkers of response. As a part of the HCC Working Group, an informal committee of the National Cancer Institute's Radiation Research Program, we suggest how RT should be implemented in the management of HCC and identify future directions for the study of RT in HCC. PMID:27377923

  9. The gate studies: Assessing the potential of future small general aviation turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strack, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    Four studies were completed that explore the opportunities for future General Aviation turbine engines (GATE) in the 150-1000 SHP class. These studies forecasted the potential impact of advanced technology turbine engines in the post-1988 market, identified important aircraft and missions, desirable engine sizes, engine performance, and cost goals. Parametric evaluations of various engine cycles, configurations, design features, and advanced technology elements defined baseline conceptual engines for each of the important missions identified by the market analysis. Both fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft, and turboshaft, turboprop, and turbofan engines were considered. Sizable performance gains (e.g., 20% SFC decrease), and large engine cost reductions of sufficient magnitude to challenge the reciprocating engine in the 300-500 SHP class were predicted.

  10. Batteries for electric drive vehicles: Evaluation of future characteristics and costs through a Delphi study

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Santini, D.J.

    1997-07-01

    Uncertainty about future costs and operating attributes of electric drive vehicles (EVs and HEVs) has contributed to considerable debate regarding the market viability of such vehicles. One way to deal with such uncertainty, common to most emerging technologies, is to pool the judgments of experts in the field. Data from a two-stage Delphi study are used to project the future costs and operating characteristics of electric drive vehicles. The experts projected basic vehicle characteristics for EVs and HEVs for the period 2000-2020. They projected the mean EV range at 179 km in 2000, 270 km in 2010, and 358 km in 2020. The mean HEV range on battery power was projected as 145 km in 2000, 212 km in 2010, and 244 km in 2020. Experts` opinions on 10 battery technologies are analyzed and characteristics of initial battery packs for the mean power requirements are presented. A procedure to compute the cost of replacement battery packs is described, and the resulting replacement costs are presented. Projected vehicle purchase prices and fuel and maintenance costs are also presented. The vehicle purchase price and curb weight predictions would be difficult to achieve with the mean battery characteristics. With the battery replacement costs added to the fuel and maintenance costs, the conventional ICE vehicle is projected to have a clear advantage over electric drive vehicles through the projection period.

  11. Study on the effects of near-future ocean acidification on marine yeasts: a microcosm approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Evamaria; Wichels, Antje; Erler, René; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2013-12-01

    Marine yeasts play an important role in biodegradation and nutrient cycling and are often associated with marine flora and fauna. They show maximum growth at pH levels lower than present-day seawater pH. Thus, contrary to many other marine organisms, they may actually profit from ocean acidification. Hence, we conducted a microcosm study, incubating natural seawater from the North Sea at present-day pH (8.10) and two near-future pH levels (7.81 and 7.67). Yeasts were isolated from the initial seawater sample and after 2 and 4 weeks of incubation. Isolates were classified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and representative isolates were identified by partial sequencing of the large subunit rRNA gene. From the initial seawater sample, we predominantly isolated a yeast-like filamentous fungus related to Aureobasidium pullulans, Cryptococcus sp., Candida sake, and various cold-adapted yeasts. After incubation, we found more different yeast species at near-future pH levels than at present-day pH. Yeasts reacting to low pH were related to Leucosporidium scottii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Cryptococcus sp., and Debaryomyces hansenii. Our results suggest that these yeasts will benefit from seawater pH reductions and give a first indication that the importance of yeasts will increase in a more acidic ocean.

  12. EuroGeoMars Field Campaign: habitability studies in preparation for future Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Foing, B. H.; Stoker, C.; Zhavaleta, J.; Orzechowska, G.; Kotler, M.; Martins, Z.; Sephton, M.; Becker, L.; Quinn, R.; van Sluis, C.; Boche-Sauvan, L.; Gross, C.; Thiel, C.; Wendt, L.; Sarrazin, P.; Mahapatra, P.; Direito, S.; Roling, W.

    The goal of the EuroGeoMars field campaign sponsored by ESA, NASA and the international lunar exploration working group (ILEWG) was to demonstrate instrument capabilities in sup-port of current and future planetary missions, to validate a procedure for Martian surface in-situ and return science, and to study human performance aspects. The Mars Desert Re-search Station (MDRS) represents an ideal basis to simulate aspects of robotic and human exploration in support of future missions to planetary bodies. During the campaign, MDRS Crew 77 tested X-ray diffraction and Raman instruments, and assessed habitat and operations. Special emphasis was given to sample collection in the geologically rich vicinity of MDRS and subsequent analysis of organic molecules in the soil to simulate the search for bio-signatures with field instrumentation. We describe the results of in-situ and posterior analysis of the physical and chemical properties including elemental composition, salt concentrations as well as carbon and amino acid abundances. The analyses of organics and minerals show that the subsurface mineral matrix represents a key to our understanding of the survival of organics on Mars.

  13. Using a generalized additive model with autoregressive terms to study the effects of daily temperature on mortality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Generalized Additive Model (GAM) provides a flexible and effective technique for modelling nonlinear time-series in studies of the health effects of environmental factors. However, GAM assumes that errors are mutually independent, while time series can be correlated in adjacent time points. Here, a GAM with Autoregressive terms (GAMAR) is introduced to fill this gap. Methods Parameters in GAMAR are estimated by maximum partial likelihood using modified Newton’s method, and the difference between GAM and GAMAR is demonstrated using two simulation studies and a real data example. GAMM is also compared to GAMAR in simulation study 1. Results In the simulation studies, the bias of the mean estimates from GAM and GAMAR are similar but GAMAR has better coverage and smaller relative error. While the results from GAMM are similar to GAMAR, the estimation procedure of GAMM is much slower than GAMAR. In the case study, the Pearson residuals from the GAM are correlated, while those from GAMAR are quite close to white noise. In addition, the estimates of the temperature effects are different between GAM and GAMAR. Conclusions GAMAR incorporates both explanatory variables and AR terms so it can quantify the nonlinear impact of environmental factors on health outcome as well as the serial correlation between the observations. It can be a useful tool in environmental epidemiological studies. PMID:23110601

  14. Literature review and need for additional study of surface-water quality in the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childress, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area encompasses about 24 miles of the middle reach of the Cuyahoga River and parts of four major tributaries -- Furnace Run, Brandywine Creek, Chippewa Creek, and TInkers Creek. Water quality in this reach does not meet Ohio water-quality standards for dissolved oxygen, fecal bacteria, ammonia, and lead. Point sources of effluent contribute contaminants. On the basis of a review of scientific and technical literature, National Park Service management goals, and water-quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, three subject areas for future study are suggested: (1) The dissolved oxygen regime, (2) chemical quality of base flow, and (3) quality of storm-water runoff.

  15. Microstructural Development and Technical Challenges in Laser Additive Manufacturing: Case Study with a 316L Industrial Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marya, Manuel; Singh, Virendra; Marya, Surendar; Hascoet, Jean Yves

    2015-08-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) brings disruptive changes to the ways parts, and products are designed, fabricated, tested, qualified, inspected, marketed, and sold. These changes introduce novel technical challenges and concerns arising from the maturity and diversity of today's AM processes, feedstock materials, and process parameter interactions. AM bears a resemblance with laser and electron beam welding in the so-called conduction mode, which involves a multitude of dynamic physical events between the projected feedstock and a moving heat source that eventually influence AM part properties. For this paper, an air vent was selected for its thin-walled, hollow, and variable cross section, and limited size. The studied air vents, randomly selected from a qualification batch, were fabricated out of 316L stainless steel using a 4 kW fiber laser powder-fed AM system, referred to as construction laser additive direct (CLAD). These were systematically characterized by microhardness indentation, visual examination, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and electron-back-scattering diffraction in order to determine AM part suitability for service and also broadly discuss metallurgical phenomena. The paper then briefly expands the discussion to include additional engineering alloys and further analyze relationships between AM process parameters and AM part properties, consistently utilizing past experience with the same powder-fed CLAD 3D printer, the well-established science and technology of welding and joining, and recent publications on additive manufacturing.

  16. The past, present, and future of soils and human health studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, E. C.; Sauer, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that human health is tied to the soil is not a new one. As far back as circa 1400 BC the Bible depicts Moses as understanding that fertile soil was essential to the well-being of his people. In 400 BC the Greek philosopher Hippocrates provided a list of things that should be considered in a proper medical evaluation, including the properties of the local ground. By the late 1700s and early 1800s, American farmers had recognized that soil properties had some connection to human health. In the modern world, we recognize that soils have a distinct influence on human health. We recognize that soils influence (1) food availability and quality (food security), (2) human contact with various chemicals, and (3) human contact with various pathogens. Soils and human health studies include investigations into nutrient supply through the food chain and routes of exposure to chemicals and pathogens. However, making strong, scientific connections between soils and human health can be difficult. There are multiple variables to consider in the soil environment, meaning traditional scientific studies that seek to isolate and manipulate a single variable often do not provide meaningful data. The complete study of soils and human health also involves many different specialties such as soil scientists, toxicologists, medical professionals, anthropologists, etc. These groups do not traditionally work together on research projects, and do not always effectively communicate with one another. Climate change and how it will affect the soil environment/ecosystem going into the future is another variable affecting the relationship between soils and health. Future successes in soils and human health research will require effectively addressing difficult issues such as these.

  17. Engineered nanomaterial risk. Lessons learnt from completed nanotoxicology studies: potential solutions to current and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Helinor; Pojana, Giulio; Zuin, Stefano; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen; Semmler-Behnke, Manuela; McGuiness, Catherine; Balharry, Dominique; Marcomini, Antonio; Wallin, Håkan; Kreyling, Wolfgang; Donaldson, Ken; Tran, Lang; Stone, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    PARTICLE_RISK was one of the first multidisciplinary projects funded by the European Commission's Framework Programme that was responsible for evaluating the implications of nanomaterial (NM) exposure on human health. This project was the basis for this review which identifies the challenges that exist within the assessment of NM risk. We have retrospectively reflected on the findings of completed nanotoxicology studies to consider what progress and advances have been made within the risk assessment of NMs, as well as discussing the direction that nanotoxicology research is taking and identifying the limitations and failings of existing research. We have reflected on what commonly encountered challenges exist and explored how these issues may be resolved. In particular, the following is discussed (i) NM selection (ii) NM physico-chemical characterisation; (iii) NM dispersion; (iv) selection of relevant doses and concentrations; (v) identification of relevant models, target sites and endpoints; (vi) development of alternatives to animal testing; and (vii) NM risk assessment. These knowledge gaps are relatively well recognised by the scientific community and recommendations as to how they may be overcome in the future are provided. It is hoped that this will help develop better defined hypothesis driven research in the future that will enable comprehensive risk assessments to be conducted for NMs. Importantly, the nanotoxicology community has responded and adapted to advances in knowledge over recent years to improve the approaches used to assess NM hazard, exposure and risk. It is vital to learn from existing information provided by ongoing or completed studies to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort, and to offer guidance on aspects of the experimental design that should be carefully considered prior to the start of a new study. PMID:23126553

  18. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  19. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  20. Effect of One Percent Chlorhexidine Addition on the Antibacterial Activity and Mechanical Properties of Sealants: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Asokan, Sharath; John, J Baby; Priya, PR Geetha; Devi, Jagadeesan Gnana

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of addition of 1% chlorhexidine digluconate solution on the antibacterial activity and mechanical properties of glass ionomer and resin based sealant. Materials and methods: Conventional glass ionomer sealant (GIS) (Fuji VII, Japan) and resin sealant (Clinpro 3M ESPE, USA) were used in this study. Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) (20%) liquid was added to both the sealants, and the concentration of chlorhexidine in sealants was adjusted to 1%. The sealants were divided into four groups as: group A (GIS), group B (GIS + 1% CHX), group C (resin sealant), group D (resin sealant + 1% CHX). Five cylindrical specimens were prepared in each group. Their antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and their mechanical properties (compressive strength and diametrical tensile strength) were assessed. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used appropriately for statistical analysis (SPSS version 19). Result: Addition of one percent chlorhexidine significantly increased the antibacterial activity of both the sealants. There was a significant difference between groups A and B (p < 0.009), and groups C and D (p < 0.008). There was no significant difference in the mechanical properties of the sealants. Conclusion: Addition of one percent chlorhexidine to the glass ionomer and resin based sealants provided sufficient antibacterial activity, without significantly affecting the mechanical property of the sealants. How to cite this article: Shanmugaavel AK, Asokan S, John JB, Geetha Priya PR, Gnana Devi J. Effect of one percent Chlorhexidine Addition on the Antibacterial Activity and Mechanical Properties of Sealants: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):196-201. PMID:26628854

  1. A study on the effect of halloysite nanoparticle addition on the strength of glass fiber reinforced plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yun-Hae; Park, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Jin-Woo; Moon, Kyung-Man

    2015-03-01

    Halloysite nanotube, which has been used in the polymer, has been spotlighted as a useful functional materials in the improvement of mechanical properties. In the current study, we established the optimal nanoparticle dispersion and analyzed the mechanical characteristics and the behavior of composites reinforced by HNTs have been synthesized by dispersing HNTs to the unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) and their mechanical characteristics, especially the tensile strength, interlaminar shear strength have been analyzed. Additionally, the reinforcement effect and its variation according to the amount of HNTs was also studied.

  2. A fundamental study of the oxidation behavior of SI primary reference fuels with propionaldehyde and DTBP as an additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Rodney

    In an effort to combine the benefits of SI and CI engines, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines are being developed. HCCI combustion is achieved by controlling the temperature, pressure, and composition of the fuel and air mixture so that autoignition occurs in proper phasing with the piston motion. This control system is fundamentally more challenging than using a spark plug or fuel injector to determine ignition timing as in SI and CI engines, respectively. As a result, this is a technical barrier that must be overcome to make HCCI engines applicable to a wide range of vehicles and viable for high volume production. One way to tailor the autoignition timing is to use small amounts of ignition enhancing additives. In this study, the effect of the addition of DTBP and propionaldehyde on the autoignition behavior of SI primary reference fuels was investigated. The present work was conducted in a new research facility built around a single cylinder Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) octane rating engine but modified to run in HCCI mode. It focused on the effect of select oxygenated hydrocarbons on hydrocarbon fuel oxidation, specifically, the primary reference fuels n-heptane and iso-octane. This work was conducted under HCCI operating conditions. Previously, the operating parameters for this engine were validated for stable combustion under a wide range of operating parameters such as engine speeds, equivalence ratios, compression ratios and inlet manifold temperature. The stable operating range under these conditions was recorded and used for the present study. The major focus of this study was to examine the effect of the addition of DTBP or propionaldehyde on the oxidation behavior of SI primary reference fuels. Under every test condition the addition of the additives DTBP and propionaldehyde caused a change in fuel oxidation. DTBP always promoted fuel oxidation while propionaldehyde promoted oxidation for lower octane number fuels and delayed

  3. Evolutionary insights from studies of geographic variation: Contemporary variation and looking to the future.

    PubMed

    Etterson, Julie R; Schneider, Heather E; Gorden, Nicole L Soper; Weber, Jennifer J

    2016-01-01

    In an age of rapid global change, it is imperative that we continue to improve our understanding of factors that govern genetic differentiation in plants to inform biologically reasonable predictions for the future and enlighten conservation and restoration practices. In this special issue, we have assembled a set of original research and reviews that employ diverse approaches, both classic and contemporary, to illuminate patterns of phenotypic and genetic variation, probe the underlying evolutionary processes that have contributed to these patterns, build predictive models, and test evolutionary hypotheses. Our goal was to underscore the unique insights that can be obtained through the complementary and distinct studies of plant populations across species' geographic ranges. PMID:26772310

  4. Study on the water related disaster risks using the future socio-economic scenario in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Hatono, M.; Ikeuchi, H.; Nakamura, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, flood risks in the present and the end of the 21st century in Asia are estimated using a future socio-economic scenario. Using the runoff data of 7 GCMs (RCP 8.5) of CMIP5, the river discharge, inundation area, and inundation depth are calculated for the assessment of flood risk. Finally, the flood risk is estimated using a function of damage. The flood frequency in the end of the 21st century in Asia tends to increase. Inundation area in Japan, Taiwan, and Kyrgyz is almost unchanged. At the same time, that in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Laos, and Myanmar reached about 1.4-1.6 times compared to present. Damage cost is largely influenced by economic growth, however, we show that it is important that we distinguish the influence of climate change from economic development and evaluate it when we think about an adaptation.

