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Sample records for additionally phylogenetic analysis

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of adenovirus sequences.

    PubMed

    Harrach, Balázs; Benko, Mária

    2007-01-01

    Members of the family Adenoviridae have been isolated from a large variety of hosts, including representatives from every major vertebrate class from fish to mammals. The high prevalence, together with the fairly conserved organization of the central part of their genomes, make the adenoviruses one of (if not the) best models for studying viral evolution on a larger time scale. Phylogenetic calculation can infer the evolutionary distance among adenovirus strains on serotype, species, and genus levels, thus helping the establishment of a correct taxonomy on the one hand, and speeding up the process of typing new isolates on the other. Initially, four major lineages corresponding to four genera were recognized. Later, the demarcation criteria of lower taxon levels, such as species or types, could also be defined with phylogenetic calculations. A limited number of possible host switches have been hypothesized and convincingly supported. Application of the web-based BLAST and MultAlin programs and the freely available PHYLIP package, along with the TreeView program, enables everyone to make correct calculations. In addition to step-by-step instruction on how to perform phylogenetic analysis, critical points where typical mistakes or misinterpretation of the results might occur will be identified and hints for their avoidance will be provided. PMID:17656792

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of adenovirus sequences.

    PubMed

    Harrach, Balázs; Benko, Mária

    2007-01-01

    Members of the family Adenoviridae have been isolated from a large variety of hosts, including representatives from every major vertebrate class from fish to mammals. The high prevalence, together with the fairly conserved organization of the central part of their genomes, make the adenoviruses one of (if not the) best models for studying viral evolution on a larger time scale. Phylogenetic calculation can infer the evolutionary distance among adenovirus strains on serotype, species, and genus levels, thus helping the establishment of a correct taxonomy on the one hand, and speeding up the process of typing new isolates on the other. Initially, four major lineages corresponding to four genera were recognized. Later, the demarcation criteria of lower taxon levels, such as species or types, could also be defined with phylogenetic calculations. A limited number of possible host switches have been hypothesized and convincingly supported. Application of the web-based BLAST and MultAlin programs and the freely available PHYLIP package, along with the TreeView program, enables everyone to make correct calculations. In addition to step-by-step instruction on how to perform phylogenetic analysis, critical points where typical mistakes or misinterpretation of the results might occur will be identified and hints for their avoidance will be provided.

  3. [Phylogenetic analysis of Pleurotus species].

    PubMed

    Shnyreva, A A; Shnyreva, A V

    2015-02-01

    We performed phylogenetic analysis for ten Pleurotus species, based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of rDNA. A phylogenetic tree was constructed on the basis of 31 oyster fungi strains of different origin and 10 reference sequences from GenBank. Our analysis demonstrates that the tested Pleurotus species are of monophyletic origin. We evaluated the evolutionary distances between these species. Classic genetic analysis of sexual compatibility based on monocaryon (mon)-mon crosses showed no reproductive barriers within the P. cornucopiae-P. euosmus species complex. Thus, despite the divergence (subclustering) between commercial strains and natural isolates of P. ostreatus revealed by phylogenetic analysis, there is no reproductive isolation between these groups. A common allele of the matB locus was identified for the commercial strains Sommer and L/4, supporting the common origin of these strains. PMID:25966583

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of a gene cluster encoding an additional, rhizobial-like type III secretion system that is narrowly distributed among Pseudomonas syringae strains

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The central role of Type III secretion systems (T3SS) in bacteria-plant interactions is well established, yet unexpected findings are being uncovered through bacterial genome sequencing. Some Pseudomonas syringae strains possess an uncharacterized cluster of genes encoding putative components of a second T3SS (T3SS-2) in addition to the well characterized Hrc1 T3SS which is associated with disease lesions in host plants and with the triggering of hypersensitive response in non-host plants. The aim of this study is to perform an in silico analysis of T3SS-2, and to compare it with other known T3SSs. Results Based on phylogenetic analysis and gene organization comparisons, the T3SS-2 cluster of the P. syringae pv. phaseolicola strain is grouped with a second T3SS found in the pNGR234b plasmid of Rhizobium sp. These additional T3SS gene clusters define a subgroup within the Rhizobium T3SS family. Although, T3SS-2 is not distributed as widely as the Hrc1 T3SS in P. syringae strains, it was found to be constitutively expressed in P. syringae pv phaseolicola through RT-PCR experiments. Conclusions The relatedness of the P. syringae T3SS-2 to a second T3SS from the pNGR234b plasmid of Rhizobium sp., member of subgroup II of the rhizobial T3SS family, indicates common ancestry and/or possible horizontal transfer events between these species. Functional analysis and genome sequencing of more rhizobia and P. syringae pathovars may shed light into why these bacteria maintain a second T3SS gene cluster in their genome. PMID:22937899

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of otospiralin protein

    PubMed Central

    Torktaz, Ibrahim; Behjati, Mohaddeseh; Rostami, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fibrocyte-specific protein, otospiralin, is a small protein, widely expressed in the central nervous system as neuronal cell bodies and glia. The increased expression of otospiralin in reactive astrocytes implicates its role in signaling pathways and reparative mechanisms subsequent to injury. Indeed, otospiralin is considered to be essential for the survival of fibrocytes of the mesenchymal nonsensory regions of the cochlea. It seems that other functions of this protein are not yet completely understood. Materials and Methods: Amino acid sequences of otospiralin from 12 vertebrates were derived from National Center for Biotechnology Information database. Phylogenetic analysis and phylogeny estimation were performed using MEGA 5.0.5 program, and neighbor-joining tree was constructed by this software. Results: In this computational study, the phylogenetic tree of otospiralin has been investigated. Therefore, dendrograms of otospiralin were depicted. Alignment performed in MUSCLE method by UPGMB algorithm. Also, entropy plot determined for a better illustration of amino acid variations in this protein. Conclusion: In the present study, we used otospiralin sequence of 12 different species and by constructing phylogenetic tree, we suggested out group for some related species. PMID:27099854

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of the spirochetes.

    PubMed Central

    Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E; Weisburg, W G; Tordoff, L A; Fraser, G J; Hespell, R B; Stanton, T B; Zablen, L; Mandelco, L; Woese, C R

    1991-01-01

    The 16S rRNA sequences were determined for species of Spirochaeta, Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira, Leptonema, and Serpula, using a modified Sanger method of direct RNA sequencing. Analysis of aligned 16S rRNA sequences indicated that the spirochetes form a coherent taxon composed of six major clusters or groups. The first group, termed the treponemes, was divided into two subgroups. The first treponeme subgroup consisted of Treponema pallidum, Treponema phagedenis, Treponema denticola, a thermophilic spirochete strain, and two species of Spirochaeta, Spirochaeta zuelzerae and Spirochaeta stenostrepta, with an average interspecies similarity of 89.9%. The second treponeme subgroup contained Treponema bryantii, Treponema pectinovorum, Treponema saccharophilum, Treponema succinifaciens, and rumen strain CA, with an average interspecies similarity of 86.2%. The average interspecies similarity between the two treponeme subgroups was 84.2%. The division of the treponemes into two subgroups was verified by single-base signature analysis. The second spirochete group contained Spirochaeta aurantia, Spirochaeta halophila, Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis, Spirochaeta litoralis, and Spirochaeta isovalerica, with an average similarity of 87.4%. The Spirochaeta group was related to the treponeme group, with an average similarity of 81.9%. The third spirochete group contained borrelias, including Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia anserina, Borrelia hermsii, and a rabbit tick strain. The borrelias formed a tight phylogenetic cluster, with average similarity of 97%. THe borrelia group shared a common branch with the Spirochaeta group and was closer to this group than to the treponemes. A single spirochete strain isolated fromt the shew constituted the fourth group. The fifth group was composed of strains of Serpula (Treponema) hyodysenteriae and Serpula (Treponema) innocens. The two species of this group were closely related, with a similarity of greater than 99%. Leptonema illini

  7. Which Phylogenetic Networks are Merely Trees with Additional Arcs?

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Andrew R.; Steel, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A binary phylogenetic network may or may not be obtainable from a tree by the addition of directed edges (arcs) between tree arcs. Here, we establish a precise and easily tested criterion (based on “2-SAT”) that efficiently determines whether or not any given network can be realized in this way. Moreover, the proof provides a polynomial-time algorithm for finding one or more trees (when they exist) on which the network can be based. A number of interesting consequences are presented as corollaries; these lead to some further relevant questions and observations, which we outline in the conclusion. PMID:26070685

  8. Which Phylogenetic Networks are Merely Trees with Additional Arcs?

    PubMed

    Francis, Andrew R; Steel, Mike

    2015-09-01

    A binary phylogenetic network may or may not be obtainable from a tree by the addition of directed edges (arcs) between tree arcs. Here, we establish a precise and easily tested criterion (based on "2-SAT") that efficiently determines whether or not any given network can be realized in this way. Moreover, the proof provides a polynomial-time algorithm for finding one or more trees (when they exist) on which the network can be based. A number of interesting consequences are presented as corollaries; these lead to some further relevant questions and observations, which we outline in the conclusion.

  9. Phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Sleator, Roy D

    2011-04-01

    The recent rapid expansion in the DNA and protein databases, arising from large-scale genomic and metagenomic sequence projects, has forced significant development in the field of phylogenetics: the study of the evolutionary relatedness of the planet's inhabitants. Advances in phylogenetic analysis have greatly transformed our view of the landscape of evolutionary biology, transcending the view of the tree of life that has shaped evolutionary theory since Darwinian times. Indeed, modern phylogenetic analysis no longer focuses on the restricted Darwinian-Mendelian model of vertical gene transfer, but must also consider the significant degree of lateral gene transfer, which connects and shapes almost all living things. Herein, I review the major tree-building methods, their strengths, weaknesses and future prospects. PMID:21249334

  10. PhyloBLAST: facilitating phylogenetic analysis of BLAST results.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, F S; Wan, I; Hancock, R E; Rose, A M; Jones, S J

    2001-04-01

    PhyloBLAST is an internet-accessed application based on CGI/Perl programming that compares a users protein sequence to a SwissProt/TREMBL database using BLAST2 and then allows phylogenetic analyses to be performed on selected sequences from the BLAST output. Flexible features such as ability to input your own multiple sequence alignment and use PHYLIP program options provide additional web-based phylogenetic analysis functionality beyond the analysis of a BLAST result.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of trophic associations.

    PubMed

    Ives, A R; Godfray, H C J

    2006-07-01

    Ecologists frequently collect data on the patterns of association between adjacent trophic levels in the form of binary or quantitative food webs. Here, we develop statistical methods to estimate the roles of consumer and resource phylogenies in explaining patterns of consumer-resource association. We use these methods to ask whether closely related consumer species are more likely to attack the same resource species and whether closely related resource species are more likely to be attacked by the same consumer species. We then show how to use estimates of phylogenetic signals to predict novel consumer-resource associations solely from the phylogenetic position of species for which no other (or only partial) data are available. Finally, we show how to combine phylogenetic information with information about species' ecological characteristics and life-history traits to estimate the effects of species traits on consumer-resource associations while accounting for phylogenies. We illustrate these techniques using a food web comprising species of parasitoids, leaf-mining moths, and their host plants.

  12. Phylogenetic Analysis of Poliovirus Sequences.

    PubMed

    Jorba, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Comparative genomic sequencing is a major surveillance tool in the Polio Laboratory Network. Due to the rapid evolution of polioviruses (~1 % per year), pathways of virus transmission can be reconstructed from the pathways of genomic evolution. Here, we describe three main phylogenetic methods; estimation of genetic distances, reconstruction of a maximum-likelihood (ML) tree, and estimation of substitution rates using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). The data set used consists of complete capsid sequences from a survey of poliovirus sequences available in GenBank. PMID:26983737

  13. [Analysis phylogenetic relationship of Gynostemma (Cucurbitaceae)].

    PubMed

    Qin, Shuang-shuang; Li, Hai-tao; Wang, Zhou-yong; Cui, Zhan-hu; Yu, Li-ying

    2015-05-01

    The sequences of ITS, matK, rbcL and psbA-trnH of 9 Gynostemma species or variety including 38 samples were compared and analyzed by molecular phylogeny method. Hemsleya macrosperma was designated as outgroup. The MP and NJ phylogenetic tree of Gynostemma was built based on ITS sequence, the results of PAUP phylogenetic analysis showed the following results: (1) The eight individuals of G. pentaphyllum var. pentaphyllum were not supported as monophyletic in the strict consensus trees and NJ trees. (2) It is suspected whether G. longipes and G. laxum should be classified as the independent species. (3)The classification of subgenus units of Gynostemma plants is supported.

  14. Exploration of phylogenetic data using a global sequence analysis method

    PubMed Central

    Chapus, Charles; Dufraigne, Christine; Edwards, Scott; Giron, Alain; Fertil, Bernard; Deschavanne, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Background Molecular phylogenetic methods are based on alignments of nucleic or peptidic sequences. The tremendous increase in molecular data permits phylogenetic analyses of very long sequences and of many species, but also requires methods to help manage large datasets. Results Here we explore the phylogenetic signal present in molecular data by genomic signatures, defined as the set of frequencies of short oligonucleotides present in DNA sequences. Although violating many of the standard assumptions of traditional phylogenetic analyses – in particular explicit statements of homology inherent in character matrices – the use of the signature does permit the analysis of very long sequences, even those that are unalignable, and is therefore most useful in cases where alignment is questionable. We compare the results obtained by traditional phylogenetic methods to those inferred by the signature method for two genes: RAG1, which is easily alignable, and 18S RNA, where alignments are often ambiguous for some regions. We also apply this method to a multigene data set of 33 genes for 9 bacteria and one archea species as well as to the whole genome of a set of 16 γ-proteobacteria. In addition to delivering phylogenetic results comparable to traditional methods, the comparison of signatures for the sequences involved in the bacterial example identified putative candidates for horizontal gene transfers. Conclusion The signature method is therefore a fast tool for exploring phylogenetic data, providing not only a pretreatment for discovering new sequence relationships, but also for identifying cases of sequence evolution that could confound traditional phylogenetic analysis. PMID:16280081

  15. A phylogenetic analysis of Aquifex pyrophilus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burggraf, S.; Olsen, G. J.; Stetter, K. O.; Woese, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    The 16S rRNA of the bacterion Aquifex pyrophilus, a microaerophilic, oxygen-reducing hyperthermophile, has been sequenced directly from the the PCR amplified gene. Phylogenetic analyses show the Aq. pyrophilus lineage to be probably the deepest (earliest) in the (eu)bacterial tree. The addition of this deep branching to the bacterial tree further supports the argument that the Bacteria are of thermophilic ancestry.

  16. On the analysis of phylogenetically paired designs

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Jennifer L; Rakovski, Cyril S; Macpherson, J Michael

    2015-01-01

    As phylogenetically controlled experimental designs become increasingly common in ecology, the need arises for a standardized statistical treatment of these datasets. Phylogenetically paired designs circumvent the need for resolved phylogenies and have been used to compare species groups, particularly in the areas of invasion biology and adaptation. Despite the widespread use of this approach, the statistical analysis of paired designs has not been critically evaluated. We propose a mixed model approach that includes random effects for pair and species. These random effects introduce a “two-layer” compound symmetry variance structure that captures both the correlations between observations on related species within a pair as well as the correlations between the repeated measurements within species. We conducted a simulation study to assess the effect of model misspecification on Type I and II error rates. We also provide an illustrative example with data containing taxonomically similar species and several outcome variables of interest. We found that a mixed model with species and pair as random effects performed better in these phylogenetically explicit simulations than two commonly used reference models (no or single random effect) by optimizing Type I error rates and power. The proposed mixed model produces acceptable Type I and II error rates despite the absence of a phylogenetic tree. This design can be generalized to a variety of datasets to analyze repeated measurements in clusters of related subjects/species. PMID:25750719

  17. A phylogenetic analysis of the phylum Fibrobacteres.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Kelsea A; Scott, Jarrod J; Adams, Sandra M; Suen, Garret

    2013-09-01

    Members of the phylum Fibrobacteres are highly efficient cellulolytic bacteria, best known for their role in rumen function and as potential sources of novel enzymes for bioenergy applications. Despite being key members of ruminants and other digestive microbial communities, our knowledge of this phylum remains incomplete, as much of our understanding is focused on two recognized species, Fibrobacter succinogenes and F. intestinalis. As a result, we lack insights regarding the environmental niche, host range, and phylogenetic organization of this phylum. Here, we analyzed over 1000 16S rRNA Fibrobacteres sequences available from public databases to establish a phylogenetic framework for this phylum. We identify both species- and genus-level clades that are suggestive of previously unknown taxonomic relationships between Fibrobacteres in addition to their putative lifestyles as host-associated or free-living. Our results shed light on this poorly understood phylum and will be useful for elucidating the function, distribution, and diversity of these bacteria in their niches.

  18. Sequence and Phylogenetic Analysis of FAD Synthetase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Luisa; Frago, Susana; Martínez-Júlvez, Marta; Medina, Milagros

    2006-08-01

    An evolutionary analysis of the sequences available till now for FAD synthetases has been carried out. Several identical conserved residues have been observed along the sequences of all the FAD synthetases analyzed, which might correlate with role for these residues in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Phylogenetic analysis shows that FAD synthetase sequences can be organized in two main clusters. One of them mainly contains temperature, pressure or pH resistant organisms, whereas in the other one organisms with pathogenic character can be found.

  19. Phylogenetic and Biogeographic Analysis of Sphaerexochine Trilobites

    PubMed Central

    Congreve, Curtis R.; Lieberman, Bruce S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Sphaerexochinae is a speciose and widely distributed group of cheirurid trilobites. Their temporal range extends from the earliest Ordovician through the Silurian, and they survived the end Ordovician mass extinction event (the second largest mass extinction in Earth history). Prior to this study, the individual evolutionary relationships within the group had yet to be determined utilizing rigorous phylogenetic methods. Understanding these evolutionary relationships is important for producing a stable classification of the group, and will be useful in elucidating the effects the end Ordovician mass extinction had on the evolutionary and biogeographic history of the group. Methodology/Principal Findings Cladistic parsimony analysis of cheirurid trilobites assigned to the subfamily Sphaerexochinae was conducted to evaluate phylogenetic patterns and produce a hypothesis of relationship for the group. This study utilized the program TNT, and the analysis included thirty-one taxa and thirty-nine characters. The results of this analysis were then used in a Lieberman-modified Brooks Parsimony Analysis to analyze biogeographic patterns during the Ordovician-Silurian. Conclusions/Significance The genus Sphaerexochus was found to be monophyletic, consisting of two smaller clades (one composed entirely of Ordovician species and another composed of Silurian and Ordovician species). By contrast, the genus Kawina was found to be paraphyletic. It is a basal grade that also contains taxa formerly assigned to Cydonocephalus. Phylogenetic patterns suggest Sphaerexochinae is a relatively distinctive trilobite clade because it appears to have been largely unaffected by the end Ordovician mass extinction. Finally, the biogeographic analysis yields two major conclusions about Sphaerexochus biogeography: Bohemia and Avalonia were close enough during the Silurian to exchange taxa; and during the Ordovician there was dispersal between Eastern Laurentia and the Yangtze block

  20. PAML 4: phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ziheng

    2007-08-01

    PAML, currently in version 4, is a package of programs for phylogenetic analyses of DNA and protein sequences using maximum likelihood (ML). The programs may be used to compare and test phylogenetic trees, but their main strengths lie in the rich repertoire of evolutionary models implemented, which can be used to estimate parameters in models of sequence evolution and to test interesting biological hypotheses. Uses of the programs include estimation of synonymous and nonsynonymous rates (d(N) and d(S)) between two protein-coding DNA sequences, inference of positive Darwinian selection through phylogenetic comparison of protein-coding genes, reconstruction of ancestral genes and proteins for molecular restoration studies of extinct life forms, combined analysis of heterogeneous data sets from multiple gene loci, and estimation of species divergence times incorporating uncertainties in fossil calibrations. This note discusses some of the major applications of the package, which includes example data sets to demonstrate their use. The package is written in ANSI C, and runs under Windows, Mac OSX, and UNIX systems. It is available at -- (http://abacus.gene.ucl.ac.uk/software/paml.html).

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of ancient DNA using BEAST.

    PubMed

    Ho, Simon Y W

    2012-01-01

    Under exceptional circumstances, it is possible to obtain DNA sequences from samples that are up to hundreds of thousands of years old. These data provide an opportunity to look directly at past genetic diversity, to trace the evolutionary process through time, and to infer demographic and phylogeographic trends. Ancient DNA (aDNA) data sets have some degree of intrinsic temporal structure because the sequences have been obtained from samples of different ages. When analyzing these data sets, it is usually necessary to take the sampling times into account. A number of phylogenetic methods have been designed with this purpose in mind. Here I describe the steps involved in Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of aDNA data. I outline a procedure that can be used to co-estimate the genealogical relationships, mutation rate, evolutionary timescale, and demographic history of the study species in a single analytical framework. A number of modifications to the methodology can be made in order to deal with complicating factors such as postmortem damage, sequences from undated samples, and data sets with low information content.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of ancient DNA using BEAST.

    PubMed

    Ho, Simon Y W

    2012-01-01

    Under exceptional circumstances, it is possible to obtain DNA sequences from samples that are up to hundreds of thousands of years old. These data provide an opportunity to look directly at past genetic diversity, to trace the evolutionary process through time, and to infer demographic and phylogeographic trends. Ancient DNA (aDNA) data sets have some degree of intrinsic temporal structure because the sequences have been obtained from samples of different ages. When analyzing these data sets, it is usually necessary to take the sampling times into account. A number of phylogenetic methods have been designed with this purpose in mind. Here I describe the steps involved in Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of aDNA data. I outline a procedure that can be used to co-estimate the genealogical relationships, mutation rate, evolutionary timescale, and demographic history of the study species in a single analytical framework. A number of modifications to the methodology can be made in order to deal with complicating factors such as postmortem damage, sequences from undated samples, and data sets with low information content. PMID:22237538

  3. A Distance Measure for Genome Phylogenetic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Minh Duc; Allison, Lloyd; Dix, Trevor

    Phylogenetic analyses of species based on single genes or parts of the genomes are often inconsistent because of factors such as variable rates of evolution and horizontal gene transfer. The availability of more and more sequenced genomes allows phylogeny construction from complete genomes that is less sensitive to such inconsistency. For such long sequences, construction methods like maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood are often not possible due to their intensive computational requirement. Another class of tree construction methods, namely distance-based methods, require a measure of distances between any two genomes. Some measures such as evolutionary edit distance of gene order and gene content are computational expensive or do not perform well when the gene content of the organisms are similar. This study presents an information theoretic measure of genetic distances between genomes based on the biological compression algorithm expert model. We demonstrate that our distance measure can be applied to reconstruct the consensus phylogenetic tree of a number of Plasmodium parasites from their genomes, the statistical bias of which would mislead conventional analysis methods. Our approach is also used to successfully construct a plausible evolutionary tree for the γ-Proteobacteria group whose genomes are known to contain many horizontally transferred genes.

  4. Interpretation of bootstrap values in phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wiesemüller, Bernhard; Rothe, Hartmut

    2006-06-01

    Bootstrap Analysis is a common tool in cladistics, and consequently many authors tend to believe that it could be close to a test of monophyly. In fact, it is only a procedure to calculate the redundancy of a certain character pattern among taxa. To demonstrate this, we set up a study with questionable data: Four skulls of great apes and humans were digitally photographed, and the pixels' brightness values were simply transformed to a one-zero-matrix, which was then used to calculate a Wagner tree with PHYLIP. As a rule, the higher the resolution of the photos is, the higher are the bootstrap values of supported taxa (and the lower are the bootstrap values of non-supported data). Redundancy of intertaxic information might indeed be an indicator of phylogenetic relationship, but can also be due to other reasons, like functional-adaptive needs in morphology, or semantic needs in a DNA-code. As a result, we tend to believe that high bootstrap values are actually less important than low ones. It is safer, based on a low bootstrap value, to claim that a certain taxon is not well supported by certain data. Therefore, we recommend discussions of low bootstrap values in future publications. PMID:16850767

  5. Phylogenetic analysis with the iPlant discovery environment.

    PubMed

    Matasci, Naim; McKay, Sheldon

    2013-06-01

    The iPlant Collaborative's Discovery Environment is a unified Web portal to many bioinformatics applications and analytical workflows, including various methods of phylogenetic analysis. This unit describes example protocols for phylogenetic analyses, starting at sequence retrieval from the GenBank sequence database, through to multiple sequence alignment inference and visualization of phylogenetic trees. Methods for extracting smaller sub-trees from very large phylogenies, and the comparative method of continuous ancestral character state reconstruction based on observed morphology of extant species related to their phylogenetic relationships, are also presented.

  6. Open Reading Frame Phylogenetic Analysis on the Cloud

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis has become essential in researching the evolutionary relationships between viruses. These relationships are depicted on phylogenetic trees, in which viruses are grouped based on sequence similarity. Viral evolutionary relationships are identified from open reading frames rather than from complete sequences. Recently, cloud computing has become popular for developing internet-based bioinformatics tools. Biocloud is an efficient, scalable, and robust bioinformatics computing service. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based open reading frame phylogenetic analysis service. The proposed service integrates the Hadoop framework, virtualization technology, and phylogenetic analysis methods to provide a high-availability, large-scale bioservice. In a case study, we analyze the phylogenetic relationships among Norovirus. Evolutionary relationships are elucidated by aligning different open reading frame sequences. The proposed platform correctly identifies the evolutionary relationships between members of Norovirus. PMID:23671843

  7. Open reading frame phylogenetic analysis on the cloud.

    PubMed

    Hung, Che-Lun; Lin, Chun-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis has become essential in researching the evolutionary relationships between viruses. These relationships are depicted on phylogenetic trees, in which viruses are grouped based on sequence similarity. Viral evolutionary relationships are identified from open reading frames rather than from complete sequences. Recently, cloud computing has become popular for developing internet-based bioinformatics tools. Biocloud is an efficient, scalable, and robust bioinformatics computing service. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based open reading frame phylogenetic analysis service. The proposed service integrates the Hadoop framework, virtualization technology, and phylogenetic analysis methods to provide a high-availability, large-scale bioservice. In a case study, we analyze the phylogenetic relationships among Norovirus. Evolutionary relationships are elucidated by aligning different open reading frame sequences. The proposed platform correctly identifies the evolutionary relationships between members of Norovirus. PMID:23671843

  8. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the surprising diversity of an oxygenase class.

    PubMed

    Capyk, Jenna K; Eltis, Lindsay D

    2012-03-01

    As metalloenzymes capable of transforming a broad range of substrates with high stereo- and regio-specificity, the multicomponent Rieske oxygenases (ROs) have been studied in bacterial systems for applications in bioremediation and industrial biocatalysis. These studies include genetic and biochemical investigations, determination of enzyme structure, phylogenetic analysis, and enzyme classification. Although RO terminal oxygenase components (RO-Os) share a conserved domain structure, their sequences are highly divergent and present significant challenges for identification and classification. Herein, we present the first global phylogenetic analysis of a broad range of RO-Os from diverse taxonomic groups. We employed objective, structure-based criteria to significantly reduce the inclusion of erroneously aligned sequences in the analysis. Our findings reveal that RO biochemical studies to date have been largely concentrated in an unexpectedly narrow portion of the RO-O sequence landscape. Additionally, our analysis demonstrates the existence two distinct groups of RO-O sequences. Finally, the sequence diversity recognized in this study necessitates a new RO-O classification scheme. We therefore propose a P450-like naming system. Our results reveal a diversity of sequence and potential catalytic functionality that has been wholly unappreciated in the RO literature. This study also demonstrates that many commonly used bioinformatic tools may not be sufficient to analyze the vast amount of data available in current databases. These findings facilitate the expanded exploration of RO catalytic capabilities in both biological and technological contexts and increase the potential for practical exploitation of their activities.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of the Argonaute protein family in platyhelminths.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yadong

    2013-03-01

    Argonaute proteins (AGOs) are mediators of gene silencing via recruitment of small regulatory RNAs to induce translational regression or degradation of targeted molecules. Platyhelminths have been reported to express microRNAs but the diversity of AGOs in the phylum has not been explored. Phylogenetic relationships of members of this protein family were studied using data from six platyhelminth genomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all cestode and trematode AGOs, along with some triclad planarian AGOs, were grouped into the Ago subfamily and its novel sister clade, here referred to as Cluster 1. These were very distant from Piwi and Class 3 subfamilies. By contrast, a number of planarian Piwi-like AGOs formed a novel sister clade to the Piwi subfamily. Extensive sequence searching revealed the presence of an additional locus for AGO2 in the cestode Echinococcus granulosus and exon expansion in this species and E. multilocularis. The current study suggests the absence of the Piwi subfamily and Class 3 AGOs in cestodes and trematodes and the Piwi-like AGO expansion in a free-living triclad planarian and the occurrence of exon expansion prior to or during the evolution of the most-recent common ancestor of the Echinococcus species studied.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of ruminant Theileria spp. from China based on 28S ribosomal RNA gene.