  5. Experimental studies on the effect of coherency strains on coarsening kinetics: Current status and future outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidharan, G.; Epperson, J.E.; Chen, H.

    1994-03-01

    The effect of coherency strains on the coarsening rate constant in Ostwald ripening is an area that is not well understood. We briefly review the extant experimental data on the effect of coherency strains on coarsening rates and explain the need to account for variations in coarsening rates due to composition and diffusivity effects before drawing any conclusions on the dependence of coarsening rates on the misfit parameter. Using the preexisting theories for coarsening rates in multi-component systems, we suggest a simple method to account for the composition dependence of coarsening rates arising from factors unrelated to coherency strain effects. We then present some of the results from our on-going work in the Ni-Al-Si system and explain the relevance of this study to our understanding of coarsening in internally-stressed systems. We conclude the presentation with our views on the direction of future research in this aspect of coarsening.

  6. A numerical study of the influence of ammonia addition on the auto-ignition limits of methane/air mixtures.

    PubMed

    Van den Schoor, F; Norman, F; Vandebroek, L; Verplaetsen, F; Berghmans, J

    2009-05-30

    In this study the auto-ignition limit of ammonia/methane/air mixtures is calculated based upon a perfectly stirred reactor model with convective heat transfer. The results of four different reaction mechanisms are compared with existing experimental data at an initial temperature of 723 K with ammonia concentrations of 0-20 mol.% and methane concentrations of 2.5-10 mol.%. It is found that the calculation of the auto-ignition limit pressure at constant temperature leads to larger relative deviations between calculated and experimental results than the calculation of the auto-ignition temperature at constant pressure. In addition to the calculations, a reaction path analysis is performed to explain the observed lowering of the auto-ignition limit of methane/air mixtures by ammonia addition. It is found that this decrease is caused by the formation of NO and NO(2), which enhance the oxidation of methane at low temperatures. PMID:18926632

  7. The influence of deposit control additives on nitrogen oxides emissions from spark ignition engines (case study: Tehran).

    PubMed

    Bidhendi, Gholamreza Nabi; Zand, Ali Daryabeigi; Tabrizi, Alireza Mikaeili; Pezeshk, Hamid; Baghvand, Akbar

    2007-04-15

    In the present research, the influence of a deposit control additive on NOx emissions from two types of gasoline engine vehicles i.e., Peykan (base on Hillman) and Pride (South Korea Kia motors) was studied. Exhaust NOx emissions were measured in to stages, before decarbonization process and after that. Statistical analysis was conducted on the measurement results. Results showed that NOx emissions from Peykans increased 0.28% and NOx emissions from Pride automobiles decreased 6.18% on average, due to the elimination of engine deposits. The observed variations were not statistically and practically significant. The results indicated that making use of detergent additives is not an effective way to reduce the exhaust NOx emissions from gasoline engine vehicles. PMID:19069943

  8. A Cross-Cultural Study of the Effects of Children on Parental Assessment of Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bortner, R. W.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This study used available survey data from three countries (Dominican Republic, Panama, and Yugoslavia) to examine the effect of presence or absence of children on married respondents' estimates of their past, present, and future. (Author)

  9. A mechanistic study of the addition of alcohol to a five-membered ring silene via a photochemical reaction.

    PubMed

    Su, Ming-Der

    2016-03-21

    The mechanism for the photochemical rearrangement of a cyclic divinyldisilane (1-Si) in its first excited state ((1)π → (1)π*) is determined using the CAS/6-311G(d) and MP2-CAS/6-311++G(3df,3pd) levels of theory. The photoproduct, a cyclic silene, reacts with various alcohols to yield a mixture of cis- and trans- adducts. The two reaction pathways are denoted as the cis- addition path (path A) and the trans-addition path (path B). These model studies demonstrate that conical intersections play a crucial role in the photo-rearrangements of cyclic divinyldisilanes. The theoretical evidence also demonstrates that the addition of alcohol to a cyclic divinyldisilane follows the reaction path: cyclic divinyldisilane → Franck-Condon region → conical intersection → photoproduct (cyclic silene) → local intermediate (with alcohol) → transition state → cis- or trans-adduct. The theoretical studies demonstrate that the steric effects as well as the concentrations of CH3OH must have a dominant role in determining the yields of the final adducts by stereochemistry. The same mechanism for the carbon derivative (1-C) is also considered in this work. However, the theoretical results indicate that 1-C does not undergo a methanol addition reaction via the photochemical reaction pathway, since its energy of conical intersection (S1/S0-CI-C) is more than that of its FC (FC-C). The reason for these phenomena could be that the atomic radius of carbon is much smaller than that of silicon (77 and 117 pm, respectively). As a result, the conformation for 1-C is more sterically congested than that for 1-Si, along the 1,3-silyl-migration pathway. PMID:26928893

  10. Clobazam Therapeutic Drug Monitoring: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature with Proposals to Improve Future Studies

    PubMed Central

    de Leon, Jose; Spina, Edoardo; Diaz, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Clobazam was recently approved for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in the US. There is no published review article focused on clobazam therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in English. Methods More than two hundred clobazam articles identified by a PubMed search were carefully reviewed for information on clobazam pharmacokinetics. Clobazam is mainly metabolized by a cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzyme, CYP3A4, to its active metabolite, N-desmethylclobazam. Then, N-desmethylclobazam is mainly metabolized by CYP2C19 unless the individual has no CYP2C19 activity (poor metabolizer, PM). Results Using a mechanistic approach to reinterpret the published findings of steady-state TDM and single-dosing pharmacokinetic studies, four different serum clobazam concentration ratios were studied. The available limited steady-state TDM data suggest that the serum N-desmethylclobazam/clobazam ratio can be useful for clinicians, including identifying CYP2C19 PMs (ratio >25 in the absence of inhibitors). There are three possible concentration/dose (C/D) ratios. The clobazam C/D ratio has the potential to measure the contribution of CYP3A4 activity to the clearance of clobazam from the body. The N-desmethylclobazam C/D ratio does not appear to be a good measure of clobazam clearance and should be substituted with the total (clobazam+N-desmethylclobazam) C/D ratio. Conclusions Future clobazam TDM studies need to use trough concentrations after steady-state has been reached (>3 weeks in normal individuals and several months in CYP2C19 PMs). These future studies need to explore the potential of clobazam and total C/D ratios. Better studies on the relative potency of N-desmethylclobazam compared to the parent compound are needed to provide weighted total serum concentrations that correct for the possible lower N-desmethylclobazam pharmacodynamic activity. Standardization and more studies of C/D ratios from clobazam and other drugs can be helpful to move TDM forward. PMID:23318278

  11. Future challenges for clinical care of an ageing population infected with HIV: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Mikaela; Brinkman, Kees; Geerlings, Suzanne; Smit, Colette; Thyagarajan, Kalyani; Sighem, Ard van; de Wolf, Frank; Hallett, Timothy B

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The population infected with HIV is getting older and these people will increasingly develop age-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We aimed to quantify the scale of the change and the implications for HIV care in the Netherlands in the future. Methods We constructed an individual-based model of the ageing HIV-infected population, which followed patients on HIV treatment as they age, develop NCDs—including cardiovascular disease (hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, myocardial infarctions, and strokes), diabetes, chronic kidney disease, osteoporosis, and non-AIDS malignancies—and start co-medication for these diseases. The model was parameterised by use of data for 10 278 patients from the national Dutch ATHENA cohort between 1996 and 2010. We made projections up to 2030. Findings Our model suggests that the median age of HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) will increase from 43·9 years in 2010 to 56·6 in 2030, with the proportion of HIV-infected patients aged 50 years or older increasing from 28% in 2010 to 73% in 2030. In 2030, we predict that 84% of HIV-infected patients will have at least one NCD, up from 29% in 2010, with 28% of HIV-infected patients in 2030 having three or more NCDs. 54% of HIV-infected patients will be prescribed co-medications in 2030, compared with 13% in 2010, with 20% taking three or more co-medications. Most of this change will be driven by increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease and associated drugs. Because of contraindications and drug–drug interactions, in 2030, 40% of patients could have complications with the currently recommended first-line HIV regimens. Interpretation The profile of patients in the Netherlands infected with HIV is changing, with increasing numbers of older patients with multiple morbidities. These changes mean that, in the near future, HIV care will increasingly need to draw on a wide range of medical disciplines, in addition to evidence

  12. Study on Market Stability and Price Limit of Chinese Stock Index Futures Market: An Agent-Based Modeling Perspective.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiong; Nan, Ding; Yang, Yang; Yongjie, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a method of managing the risk of the stock index futures market and the cross-market through analyzing the effectiveness of price limits on the Chinese Stock Index 300 futures market. We adopt a cross-market artificial financial market (include the stock market and the stock index futures market) as a platform on which to simulate the operation of the CSI 300 futures market by changing the settings of price limits. After comparing the market stability under different price limits by appropriate liquidity and volatility indicators, we find that enhancing price limits or removing price limits both play a negative impact on market stability. In contrast, a positive impact exists on market stability if the existing price limit is maintained (increase of limit by10%, down by 10%) or it is broadened to a proper extent. Our study provides reasonable advice for a price limit setting and risk management for CSI 300 futures. PMID:26571135

  13. Study on Market Stability and Price Limit of Chinese Stock Index Futures Market: An Agent-Based Modeling Perspective

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a method of managing the risk of the stock index futures market and the cross-market through analyzing the effectiveness of price limits on the Chinese Stock Index 300 futures market. We adopt a cross-market artificial financial market (include the stock market and the stock index futures market) as a platform on which to simulate the operation of the CSI 300 futures market by changing the settings of price limits. After comparing the market stability under different price limits by appropriate liquidity and volatility indicators, we find that enhancing price limits or removing price limits both play a negative impact on market stability. In contrast, a positive impact exists on market stability if the existing price limit is maintained (increase of limit by10%, down by 10%) or it is broadened to a proper extent. Our study provides reasonable advice for a price limit setting and risk management for CSI 300 futures. PMID:26571135

  14. Numerical study on the influence of hydrogen addition on soot formation in a laminar ethylene-air diffusion flame

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Hongsheng; Liu, Fengshan; Smallwood, Gregory J.; Guelder, OEmer L.

    2006-04-15

    The influence of hydrogen addition to the fuel of an atmosphere pressure coflow laminar ethylene-air diffusion flame on soot formation was studied by numerical simulation. A detailed gas-phase reaction mechanism, which includes aromatic chemistry up to four rings, and complex thermal and transport properties were used. The fully coupled elliptic governing equations were solved. The interactions between soot and gas-phase chemistry were taken into account. Radiation heat transfer from CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, and soot was calculated using the discrete-ordinates method coupled to a statistical narrow-band-correlated K-based wide-band model. The predicted results were compared with the available experimental data and analyzed. It is indicated that the addition of hydrogen to the fuel in an ethylene-air diffusion flame suppresses soot formation through the effects of dilution and chemistry. This result is in agreement with available experiments. The simulations further suggest that the chemically inhibiting effect of hydrogen addition on soot formation is due to the decrease of hydrogen atom concentration in soot surface growth regions and higher concentration of molecular hydrogen in the lower flame region. (author)

  15. Effects of the colour additive caramel colour III on the immune system: a study with human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Houben, G F; Abma, P M; van den Berg, H; van Dokkum, W; van Loveren, H; Penninks, A H; Seinen, W; Spanhaak, S; Vos, J G; Ockhuizen, T

    1992-09-01

    Administration of the colour additive Caramel Colour III to rats has been associated with decreased numbers of lymphocytes and several other changes in the immune system, as well as in immune function parameters, specifically in animals fed a diet with a relatively low vitamin B6 content. The effects are caused by the imidazole derivative 2-acetyl-4(5)-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI). Caramel Colour III is commonly used in food products such as bakery products, soya-bean sauces, brown sauces, gravies, soup aromas, brown (dehydrated) soups, brown malt caramel blend for various applications, vinegars and beers, and effects in humans on dietary intake cannot be excluded. Elderly male volunteers with a marginal deficit in vitamin B6 were considered a relevant and potentially sensitive group to study possible effects of Caramel Colour III on blood lymphocyte numbers (total and within subsets) or on proliferative responses of lymphocytes to mitogenic stimulation. In addition, several other haematological parameters, as well as serum immunoglobulin levels and immunoglobulin production in vitro by pokeweed mitogen-stimulated mononuclear blood cells were studied. The results of this double-blind intervention study demonstrated that in a selected test group of apparently healthy elderly male volunteers with a biochemically marginally deficient vitamin B6 status, Caramel Colour III containing 23 (commercial sample) or 143 (research sample) ppm THI and administered at the level of the current acceptable daily intake of 200 mg/kg body weight/day for 7 days did not affect any of the factors investigated. PMID:1427513

  16. A study on the effect of the polymeric additive HPMC on morphology and polymorphism of ortho-aminobenzoic acid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simone, E.; Cenzato, M. V.; Nagy, Z. K.

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the effect of Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) on the crystallization of ortho-aminobenzoic acid (OABA) was investigated by seeded and unseeded cooling crystallization experiments. The influence of HPMC on the induction time, crystal shape of Forms I and II of OABA and the polymorphic transformation time was studied. Furthermore, the capability of HPMC to inhibit growth of Form I was evaluated quantitatively and modeled using population balance equations (PBE) solved with the method of moments. The additive was found to strongly inhibit nucleation and growth of Form I as well as to increase the time for the polymorphic transformation from Form II to I. Solvent was also found to influence the shape of Form I crystals at equal concentrations of HPMC. In situ process analytical technology (PAT) tools, including Raman spectroscopy, focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) UV-vis spectroscopy were used in combination with off-line techniques, such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, Malvern Mastersizer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to study the crystals produced. The results illustrate how shape, size and stability of the two polymorphs of OABA can be controlled and tailored using a polymeric additive.

  17. Three new double-headed nucleotides with additional nucleobases connected to C-5 of pyrimidines; synthesis, duplex and triplex studies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pawan; Sharma, Pawan K; Hansen, Jonas; Jedinak, Lukas; Reslow-Jacobsen, Charlotte; Hornum, Mick; Nielsen, Poul

    2016-02-15

    In the search for double-coding DNA-systems, three new pyrimidine nucleosides, each coded with an additional nucleobase anchored to the major groove face, are synthesized. Two of these building blocks carry a thymine at the 5-position of 2'-deoxyuridine through a methylene linker and a triazolomethylene linker, respectively. The third building block carries an adenine at the 6-position of pyrrolo-2'-deoxycytidine through a methylene linker. These double-headed nucleosides are introduced into oligonucleotides and their effects on the thermal stabilities of duplexes are studied. All studied double-headed nucleotide monomers reduce the thermal stability of the modified duplexes, which is partially compensated by using consecutive incorporations of the modified monomers or by flanking the new double-headed analogs with members of our former series containing propyne linkers. Also their potential in triplex-forming oligonucleotides is studied for two of the new double-headed nucleotides as well as the series of analogs with propyne linkers. The most stable triplexes are obtained with single incorporations of additional pyrimidine nucleobases connected via the propyne linker. PMID:26778611

  18. Airborne lidar for ocean-atmosphere studies and assessment of future satellite mission concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Hu, Y.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Cetinic, I.; Butler, C. F.; Powell, K. A.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Cairns, B.; Chowdhary, J.; Hare, R. J.; Harper, D. B.; Cook, A. L.; Berkoff, T.; Mack, T. L.; Notari, A.; Woodell, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    Global estimates of phytoplankton biomass (Cphyto) and particulate organic carbon (POC) have traditionally been made using passive ocean color measurements. Recently, data from the CALIOP sensor on the CALIPSO satellite have provided the first measurements of these two key carbon cycle stocks from a space-based lidar. Although CALIOP was not designed for subsurface ocean retrievals, global distributions of Cphyto and POC retrieved with CALIOP compare well with independent assessments using MODIS passive ocean color data. This success suggests a potentially important future role for space lidar measurements in global ocean plankton research, particularly for a lidar system optimized for water column profiling. To this end, the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) was recently modified for ocean research to provide independent vertically-resolved retrievals of the diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and particulate backscatter coefficient (bbp). The advanced HSRL has been deployed on three ocean-focused airborne field missions: a mission based in the Azores in October 2012, a CALIPSO validation mission based in Bermuda in June 2014, and the Ship-Aircraft Bio-Optical Research (SABOR) experiment based in Bermuda, New Hampshire, and Virginia in July-August of 2014. On the Azores and SABOR missions, the HSRL instrument acquired data coincident with ship-based optical measurements, and data were acquired along CALIOP tracks on all three missions. Results from the airborne HSRL and CALIOP studies will be described, along with a discussion of potential future aircraft campaigns, the scalability of the HSRL technique to space, and the value of simultaneously measuring plankton abundance, marine aerosol loading and optical properties, and cloud microphysical properties and albedo.

  19. A SEARCH FOR ADDITIONAL PLANETS IN FIVE OF THE EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS STUDIED BY THE NASA EPOXI MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Sarah; Charbonneau, David; Holman, Matthew J.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Deming, Drake; Barry, Richard K.; Kuchner, Marc J.; Livengood, Timothy A.; Hewagama, Tilak; Hampton, Don L.; Lisse, Carey M.; Seager, Sara; Veverka, Joseph F.

    2011-05-01

    We present time series photometry and constraints on additional planets in five of the exoplanetary systems studied by the EPOCh (Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization) component of the NASA EPOXI mission: HAT-P-4, TrES-3, TrES-2, WASP-3, and HAT-P-7. We conduct a search of the high-precision time series for photometric transits of additional planets. We find no candidate transits with significance higher than our detection limit. From Monte Carlo tests of the time series using putative periods from 0.5 days to 7 days, we demonstrate the sensitivity to detect Neptune-sized companions around TrES-2, sub-Saturn-sized companions in the HAT-P-4, TrES-3, and WASP-3 systems, and Saturn-sized companions around HAT-P-7. We investigate in particular our sensitivity to additional transits in the dynamically favorable 3:2 and 2:1 exterior resonances with the known exoplanets: if we assume coplanar orbits with the known planets, then companions in these resonances with HAT-P-4b, WASP-3b, and HAT-P-7b would be expected to transit, and we can set lower limits on the radii of companions in these systems. In the nearly grazing exoplanetary systems TrES-3 and TrES-2, additional coplanar planets in these resonances are not expected to transit. However, we place lower limits on the radii of companions that would transit if the orbits were misaligned by 2.{sup 0}0 and 1.{sup 0}4 for TrES-3 and TrES-2, respectively.

  20. Studying social interactions through immersive virtual environment technology: virtues, pitfalls, and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bombari, Dario; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Canadas, Elena; Bachmann, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present review is to explain how immersive virtual environment technology (IVET) can be used for the study of social interactions and how the use of virtual humans in immersive virtual environments can advance research and application in many different fields. Researchers studying individual differences in social interactions are typically interested in keeping the behavior and the appearance of the interaction partner constant across participants. With IVET researchers have full control over the interaction partners, can standardize them while still keeping the simulation realistic. Virtual simulations are valid: growing evidence shows that indeed studies conducted with IVET can replicate some well-known findings of social psychology. Moreover, IVET allows researchers to subtly manipulate characteristics of the environment (e.g., visual cues to prime participants) or of the social partner (e.g., his/her race) to investigate their influences on participants’ behavior and cognition. Furthermore, manipulations that would be difficult or impossible in real life (e.g., changing participants’ height) can be easily obtained with IVET. Beside the advantages for theoretical research, we explore the most recent training and clinical applications of IVET, its integration with other technologies (e.g., social sensing) and future challenges for researchers (e.g., making the communication between virtual humans and participants smoother). PMID:26157414

  1. Purinergic neuromuscular transmission in the gastrointestinal tract; functional basis for future clinical and pharmacological studies

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Marcel; Clavé, Pere; Accarino, Anna; Gallego, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Nerve-mediated relaxation is necessary for the correct accomplishment of gastrointestinal (GI) motility. In the GI tract, NO and a purine are probably released by the same inhibitory motor neuron as inhibitory co-transmitters. The P2Y1 receptor has been recently identified as the receptor responsible for purinergic smooth muscle hyperpolarization and relaxation in the human gut. This finding has been confirmed in P2Y1-deficient mice where purinergic neurotransmission is absent and transit time impaired. However, the mechanisms responsible for nerve-mediated relaxation, including the identification of the purinergic neurotransmitter(s) itself, are still debatable. Possibly different mechanisms of nerve-mediated relaxation are present in the GI tract. Functional demonstration of purinergic neuromuscular transmission has not been correlated with structural studies. Labelling of purinergic neurons is still experimental and is not performed in routine pathology studies from human samples, even when possible neuromuscular impairment is suspected. Accordingly, the contribution of purinergic neurotransmission in neuromuscular diseases affecting GI motility is not known. In this review, we have focused on the physiological mechanisms responsible for nerve-mediated purinergic relaxation providing the functional basis for possible future clinical and pharmacological studies on GI motility targeting purine receptors. PMID:24910216

  2. Dynamical Studies Using Coherent X-rays: A Short Review and Prospects for the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Sunil K.

    2010-07-07

    The use of coherent x-ray beams for studying the structure and dynamics of both surfaces and bulk materials is rapidly increasing due to the advent of new high-brilliance x-ray sources. The field of x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) has steadily grown from demonstration experiments carried out some 15 years ago, to studies addressing real problems at the forefront of condensed matter and has attracted increasing numbers of users. the principal applications have been in the fields of soft condensed matter and nanoscience, but extension to the study of slow fluctuations in magnetic systems will undoubtedly grow. This talk will attempt to survey some of the recent applications at the limits of currently existing instruments, and present a wish list for XPCS-capable beamlines of the future for attacking certain important problems in condensed matter and materials science. This talk will also present a new formulation of the scattering of partially coherent radiation by condensed matter, which will enable us to go beyond the simple, kinematic approximation that is usually made, but which breaks down for grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering geometry.

  3. Creating the Future of Evidence-Based Nutrition Recommendations: Case Studies from Lipid Research.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Rubin, Kristin H; Fritsche, Kevin L; Psota, Tricia L; Liska, DeAnn J; Harris, William S; Montain, Scott J; Lyle, Barbara J

    2016-07-01

    Strategic translational research is designed to address research gaps that answer specific guidance questions. It provides translational value with respect to nutrition guidance and regulatory and public policy. The relevance and the quality of evidence both matter in translational research. For example, design decisions regarding population, intervention, comparator, and outcome criteria affect whether or not high-quality studies are considered relevant to specific guidance questions and are therefore included as evidence within the context of systematic review frameworks used by authoritative food and health organizations. The process used in systematic reviews, developed by the USDA for its Nutrition Evidence Library, is described. An eating pattern and cardiovascular disease (CVD) evidence review is provided as an example, and factors that differentiated the studies considered relevant and included in that evidence base from those that were excluded are noted. Case studies on ω-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) and industrial trans-FAs illustrate key factors vital to relevance and translational impact, including choice of a relevant population (e.g., healthy, at risk, or diseased subjects; general population or high-performance soldiers); dose and form of the intervention (e.g., food or supplement); use of relevant comparators (e.g., technically feasible and realistic); and measures for both exposure and outcomes (e.g., inflammatory markers or CVD endpoints). Specific recommendations are provided to help increase the impact of nutrition research on future dietary guidance, policy, and regulatory issues, particularly in the area of lipids. PMID:27422509

  4. A Realistically Perturbed Atmosphere and Ocean De-Aliasing Model for Future Gravity Mission Simulation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobslaw, Henryk; Forootan, Ehsan; Bergmann-Wolf, Inga; Neumayer, Karl-Hans; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Kusche, Jürgen; Flechtner, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Recently completed performance studies of future gravity mission concepts arrived at sometimes contradicting conclusions about the importance of non-tidal aliasing errors that remain in the finally retrieved gravity field time-series. In those studies, typically a fraction of the differences between two different models of atmosphere and ocean mass variability determined the magnitude of the aliasing errors. Since differences among arbitrary pairs of the numerical models available might lead to widely different aliasing errors and thus conclusions regarding limiting error contributors of a candidate mission, we present here for the first time a version of a realistically perturbed de-aliasing model that is consistent with the updated ESA Earth System Model for gravity mission simulation studies (Dobslaw et al., 2015). The error model is available over the whole 12-year period of the ESA ESM and consists of two parts: (i) a component containing signals from physical processes that are intentionally omitted from de-aliasing models, as for a example, variations in global eustatic sea-level; and (ii) a series of true errors that consist of in total five different components with realistically re-scaled variability at both small and large spatial scales for different frequency bands ranging from sub-daily to sub-monthly periods. Based on a multi-model ensemble of atmosphere and ocean mass variability available to us for the year 2006, we will demonstrate that our re-scaled true errors have plausible magnitudes and correlation characteristics in all frequency bands considered. The realism of the selected scaling coefficients for periods between 1 and 30 days is tested further by means of a variance component estimation based on the constrained daily GRACE solution series ITSG-GRACE2014. Initial full-scale simulation experiments are used to re-assess the relative importance of non-tidal de-aliasing errors for the GRACE-FO mission, which might be subsequently expanded to

  5. Experimental studies on lung carcinogenesis and their relationship to future research on radiation-induced lung cancer in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, F.T.

    1991-03-01

    The usefulness of experimental systems for studying human lung carcinogenesis lies in the ease of studying components of a total problem. As an example, the main thrust of attack on possible synergistic interactions between radiation, cigarette smoke, and other irritants must be by means of research on animals. Because animals can be serially sacrificed, a systematic search can be made for progressive lung changes, thereby improving our understanding of carcinogenesis. The mechanisms of radiation-induced carcinogenesis have not yet been delineated, but modern concepts of molecular and cellular biology and of radiation dosimetry are being increasingly applied to both in vivo and in vitro exposure to determine the mechanisms of radiation-induced carcinogenesis, to elucidate human data, and to aid in extrapolating experimental animal data to human exposures. In addition, biologically based mathematical models of carcinogenesis are being developed to describe the nature of the events leading to malignancy; they are also an essential part of a rational approach to quantitative cancer risk assessment. This paper summarizes recent experimental and modeling data on radon-induced lung cancer and includes the confounding effects of cigarette-smoke exposures. The applicability of these data to understanding human exposures is emphasized, and areas of future research on human radiation-induced carcinogenesis are discussed. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Final report study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves NPR-2, California

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) in Kern County, California. The report that follows is the Phase II Final Report for that study. Additional details are provided in the Addendum (the Phase I Property Description and Fact Finding Report). The key property elements that positively affect the estimated value of NPR-2 include the following: royalty income from producing oil and gas leases, rental income from non-producing oil and gas leases, income from grazing or leasing of grazing rights, potential income from oil and gas leasing on exploratory (or nonprospective) acreage, potential value of trading surface real estate as ranch land for sheep grazing (10,044 acres), and town lots for residential or commercial development (16.7 acres). Key elements that negatively impact the estimated value include: environmental assessment costs, operating budgets, and lease sale expenses.

  7. Can additional urban development have major impacts on streamflow of a peri-urban catchment? A case study from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Carla; Walsh, Rory; Nunes, João; Steenhuis, Tammo; de Lima, João; Coelho, Celeste; Ferreira, António

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that urban development brings about changes in hydrological response. Relatively little, however, is known about impacts on streamflow during urban development in the Mediterranean climate. This paper examines changes in streamflow resulting from the construction of an enterprise park, a major road and apartment blocks in a small partially urbanized peri-urban catchment (6.2 km2) in central Portugal. These developments led to an increase in urban area from 32% to 40% over a five-year period (hydrological years 2008/09-2012/13). In the initial two-year period minor land-use changes increased impervious surfaces from 12.8% to 13.2%. The subsequent three-year period led to a further 17.2% increase in impervious area. Streamflow was recorded by a V-notch weir at the catchment outlet. Rainfall was recorded at a weather station 0.5km north of the catchment, and by five tipping-bucket raingauges installed in January 2011 within the study catchment. Annual runoff and storm runoff coefficients ranged from 14% to 21% and 9% to 14%, respectively, recorded in 2011/12 and 2012/13. Although these differences in runoff were caused in part by variation in rainfall, the comparison between 2009/10 (pre-) and 2012/13 (post-additional urban development), with broadly similar rainfall (887mm vs 947mm, respectively) and evapotranspiration (740mm vs 746mm), showed a 43% increase in storm runoff (from 90mm to 129mm), resulting from additional overland flow generated largely by the 4.4% increase in impervious surfaces. The additional urban development also led to changes in hydrograph parameters. The increase in storm runoff was not progressive over the study period, but regression lines of storm runoff against rainstorm parameters exhibited higher vertical positions in 2012/13 than 2008/09. Increasing peak flows, however, were more progressive over the study period, with annual regression lines displaying higher vertical positions, but with a clear distance between pre

  8. Conceptualizing Curriculum for the Future in a Changing Society. Studies in Educational Administration Number 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwukah, Tony G.

    This paper is a proposal for a curriculum of the future in the changing society of Nigeria. A deliberate effort is made to prescribe and predict elements essential for a responsive and dynamic futuristic curriculum, without necessarily describing the specific details of such a curriculum. Although predicting the shape of education in the future is…

  9. Romantic ideals, mate preferences, and anticipation of future difficulties in marital life: a comparative study of young adults in India and America

    PubMed Central

    Bejanyan, Kathrine; Marshall, Tara C.; Ferenczi, Nelli

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have established that Indians tend to be greater in collectivism and gender role traditionalism than Americans. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether these differences explained further cultural differences in romantic beliefs, traditional mate preferences, and anticipation of future difficulties in marital life. Results revealed that Indians reported greater collectivism than Americans and, in turn, held stronger romantic beliefs. Additionally, Indians' greater collectivism and endorsement of more traditional gender roles in part predicted their preferences for a marital partner possessing traditional characteristics, and fully accounted for their heightened concerns about encountering future difficulties in marital life. These results shed light on the processes underlying cultural differences in relationship attitudes and preferences, and point to culture-specific therapies to enhance marital functioning. PMID:25520681

  10. Study on the Reutilization of Clear Fracturing Flowback Fluids in Surfactant Flooding with Additives for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Caili; Wang, Kai; Liu, Yifei; Fang, Jichao; Zhao, Mingwei

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids composed of viscoelastic surfactants (VES) with additives in surfactant flooding, making the process more efficient and cost-effective. The clear fracturing flowback fluids were used as surfactant flooding system with the addition of α-olefin sulfonate (AOS) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The interfacial activity, emulsification activity and oil recovery capability of the recycling system were studied. The interfacial tension (IFT) between recycling system and oil can be reduced by 2 orders of magnitude to 10−3 mN/m, which satisfies the basic demand of surfactant flooding. The oil can be emulsified and dispersed more easily due to the synergetic effect of VES and AOS. The oil-wet surface of quartz can be easily converted to water-wet through adsorption of surfactants (VES/AOS) on the surface. Thirteen core plug flooding tests were conducted to investigate the effects of AOS concentrations, slug sizes and slug types of the recycling system on the incremental oil recovery. The investigations prove that reclaiming clear fracturing flowback fluids after fracturing operation and reuse it in surfactant flooding might have less impact on environment and be more economical. PMID:25409507

  11. A DFT study of addition reaction between fragment ion (CH₂) units and fullerene (C₆₀) molecule.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Irineo Pedro; Vergara, Jaime; Pérez-Manríquez, Liliana; Salcedo, Roberto

    2011-05-01

    The theoretical study of the interaction between CH(2) and fullerene (C(60)) suggests the existence of an addition reaction mechanism; this feature is studied by applying an analysis of electronic properties. Several different effects are evident in this interaction as a consequence of the particular electronic transfer which occurs during the procedure. The addition or insertion of the methylene group results in a process, where the inclusion of CH(2) into a fullerene bond produces the formation of several geometric deformations. A simulation of these procedures was carried out, taking advantage of the dynamic semi-classical Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Dynamic aspects were analyzed at different speeds, for the interaction between the CH(2) group and the two bonds: CC (6, 6) and CC (6, 5) respectively on the fullerene (C(60)) rings. All calculations which involved electrons employed DFT as well as exchange and functional correlation. The results indicate a tendency for the CH(2) fragment to attack the CC (6, 5) bond. PMID:20658255

  12. Experimental study on the characteristics of ventilated cavitation around an underwater navigating body influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, ChenXing; Li, FengChen

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a new control strategy for turbulent drag reduction involving ventilated cavitation is proposed. The configurational and hydrodynamic characteristics of ventilated cavities influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives were experimentally studied in water tunnel. The test model was fixed in the water tunnel by a strut in the aft-part. Aqueous solutions of CTAC/NaSal (cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride/sodium salicylate) with weight concentrations of 100, 200, 400 and 600 ppm (part per million), respectively, were injected into the ventilated air cavity from the edge of the cavitator with accurate control by an injection pump. The cavity configurations were recorded by a high-speed CCD camera. The hydrodynamic characteristics of the test model were measured by a six-component balance. Experimental results show that, within the presently tested cases, the lengths of cavity influenced by drag-reducing solution are smaller than normal condition (ventilated cavity) in water, but the asymmetry of the cavity is improved. The drag resisted by the test model is reduced dramatically (the maximum drag reduction can reach to 80%) and the re-entrant jet is more complex after the CTAC solution is injected into the cavity. Turbulent drag-reducing additives have the potential in enhancement of supercavitating asymmetry and further drag reduction.