    PubMed

    Gou, Huitian; Guan, Guiquan; Ma, Miling; Liu, Aihong; Liu, Zhijie; Xu, Zongke; Ren, Qiaoyun; Li, Youquan; Yang, Jifei; Chen, Ze; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2013-10-01

    Species identification using DNA sequences is the basis for DNA taxonomy. In this study, we sequenced the ribosomal large-subunit RNA gene sequences (3,037-3,061 bp) in length of 13 Chinese Theileria stocks that were infective to cattle and sheep. The complete 28S rRNA gene is relatively difficult to amplify and its conserved region is not important for phylogenetic study. Therefore, we selected the D2-D3 region from the complete 28S rRNA sequences for phylogenetic analysis. Our analyses of 28S rRNA gene sequences showed that the 28S rRNA was useful as a phylogenetic marker for analyzing the relationships among Theileria spp. in ruminants. In addition, the D2-D3 region was a short segment that could be used instead of the whole 28S rRNA sequence during the phylogenetic analysis of Theileria, and it may be an ideal DNA barcode.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of burkholderia species by multilocus sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Estrada-de los Santos, Paulina; Vinuesa, Pablo; Martínez-Aguilar, Lourdes; Hirsch, Ann M; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús

    2013-07-01

    Burkholderia comprises more than 60 species of environmental, clinical, and agro-biotechnological relevance. Previous phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, recA, gyrB, rpoB, and acdS gene sequences as well as genome sequence comparisons of different Burkholderia species have revealed two major species clusters. In this study, we undertook a multilocus sequence analysis of 77 type and reference strains of Burkholderia using atpD, gltB, lepA, and recA genes in combination with the 16S rRNA gene sequence and employed maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining criteria to test this further. The phylogenetic analysis revealed, with high supporting values, distinct lineages within the genus Burkholderia. The two large groups were named A and B, whereas the B. rhizoxinica/B. endofungorum, and B. andropogonis groups consisted of two and one species, respectively. The group A encompasses several plant-associated and saprophytic bacterial species. The group B comprises the B. cepacia complex (opportunistic human pathogens), the B. pseudomallei subgroup, which includes both human and animal pathogens, and an assemblage of plant pathogenic species. The distinct lineages present in Burkholderia suggest that each group might represent a different genus. However, it will be necessary to analyze the full set of Burkholderia species and explore whether enough phenotypic features exist among the different clusters to propose that these groups should be considered separate genera.

  12. Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis of Bacterial Reverse Transcriptases

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Nicolás; Nisa-Martínez, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Much less is known about reverse transcriptases (RTs) in prokaryotes than in eukaryotes, with most prokaryotic enzymes still uncharacterized. Two surveys involving BLAST searches for RT genes in prokaryotic genomes revealed the presence of large numbers of diverse, uncharacterized RTs and RT-like sequences. Here, using consistent annotation across all sequenced bacterial species from GenBank and other sources via RAST, available from the PATRIC (Pathogenic Resource Integration Center) platform, we have compiled the data for currently annotated reverse transcriptases from completely sequenced bacterial genomes. RT sequences are broadly distributed across bacterial phyla, but green sulfur bacteria and cyanobacteria have the highest levels of RT sequence diversity (≤85% identity) per genome. By contrast, phylum Actinobacteria, for which a large number of genomes have been sequenced, was found to have a low RT sequence diversity. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that bacterial RTs could be classified into 17 main groups: group II introns, retrons/retron-like RTs, diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs), Abi-like RTs, CRISPR-Cas-associated RTs, group II-like RTs (G2L), and 11 other groups of RTs of unknown function. Proteobacteria had the highest potential functional diversity, as they possessed most of the RT groups. Group II introns and DGRs were the most widely distributed RTs in bacterial phyla. Our results provide insights into bacterial RT phylogeny and the basis for an update of annotation systems based on sequence/domain homology. PMID:25423096

  13. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of bacterial reverse transcriptases.

    PubMed

    Toro, Nicolás; Nisa-Martínez, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Much less is known about reverse transcriptases (RTs) in prokaryotes than in eukaryotes, with most prokaryotic enzymes still uncharacterized. Two surveys involving BLAST searches for RT genes in prokaryotic genomes revealed the presence of large numbers of diverse, uncharacterized RTs and RT-like sequences. Here, using consistent annotation across all sequenced bacterial species from GenBank and other sources via RAST, available from the PATRIC (Pathogenic Resource Integration Center) platform, we have compiled the data for currently annotated reverse transcriptases from completely sequenced bacterial genomes. RT sequences are broadly distributed across bacterial phyla, but green sulfur bacteria and cyanobacteria have the highest levels of RT sequence diversity (≤85% identity) per genome. By contrast, phylum Actinobacteria, for which a large number of genomes have been sequenced, was found to have a low RT sequence diversity. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that bacterial RTs could be classified into 17 main groups: group II introns, retrons/retron-like RTs, diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs), Abi-like RTs, CRISPR-Cas-associated RTs, group II-like RTs (G2L), and 11 other groups of RTs of unknown function. Proteobacteria had the highest potential functional diversity, as they possessed most of the RT groups. Group II introns and DGRs were the most widely distributed RTs in bacterial phyla. Our results provide insights into bacterial RT phylogeny and the basis for an update of annotation systems based on sequence/domain homology.

  14. Evolution & Phylogenetic Analysis: Classroom Activities for Investigating Molecular & Morphological Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Wilfred A.

    2010-01-01

    In a flexible multisession laboratory, students investigate concepts of phylogenetic analysis at both the molecular and the morphological level. Students finish by conducting their own analysis on a collection of skeletons representing the major phyla of vertebrates, a collection of primate skulls, or a collection of hominid skulls.

  15. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) are extremely diverse with an estimated 500,000 species. We present the first phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily based on a cladistic analysis of both morphological and molecular data. A total of 233 morphological characters were scored for 300 taxa and 265 genera, a...

  16. A Deliberate Practice Approach to Teaching Phylogenetic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, F. Collin; Johnson, Daniel J.; Kearns, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    One goal of postsecondary education is to assist students in developing expert-level understanding. Previous attempts to encourage expert-level understanding of phylogenetic analysis in college science classrooms have largely focused on isolated, or "one-shot," in-class activities. Using a deliberate practice instructional approach, we…

  17. Phylogenetic analysis on the soil bacteria distributed in karst forest

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, JunPei; Huang, Ying; Mo, MingHe

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic composition of bacterial community in soil of a karst forest was analyzed by culture-independent molecular approach. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified directly from soil DNA and cloned to generate a library. After screening the clone library by RFLP, 16S rRNA genes of representative clones were sequenced and the bacterial community was analyzed phylogenetically. The 16S rRNA gene inserts of 190 clones randomly selected were analyzed by RFLP and generated 126 different RFLP types. After sequencing, 126 non-chimeric sequences were obtained, generating 113 phylotypes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bacteria distributed in soil of the karst forest included the members assigning into Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi (Green nonsulfur bacteria), Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Nitrospirae, Actinobacteria (High G+C Gram-positive bacteria), Firmicutes (Low G+C Gram-positive bacteria) and candidate divisions (including the SPAM and GN08). PMID:24031430

  18. A Deliberate Practice Approach to Teaching Phylogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, F. Collin; Johnson, Daniel J.; Kearns, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    One goal of postsecondary education is to assist students in developing expert-level understanding. Previous attempts to encourage expert-level understanding of phylogenetic analysis in college science classrooms have largely focused on isolated, or “one-shot,” in-class activities. Using a deliberate practice instructional approach, we designed a set of five assignments for a 300-level plant systematics course that incrementally introduces the concepts and skills used in phylogenetic analysis. In our assignments, students learned the process of constructing phylogenetic trees through a series of increasingly difficult tasks; thus, skill development served as a framework for building content knowledge. We present results from 5 yr of final exam scores, pre- and postconcept assessments, and student surveys to assess the impact of our new pedagogical materials on student performance related to constructing and interpreting phylogenetic trees. Students improved in their ability to interpret relationships within trees and improved in several aspects related to between-tree comparisons and tree construction skills. Student feedback indicated that most students believed our approach prepared them to engage in tree construction and gave them confidence in their abilities. Overall, our data confirm that instructional approaches implementing deliberate practice address student misconceptions, improve student experiences, and foster deeper understanding of difficult scientific concepts. PMID:24297294

  19. The phylogenetic analysis of avipoxvirus in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ha, Hye Jeong; Howe, Laryssa; Alley, Maurice; Gartrell, Brett

    2011-05-12

    Avipoxvirus is known to be endemic in New Zealand and it is a cause of ongoing mortalities in the endangered black robin and shore plover populations. There is no information on the strains of avipoxvirus occurring in New Zealand and their likely origin or pathogenicity. This study was designed to identify the phylogenetic relationships of pathogenic avipoxvirus strains infecting introduced, native, and endemic bird species in New Zealand. Avipoxvirus 4b core protein gene was detected in tissue samples from 25/48 birds (52.1%) from 15 different species in New Zealand. Bootstrap analysis of avipoxvirus 4b core protein gene revealed that the New Zealand avipoxvirus isolates comprised of three different subclades. The majority of New Zealand avipoxvirus isolates (74%) belonged to A1 subclade which shared 100% genetic similarity with the fowlpox HPB strain. An isolate from a wood-pigeon (kereru) belonged to subclade A3, displaying 100% sequence homology to albatrosspox virus. An additional group, isolated from two shore plovers and one South Island saddleback, grouped within subclade B1 and presented 99% sequence homology to European PM33/2007 and Hawaiian HAAM 22.10H8 isolates. The results suggest that a variety of New Zealand bird species are susceptible to avipoxvirus infection, that there are more than two distinctive avipoxvirus subclades in New Zealand, and that the most prevalent A1 strain may have been introduced to New Zealand through introduced avian hosts such as passerines or poultry.

  20. Structure-Based Phylogenetic Analysis of the Lipocalin Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Balasubramanian; Mishra, Madhulika; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Archunan, Govindaraju

    2015-01-01

    Lipocalins constitute a superfamily of extracellular proteins that are found in all three kingdoms of life. Although very divergent in their sequences and functions, they show remarkable similarity in 3-D structures. Lipocalins bind and transport small hydrophobic molecules. Earlier sequence-based phylogenetic studies of lipocalins highlighted that they have a long evolutionary history. However the molecular and structural basis of their functional diversity is not completely understood. The main objective of the present study is to understand functional diversity of the lipocalins using a structure-based phylogenetic approach. The present study with 39 protein domains from the lipocalin superfamily suggests that the clusters of lipocalins obtained by structure-based phylogeny correspond well with the functional diversity. The detailed analysis on each of the clusters and sub-clusters reveals that the 39 lipocalin domains cluster based on their mode of ligand binding though the clustering was performed on the basis of gross domain structure. The outliers in the phylogenetic tree are often from single member families. Also structure-based phylogenetic approach has provided pointers to assign putative function for the domains of unknown function in lipocalin family. The approach employed in the present study can be used in the future for the functional identification of new lipocalin proteins and may be extended to other protein families where members show poor sequence similarity but high structural similarity. PMID:26263546

  1. Mesoamerican tree squirrels evolution (Rodentia: Sciuridae): a molecular phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Federico; Gutierrez-Espeleta, Gustavo

    2014-06-01

    The tribe Sciurini comprehends the genera Sciurus, Syntheosiurus, Microsciurus, Tamiasciurus and Rheinthrosciurus. The phylogenetic relationships within Sciurus have been only partially done, and the relationship between Mesoamerican species remains unsolved. The phylogenetic relationships of the Mesoamerican tree squirrels were examined using molecular data. Sequence data publicly available (12S, 16S, CYTB mitochondrial genes and IRBP nuclear gene) and cytochrome B gene sequences of four previously not sampled Mesoamerican Sciurus species were analyzed under a Bayesian multispecies coalescence model. Phylogenetic analysis of the multilocus data set showed the neotropical tree squirrels as a monophyletic clade. The genus Sciurus was paraphyletic due to the inclusion of Microsciurus species (M. alfari and M. flaviventer). The South American species S. aestuans and S. stramineus showed a sister taxa relationship. Single locus analysis based on the most compact and complete data set (i.e. CYTB gene sequences), supported the monophyly of the South American species and recovered a Mesoamerican clade including S. aureogaster, S. granatensis and S. variegatoides. These results corroborated previous findings based on cladistic analysis of cranial and post-cranial characters. Our data support a close relationship between Mesoamerican Sciurus species and a sister relationship with South American species, and corroborates previous findings in relation to the polyphyly of Microsciurus and Syntheosciurus paraphyly.

  2. Bilateral Chondroepitrochlearis Muscle: Case Report, Phylogenetic Analysis, and Clinical Significance.

    PubMed

    Palagama, Sujeewa P W; Tedman, Raymond A; Barton, Matthew J; Forwood, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous muscular variants of pectoralis major have been reported on several occasions in the medical literature. Among them, chondroepitrochlearis is one of the rarest. Therefore, this study aims to provide a comprehensive description of its anatomy and subsequent clinical significance, along with its phylogenetic importance in pectoral muscle evolution with regard to primate posture. The authors suggest a more appropriate name to better reflect its proximal attachment to the costochondral junction and distal attachment to the epicondyle of humerus, as "chondroepicondylaris"; in addition, we suggest a new theory of phylogenetic significance to explain the twisting of pectoralis major tendon in primates that may have occurred with their adoption to bipedalism and arboreal lifestyle. Finally, the clinical significance of this aberrant muscle is elaborated as a cause of potential neurovascular entrapment and as a possible hurdle during axillary surgeries (i.e., mastectomy). PMID:27242928

  3. Bilateral Chondroepitrochlearis Muscle: Case Report, Phylogenetic Analysis, and Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Palagama, Sujeewa P. W.; Tedman, Raymond A.; Barton, Matthew J.; Forwood, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous muscular variants of pectoralis major have been reported on several occasions in the medical literature. Among them, chondroepitrochlearis is one of the rarest. Therefore, this study aims to provide a comprehensive description of its anatomy and subsequent clinical significance, along with its phylogenetic importance in pectoral muscle evolution with regard to primate posture. The authors suggest a more appropriate name to better reflect its proximal attachment to the costochondral junction and distal attachment to the epicondyle of humerus, as “chondroepicondylaris”; in addition, we suggest a new theory of phylogenetic significance to explain the twisting of pectoralis major tendon in primates that may have occurred with their adoption to bipedalism and arboreal lifestyle. Finally, the clinical significance of this aberrant muscle is elaborated as a cause of potential neurovascular entrapment and as a possible hurdle during axillary surgeries (i.e., mastectomy). PMID:27242928

  4. Shifts in the phylogenetic structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in response to experimental nitrogen and carbon dioxide additions.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Rebecca C; Bohannan, Brendan J M

    2015-09-01

    Global N inputs and atmospheric CO2 concentrations have increased as a result of human activities, and are predicted to increase along with population growth, with potentially negative effects on biodiversity. Using taxonomic and phylogenetic measures, we examined the response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to experimental manipulations of N and CO2 at the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment. No significant interactions between N and CO2 were observed, but individual effects of N and CO2 were found. Elevated CO2 resulted in changes in phylogenetic similarity, and a shift to phylogenetic clustering of AMF communities. N addition resulted in higher phylogenetic diversity and evenness, with no shifts in community composition and no significant signal for phylogenetic clustering. N addition resulted in an increase in both available N and the N:P ratio in N-amended plots, which suggests that changing patterns of nutrient limitation could have lead to altered species interactions. These findings suggest that elevated levels of N and CO2 altered patterns of AMF community assembly, with potential effects on ecosystem function. PMID:25990297

  5. Analysis of diversification: combining phylogenetic and taxonomic data.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Emmanuel

    2003-12-01

    The estimation of diversification rates using phylogenetic data has attracted a lot of attention in the past decade. In this context, the analysis of incomplete phylogenies (e.g. phylogenies resolved at the family level but unresolved at the species level) has remained difficult. I present here a likelihood-based method to combine partly resolved phylogenies with taxonomic (species-richness) data to estimate speciation and extinction rates. This method is based on fitting a birth-and-death model to both phylogenetic and taxonomic data. Some examples of the method are presented with data on birds and on mammals. The method is compared with existing approaches that deal with incomplete phylogenies. Some applications and generalizations of the approach introduced in this paper are further discussed.

  6. Phylogenetic and epidemiological analysis of Neisseria meningitidis using DNA probes.

    PubMed Central

    Ni, H.; Knight, A. I.; Cartwright, K. A.; McFadden, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    The genetic relationships between various serotypes and serogroups of meningococcal strains were investigated by restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis using a number of random DNA probes and a probe containing a truncated copy of the meningococcal insertion sequence IS1106. The data were used to estimate genetic distance between all pairs of strains and to construct phylogenetic trees for meningococcal strains. B15:P1.16R strains isolated from cases of systemic meningococcal disease in two health districts with a high incidence of disease were clonal in contrast to similar strains from cases occurring in other parts of the UK. Strains from these areas, which contain a similar genomic deletion, were found to be derived from two distinct lineages within the B15:P1.16R phylogenetic group. RFLP data demonstrated that present serological typing systems for the meningococcus do not necessarily reflect true genetic relationships. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1356820

  7. [A phylogenetic analysis of plant communities of Teberda Biosphere Reserve].

    PubMed

    Shulakov, A A; Egorov, A V; Onipchenko, V G

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of communities is based on the comparison of distances on the phylogenetic tree between species of a community under study and those distances in random samples taken out of local flora. It makes it possible to determine to what extent a community composition is formed by more closely related species (i.e., "clustered") or, on the opposite, it is more even and includes species that are less related with each other. The first case is usually interpreted as a result of strong influence caused by abiotic factors, due to which species with similar ecology, a priori more closely related, would remain: In the second case, biotic factors, such as competition, may come to the fore and lead to forming a community out of distant clades due to divergence of their ecological niches: The aim of this' study Was Ad explore the phylogenetic structure in communities of the northwestern Caucasus at two spatial scales - the scale of area from 4 to 100 m2 and the smaller scale within a community. The list of local flora of the alpine belt has been composed using the database of geobotanic descriptions carried out in Teberda Biosphere Reserve at true altitudes exceeding.1800 m. It includes 585 species of flowering plants belonging to 57 families. Basal groups of flowering plants are.not represented in the list. At the scale of communities of three classes, namely Thlaspietea rotundifolii - commumties formed on screes and pebbles, Calluno-Ulicetea - alpine meadow, and Mulgedio-Aconitetea subalpine meadows, have not demonstrated significant distinction of phylogenetic structure. At intra level, for alpine meadows the larger share of closely related species. (clustered community) is detected. Significantly clustered happen to be those communities developing on rocks (class Asplenietea trichomanis) and alpine (class Juncetea trifidi). At the same time, alpine lichen proved to have even phylogenetic structure at the small scale. Alpine (class Salicetea herbaceae) that

  8. [A phylogenetic analysis of plant communities of Teberda Biosphere Reserve].

    PubMed

    Shulakov, A A; Egorov, A V; Onipchenko, V G

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of communities is based on the comparison of distances on the phylogenetic tree between species of a community under study and those distances in random samples taken out of local flora. It makes it possible to determine to what extent a community composition is formed by more closely related species (i.e., "clustered") or, on the opposite, it is more even and includes species that are less related with each other. The first case is usually interpreted as a result of strong influence caused by abiotic factors, due to which species with similar ecology, a priori more closely related, would remain: In the second case, biotic factors, such as competition, may come to the fore and lead to forming a community out of distant clades due to divergence of their ecological niches: The aim of this' study Was Ad explore the phylogenetic structure in communities of the northwestern Caucasus at two spatial scales - the scale of area from 4 to 100 m2 and the smaller scale within a community. The list of local flora of the alpine belt has been composed using the database of geobotanic descriptions carried out in Teberda Biosphere Reserve at true altitudes exceeding.1800 m. It includes 585 species of flowering plants belonging to 57 families. Basal groups of flowering plants are.not represented in the list. At the scale of communities of three classes, namely Thlaspietea rotundifolii - commumties formed on screes and pebbles, Calluno-Ulicetea - alpine meadow, and Mulgedio-Aconitetea subalpine meadows, have not demonstrated significant distinction of phylogenetic structure. At intra level, for alpine meadows the larger share of closely related species. (clustered community) is detected. Significantly clustered happen to be those communities developing on rocks (class Asplenietea trichomanis) and alpine (class Juncetea trifidi). At the same time, alpine lichen proved to have even phylogenetic structure at the small scale. Alpine (class Salicetea herbaceae) that

  9. Determining the Position of Storks on the Phylogenetic Tree of Waterbirds by Retroposon Insertion Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kuramoto, Tae; Nishihara, Hidenori; Watanabe, Maiko; Okada, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Despite many studies on avian phylogenetics in recent decades that used morphology, mitochondrial genomes, and/or nuclear genes, the phylogenetic positions of several birds (e.g., storks) remain unsettled. In addition to the aforementioned approaches, analysis of retroposon insertions, which are nearly homoplasy-free phylogenetic markers, has also been used in avian phylogenetics. However, the first step in the analysis of retroposon insertions, that is, isolation of retroposons from genomic libraries, is a costly and time-consuming procedure. Therefore, we developed a high-throughput and cost-effective protocol to collect retroposon insertion information based on next-generation sequencing technology, which we call here the STRONG (Screening of Transposons Obtained by Next Generation Sequencing) method, and applied it to 3 waterbird species, for which we identified 35,470 loci containing chicken repeat 1 retroposons (CR1). Our analysis of the presence/absence of 30 CR1 insertions demonstrated the intra- and interordinal phylogenetic relationships in the waterbird assemblage, namely 1) Loons diverged first among the waterbirds, 2) penguins (Sphenisciformes) and petrels (Procellariiformes) diverged next, and 3) among the remaining families of waterbirds traditionally classified in Ciconiiformes/Pelecaniformes, storks (Ciconiidae) diverged first. Furthermore, our genome-scale, in silico retroposon analysis based on published genome data uncovered a complex divergence history among pelican, heron, and ibis lineages, presumably involving ancient interspecies hybridization between the heron and ibis lineages. Thus, our retroposon-based waterbird phylogeny and the established phylogenetic position of storks will help to understand the evolutionary processes of aquatic adaptation and related morphological convergent evolution. PMID:26527652

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of mammalian maximal oxygen consumption during exercise.

    PubMed

    Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Chappell, Mark A; Meek, Thomas H; Szafranska, Paulina A; Zub, Karol; Konarzewski, Marek; Jones, James H; Bicudo, J Eduardo P W; Nespolo, Roberto F; Careau, Vincent; Garland, Theodore

    2013-12-15

    We compiled published values of mammalian maximum oxygen consumption during exercise ( ) and supplemented these data with new measurements of for the largest rodent (capybara), 20 species of smaller-bodied rodents, two species of weasels and one small marsupial. Many of the new data were obtained with running-wheel respirometers instead of the treadmill systems used in most previous measurements of mammalian . We used both conventional and phylogenetically informed allometric regression models to analyze of 77 'species' (including subspecies or separate populations within species) in relation to body size, phylogeny, diet and measurement method. Both body mass and allometrically mass-corrected showed highly significant phylogenetic signals (i.e. related species tended to resemble each other). The Akaike information criterion corrected for sample size was used to compare 27 candidate models predicting (all of which included body mass). In addition to mass, the two best-fitting models (cumulative Akaike weight=0.93) included dummy variables coding for three species previously shown to have high (pronghorn, horse and a bat), and incorporated a transformation of the phylogenetic branch lengths under an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of residual variation (thus indicating phylogenetic signal in the residuals). We found no statistical difference between wheel- and treadmill-elicited values, and diet had no predictive ability for . Averaged across all models, the allometric scaling exponent was 0.839, with 95% confidence limits of 0.795 and 0.883, which does not provide support for a scaling exponent of 0.67, 0.75 or unity. PMID:24031059

  11. Large-scale analysis of phylogenetic search behavior.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Jung; Sul, Seung-Jin; Williams, Tiffani L

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis is used in all branches of biology with applications ranging from studies on the origin of human populations to investigations of the transmission patterns of HIV. Most phylogenetic analyses rely on effective heuristics for obtaining accurate trees. However, relatively little work has been done to analyze quantitatively the behavior of phylogenetic heuristics in tree space. A better understanding of local search behavior can facilitate the design of better heuristics, which ultimately lead to more accurate depictions of the true evolutionary relationships. In this paper, we present new and novel insights into local search behavior for maximum parsimony on three biological datasets consisting of 44, 60, and 174 taxa. By analyzing all trees from search, we find that, as the search algorithm climbs the hill to local optima, the trees in the neighborhood surrounding the current solution improve as well. Furthermore, the search is quite robust to a small number of randomly selected neighbors. Thus, our work shows how to gain insights into the behavior of local search algorithm by exploring a large diverse collection of trees.

  12. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of bacteriophage WO in spiders (Araneae).

    PubMed

    Yan, Qian; Qiao, Huping; Gao, Jin; Yun, Yueli; Liu, Fengxiang; Peng, Yu

    2015-11-01

    Phage WO is a bacteriophage found in Wolbachia. Herein, we represent the first phylogenetic study of WOs that infect spiders (Araneae). Seven species of spiders (Araneus alternidens, Nephila clavata, Hylyphantes graminicola, Prosoponoides sinensis, Pholcus crypticolens, Coleosoma octomaculatum, and Nurscia albofasciata) from six families were infected by Wolbachia and WO, followed by comprehensive sequence analysis. Interestingly, WO could be only detected Wolbachia-infected spiders. The relative infection rates of those seven species of spiders were 75, 100, 88.9, 100, 62.5, 72.7, and 100 %, respectively. Our results indicated that both Wolbachia and WO were found in three different body parts of N. clavata, and WO could be passed to the next generation of H. graminicola by vertical transmission. There were three different sequences for WO infected in A. alternidens and two different WO sequences from C. octomaculatum. Only one sequence of WO was found for the other five species of spiders. The discovered sequence of WO ranged from 239 to 311 bp. Phylogenetic tree was generated using maximum likelihood (ML) based on the orf7 gene sequences. According to the phylogenetic tree, WOs in N. clavata and H. graminicola were clustered in the same group. WOs from A. alternidens (WAlt1) and C. octomaculatum (WOct2) were closely related to another clade, whereas WO in P. sinensis was classified as a sole cluster.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of Maverick/Polinton giant transposons across organisms.

    PubMed

    Haapa-Paananen, Saija; Wahlberg, Niklas; Savilahti, Harri

    2014-09-01

    Polintons are a recently discovered group of large transposable elements (<40Kb in size) encoding up to 10 different proteins. The increasing number of genome sequencing projects has led to the discovery of these elements in genomes of protists, fungi, and animals, but not in plants. The RepBase database of eukaryotic repetitive elements currently contains consensus sequences and information of 70 Polinton elements from 28 organisms. Previous phylogenetic analyses have shown the relationship of Polintons to linear plasmids, bacteriophages, and retroviruses. However, a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of all known Polintons has been lacking. We retrieved the Polinton consensus sequences from the most recent version of RepBase, and compiled amino acid sequences for the two most common Polinton-specific genes, the DNA polymerase-B and retroviral-like integrase. Open reading frame predictions and homology comparisons revealed partial or full sequences for 54 polymerases and 55 Polinton integrases. Multiple sequence alignments portrayed conservation in several functional motifs of these proteins. Phylogenetic analyses based on Bayesian inference using single- and combined-gene datasets revealed seven distinct lineages of Polintons that broadly follow the tree of life. Two of the seven lineages are found within the same species, indicating that ancient divergences have been retained to this day.

  14. Computational Tools for Parsimony Phylogenetic Analysis of Omics Data.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Jose; Amri, Hakima; Noursi, David; Abu-Asab, Mones

    2015-08-01

    High-throughput assays from genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and next generation sequencing produce massive omics datasets that are challenging to analyze in biological or clinical contexts. Thus far, there is no publicly available program for converting quantitative omics data into input formats to be used in off-the-shelf robust phylogenetic programs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on creation of two Windows-based programs, OmicsTract and SynpExtractor, to address this gap. We note, as a way of introduction and development of these programs, that one particularly useful bioinformatics inferential modeling is the phylogenetic cladogram. Cladograms are multidimensional tools that show the relatedness between subgroups of healthy and diseased individuals and the latter's shared aberrations; they also reveal some characteristics of a disease that would not otherwise be apparent by other analytical methods. The OmicsTract and SynpExtractor were written for the respective tasks of (1) accommodating advanced phylogenetic parsimony analysis (through standard programs of MIX [from PHYLIP] and TNT), and (2) extracting shared aberrations at the cladogram nodes. OmicsTract converts comma-delimited data tables through assigning each data point into a binary value ("0" for normal states and "1" for abnormal states) then outputs the converted data tables into the proper input file formats for MIX or with embedded commands for TNT. SynapExtractor uses outfiles from MIX and TNT to extract the shared aberrations of each node of the cladogram, matching them with identifying labels from the dataset and exporting them into a comma-delimited file. Labels may be gene identifiers in gene-expression datasets or m/z values in mass spectrometry datasets. By automating these steps, OmicsTract and SynpExtractor offer a veritable opportunity for rapid and standardized phylogenetic analyses of omics data; their model can also be extended to next generation sequencing

  15. A phylogenetic analysis of macroevolutionary patterns in fermentative yeasts.

    PubMed

    Paleo-López, Rocío; Quintero-Galvis, Julian F; Solano-Iguaran, Jaiber J; Sanchez-Salazar, Angela M; Gaitan-Espitia, Juan D; Nespolo, Roberto F

    2016-06-01

    When novel sources of ecological opportunity are available, physiological innovations can trigger adaptive radiations. This could be the case of yeasts (Saccharomycotina), in which an evolutionary novelty is represented by the capacity to exploit simple sugars from fruits (fermentation). During adaptive radiations, diversification and morphological evolution are predicted to slow-down after early bursts of diversification. Here, we performed the first comparative phylogenetic analysis in yeasts, testing the "early burst" prediction on species diversification and also on traits of putative ecological relevance (cell-size and fermentation versatility). We found that speciation rates are constant during the time-range we considered (ca., 150 millions of years). Phylogenetic signal of both traits was significant (but lower for cell-size), suggesting that lineages resemble each other in trait-values. Disparity analysis suggested accelerated evolution (diversification in trait values above Brownian Motion expectations) in cell-size. We also found a significant phylogenetic regression between cell-size and fermentation versatility (R (2) = 0.10), which suggests correlated evolution between both traits. Overall, our results do not support the early burst prediction both in species and traits, but suggest a number of interesting evolutionary patterns, that warrant further exploration. For instance, we show that the Whole Genomic Duplication that affected a whole clade of yeasts, does not seems to have a statistically detectable phenotypic effect at our level of analysis. In this regard, further studies of fermentation under common-garden conditions combined with comparative analyses are warranted. PMID:27516851

  16. Penicillium simile sp. nov. revealed by morphological and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Davolos, Domenico; Pietrangeli, Biancamaria; Persiani, Anna Maria; Maggi, Oriana

    2012-02-01

    The morphology of three phenetically identical Penicillium isolates, collected from the bioaerosol in a restoration laboratory in Italy, displayed macro- and microscopic characteristics that were similar though not completely ascribable to Penicillium raistrickii. For this reason, a phylogenetic approach based on DNA sequencing analysis was performed to establish both the taxonomic status and the evolutionary relationships of these three peculiar isolates in relation to previously described species of the genus Penicillium. We used four nuclear loci (both rRNA and protein coding genes) that have previously proved useful for the molecular investigation of taxa belonging to the genus Penicillium at various evolutionary levels. The internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2), domains D1 and D2 of the 28S rDNA, a region of the tubulin beta chain gene (benA) and part of the calmodulin gene (cmd) were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Analysis of the rRNA genes and of the benA and cmd sequence data indicates the presence of three isogenic isolates belonging to a genetically distinct species of the genus Penicillium, here described and named Penicillium simile sp. nov. (ATCC MYA-4591(T)  = CBS 129191(T)). This novel species is phylogenetically different from P. raistrickii and other related species of the genus Penicillium (e.g. Penicillium scabrosum), from which it can be distinguished on the basis of morphological trait analysis.

  17. Penicillium simile sp. nov. revealed by morphological and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Davolos, Domenico; Pietrangeli, Biancamaria; Persiani, Anna Maria; Maggi, Oriana

    2012-02-01

    The morphology of three phenetically identical Penicillium isolates, collected from the bioaerosol in a restoration laboratory in Italy, displayed macro- and microscopic characteristics that were similar though not completely ascribable to Penicillium raistrickii. For this reason, a phylogenetic approach based on DNA sequencing analysis was performed to establish both the taxonomic status and the evolutionary relationships of these three peculiar isolates in relation to previously described species of the genus Penicillium. We used four nuclear loci (both rRNA and protein coding genes) that have previously proved useful for the molecular investigation of taxa belonging to the genus Penicillium at various evolutionary levels. The internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2), domains D1 and D2 of the 28S rDNA, a region of the tubulin beta chain gene (benA) and part of the calmodulin gene (cmd) were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Analysis of the rRNA genes and of the benA and cmd sequence data indicates the presence of three isogenic isolates belonging to a genetically distinct species of the genus Penicillium, here described and named Penicillium simile sp. nov. (ATCC MYA-4591(T)  = CBS 129191(T)). This novel species is phylogenetically different from P. raistrickii and other related species of the genus Penicillium (e.g. Penicillium scabrosum), from which it can be distinguished on the basis of morphological trait analysis. PMID:21460135

  18. CDAO-Store: Ontology-driven Data Integration for Phylogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Comparative Data Analysis Ontology (CDAO) is an ontology developed, as part of the EvoInfo and EvoIO groups supported by the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center, to provide semantic descriptions of data and transformations commonly found in the domain of phylogenetic analysis. The core concepts of the ontology enable the description of phylogenetic trees and associated character data matrices. Results Using CDAO as the semantic back-end, we developed a triple-store, named CDAO-Store. CDAO-Store is a RDF-based store of phylogenetic data, including a complete import of TreeBASE. CDAO-Store provides a programmatic interface, in the form of web services, and a web-based front-end, to perform both user-defined as well as domain-specific queries; domain-specific queries include search for nearest common ancestors, minimum spanning clades, filter multiple trees in the store by size, author, taxa, tree identifier, algorithm or method. In addition, CDAO-Store provides a visualization front-end, called CDAO-Explorer, which can be used to view both character data matrices and trees extracted from the CDAO-Store. CDAO-Store provides import capabilities, enabling the addition of new data to the triple-store; files in PHYLIP, MEGA, nexml, and NEXUS formats can be imported and their CDAO representations added to the triple-store. Conclusions CDAO-Store is made up of a versatile and integrated set of tools to support phylogenetic analysis. To the best of our knowledge, CDAO-Store is the first semantically-aware repository of phylogenetic data with domain-specific querying capabilities. The portal to CDAO-Store is available at http://www.cs.nmsu.edu/~cdaostore. PMID:21496247

  19. Detecting Network Communities: An Application to Phylogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Roberto F. S.; Rocha-Neto, Ivan C.; Santos, Leonardo B. L.; de Santana, Charles N.; Diniz, Marcelo V. C.; Lobão, Thierry Petit; Goés-Neto, Aristóteles; Pinho, Suani T. R.; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method to identify communities in generally weighted complex networks and apply it to phylogenetic analysis. In this case, weights correspond to the similarity indexes among protein sequences, which can be used for network construction so that the network structure can be analyzed to recover phylogenetically useful information from its properties. The analyses discussed here are mainly based on the modular character of protein similarity networks, explored through the Newman-Girvan algorithm, with the help of the neighborhood matrix . The most relevant networks are found when the network topology changes abruptly revealing distinct modules related to the sets of organisms to which the proteins belong. Sound biological information can be retrieved by the computational routines used in the network approach, without using biological assumptions other than those incorporated by BLAST. Usually, all the main bacterial phyla and, in some cases, also some bacterial classes corresponded totally (100%) or to a great extent (>70%) to the modules. We checked for internal consistency in the obtained results, and we scored close to 84% of matches for community pertinence when comparisons between the results were performed. To illustrate how to use the network-based method, we employed data for enzymes involved in the chitin metabolic pathway that are present in more than 100 organisms from an original data set containing 1,695 organisms, downloaded from GenBank on May 19, 2007. A preliminary comparison between the outcomes of the network-based method and the results of methods based on Bayesian, distance, likelihood, and parsimony criteria suggests that the former is as reliable as these commonly used methods. We conclude that the network-based method can be used as a powerful tool for retrieving modularity information from weighted networks, which is useful for phylogenetic analysis. PMID:21573202

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of the bacterial communities in marine sediments.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, J P; Herwig, R P

    1996-01-01

    For the phylogenetic analysis of microbial communities present in environmental samples microbial DNA can be extracted from the sample, 16S rDNA can be amplified with suitable primers and the PCR, and clonal libraries can be constructed. We report a protocol that can be used for efficient cell lysis and recovery of DNA from marine sediments. Key steps in this procedure include the use of a bead mill homogenizer for matrix disruption and uniform cell lysis and then purification of the released DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis. For sediments collected from two sites in Puget Sound, over 96% of the cells present were lysed. Our method yields high-molecular-weight DNA that is suitable for molecular studies, including amplification of 16S rRNA genes. The DNA yield was 47 micrograms per g (dry weight) for sediments collected from creosote-contaminated Eagle Harbor, Wash. Primers were selected for the PCR amplification of (eu)bacterial 16S rDNA that contained linkers with unique 8-base restriction sites for directional cloning. Examination of 22 16S rDNA clones showed that the surficial sediments in Eagle Harbor contained a phylogenetically diverse population of organisms from the Bacteria domain (G. J. Olsen, C. R. Woese, and R. Overbeek, J. Bacteriol. 176:1-6, 1994) with members of six major lineages represented: alpha, delta, and gamma Proteobacteria; the gram-positive high G+C content subdivision; clostridia and related organisms; and planctomyces and related organisms. None of the clones were identical to any representatives in the Ribosomal Database Project small subunit RNA database. The analysis of clonal representives in the first report using molecular techniques to determine the phylogenetic composition of the (eu)bacterial community present in coastal marine sediments. PMID:8899989

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of the formin homology 2 domain.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Henry N; Peterson, Kevin J

    2005-01-01

    Formin proteins are key regulators of eukaryotic actin filament assembly and elongation, and many species possess multiple formin isoforms. A nomenclature system based on fundamental features would be desirable, to aid the rapid identification and characterization of novel formins. In this article, we attempt to systematize the formin family by performing phylogenetic analyses of the formin homology 2 (FH2) domain, an independently folding region common to all formins, which alone can influence actin dynamics. Through database searches, we identify 101 FH2 domains from 26 eukaryotic species, including 15 in mice. Sequence alignments reveal a highly conserved yeast-specific insert in the "knob loop" region of the FH2 domain, with unknown functional consequences. Phylogenetic analysis using minimum evolution (ME), maximum parsimony (MP), and maximum likelihood (ML) algorithms strongly supports the existence of seven metazoan groups. Yeast FH2 domains segregate from all other eukaryotes, including metazoans, other fungi, plants, and protists. Sequence comparisons of non-FH2 regions support relationships between three metazoan groups (Dia, DAAM, and FRL) and examine previously identified coiled-coil and Diaphanous auto-regulatory domain sequences. This analysis allows for a formin nomenclature system based on sequence relationships, as well as suggesting strategies for the determination of biochemical and cellular activities of these proteins.

  2. Ultrametric networks: a new tool for phylogenetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The large majority of optimization problems related to the inference of distance‐based trees used in phylogenetic analysis and classification is known to be intractable. One noted exception is found within the realm of ultrametric distances. The introduction of ultrametric trees in phylogeny was inspired by a model of evolution driven by the postulate of a molecular clock, now dismissed, whereby phylogeny could be represented by a weighted tree in which the sum of the weights of the edges separating any given leaf from the root is the same for all leaves. Both, molecular clocks and rooted ultrametric trees, fell out of fashion as credible representations of evolutionary change. At the same time, ultrametric dendrograms have shown good potential for purposes of classification in so far as they have proven to provide good approximations for additive trees. Most of these approximations are still intractable, but the problem of finding the nearest ultrametric distance matrix to a given distance matrix with respect to the L∞ distance has been long known to be solvable in polynomial time, the solution being incarnated in any minimum spanning tree for the weighted graph subtending to the matrix. Results This paper expands this subdominant ultrametric perspective by studying ultrametric networks, consisting of the collection of all edges involved in some minimum spanning tree. It is shown that, for a graph with n vertices, the construction of such a network can be carried out by a simple algorithm in optimal time O(n2) which is faster by a factor of n than the direct adaptation of the classical O(n3) paradigm by Warshall for computing the transitive closure of a graph. This algorithm, called UltraNet, will be shown to be easily adapted to compute relaxed networks and to support the introduction of artificial points to reduce the maximum distance between vertices in a pair. Finally, a few experiments will be discussed to demonstrate the applicability of

  3. Can computational biology improve the phylogenetic analysis of insulin?

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Roy, Sanjiban S; Hsu, Minna J; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2012-11-01

    Using computational biology, we have depicted the insulin phylogenetics. We have also analyzed the sequence alignment and sequence logos formation for both the insulin chain A and B for three groups namely, the mammalian group, vertebrates group and fish group. We have also analyzed cladograms of insulin for the mammalian group. In accordance with that path lengths, matrix for distance analysis, matching representation of nodes of the cladogram and dissimilarity between two nodes have been performed for both of the A and B chains of the mammalian group. Our results show that 12 amino acid residues (GlyA1, IleA2, ValA3, TyrA19, CysA20, AsnA21, LeuB6, GlyB8, LeuB11, ValB12, GlyB23 and PheB24) are highly conserved for all groups and among them some (GlyA1, IleA2, ValA3);(TyrA19, CysA20, AsnA21) are continuous. This study shows a rapid method to calculate the amino acid sequences in terms of evolutionary conservation rates as well as molecular phylogenetics. PMID:22265574

  4. Nitrogen addition, not initial phylogenetic diversity, increases litter decomposition by fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Amend, Anthony S; Matulich, Kristin L; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2015-01-01

    Fungi play a critical role in the degradation of organic matter. Because different combinations of fungi result in different rates of decomposition, determining how climate change will affect microbial composition and function is fundamental to predicting future environments. Fungal response to global change is patterned by genetic relatedness, resulting in communities with comparatively low phylogenetic diversity (PD). This may have important implications for the functional capacity of disturbed communities if lineages sensitive to disturbance also contain unique traits important for litter decomposition. Here we tested the relationship between PD and decomposition rates. Leaf litter fungi were isolated from the field and deployed in microcosms as mock communities along a gradient of initial PD, while species richness was held constant. Replicate communities were subject to nitrogen fertilization comparable to anthropogenic deposition levels. Carbon mineralization rates were measured over the course of 66 days. We found that nitrogen fertilization increased cumulative respiration by 24.8%, and that differences in respiration between fertilized and ambient communities diminished over the course of the experiment. Initial PD failed to predict respiration rates or their change in response to nitrogen fertilization, and there was no correlation between community similarity and respiration rates. Last, we detected no phylogenetic signal in the contributions of individual isolates to respiration rates. Our results suggest that the degree to which PD predicts ecosystem function will depend on environmental context. PMID:25741330

  5. Nitrogen addition, not initial phylogenetic diversity, increases litter decomposition by fungal communities

    PubMed Central

    Amend, Anthony S.; Matulich, Kristin L.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi play a critical role in the degradation of organic matter. Because different combinations of fungi result in different rates of decomposition, determining how climate change will affect microbial composition and function is fundamental to predicting future environments. Fungal response to global change is patterned by genetic relatedness, resulting in communities with comparatively low phylogenetic diversity (PD). This may have important implications for the functional capacity of disturbed communities if lineages sensitive to disturbance also contain unique traits important for litter decomposition. Here we tested the relationship between PD and decomposition rates. Leaf litter fungi were isolated from the field and deployed in microcosms as mock communities along a gradient of initial PD, while species richness was held constant. Replicate communities were subject to nitrogen fertilization comparable to anthropogenic deposition levels. Carbon mineralization rates were measured over the course of 66 days. We found that nitrogen fertilization increased cumulative respiration by 24.8%, and that differences in respiration between fertilized and ambient communities diminished over the course of the experiment. Initial PD failed to predict respiration rates or their change in response to nitrogen fertilization, and there was no correlation between community similarity and respiration rates. Last, we detected no phylogenetic signal in the contributions of individual isolates to respiration rates. Our results suggest that the degree to which PD predicts ecosystem function will depend on environmental context. PMID:25741330

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of modularity in protein interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Erten, Sinan; Li, Xin; Bebek, Gurkan; Li, Jing; Koyutürk, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Background In systems biology, comparative analyses of molecular interactions across diverse species indicate that conservation and divergence of networks can be used to understand functional evolution from a systems perspective. A key characteristic of these networks is their modularity, which contributes significantly to their robustness, as well as adaptability. Consequently, analysis of modular network structures from a phylogenetic perspective may be useful in understanding the emergence, conservation, and diversification of functional modularity. Results In this paper, we propose a phylogenetic framework for analyzing network modules, with applications that extend well beyond network-based phylogeny reconstruction. Our approach is based on identification of modular network components from each network separately, followed by projection of these modules onto the networks of other species to compare different networks. Subsequently, we use the conservation of various modules in each network to assess the similarity between different networks. Compared to traditional methods that rely on topological comparisons, our approach has key advantages in (i) avoiding intractable graph comparison problems in comparative network analysis, (ii) accounting for noise and missing data through flexible treatment of network conservation, and (iii) providing insights on the evolution of biological systems through investigation of the evolutionary trajectories of network modules. We test our method, MOPHY, on synthetic data generated by simulation of network evolution, as well as existing protein-protein interaction data for seven diverse species. Comprehensive experimental results show that MOPHY is promising in reconstructing evolutionary histories of extant networks based on conservation of modularity, it is highly robust to noise, and outperforms existing methods that quantify network similarity in terms of conservation of network topology. Conclusion These results establish

  7. Genome-wide phylogenetic analysis of differences in thermotolerance among closely related Acetobacter pasteurianus strains.

    PubMed

    Matsutani, Minenosuke; Hirakawa, Hideki; Saichana, Natsaran; Soemphol, Wichai; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu

    2012-01-01

    Acetobacter pasteurianus is a Gram-negative strictly aerobic bacterium that is widely used for the industrial production of vinegar. Three Acetobacter pasteurianus strains, SKU1108, NBRC 3283 and IFO 3191, have the same 16S rRNA sequence (100 % sequence identity) but show differences in thermotolerance. To clarify the relationships between phylogeny and thermotolerance of these strains, genome-wide analysis of these three strains was performed. Concatenated phylogenetic analysis of a dataset of 1864 orthologues has shown that the more thermotolerant strains, SKU1108 and NBRC 3283, are more closely related to each other than to the more thermosensitive strain, IFO 3191. In addition, we defined a dataset of 2010 unique orthologues among these three strains, and compared the frequency of amino acid mutations among them. Genes involved in translation, transcription and signal transduction are highly conserved among each unique orthologous dataset. The results also showed that there are several genes with increased mutation rates in IFO 3191 compared with the thermotolerant strains, SKU1108 and NBRC 3283. Analysis of the mutational directions of these genes suggested that some of them might be correlated with the thermosensitivity of IFO 3191. Concatenated phylogenetic analysis of these closely related strains revealed that there is a phylogenetic relationship associated with this phenotype among the thermotolerant and thermosensitive strains.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Lonergan, D J; Jenter, H L; Coates, J D; Phillips, E J; Schmidt, T M; Lovley, D R

    1996-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships among strictly anaerobic dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria obtained from a diversity of sedimentary environments were examined by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Members of the genera Geobacter, Desulfuromonas, Pelobacter, and Desulfuromusa formed a monophyletic group within the delta subdivision of the class Proteobacteria. On the basis of their common ancestry and the shared ability to reduce Fe(III) and/or S0, we propose that this group be considered a single family, Geobacteraceae. Bootstrap analysis, characteristic nucleotides, and higher-order secondary structures support the division of Geobacteraceae into two subgroups, designated the Geobacter and Desulfuromonas clusters. The genus Desulfuromusa and Pelobacter acidigallici make up a distinct branch within the Desulfuromonas cluster. Several members of the family Geobacteraceae, none of which reduce sulfate, were found to contain the target sequences of probes that have been previously used to define the distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacterium-like microorganisms. The recent isolations of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms distributed throughout the domain Bacteria suggest that development of 16S rRNA probes that would specifically target all Fe(III) reducers may not be feasible. However, all of the evidence suggests that if a 16S rRNA sequence falls within the family Geobacteraceae, then the organism has the capacity for Fe(III) reduction. The suggestion, based on geological evidence, that Fe(III) reduction was the first globally significant process for oxidizing organic matter back to carbon dioxide is consistent with the finding that acetate-oxidizing Fe(III) reducers are phylogenetically diverse. PMID:8636045

  9. Phylogenetic and Structural Analysis of Polyketide Synthases in Aspergilli.

    PubMed

    Bhetariya, Preetida J; Prajapati, Madhvi; Bhaduri, Asani; Mandal, Rahul Shubhra; Varma, Anupam; Madan, Taruna; Singh, Yogendra; Sarma, P Usha

    2016-01-01

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) of Aspergillus species are multidomain and multifunctional megaenzymes that play an important role in the synthesis of diverse polyketide compounds. Putative PKS protein sequences from Aspergillus species representing medically, agriculturally, and industrially important Aspergillus species were chosen and screened for in silico studies. Six candidate Aspergillus species, Aspergillus fumigatus Af293, Aspergillus flavus NRRL3357, Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88, Aspergillus terreus NIH2624, Aspergillus oryzae RIB40, and Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1, were selected to study the PKS phylogeny. Full-length PKS proteins and only ketosynthase (KS) domain sequence were retrieved for independent phylogenetic analysis from the aforementioned species, and phylogenetic analysis was performed with characterized fungal PKS. This resulted into grouping of Aspergilli PKSs into nonreducing (NR), partially reducing (PR), and highly reducing (HR) PKS enzymes. Eight distinct clades with unique domain arrangements were classified based on homology with functionally characterized PKS enzymes. Conserved motif signatures corresponding to each type of PKS were observed. Three proteins from Protein Data Bank corresponding to NR, PR, and HR type of PKS (XP_002384329.1, XP_753141.2, and XP_001402408.2, respectively) were selected for mapping of conserved motifs on three-dimensional structures of KS domain. Structural variations were found at the active sites on modeled NR, PR, and HR enzymes of Aspergillus. It was observed that the number of iteration cycles was dependent on the size of the cavity in the active site of the PKS enzyme correlating with a type with reducing or NR products, such as pigment, 6MSA, and lovastatin. The current study reports the grouping and classification of PKS proteins of Aspergilli for possible exploration of novel polyketides based on sequence homology; this information can be useful for selection of PKS for polyketide exploration and

  10. Phylogenetic and Structural Analysis of Polyketide Synthases in Aspergilli

    PubMed Central

    Bhetariya, Preetida J.; Prajapati, Madhvi; Bhaduri, Asani; Mandal, Rahul Shubhra; Varma, Anupam; Madan, Taruna; Singh, Yogendra; Sarma, P. Usha

    2016-01-01

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) of Aspergillus species are multidomain and multifunctional megaenzymes that play an important role in the synthesis of diverse polyketide compounds. Putative PKS protein sequences from Aspergillus species representing medically, agriculturally, and industrially important Aspergillus species were chosen and screened for in silico studies. Six candidate Aspergillus species, Aspergillus fumigatus Af293, Aspergillus flavus NRRL3357, Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88, Aspergillus terreus NIH2624, Aspergillus oryzae RIB40, and Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1, were selected to study the PKS phylogeny. Full-length PKS proteins and only ketosynthase (KS) domain sequence were retrieved for independent phylogenetic analysis from the aforementioned species, and phylogenetic analysis was performed with characterized fungal PKS. This resulted into grouping of Aspergilli PKSs into nonreducing (NR), partially reducing (PR), and highly reducing (HR) PKS enzymes. Eight distinct clades with unique domain arrangements were classified based on homology with functionally characterized PKS enzymes. Conserved motif signatures corresponding to each type of PKS were observed. Three proteins from Protein Data Bank corresponding to NR, PR, and HR type of PKS (XP_002384329.1, XP_753141.2, and XP_001402408.2, respectively) were selected for mapping of conserved motifs on three-dimensional structures of KS domain. Structural variations were found at the active sites on modeled NR, PR, and HR enzymes of Aspergillus. It was observed that the number of iteration cycles was dependent on the size of the cavity in the active site of the PKS enzyme correlating with a type with reducing or NR products, such as pigment, 6MSA, and lovastatin. The current study reports the grouping and classification of PKS proteins of Aspergilli for possible exploration of novel polyketides based on sequence homology; this information can be useful for selection of PKS for polyketide exploration and

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lonergan, D.J.; Jenter, H.L.; Coates, J.D.; Phillips, E.J.P.; Schmidt, T.M.; Lovley, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships among strictly anaerobic dissimilatory Fe(III)- reducing bacteria obtained from a diversity of sedimentary environments were examined by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Members of the genera Geobacter, Desulfuromonas, Pelobacter, and Desulfuromusa formed a monophyletic group within the delta subdivision of the class Proteobacteria. On the basis of their common ancestry and the shared ability to reduce Fe(III) and/or S0, we propose that this group be considered a single family, Geobacteraceae. Bootstrap analysis, characteristic nucleotides, and higher- order secondary structures support the division of Geobacteraceae into two subgroups, designated the Geobacter and Desulfuromonas clusters. The genus Desulfuromusa and Pelobacter acidigallici make up a distinct branch with the Desulfuromonas cluster. Several members of the family Geobacteraceae, none of which reduce sulfate, were found to contain the target sequences of probes that have been previously used to define the distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacterium-like microorganisms. The recent isolations of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms distributed throughout the domain Bacteria suggest that development of 16S rRNA probes that would specifically target all Fe(III) reducers may not be feasible. However, all of the evidence suggests that if a 16S rRNA sequence falls within the family Geobacteraceae, then the organism has the capacity for Fe(III) reduction. The suggestion, based on geological evidence, that Fe(III) reduction was the first globally significant process for oxidizing organic matter back to carbon dioxide is consistent with the finding that acetate-oxidizing Fe(III) reducers are phylogenetically diverse.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis and development of probes for differentiating methylotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Brusseau, G A; Bulygina, E S; Hanson, R S

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen small-subunit rRNAs from methylotrophic bacteria have been sequenced. Comparisons of these sequences with 22 previously published sequences further defined the phylogenetic relationships among these bacteria and illustrated the agreement between phylogeny and physiological characteristics of the bacteria. Phylogenetic trees were constructed with 16S rRNA sequences from methylotrophic bacteria and representative organisms from subdivisions within the class Proteobacteria on the basis of sequence similarities by using a weighted least-mean-square difference method. The methylotrophs have been separated into coherent clusters in which bacteria shared physiological characteristics. The clusters distinguished bacteria which used either the ribulose monophosphate or serine pathway for carbon assimilation. In addition, methanotrophs and methylotrophs which do not utilize methane were found to form distinct clusters within these groups. Five new deoxyoligonucleotide probes were designed, synthesized, labelled with digoxigenin-11-ddUTP, and tested for the ability to hybridize to RNA extracted from the bacteria represented in the unique clusters and for the ability to detect RNAs purified from soils enriched for methanotrophs by exposure to a methane-air atmosphere for one month. The 16S rRNA purified from soil hybridized to the probe which was complementary to sequences present in 16S rRNA from serine pathway methanotrophs and hybridized to a lesser extent with a probe complementary to sequences in 16S rRNAs of ribulose monophosphate pathway methanotrophs. The nonradioactive detection system used performed reliably at amounts of RNA from pure cultures as small as 10 ng. Images PMID:7510941

  13. Phylogenetic and serological analysis of turnip ringspot virus and radish mosaic virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Koloniuk, Igor; Petrzik, Karel

    2012-03-01

    Turnip ringspot virus (TuRSV) has been proposed to be a member of a new species in the genus Comovirus. Its remarkable host-range similarity to radish mosaic virus (RaMV) may have led to its misrecognition in the past. Findings from both sequence analysis and serological tests support the assignment of TuRSV to a new comovirus species. In addition, phylogenetic analysis suggests that the two genome segments of some TuRSV isolates have a heterogeneous origin. PMID:22160585

  14. Biological pattern and transcriptomic exploration and phylogenetic analysis in the odd floral architecture tree: Helwingia willd

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Odd traits in few of plant species usually implicate potential biology significances in plant evolutions. The genus Helwingia Willd, a dioecious medical shrub in Aquifoliales order, has an odd floral architecture-epiphyllous inflorescence. The potential significances and possible evolutionary origin of this specie are not well understood due to poorly available data of biological and genetic studies. In addition, the advent of genomics-based technologies has widely revolutionized plant species with unknown genomic information. Results Morphological and biological pattern were detailed via anatomical and pollination analyses. An RNA sequencing based transcriptomic analysis were undertaken and a high-resolution phylogenetic analysis was conducted based on single-copy genes in more than 80 species of seed plants, including H. japonica. It is verified that a potential fusion of rachis to the leaf midvein facilitates insect pollination. RNA sequencing yielded a total of 111450 unigenes; half of them had significant similarity with proteins in the public database, and 20281 unigenes were mapped to 119 pathways. Deduced from the phylogenetic analysis based on single-copy genes, the group of Helwingia is closer with Euasterids II and rather than Euasterids, congruent with previous reports using plastid sequences. Conclusions The odd flower architecture make H. Willd adapt to insect pollination by hosting those insects larger than the flower in size via leave, which has little common character that other insect pollination plants hold. Further the present transcriptome greatly riches genomics information of Helwingia species and nucleus genes based phylogenetic analysis also greatly improve the resolution and robustness of phylogenetic reconstruction in H. japonica. PMID:24969969

  15. Evolutionary and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Hepaciviruses and Pegiviruses.

    PubMed

    Thézé, Julien; Lowes, Sophia; Parker, Joe; Pybus, Oliver G

    2015-11-01

    The known genetic diversity of the hepaciviruses and pegiviruses has increased greatly in recent years through the discovery of viruses related to hepatitis C virus and human pegivirus in bats, bovines, equines, primates, and rodents. Analysis of these new species is important for research into animal models of hepatitis C virus infection and into the zoonotic origins of human viruses. Here, we provide the first systematic phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis of these two genera at the whole-genome level. Phylogenies confirmed that hepatitis C virus is most closely related to viruses from horses whereas human pegiviruses clustered with viruses from African primates. Within each genus, several well-supported lineages were identified and viral diversity was structured by both host species and location of sampling. Recombination analyses provided evidence of interspecific recombination in hepaciviruses, but none in the pegiviruses. Putative mosaic genome structures were identified in NS5B gene region and were supported by multiple tests. The identification of interspecific recombination in the hepaciviruses represents an important evolutionary event that could be clarified by future sampling of novel viruses. We also identified parallel amino acid changes shared by distantly related lineages that infect similar types of host. Notable parallel changes were clustered in the NS3 and NS4B genes and provide a useful starting point for experimental studies of the evolution of Hepacivirus host-virus interactions. PMID:26494702

  16. Rapid ribosomal RNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis of protists.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A M; Baverstock, P R

    1989-04-01

    A newly described technique for rapidly obtaining the partial nucleotide sequence of ribosomal RNA is being applied to investigate phylogenetic relationships among living organisms. Alan Johnson and Peter Boverstock describe the importance of this method to parasitology in providing new information on the phylogenetic relationships of parasitic organisms previously placed in groups of convenience. The phylum Apicomplexo in particular, has been the object of much study using this technique, but the technology is likely to extend soon to the restructuring of the phylogenetic trees of many groups of parasites.

  17. Phylogenetic Analysis of Canine Parvovirus VP2 Gene in China.

    PubMed

    Yi, L; Tong, M; Cheng, Y; Song, W; Cheng, S

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a total of 37 samples (58.0%) were found through PCR assay to be positive for canine parvovirus (CPV) of 66 suspected faecal samples of dogs collected from various cities throughout China. Eight CPV isolates could be obtained in the CRFK cell line. The sequencing of the VP2 gene of CPV identified the predominant CPV strain as CPV-2a (Ser297Ala), with two CPV-2b (Ser297Ala). Sequence comparison revealed homologies of 99.3-99.9%, 99.9% and 99.3-99.7% within the CPV 2a isolates, within the CPV 2b isolates and between the CPV 2a and 2b isolates, respectively. In addition, several non-synonymous and synonymous mutations were also recorded. The phylogenetic tree revealed that most of the CPV strains from different areas in China were located in the formation of a large branch, which were grouped together along with the KU143-09 strain from Thailand and followed the same evolution. In this study, we provide an updated molecular characterization of CPV 2 circulation in China.