  13. Particle and energy transport studies on TFTR and implications for helium ash in future fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Bell, R.E.; Grek, B.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Particle and energy transport in tokamak plasmas have long been subjects of vigorous investigation. Present-day measurement techniques permit radially resolved studies of the transport of electron perturbations, low- and high-Z impurities, and energy. In addition, developments in transport theory provide tools that can be brought to bear on transport issues. Here, we examine local particle transport measurements of electrons, fully-stripped thermal helium, and helium-like iron in balanced-injection L-mode and enhanced confinement deuterium plasmas on TFTR of the same plasma current, toroidal field, and auxiliary heating power. He[sup 2[plus

  14. Meeting report: suggestions for studies on future health risks following the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Inamasu, Tomoko; Schonfeld, Sara J; Abe, Masafumi; Bidstrup, Pernille E; Deltour, Isabelle; Ishida, Takashi; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Ohira, Tetsuya; Ohto, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Schüz, Joachim; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    In October 2013, the Radiation Medical Science Center of the Fukushima Medical University and the Section of Environment and Radiation of the International Agency for Research on Cancer held a joint workshop in Fukushima, Japan to discuss opportunities and challenges for long-term studies of the health effects following the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. This report describes four key areas of discussion -- thyroid screening, dosimetry, mental health, and non-radiation risk factors -- and summarizes recommendations resulting from the workshop. Four recommendations given at the workshop were to: 1) build-up a population-based cancer registry for long-term monitoring of the cancer burden in the prefecture; 2) enable future linkage of data from the various independent activities, particularly those related to dose reconstruction and health status ascertainment; 3) establish long-term observational studies with repeated measurements of lifestyle and behavioural factors to disentangle radiation and non-radiation factors; and 4) implement primary prevention strategies targeted for populations affected by natural disasters, including measures to better understand and address health risk concerns in the affected population. The workshop concluded that coordinated data collection between researchers from different institutes and disciplines can both reduce the burden on the population and facilitate efforts to examine the inter-relationships between the many factors at play. PMID:25889395

  15. New opportunities for future small civil turbine engines - Overviewing the GATE studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strack, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of four independent studies that explore the opportunities for future General Aviation Turbine Engines (GATE) in the 150-1000 SHP class. Detroit Diesel Allison, Garrett/AiResearch, Teledyne CAE, and Williams Research participated along with several airframers. These studies forecasted the potential impact of advanced technology turbine engines in the post-1988 market, identified important aircraft and missions, desirable engine sizes, engine performance and cost goals. Parametric evaluations of various engine cycles, configurations, design features, and advanced technology elements defined baseline conceptual engines for each of the important missions identified by the market analysis. Both fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft, and turboshaft, turboprop, and turbofan engines were considered. All four companies predicted sizable performance gains (e.g., 20% SFC decrease), and three predicted large engine cost reductions of sufficient magnitude to challenge the reciprocating engine in the 300-500 SHP class. Key technology areas were recommended for NASA support in order to realize these improvements.

  16. [Study on the spectra of Au/CeO2 catalysts modified by La2O3 additive].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; He, Zhen-Liang; Li, Jin-Wei; Zhan, Ying-Ying; Lin, Xing-Yi; Zheng, Qi

    2008-04-01

    For Au-ceria catalysts prepared by deposition-precipitation method, the catalytic performance of water gas shift reaction was studied with different La loadings. In the complete doping range, ceria retains with its cubic fluorite structures. XRD, HRTEM and UV-Vis-DRS, studies showed that La doping can improve the activity of Au-ceria catalyst by stabilizing ceria and modifying its morphology. In addition, the test of catalyst stability evaluation also proved, that a better stability performance of Au-ceria catalyst can be realized by appropriate La doping. The Au/CL5.0 sample with 5 at % La doping showed the best performance in WGS reaction. PMID:18619331

  17. Feasibility Study on 3-D Printing of Metallic Structural Materials with Robotized Laser-Based Metal Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yaoyu; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2016-05-01

    Metallic structural materials continue to open new avenues in achieving exotic mechanical properties that are naturally unavailable. They hold great potential in developing novel products in diverse industries such as the automotive, aerospace, biomedical, oil and gas, and defense. Currently, the use of metallic structural materials in industry is still limited because of difficulties in their manufacturing. This article studied the feasibility of printing metallic structural materials with robotized laser-based metal additive manufacturing (RLMAM). In this study, two metallic structural materials characterized by an enlarged positive Poisson's ratio and a negative Poisson's ratio were designed and simulated, respectively. An RLMAM system developed at the Research Center for Advanced Manufacturing of Southern Methodist University was used to print them. The results of the tensile tests indicated that the printed samples successfully achieved the corresponding mechanical properties.

  18. Feasibility Study on 3-D Printing of Metallic Structural Materials with Robotized Laser-Based Metal Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yaoyu; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2016-07-01

    Metallic structural materials continue to open new avenues in achieving exotic mechanical properties that are naturally unavailable. They hold great potential in developing novel products in diverse industries such as the automotive, aerospace, biomedical, oil and gas, and defense. Currently, the use of metallic structural materials in industry is still limited because of difficulties in their manufacturing. This article studied the feasibility of printing metallic structural materials with robotized laser-based metal additive manufacturing (RLMAM). In this study, two metallic structural materials characterized by an enlarged positive Poisson's ratio and a negative Poisson's ratio were designed and simulated, respectively. An RLMAM system developed at the Research Center for Advanced Manufacturing of Southern Methodist University was used to print them. The results of the tensile tests indicated that the printed samples successfully achieved the corresponding mechanical properties.

  19. Hazard and risk assessment of a nanoparticulate cerium oxide-based diesel fuel additive - a case study.

    PubMed

    Park, Barry; Donaldson, Kenneth; Duffin, Rodger; Tran, Lang; Kelly, Frank; Mudway, Ian; Morin, Jean-Paul; Guest, Robert; Jenkinson, Peter; Samaras, Zissis; Giannouli, Myrsini; Kouridis, Haris; Martin, Patricia

    2008-04-01

    Envirox is a scientifically and commercially proven diesel fuel combustion catalyst based on nanoparticulate cerium oxide and has been demonstrated to reduce fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions (CO(2)), and particulate emissions when added to diesel at levels of 5 mg/L. Studies have confirmed the adverse effects of particulates on respiratory and cardiac health, and while the use of Envirox contributes to a reduction in the particulate content in the air, it is necessary to demonstrate that the addition of Envirox does not alter the intrinsic toxicity of particles emitted in the exhaust. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety in use of Envirox by addressing the classical risk paradigm. Hazard assessment has been addressed by examining a range of in vitro cell and cell-free endpoints to assess the toxicity of cerium oxide nanoparticles as well as particulates emitted from engines using Envirox. Exposure assessment has taken data from modeling studies and from airborne monitoring sites in London and Newcastle adjacent to routes where vehicles using Envirox passed. Data have demonstrated that for the exposure levels measured, the estimated internal dose for a referential human in a chronic exposure situation is much lower than the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) in the in vitro toxicity studies. Exposure to nano-size cerium oxide as a result of the addition of Envirox to diesel fuel at the current levels of exposure in ambient air is therefore unlikely to lead to pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation, which are the precursors for respiratory and cardiac health problems. PMID:18444008

  20. In-situ study of the influence of additives on the growth behavior of copper electrodeposits on copper single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Aiwen

    Trace organic additives are known to be essential in obtaining desired metal electrodeposits in the microelectronic industry, however, fundamental design principles for their use and a scientific understanding of their interaction during electrodeposition is lacking. In the present study we investigated electrodeposition of copper on the Cu(100) surface in air-saturated or dearated acid-sulfate plating solutions containing several combinations of chloride and additives benzotriazole (BTA) and 3-mercapto propane sulfonic acid (MPSA) under galvanostatic pulse-current conditions. The electrodeposition process was followed using in-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM images were quantitatively analyzed by pattern-recognition and scaling procedures. In the absence of additives, copper deposits grew in a layer-by-layer mode from the earliest stage of deposition. The surface consisted of smooth terraces separated by steps. The scaling analysis result was consistent with a process dominated by surface diffusion and step growth. In chloride containing solutions, square-pyramidal mounds were initiated and grew to cover the surface. Mound slope increased with deposition time with no indication of reaching a steady-state value. This growth mode was consistent with a surface diffusion mechanism. The scaling result was similar to the additive-free system, but indicated that surface diffusion was more dominant in the presence of chloride. BTA inhibited the surface and produced nucleation-limited growth at hemispheroidal centers whose height to base radius aspect ratio increased linearly with deposition time. Nucleation and growth of three-dimensional nodules started randomly across the entire surface. The nodules were smaller in size than the mounds observed without BTA. The number and density of nodules were much higher than the mounds density. The deposit growth was dominated by a roughening mechanism that can be described by the random roughening term of a stochastic model

  1. Young People Envision the Future of Their Local Area: An Explorative Study from the Wet Tropics, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnet, Iris C.; Gooch, Margaret; Hickey, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present the results from an exploratory study conducted in the Wet Tropics in Australia. The study was initiated as part of a larger research program to support the development of a water quality improvement plan. Seven schools were invited to participate in this study. Students were asked to develop visions for the future of…

  2. [Study on chromosomes aberration in wheat-rye disomics addition lines induced by the gametocidal chromosome 2C].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhong-Ping; Wang, Zhan-Bin; Xu, Xiang-Ling; Li, Ji-Lin

    2004-11-01

    In the present study,Chinese Spring-Imperial (1 R-7R) wheat-rye disomic addition lines were hybridized with Chinese Spring-2C (derived from Aegilops cylindrica) disomic addition lines. The F1 hybrids were examined by mitotic and meiotic analysis. There were observed abnormal chromosome configurations. A total of 430 F2 plants were obtained by self-pollination. Chromosomes aberrations, such as translocation, deletions, isobrachial and dicentromere chromosomes, are identified in F2 individual plants by C-banding combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Additionally, chromosome spontaneous substitutions such as 2C substituting for wheat chromosomes 2A, 2B and 2D were also observed. The rule and frequency of chromosome aberration in F2 are the following: 22 out of 430 F2 plants (5.11%) were found involving aberration rye chromosomes. Among them, 10 plants were identified as wheat-rye chromosome translocation lines comprising 2.3%. Rye chromosome deletions comprised 12 of them (2.79%). 3 isobrachial aberrations were detected (about 0.7%), too. Most of the translocation lines are with wheat centromere, only one of them is with rye centromere. Rye chromosome aberrations occurred unevenly among homoeologous groups. There were 5 in 1R, 3 in 2R, 1 in 3R, 3 in 4R, 6 in 5R and 4 in 6R. The majority of the translocation lines are terminal translocation. 54 out of the total 430 progenies are wheat deletions,and 27 are distributed in the A group, 20 in the B group and 7 in the D group respectively. Finally,we discussed the possible cause for the uneven chromosome aberration among homoeologous groups in wheat and rye as well as the effect characteristics of 2C on wheat and rye chromosome. PMID:15651680

  3. Study of sorption of two sulfonylurea type of herbicides and their additives on soils and soil components.

    PubMed

    Földényi, Rita; Tóth, Zoltán; Samu, Gyöngyi; Érsek, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of two sulfonylurea type herbicides (chlorsulfuron: (1-(2-chlorophenylsulfonyl)-3-(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)urea; tribenuron methyl: (methyl-2-[N-(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-3-(methyl-ureido)-sulfonyl]-benzoate) was studied on sand and chernozem soil adsorbents. Experimental results for solutions prepared from the pure ingredients were compared to those prepared from the appropriate formulated commercial products. At small concentrations, the extent of adsorption of the active ingredient was higher than from the formulation containing solutions. Environmental fate and effects of the forming agents are less investigated because they rarely have concentration limits recommended by authorities. In addition to the adsorption of active ingredients, therefore, the sorption behavior of a widely used additive Supragil WP (sodium diisopropyl naphthalene sulphonate) was also studied. This dispersant is an anionic forming agent applied in a lot of pesticide formulations. Using three different soils (sand, brown forest, chernozem) as adsorbents two-step isotherms were obtained. The role of the soil organic matter (OM) was significant in the adsorption mechanism because the adsorbed amounts of the dispersant correlated with the specific surface area as well as with the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soils. The sorption behavior indicates the operation of hydrophobic interaction mechanism between the soil OM and the dispersant. These results are supported by our further sorption experiments on clays, too. Zeta potential measurements seem to be promising for the interpretation of multi-step isotherms. The application of this technique proved that higher concentrations of the anionic forming agent assisted the peptization of soil organic matter (SOM) resulting in stable colloidal solution dominated by negative charges. Since the pesticides investigated are also anionic at the studied pH (7 and 8.3) the dissolved organics lead to the

  4. The Past, Present, and Future of Soils and Human Health Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, E. C.; Sauer, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    speculation and anecdotal evidence." So, the scientific study of soils and human health is a recent undertaking, but the idea that healthy soils are required for healthy people is not a particularly new one. In the modern world, we recognize that soils have a distinct influence on human health. We recognize that soils influence 1) food availability and quality (food security), 2) human contact with various chemicals, and 3) human contact with various pathogens. Soils and human health studies include investigations into nutrient supply through the food web and routes of exposure to chemicals and pathogens. However, making strong, scientific connections between soils and human health can be difficult. There are multiple variables to consider in the soil environment, meaning traditional scientific studies that seek to isolate and manipulate a single variable often do not provide meaningful data. The complete study of soils and human health also involves many different specialties such as soil scientists, toxicologists, medical professionals, anthropologists, etc. These groups do not traditionally work together on research projects, and do not always effectively communicate with one another. Climate change and how it will affect the soil environment/ecosystem going into the future is another variable we need to get a better understanding of. Future successes in soils and human health research will require effectively addressing difficult issues such as these.

  5. A Study of Future Communications Concepts and Technologies for the National Airspace System-Part III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Wichgersm Joel M.; Haynes, Brian; Roy, Aloke

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) is investigating current and anticipated wireless communications concepts and technologies that the National Airspace System (NAS) may need in the next 50 years. NASA has awarded three NASA Research Announcements (NAR) studies with the objective to determine the most promising candidate technologies for air-to-air and air-to-ground data exchange and analyze their suitability in a post-NextGen NAS environment. This paper will present progress made in the studies and describe the communications challenges and opportunities that have been identified as part of the study. NASA's NextGen Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project integrates solutions for a safe, efficient and high-capacity airspace system through joint research efforts and partnerships with other government agencies. The CTD Project is one of two within NASA's Airspace Systems Program and is managed by the NASA Ames Research Center. Research within the CTD Project is in support the 2011 NASA Strategic Plan Sub-Goal 4.1: Develop innovative solutions and advanced technologies, through a balanced research portfolio, to improve current and future air transportation. The focus of CTD is on developing capabilities in traffic flow management, dynamic airspace configuration, separation assurance, super density operations and airport surface operations. Important to its research is the development of human/automation information requirements and decisionmaking guidelines for human-human and human-machine airportal decision-making. Airborne separation, oceanic intrail climb/descent and interval management applications depend on location and intent information of surrounding aircraft. ADS-B has been proposed to provide the information exchange, but other candidates such as satellite-based receivers, broadband or airborne internet, and cellular communications are possible candidate's.

  6. Using fMRI to study reward processing in humans: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kainan S; Smith, David V; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2016-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a noninvasive tool used to probe cognitive and affective processes. Although fMRI provides indirect measures of neural activity, the advent of fMRI has allowed for1) the corroboration of significant animal findings in the human brain, and2) the expansion of models to include more common human attributes that inform behavior. In this review, we briefly consider the neural basis of the blood oxygenation level dependent signal to set up a discussion of how fMRI studies have applied it in examining cognitive models in humans and the promise of using fMRI to advance such models. Specifically, we illustrate the contribution that fMRI has made to the study of reward processing, focusing on the role of the striatum in encoding reward-related learning signals that drive anticipatory and consummatory behaviors. For instance, we discuss how fMRI can be used to link neural signals (e.g., striatal responses to rewards) to individual differences in behavior and traits. While this functional segregation approach has been constructive to our understanding of reward-related functions, many fMRI studies have also benefitted from a functional integration approach that takes into account how interconnected regions (e.g., corticostriatal circuits) contribute to reward processing. We contend that future work using fMRI will profit from using a multimodal approach, such as combining fMRI with noninvasive brain stimulation tools (e.g., transcranial electrical stimulation), that can identify causal mechanisms underlying reward processing. Consequently, advancements in implementing fMRI will promise new translational opportunities to inform our understanding of psychopathologies. PMID:26740530

  7. Prefrontal cortex activity during motor tasks with additional mental load requiring attentional demand: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Mandrick, Kevin; Derosiere, Gérard; Dray, Gérard; Coulon, Denis; Micallef, Jean-Paul; Perrey, Stéphane

    2013-07-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is suitable for investigating cerebral oxygenation changes during motor and/or mental tasks. In the present study, we investigated how an additional mental load during a motor task at two submaximal loadings affects the fNIRS-measured brain activation over the right prefrontal cortex (PFC). Fifteen healthy males performed isometric grasping contractions at 15% and 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with or without an additional mental (i.e., arithmetic) task. Mental performance, force variability, fNIRS and subjective perception responses were measured in each condition. The performance of the mental task decreased significantly while the force variability increased significantly at 30% MVC as compared to 15% MVC, suggesting that performance of dual-task required more attentional resources. PFC activity increased significantly as the effort increased from 15% to 30% MVC (p<.001). Although a larger change in the deoxyhemoglobin was observed in dual-task conditions (p=.051), PFC activity did not change significantly as compared to the motor tasks alone. In summary, participants were unable to invest more attention and effort in performing the more difficult levels in order to maintain adequate mental performance. PMID:23665138

  8. A Thrust and Impulse Study of Guanidinium Azo-Tetrazolate as an Additive for Hybrid Rocket Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, J.; Wright, A. M.; Dunn, L.; Alford, B.

    2000-03-01

    A thrust and impulse study of the hybrid rocket fuel additive Guanidinium Azo-Tetrazolate (GAT) was conducted at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) Hybrid Rocket Facility. GAT is an organic salt with a high percentage of nitrogen. GAT was mixed with the standard hybrid rocket fuel, Hydroxyl-Terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB), in the concentration of 15%, by mass. The fuel grains with the GAT additive were fired for 4 second runs with the oxygen flows of 0.05, 0.07, 0.09, and 0.12 lbm/sec. For each run average thrust, total impulse, and specific impulse were measured. Average thrust, specific impulse, and total impulse vs. oxygen flow were plotted. Similar data was collected for plain HTPB/PAPI fuels for comparison. GAT was found to increase the thrust output when it was added to the standard hybrid rocket fuel, HTPB. GAT also increased the total impulse during the run. The thrust and total impulse were increased at all flows, but especially at the lower oxygen flow rates. Specific impulse only increased during the lower oxygen flow runs, and decreased slightly for the higher oxygen flow runs.

  9. Influence of CuO and ZnO addition on the multicomponent phosphate glasses: Spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumera, Magdalena; Wacławska, Irena; Sułowska, Justyna

    2016-06-01

    The spectra of phosphate-silicate glasses from the P2O5-SiO2-K2O-MgO-CaO system modified with the addition of CuO or ZnO have been studied by means of FTIR, Raman and 31P MAS NMR spectroscopy. All glasses were synthesized by the conventional melt-quenching technique and their homogeneous chemical composition was controlled and confirmed. By using the aforementioned research techniques, the presence of structural units with various degrees of polymerization was shown in the structure of analyzed phosphate-silicate glasses: Q3, Q2, Q1 and Q0. It was found that an increase in the content of CuO or ZnO in the composition of analyzed glasses, which are introduced at the expense of decreasing amounts of CaO and MgO, has a different influence on the phospho-oxygen network. It was shown that copper ions cause its gradual polymerization, while zinc ions cause its depolymerization. At the same time, polymerization of the silico-oxygen subnetwork was found. Additionally, in the case of glasses containing increasing amounts of ZnO, a change of the role of zinc ions in the vitreous matrix was confirmed (from the modifier to a structure-forming component).

  10. Homogeneous Studies of Transiting Extrasolar Planets: Current Status and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, John

    2011-09-01

    We now know of over 500 planets orbiting stars other than our Sun. The jewels in the crown are the transiting planets, for these are the only ones whose masses and radii are measurable. They are fundamental for our understanding of the formation, evolution, structure and atmospheric properties of extrasolar planets. However, their characterization is not straightforward, requiring extremely high-precision photometry and spectroscopy as well as input from theoretical stellar models. I summarize the motivation and current status of a project to measure the physical properties of all known transiting planetary systems using homogeneous techniques (Southworth 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 in preparation). Careful attention is paid to the treatment of limb darkening, contaminating light, correlated noise, numerical integration, orbital eccentricity and orientation, systematic errors from theoretical stellar models, and empirical constraints. Complete error budgets are calculated for each system and can be used to determine which type of observation would be most useful for improving the parameter measurements. Known correlations between the orbital periods, masses, surface gravities, and equilibrium temperatures of transiting planets can be explored more safely due to the homogeneity of the properties. I give a sneak preview of Homogeneous Studies Paper 4, which includes the properties of thirty transiting planetary systems observed by the CoRoT, Kepler and Deep Impact space missions. Future opportunities are discussed, plus remaining problems with our understanding of transiting planets. I acknowledge funding from the UK STFC in the form of an Advanced Fellowship.

  11. High-throughput sorting of mosquito larvae for laboratory studies and for future vector control interventions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mosquito transgenesis offers new promises for the genetic control of vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. Genetic control strategies require the release of large number of male mosquitoes into field populations, whether they are based on the use of sterile males (sterile insect technique, SIT) or on introducing genetic traits conferring refractoriness to disease transmission (population replacement). However, the current absence of high-throughput techniques for sorting different mosquito populations impairs the application of these control measures. Methods A method was developed to generate large mosquito populations of the desired sex and genotype. This method combines flow cytometry and the use of Anopheles gambiae transgenic lines that differentially express fluorescent markers in males and females. Results Fluorescence-assisted sorting allowed single-step isolation of homozygous transgenic mosquitoes from a mixed population. This method was also used to select wild-type males only with high efficiency and accuracy, a highly desirable tool for genetic control strategies where the release of transgenic individuals may be problematic. Importantly, sorted males showed normal mating ability compared to their unsorted brothers. Conclusions The developed method will greatly facilitate both laboratory studies of mosquito vectorial capacity requiring high-throughput approaches and future field interventions in the fight against infectious disease vectors. PMID:22929810

  12. multiplex gas chromatography: A novel analytical technique for future planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentin, J. R.; Carle, G. C.; Phillips, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    Determination of molecular species comprised of the biogenic elements in the atmospheres of planets and moons of the solar system is one the foremost requirements of the exobiologist studying chemical evolution and the origin of life. Multiplex chromatography is a technique where many samples are pseudo-randomly introduced to the chromatograph without regard to elution of preceding components. The resulting data are then reduced using mathematical techniques such as cross correlation or Fourier Transforms. To demonstrate the utility of this technique for future solar system exploration, chemical modulators were developed. Several advantages were realized from this technique in combination with these modulators: improvement in detection limits of several orders of magnitude, improvement in the analysis of complex mixtures by selectively modulating some of the components present in the sample, increase in the number of analyses that can be conducted in a given period of time, and reduction in the amount of expendables needed to run an analysis. In order to apply this technique in a real application, methane in ambient air was monitored continuously over a period of one week. By using ambient air as its own carrier all expendables beyond power were eliminated.

  13. Urinary biomonitoring of phosphate flame retardants: levels in California adults and recommendations for future studies.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Robin E; Van den Eede, Nele; Covaci, Adrian; Perovich, Laura J; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2014-12-01

    Phosphate flame retardants (PFRs) are abundant and found at the highest concentrations relative to other flame retardant chemicals in house dust; however, little is known about the biological levels of PFRs and their relationship with house dust concentrations. These relationships provide insight into major exposure pathways and potential health risks. We analyzed urine samples from 16 California residents in 2011 for 6 chlorinated and nonchlorinated dialkyl or diaryl phosphates (DAPs), the expected major metabolites of the most prominent PFRs, and qualitatively screened for 18 other metabolites predicted from in vitro studies. We detected all 6 DAPs within the range of previously reported levels, although very few comparisons are available. We found weakly positive nonsignificant correlations between urine and dust concentrations and maxima urine corresponding to maxima dust for the pairs bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP)-tris(1,3-dichloro-isopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (BCEP)-tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP). Metabolite levels of PFRs were correlated for many PFR combinations, suggesting they commonly co-occur. As far as we know, this is the first study to measure these 6 DAP metabolites simultaneously and to detect other PFR metabolites in US urine samples. We recommend biomonitoring studies include these 6 DAPs as well as several additional compounds detected through qualitative screening and previous ADME studies. PFRs represent a class of poorly studied commercial chemicals with widespread exposure and raise concerns for health effects including carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity. PMID:25388620

  14. Urinary Biomonitoring of Phosphate Flame Retardants: Levels in California Adults and Recommendations for Future Studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate flame retardants (PFRs) are abundant and found at the highest concentrations relative to other flame retardant chemicals in house dust; however, little is known about the biological levels of PFRs and their relationship with house dust concentrations. These relationships provide insight into major exposure pathways and potential health risks. We analyzed urine samples from 16 California residents in 2011 for 6 chlorinated and nonchlorinated dialkyl or diaryl phosphates (DAPs), the expected major metabolites of the most prominent PFRs, and qualitatively screened for 18 other metabolites predicted from in vitro studies. We detected all 6 DAPs within the range of previously reported levels, although very few comparisons are available. We found weakly positive nonsignificant correlations between urine and dust concentrations and maxima urine corresponding to maxima dust for the pairs bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP)-tris(1,3-dichloro-isopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (BCEP)-tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP). Metabolite levels of PFRs were correlated for many PFR combinations, suggesting they commonly co-occur. As far as we know, this is the first study to measure these 6 DAP metabolites simultaneously and to detect other PFR metabolites in US urine samples. We recommend biomonitoring studies include these 6 DAPs as well as several additional compounds detected through qualitative screening and previous ADME studies. PFRs represent a class of poorly studied commercial chemicals with widespread exposure and raise concerns for health effects including carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity. PMID:25388620

  15. A Computerized Simulation Game for Studying the Future of American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debenham, Jerry

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of SAFE (Simulating Alternative Futures in Education), a computerized classroom game which synthesizes the growing body of futurist techniques and literature into a meaningful learning experience for students of social change. (Author)

  16. Study of flint properties for artefacts raw material sources detection in the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarina, Liga; Seglins, Valdis

    2014-05-01

    to distinguish characteristics and their sets, which inhere to the samples of one origin. The obtained results can be represented as images that further may be processed with the appropriate software. Our experience indicates that after such treatment, using the RGB colour distribution system, the data can be statistically analysed and allow to separate the artefacts by their distinct origin, which would be studied detail in the future.

  17. Linearity and additivity in cluster-induced sputtering: A molecular-dynamics study of van der Waals bonded systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Christian; Urbassek, Herbert M.; Johnson, Robert E.

    2004-10-15

    Using molecular-dynamics simulation, we study sputtering of a condensed-gas solid induced by the impact of atomic clusters with sizes 1{<=}n{<=}10{sup 4}. Above a nonlinear onset regime, we find a linear increase of the sputter yield Y with the total energy E of the bombarding cluster. The fitting coefficients in the linear regime depend only on the cluster size n such that for fixed bombardment energy, sputtering decreases with increasing cluster size n. We find that to a good approximation the sputter yield in this regime obeys an additivity rule in cluster size n such that doubling the cluster size at the same cluster velocity amounts to doubling the sputter yield. The sputter-limiting energy {epsilon}{sub s} is introduced which separates erosion ({epsilon}>{epsilon}{sub s}) from growth ({epsilon}<{epsilon}{sub s}) under cluster impact.

  18. Study on the performance of polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Binbin; Zeng, Zhong; Ren, Qinyu; Chen, Yang; Liang, Mei; Zou, Huawei

    2016-09-01

    A series of block type polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers (PCs) with different molecular architectures were synthesized with macromonomer butenyl alkylene polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene ether (BAPP) and acrylic acid (AA) by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Fourier-Transformed Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were applied to investigate the PCs' molecular structure. The dispersion capacity of the PCs in cement were also measured, and the results showed that the polycarboxylic dispersing agents prepared by this method were suitable for portlant cement. It was found that the PCs could affect the hydration process, which was performed through retarding the generation of ettringite in the hydrated product. Our studies with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compressive strength measurement of hydrated production were all supporting this conclusion.

  19. Study on Antiwear and Repairing Performances about Mass of Nano-copper Lubricating Additives to 45 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. L.; Yin, Y. L.; Zhang, G. N.; Wang, W. Y.; Zhao, K. K.

    Nano-copper usually serve for lubricating additives in tribology field. The antiwear and reducing friction performances both basic lubrication oil and basic lubrication oil with nano-copper in different mass were tested by friction wear test machine. The morphologies and the main elements of worn surfaces were analyzed by SEM. The results indicated that nano-copper could improve tribology performances of basic lubrication oil. Comparing with base lubrication oil, the mass is 0.15% of nano-copper, the friction coefficient and the worn trace width can be reduced 34% and 32% respectively. Nano-copper can form self-repairing film in lubrication oil which availably separates the friction materials in friction process. Therefore, nano-copper has wonderful antiwear, reducing friction and self-repairing performances. And the function mechanism of Cu nanoparticles is studied in the paper.