  18. Tropomyosin is a nice marker gene for phylogenetic analysis of molluscs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaotong; Li, Li; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Guofan

    2011-10-01

    Molluscs are an extraordinarily diverse group of animals and to discriminate them based on one molecular marker/gene is very difficult because of the too fast or slow rate of nucleotide substitution. In the study, the tropomyosin cds (coding sequences) of 43 animal species were analyzed, the results of which suggested that the tropomyosin gene was a nice marker gene to phylogenetic analysis of molluscs, even for all the studied animals. In addition, InDels (insertions and deletions) in tropomyosin cds of turbo cornutus were also studied and one segment repeat, which probably happened recently and was of functional importance, was found.

  19. Inventory and Phylogenetic Analysis of Meiotic Genes in Monogonont Rotifers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A long-standing question in evolutionary biology is how sexual reproduction has persisted in eukaryotic lineages. As cyclical parthenogens, monogonont rotifers are a powerful model for examining this question, yet the molecular nature of sexual reproduction in this lineage is currently understudied. To examine genes involved in meiosis, we generated partial genome assemblies for 2 distantly related monogonont species, Brachionus calyciflorus and B. manjavacas. Here we present an inventory of 89 meiotic genes, of which 80 homologs were identified and annotated from these assemblies. Using phylogenetic analysis, we show that several meiotic genes have undergone relatively recent duplication events that appear to be specific to the monogonont lineage. Further, we compare the expression of “meiosis-specific” genes involved in recombination and all annotated copies of the cell cycle regulatory gene CDC20 between obligate parthenogenetic (OP) and cyclical parthenogenetic (CP) strains of B. calyciflorus. We show that “meiosis-specific” genes are expressed in both CP and OP strains, whereas the expression of one of the CDC20 genes is specific to cyclical parthenogenesis. The data presented here provide insights into mechanisms of cyclical parthenogenesis and establish expectations for studies of obligate asexual relatives of monogononts, the bdelloid rotifer lineage. PMID:23487324

  20. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of mango mealybug, Drosicha mangiferae from Punjab.

    PubMed

    Banta, Geetika; Jindal, Vikas; Mohindru, Bharathi; Sharma, Sachin; Kaur, Jaimeet; Gupta, V K

    2016-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are major pests of a wide range of crops and ornamental plants worldwide. Their high degree of morphological similarity makes them difficult to identify and limits their study and management. In the present study, four Indian populations of mango mealybug (mango, litchi, guava from Gurdaspur and mango from Jalandhar) were analyzed. The mtCOI region was amplified, cloned, the nucleotide sequences were determined and analysed. All the four species were found to be D. mangiferae. The population from Litchi and Mango from Gurdaspur showed 100% homologus sequence. The population of Guava-Gurdaspur and Mango-Jalandhar showed a single mutation of 'C' instead of 'T' at 18th and 196th position, respectively. Indian populations were compared with populations from Pakistan (21) and Japan (1). The phylogenetic tree resulted in two main clusters. Cluster1 represent all the 4 populations of Punjab, India, 20 of Pakistan (Punjab, Sind, Lahore, Multan, Faisalabad and Karak districts) with homologous sequences. The two population collected from Faisalabad district of Pakistan and Japan made a separate cluster 2 because the gene sequence used in analysis was from the COI-3p region. However, all the other sequence of D. mangiferae samples under study showed a low nucleotide divergence. The homologus mtCO1 sequence of Indian and Pakistan population concluded that the genetic diversity in mealybug population was quite less over a large geographical area. PMID:26930860

  1. A Detailed Phylogenetic Analysis of FIV in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus associated with AIDS-like illnesses in cats and has been used as a model for the study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A feature of HIV and FIV infection is the continually increasing divergence among viral isolates between different individuals, as well as within the same individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings The goal of this study was to determine the phylogenetic patterns of viral isolates obtained within the United States (U.S.) by focusing on the variable, V3-V4, region of the FIV envelope gene. Conclusions/Significance Data indicate that FIV, from within the U.S., localize to four viral clades, A, B, C, and F. Also shown is the geographic isolation of strains where clade A and clade B are found predominately on the west coast; however, clade B is also found throughout the U.S. and represents the predominant clade. This study presents a complete and conclusive analysis of FIV isolates from within the U.S. and may be used as the essential basis for the development of an effective multi-clade vaccine. PMID:20711253

  2. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of mango mealybug, Drosicha mangiferae from Punjab.

    PubMed

    Banta, Geetika; Jindal, Vikas; Mohindru, Bharathi; Sharma, Sachin; Kaur, Jaimeet; Gupta, V K

    2016-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are major pests of a wide range of crops and ornamental plants worldwide. Their high degree of morphological similarity makes them difficult to identify and limits their study and management. In the present study, four Indian populations of mango mealybug (mango, litchi, guava from Gurdaspur and mango from Jalandhar) were analyzed. The mtCOI region was amplified, cloned, the nucleotide sequences were determined and analysed. All the four species were found to be D. mangiferae. The population from Litchi and Mango from Gurdaspur showed 100% homologus sequence. The population of Guava-Gurdaspur and Mango-Jalandhar showed a single mutation of 'C' instead of 'T' at 18th and 196th position, respectively. Indian populations were compared with populations from Pakistan (21) and Japan (1). The phylogenetic tree resulted in two main clusters. Cluster1 represent all the 4 populations of Punjab, India, 20 of Pakistan (Punjab, Sind, Lahore, Multan, Faisalabad and Karak districts) with homologous sequences. The two population collected from Faisalabad district of Pakistan and Japan made a separate cluster 2 because the gene sequence used in analysis was from the COI-3p region. However, all the other sequence of D. mangiferae samples under study showed a low nucleotide divergence. The homologus mtCO1 sequence of Indian and Pakistan population concluded that the genetic diversity in mealybug population was quite less over a large geographical area.

  3. [Biotypes and phylogenetic analysis of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in China].

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Li; Cai, Li; Shen, Wei-Jiang; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2014-04-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is considered taxonomically as a species complex and could cause serious damages to crops by directly feeding on phloem and/or indirectly transmission of plant viruses. In this study, biotypes and phylogenetic relationships of 33 geographic populations of B. tabaci collected from nine provinces of China in 2010 and 2011 were studied based on the mitochondrial COI gene. The results showed there were a total of six biotypes of B. tabaci (B, Q, ZHJ-1, ZHJ-3, An and Nauru) recovered in China and the geographical distribution of these six biotypes was uneven. Phylogenetic analysis showed that biotype An B. tabaci from Taiwan clustered together with Hainan biotype An populations, indicating these two geographic populations might originate from a same ancestor. In addition, biotype B B. tabaci in China had a 99% genetical similarity compared to that from France and Uganda. However, relationships of biotype Q on the phylogenetic tree were divided into two different clusters. One was occupied with the population from China and Western Mediterranean Sea countries (France and Morocco) and the other contained biotype Q populations from Eastern Mediterranean Sea countries (Israel and Turkey). Overall, the results suggested that biotype Q B. tabaci in China was genetically similar to that from Western Mediterranean Sea countries and it could be highly possible that Chinese biotype Q B. tabaci originated from Western Mediterranean Sea areas. PMID:25011310

  4. POWER: PhylOgenetic WEb Repeater--an integrated and user-optimized framework for biomolecular phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Yen; Lin, Fan-Kai; Lin, Chieh Hua; Lai, Li-Wei; Hsu, Hsiu-Jun; Chen, Shu-Hwa; Hsiung, Chao A

    2005-07-01

    POWER, the PhylOgenetic WEb Repeater, is a web-based service designed to perform user-friendly pipeline phylogenetic analysis. POWER uses an open-source LAMP structure and infers genetic distances and phylogenetic relationships using well-established algorithms (ClustalW and PHYLIP). POWER incorporates a novel tree builder based on the GD library to generate a high-quality tree topology according to the calculated result. POWER accepts either raw sequences in FASTA format or user-uploaded alignment output files. Through a user-friendly web interface, users can sketch a tree effortlessly in multiple steps. After a tree has been generated, users can freely set and modify parameters, select tree building algorithms, refine sequence alignments or edit the tree topology. All the information related to input sequences and the processing history is logged and downloadable for the user's reference. Furthermore, iterative tree construction can be performed by adding sequences to, or removing them from, a previously submitted job. POWER is accessible at http://power.nhri.org.tw.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA Genomes Organization and Phylogenetic Relationships Analysis of Eight Anemonefishes (Pomacentridae: Amphiprioninae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianlong; Chen, Xiao; Kang, Bin; Liu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Anemonefishes (Pomacentridae Amphiprioninae) are a group of 30 valid coral reef fish species with their phylogenetic relationships still under debate. The eight available mitogenomes of anemonefishes were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogenetic tree; six were obtained from this study (Amphiprion clarkii, A. frenatus, A. percula, A. perideraion, A. polymnus and Premnas biaculeatus) and two from GenBank (A. bicinctus and A. ocellaris). The seven Amphiprion species represent all four subgenera and P. biaculeatus is the only species from Premnas. The eight mitogenomes of anemonefishes encoded 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and two main non-coding regions, with the gene arrangement and translation direction basically identical to other typical vertebrate mitogenomes. Among the 13 protein-coding genes, A. ocellaris (AP006017) and A. percula (KJ174497) had the same length in ND5 with 1,866 bp, which were three nucleotides less than the other six anemonefishes. Both structures of ND5, however, could translate to amino acid successfully. Only four mitogenomes had the tandem repeats in D-loop; the tandem repeats were located in downstream after Conserved Sequence Block rather than the upstream and repeated in a simply way. The phylogenetic utility was tested with Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods using all 13 protein-coding genes. The results strongly supported that the subfamily Amphiprioninae was monophyletic and P. biaculeatus should be assigned to the genus Amphiprion. Premnas biaculeatus with the percula complex were revealed to be the ancient anemonefish species. The tree forms of ND1, COIII, ND4, Cytb, Cytb+12S rRNA, Cytb+COI and Cytb+COI+12S rRNA were similar to that 13 protein-coding genes, therefore, we suggested that the suitable single mitochondrial gene for phylogenetic analysis of anemonefishes maybe Cytb. Additional mitogenomes of anemonefishes with a combination of nuclear markers will be useful to substantiate these

  6. Phylogenetic Diversity of the Bacillus pumilus Group and the Marine Ecotype Revealed by Multilocus Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chunming; Sun, Fengqin; Wang, Liping; Li, Guangyu; Shao, Zongze

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria closely related to Bacillus pumilus cannot be distinguished from such other species as B. safensis, B. stratosphericus, B. altitudinis and B. aerophilus simply by 16S rRNA gene sequence. In this report, 76 marine strains were subjected to phylogenetic analysis based on 7 housekeeping genes to understand the phylogeny and biogeography in comparison with other origins. A phylogenetic tree based on the 7 housekeeping genes concatenated in the order of gyrB-rpoB-pycA-pyrE-mutL-aroE-trpB was constructed and compared with trees based on the single genes. All these trees exhibited a similar topology structure with small variations. Our 79 strains were divided into 6 groups from A to F; Group A was the largest and contained 49 strains close to B. altitudinis. Additional two large groups were presented by B. safensis and B. pumilus respectively. Among the housekeeping genes, gyrB and pyrE showed comparatively better resolution power and may serve as molecular markers to distinguish these closely related strains. Furthermore, a recombinant phylogenetic tree based on the gyrB gene and containing 73 terrestrial and our isolates was constructed to detect the relationship between marine and other sources. The tree clearly showed that the bacteria of marine origin were clustered together in all the large groups. In contrast, the cluster belonging to B. safensis was mainly composed of bacteria of terrestrial origin. Interestingly, nearly all the marine isolates were at the top of the tree, indicating the possibility of the recent divergence of this bacterial group in marine environments. We conclude that B. altitudinis bacteria are the most widely spread of the B. pumilus group in marine environments. In summary, this report provides the first evidence regarding the systematic evolution of this bacterial group, and knowledge of their phylogenetic diversity will help in the understanding of their ecological role and distribution in marine environments. PMID:24244618

  7. Phyloproteomics: What Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals about Serum Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Asab, Mones; Chaouchi, Mohamed; Amri, Hakima

    2008-01-01

    Phyloproteomics is a novel analytical tool that solves the issue of comparability between proteomic analyses, utilizes a total spectrum-parsing algorithm, and produces biologically meaningful classification of specimens. Phyloproteomics employs two algorithms: a new parsing algorithm (UNIPAL) and a phylogenetic algorithm (MIX). By outgroup comparison, the parsing algorithm identifies novel or vanished MS peaks and peaks signifying up or down regulated proteins and scores them as derived or ancestral. The phylogenetic algorithm uses the latter scores to produce a biologically meaningful classification of the specimens. PMID:16944935

  8. Co-Inheritance Analysis within the Domains of Life Substantially Improves Network Inference by Phylogenetic Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Junha; Lee, Insuk

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic profiling, a network inference method based on gene inheritance profiles, has been widely used to construct functional gene networks in microbes. However, its utility for network inference in higher eukaryotes has been limited. An improved algorithm with an in-depth understanding of pathway evolution may overcome this limitation. In this study, we investigated the effects of taxonomic structures on co-inheritance analysis using 2,144 reference species in four query species: Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Homo sapiens. We observed three clusters of reference species based on a principal component analysis of the phylogenetic profiles, which correspond to the three domains of life—Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota—suggesting that pathways inherit primarily within specific domains or lower-ranked taxonomic groups during speciation. Hence, the co-inheritance pattern within a taxonomic group may be eroded by confounding inheritance patterns from irrelevant taxonomic groups. We demonstrated that co-inheritance analysis within domains substantially improved network inference not only in microbe species but also in the higher eukaryotes, including humans. Although we observed two sub-domain clusters of reference species within Eukaryota, co-inheritance analysis within these sub-domain taxonomic groups only marginally improved network inference. Therefore, we conclude that co-inheritance analysis within domains is the optimal approach to network inference with the given reference species. The construction of a series of human gene networks with increasing sample sizes of the reference species for each domain revealed that the size of the high-accuracy networks increased as additional reference species genomes were included, suggesting that within-domain co-inheritance analysis will continue to expand human gene networks as genomes of additional species are sequenced. Taken together, we propose that co

  9. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Bifidobacterium Genus Using Glycolysis Enzyme Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Katelyn; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2016-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are important members of the human gastrointestinal tract that promote the establishment of a healthy microbial consortium in the gut of infants. Recent studies have established that the Bifidobacterium genus is a polymorphic phylogenetic clade, which encompasses a diversity of species and subspecies that encode a broad range of proteins implicated in complex and non-digestible carbohydrate uptake and catabolism, ranging from human breast milk oligosaccharides, to plant fibers. Recent genomic studies have created a need to properly place Bifidobacterium species in a phylogenetic tree. Current approaches, based on core-genome analyses come at the cost of intensive sequencing and demanding analytical processes. Here, we propose a typing method based on sequences of glycolysis genes and the proteins they encode, to provide insights into diversity, typing, and phylogeny in this complex and broad genus. We show that glycolysis genes occur broadly in these genomes, to encode the machinery necessary for the biochemical spine of the cell, and provide a robust phylogenetic marker. Furthermore, glycolytic sequences-based trees are congruent with both the classical 16S rRNA phylogeny, and core genome-based strain clustering. Furthermore, these glycolysis markers can also be used to provide insights into the adaptive evolution of this genus, especially with regards to trends toward a high GC content. This streamlined method may open new avenues for phylogenetic studies on a broad scale, given the widespread occurrence of the glycolysis pathway in bacteria, and the diversity of the sequences they encode. PMID:27242688

  10. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Bifidobacterium Genus Using Glycolysis Enzyme Sequences.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Katelyn; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2016-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are important members of the human gastrointestinal tract that promote the establishment of a healthy microbial consortium in the gut of infants. Recent studies have established that the Bifidobacterium genus is a polymorphic phylogenetic clade, which encompasses a diversity of species and subspecies that encode a broad range of proteins implicated in complex and non-digestible carbohydrate uptake and catabolism, ranging from human breast milk oligosaccharides, to plant fibers. Recent genomic studies have created a need to properly place Bifidobacterium species in a phylogenetic tree. Current approaches, based on core-genome analyses come at the cost of intensive sequencing and demanding analytical processes. Here, we propose a typing method based on sequences of glycolysis genes and the proteins they encode, to provide insights into diversity, typing, and phylogeny in this complex and broad genus. We show that glycolysis genes occur broadly in these genomes, to encode the machinery necessary for the biochemical spine of the cell, and provide a robust phylogenetic marker. Furthermore, glycolytic sequences-based trees are congruent with both the classical 16S rRNA phylogeny, and core genome-based strain clustering. Furthermore, these glycolysis markers can also be used to provide insights into the adaptive evolution of this genus, especially with regards to trends toward a high GC content. This streamlined method may open new avenues for phylogenetic studies on a broad scale, given the widespread occurrence of the glycolysis pathway in bacteria, and the diversity of the sequences they encode. PMID:27242688

  11. Serologic and hexon phylogenetic analysis of ruminant adenoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the antigenic relationship among ruminant adenoviruses and determine their phylogenetic relationship based on the deduced hexon gene amino acid sequence. Results of reciprocal cross-neutralization tests demonstrated antigenic relationships in either on...

  12. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of glycoprotein of rabies virus isolated from several species in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sato, Go; Itou, Takuya; Shoji, Youko; Miura, Yasuo; Mikami, Takeshi; Ito, Mikako; Kurane, Ichiro; Samara, Samir I; Carvalho, Adolorata A B; Nociti, Darci P; Ito, Fumio H; Sakai, Takeo

    2004-07-01

    Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of the region containing the glycoprotein (G) gene, which is related to pathogenicity and antigenicity, and the G-L intergenic region were carried out in 14 Brazilian rabies virus isolates. The isolates were classified as dog-related rabies virus (DRRV) or vampire bat-related rabies virus (VRRV), by nucleoprotein (N) analysis. The nucleotide and amino acid (AA) homologies of the area containing the G protein gene and G-L intergenic region were generally lower than those of the ectodomain. In both regions, nucleotide and deduced AA homologies were lower among VRRVs than among DRRVs. There were AA differences between DRRV and VRRV at 3 antigenic sites and epitopes (IIa, WB+ and III), suggesting that DRRV and VRRV can be distinguished by differences of antigenicity. In a comparison of phylogenetic trees between the ectodomain and the area containing the G protein gene and G-L intergenic region, the branching patterns of the chiropteran and carnivoran rabies virus groups differed, whereas there were clear similarities in patterns within the DRRV and VRRV groups. Additionally, the VRRV isolates were more closely related to chiropteran strains isolated from Latin America than to Brazilian DRRV. These results indicate that Brazilian rabies virus isolates can be classified as DRRV or VRRV by analysis of the G gene and the G-L intergenic region, as well as by N gene analysis. PMID:15297743

  13. Phylogenetic Analysis of Fusarium solani Associated with the Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis

    PubMed Central

    Geib, Scott M.; Scully, Erin D.; Jimenez-Gasco, Maria del Mar; Carlson, John E.; Tien, Ming; Hoover, Kelli

    2012-01-01

    Culture-independent analysis of the gut of a wood-boring insect, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), revealed a consistent association between members of the fungal Fusarium solani species complex and the larval stage of both colony-derived and wild A. glabripennis populations. Using the translation elongation factor 1-alpha region for culture-independent phylogenetic and operational taxonomic unit (OTU)-based analyses, only two OTUs were detected, suggesting that genetic variance at this locus was low among A. glabripennis-associated isolates. To better survey the genetic variation of F. solani associated with A. glabripennis, and establish its phylogenetic relationship with other members of the F. solani species complex, single spore isolates were created from different populations and multi-locus phylogenetic analysis was performed using a combination of the translation elongation factor alpha-1, internal transcribed spacer, and large subunit rDNA regions. These analyses revealed that colony-derived larvae reared in three different tree species or on artificial diet, as well as larvae from wild populations collected from three additional tree species in New York City and from a single tree species in Worcester, MA, consistently harbored F. solani within their guts. While there is some genetic variation in the F. solani carried between populations, within-population variation is low. We speculate that F. solani is able to fill a broad niche in the A. glabripennis gut, providing it with fungal lignocellulases to allow the larvae to grow and develop on woody tissue. However, it is likely that many F. solani genotypes could potentially fill this niche, so the relationship may not be limited to a single member of the F. solani species complex. While little is known about the role of filamentous fungi and their symbiotic associations with insects, this report suggests that larval A. glabripennis has developed an intimate relationship with F. solani

  14. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Corizus tetraspilus (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae) and Phylogenetic Analysis of Pentatomomorpha

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhong-Long; Wang, Juan; Shen, Yu-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) are the most extensively used genetic information for molecular evolution, phylogenetics and population genetics. Pentatomomorpha (>14,000 species) is the second largest infraorder of Heteroptera and of great economic importance. To better understand the diversity and phylogeny within Pentatomomorpha, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitogenome of Corizus tetraspilus (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae), an important pest of alfalfa in China. We analyzed the main features of the C. tetraspilus mitogenome, and provided a comparative analysis with four other Coreoidea species. Our results reveal that gene content, gene arrangement, nucleotide composition, codon usage, rRNA structures and sequences of mitochondrial transcription termination factor are conserved in Coreoidea. Comparative analysis shows that different protein-coding genes have been subject to different evolutionary rates correlated with the G+C content. All the transfer RNA genes found in Coreoidea have the typical clover leaf secondary structure, except for trnS1 (AGN) which lacks the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm and possesses a unusual anticodon stem (9 bp vs. the normal 5 bp). The control regions (CRs) among Coreoidea are highly variable in size, of which the CR of C. tetraspilus is the smallest (440 bp), making the C. tetraspilus mitogenome the smallest (14,989 bp) within all completely sequenced Coreoidea mitogenomes. No conserved motifs are found in the CRs of Coreoidea. In addition, the A+T content (60.68%) of the CR of C. tetraspilus is much lower than that of the entire mitogenome (74.88%), and is lowest among Coreoidea. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitogenomic data support the monophyly of each superfamily within Pentatomomorpha, and recognize a phylogenetic relationship of (Aradoidea + (Pentatomoidea + (Lygaeoidea + (Pyrrhocoroidea + Coreoidea)))). PMID:26042898

  15. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Corizus tetraspilus (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae) and Phylogenetic Analysis of Pentatomomorpha.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Guo, Zhong-Long; Wang, Juan; Shen, Yu-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) are the most extensively used genetic information for molecular evolution, phylogenetics and population genetics. Pentatomomorpha (>14,000 species) is the second largest infraorder of Heteroptera and of great economic importance. To better understand the diversity and phylogeny within Pentatomomorpha, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitogenome of Corizus tetraspilus (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae), an important pest of alfalfa in China. We analyzed the main features of the C. tetraspilus mitogenome, and provided a comparative analysis with four other Coreoidea species. Our results reveal that gene content, gene arrangement, nucleotide composition, codon usage, rRNA structures and sequences of mitochondrial transcription termination factor are conserved in Coreoidea. Comparative analysis shows that different protein-coding genes have been subject to different evolutionary rates correlated with the G+C content. All the transfer RNA genes found in Coreoidea have the typical clover leaf secondary structure, except for trnS1 (AGN) which lacks the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm and possesses a unusual anticodon stem (9 bp vs. the normal 5 bp). The control regions (CRs) among Coreoidea are highly variable in size, of which the CR of C. tetraspilus is the smallest (440 bp), making the C. tetraspilus mitogenome the smallest (14,989 bp) within all completely sequenced Coreoidea mitogenomes. No conserved motifs are found in the CRs of Coreoidea. In addition, the A+T content (60.68%) of the CR of C. tetraspilus is much lower than that of the entire mitogenome (74.88%), and is lowest among Coreoidea. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitogenomic data support the monophyly of each superfamily within Pentatomomorpha, and recognize a phylogenetic relationship of (Aradoidea + (Pentatomoidea + (Lygaeoidea + (Pyrrhocoroidea + Coreoidea)))). PMID:26042898

  16. Phylogenetic study of dengue-3 virus in Taiwan with sequence analysis of the core gene.

    PubMed

    Tung, Yi-Ching; Lin, Kuei-Hsiang; Chang, Ko; Ke, Liang-Yin; Ke, Guan-Ming; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Chiang, Horn-Che

    2008-02-01

    Dengue virus serotype 3 (dengue-3) has been classified into five genotypes (I-V) by phylogenetic analysis based on different viral genes. To investigate the genetic variability and evolutionary character of the dengue-3 isolates in southern Taiwan from 2005 to 2006, we analyzed the 290 nucleotides of the core (C) gene of 12 dengue-3 isolates and compared them with the published C gene sequences of global dengue-3 strains available in GenBank, including four isolates from 1998 and one isolate from 1999, from Taiwan. The dengue-3 viruses from 2005 to 2006 were not from continuous spread of an epidemic strain or re-emergence of the 2005 strains in the 2-year period because there was a 5.4-6.2% difference in the 290 nucleotides of the C gene and different genotypes between the 2005 and 2006 strains. Most of the nucleotide changes, compared with a prototype dengue-3 virus, H87, occurred in the third codon position and were non-synonymous mutations occurring naturally in the C gene. In addition, there was no consistent difference in the 290 nucleotides of the C gene between eight dengue fever and two dengue hemorrhagic fever isolates from 2006. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that the isolates from the 1998, 1999 and 2006 Taiwan dengue-3 epidemics are phylogenetically related and belong to genotype III. It was noted that the 2005 Taiwan dengue-3 isolates belong to another genotype. This molecular epidemiology study of dengue-3 viruses in Taiwan helps to elucidate whether there is a continuation of outbreaks in consecutive years, re-emergence of endemic dengue virus, or introduction of strains from other countries.

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of Cervus elaphus songaricus (Cetartiodactyla: Cervinae) and a phylogenetic analysis with related species.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiqing; Ba, Hengxing; Yang, Fuhe

    2016-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome of Tianshan wapiti, Cervus elaphus songaricus, is 16,419 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. The phylogenetic trees were reconstructed with the concatenated nucleotide sequences of the 13 protein-coding genes using maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. MP and BI phylogenetic trees here showed an identical tree topology. The monopoly of red deer, wapiti and sika deer was well supported, and wapiti was found to share a closer relationship with sika deer. Tianshan wapiti shared a closer relationship with xanthopygus than yarkandensis. Rusa unicolor and Rucervus eldi were given a basal phylogenetic position. Our phylogenetic analysis provided a robust phylogenetic resolution spanning the entire evolutionary relationship of the subfamily Cervinae. PMID:24725059

  18. Data for constructing insect genome content matrices for phylogenetic analysis and functional annotation

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Foox, Jonathan; DeSalle, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Twenty one fully sequenced and well annotated insect genomes were used to construct genome content matrices for phylogenetic analysis and functional annotation of insect genomes. To examine the role of e-value cutoff in ortholog determination we used scaled e-value cutoffs and a single linkage clustering approach.. The present communication includes (1) a list of the genomes used to construct the genome content phylogenetic matrices, (2) a nexus file with the data matrices used in phylogenetic analysis, (3) a nexus file with the Newick trees generated by phylogenetic analysis, (4) an excel file listing the Core (CORE) genes and Unique (UNI) genes found in five insect groups, and (5) a figure showing a plot of consistency index (CI) versus percent of unannotated genes that are apomorphies in the data set for gene losses and gains and bar plots of gains and losses for four consistency index (CI) cutoffs. PMID:26862572

  19. Data for constructing insect genome content matrices for phylogenetic analysis and functional annotation.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Foox, Jonathan; DeSalle, Rob

    2016-03-01

    Twenty one fully sequenced and well annotated insect genomes were used to construct genome content matrices for phylogenetic analysis and functional annotation of insect genomes. To examine the role of e-value cutoff in ortholog determination we used scaled e-value cutoffs and a single linkage clustering approach.. The present communication includes (1) a list of the genomes used to construct the genome content phylogenetic matrices, (2) a nexus file with the data matrices used in phylogenetic analysis, (3) a nexus file with the Newick trees generated by phylogenetic analysis, (4) an excel file listing the Core (CORE) genes and Unique (UNI) genes found in five insect groups, and (5) a figure showing a plot of consistency index (CI) versus percent of unannotated genes that are apomorphies in the data set for gene losses and gains and bar plots of gains and losses for four consistency index (CI) cutoffs. PMID:26862572

  20. Using Genes as Characters and a Parsimony Analysis to Explore the Phylogenetic Position of Turtles

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Weizhao; Dai, Qiang; Fu, Jinzhong

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of turtles within the vertebrate tree of life remains controversial. Conflicting conclusions from different studies are likely a consequence of systematic error in the tree construction process, rather than random error from small amounts of data. Using genomic data, we evaluate the phylogenetic position of turtles with both conventional concatenated data analysis and a “genes as characters” approach. Two datasets were constructed, one with seven species (human, opossum, zebra finch, chicken, green anole, Chinese pond turtle, and western clawed frog) and 4584 orthologous genes, and the second with four additional species (soft-shelled turtle, Nile crocodile, royal python, and tuatara) but only 1638 genes. Our concatenated data analysis strongly supported turtle as the sister-group to archosaurs (the archosaur hypothesis), similar to several recent genomic data based studies using similar methods. When using genes as characters and gene trees as character-state trees with equal weighting for each gene, however, our parsimony analysis suggested that turtles are possibly sister-group to diapsids, archosaurs, or lepidosaurs. None of these resolutions were strongly supported by bootstraps. Furthermore, our incongruence analysis clearly demonstrated that there is a large amount of inconsistency among genes and most of the conflict relates to the placement of turtles. We conclude that the uncertain placement of turtles is a reflection of the true state of nature. Concatenated data analysis of large and heterogeneous datasets likely suffers from systematic error and over-estimates of confidence as a consequence of a large number of characters. Using genes as characters offers an alternative for phylogenomic analysis. It has potential to reduce systematic error, such as data heterogeneity and long-branch attraction, and it can also avoid problems associated with computation time and model selection. Finally, treating genes as characters

  1. Analysis of Acorus calamus chloroplast genome and its phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Goremykin, Vadim V; Holland, Barbara; Hirsch-Ernst, Karen I; Hellwig, Frank H

    2005-09-01

    Determining the phylogenetic relationships among the major lines of angiosperms is a long-standing problem, yet the uncertainty as to the phylogenetic affinity of these lines persists. While a number of studies have suggested that the ANITA (Amborella-Nymphaeales-Illiciales-Trimeniales-Aristolochiales) grade is basal within angiosperms, studies of complete chloroplast genome sequences also suggested an alternative tree, wherein the line leading to the grasses branches first among the angiosperms. To improve taxon sampling in the existing chloroplast genome data, we sequenced the chloroplast genome of the monocot Acorus calamus. We generated a concatenated alignment (89,436 positions for 15 taxa), encompassing almost all sequences usable for phylogeny reconstruction within spermatophytes. The data still contain support for both the ANITA-basal and grasses-basal hypotheses. Using simulations we can show that were the ANITA-basal hypothesis true, parsimony (and distance-based methods with many models) would be expected to fail to recover it. The self-evident explanation for this failure appears to be a long-branch attraction (LBA) between the clade of grasses and the out-group. However, this LBA cannot explain the discrepancies observed between tree topology recovered using the maximum likelihood (ML) method and the topologies recovered using the parsimony and distance-based methods when grasses are deleted. Furthermore, the fact that neither maximum parsimony nor distance methods consistently recover the ML tree, when according to the simulations they would be expected to, when the out-group (Pinus) is deleted, suggests that either the generating tree is not correct or the best symmetric model is misspecified (or both). We demonstrate that the tree recovered under ML is extremely sensitive to model specification and that the best symmetric model is misspecified. Hence, we remain agnostic regarding phylogenetic relationships among basal angiosperm lineages.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of an anaerobic, trichlorobenzene-transforming microbial consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Wintzingerode, F. von; Goebel, U.B.; Selent, B.; Hegemann, W.