  20. Evidence of Rapidly Warming Rivers in the UK from an Extensive Additive Modelling Study at the National Scale Using R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, G. L.

    2011-12-01

    River water temperature data exhibit non-linear behaviour over the past 50 or so years. Standard techniques for identifying and quantifying trends have centred around the use of linear regression and Mann-Kendall and Thiel-Sen procedures. Observational data from UK rivers suggest that temperatures are far more variable then assumed under these statistical models. In a national-scale assessment of the response of riverine systems to global climatic change, an additive model framework was employed to model patterns in water temperatures from a large database of temporal observational data. Models were developed using R, which allowed for the deployment of cutting-edge additive modelling techniques to describe trends at 2773 sites across England and Wales, UK. At a subset of sites, additive models were used to model long-term trends, trends within seasons and the long-term variation in the seasonal pattern of water temperatures. Changes in water temperature have important consequences for aquatic ecology, with some species being particularly sensitive even to small shifts in temperature during some or all of their lifecycle. While there are many studies reporting increasing regional and global air temperatures, evidence for changes in river water temperature has thus far been site specific and/or from sites heavily influenced by human activities that could themselves lead to warming. Here I present selected results from a national-scale assessment of changing river water temperatures, covering the whole of England and Wales, comprising data from 2,773 locations. Positive trends in water temperature were observed at 86% of sites. At a subset of sites, seasonal trend models were developed, which showed that 90% of locations demonstrated statistically significant increases in water temperature during Autumn and Winter periods. Multivariate smoothers, that allow for within-year and longer-term trend interactions in time, suggest that periods of warmer waters now extend

  1. Pollutant emissions and energy efficiency of Chinese gasifier cooking stoves and implications for future intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ellison M; Shan, Ming; Yang, Xudong; Li, Jiarong; Baumgartner, Jill

    2014-06-01

    Household air pollution from solid fuel combustion is the leading environmental health risk factor globally. In China, almost half of all homes use solid fuel to meet their household energy demands. Gasifier cookstoves offer a potentially affordable, efficient, and low-polluting alternative to current solid fuel combustion technology, but pollutant emissions and energy efficiency performance of this class of stoves are poorly characterized. In this study, four Chinese gasifier cookstoves were evaluated for their pollutant emissions and efficiency using the internationally recognized water boiling test (WBT), version 4.1.2. WBT performance indicators included PM2.5, CO, and CO2 emissions and overall thermal efficiency. Laboratory investigation also included evaluation of pollutant emissions (PM2.5 and CO) under stove operating conditions designed to simulate common Chinese cooking practices. High power average overall thermal efficiencies ranged from 22 to 33%. High power average PM2.5 emissions ranged from 120 to 430 mg/MJ of useful energy, and CO emissions ranged from 1 to 30 g/MJ of useful energy. Compared with several widely disseminated "improved" cookstoves selected from the literature, on average, the four Chinese gasifier cookstoves had lower PM2.5 emissions and higher CO emissions. The recent International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Workshop Agreement on tiered cookstove ranking was developed to help classify stove performance and identify the best-performing stoves. The results from this study highlight potential ways to further improve this approach. Medium power stove operation emitted nearly twice as much PM2.5 as was emitted during high power stove operation, and the lighting phase of a cooking event contributed 45% and 34% of total PM2.5 emissions (combined lighting and cooking). Future approaches to laboratory-based testing of advanced cookstoves could improve to include greater differentiation between different modes of

  2. Alcohol Challenge Responses Predict Future Alcohol Use Disorder Symptoms: A 6-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    King, Andrea C.; McNamara, Patrick J.; Hasin, Deborah S.; Cao, Dingcai

    2014-01-01

    Background Propensity for alcohol misuse may be linked to an individuals’ response to alcohol. This study examined the role of alcohol response phenotypes to future drinking problems. Methods One hundred four young heavy social drinkers participated in a within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled laboratory alcohol challenge study with 6-year follow-up. Participants were examined for subjective responses before and after receiving an intoxicating dose of alcohol (.8 g/kg) or a placebo beverage, given in random order. Follow-up was conducted in 5 waves over 6 years after the sessions to assess drinking behaviors and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms. Retention was high with 98% (509 of 520) of possible follow-ups completed. Results Greater sensitivity to alcohol, in terms of stimulation and rewarding effects (like, want more) and lower sensitivity to alcohol sedation predicted greater number of AUD symptoms through 6 years of follow-up. Cluster analyses revealed that for half the sample, increasing levels of stimulation and liking were predictors of more AUD symptoms with the other half divided between those showing like and want more and want more alone as significant predictors. Conclusions The findings extend previous findings and offer new empirical insights into the propensity for excessive drinking and alcohol problems. Heightened alcohol stimulation and reward sensitivity robustly predicted more alcohol use disorder symptoms over time associated with greater binge-drinking frequency. These drinking problems were maintained and progressed as these participants were entering their third decade of life, a developmental interval when continued alcohol misuse becomes more deviant. PMID:24094754

  3. Quantification of Carbon Nanotubes in Environmental Matrices: Current Capabilities, Case Studies, and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Elijah J; Flores-Cervantes, D Xanat; Bucheli, Thomas D; Elliott, Lindsay C C; Fagan, Jeffrey A; Gogos, Alexander; Hanna, Shannon; Kägi, Ralf; Mansfield, Elisabeth; Bustos, Antonio R Montoro; Plata, Desiree L; Reipa, Vytas; Westerhoff, Paul; Winchester, Michael R

    2016-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have numerous exciting potential applications and some that have reached commercialization. As such, quantitative measurements of CNTs in key environmental matrices (water, soil, sediment, and biological tissues) are needed to address concerns about their potential environmental and human health risks and to inform application development. However, standard methods for CNT quantification are not yet available. We systematically and critically review each component of the current methods for CNT quantification including CNT extraction approaches, potential biases, limits of detection, and potential for standardization. This review reveals that many of the techniques with the lowest detection limits require uncommon equipment or expertise, and thus, they are not frequently accessible. Additionally, changes to the CNTs (e.g., agglomeration) after environmental release and matrix effects can cause biases for many of the techniques, and biasing factors vary among the techniques. Five case studies are provided to illustrate how to use this information to inform responses to real-world scenarios such as monitoring potential CNT discharge into a river or ecotoxicity testing by a testing laboratory. Overall, substantial progress has been made in improving CNT quantification during the past ten years, but additional work is needed for standardization, development of extraction techniques from complex matrices, and multimethod comparisons of standard samples to reveal the comparability of techniques. PMID:27050152

  4. Oxidative modification of brain proteins in Alzheimer's disease: perspective on future studies based on results of redox proteomics studies.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Rukhsana; Butterfield, D Allan

    2013-01-01

    Aging is the major risk factor associated with neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Until now no clear understanding of the mechanisms of initiation and progression of this dementing disorder exists. Based on the studies that have been conducted so far amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), a protein found in senile plaques, one of the key pathological hallmarks of AD, has been reported to be critical in the pathogenesis of AD. Studies from our laboratory and others showed that Aβ can induce oxidative stress, which leads to oxidative modification of biomolecules, thereby diminishing the normal functions of neuronal cells and eventually leading to loss of neurons and AD. In this review paper, we summarize evidence of oxidative stress in brains of AD and mild cognitive impairment patients, as well as the results from redox proteomics studies. The investigations have provided insights into the downstream effects of oxidative modification of key brain proteins in the pathogenesis of AD. Based on these redox proteomics results, we suggest future areas of research that could be considered to better understand this devastating dementing disorder. PMID:22683528

  5. Applying Future Studies Methods to Understanding the Impact of University Information and Communication Technology Strategies on Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aczel, J. C.; Hardy, P.

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to explore the potential of certain future studies techniques to provide insight into the question of the impact of higher education information and communication technology (ICT) strategies on student learning. The approach is to consider three case studies of new universities in different countries, and to identify the main…

  6. The Future of Low-Wage Jobs: Case Studies in the Retail Industry. IEE Working Paper No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Annette

    The future of low-wage jobs is examined through a case study of firm restructuring in the retail industry. The study confirms that the retailing sector has come to be dominated by the Wal-Mart model, which emphasizes an efficient technology-driven inventory management system and a human resource approach that includes the following elements:…

  7. The Two Faces of Political Science Studies: Junior and Senior Students' Thoughts about their Education and their Future Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Kristina; af Segerstad, Helene Hard; Hult, Hakan; Dahlgren, Madeleine Abrandt; Dahlgren, Lars Owe

    2008-01-01

    The article reports on an empirical small scaled interview study among junior and senior students in the political science program in a Swedish University. The aim is to describe how students at various stages of their studies conceive of their education as well as their future professional life. Questions about their identity as students have…

  8. Tephra Studies by the Alaska Volcano Observatory: Present and Future Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waythomas, C. F.; Wallace, K. L.

    2004-12-01

    Tephra from Aleutian arc volcanoes constitutes an important volcanic hazard for Alaska, western Canada, and some parts of the conterminous U.S. where even small amounts of airborne ash may have dire consequences for jet aircraft traversing North Pacific and western U.S. air routes. Motivated by the need to address volcanic ash hazards on a regional scale, we have initiated a program of tephra studies within the auspices of the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) of the U.S. Geological Survey. A concentrated focus on tephra problems and a new laboratory facility within AVO will help facilitate studies of Quaternary age tephra at Alaskan volcanoes by providing a regional center for laboratory analyses of volcanic ash and standardized web-based reporting and archiving of tephra data. In its first year of operation, the laboratory has been engaged in research at Veniaminof, Mt. Spurr, and Augustine volcanoes, has sponsored research on Holocene tephra deposits of upper Cook Inlet, and has initiated analytical studies of tephra deposits on Adak and Kanaga Islands in the western Aleutians. The objective of these studies is to develop multiparameter techniques for characterization and correlation of tephra deposits, establish radiocarbon-controlled tephrostratigraphic frameworks, and to evaluate the magnitude and frequency of tephra-producing eruptions. In the upper Cook Inlet region of Alaska, we and our colleagues have begun developing a comprehensive record of ash fall by systematically selecting and coring shallow lakes and evaluating the tephra preserved in the lacustrine sediment. Sediment cores from these lakes contain numerous tephra deposits of Holocene age in datable context that can be correlated with proximal tephra deposits on the flanks of their source volcanoes. By combining tephra data from lacustrine deposits and natural exposures we hope to develop a robust geologic catalog of tephra deposits that will enable long-distance correlation of tephras, provide

  9. Study on visible-light-curable polycarprolactone and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate for LCD-projected maskless additive manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yih-Lin; Kao, Hao-Lun

    2015-09-01

    Photopolymers have been applied in many Additive Manufacturing (AM) systems and mostly are cured by UV light. Biodegradable photo-curable polymers are very limited and are not commercially available. DLP-projected maskless AM systems become more and more popular nowadays, but its working area is limited if the part resolution is required. For larger working envelope purpose, liquid crystal display (LCD) panel has great potentials, and LCD's resolution has been improved significantly in the past few years due to the smart phone application. Therefore, in this research, LCD panel is used to replace DLP for a maskless AM system to cure biodegradable materials, Polycarprolactone (PCL) and Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA). Due to the characteristics of LCD panel, the material systems should be sensitive and photo-polymerized in visible-light range, particularly in RGB. In this study, various percentages of visiblelight photoinitiator, Irgacure 784, in the material systems were investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were utilized to characterize cured biomaterials. Because of the use of photoinitiator, the biocompatibility of the cured materials was also concerned, and hence, MTT assay tests were performed. The preliminary tests of fabrication, using the LCD-projected maskless AM system, cured grid patterns to illustrate the feasibility. The visible-light-curable PCL and PEG-DA will be able to be adopted in tissue engineering scaffold applications in the future.

  10. Effect of addition of magnesium to local anesthetics for peribulbar block: A prospective randomized double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, R; Sharma, A; Ray, BR; Chandiran, R; Chandralekha, C; Sinha, R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Magnesium sulphate has been used along with local anesthetics in different regional blocks and found to be effective in decreasing the time of onset of the block and increasing the duration of the block. Objective: To evaluate the effect of addition of magnesium sulfate to standard local anesthetics mixture on the time for onset of the globe and lid akinesia for peribulbar block in ophthalmic surgeries. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists status I to III undergoing ophthalmic surgery under peribulbar block were included in this study. Patients were randomized into two groups. Both the groups received 4.5 ml of 2% lidocaine, 4.5 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine with150 IU hyaluronidase. Group NS received normal saline 1 ml in the peribulbar block and Group MS, magnesium sulfate 50 mg in 1 ml normal saline. The onset of akinesia, satisfactory block and complications were observed by an independent observer. Results: Demographic data was statistically similar. In the Group NS at 3, 5, 10 and 15 min after the block, complete akinesia was seen in 0, 2, 11 and 28 patients respectively. In the Group MS, at 3, 5, 10 and 15 min after the block, complete akinesia was seen in 13, 23, 27 and 28 patients respectively. Patients received magnesium sulfate showed the statistically significant rapid onset of lid and globe akinesia than the control group till 10 min (P < 0.000). None of the patients needed a supplementary block and had complications during the surgery. Conclusion: Addition of 50 mg of magnesium sulfate to the lidocaine-bupivacaine mixture for peribulbar block decreases the onset of akinesia without any obvious side effect. PMID:26955313

  11. Can homeopathy bring additional benefits to thalassemic patients on hydroxyurea therapy? Encouraging results of a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Antara; Chakrabarty, Sudipa Basu; Karmakar, Susanta Roy; Chakrabarty, Amit; Biswas, Surjyo Jyoti; Haque, Saiful; Das, Debarsi; Paul, Saili; Mandal, Biswapati; Naoual, Boujedaini; Belon, Philippe; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2010-03-01

    Several homeopathic remedies, namely, Pulsatilla Nigricans (30th potency), Ceanothus Americanus (both mother tincture and 6th potency) and Ferrum Metallicum (30th potency) selected as per similia principles were administered to 38 thalassemic patients receiving Hydroxyurea (HU) therapy for a varying period of time. Levels of serum ferritin (SF), fetal hemoglobin (HbF), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet count (PC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), white blood cell (WBC) count, bilirubin content, alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and serum total protein content of patients were determined before and 3 months after administration of the homeopathic remedies in combination with HU to evaluate additional benefits, if any, derived by the homeopathic remedies, by comparing the data with those of 38 subjects receiving only HU therapy. Preliminary results indicated that there was a significant decrease in the SF and increase in HbF levels in the combined, treated subjects. Although the changes in other parameters were not so significant, there was a significant decrease in size of spleen in most patients with spleenomegaly and improvement in general health conditions along with an increased gap between transfusions in most patients receiving the combined homeopathic treatment. The homeopathic remedies being inexpensive and without any known side-effects seem to have great potentials in bringing additional benefits to thalassemic patients; particularly in the developing world where blood transfusions suffer from inadequate screening and fall short of the stringent safety standards followed in the developed countries. Further independent studies are encouraged. PMID:18955271

  12. Current status and future perspectives of cooperative study groups for lung cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Yuko; Okamoto, Isamu; Fukuda, Haruhiko; Ohe, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Saka, Hideo; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Takayama, Koichi; Semba, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Nukiwa, Toshihiro; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2014-11-01

    The performance of scientifically and ethically valid prospective clinical trials is the only means by which to obtain reliable clinical evidence that can improve clinical practice and thus the outcome of patients with lung cancer. The efficacy of treatment for advanced lung cancer remains limited; many cooperative study groups for lung cancer have been established in Japan since 1990s, and they have completed several landmark investigator-initiated clinical trials. This review highlights eight active Japanese cooperative study groups for lung cancer and summarizes their achievements made through clinical trials. In addition to their benefits, the existence of multiple study groups for a single disease such as lung cancer presents several challenges including the provision of infrastructure to ensure the scientific integrity of trial results, the unnecessary duplication of effort and the wasting of limited resources, and the accrual and completion of large-scale phase III trials in the shortest possible time. Collaboration among Japanese cooperative groups has recently increased in order to overcome these challenges. Although institutional barriers to the performance of such large intergroup trials remain, further harmonization and collaboration among cooperative groups will be vital in allowing Japanese investigators to make further important contributions for the development of new lung cancer therapies. PMID:25453377

  13. Additions and corrections to the bibliography of geologic studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Besalt) and adjacent Areas, in Idaho, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Strowd, W.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography is an update to Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 78-6, Bibliography of Geological Studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt Group) and adjacent areas in Idaho (also known as Rockwell Hanford Operations' contractor report RHO-BWI-C-44). To keep the original document current, this additions and corrections report was prepared for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project of Rockwell Hanford Operations. This update is supplementary; therefore, references cited in the original document have not been included here. What is included are materials that have become available since the original publication and pertinent literature that had originally been overlooked. Accompany this updated bubliography are index maps that show locations of geologic studies and geochemical petrographic, remanent paleomagnetic, and radiometric age-dated sites within the Columbia River Basalt Group field within Idaho; also identified are archeological sites, test wells, mines, quarries, and other types of excavations. References on the index maps are keyed to the bibliography and cover the Spokane, Pullman, Hamilton, Grangeville, Elk City, Baker, Boise, and Jordan Valley Army Map Service two-degree quadrangles.