    1999-01-01

    A culture-independent phylogenetic survey for an anaerobic trichlorobenzene-transforming microbial community was carried out. Small-subunit rRNA genes were PCR amplified from community DNA by using primers specific for Bacteria or Euryarchaeota and were subsequently cloned. Application of a new hybridization-based screening approach revealed 51 bacterial clone families, one of which was closely related to dechlorinating Dehalobacter species. Several clone sequences clustered to rDNA sequences obtained from a molecular study of an anaerobic aquifer contaminated with hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents.

  3. Towards a phylogenetic generic classification of Thelypteridaceae: Additional sampling suggests alterations of neotropical taxa and further study of paleotropical genera.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Thaís Elias; Hennequin, Sabine; Schneider, Harald; Smith, Alan R; Batista, João Aguiar Nogueira; Ramalho, Aline Joseph; Proite, Karina; Salino, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Thelypteridaceae is one of the largest fern families, having about 950 species and a cosmopolitan distribution but with most species occurring in tropical and subtropical regions. Its generic classification remains controversial, with different authors recognizing from one up to 32 genera. Phylogenetic relationships within the family have not been exhaustively studied, but previous studies have confirmed the monophyly of the lineage. Thus far, sampling has been inadequate for establishing a robust hypothesis of infrafamilial relationships within the family. In order to understand phylogenetic relationships within Thelypteridaceae and thus to improve generic reclassification, we expand the molecular sampling, including new samples of Old World taxa and, especially, many additional neotropical representatives. We also explore the monophyly of exclusively or mostly neotropical genera Amauropelta, Goniopteris, Meniscium, and Steiropteris. Our sampling includes 68 taxa and 134 newly generated sequences from two plastid genomic regions (rps4-trnS and trnL-trnF), plus 73 rps4 and 72 trnL-trnF sequences from GenBank. These data resulted in a concatenated matrix of 1980 molecular characters for 149 taxa. The combined data set was analyzed using maximum parsimony and bayesian inference of phylogeny. Our results are consistent with the general topological structure found in previous studies, including two main lineages within the family: phegopteroid and thelypteroid. The thelypteroid lineage comprises two clades; one of these included the segregates Metathelypteris, Coryphopteris, and Amauropelta (including part of Parathelypteris), whereas the other comprises all segregates of Cyclosorus s.l., such as Goniopteris, Meniscium, and Steiropteris (including Thelypteris polypodioides, previously incertae sedis). The three mainly neotropical segregates were found to be monophyletic but nested in a broadly defined Cyclosorus. The fourth mainly neotropical segregate, Amauropelta

  4. Towards a phylogenetic generic classification of Thelypteridaceae: Additional sampling suggests alterations of neotropical taxa and further study of paleotropical genera.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Thaís Elias; Hennequin, Sabine; Schneider, Harald; Smith, Alan R; Batista, João Aguiar Nogueira; Ramalho, Aline Joseph; Proite, Karina; Salino, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Thelypteridaceae is one of the largest fern families, having about 950 species and a cosmopolitan distribution but with most species occurring in tropical and subtropical regions. Its generic classification remains controversial, with different authors recognizing from one up to 32 genera. Phylogenetic relationships within the family have not been exhaustively studied, but previous studies have confirmed the monophyly of the lineage. Thus far, sampling has been inadequate for establishing a robust hypothesis of infrafamilial relationships within the family. In order to understand phylogenetic relationships within Thelypteridaceae and thus to improve generic reclassification, we expand the molecular sampling, including new samples of Old World taxa and, especially, many additional neotropical representatives. We also explore the monophyly of exclusively or mostly neotropical genera Amauropelta, Goniopteris, Meniscium, and Steiropteris. Our sampling includes 68 taxa and 134 newly generated sequences from two plastid genomic regions (rps4-trnS and trnL-trnF), plus 73 rps4 and 72 trnL-trnF sequences from GenBank. These data resulted in a concatenated matrix of 1980 molecular characters for 149 taxa. The combined data set was analyzed using maximum parsimony and bayesian inference of phylogeny. Our results are consistent with the general topological structure found in previous studies, including two main lineages within the family: phegopteroid and thelypteroid. The thelypteroid lineage comprises two clades; one of these included the segregates Metathelypteris, Coryphopteris, and Amauropelta (including part of Parathelypteris), whereas the other comprises all segregates of Cyclosorus s.l., such as Goniopteris, Meniscium, and Steiropteris (including Thelypteris polypodioides, previously incertae sedis). The three mainly neotropical segregates were found to be monophyletic but nested in a broadly defined Cyclosorus. The fourth mainly neotropical segregate, Amauropelta

  5. Preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the Andean clade and the placement of new Colombian blueberries (Ericaceae, Vaccinieae)

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza-Peñalosa, Paola; Salinas, Nelson R.; Virnig, Anne Lucy S.; Wheeler, Ward C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The blueberry tribe Vaccinieae (Ericaceae) is particularly diverse in South America and underwent extensive radiation in Colombia where many endemics occur. Recent fieldwork in Colombia has resulted in valuable additions to the phylogeny and as well in the discovery of morphologically noteworthy new species that need to be phylogenetically placed before being named. This is particularly important, as the monophyly of many of the studied genera have not been confirmed. In order to advance our understanding of the relationships within neotropical Vaccinieae and advice the taxonomy of the new blueberry relatives, here we present the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis for the Andean clade. Anthopterus, Demosthenesia, and Pellegrinia are among the putative Andean genera recovered as monophyletic, while other eight Andean genera were not. The analyses also showed that genera that have been traditionally widely defined are non-monophyletic and could be further split into more discrete groups. Four newly discovered Colombian Vaccinieae are placed in the monophyletic Satyria s.s. and the Psammisia I clade. Although these new species are endemic to the Colombian Western Cordillera and Chocó biogeographic region and three are not known outside of Las Orquídeas National Park, they do not form sister pairs. PMID:25987883

  6. Isolation, complete genome sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of the first Chuzan virus in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Lin, Jun; Chang, Jitao; Cao, Yingying; Qin, Shaomin; Wu, Jianmin; Yu, Li

    2016-02-01

    A Chuzan virus (CHUV), defined as GX871 here, was isolated from blood from a sentinel cattle firstly in China, and its full-length genome was sequenced in this study. The GX871 genome included 10 segments and 18914 bp, one base fewer than the CHUV prototype strain K-47 due to a one-base deletion in the 5' non-coding region of segment 8. A frameshift mutation was detected in a short coding region (1010-1026 nt) corresponding to the VP1 protein; this frameshift resulted in a five-amino acid mutation from 336CVLSY340 to 336YGAKL340. In addition, there were a one-base deletion at 1713 nt and a one-base insertion at 1682 nt in the 3' non-coding region of segment 5. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the deduced VP2 amino acid sequences, Palyam serogroup viruses were classified into three groups. The Chinese CHUV isolate GX871 was categorized into the same group as CHUV prototype strain K-47. The phylogenetic tree was divided into three clusters according to the geographical distribution of the partial nucleotide sequences of VP7, and this arrangement might define the geographical gene pool of CHUV.

  7. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of strombid gastropod morphological diversity.

    PubMed

    Latiolais, Jared M; Taylor, Michael S; Roy, Kaustuv; Hellberg, Michael E

    2006-11-01

    The shells of strombid gastropods show a wide variety of forms, ranging from small and fusiform to large and elaborately ornamented with a strongly flared outer lip. Here, we present the first species-level molecular phylogeny for strombids and use the resulting phylogenetic framework to explore relationships between species richness and morphological diversity. We use portions of one nuclear (325 bp of histone H3) and one mitochondrial (640 bp of cytochrome oxidase I, COI) gene to infer relationships within the two most species-rich genera in the Strombidae: Strombus and Lambis. We include 32 species of Strombus, representing 10 of 11 extant subgenera, and 3 of the 9 species of Lambis, representing 2 of 3 extant subgenera. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of COI and of H3 and COI combined suggest Lambis is nested within a paraphyletic Strombus. Eastern Pacific and western Atlantic species of Strombus form a relatively recent monophyletic radiation within an older, paraphyletic Indo-West Pacific grade. Morphological diversity of subclades scales positively with species richness but does not show evidence of strong phylogenetic constraints. PMID:16839783

  8. Evolution of climatic niche specialization: a phylogenetic analysis in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Maria Fernanda; Wiens, John J

    2014-11-22

    The evolution of climatic niche specialization has important implications for many topics in ecology, evolution and conservation. The climatic niche reflects the set of temperature and precipitation conditions where a species can occur. Thus, specialization to a limited set of climatic conditions can be important for understanding patterns of biogeography, species richness, community structure, allopatric speciation, spread of invasive species and responses to climate change. Nevertheless, the factors that determine climatic niche width (level of specialization) remain poorly explored. Here, we test whether species that occur in more extreme climates are more highly specialized for those conditions, and whether there are trade-offs between niche widths on different climatic niche axes (e.g. do species that tolerate a broad range of temperatures tolerate only a limited range of precipitation regimes?). We test these hypotheses in amphibians, using phylogenetic comparative methods and global-scale datasets, including 2712 species with both climatic and phylogenetic data. Our results do not support either hypothesis. Rather than finding narrower niches in more extreme environments, niches tend to be narrower on one end of a climatic gradient but wider on the other. We also find that temperature and precipitation niche breadths are positively related, rather than showing trade-offs. Finally, our results suggest that most amphibian species occur in relatively warm and dry environments and have relatively narrow climatic niche widths on both of these axes. Thus, they may be especially imperilled by anthropogenic climate change.

  9. Evolution of climatic niche specialization: a phylogenetic analysis in amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Bonetti, Maria Fernanda; Wiens, John J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of climatic niche specialization has important implications for many topics in ecology, evolution and conservation. The climatic niche reflects the set of temperature and precipitation conditions where a species can occur. Thus, specialization to a limited set of climatic conditions can be important for understanding patterns of biogeography, species richness, community structure, allopatric speciation, spread of invasive species and responses to climate change. Nevertheless, the factors that determine climatic niche width (level of specialization) remain poorly explored. Here, we test whether species that occur in more extreme climates are more highly specialized for those conditions, and whether there are trade-offs between niche widths on different climatic niche axes (e.g. do species that tolerate a broad range of temperatures tolerate only a limited range of precipitation regimes?). We test these hypotheses in amphibians, using phylogenetic comparative methods and global-scale datasets, including 2712 species with both climatic and phylogenetic data. Our results do not support either hypothesis. Rather than finding narrower niches in more extreme environments, niches tend to be narrower on one end of a climatic gradient but wider on the other. We also find that temperature and precipitation niche breadths are positively related, rather than showing trade-offs. Finally, our results suggest that most amphibian species occur in relatively warm and dry environments and have relatively narrow climatic niche widths on both of these axes. Thus, they may be especially imperilled by anthropogenic climate change. PMID:25274369

  10. Evolution of climatic niche specialization: a phylogenetic analysis in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Maria Fernanda; Wiens, John J

    2014-11-22

    The evolution of climatic niche specialization has important implications for many topics in ecology, evolution and conservation. The climatic niche reflects the set of temperature and precipitation conditions where a species can occur. Thus, specialization to a limited set of climatic conditions can be important for understanding patterns of biogeography, species richness, community structure, allopatric speciation, spread of invasive species and responses to climate change. Nevertheless, the factors that determine climatic niche width (level of specialization) remain poorly explored. Here, we test whether species that occur in more extreme climates are more highly specialized for those conditions, and whether there are trade-offs between niche widths on different climatic niche axes (e.g. do species that tolerate a broad range of temperatures tolerate only a limited range of precipitation regimes?). We test these hypotheses in amphibians, using phylogenetic comparative methods and global-scale datasets, including 2712 species with both climatic and phylogenetic data. Our results do not support either hypothesis. Rather than finding narrower niches in more extreme environments, niches tend to be narrower on one end of a climatic gradient but wider on the other. We also find that temperature and precipitation niche breadths are positively related, rather than showing trade-offs. Finally, our results suggest that most amphibian species occur in relatively warm and dry environments and have relatively narrow climatic niche widths on both of these axes. Thus, they may be especially imperilled by anthropogenic climate change. PMID:25274369

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of HIV type 1 CRF02_AG in multiple genes in Italian and African patients living in Italy.

    PubMed

    Paolucci, Stefania; Piralla, Antonio; Fiorina, Loretta; Gulminetti, Roberto; Novati, Stefano; Lai, Alessia; Baldanti, Fausto

    2014-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) circulating recombinant form (CRF) 02_AG is a major recombinant variant in different geographic areas and is predominant in West and Central Africa. Of particular interest is the increased frequency of CRF02_AG in patients living in Italy. In the present study, phylogenetic analyses were performed on gag, pol (integrase), and env (gp120 and gp41) gene sequences from 34 CRF02_AG-infected patients living in Italy. Thirty out of 34 (89.4%) patients were from western Africa, 3/34 (8.8%) were born in Italy, and 1/34 (2.9%) was from Cuba. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of a well-supported clade (aLRT score>0.75) of sequences only in gp120 and gp41 trees. Evolutionary rate estimation showed a faster evolution for the gp120 gene with respect to the gag, integrase, and gp41 genes. This finding was confirmed by the analysis of interpatient variability. Intrapatient variability was greater in gp120 gene sequences; 10/19 (52.6%; p<0.001) patients had a ratio of dN/dS>1 as compared with gag, integrase, and gp41 gene sequences with dN/dS ratios<1. In summary, phylogenetic analyses of CRF02_AG strains offer a perspective on intrapatient and interpatient variability among CRF02_AG-infected patients living in Italy. In addition, divergent phylogenetic relationships were observed among different genomic regions.

  12. Phylogenetic Analysis of Enteroaggregative and Diffusely Adherent Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Czeczulin, John R.; Whittam, Thomas S.; Henderson, Ian R.; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando; Nataro, James P.

    1999-01-01

    The phylogenetics of the various pathotypes of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli are not completely understood. In this study, we identified several plasmid and chromosomal genes in the pathogenic enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) prototype strain 042 and determined the prevalence of these loci among EAEC and diffusely adherent E. coli strains. The distribution of these genes is analyzed within an evolutionary framework provided by the characterization of allelic variation in housekeeping genes via multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Our data reveal that EAEC strains are heterogeneous with respect to chromosomal and plasmid-borne genes but that the majority harbor a member of a conserved family of virulence plasmids. Comparison of plasmid and chromosomal relatedness of strains suggests clonality of chromosomal markers and a limited transfer model of plasmid distribution. PMID:10338471

  13. Evolutionary ecology of specialization: insights from phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Vamosi, Jana C; Armbruster, W Scott; Renner, Susanne S

    2014-11-22

    In this Special feature, we assemble studies that illustrate phylogenetic approaches to studying salient questions regarding the effect of specialization on lineage diversification. The studies use an array of techniques involving a wide-ranging collection of biological systems (plants, butterflies, fish and amphibians are all represented). Their results reveal that macroevolutionary examination of specialization provides insight into the patterns of trade-offs in specialized systems; in particular, the genetic mechanisms of trade-offs appear to extend to very different aspects of life history in different groups. In turn, because a species may be a specialist from one perspective and a generalist in others, these trade-offs influence whether we perceive specialization to have effects on the evolutionary success of a lineage when we examine specialization only along a single axis. Finally, how geographical range influences speciation and extinction of specialist lineages remains a question offering much potential for further insight.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of the NS5 gene of Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Adiga, Rama

    2016-10-01

    ZIKV infection has become a global threat spreading across 31 countries in Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. However, little information is available about the molecular epidemiology of ZIKV. Shared mutation of a threonine residue to alanine at the same position in the C terminal of NS5 sequences was observed in sequences from Colombia, Mexico, Panama, and Martinique. The sequences in the phylogenetic tree fell within the same cluster. Based on shared mutation the presence of a Latin American genotype was proposed. Comparison of African and Asian lineages yielded R29N, N273S, H383Q, and P391S mutation. The study highlights that mutation of amino acids at NS5 may contribute to neutropism of ZIKV. J. Med. Virol. 88:1821-1826, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of the NS5 gene of Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Adiga, Rama

    2016-10-01

    ZIKV infection has become a global threat spreading across 31 countries in Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. However, little information is available about the molecular epidemiology of ZIKV. Shared mutation of a threonine residue to alanine at the same position in the C terminal of NS5 sequences was observed in sequences from Colombia, Mexico, Panama, and Martinique. The sequences in the phylogenetic tree fell within the same cluster. Based on shared mutation the presence of a Latin American genotype was proposed. Comparison of African and Asian lineages yielded R29N, N273S, H383Q, and P391S mutation. The study highlights that mutation of amino acids at NS5 may contribute to neutropism of ZIKV. J. Med. Virol. 88:1821-1826, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27335310

  16. Evolutionary ecology of specialization: insights from phylogenetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vamosi, Jana C.; Armbruster, W. Scott; Renner, Susanne S.

    2014-01-01

    In this Special feature, we assemble studies that illustrate phylogenetic approaches to studying salient questions regarding the effect of specialization on lineage diversification. The studies use an array of techniques involving a wide-ranging collection of biological systems (plants, butterflies, fish and amphibians are all represented). Their results reveal that macroevolutionary examination of specialization provides insight into the patterns of trade-offs in specialized systems; in particular, the genetic mechanisms of trade-offs appear to extend to very different aspects of life history in different groups. In turn, because a species may be a specialist from one perspective and a generalist in others, these trade-offs influence whether we perceive specialization to have effects on the evolutionary success of a lineage when we examine specialization only along a single axis. Finally, how geographical range influences speciation and extinction of specialist lineages remains a question offering much potential for further insight. PMID:25274367

  17. Assigning protein functions by comparative genome analysis protein phylogenetic profiles

    DOEpatents

    Pellegrini, Matteo; Marcotte, Edward M.; Thompson, Michael J.; Eisenberg, David; Grothe, Robert; Yeates, Todd O.

    2003-05-13

    A computational method system, and computer program are provided for inferring functional links from genome sequences. One method is based on the observation that some pairs of proteins A' and B' have homologs in another organism fused into a single protein chain AB. A trans-genome comparison of sequences can reveal these AB sequences, which are Rosetta Stone sequences because they decipher an interaction between A' and B. Another method compares the genomic sequence of two or more organisms to create a phylogenetic profile for each protein indicating its presence or absence across all the genomes. The profile provides information regarding functional links between different families of proteins. In yet another method a combination of the above two methods is used to predict functional links.

  18. A Gateway for Phylogenetic Analysis Powered by Grid Computing Featuring GARLI 2.0

    PubMed Central

    Bazinet, Adam L.; Zwickl, Derrick J.; Cummings, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce molecularevolution.org, a publicly available gateway for high-throughput, maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis powered by grid computing. The gateway features a garli 2.0 web service that enables a user to quickly and easily submit thousands of maximum likelihood tree searches or bootstrap searches that are executed in parallel on distributed computing resources. The garli web service allows one to easily specify partitioned substitution models using a graphical interface, and it performs sophisticated post-processing of phylogenetic results. Although the garli web service has been used by the research community for over three years, here we formally announce the availability of the service, describe its capabilities, highlight new features and recent improvements, and provide details about how the grid system efficiently delivers high-quality phylogenetic results. [garli, gateway, grid computing, maximum likelihood, molecular evolution portal, phylogenetics, web service.] PMID:24789072

  19. A specimen-level phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision of Diplodocidae (Dinosauria, Sauropoda)

    PubMed Central

    Mateus, Octávio; Benson, Roger B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Diplodocidae are among the best known sauropod dinosaurs. Several species were described in the late 1800s or early 1900s from the Morrison Formation of North America. Since then, numerous additional specimens were recovered in the USA, Tanzania, Portugal, and Argentina, as well as possibly Spain, England, Georgia, Zimbabwe, and Asia. To date, the clade includes about 12 to 15 nominal species, some of them with questionable taxonomic status (e.g., ‘Diplodocus’ hayi or Dyslocosaurus polyonychius), and ranging in age from Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. However, intrageneric relationships of the iconic, multi-species genera Apatosaurus and Diplodocus are still poorly known. The way to resolve this issue is a specimen-based phylogenetic analysis, which has been previously implemented for Apatosaurus, but is here performed for the first time for the entire clade of Diplodocidae. The analysis includes 81 operational taxonomic units, 49 of which belong to Diplodocidae. The set of OTUs includes all name-bearing type specimens previously proposed to belong to Diplodocidae, alongside a set of relatively complete referred specimens, which increase the amount of anatomically overlapping material. Non-diplodocid outgroups were selected to test the affinities of potential diplodocid specimens that have subsequently been suggested to belong outside the clade. The specimens were scored for 477 morphological characters, representing one of the most extensive phylogenetic analyses of sauropod dinosaurs. Character states were figured and tables given in the case of numerical characters. The resulting cladogram recovers the classical arrangement of diplodocid relationships. Two numerical approaches were used to increase reproducibility in our taxonomic delimitation of species and genera. This resulted in the proposal that some species previously included in well-known genera like Apatosaurus and Diplodocus are generically distinct. Of particular note is that the famous genus

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of beta-papillomaviruses as inferred from nucleotide and amino acid sequence data.

    PubMed

    Gottschling, Marc; Köhler, Anja; Stockfleth, Eggert; Nindl, Ingo

    2007-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) of the beta-group seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancer. Papillomaviruses are host specific and are considered closely co-evolving with their hosts. Evolutionary incongruence between early genes and late genes has been reported among oncogenic genital alpha-papillomaviruses and considerably challenge phylogenetic reconstructions. We investigated the relationships of 29 beta-HPV (25 types plus four putative new types, subtypes, or variants) as inferred from codon aligned and amino acid sequence data of the genes E1, E2, E6, E7, L1, and L2 using likelihood, distance, and parsimony approaches. An analysis of a L1 fragment included additional nucleotide and amino acid sequences from seven non-human beta-papillomaviruses. Early genes and late genes evolution did not conflict significantly in beta-papillomaviruses based on partition homogeneity tests (p > or = 0.001). As inferred from the complete genome analyses, beta-papillomaviruses were monophyletic and segregated into four highly supported monophyletic assemblages corresponding to the species 1, 2, 3, and fused 4/5. They basically split into the species 1 and the remainder of beta-papillomaviruses, whose species 3, 4, and 5 constituted the sistergroup of species 2. beta-Papillomaviruses have been isolated from humans, apes, and monkeys, and phylogenetic analyses of the L1 fragment showed non-human papillomaviruses highly polyphyletic nesting within the HPV species. Thus, host and virus phylogenies were not congruent in beta-papillomaviruses, and multiple invasions across species borders may contribute (additionally to host-linked evolution) to their diversification.

  1. [Phylogenetic analysis and expression patterns of tropomyosin in amphioxus].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Yi; Lin, Yu-Shuang; Zhang, Hong-Wei

    2012-08-01

    In amphioxus, we found a mesoderm related gene, tropomyosin, which encodes a protein comprising 284 amino acid residues, sharing high identities with other known Tropomyosin proteins both in vertebrates and invertebrates. Phylogenetically, amphioxus Tropomyosin fell outside the invertebrate clade and was at the base of the vertebrate protein family clade, indicating that it may represent an independent branch. From the early neurula to the larva stage, whole-mount in situ hybridization and histological sections found transcripts of amphioxus tropomyosin gene. Weak tropomyosin expression was first detected in the wall of the archenteron at about 10 hours-post-fertilization neurula stage, while intense expression was revealed in the differentiating presumptive notochord and the muscle. Transcripts of tropomyosin were then expressed in the formed notochord and somites. Gene expression seemed to continue in these developing organs throughout the neurular stages and remained till 72-hours, during the early larval stages. In situ study still showed tropomyosin was also expressed in the neural tube, hepatic diverticulum, notochord and the spaces between myotomes in adult amphioxus. Our results indicated that tropomyosin may play an important role in both embryonic development and adult life.

  2. [Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial diversity in Pacific Arctic sediments].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Rong; Yu, Yong; Zeng, Yin-Xin; Chen, Bo; Ren, Da-Ming

    2006-04-01

    Using PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) methods, bacterial phylogenetic diversity in three Pacific Arctic sediment samples were investigated, taken from different depths in the range of 47 m to 3850 m. DGGE profiles of different layers in the same sediment sample are not completely same. 16S rDNA sequences corresponding to 50 excised bands from three sediment samples were analyzed and fell into seven lineages of the domain Bacteria: alpha- beta-, gamma-, delta-, epsilon- Proteobacteria, the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) group and Actinobacteria. However, the composition of bacterial phylotypes in three sediments is different. Fourteen sequences obtained from sediment B78 collected from the Canadian Basin belong to beta-, gamma- Proteobacteria, Comamonadaceae and Acidobacteria. Bacterial phylotypes in submarine plateau sediment P24 are alpha-, gamma-, delta-Proteobacteria; While seventeen sequences from sediment S11 colleted from continental slop in the Chukchi Sea are grouped into alpha-, gamma-, delta-, epsilon-Proteobacteria, the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) group and Actinobacteria. It is suggested the different characteristics of three sediments may cause the difference in the composition of bacterial phylotypes. 16S rDNA sequences from members of gamma-Proteobacteria dominated three sediments samples. The majority of the sequences were most closely related to uncultured marine environmental sequences, especially marine sediment environmental sequences (88% - 100%). PMID:16736572

  3. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola flukes from eastern India.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kei; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Singh, T Shantikumar; Shoriki, Takuya; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2015-10-01

    Fasciola flukes from eastern India were characterized on the basis of spermatogenesis status and nuclear ITS1. Both Fasciola gigantica and aspermic Fasciola flukes were detected in Imphal, Kohima, and Gantoku districts. The sequences of mitochondrial nad1 were analyzed to infer their phylogenetical relationship with neighboring countries. The haplotypes of aspermic Fasciola flukes were identical or showed a single nucleotide substitution compared to those from populations in the neighboring countries, corroborating the previous reports that categorized them in the same lineage. However, the prevalence of aspermic Fasciola flukes in eastern India was lower than those in the neighboring countries, suggesting that they have not dispersed throughout eastern India. In contrast, F. gigantica was predominant and well diversified, and the species was thought to be distributed in the area for a longer time than the aspermic Fasciola flukes. Fasciola gigantica populations from eastern India were categorized into two distinct haplogroups A and B. The level of their genetic diversity suggests that populations belonging to haplogroup A have dispersed from the west side of the Indian subcontinent to eastern India with the artificial movement of domestic cattle, Bos indicus, whereas populations belonging to haplogroup B might have spread from Myanmar to eastern India with domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis.

  4. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola hepatica from Peru.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Ortiz, Pedro; Cabrera, Maria; Hobán, Cristian; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    The causative agent of fasciolosis in South America is thought to be Fasciola hepatica. In this study, Fasciola flukes from Peru were analyzed to investigate their genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships with those from other countries. Fasciola flukes were collected from the three definitive host species: cattle, sheep, and pigs. They were identified as F. hepatica because mature sperms were observed in their seminal vesicles, and also they displayed Fh type, which has an identical fragment pattern to F. hepatica in the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1. Eight haplotypes were obtained from the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) sequences of Peruvian F. hepatica; however, no special difference in genetic structure was observed between the three host species. Its extremely low genetic diversity suggests that the Peruvian population was introduced from other regions. Nad1 haplotypes identical to those of Peruvian F. hepatica were detected in China, Uruguay, Italy, Iran, and Australia. Our results indicate that F. hepatica rapidly expanded its range due to human migration. Future studies are required to elucidate dispersal route of F. hepatica from Europe, its probable origin, to other areas, including Peru.

  5. Phylogenetic and molecular analysis of hydrogen-producing green algae

    PubMed Central

    Timmins, Matthew; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Darling, Aaron; Zhang, Eugene; Hankamer, Ben; Marx, Ute C.; Schenk, Peer M.

    2009-01-01

    A select set of microalgae are reported to be able to catalyse photobiological H2 production from water. Based on the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a method was developed for the screening of naturally occurring H2-producing microalgae. By purging algal cultures with N2 in the dark and subsequent illumination, it is possible to rapidly induce photobiological H2 evolution. Using NMR spectroscopy for metabolic profiling in C. reinhardtii, acetate, formate, and ethanol were found to be key compounds contributing to metabolic variance during the assay. This procedure can be used to test algal species existing as axenic or mixed cultures for their ability to produce H2. Using this system, five algal isolates capable of H2 production were identified in various aquatic systems. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using ribosomal sequence data of green unicellular algae to determine if there were taxonomic patterns of H2 production. H2-producing algal species were seen to be dispersed amongst most clades, indicating an H2-producing capacity preceded evolution of the phylum Chlorophyta. PMID:19342428

  6. Disentangling evolutionary cause-effect relationships with phylogenetic confirmatory path analysis.

    PubMed

    von Hardenberg, Achaz; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro

    2013-02-01

    Confirmatory path analysis is a statistical technique to build models of causal hypotheses among variables and test if the data conform with the causal model. However, classical path analysis techniques ignore the nonindependence of observations due to phylogenetic relatedness among species, possibly leading to spurious results. Here, we present a simple method to perform phylogenetic confirmatory path analysis (PPA). We analyzed simulated datasets with varying amounts of phylogenetic signal in the data and a known underlying causal structure linking the traits to estimate Type I error and power. Results show that Type I error for PPA appeared to be slightly anticonservative (range: 0.047-0.072) but path analysis models ignoring phylogenetic signal resulted in much higher Type I error rates, which were positively related to the amount of phylogenetic signal (range: 0.051 for λ= 0 to 0.916 for λ= 1). Further, the power of the test was not compromised when accounting for phylogeny. As an example of the application of PPA, we revisit a study on the correlates of aggressive broodmate competition across seven avian families. The use of PPA allowed us to gain greater insight into the plausible causal paths linking species traits to aggressive broodmate competition.

  7. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in Chile.

    PubMed

    Tapia, D; Eissler, Y; Torres, P; Jorquera, E; Espinoza, J C; Kuznar, J

    2015-10-27

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious disease that is endemic to salmon farming in Chile and causes great economic losses to the industry. Here we compared different diagnostic methods to detect IPNV in field samples, including 3 real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assays, cell culture isolation, and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Additionally, we performed a phylogenetic analysis to investigate the genogroups prevailing in Chile, as well as their geographic distribution and virulence. The 3 qRT-PCR assays used primers that targeted regions of the VP2 and VP1 genes of the virus and were tested in 46 samples, presenting a fair agreement within their results. All samples were positive for at least 2 of the qRT-PCR assays, 29 were positive for cell culture, and 23 for IFAT, showing less sensitivity for these latter 2 methods. For the phylogenetic analysis, portions of 1180 and 523 bp of the VP2 region of segment A were amplified by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared with sequences from reference strains and from isolates reported by previous studies carried out in Chile. Most of the sequenced isolates belonged to genogroup 5 (European origin), and 5 were classified within genogroup 1 (American origin). Chilean isolates formed clusters within each of the genogroups found, evidencing a clear differentiation from the reference strains. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive study completed for IPNV in Chile, covering isolates from sea- and freshwater salmon farms and showing a high prevalence of this virus in the country. PMID:26503771

  8. Phylogenetic Meta-Analysis of the Functional Traits of Clonal Plants Foraging in Changing Environments

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiu-Fang; Song, Yao-Bin; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Pan, Xu; Dong, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Foraging behavior, one of the adaptive strategies of clonal plants, has stimulated a tremendous amount of research. However, it is a matter of debate whether there is any general pattern in the foraging traits (functional traits related to foraging behavior) of clonal plants in response to diverse environments. We collected data from 97 published papers concerning the relationships between foraging traits (e.g., spacer length, specific spacer length, branch intensity and branch angle) of clonal plants and essential resources (e.g., light, nutrients and water) for plant growth and reproduction. We incorporated the phylogenetic information of 85 plant species to examine the universality of foraging hypotheses using phylogenetic meta-analysis. The trends toward forming longer spacers and fewer branches in shaded environments were detected in clonal plants, but no evidence for a relation between foraging traits and nutrient availability was detected, except that there was a positive correlation between branch intensity and nutrient availability in stoloniferous plants. The response of the foraging traits of clonal plants to water availability was also not obvious. Additionally, our results indicated that the foraging traits of stoloniferous plants were more sensitive to resource availability than those of rhizomatous plants. In consideration of plant phylogeny, these results implied that the foraging traits of clonal plants (notably stoloniferous plants) only responded to light intensity in a general pattern but did not respond to nutrient or water availability. In conclusion, our findings on the effects of the environment on the foraging traits of clonal plants avoided the confounding effects of phylogeny because we incorporated phylogeny into the meta-analysis. PMID:25216101

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of nasal avian schistosomes (Trichobilharzia) from aquatic birds in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakhar, Mahdi; Ghobaditara, Maryam; Brant, Sara V; Karamian, Mehdi; Gohardehi, Shaban; Bastani, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Nasal schistosomes are trematodes in the family Schistosomatidae, many members of which are causative agents of human cercarial dermatitis (HCD). Little is known about the species diversity and distribution of nasal dwelling schistosomes of water birds, particularly in countries outside of Europe; even less is known in countries like Iran. Nasal schistosomes are of particular interest since these species migrate via the central nervous system to the nasal cavity once they penetrate their host. Thus, there must be efforts to determine the incidence of HCD due to nasal schistosomes. HCD outbreaks are reported seasonally in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, an area well known for rice cultivation leading to increased person contact with water and infected snails. Such places include favorable habitat for both domestic ducks year round, and wild migratory ducks in the winter through spring. Recent reports have detected the presence of both nasal and visceral schistosomes in ducks in this area but with little species characterization. In this study, we examine a diversity of aquatic birds to determine the distribution, prevalence and bird host use of nasal schistosomes. We apply for the first time a molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of these schistosomes. From 2012 to 2014, the nasal cavity of 508 aquatic birds from Mazandaran Province were examined that included species in Anseriformes, Gruiformes, Charadriiformes and Phoenicopteriformes. Nasal schistosomes were found in 45 (8.9%) birds belonging to Anseriformes (Anas platyrhynchos and Anas clypeata). Phylogenetic analysis of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 rDNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase1 gene of isolated eggs revealed that all samples grouped in a sister clade to the European Trichobilharzia regenti. However, Trichobilharzia from this study were more similar to a unique haplotype of Trichobilharzia, isolated from the nasals of an A. clypeata in France. The genetic and

  10. Phylogenetic meta-analysis of the functional traits of clonal plants foraging in changing environments.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiu-Fang; Song, Yao-Bin; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Pan, Xu; Dong, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Foraging behavior, one of the adaptive strategies of clonal plants, has stimulated a tremendous amount of research. However, it is a matter of debate whether there is any general pattern in the foraging traits (functional traits related to foraging behavior) of clonal plants in response to diverse environments. We collected data from 97 published papers concerning the relationships between foraging traits (e.g., spacer length, specific spacer length, branch intensity and branch angle) of clonal plants and essential resources (e.g., light, nutrients and water) for plant growth and reproduction. We incorporated the phylogenetic information of 85 plant species to examine the universality of foraging hypotheses using phylogenetic meta-analysis. The trends toward forming longer spacers and fewer branches in shaded environments were detected in clonal plants, but no evidence for a relation between foraging traits and nutrient availability was detected, except that there was a positive correlation between branch intensity and nutrient availability in stoloniferous plants. The response of the foraging traits of clonal plants to water availability was also not obvious. Additionally, our results indicated that the foraging traits of stoloniferous plants were more sensitive to resource availability than those of rhizomatous plants. In consideration of plant phylogeny, these results implied that the foraging traits of clonal plants (notably stoloniferous plants) only responded to light intensity in a general pattern but did not respond to nutrient or water availability. In conclusion, our findings on the effects of the environment on the foraging traits of clonal plants avoided the confounding effects of phylogeny because we incorporated phylogeny into the meta-analysis.

  11. Identification, expression and phylogenetic analysis of EgG1Y162 from Echinococcus granulosus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengbo; Ma, Xiumin; Zhu, Yuejie; Wang, Hongying; Liu, Xianfei; Zhu, Min; Ma, Haimei; Wen, Hao; Fan, Haining; Ding, Jianbing

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was to clone, identify and analyze the characteristics of egG1Y162 gene from Echinococcus granulosus. Methods: Genomic DNA and total RNAs were extracted from four different developmental stages of protoscolex, germinal layer, adult and egg of Echinococcus granulosus, respectively. Fluorescent quantitative PCR was used for analyzing the expression of egG1Y162 gene. Prokaryotic expression plasmid of pET41a-EgG1Y162 was constructed to express recombinant His-EgG1Y162 antigen. Western blot analysis was performed to detect antigenicity of EgG1Y162 antigen. Gene sequence, amino acid alignment and phylogenetic tree of EgG1Y162 were analyzed by BLAST, online Spidey and MEGA4 software, respectively. Results: EgG1Y162 gene was expressed in four developmental stages of Echinococcus granulosus. And, egG1Y162 gene expression was the highest in the adult stage, with the relative value of 19.526, significantly higher than other three stages. Additionally, Western blot analysis revealed that EgG1Y162 recombinant protein had good reaction with serum samples from Echinococcus granulosus infected human and dog. Moreover, EgG1Y162 antigen was phylogenetically closest to EmY162 antigen, with the similarity over 90%. Conclusion: Our study identified EgG1Y162 antigen in Echinococcus granulosus for the first time. EgG1Y162 antigen had a high similarity with EmY162 antigen, with the genetic differences mainly existing in the intron region. And, EgG1Y162 recombinant protein showed good antigenicity. PMID:25337206

  12. Epidemiological and phylogenetic analysis of institutional mouse parvoviruses.

    PubMed

    Joh, Joongho; Proctor, Mary L; Ditslear, Janice L; King, William W; Sundberg, John P; Jenson, A Bennett; Ghim, Shin-Je

    2013-08-01

    Mouse parvoviruses (MPVs) are small, single-stranded, 5 kb DNA viruses that are subclinical and endemic in many laboratory mouse colonies. MPVs cause more distinctive deleterious effects in immune-compromised or genetically-engineered mice than immuno-competent mice. At the University of Louisville (U of L), there was an unexpected increase of MPV sero-positivity for MPV infections in mouse colonies between January 2006 and February 2007, resulting in strategic husbandry changes aimed at controlling MPV spread throughout the animal facility. To investigate these MPVs, VP2 genes of seven MPVs were cloned and sequenced from eight documented incidences by PCR technology. The mutations in these VP2 genes were compared to those found at the Genbank database (NCBI; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and an intra-institutional phylogenetic tree for MPV infections at U of L was constructed. We discovered that the seven MPV isolates were different from those in Genbank and were not identical to each other. These MPVs were designated MPV-UL1 to 7; none of them were minute virus of mice (MVMs). Four isolates could be classified as MPV1, one was classified as MPV2, and two were defined as novel types with less than 96% and 94% homology with existing MPV types. Considering that all seven isolates had mutations in their VP2 genes and no mutations were observed in VP2 genes of MPV during a four-month time period of incubation, we concluded that all seven MPVs isolated at U of L between 2006 and 2007 probably originated from different sources. Serological survey for MPV infections verified that each MPV outbreak was controlled without further contamination within the institution. PMID:23545399

  13. Phylogenetic relationships among cultivated Allium species from restriction enzyme analysis of the chloroplast genome.

    PubMed

    Havey, M J

    1991-06-01

    The genus Allium contains many economically important species, including the bulb onion, chive, garlic, Japanese bunching onion, and leek. Phylogenetic relationships among the cultivated alliums are not well understood, and taxonomic classifications are based on relatively few morphological characters. Chloroplast DNA is highly conserved and useful in determining phylogenetic relationships. The size of the chloroplast genome of Allium cepa was estimated at 140 kb and restriction enzyme sites were mapped for KpnI, PstI, PvuII, SalI, XbaI, and XhoI. Variability at restriction enzyme sites in the chloroplast DNA was studied for at least three accessions of each of six cultivated, old-world Allium species. Of 189 restriction enzyme sites detected with 12 enzymes, 15 mutations were identified and used to estimate phylogenetic relationships. Cladistic analysis based on Wagner and Dollo parsimony resulted in a single, most-parsimonious tree of 16 steps and supported division of the species into sections. Allium species in section Porrum were distinguished from species in sections Cepa and Phyllodolon. Two species in section Rhiziridium, A. schoenoprasum and A. tuberosum, differed by five mutations and were placed in separate lineages. Allium cepa and A. fistulosum shared the loss of a restriction enzyme site and were phylogenetically closer to each other than to A. schoenoprasum. This study demonstrates the usefulness of restriction enzyme site analysis of the chloroplast genome in the elucidation of phylogenetic relationships in Allium. PMID:24221436

  14. First molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sukyee; Lee, Seung-Hun; VanBik, Dorene; Kim, Neung-Hee; Kim, Kyoo-Tae; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Rhee, Man Hee; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the status of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection was assessed in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea, with PCR and phylogenetic analyses. Nested PCR on 1058 collected blood samples revealed only one A. phagocytophilum positive sample (female, age <1year, mixed breed, collected from the north of the Han River). The genetic variability of A. phagocytophilum was evaluated by genotyping, using the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 gene sequences of the positive sample. BLASTn analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 genes had 99.6%, 99.9%, and 100% identity with the following sequences deposited in GenBank: a cat 16S rRNA sequence from Korea (KR021166), a rat groEL sequence from Korea (KT220194), and a water deer msp2 sequence from Korea (HM752099), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses classified the groEL gene into two distinct groups (serine and alanine), whereas the msp2 gene showed a general classification into two groups (USA and Europe) that were further subgrouped according to region. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the molecular diagnosis of A. phagocytophilum in dogs reared in Korea. In addition, the high genetic identity of the 16S rRNA and groEL sequences between humans and dogs from the same region suggests a possible epidemiological relation. Given the conditions of climate change, tick ecology, and recent incidence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Korea, the findings of this study underscore the need to establish appropriate control programs for tick-borne diseases in Korea. PMID:27130537

  15. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a high prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in feline sporotrichosis outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G Sybren; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n = 15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n = 10), Paraná (PR, n = 4), São Paulo (SP, n =3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n = 1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil.

  16. Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals a High Prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in Feline Sporotrichosis Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n = 15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n = 10), Paraná (PR, n = 4), São Paulo (SP, n = 3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n = 1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil. PMID:23818999

  17. First molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sukyee; Lee, Seung-Hun; VanBik, Dorene; Kim, Neung-Hee; Kim, Kyoo-Tae; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Rhee, Man Hee; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the status of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection was assessed in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea, with PCR and phylogenetic analyses. Nested PCR on 1058 collected blood samples revealed only one A. phagocytophilum positive sample (female, age <1year, mixed breed, collected from the north of the Han River). The genetic variability of A. phagocytophilum was evaluated by genotyping, using the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 gene sequences of the positive sample. BLASTn analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 genes had 99.6%, 99.9%, and 100% identity with the following sequences deposited in GenBank: a cat 16S rRNA sequence from Korea (KR021166), a rat groEL sequence from Korea (KT220194), and a water deer msp2 sequence from Korea (HM752099), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses classified the groEL gene into two distinct groups (serine and alanine), whereas the msp2 gene showed a general classification into two groups (USA and Europe) that were further subgrouped according to region. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the molecular diagnosis of A. phagocytophilum in dogs reared in Korea. In addition, the high genetic identity of the 16S rRNA and groEL sequences between humans and dogs from the same region suggests a possible epidemiological relation. Given the conditions of climate change, tick ecology, and recent incidence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Korea, the findings of this study underscore the need to establish appropriate control programs for tick-borne diseases in Korea.

  18. [BIOINFORMATIC SEARCH AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE CELLULOSE SYNTHASE GENES OF FLAX (LINUM USITATISSIMUM)].

    PubMed

    Pydiura, N A; Bayer, G Ya; Galinousky, D V; Yemets, A I; Pirko, Ya V; Podvitski, T A; Anisimova, N V; Khotyleva, L V; Kilchevsky, A V; Blume, Ya B

    2015-01-01

    A bioinformatic search of sequences encoding cellulose synthase genes in the flax genome, and their comparison to dicots orthologs was carried out. The analysis revealed 32 cellulose synthase gene candidates, 16 of which are highly likely to encode cellulose synthases, and the remaining 16--cellulose synthase-like proteins (Csl). Phylogenetic analysis of gene products of cellulose synthase genes allowed distinguishing 6 groups of cellulose synthase genes of different classes: CesA1/10, CesA3, CesA4, CesA5/6/2/9, CesA7 and CesA8. Paralogous sequences within classes CesA1/10 and CesA5/6/2/9 which are associated with the primary cell wall formation are characterized by a greater similarity within these classes than orthologous sequences. Whereas the genes controlling the biosynthesis of secondary cell wall cellulose form distinct clades: CesA4, CesA7, and CesA8. The analysis of 16 identified flax cellulose synthase gene candidates shows the presence of at least 12 different cellulose synthase gene variants in flax genome which are represented in all six clades of cellulose synthase genes. Thus, at this point genes of all ten known cellulose synthase classes are identify in flax genome, but their correct classification requires additional research. PMID:26638491

  19. A phylogenetic analysis of normal modes evolution in enzymes and its relationship to enzyme function.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jason; Jin, Jing; Kubelka, Jan; Liberles, David A

    2012-09-21

    Since the dynamic nature of protein structures is essential for enzymatic function, it is expected that functional evolution can be inferred from the changes in protein dynamics. However, dynamics can also diverge neutrally with sequence substitution between enzymes without changes of function. In this study, a phylogenetic approach is implemented to explore the relationship between enzyme dynamics and function through evolutionary history. Protein dynamics are described by normal mode analysis based on a simplified harmonic potential force field applied to the reduced C(α) representation of the protein structure while enzymatic function is described by Enzyme Commission numbers. Similarity of the binding pocket dynamics at each branch of the protein family's phylogeny was analyzed in two ways: (1) explicitly by quantifying the normal mode overlap calculated for the reconstructed ancestral proteins at each end and (2) implicitly using a diffusion model to obtain the reconstructed lineage-specific changes in the normal modes. Both explicit and implicit ancestral reconstruction identified generally faster rates of change in dynamics compared with the expected change from neutral evolution at the branches of potential functional divergences for the α-amylase, D-isomer-specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase, and copper-containing amine oxidase protein families. Normal mode analysis added additional information over just comparing the RMSD of static structures. However, the branch-specific changes were not statistically significant compared to background function-independent neutral rates of change of dynamic properties and blind application of the analysis would not enable prediction of changes in enzyme specificity.

  20. [BIOINFORMATIC SEARCH AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE CELLULOSE SYNTHASE GENES OF FLAX (LINUM USITATISSIMUM)].

    PubMed

    Pydiura, N A; Bayer, G Ya; Galinousky, D V; Yemets, A I; Pirko, Ya V; Podvitski, T A; Anisimova, N V; Khotyleva, L V; Kilchevsky, A V; Blume, Ya B

    2015-01-01

    A bioinformatic search of sequences encoding cellulose synthase genes in the flax genome, and their comparison to dicots orthologs was carried out. The analysis revealed 32 cellulose synthase gene candidates, 16 of which are highly likely to encode cellulose synthases, and the remaining 16--cellulose synthase-like proteins (Csl). Phylogenetic analysis of gene products of cellulose synthase genes allowed distinguishing 6 groups of cellulose synthase genes of different classes: CesA1/10, CesA3, CesA4, CesA5/6/2/9, CesA7 and CesA8. Paralogous sequences within classes CesA1/10 and CesA5/6/2/9 which are associated with the primary cell wall formation are characterized by a greater similarity within these classes than orthologous sequences. Whereas the genes controlling the biosynthesis of secondary cell wall cellulose form distinct clades: CesA4, CesA7, and CesA8. The analysis of 16 identified flax cellulose synthase gene candidates shows the presence of at least 12 different cellulose synthase gene variants in flax genome which are represented in all six clades of cellulose synthase genes. Thus, at this point genes of all ten known cellulose synthase classes are identify in flax genome, but their correct classification requires additional research.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis accounting for age-dependent death and sampling with applications to epidemics.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Amaury; Alexander, Helen K; Stadler, Tanja

    2014-07-01

    The reconstruction of phylogenetic trees based on viral genetic sequence data sequentially sampled from an epidemic provides estimates of the past transmission dynamics, by fitting epidemiological models to these trees. To our knowledge, none of the epidemiological models currently used in phylogenetics can account for recovery rates and sampling rates dependent on the time elapsed since transmission, i.e. age of infection. Here we introduce an epidemiological model where infectives leave the epidemic, by either recovery or sampling, after some random time which may follow an arbitrary distribution. We derive an expression for the likelihood of the phylogenetic tree of sampled infectives under our general epidemiological model. The analytic concept developed in this paper will facilitate inference of past epidemiological dynamics and provide an analytical framework for performing very efficient simulations of phylogenetic trees under our model. The main idea of our analytic study is that the non-Markovian epidemiological model giving rise to phylogenetic trees growing vertically as time goes by can be represented by a Markovian "coalescent point process" growing horizontally by the sequential addition of pairs of coalescence and sampling times. As examples, we discuss two special cases of our general model, described in terms of influenza and HIV epidemics. Though phrased in epidemiological terms, our framework can also be used for instance to fit macroevolutionary models to phylogenies of extant and extinct species, accounting for general species lifetime distributions. PMID:24607743

  2. Taxonomic revision and phylogenetic analysis of the flightless Mancallinae (Aves, Pan-Alcidae)

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Neil Adam

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Although flightless alcids from the Miocene and Pliocene of the eastern Pacific Ocean have been known for over 100 years, there is no detailed evaluation of diversity and systematic placement of these taxa. This is the first combined analysis of morphological and molecular data to include all extant alcids, the recently extinct Great Auk Pinguinus impennis, the mancalline auks, and a large outgroup sampling of 29 additional non-alcid charadriiforms. Based on the systematic placement of Mancallinae outside of crown clade Alcidae, the clade name Pan-Alcidae is proposed to include all known alcids. An extensive review of the Mancallinae fossil record resulted in taxonomic revision of the clade, and identification of three new species. In addition to positing the first hypothesis of inter-relationships between Mancallinae species, phylogenetic results support placement of Mancallinae as the sister taxon to all other Alcidae, indicating that flightlessness evolved at least twice in the alcid lineage. Convergent osteological characteristics of Mancallinae, the flightless Great Auk, and Spheniscidae are summarized, and implications of Mancallinae diversity, radiation, and extinction in the context of paleoclimatic changes are discussed. PMID:21594108

  3. The mitochondrial DNA of Xenoturbella bocki: genomic architecture and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Perseke, Marleen; Hankeln, Thomas; Weich, Bettina; Fritzsch, Guido; Stadler, Peter F; Israelsson, Olle; Bernhard, Detlef; Schlegel, Martin

    2007-08-01

    The phylogenetic position of Xenoturbella bocki has been a matter of controversy since its description in 1949. We sequenced a second complete mitochondrial genome of this species and performed phylogenetic analyses based on the amino acid sequences of all 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes and on its gene order. Our results confirm the deuterostome relationship of Xenoturbella. However, in contrast to a recently published study (Bourlat et al. in Nature 444:85-88, 2006), our data analysis suggests a more basal branching of Xenoturbella within the deuterostomes, rather than a sister-group relationship to the Ambulacraria (Hemichordata and Echinodermata). PMID:18087755

  4. The mitochondrial DNA of Xenoturbella bocki: genomic architecture and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Perseke, Marleen; Hankeln, Thomas; Weich, Bettina; Fritzsch, Guido; Stadler, Peter F; Israelsson, Olle; Bernhard, Detlef; Schlegel, Martin

    2007-08-01

    The phylogenetic position of Xenoturbella bocki has been a matter of controversy since its description in 1949. We sequenced a second complete mitochondrial genome of this species and performed phylogenetic analyses based on the amino acid sequences of all 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes and on its gene order. Our results confirm the deuterostome relationship of Xenoturbella. However, in contrast to a recently published study (Bourlat et al. in Nature 444:85-88, 2006), our data analysis suggests a more basal branching of Xenoturbella within the deuterostomes, rather than a sister-group relationship to the Ambulacraria (Hemichordata and Echinodermata).

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of of Sarcocystis nesbitti (Coccidia: Sarcocystidae) suggests a snake as its probable definitive host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sarcocystis nesbitti was first described by Mandour in 1969 from rhesus monkey muscle. Its definitive host remains unknown. 18SrRNA gene of Sarcocystis nesbitti was amplified, sequenced, and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Among those congeners available for comparison, it shares closest affinit...

  6. A gateway for phylogenetic analysis powered by grid computing featuring GARLI 2.0.

    PubMed

    Bazinet, Adam L; Zwickl, Derrick J; Cummings, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    We introduce molecularevolution.org, a publicly available gateway for high-throughput, maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis powered by grid computing. The gateway features a garli 2.0 web service that enables a user to quickly and easily submit thousands of maximum likelihood tree searches or bootstrap searches that are executed in parallel on distributed computing resources. The garli web service allows one to easily specify partitioned substitution models using a graphical interface, and it performs sophisticated post-processing of phylogenetic results. Although the garli web service has been used by the research community for over three years, here we formally announce the availability of the service, describe its capabilities, highlight new features and recent improvements, and provide details about how the grid system efficiently delivers high-quality phylogenetic results.

  7. Clinical Fusobacterium mortiferum Isolates Cluster with Undifferentiated Clostridium rectum Species Based on 16S rRNA Gene Phylogenetic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yangsoon; Eun, Chang Soo; Han, Dong Soo

    2016-05-01

    The most commonly encountered clinical Fusobacterium species are F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum; other Fusobacteria, such as F. mortiferum and F. varium, have occasionally been isolated from human specimens. Clostridium rectum is a gram-positive species characterized as a straight bacillus with oval sub-terminal spores. The close 16S rRNA gene sequence relationship of C. rectum with the genus Fusobacterium is unexpected given their very different phenotypic characteristics. Between 2014 and 2015, a total of 19 Fusobacterium isolates were recovered from the colonic tissue of 10 patients at a university hospital. All isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The phylogenetic relationship among these isolates was estimated using the neighbor-joining method and the Molecular Evolutionary Genetic Analysis (MEGA) version 6. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the F. mortiferum isolates clustered into two groups - F. mortiferum DSM 19809 (group I) and F. mortiferum ATCC 25557 (group II) - even though they are of the same species. Furthermore, the F. mortiferum DSM 19809 (group I) showed a close phylogenetic relationship with C. rectum, even though C. rectum is classified as a gram-positive spore-producing bacillus. C. rectum is clearly unrelated to the genus Clostridium as it shows highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with species from the genus Fusobacterium Therefore, additional methods such as Gram staining and other biochemical methods should be performed for Fusobacterium identification. PMID:27312552

  8. Clinical Fusobacterium mortiferum Isolates Cluster with Undifferentiated Clostridium rectum Species Based on 16S rRNA Gene Phylogenetic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yangsoon; Eun, Chang Soo; Han, Dong Soo

    2016-05-01

    The most commonly encountered clinical Fusobacterium species are F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum; other Fusobacteria, such as F. mortiferum and F. varium, have occasionally been isolated from human specimens. Clostridium rectum is a gram-positive species characterized as a straight bacillus with oval sub-terminal spores. The close 16S rRNA gene sequence relationship of C. rectum with the genus Fusobacterium is unexpected given their very different phenotypic characteristics. Between 2014 and 2015, a total of 19 Fusobacterium isolates were recovered from the colonic tissue of 10 patients at a university hospital. All isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The phylogenetic relationship among these isolates was estimated using the neighbor-joining method and the Molecular Evolutionary Genetic Analysis (MEGA) version 6. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the F. mortiferum isolates clustered into two groups - F. mortiferum DSM 19809 (group I) and F. mortiferum ATCC 25557 (group II) - even though they are of the same species. Furthermore, the F. mortiferum DSM 19809 (group I) showed a close phylogenetic relationship with C. rectum, even though C. rectum is classified as a gram-positive spore-producing bacillus. C. rectum is clearly unrelated to the genus Clostridium as it shows highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with species from the genus Fusobacterium Therefore, additional methods such as Gram staining and other biochemical methods should be performed for Fusobacterium identification.

  9. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Tams1 of Theileria annulata isolates from three continents between 2000 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiay; Yang, Xianyong; Wang, Yuge; Jing, Zhihong; Meng, Kai; Liu, Jianzhu; Guo, Huijun; Xu, Ruixue; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2014-01-01

    Theileria annulata, which is part of the Theileria sergenti/Theileria buffeli/Theileria orientalis group, preferentially infects cattle and results in high mortality and morbidity in the Mediterranean, Middle East, and Central Asia. The polypeptide Tams1 is an immunodominant major merozoite piroplasm surface antigen of T. annulata that could be used as a marker for epidemiological studies and phylogenetic analysis. In the present study, a total of 155 Tams1 sequences were investigated for genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships through phylogenetic analysis. Results showed that the Tams1 sequences were divided into two major groups and that distribution for some isolates also exhibited geographic specificity. As targeting polymorphic genes for parasite detection may result in underestimation of infection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using two different probes targeting tams-1 genes of these two groups can be more credible. In addition, the direction of the spread of the disease was discovered to be from the Mediterranean or the tropical zone to the Eurasian peninsula, Middle East, Southern Asia, and Africa, particularly for Group 2. A similar occurrence was also found between the Ms1 gene of Theileria lestoquardi and the Tams1 gene of T. annulata, which explains cross-immunogenicity to a certain extent. However, no potential glycosylation site in the Tams1 of T. annulata was found in this study, which illustrated that instead of N-glycosylation, other modifications have more significant effects on the immunogenicity of the Tams1 protein.