  14. Safety evaluation studies of SGF gum--a potential food additive from the seed of Sesbania cannabina.

    PubMed

    Li, X L; Xu, E Y; Xu, G C; Shang, R M; Wang, Y M; Chen, J; Huang, F C

    1988-01-01

    SGF gum, derived from the plant Sesbania cannabina, has properties very similar to those of guar gum. Because it is much cheaper than guar, SGF gum is of interest as a possible new food additive. It has therefore been tested in rats for acute, short-term and subchronic toxicity, teratogenicity and effects on reproductive performance, and a 1% concentration in the diet has been identified as the no-effect level. The tests complied with the guidelines issued by the Chinese authorities. Mutagenicity studies, Ames tests and a micronucleus test gave negative results, and a dominant lethal test in mice was negative at the 1% dietary level, although at 5 and 10% the results were equivocal. No adverse changes were elicited in 23 human volunteers who consumed a total of 960 mg SGF gum during a 30-day period during which they consumed, daily, 80 g ice-cream containing 0.04% SGF gum instead of the usual thickener. On the basis of applying a 100-fold safety factor to the findings in the animal studies, an acceptable human daily intake of 6 mg/kg is suggested. PMID:3209133

  15. Alignments, additivity, and signature inversion in odd-odd {sup 170}Ta : a comprehensive high-spin study.

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, A.; Hartley, D. J.; Riley, M. A.; Teal, C.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chowdhury, P.; Danchev, M.; Djongolov, M. K.; Hagemann, G. B.; Hecht, A. A.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Ma, W. C.; Mohr, W. H.; Moore, E. F.; Odegard, S. W.; Riedinger, L. L.; Sletten, G.; Tandel, S. K.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Wang, X.; Zhu, S.; Florida State Univ.; U.S. Naval Academy; Univ. of Massachusetts; Univ. of Tennessee; Niels Bohr Inst.; Mississippi State Univ.; Univ. of Oslo

    2010-01-01

    High-spin states (I?50?) of the odd-odd nucleus 170Ta have been investigated with the 124Sn(51V,5n) reaction. The resolving power of Gammasphere has allowed for the observation of eleven rotational bands (eight of which are new) and over 430 transitions ( 350 of which are new) in this nucleus. Many interband transitions have been observed such that the relative spins and excitation energies of the 11 bands have been established. This is an unusual circumstance in an odd-odd study. Configurations have been assigned to most of these bands based upon features such as alignment properties, band crossings, B(M1)/B(E2) ratios, and the additivity of Routhians. A systematic study of the frequency at which normal signature ordering occurs in the ?h9/2?i13/2 band has been performed and it is found that its trend is opposite to that observed in the ?h11/2?i13/2 bands. A possible interpretation of these trends is discussed based on a proton-neutron interaction.

  16. Mental time travel into the past and the future in healthy aged adults: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Viard, Armelle; Chételat, Gaël; Lebreton, Karine; Desgranges, Béatrice; Landeau, Brigitte; de La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

    2011-02-01

    Remembering the past and envisioning the future rely on episodic memory which enables mental time travel. Studies in young adults indicate that past and future thinking share common cognitive and neural underpinnings. No imaging data is yet available in healthy aged subjects. Using fMRI, we scanned older subjects while they remembered personal events (PP: last 12 months) or envisioned future plans (FP: next 12 months). Behaviorally, both time-periods were comparable in terms of visual search strategy, emotion, frequency of rehearsal and recency of the last evocation. However, PP were more episodic, engaged a higher state of autonoetic consciousness and mental visual images were clearer and more numerous than FP. Neuroimaging results revealed a common network of activation (posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus) reflecting the use of similar cognitive processes. Furthermore, the episodic nature of PP depended on hippocampal and visuo-spatial activations (occipital and angular gyri), while, for FP, it depended on the inferior frontal and lateral temporal gyri, involved in semantic memory retrieval. The common neural network and behavior suggests that healthy aged subjects thought about their future prospects in the past. The contribution of retrospective thinking into the future that engages the same network as the one recruited when remembering the past is discussed. Within this network, differential recruitment of specific areas highlights the episodic distinction between past and future mental time travel. PMID:21093970

  17. Prioritizing schizophrenia endophenotypes for future genetic studies: An example using data from the COGS-1 family study.

    PubMed

    Millard, Steven P; Shofer, Jane; Braff, David; Calkins, Monica; Cadenhead, Kristin; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Gur, Raquel; Gur, Ruben; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Light, Gregory A; Olincy, Ann; Nuechterlein, Keith; Seidman, Larry; Siever, Larry; Silverman, Jeremy; Stone, William S; Sprock, Joyce; Sugar, Catherine A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Tsuang, Ming; Turetsky, Bruce; Radant, Allen; Tsuang, Debby W

    2016-07-01

    Past studies describe numerous endophenotypes associated with schizophrenia (SZ), but many endophenotypes may overlap in information they provide, and few studies have investigated the utility of a multivariate index to improve discrimination between SZ and healthy community comparison subjects (CCS). We investigated 16 endophenotypes from the first phase of the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia, a large, multi-site family study, to determine whether a subset could distinguish SZ probands and CCS just as well as using all 16. Participants included 345 SZ probands and 517 CCS with a valid measure for at least one endophenotype. We used both logistic regression and random forest models to choose a subset of endophenotypes, adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, site, parent education, and the reading subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test. As a sensitivity analysis, we re-fit models using multiple imputations to determine the effect of missing values. We identified four important endophenotypes: antisaccade, Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs 3-digit version, California Verbal Learning Test, and emotion identification. The logistic regression model that used just these four endophenotypes produced essentially the same results as the model that used all 16 (84% vs. 85% accuracy). While a subset of endophenotypes cannot replace clinical diagnosis nor encompass the complexity of the disease, it can aid in the design of future endophenotypic and genetic studies by reducing study cost and subject burden, simplifying sample enrichment, and improving the statistical power of locating those genetic regions associated with schizophrenia that may be the easiest to identify initially. PMID:27132484

  18. The language of future-thought: an fMRI study of embodiment and tense processing.

    PubMed

    Gilead, Michael; Liberman, Nira; Maril, Anat

    2013-01-15

    The ability to comprehend and represent the temporal properties of an occurrence is a crucial aspect of human language and cognition. Despite advances in neurolinguistic research into semantic processing, surprisingly little is known regarding the mechanisms which support the comprehension of temporal semantics. We used fMRI to investigate neural activity associated with processing of concrete and abstract sentences across the three temporal categories: past, present, and future. Theories of embodied cognition predict that concreteness-related activity would be evident in sensory and motor areas regardless of tense. Contrastingly, relying upon construal level theory we hypothesized that: (1) the neural markers associated with concrete language processing would appear for past and present tense sentences, but not for future sentences; (2) future tense sentences would activate intention-processing areas. Consistent with our first prediction, the results showed that activation in the parahippocampal gyrus differentiated between concrete and abstract sentences for past and present tense sentences, but not for future sentences. Not consistent with our second prediction, future tense sentences did not activate most of the regions that are implicated in the processing of intentions, but only activated the vmPFC. We discuss the implications of the current results to theories of embodied cognition and tense semantics. PMID:23063843

  19. Comparing snow models under current and future climates: Uncertainties and implications for hydrological impact studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troin, Magali; Poulin, Annie; Baraer, Michel; Brissette, François

    2016-09-01

    Projected climate change effects on snow hydrology are investigated for the 2041-2060 horizon following the SRES A2 emissions scenario over three snowmelt-dominated catchments in Quebec, Canada. A 16-member ensemble of eight snow models (SM) simulations, based on the high-resolution Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM-15 km) simulations driven by two realizations of the Canadian Global Climate Model (CGCM3), is established per catchment. This study aims to compare a range of SMs in their ability at simulating snow processes under current climate, and to evaluate how they affect the assessment of the climate change-induced snow impacts at the catchment scale. The variability of snowpack response caused by the use of different models within two different SM approaches (degree-day (DD) versus mixed degree-day/energy balance (DD/EB)) is also evaluated, as well as the uncertainty of natural climate variability. The simulations cover 1961-1990 in the present period and 2041-2060 in the future period. There is a general convergence in the ensemble spread of the climate change signals on snow water equivalent at the catchment scale, with an earlier peak and a decreased magnitude in all basins. The results of four snow indicators show that most of the uncertainty arises from natural climate variability (inter-member variability of the CRCM) followed by the snow model. Both the DD and DD/EB models provide comparable assessments of the impacts of climate change on snow hydrology at the catchment scale.

  20. Particle and energy transport studies on TFTR and implications for helium ash in future fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Bell, R.E.; Grek, B.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1993-03-01

    Local thermal particle and energy transport studies of balanced-injection L-mode and Supershot deuterium plasmas with the same toroidal field, plasma current, and neutral beam heating power have been performed on TFTR. The particle transport of He{sup 2+} and electrons following a small helium gas puff and Fe{sup 24+} induced by laser ablation has been examined and compared to the local energy transport characteristics inferred from power balance analysis. All particle perturbation diffusivities are radially hollow and are similar in magnitude and shape to the effective thermal conductivities found by power balance analysis. All particle diffusivities are 1--2 orders of magnitude larger than neoclassical values, except near the magnetic axis. A reduction in the helium diffusivity D{sub He} in the Supershot as compared to the L-mode is accompanied by a similar reduction in the effective single fluid thermal conductivity {chi}fluid. Also, the helium core convective velocity V{sub He} is found to increase in the Supershot over the L-Mode for r/a < 0.5. A quasilinear model of electrostatic drift waves has been used to calculate ratios between particle and energy fluxes in the Supershot. The measured ratios of the helium and iron particle diffusivities are in good accord with predictions, as are predicted ratios of V{sub He}/D{sub He}. Modelling indicates that the similarity in magnitude and profile shape of D{sub He} and {chi}fluid has generally favorable implications for helium ash content in a future fusion reactor. The core convection found in the Supershot increases the helium concentration on axis but does not reduce the plasma reactivity significantly.

  1. Particle and energy transport studies on TFTR and implications for helium ash in future fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Bell, R.E.; Grek, B.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1993-03-01

    Local thermal particle and energy transport studies of balanced-injection L-mode and Supershot deuterium plasmas with the same toroidal field, plasma current, and neutral beam heating power have been performed on TFTR. The particle transport of He[sup 2+] and electrons following a small helium gas puff and Fe[sup 24+] induced by laser ablation has been examined and compared to the local energy transport characteristics inferred from power balance analysis. All particle perturbation diffusivities are radially hollow and are similar in magnitude and shape to the effective thermal conductivities found by power balance analysis. All particle diffusivities are 1--2 orders of magnitude larger than neoclassical values, except near the magnetic axis. A reduction in the helium diffusivity D[sub He] in the Supershot as compared to the L-mode is accompanied by a similar reduction in the effective single fluid thermal conductivity [chi]fluid. Also, the helium core convective velocity V[sub He] is found to increase in the Supershot over the L-Mode for r/a < 0.5. A quasilinear model of electrostatic drift waves has been used to calculate ratios between particle and energy fluxes in the Supershot. The measured ratios of the helium and iron particle diffusivities are in good accord with predictions, as are predicted ratios of V[sub He]/D[sub He]. Modelling indicates that the similarity in magnitude and profile shape of D[sub He] and [chi]fluid has generally favorable implications for helium ash content in a future fusion reactor. The core convection found in the Supershot increases the helium concentration on axis but does not reduce the plasma reactivity significantly.

  2. Modeling Studies of PVT Growth of ZnSe: Current Status and Future Course

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.; Su, Ching-Hua

    1999-01-01

    Bulk growth of wide band gap II-VI semiconductors by physical vapor transport (PVT) has been developed and refined over the past several years at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Results from a modeling study of PVT crystal growth of ZnSe are reported in this paper. The PVT process is numerically investigated using a two-dimensional formulation of the governing equations and associated boundary conditions. Both the incompressible Boussinesq approximation and a compressible model are tested to determine the influence of gravity on the process and to discern the differences between the two approaches. The influence of a residual gas is included in the models. The results show that both the incompressible and compressible approximations provide comparable results and the presence of a residual gas tends to measurably reduce the mass flux in the system. Detailed flow, thermal and concentration profiles are provided. The simulations show that the Stefan flux dominates the system flow field and the subtle gravitational effects can be gauged by subtracting this flux from the calculated profiles. Shear flows, due to solutal buoyancy, of the order of 50 microns/s for the liorizont,-d growth orientation and 10 microns/s for the vertical orientation are predicted. Whether these flows can fully account for the observed gravity related growth morphological effects and inhomogeneous solute and dopant distributions is a matter of conjecture. A template for future modeling efforts in this area is suggested which incorporates a mathematical approach to the tracking of the growth front based on energy of formation concepts.

  3. Development of Future Scenario Emission Inventories for East Asia in Support of Multiple Modeling Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Woo, J. H.; Choi, K. C.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Kim, S. K.; Hong, J.; Hong, S. C.; Zhang, Q.; Hong, C.; Tong, D.

    2015-12-01

    Future emission scenarios based on up-to-date regional socio-economic and control policy information were developed in support of climate-air quality integrated modeling research over East Asia. Two IPCC-participated Integrated Assessment Models(IAMs) were used to developed those scenario pathways. The two emission processing systems, KU-EPS and SMOKE-Asia, were used to convert these future scenario emissions to comprehensive chemical transport model-ready form. The NIER/KU-CREATE (Comprehensive Regional Emissions inventory for Atmospheric Transport Experiment) served as the regional base-year emission inventory. For anthropogenic emissions, it has 54 fuel classes, 201 sub-sectors and 13 pollutants, including CO2, CH4, N2O, SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, OC, BC, PM10, PM2.5, and mercury. Fast energy growth and aggressive penetration of the control measures make emissions projection very active for East Asia. Despite of more stringent air pollution control policies by the governments, however, air quality over the region seems not been improved as much - even worse in many cases. The needs of more scientific understanding of inter-relationship among emissions, transport, chemistry over the region are very high to effectively protect public health and ecosystems against ozone, fine particles, and other toxic pollutants in the air. After developing these long-term future emissions, therefore, we also tried to apply our future scenarios to develop the present emissions inventory for chemical weather forecasting and aircraft field campaign. On site, we will present; 1) the future scenario development framework and process methodologies, 2) initial development results of the future emission pathways, 3) present emission inventories from short-term projection, and 4) air quality modeling performance improvements over the region.