  10. [Phylogenetic analysis of lupine's bacterial wet rot--"Pseudomonas xanthochlora"].

    PubMed

    Dankevitch, L A

    2011-01-01

    The sequencing of 16S rRNA gene nucleotide chain of the 12 "P. xanthochlora" strains, collection Pseudomonas marginalis 8572 strain and Pseudomonas marginalis pv. marginalis 9175T P. fluorescens B-17T typical strains has been determined. The analysis of the 16S rRNA gene nucleotide chain showed high level of homology (98-99%) of "P. xanthochlora" investigated strains with the same of representatives of both P. fluorescens and P. marginalis species.

  11. A multivariate analysis of variation in genome size and endoreduplication in angiosperms reveals strong phylogenetic signal and association with phenotypic traits.

    PubMed

    Bainard, Jillian D; Bainard, Luke D; Henry, Thomas A; Fazekas, Aron J; Newmaster, Steven G

    2012-12-01

    Genome size (C-value) and endopolyploidy (endoreduplication index, EI) are known to correlate with various morphological and ecological traits, in addition to phylogenetic placement. A phylogenetically controlled multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationships between DNA content and phenotype in angiosperms. Seeds from 41 angiosperm species (17 families) were grown in a common glasshouse experiment. Genome size (2C-value and 1Cx-value) and EI (in four tissues: leaf, stem, root, petal) were determined using flow cytometry. The phylogenetic signal was calculated for each measure of DNA content, and phylogenetic canonical correlation analysis (PCCA) explored how the variation in genome size and EI was correlated with 18 morphological and ecological traits. Phylogenetic signal (λ) was strongest for EI in all tissues, and λ was stronger for the 2C-value than the 1Cx-value. PCCA revealed that EI was correlated with pollen length, stem height, seed mass, dispersal mechanism, arbuscular mycorrhizal association, life history and flowering time, and EI and genome size were both correlated with stem height and life history. PCCA provided an effective way to explore multiple factors of DNA content variation and phenotypic traits in a phylogenetic context. Traits that were correlated significantly with DNA content were linked to plant competitive ability.

  12. Reticulate evolutionary history and extensive introgression in mosquito species revealed by phylogenetic network analysis.

    PubMed

    Wen, Dingqiao; Yu, Yun; Hahn, Matthew W; Nakhleh, Luay

    2016-06-01

    The role of hybridization and subsequent introgression has been demonstrated in an increasing number of species. Recently, Fontaine et al. (Science, 347, 2015, 1258524) conducted a phylogenomic analysis of six members of the Anopheles gambiae species complex. Their analysis revealed a reticulate evolutionary history and pointed to extensive introgression on all four autosomal arms. The study further highlighted the complex evolutionary signals that the co-occurrence of incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and introgression can give rise to in phylogenomic analyses. While tree-based methodologies were used in the study, phylogenetic networks provide a more natural model to capture reticulate evolutionary histories. In this work, we reanalyse the Anopheles data using a recently devised framework that combines the multispecies coalescent with phylogenetic networks. This framework allows us to capture ILS and introgression simultaneously, and forms the basis for statistical methods for inferring reticulate evolutionary histories. The new analysis reveals a phylogenetic network with multiple hybridization events, some of which differ from those reported in the original study. To elucidate the extent and patterns of introgression across the genome, we devise a new method that quantifies the use of reticulation branches in the phylogenetic network by each genomic region. Applying the method to the mosquito data set reveals the evolutionary history of all the chromosomes. This study highlights the utility of 'network thinking' and the new insights it can uncover, in particular in phylogenomic analyses of large data sets with extensive gene tree incongruence. PMID:26808290

  13. A phylogenetic analysis of the myxobacteria: basis for their classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimkets, L.; Woese, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    The primary sequence and secondary structural features of the 16S rRNA were compared for 12 different myxobacteria representing all the known cultivated genera. Analysis of these data show the myxobacteria to form a monophyletic grouping consisting of three distinct families, which lies within the delta subdivision of the purple bacterial phylum. The composition of the families is consistent with differences in cell and spore morphology, cell behavior, and pigment and secondary metabolite production but is not correlated with the morphological complexity of the fruiting bodies. The Nannocystis exedens lineage has evolved at an unusually rapid pace and its rRNA shows numerous primary and secondary structural idiosyncrasies.

  14. Taking the first steps towards a standard for reporting on phylogenies: Minimum Information About a Phylogenetic Analysis (MIAPA).

    PubMed

    Leebens-Mack, Jim; Vision, Todd; Brenner, Eric; Bowers, John E; Cannon, Steven; Clement, Mark J; Cunningham, Clifford W; dePamphilis, Claude; deSalle, Rob; Doyle, Jeff J; Eisen, Jonathan A; Gu, Xun; Harshman, John; Jansen, Robert K; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Koonin, Eugene V; Mishler, Brent D; Philippe, Hervé; Pires, J Chris; Qiu, Yin-Long; Rhee, Seung Y; Sjölander, Kimmen; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Stevenson, Dennis W; Wall, Kerr; Warnow, Tandy; Zmasek, Christian

    2006-01-01

    In the eight years since phylogenomics was introduced as the intersection of genomics and phylogenetics, the field has provided fundamental insights into gene function, genome history and organismal relationships. The utility of phylogenomics is growing with the increase in the number and diversity of taxa for which whole genome and large transcriptome sequence sets are being generated. We assert that the synergy between genomic and phylogenetic perspectives in comparative biology would be enhanced by the development and refinement of minimal reporting standards for phylogenetic analyses. Encouraged by the development of the Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment (MIAME) standard, we propose a similar roadmap for the development of a Minimal Information About a Phylogenetic Analysis (MIAPA) standard. Key in the successful development and implementation of such a standard will be broad participation by developers of phylogenetic analysis software, phylogenetic database developers, practitioners of phylogenomics, and journal editors. PMID:16901231

  15. Methods of systematic analysis: The relative superiority of phylogenetic systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipscomb, Diana L.

    1984-03-01

    The superiority of cladistic methods to both synthetic and phenetic methods is briefly advanced and reviewed. Cladistics creates testable hypotheses of phylogeny that also give a highly informative summary of available data. Thus it best fits the criteria for a method for determining the general reference classification in biology. For protistologists in particular, cladistics is especially useful. Inundated by an abundance of ultrastructural, biochemical, and cell biological information, protistologists could be greatly helped by the informative way in which cladistics orders and summarizes the data. In addition to classifying protist taxa, hypotheses about the evolution of cell organelles and cellular could be scientifically formulated and tested by cladistics. Because cladistic classifications best summarize the data, they would also be best for making predictions about taxa and characters. They would, for the same reason, be the most stable. Widespread adoption of cladistic methods would serve to stabilize the now fluid state of protist taxonomy. It is for all of these reasons that such methods best suit the needs of the evolutionary protistologist.

  16. Phylogenetic diversity analysis of subterranean hot springs in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Marteinsson, V T; Hauksdóttir, S; Hobel, C F; Kristmannsdóttir, H; Hreggvidsson, G O; Kristjánsson, J K

    2001-09-01

    Geothermal energy has been harnessed and used for domestic heating in Iceland. In wells that are typically drilled to a depth of 1,500 to 2,000 m, the temperature of the source water is 50 to 130 degrees C. The bottoms of the boreholes can therefore be regarded as subterranean hot springs and provide a unique opportunity to study the subterranean biosphere. Large volumes of geothermal fluid from five wells and a mixture of geothermal water from 50 geothermal wells (hot tap water) were sampled and concentrated through a 0.2-microm-pore-size filter. Cells were observed in wells RG-39 (91.4 degrees C) and MG-18 (71.8 degrees C) and in hot tap water (76 degrees C), but no cells were detected in wells SN-4, SN-5 (95 to 117 degrees C), and RV-5 (130 degrees C). Archaea and Bacteria were detected by whole-cell fluorescent in situ hybridization. DNAs were extracted from the biomass, and small-subunit rRNA genes (16S rDNAs) were amplified by PCR using primers specific for the Archaea and Bacteria domains. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The sequence analysis showed 11 new operational taxonomic units (OTUs) out of 14, 3 of which were affiliated with known surface OTUs. Samples from RG-39 and hot tap water were inoculated into enrichment media and incubated at 65 and 85 degrees C. Growth was observed only in media based on geothermal water. 16S rDNA analysis showed enrichments dominated with Desulfurococcales relatives. Two strains belonging to Desulfurococcus mobilis and to the Thermus/Deinococcus group were isolated from borehole RG-39. The results indicate that subsurface volcanic zones are an environment that provides a rich subsurface for novel thermophiles.

  17. Phylogenetic Analysis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 Group B

    PubMed Central

    Cella, Eleonora; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Giovanetti, Marta; Veo, Carla; Lai, Alessia; Dicuonzo, Giordano; Angeletti, Silvia; Ciotti, Marco; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Context: Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infections are mainly restricted to West Africa; however, in the recent years, the prevalence of HIV-2 is a growing concern in some European countries and the Southwestern region of India. Despite the presence of different HIV-2 groups, only A and B Groups have established human-to-human transmission chains. Aims: This work aimed to evaluate the phylogeographic inference of HIV-2 Group B worldwide to estimate their data of origin and the population dynamics. Materials and Methods: The evolutionary rates, the demographic history for HIV-2 Group B dataset, and the phylogeographic analysis were estimated using a Bayesian approach. The viral gene flow analysis was used to count viral gene out/in flow among different locations. Results: The root of the Bayesian maximum clade credibility tree of HIV-2 Group B dated back to 1957. The demographic history of HIV-2 Group B showed that the epidemic remained constant up to 1970 when started an exponential growth. From 1985 to early 2000s, the epidemic reached a plateau, and then it was characterized by two bottlenecks and a new plateau at the end of 2000s. Phylogeographic reconstruction showed that the most probable location for the root of the tree was Ghana. Regarding the viral gene flow of HIV-2 Group B, the only observed viral gene flow was from Africa to France, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Conclusions: The study gives insights into the origin, history, and phylogeography of HIV-2 Group B epidemic. The growing number of infections of HIV-2 worldwide indicates the need for strengthening surveillance. PMID:27621561

  18. Hepatitis E Virus Circulation in Italy: Phylogenetic and Evolutionary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Montesano, Carla; Giovanetti, Marta; Ciotti, Marco; Cella, Eleonora; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Grifoni, Alba; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Angeletti, Silvia; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a major cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries, has been classified into four main genotypes and a number of subtypes. New genotypes have been recently identified in various mammals, including HEV genotype 3, which has a worldwide distribution. It is widespread among pigs in developed countries. Objectives This study investigated the genetic diversity of HEV among humans and swine in Italy. The date of origin and the demographic history of the HEV were also estimated. Materials and Methods A total of 327 HEV sequences of swine and humans from Italy were downloaded from the national centre for biotechnology information. Three different data sets were constructed. The first and the second data set were used to confirm the genotype of the sequences analyzed. The third data set was used to estimate the mean evolutionary rate and to determine the time-scaled phylogeny and demographic history. Results The Bayesian maximum clade credibility tree and the time of the most common recent ancestor estimates showed that the root of the tree dated back to the year 1907 (95% HPD: 1811 - 1975). Two main clades were found, divided into two subclades. Skyline plot analysis, performed separately for human and swine sequences, demonstrated the presence of a bottleneck only in the skyline plot from the swine sequences. Selective pressure analysis revealed only negatively selected sites. Conclusions This study provides support for the hypothesis that humans are probably infected after contact with swine sources. The findings emphasize the importance of checking the country of origin of swine and of improving sanitary control measures from the veterinary standpoint to prevent the spread of HEV infection in Italy. PMID:27226798

  19. Phylogenetic Analysis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 Group B

    PubMed Central

    Cella, Eleonora; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Giovanetti, Marta; Veo, Carla; Lai, Alessia; Dicuonzo, Giordano; Angeletti, Silvia; Ciotti, Marco; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Context: Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infections are mainly restricted to West Africa; however, in the recent years, the prevalence of HIV-2 is a growing concern in some European countries and the Southwestern region of India. Despite the presence of different HIV-2 groups, only A and B Groups have established human-to-human transmission chains. Aims: This work aimed to evaluate the phylogeographic inference of HIV-2 Group B worldwide to estimate their data of origin and the population dynamics. Materials and Methods: The evolutionary rates, the demographic history for HIV-2 Group B dataset, and the phylogeographic analysis were estimated using a Bayesian approach. The viral gene flow analysis was used to count viral gene out/in flow among different locations. Results: The root of the Bayesian maximum clade credibility tree of HIV-2 Group B dated back to 1957. The demographic history of HIV-2 Group B showed that the epidemic remained constant up to 1970 when started an exponential growth. From 1985 to early 2000s, the epidemic reached a plateau, and then it was characterized by two bottlenecks and a new plateau at the end of 2000s. Phylogeographic reconstruction showed that the most probable location for the root of the tree was Ghana. Regarding the viral gene flow of HIV-2 Group B, the only observed viral gene flow was from Africa to France, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Conclusions: The study gives insights into the origin, history, and phylogeography of HIV-2 Group B epidemic. The growing number of infections of HIV-2 worldwide indicates the need for strengthening surveillance.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of CDK and cyclin proteins in premetazoan lineages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The molecular history of animal evolution from single-celled ancestors remains a major question in biology, and little is known regarding the evolution of cell cycle regulation during animal emergence. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of CDK and cyclin proteins in metazoans and their unicellular relatives. Results Our analysis divided the CDK family into eight subfamilies. Seven subfamilies (CDK1/2/3, CDK5, CDK7, CDK 20, CDK8/19, CDK9, and CDK10/11) are conserved in metazoans and fungi, with the remaining subfamily, CDK4/6, found only in eumetazoans. With respect to cyclins, cyclin C, H, L, Y subfamilies, and cyclin K and T as a whole subfamily, are generally conserved in animal, fungi, and amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. In contrast, cyclin subfamilies B, A, E, and D, which are cell cycle-related, have distinct evolutionary histories. The cyclin B subfamily is generally conserved in D. discoideum, fungi, and animals, whereas cyclin A and E subfamilies are both present in animals and their unicellular relatives such as choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis and filasterean Capsaspora owczarzaki, but are absent in fungi and D. discoideum. Although absent in fungi and D. discoideum, cyclin D subfamily orthologs can be found in the early-emerging, non-opisthokont apusozoan Thecamonas trahens. Within opisthokonta, the cyclin D subfamily is conserved only in eumetazoans, and is absent in fungi, choanoflagellates, and the basal metazoan Amphimedon queenslandica. Conclusions Our data indicate that the CDK4/6 subfamily and eumetazoans emerged simultaneously, with the evolutionary conservation of the cyclin D subfamily also tightly linked with eumetazoan appearance. Establishment of the CDK4/6-cyclin D complex may have been the key step in the evolution of cell cycle control during eumetazoan emergence. PMID:24433236

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of Mexican Babesia bovis isolates using msa and ssrRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Genis, Alma D; Mosqueda, Juan J; Borgonio, Verónica M; Falcón, Alfonso; Alvarez, Antonio; Camacho, Minerva; de Lourdes Muñoz, Maria; Figueroa, Julio V

    2008-12-01

    Variable merozoite surface antigens of Babesia bovis are exposed glycoproteins having a role in erythrocyte invasion. Members of this gene family include msa-1 and msa-2 (msa-2c, msa-2a(1), msa-2a(2), and msa-2b). Small subunit ribosomal (ssr)RNA gene is subject to evolutive pressure and has been used in phylogenetic studies. To determine the phylogenetic relationship among B. bovis Mexican isolates using different genetic markers, PCR amplicons, corresponding to msa-1, msa-2c, msa-2b, and ssrRNA genes, were cloned and plasmids carrying the corresponding inserts were sequenced. Comparative analysis of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences revealed distinct degrees of variability and identity among the coding gene sequences obtained from 12 geographically different B. bovis isolates and a reference strain. Overall sequence identities of 47.7%, 72.3%, 87.7%, and 94% were determined for msa-1, msa-2b, msa-2c, and ssrRNA, respectively. A robust phylogenetic tree was obtained with msa-2b sequences. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that Mexican B. bovis isolates group in clades not concordant with the Mexican geography. However, the Mexican isolates group together in an American clade separated from the Australian clade. Sequence heterogeneity in msa-1, msa-2b, and msa-2c coding regions of Mexican B. bovis isolates present in different geographical regions can be a result of either differential evolutive pressure or cattle movement from commercial trade.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis to uncover organellar origins of nuclear-encoded genes.

    PubMed

    Foth, Bernardo J

    2007-01-01

    Most proteins that are located in mitochondria or plastids are encoded by the nuclear genome, because the organellar genomes have undergone severe reduction during evolution. In many cases, although not all, the nuclear genes encoding organelle-targeted proteins actually originated from the respective organellar genome and thus carry the phylogenetic fingerprint that still bespeaks their evolutionary origin. Phylogenetic analysis is a powerful in silico method that can yield important insights into the evolutionary history or molecular kinship of any gene or protein and that can thus also be used more specifically in the context of organellar targeting as one means to recognize protein candidates (e.g., from genome data) that may be targeted to mitochondria or plastids. This chapter provides protocols for creating multiple sequence alignments and carrying out phylogenetic analysis with the robust and comprehensive software packages Clustal and PHYLIP, which are both available free of charge for multiple computer platforms. Besides presenting step-by-step instructions on how to run these computer programs, this chapter also covers topics such as data collection and presentation of phylogenetic trees. PMID:17951706

  3. Integrating the universal metabolism into a phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Cunchillos, Chomin; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2005-01-01

    The darwinian concept of "descent with modification" applies to metabolic pathways: pathways sharing similarities must have inherited them from an exclusive, hypothetical ancestral pathway. Comparative anatomy of biochemical pathways is performed using five criteria of homology. Primary homologies of "type I" were defined as several pathways sharing the same enzyme with high specificity for its substrate. Primary homologies of "type II" were defined as the sharing of similar enzymatic functions, cofactors, functional family, or recurrence of a set of reactions. Standard cladistic analysis is used to infer the evolutionary history of metabolic development and the relative ordering of biochemical reactions through time, from a single matrix integrating the whole basic universal metabolism. The cladogram shows that the earliest pathways to emerge are metabolism of amino acids of groups I and II (Asp, Asn, Glu, and Gln). The earliest enzymatic functions are mostly linked to amino acid catabolism: deamination, transamination, and decarboxylation. For some amino acids, catabolism and biosynthesis occur at the same time (Asp, Glu, Lys, and Met). Catabolism precedes anabolism for Asn, Gln, Arg, Trp, His, Tyr, and Phe, and anabolism precedes catabolism for Pro, Ala, Leu, Val, Ile, Cys, Gly, Ser, and Thr. The urea cycle evolves from arginine synthesis. Metabolism of fatty acids and sugars develops after the full development of metabolism of amino acids of groups I and II, and they are associated with the anabolism of amino acids of groups III and IV. Syntheses of aromatic amino acids are branched within sugar metabolism. The Krebs cycle occurs relatively late after the setting of metabolism of amino acids of groups I and II. One portion of the Krebs cycle has a catabolic origin, whereas the other portion has an anabolic origin in pathways of amino acids of groups III and IV. It is not possible to order glycolysis and gluconeogenesis with regard to the Krebs cycle, as they

  4. Phylogenetic Analysis of Brassica rapa MATH-Domain Proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liming; Huang, Yong; Hu, Yan; He, Xiaoli; Shen, Wenhui; Liu, Chunlin; Ruan, Ying

    2013-05-01

    The MATH (meprin and TRAF-C homology) domain is a fold of seven anti-parallel β-helices involved in protein-protein interaction. Here, we report the identification and characterization of 90 MATH-domain proteins from the Brassica rapa genome. By sequence analysis together with MATH-domain proteins from other species, the B. rapa MATH-domain proteins can be grouped into 6 classes. Class-I protein has one or several MATH domains without any other recognizable domain; Class-II protein contains a MATH domain together with a conserved BTB (Broad Complex, Tramtrack, and Bric-a-Brac ) domain; Class-III protein belongs to the MATH/Filament domain family; Class-IV protein contains a MATH domain frequently combined with some other domains; Class-V protein has a relative long sequence but contains only one MATH domain; Class-VI protein is characterized by the presence of Peptidase and UBQ (Ubiquitinylation) domains together with one MATH domain. As part of our study regarding seed development of B. rapa, six genes are screened by SSH (Suppression Subtractive Hybridization) and their expression levels are analyzed in combination with seed developmental stages, and expression patterns suggested that Bra001786, Bra03578 and Bra036572 may be seed development specific genes, while Bra001787, Bra020541 and Bra040904 may be involved in seed and flower organ development. This study provides the first characterization of the MATH domain proteins in B. rapa.

  5. Phylogenetic and structural analysis of merkel cell polyomavirus VP1 in Brazilian samples.

    PubMed

    Baez, Camila F; Diaz, Nuria C; Venceslau, Marianna T; Luz, Flávio B; Guimarães, Maria Angelica A M; Zalis, Mariano G; Varella, Rafael B

    2016-08-01

    Our understanding of the phylogenetic and structural characteristics of the Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) is increasing but still scarce, especially in samples originating from South America. In order to investigate the properties of MCPyV circulating in the continent in more detail, MCPyV Viral Protein 1 (VP1) sequences from five basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and four saliva samples from Brazilian individuals were evaluated from the phylogenetic and structural standpoint, along with all complete MCPyV VP1 sequences available at Genbank database so far. The VP1 phylogenetic analysis confirmed the previously reported pattern of geographic distribution of MCPyV genotypes and the complexity of the South-American clade. The nine Brazilian samples were equally distributed in the South-American (3 saliva samples); North American/European (2 BCC and 1 saliva sample); and in the African clades (3 BCC). The classification of mutations according to the functional regions of VP1 protein revealed a differentiated pattern for South-American sequences, with higher number of mutations on the neutralizing epitope loops and lower on the region of C-terminus, responsible for capsid formation, when compared to other continents. In conclusion, the phylogenetic analysis showed that the distribution of Brazilian VP1 sequences agrees with the ethnic composition of the country, indicating that VP1 can be successfully used for MCPyV phylogenetic studies. Finally, the structural analysis suggests that some mutations could have impact on the protein folding, membrane binding or antibody escape, and therefore they should be further studied. PMID:27173789

  6. ZikaVR: An Integrated Zika Virus Resource for Genomics, Proteomics, Phylogenetic and Therapeutic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit Kumar; Kaur, Karambir; Rajput, Akanksha; Dhanda, Sandeep Kumar; Sehgal, Manika; Khan, Md Shoaib; Monga, Isha; Dar, Showkat Ahmad; Singh, Sandeep; Nagpal, Gandharva; Usmani, Salman Sadullah; Thakur, Anamika; Kaur, Gazaldeep; Sharma, Shivangi; Bhardwaj, Aman; Qureshi, Abid; Raghava, Gajendra Pal Singh; Kumar, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Current Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks that spread in several areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and in pacific islands is declared as a global health emergency by World Health Organization (WHO). It causes Zika fever and illness ranging from severe autoimmune to neurological complications in humans. To facilitate research on this virus, we have developed an integrative multi-omics platform; ZikaVR (http://bioinfo.imtech.res.in/manojk/zikavr/), dedicated to the ZIKV genomic, proteomic and therapeutic knowledge. It comprises of whole genome sequences, their respective functional information regarding proteins, genes, and structural content. Additionally, it also delivers sophisticated analysis such as whole-genome alignments, conservation and variation, CpG islands, codon context, usage bias and phylogenetic inferences at whole genome and proteome level with user-friendly visual environment. Further, glycosylation sites and molecular diagnostic primers were also analyzed. Most importantly, we also proposed potential therapeutically imperative constituents namely vaccine epitopes, siRNAs, miRNAs, sgRNAs and repurposing drug candidates. PMID:27633273

  7. Cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the small GTPase gene cdc-42 from Ancylostoma caninum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yurong; Zheng, Jing; Chen, Jiaxin

    2012-12-01

    CDC-42 is a member of the Rho GTPase subfamily that is involved in many signaling pathways, including mitosis, cell polarity, cell migration and cytoskeleton remodeling. Here, we present the first characterization of a full-length cDNA encoding the small GTPase cdc-42, designated as Accdc-42, isolated from the parasitic nematode Ancylostoma caninum. The encoded protein contains 191 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 21 kDa and displays a high level of identity with the Rho-family GTPase protein CDC-42. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Accdc-42 was most closely related to Caenorhabditis briggsae cdc-42. Comparison with selected sequences from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Xenopus laevis, Danio rerio, Mus musculus and human genomes showed that Accdc-42 is highly conserved. AcCDC-42 demonstrates the highest identity to CDC-42 from C. briggsae (94.2%), and it also exhibits 91.6% identity to CDC-42 from C. elegans and 91.1% from Brugia malayi. Additionally, the transcript of Accdc-42 was analyzed during the different developmental stages of the worm. Accdc-42 was expressed in the L1/L2 larvae, L3 larvae and female and male adults of A. caninum.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of the expansion of the MATH-BTB gene family in the grasses.

    PubMed

    Juranić, Martina; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    MATH-BTB proteins are known to act as substrate-specific adaptors of cullin3 (CUL3)-based ubiquitin E3 ligases to target protein for ubiquitination. In a previous study we reported the presence of 31 MATH-BTB genes in the maize genome and determined the regulatory role of the MATH-BTB protein MAB1 during meiosis to mitosis transition. In contrast to maize, there are only 6 homologous genes in the model plant Arabidopsis, while this family has largely expanded in grasses. Here, we report a phylogenetic analysis of the MATH-BTB gene family in 9 land plant species including various mosses, eudicots, and grasses. We extend a previous classification of the plant MATH-BTB family and additionally arrange the expanded group into 5 grass-specific clades. Synteny studies indicate that expansion occurred to a large extent due to local gene duplications. Expression studies of 3 closely related MATH-BTB genes in maize (MAB1-3) indicate highly specific expression pattern. In summary, this work provides a solid base for further studies comparing genetic and functional information of the MATH-BTB family especially in the grasses.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the emergence, evolution and dispersal of carnivore parvoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Hoelzer, Karin; Shackelton, Laura A.; Parrish, Colin R.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Canine parvovirus (CPV), first recognized as an emerging virus of dogs in 1978, resulted from a successful cross-species transmission. CPV emerged from the endemic feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), or from a closely related parvovirus of another host. Here we refine our current understanding of the evolution and population dynamics of FPV and CPV. By analyzing nearly full-length viral sequences we show that the majority of substitutions distinguishing CPV from FPV are located in the capsid protein gene, and that this gene is under positive selection in CPV, resulting in a significantly elevated rate of molecular evolution. This provides strong phylogenetic evidence for a prominent role of the viral capsid in host adaptation. In addition, an analysis of the population dynamics of more recent CPV reveals, on a global scale, a strongly spatially subdivided CPV population with little viral movement among countries and a relatively constant population size. Such limited viral migration contrasts with the global spread of the virus observed during the early phase of the CPV pandemic, but corresponds to the more endemic nature of current CPV infections. PMID:18753238

  10. ZikaVR: An Integrated Zika Virus Resource for Genomics, Proteomics, Phylogenetic and Therapeutic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amit Kumar; Kaur, Karambir; Rajput, Akanksha; Dhanda, Sandeep Kumar; Sehgal, Manika; Khan, Md. Shoaib; Monga, Isha; Dar, Showkat Ahmad; Singh, Sandeep; Nagpal, Gandharva; Usmani, Salman Sadullah; Thakur, Anamika; Kaur, Gazaldeep; Sharma, Shivangi; Bhardwaj, Aman; Qureshi, Abid; Raghava, Gajendra Pal Singh; Kumar, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Current Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks that spread in several areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and in pacific islands is declared as a global health emergency by World Health Organization (WHO). It causes Zika fever and illness ranging from severe autoimmune to neurological complications in humans. To facilitate research on this virus, we have developed an integrative multi-omics platform; ZikaVR (http://bioinfo.imtech.res.in/manojk/zikavr/), dedicated to the ZIKV genomic, proteomic and therapeutic knowledge. It comprises of whole genome sequences, their respective functional information regarding proteins, genes, and structural content. Additionally, it also delivers sophisticated analysis such as whole-genome alignments, conservation and variation, CpG islands, codon context, usage bias and phylogenetic inferences at whole genome and proteome level with user-friendly visual environment. Further, glycosylation sites and molecular diagnostic primers were also analyzed. Most importantly, we also proposed potential therapeutically imperative constituents namely vaccine epitopes, siRNAs, miRNAs, sgRNAs and repurposing drug candidates. PMID:27633273

  11. ZikaVR: An Integrated Zika Virus Resource for Genomics, Proteomics, Phylogenetic and Therapeutic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit Kumar; Kaur, Karambir; Rajput, Akanksha; Dhanda, Sandeep Kumar; Sehgal, Manika; Khan, Md Shoaib; Monga, Isha; Dar, Showkat Ahmad; Singh, Sandeep; Nagpal, Gandharva; Usmani, Salman Sadullah; Thakur, Anamika; Kaur, Gazaldeep; Sharma, Shivangi; Bhardwaj, Aman; Qureshi, Abid; Raghava, Gajendra Pal Singh; Kumar, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Current Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks that spread in several areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and in pacific islands is declared as a global health emergency by World Health Organization (WHO). It causes Zika fever and illness ranging from severe autoimmune to neurological complications in humans. To facilitate research on this virus, we have developed an integrative multi-omics platform; ZikaVR (http://bioinfo.imtech.res.in/manojk/zikavr/), dedicated to the ZIKV genomic, proteomic and therapeutic knowledge. It comprises of whole genome sequences, their respective functional information regarding proteins, genes, and structural content. Additionally, it also delivers sophisticated analysis such as whole-genome alignments, conservation and variation, CpG islands, codon context, usage bias and phylogenetic inferences at whole genome and proteome level with user-friendly visual environment. Further, glycosylation sites and molecular diagnostic primers were also analyzed. Most importantly, we also proposed potential therapeutically imperative constituents namely vaccine epitopes, siRNAs, miRNAs, sgRNAs and repurposing drug candidates.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of the expansion of the MATH-BTB gene family in the grasses

    PubMed Central

    Juranić, Martina; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    MATH-BTB proteins are known to act as substrate-specific adaptors of cullin3 (CUL3)-based ubiquitin E3 ligases to target protein for ubiquitination. In a previous study we reported the presence of 31 MATH-BTB genes in the maize genome and determined the regulatory role of the MATH-BTB protein MAB1 during meiosis to mitosis transition. In contrast to maize, there are only 6 homologous genes in the model plant Arabidopsis, while this family has largely expanded in grasses. Here, we report a phylogenetic analysis of the MATH-BTB gene family in 9 land plant species including various mosses, eudicots, and grasses. We extend a previous classification of the plant MATH-BTB family and additionally arrange the expanded group into 5 grass-specific clades. Synteny studies indicate that expansion occurred to a large extent due to local gene duplications. Expression studies of 3 closely related MATH-BTB genes in maize (MAB1–3) indicate highly specific expression pattern. In summary, this work provides a solid base for further studies comparing genetic and functional information of the MATH-BTB family especially in the grasses. PMID:24614623

  13. A chain is no stronger than its weakest link: double decay analysis of phylogenetic hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, M; Thorley, J L; Upchurch, P

    2000-12-01

    In decay analyses the support for a particular split in most-parsimonious trees is its decay index, that is, the extra steps required of the shortest trees that do not include the split. By focusing solely on the support for splits, traditional decay analysis may provide an incomplete and potentially misleading summary of the support for phylogenetic relationships common to the most-parsimonious tree or trees. Here, we introduce double decay analysis, a new approach to assessing support for phylogenetic relationships. Double decay analysis is the determination of the decay indices of all n-taxon statements/partitions common to the most-parsimonious tree. The results of double decay analyses are presented in a partition table, but various approaches to graphical representation of the results, including the use of reduced consensus support trees, are also discussed. Double decay analysis provides a more comprehensive summary and facilitates a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of complex phylogenetic hypotheses than does traditional decay analysis. The limitations of traditional decay analyses and the utility of double decay analyses are illustrated with both contrived data and real data for sauropod dinosaurs.