  4. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  5. Light ion production for a future radiobiological facility at CERN: Preliminary studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford-Haworth, Joshua; Bellodi, Giulia; Küchler, Detlef; Lombardi, Alessandra; Röhrich, Jörg; Scrivens, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Recent medical applications of ions such as carbon and helium have proved extremely effective for the treatment of human patients. However, before now a comprehensive study of the effects of different light ions on organic targets has not been completed. There is a strong desire for a dedicated facility which can produce ions in the range of protons to neon in order to perform this study. This paper will present the proposal and preliminary investigations into the production of light ions, and the development of a radiobiological research facility at CERN. The aims of this project will be presented along with the modifications required to the existing linear accelerator (Linac3), and the foreseen facility, including the requirements for an ion source in terms of some of the specification parameters and the flexibility of operation for different ion types. Preliminary results from beam transport simulations will be presented, in addition to some planned tests required to produce some of the required light ions (lithium, boron) to be conducted in collaboration with the Helmholtz-Zentrum für Materialien und Energie, Berlin.

  6. Light ion production for a future radiobiological facility at CERN: Preliminary studies

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford-Haworth, Joshua; Bellodi, Giulia; Küchler, Detlef; Lombardi, Alessandra; Scrivens, Richard; Röhrich, Jörg

    2014-02-15

    Recent medical applications of ions such as carbon and helium have proved extremely effective for the treatment of human patients. However, before now a comprehensive study of the effects of different light ions on organic targets has not been completed. There is a strong desire for a dedicated facility which can produce ions in the range of protons to neon in order to perform this study. This paper will present the proposal and preliminary investigations into the production of light ions, and the development of a radiobiological research facility at CERN. The aims of this project will be presented along with the modifications required to the existing linear accelerator (Linac3), and the foreseen facility, including the requirements for an ion source in terms of some of the specification parameters and the flexibility of operation for different ion types. Preliminary results from beam transport simulations will be presented, in addition to some planned tests required to produce some of the required light ions (lithium, boron) to be conducted in collaboration with the Helmholtz-Zentrum für Materialien und Energie, Berlin.

  7. Seismicity studies and tectonic settings of the Caucasus; The past and the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javakishvili, Z.; Karakhanyan, A.; Yetirmishli, G.

    2012-12-01

    The Caucasus as a part of continent-continent collision of Arabian and Eurasian plates is tectonically complicated region, containing many structural formations: thrusts, tectonic nappes, buried folds, normal, reverse, and strike-slip faults and other seismically active structures. This complexity is most likely to be responsible for the widespread diffuse character of seismicity. The Caucasus suffered from several devastating earthquakes in the past: such as Shemakha earthquake of 1668, M=7.5, I0 =10 (MSK scale), Alaverdi earthquake of 1742, Ms=6.8, I0=9 and the Lechkhumi-Svaneti earthquake of 1350, Ms=7.0, I0 =9 …; during instrumental period the strongest earthquakes occurred in 1988 in Armenia - Spitak earthquake 1988, M=7.0, I0=9-10(MSK scale) and in Georgia-Racha earthquake 1991, Ms=7.0, I0 =9. The earthquakes have dramatically demonstrated that future earthquakes can cause tremendous loss of human life and property. Insufficient or inadequate awareness of the population and governments regarding the actual hazard and risk in their own and neighboring countries is one of the factors that complicate mutual understanding between the countries of the region. Protection of the environment, natural hazard assessment and reduction requires developing infrastructure, capability and regionally coordinated planning for response to disasters. The proper assessment of a natural hazard should be based on an optimally selected monitoring network. In the case of a strong earthquake that affects also neighboring countries. It is necessary to use similar sensors, systems, data collection and processing methodology as well as have an agreed upon strategy for response. To investigate the problem of seismicity; tectonics and seismic hazard analysis it is necessary to establish a modern regional monitoring network comprised of high-sensitivity digital seismographs. During the last years, after a decade of collapse in the field of seismic monitoring, all countries of the

  8. Surface modification of additive manufactured Ti6Al4V alloy with Ag nanoparticles: wettability and surface morphology study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudinova, E.; Surmeneva, M.; Koptioug, A.; Sharonova, A.; Loza, K.; Surmenev, R.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the use of electrophoretic deposition to modify the surface of Ti6Al4V alloy fabricated via additive manufacturing technology is reported. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP)-stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) had a spherical shape with a diameter of the metallic core of 100±20 nm and ζ -potential -15 mV. The AgNPs- coated Ti6Al4V alloy was studied in respect with its chemical composition and surface morphology, water contact angle, hysteresis, and surface free energy. The results of SEM microphotography analysis showed that the AgNPs were homogeneously distributed over the surface. Hysteresis and water contact angle measurements revealed the effect of the deposited AgNPs layer, namely an increased water contact angle and decreased contact angle hysteresis. However, the average water contact angle was 125° for PVP-stabilized-AgNPs-coated surface, whereas ethylene glycol gave the average contact angle of 17°. A higher surface energy is observed for AgNPs-coated Ti6Al4V surface (70.17 mN/m) compared with the uncoated surface (49.07 mN/m).

  9. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes) Network: A Project for Satellite Research, Process Studies, Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Kawakami, Shuji; Posny, Francoise

    2002-01-01

    The first climatological overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropical and subtropics is based on ozone sounding data from 10 sites comprising the Southern Hemisphere Additional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. The period covered is 1998-2000. Observations were made over: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Campaign data were collected on a trans-Atlantic oceanographic cruise and during SAFARI-2000 in Zambia. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approx. 7 hPa and relative humidity to approx. 200 hPa, reside at: . SHADOZ ozone time-series and profiles give a perspective on tropical total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone and a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts peak between August and November and are lowest between March and May. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the Indian Ocean Dipole and convective mixing. Pollution transport from Africa and South America is a seasonal feature. Tropospheric ozone seasonality over the Atlantic Basin shows effects of regional subsidence and recirculation as well as biomass burning. Dynamical and chemical influences appear to be of comparable magnitude though model studies are needed to quantify this.

  10. Did the addition of concomitant chemotherapy to radiotherapy improve outcomes in hypopharyngeal cancer? A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Hall, S.F.; Griffiths, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background For oncologists and for patients, no site-specific clinical trial evidence has emerged for the use of concurrent chemotherapy with radiotherapy (ccrt) over radiotherapy (rt) alone for cancer of the hypopharynx (hpc) or for other human papilloma virus–negative head-and-neck cancers. Methods This retrospective population-based cohort study using administrative data compared treatments over time (1990–2000 vs. 2000–2010), treatment outcomes, and outcomes over time in 1333 cases of hpc diagnosed in Ontario between January 1990 and December 2010. Results The incidence of hpc is declining; the use of ccrt that began in 2001 is increasing; and the 3-year overall survival for all patients remains poor at 34.6%. No difference in overall survival was observed in a comparison of patients treated in the decade before ccrt and of patients treated in the decade during the uptake of ccrt. Conclusions The addition of ccrt to the armamentarium of treatment options for oncologists treating head-and-neck patients did not improve outcomes for hpc at the population level. PMID:27536177

  11. Characterization and comparative study of coal combustion residues from a primary and additional flue gas secondary desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, S.; Francois, M.; Evrard, O.; Pellissier, C.

    1998-11-01

    An extensive characterization and comparative study was done on two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) residues derived from the same coal. LR residues (originated from Loire/Rhone in the south of Lyon, France) are obtained after a primary desulfurization process (SO{sub 2} is trapped by reaction with CaO at a temperature of about 1100 C), and LM residues (originating from La Maxe, near Metz in the east of France) are obtained after an additional secondary desulfurization process (SO{sub 2} is removed further by reaction with Ca(OH){sub 2} at a temperature of about 120 C). Various and complementary investigation methods were used to determine their chemical, physical, and mineralogical properties: x-ray fluorescence and diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry analysis, granulometric distribution, pycnometric density, BET specific surface area and pH, conductivity measurements, and chemical analysis of their insoluble fraction. The FGD residues contain basically two main components: a silico-aluminous fly ash part and calcic FGD phases. In the LR residues the two components can be considered as independent, whereas they are linked in the LM residues because chemical reactions have occurred, leading to the formation of silico-calcic gel CSH, hydrated aluminate AFm, and AFt phases.

  12. Study of stability and thermodynamic properties of water-in-diesel nanoemulsion fuels with nano-Al additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Rakhi N.; More, Utkarsh; Malek, Naved; Chakraborty, Mousumi; Parikh, Parimal A.

    2015-11-01

    The present work addresses the formation of water-in-diesel (W/D) nanoemulsion by blending different percentages of water along with nano-Al additive in various propositions to enhance the combustion characteristics. The roles of various surfactants such as Sorbitan monooleate (Span 80), Triton X-100, Tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, and newly synthesized and characterized dicationic surfactants were discussed based upon their ability to stabilize the nanoemulsions. Surface active properties of the surfactants were determined by measuring their interfacial tension and subsequently by measuring the critical micelle concentration of the surfactants. Triton X-100 was found to be the most efficient surfactant for the current water-in-diesel nanoemulsion as it stabilized the suspensions for more than 8 h. Particle size analysis proved emulsion size to be in the order of nanometer, and zeta potential values were found to have neutral behavior at water-diesel interface. Experimental studies confirmed that that blends W/D [1 % (vol.) water] and W/DA [1 % (vol.) water, 0.1 % (wt.) nano-Al] were thermodynamically stable.

  13. Additive technology of soluble mold tooling for embedded devices in composite structures: A study on manufactured tolerances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Madhuparna

    Composite textiles have found widespread use and advantages in various industries and applications. The constant demand for high quality products and services requires companies to minimize their manufacturing costs, and delivery time in order to compete in general and niche marketplaces. Advanced manufacturing methods aim to provide economical methods of mold production. Creation of molding and tooling options for advanced composites encompasses a large portion of the fabrication time, making it a costly process and restraining factor. This research discusses a preliminary investigation into the use of soluble polymer compounds and additive manufacturing to fabricate soluble molds. These molds suffer from dimensional errors due to several factors, which have also been characterized. The basic soluble mold of a composite is 3D printed to meet the desired dimensions and geometry of holistic structures or spliced components. The time taken to dissolve the mold depends on the rate of agitation of the solvent. This process is steered towards enabling the implantation of optoelectronic devices within the composite to provide sensing capability for structural health monitoring. The shape deviation of the 3D printed mold is also studied and compared to its original dimensions to optimize the dimensional quality to produce dimensionally accurate parts. Mechanical tests were performed on compact tension (CT) resin samples prepared from these 3D printed molds and revealed crack propagation towards an embedded intact optical fiber.

  14. Small angle neutron scattering study of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar growth driven by addition of a hydrotropic salt.

    PubMed

    Hassan, P A; Fritz, Gerhard; Kaler, Eric W

    2003-01-01

    The structures of aggregates formed in aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), with the addition of a cationic hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), have been investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The SANS spectra exhibit a pronounced peak at low salt concentration, indicating the presence of repulsive intermicellar interactions. Model-independent real space information about the structure is obtained from a generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) technique in combination with a suitable model for the interparticle structure factor. The interparticle interaction is captured using the rescaled mean spherical approximation (RMSA) closure relation and a Yukawa form of the interaction potential. Further quantification of the geometrical parameters of the micelles was achieved by a complete fit of the SANS data using a prolate ellipsoidal form factor and the RMSA structure factor. The present study shows that PTHC induces a decrease in the fractional charge of the micelles due to adsorption at the micellar surface and consequent growth of the SDS micelles from nearly globular to rodlike as the concentration of PTHC increases. PMID:16256467

  15. A five-year study of the impact of nitrogen addition on methane uptake in alpine grassland

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Ping; Li, Kaihui; Gong, Yanming; Hu, Yukun; Mohammat, Anwar; Christie, Peter; Liu, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    It remains unclear how nitrogen (N) deposition affects soil methane (CH4) uptake in semiarid and arid zones. An in situ field experiment was conducted from 2010 to 2014 to systematically study the effect of various N application rates (0, 10, 30, and 90 kg N ha−1 yr−1) on CH4 flux in alpine grassland in the Tianshan Mountains. No significant influence of N addition on CH4 uptake was found. Initially the CH4 uptake rate increased with increasing N application rate by up to 11.5% in 2011 and then there was gradual inhibition by 2014. However, the between-year variability in CH4 uptake was very highly significant with average uptake ranging from 52.9 to 106.6 μg C m−2 h−1 and the rate depended largely on seasonal variability in precipitation and temperature. CH4 uptake was positively correlated with soil temperature, air temperature and to a lesser extent with precipitation, and was negatively correlated with soil moisture and NO3−-N content. The results indicate that between-year variability in CH4 uptake was impacted by precipitation and temperature and was not sensitive to elevated N deposition in alpine grassland. PMID:27571892

  16. Addition of home-based cognitive retraining to treatment as usual in first episode schizophrenia patients: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Shantala; Rao, Shobini L.; Raguram, Ahalya; Gangadhar, Bangalore N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We examined the effectiveness of a 2-month-long home-based cognitive retraining program together with treatment as usual (TAU; psychoeducation and drug therapy) on neuropsychological functions, psychopathology, and global functioning in patients with first episode schizophrenia (FES) as well as on psychological health and perception of level of family distress in their caregivers. Materials and Methods: Forty-five FES patients were randomly assigned to either treatment group receiving home-based cognitive retraining along with TAU (n=22) or to control group receiving TAU alone (n=23). Patients and caregivers received psychoeducation. Patients and one of their caregivers were assessed for the above parameters at baseline, post-assessment (2 months) and at 6-months follow-up assessment. Results: Of the 45 patients recruited, 12 in the treatment group and 11 in the control group completed post-intervention and follow-up assessments. Addition of home-based cognitive retraining along with TAU led to significant improvement in neuropsychological functions of divided attention, concept formation and set-shifting ability, and planning. Effect sizes were large, although the sample size was small. Conclusions: Home-based cognitive retraining program has shown promise. However, further studies examining this program on a larger cohort with rigorous design involving independent raters are suggested. PMID:22556432

  17. A five-year study of the impact of nitrogen addition on methane uptake in alpine grassland.

    PubMed

    Yue, Ping; Li, Kaihui; Gong, Yanming; Hu, Yukun; Mohammat, Anwar; Christie, Peter; Liu, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    It remains unclear how nitrogen (N) deposition affects soil methane (CH4) uptake in semiarid and arid zones. An in situ field experiment was conducted from 2010 to 2014 to systematically study the effect of various N application rates (0, 10, 30, and 90 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) on CH4 flux in alpine grassland in the Tianshan Mountains. No significant influence of N addition on CH4 uptake was found. Initially the CH4 uptake rate increased with increasing N application rate by up to 11.5% in 2011 and then there was gradual inhibition by 2014. However, the between-year variability in CH4 uptake was very highly significant with average uptake ranging from 52.9 to 106.6 μg C m(-2) h(-1) and the rate depended largely on seasonal variability in precipitation and temperature. CH4 uptake was positively correlated with soil temperature, air temperature and to a lesser extent with precipitation, and was negatively correlated with soil moisture and NO3(-)-N content. The results indicate that between-year variability in CH4 uptake was impacted by precipitation and temperature and was not sensitive to elevated N deposition in alpine grassland. PMID:27571892

  18. Enhancing Student Motivation: A Longitudinal Intervention Study Based on Future Time Perspective Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuitema, Jaap; Peetsma, Thea; van der Veen, Ineke

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of an intervention developed to enhance student motivation in the first years of secondary education. The intervention, based on future time perspective (FTP) theory, has been found to be effective in prevocational secondary education (T. T. D. Peetsma & I. Van der Veen, 2008, 2009). The authors extend the…

  19. AnnAGNPS Model Application for the Future Midwest Landscape Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Future Midwest Landscape (FML) project is part of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s new Ecosystem Services Research Program, undertaken to examine the variety of ways in which landscapes that include crop lands, conservation areas, wetlands, lakes, and streams af...

  20. Futuring, Strategic Planning and Shared Awareness: An Ohio University Libraries' Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, David J.; Seaman, Scott; Theodore-Shusta, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    A critical component of strategic planning is creating a shared-awareness among library staff of the potential societal, political, economic and technological changes that will influence how future users will create and consume scholarly materials, what will be expected of library services, and how facilities will be used. The ACRL Futuring…