  14. Assessing the Goodness of Fit of Phylogenetic Comparative Methods: A Meta-Analysis and Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Jhwueng, Dwueng-Chwuan

    2013-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs) have been applied widely in analyzing data from related species but their fit to data is rarely assessed. Question Can one determine whether any particular comparative method is typically more appropriate than others by examining comparative data sets? Data I conducted a meta-analysis of 122 phylogenetic data sets found by searching all papers in JEB, Blackwell Synergy and JSTOR published in 2002–2005 for the purpose of assessing the fit of PCMs. The number of species in these data sets ranged from 9 to 117. Analysis Method I used the Akaike information criterion to compare PCMs, and then fit PCMs to bivariate data sets through REML analysis. Correlation estimates between two traits and bootstrapped confidence intervals of correlations from each model were also compared. Conclusions For phylogenies of less than one hundred taxa, the Independent Contrast method and the independent, non-phylogenetic models provide the best fit.For bivariate analysis, correlations from different PCMs are qualitatively similar so that actual correlations from real data seem to be robust to the PCM chosen for the analysis. Therefore, researchers might apply the PCM they believe best describes the evolutionary mechanisms underlying their data. PMID:23826183

  15. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Fragaria (strawberry) using intron-containing sequence from the ADH-1 gene.

    PubMed

    DiMeglio, Laura M; Staudt, Günter; Yu, Hongrun; Davis, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    The genus Fragaria encompasses species at ploidy levels ranging from diploid to decaploid. The cultivated strawberry, Fragaria×ananassa, and its two immediate progenitors, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, are octoploids. To elucidate the ancestries of these octoploid species, we performed a phylogenetic analysis using intron-containing sequences of the nuclear ADH-1 gene from 39 germplasm accessions representing nineteen Fragaria species and one outgroup species, Dasiphora fruticosa. All trees from Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood analyses showed two major clades, Clade A and Clade B. Each of the sampled octoploids contributed alleles to both major clades. All octoploid-derived alleles in Clade A clustered with alleles of diploid F. vesca, with the exception of one octoploid allele that clustered with the alleles of diploid F. mandshurica. All octoploid-derived alleles in clade B clustered with the alleles of only one diploid species, F. iinumae. When gaps encoded as binary characters were included in the Maximum Parsimony analysis, tree resolution was improved with the addition of six nodes, and the bootstrap support was generally higher, rising above the 50% threshold for an additional nine branches. These results, coupled with the congruence of the sequence data and the coded gap data, validate and encourage the employment of sequence sets containing gaps for phylogenetic analysis. Our phylogenetic conclusions, based upon sequence data from the ADH-1 gene located on F. vesca linkage group II, complement and generally agree with those obtained from analyses of protein-encoding genes GBSSI-2 and DHAR located on F. vesca linkage groups V and VII, respectively, but differ from a previous study that utilized rDNA sequences and did not detect the ancestral role of F. iinumae.

  16. A Phylogenetic Analysis of the Genus Fragaria (Strawberry) Using Intron-Containing Sequence from the ADH-1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    DiMeglio, Laura M.; Yu, Hongrun; Davis, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Fragaria encompasses species at ploidy levels ranging from diploid to decaploid. The cultivated strawberry, Fragaria×ananassa, and its two immediate progenitors, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, are octoploids. To elucidate the ancestries of these octoploid species, we performed a phylogenetic analysis using intron-containing sequences of the nuclear ADH-1 gene from 39 germplasm accessions representing nineteen Fragaria species and one outgroup species, Dasiphora fruticosa. All trees from Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood analyses showed two major clades, Clade A and Clade B. Each of the sampled octoploids contributed alleles to both major clades. All octoploid-derived alleles in Clade A clustered with alleles of diploid F. vesca, with the exception of one octoploid allele that clustered with the alleles of diploid F. mandshurica. All octoploid-derived alleles in clade B clustered with the alleles of only one diploid species, F. iinumae. When gaps encoded as binary characters were included in the Maximum Parsimony analysis, tree resolution was improved with the addition of six nodes, and the bootstrap support was generally higher, rising above the 50% threshold for an additional nine branches. These results, coupled with the congruence of the sequence data and the coded gap data, validate and encourage the employment of sequence sets containing gaps for phylogenetic analysis. Our phylogenetic conclusions, based upon sequence data from the ADH-1 gene located on F. vesca linkage group II, complement and generally agree with those obtained from analyses of protein-encoding genes GBSSI-2 and DHAR located on F. vesca linkage groups V and VII, respectively, but differ from a previous study that utilized rDNA sequences and did not detect the ancestral role of F. iinumae. PMID:25078607

  17. Cladistic analysis of continuous modularized traits provides phylogenetic signals in Homo evolution.

    PubMed

    González-José, Rolando; Escapa, Ignacio; Neves, Walter A; Cúneo, Rubén; Pucciarelli, Héctor M

    2008-06-01

    Evolutionary novelties in the skeleton are usually expressed as changes in the timing of growth of features intrinsically integrated at different hierarchical levels of development. As a consequence, most of the shape-traits observed across species do vary quantitatively rather than qualitatively, in a multivariate space and in a modularized way. Because most phylogenetic analyses normally use discrete, hypothetically independent characters, previous attempts have disregarded the phylogenetic signals potentially enclosed in the shape of morphological structures. When analysing low taxonomic levels, where most variation is quantitative in nature, solving basic requirements like the choice of characters and the capacity of using continuous, integrated traits is of crucial importance in recovering wider phylogenetic information. This is particularly relevant when analysing extinct lineages, where available data are limited to fossilized structures. Here we show that when continuous, multivariant and modularized characters are treated as such, cladistic analysis successfully solves relationships among main Homo taxa. Our attempt is based on a combination of cladistics, evolutionary-development-derived selection of characters, and geometric morphometrics methods. In contrast with previous cladistic analyses of hominid phylogeny, our method accounts for the quantitative nature of the traits, and respects their morphological integration patterns. Because complex phenotypes are observable across different taxonomic groups and are potentially informative about phylogenetic relationships, future analyses should point strongly to the incorporation of these types of trait. PMID:18454137

  18. Investigation of glycan evolution based on a comprehensive analysis of glycosyltransferases using phylogenetic profiling

    PubMed Central

    Tomono, Takayoshi; Kojima, Hisao; Fukuchi, Satoshi; Tohsato, Yukako; Ito, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Glycans play important roles in such cell-cell interactions as signaling and adhesion, including processes involved in pathogenic infections, cancers, and neurological diseases. Glycans are biosynthesized by multiple glycosyltransferases (GTs), which function sequentially. Excluding mucin-type O-glycosylation, the non-reducing terminus of glycans is biosynthesized in the Golgi apparatus after the reducing terminus is biosynthesized in the ER. In the present study, we performed genome-wide analyses of human GTs by investigating the degree of conservation of homologues in other organisms, as well as by elucidating the phylogenetic relationship between cephalochordates and urochordates, which has long been controversial in deuterostome phylogeny. We analyzed 173 human GTs and functionally linked glycan synthesis enzymes by phylogenetic profiling and clustering, compiled orthologous genes from the genomes of other organisms, and converted them into a binary sequence based on the presence (1) or absence (0) of orthologous genes in the genomes. Our results suggest that the non-reducing terminus of glycans is biosynthesized by newly evolved GTs. According to our analysis, the phylogenetic profiles of GTs resemble the phylogenetic tree of life, where deuterostomes, metazoans, and eukaryotes are resolved into separate branches. Lineage-specific GTs appear to play essential roles in the divergence of these particular lineages. We suggest that urochordates lose several genes that are conserved among metazoans, such as those expressing sialyltransferases, and that the Golgi apparatus acquires the ability to synthesize glycans after the ER acquires this function. PMID:27493855

  19. Phylogenetic Analysis of Selected Menthol-Producing Species Belonging to the Lamiaceae Family.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Motahareh; Mirzaei, Hamed; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Bagherian, Ali; Masoud Khoi, Mohammad Jaber; Reza Mirzaei, Hamid; Salehi, Rasoul; Reza Jaafari, Mahmoud; Kazemi Oskuee, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Menthol is an organic compound with diverse medicinal and commercial applications, and is made either synthetically or through extraction from mint oils. The aim of the present study was to investigate menthol levels in selected menthol-producing species belonging to the Lamiaceae family, and to determine phylogenetic relationships of menthol dehydrogenase gene sequence among these species. Three genus of Lamiaceae, namely Mentha, Salvia, and Micromeria, were selected for phytochemical and phylogenetic analyses. After identification of each species based on menthol dehydrogenase gene in NCBI, BLAST software was used for the sequence alignment. MEGA4 software was used to draw phylogenetic tree for various species. Phytochemical analysis revealed that the highest and lowest amounts of both essential oil and menthol belonged to Mentha spicata and Micromeria hyssopifolia, respectively. The species Mentha spicata and Mentha piperita, which were assigned to one cluster in the dendrogram, contained the highest amounts of essential oil and menthol while Micromeria species, which was in the distinct cluster and placed in the farther evolutionary distance, contained the lowest amount of essential oil and menthol. Phylogenetic and phytochemistry analyses showed that essential oil and menthol contents of menthol-producing species are associated with menthol dehydrogenase gene sequence. PMID:26252633

  20. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Indonesia Solanaceae based on DNA sequences of internal transcribed spacer region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, Topik; Priyandoko, Didik; Islami, Dina Karina; Wardiny, Putri Yunitha

    2016-02-01

    Solanaceae is one of largest family in Angiosperm group with highly diverse in morphological character. In Indonesia, this group of plant is very popular due to its usefulness as food, ornamental and medicinal plants. However, investigation on phylogenetic relationship among the member of this family in Indonesia remains less attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phylogenetics relationship of the family especially distributed in Indonesia. DNA sequences of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of 19 species of Solanaceae and three species of outgroup, which belongs to family Convolvulaceae, Apocynaceae, and Plantaginaceae, were isolated, amplified, and sequenced. Phylogenetic tree analysis based on parsimony method was conducted with using data derived from the ITS-1, 5.8S, and ITS-2, separately, and the combination of all. Results indicated that the phylogenetic tree derived from the combined data established better pattern of relationship than separate data. Thus, three major groups were revealed. Group 1 consists of tribe Datureae, Cestreae, and Petunieae, whereas group 2 is member of tribe Physaleae. Group 3 belongs to tribe Solaneae. The use of the ITS region as a molecular markers, in general, support the global Solanaceae relationship that has been previously reported.

  1. Phylogenetic Analysis of Selected Menthol-Producing Species Belonging to the Lamiaceae Family.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Motahareh; Mirzaei, Hamed; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Bagherian, Ali; Masoud Khoi, Mohammad Jaber; Reza Mirzaei, Hamid; Salehi, Rasoul; Reza Jaafari, Mahmoud; Kazemi Oskuee, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Menthol is an organic compound with diverse medicinal and commercial applications, and is made either synthetically or through extraction from mint oils. The aim of the present study was to investigate menthol levels in selected menthol-producing species belonging to the Lamiaceae family, and to determine phylogenetic relationships of menthol dehydrogenase gene sequence among these species. Three genus of Lamiaceae, namely Mentha, Salvia, and Micromeria, were selected for phytochemical and phylogenetic analyses. After identification of each species based on menthol dehydrogenase gene in NCBI, BLAST software was used for the sequence alignment. MEGA4 software was used to draw phylogenetic tree for various species. Phytochemical analysis revealed that the highest and lowest amounts of both essential oil and menthol belonged to Mentha spicata and Micromeria hyssopifolia, respectively. The species Mentha spicata and Mentha piperita, which were assigned to one cluster in the dendrogram, contained the highest amounts of essential oil and menthol while Micromeria species, which was in the distinct cluster and placed in the farther evolutionary distance, contained the lowest amount of essential oil and menthol. Phylogenetic and phytochemistry analyses showed that essential oil and menthol contents of menthol-producing species are associated with menthol dehydrogenase gene sequence.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Microtus fortis calamorum (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) and its phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xianhuan; Gao, Jun; Ni, Liju; Hu, Jianhua; Li, Kai; Sun, Fengping; Xie, Jianyun; Bo, Xiong; Gao, Chen; Xiao, Junhua; Zhou, Yuxun

    2012-05-01

    Microtus fortis is a special resource of rodent in China. It is a promising experimental animal model for the study on the mechanism of Schistosome japonicum resistance. The first complete mitochondrial genome sequence for Microtus fortis calamorum, a subspecies of M. fortis (Arvicolinae, Rodentia), was reported in this study. The mitochondrial genome sequence of M. f. calamorum (Genbank: JF261175) showed a typical vertebrate pattern with 13 protein coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and one major noncoding region (CR region).The extended termination associated sequences (ETAS-1 and ETAS-2) and conserved sequence block 1 (CSB-1) were found in the CR region. The putative origin of replication for the light strand (O(L)) of M. f. calamorum was 35bp long and showed high conservation in stem and adjacent sequences, but the difference existed in the loop region among three species of genus Microtus. In order to investigate the phylogenetic position of M. f. calamorum, the phylogenetic trees (Maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods) were constructed based on 12 protein-coding genes (except for ND6 gene) on H strand from 16 rodent species. M. f. calamorum was classified into genus Microtus, Arvcicolinae for the highly phylogenetic relationship with Microtus kikuchii (Taiwan vole). Further phylogenetic analysis results based on the cytochrome b gene ranged from M. f. calamorum to one of the subspecies of M. fortis, which formed a sister group of Microtus middendorfii in the genus Microtus.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of anaerobic psychrophilic enrichment cultures obtained from a greenland glacier ice core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, Peter P.; Miteva, Vanya I.; Brenchley, Jean E.

    2003-01-01

    The examination of microorganisms in glacial ice cores allows the phylogenetic relationships of organisms frozen for thousands of years to be compared with those of current isolates. We developed a method for aseptically sampling a sediment-containing portion of a Greenland ice core that had remained at -9 degrees C for over 100,000 years. Epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry results showed that the ice sample contained over 6 x 10(7) cells/ml. Anaerobic enrichment cultures inoculated with melted ice were grown and maintained at -2 degrees C. Genomic DNA extracted from these enrichments was used for the PCR amplification of 16S rRNA genes with bacterial and archaeal primers and the preparation of clone libraries. Approximately 60 bacterial inserts were screened by restriction endonuclease analysis and grouped into 27 unique restriction fragment length polymorphism types, and 24 representative sequences were compared phylogenetically. Diverse sequences representing major phylogenetic groups including alpha, beta, and gamma Proteobacteria as well as relatives of the Thermus, Bacteroides, Eubacterium, and Clostridium groups were found. Sixteen clone sequences were closely related to those from known organisms, with four possibly representing new species. Seven sequences may reflect new genera and were most closely related to sequences obtained only by PCR amplification. One sequence was over 12% distant from its closest relative and may represent a novel order or family. These results show that phylogenetically diverse microorganisms have remained viable within the Greenland ice core for at least 100,000 years.

  4. Cladistic analysis of continuous modularized traits provides phylogenetic signals in Homo evolution.

    PubMed

    González-José, Rolando; Escapa, Ignacio; Neves, Walter A; Cúneo, Rubén; Pucciarelli, Héctor M

    2008-06-01

    Evolutionary novelties in the skeleton are usually expressed as changes in the timing of growth of features intrinsically integrated at different hierarchical levels of development. As a consequence, most of the shape-traits observed across species do vary quantitatively rather than qualitatively, in a multivariate space and in a modularized way. Because most phylogenetic analyses normally use discrete, hypothetically independent characters, previous attempts have disregarded the phylogenetic signals potentially enclosed in the shape of morphological structures. When analysing low taxonomic levels, where most variation is quantitative in nature, solving basic requirements like the choice of characters and the capacity of using continuous, integrated traits is of crucial importance in recovering wider phylogenetic information. This is particularly relevant when analysing extinct lineages, where available data are limited to fossilized structures. Here we show that when continuous, multivariant and modularized characters are treated as such, cladistic analysis successfully solves relationships among main Homo taxa. Our attempt is based on a combination of cladistics, evolutionary-development-derived selection of characters, and geometric morphometrics methods. In contrast with previous cladistic analyses of hominid phylogeny, our method accounts for the quantitative nature of the traits, and respects their morphological integration patterns. Because complex phenotypes are observable across different taxonomic groups and are potentially informative about phylogenetic relationships, future analyses should point strongly to the incorporation of these types of trait.

  5. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of SSU rRNA gene of five microsporidia.

    PubMed

    Dong, ShiNan; Shen, ZhongYuan; Xu, Li; Zhu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    The complete small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences of five microsporidia including Nosema heliothidis, and four novel microsporidia isolated from Pieris rapae, Phyllobrotica armta, Hemerophila atrilineata, and Bombyx mori, respectively, were obtained by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing. Two phylogenetic trees based on SSU rRNA sequences had been constructed by using Neighbor-Joining of Phylip software and UPGMA of MEGA4.0 software. The taxonomic status of four novel microsporidia was determined by analysis of phylogenetic relationship, length, G+C content, identity, and divergence of the SSU rRNA sequences. The results showed that the microsporidia isolated from Pieris rapae, Phyllobrotica armta, and Hemerophila atrilineata have close phylogenetic relationship with the Nosema, while another microsporidium isolated from Bombyx mori is closely related to the Endoreticulatus. So, we temporarily classify three novel species of microsporidia to genus Nosema, as Nosema sp. PR, Nosema sp. PA, Nosema sp. HA. Another is temporarily classified into genus Endoreticulatus, as Endoreticulatus sp. Zhenjiang. The result indicated as well that it is feasible and valuable to elucidate phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic status of microsporidian species by analyzing information from SSU rRNA sequences of microsporidia. PMID:19768503

  6. Genomic Organization, Phylogenetic and Expression Analysis of the B-BOX Gene Family in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Zhuannan; Wang, Xin; Li, Ying; Yu, Huiyang; Li, Jinhua; Lu, Yongen; Li, Hanxia; Ouyang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The B-BOX (BBX) proteins encode a class of zinc-finger transcription factors possessing one or two B-BOX domains and in some cases an additional CCT (CO, CO-like and TOC1) motif, which play important roles in regulating plant growth, development and stress response. Nevertheless, no systematic study of BBX genes has undertaken in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Here we present the results of a genome-wide analysis of the 29 BBX genes in this important vegetable species. Their structures, conserved domains, phylogenetic relationships, subcellular localizations, and promoter cis-regulatory elements were analyzed; their tissue expression profiles and expression patterns under various hormones and stress treatments were also investigated in detail. Tomato BBX genes can be divided into five subfamilies, and twelve of them were found to be segmentally duplicated. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that most BBX genes exhibited different temporal and spatial expression patterns. The expression of most BBX genes can be induced by drought, polyethylene glycol-6000 or heat stress. Some BBX genes were induced strongly by phytohormones such as abscisic acid, gibberellic acid, or ethephon. The majority of tomato BBX proteins was predicted to be located in nuclei, and the transient expression assay using Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts demonstrated that all the seven BBX members tested (SlBBX5, 7, 15, 17, 20, 22, and 24) were localized in nucleus. Our analysis of tomato BBX genes on the genome scale would provide valuable information for future functional characterization of specific genes in this family. PMID:27807440

  7. A phylogenetic analysis of normal modes evolution in enzymes and its relationship to enzyme function

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jason; Jin, Jing; Kubelka, Jan; Liberles, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Since the dynamic nature of protein structures is essential for enzymatic function, it is expected that the functional evolution can be inferred from the changes in the protein dynamics. However, dynamics can also diverge neutrally with sequence substitution between enzymes without changes of function. In this study, a phylogenetic approach is implemented to explore the relationship between enzyme dynamics and function through evolutionary history. Protein dynamics are described by normal mode analysis based on a simplified harmonic potential force field applied to the reduced Cα representation of the protein structure while enzymatic function is described by Enzyme Commission (EC) numbers. Similarity of the binding pocket dynamics at each branch of the protein family’s phylogeny was analyzed in two ways: 1) explicitly by quantifying the normal mode overlap calculated for the reconstructed ancestral proteins at each end and 2) implicitly using a diffusion model to obtain the reconstructed lineage-specific changes in the normal modes. Both explicit and implicit ancestral reconstruction identified generally faster rates of change in dynamics compared with the expected change from neutral evolution at the branches of potential functional divergences for the alpha-amylase, D-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase, and copper-containing amine oxidase protein families. Normal modes analysis added additional information over just comparing the RMSD of static structures. However, the branch-specific changes were not statistically significant compared to background function-independent neutral rates of change of dynamic properties and blind application of the analysis would not enable prediction of changes in enzyme specificity. PMID:22651983

  8. A phylogenetic analysis of the brassicales clade based on an alignment-free sequence comparison method.

    PubMed

    Hatje, Klas; Kollmar, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses reveal the evolutionary derivation of species. A phylogenetic tree can be inferred from multiple sequence alignments of proteins or genes. The alignment of whole genome sequences of higher eukaryotes is a computational intensive and ambitious task as is the computation of phylogenetic trees based on these alignments. To overcome these limitations, we here used an alignment-free method to compare genomes of the Brassicales clade. For each nucleotide sequence a Chaos Game Representation (CGR) can be computed, which represents each nucleotide of the sequence as a point in a square defined by the four nucleotides as vertices. Each CGR is therefore a unique fingerprint of the underlying sequence. If the CGRs are divided by grid lines each grid square denotes the occurrence of oligonucleotides of a specific length in the sequence (Frequency Chaos Game Representation, FCGR). Here, we used distance measures between FCGRs to infer phylogenetic trees of Brassicales species. Three types of data were analyzed because of their different characteristics: (A) Whole genome assemblies as far as available for species belonging to the Malvidae taxon. (B) EST data of species of the Brassicales clade. (C) Mitochondrial genomes of the Rosids branch, a supergroup of the Malvidae. The trees reconstructed based on the Euclidean distance method are in general agreement with single gene trees. The Fitch-Margoliash and Neighbor joining algorithms resulted in similar to identical trees. Here, for the first time we have applied the bootstrap re-sampling concept to trees based on FCGRs to determine the support of the branchings. FCGRs have the advantage that they are fast to calculate, and can be used as additional information to alignment based data and morphological characteristics to improve the phylogenetic classification of species in ambiguous cases.

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Pseudogastromyzon jiulongjiangensis Chen (Cypriniformes, Homalopteridae) and phylogenetic analysis of the Cyprinoidei.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yaoping; Zhang, Kaibo; Liu, Ziming; Hu, Zehui; Wang, Kaiwei; Zhou, Haidong

    2016-07-01

    The Pseudogastromyzon jiulongjiangensis Chen (Cypriniformes, Homalopteridae) is a promising ornamental and commercial candidate in China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of P. jiulongjiangensis was first determined. It is 16,571 bp length and consists of 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, and a control region. Except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that P. jiulongjiangensis, Formosania lacustris, and other seven fish first clustered into the Homalopteridae clade. Then, the Homalopteridae and Cobitidae formed the sister group. The Catostomoidae and Cyprinidae constituted the sister branch, which is inconsistent with the previous phenotypic report. It is suggested that the taxonomic research might lose some significant evolutionary characters. This study will contribute to phylogenetic analysis of the Homalopteridae and the natural resources conservation of P. jiulongjiangensis. PMID:27158787

  10. K-mer natural vector and its application to the phylogenetic analysis of genetic sequences

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jia; Chan, Raymond H.; Yau, Shek-Chung; He, Rong L.; Yau, Stephen S. T.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the well-known k-mer model, we propose a k-mer natural vector model for representing a genetic sequence based on the numbers and distributions of k-mers in the sequence. We show that there exists a one-to-one correspondence between a genetic sequence and its associated k-mer natural vector. The k-mer natural vector method can be easily and quickly used to perform phylogenetic analysis of genetic sequences without requiring evolutionary models or human intervention. Whole or partial genomes can be handled more effective with our proposed method. It is applied to the phylogenetic analysis of genetic sequences, and the obtaining results fully demonstrate that the k-mer natural vector method is a very powerful tool for analysing and annotating genetic sequences and determining evolutionary relationships both in terms of accuracy and efficiency. PMID:24858075

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis D viruses indicating a new genotype I subgroup among African isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y Y; Tsega, E; Hansson, B G

    1996-01-01

    Genetic analysis was performed on 13 hepatitis D virus (HDV) isolates from Ethiopia, Somalia, Jordan, Kuwait, Bulgaria, Moldavia, and Sweden. The complete nucleotide sequence and genomic organization are described for the first time for two African HDV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed all the African isolates to be intrarelated and to form a novel group within HDV genotype I; the suggested designation for this group is IC. The genetic distance to previously described type I isolates was about 0.15. The HDV genotype I isolates (total of 22 examined) phylogenetically formed three clusters, each of them corresponding to certain geographic regions; the "western" group consisted of six HDV isolates from western Europe and the United States plus one from Kuwait; the "eastern" group consisted of two isolates from Moldavia and one each from Bulgaria, Nauru, mainland China, and Taiwan; and the "African-Middle East" group consisted of six HDV isolates from Ethiopia and one from Somalia, Jordan, and Lebanon. PMID:8940442

  12. Phylogenetic concordance analysis shows an emerging pathogen is novel and endemic.

    PubMed

    Storfer, Andrew; Alfaro, Michael E; Ridenhour, Benjamin J; Jancovich, James K; Mech, Stephen G; Parris, Matthew J; Collins, James P

    2007-11-01

    Distinguishing whether pathogens are novel or endemic is critical for controlling emerging infectious diseases, an increasing threat to wildlife and human health. To test the endemic vs. novel pathogen hypothesis, we present a unique analysis of intraspecific host-pathogen phylogenetic concordance of tiger salamanders and an emerging Ranavirus throughout Western North America. There is significant non-concordance of host and virus gene trees, suggesting pathogen novelty. However, non-concordance has likely resulted from virus introductions by human movement of infected salamanders. When human-associated viral introductions are excluded, host and virus gene trees are identical, strongly supporting coevolution and endemism. A laboratory experiment showed an introduced virus strain is significantly more virulent than endemic strains, likely due to artificial selection for high virulence. Thus, our analysis of intraspecific phylogenetic concordance revealed that human introduction of viruses is the mechanism underlying tree non-concordance and possibly disease emergence via artificial selection.

  13. Multigene phylogenetic reconstruction of the Tubulinea (Amoebozoa) corroborates four of the six major lineages, while additionally revealing that shell composition does not predict phylogeny in the Arcellinida.

    PubMed

    Lahr, Daniel J G; Grant, Jessica R; Katz, Laura A

    2013-05-01

    Tubulinea is a phylogenetically stable higher-level taxon within Amoebozoa, morphologically characterized by monoaxially streaming and cylindrical pseudopods. Contemporary phylogenetic reconstructions have largely relied on SSU rDNA, and to a lesser extent, on actin genes to reveal the relationships among these organisms. Additionally, the test (shell) forming Arcellinida, one of the most species-rich amoebozoan groups, is nested within Tubulinea and suffers from substantial under-sampling of taxa. Here, we increase taxonomic and gene sampling within the Tubulinea, characterizing molecular data for 22 taxa and six genes (SSU rDNA, actin, α- and β-tubulin, elongation factor 2 and the 14-3-3 regulatory protein). We perform concatenated phylogenetic analyses using these genes as well as approximately unbiased tests to assess evolutionary relationships within the Tubulinea. We confirm the monophyly of Tubulinea and four of the six included lineages (Echinamoeboidea, Leptomyxida, Amoebida and Poseidonida). Arcellinida and Hartmanellidae, the remaining lineages, are not monophyletic in our reconstructions, although statistical testing does not allow rejection of either group. We further investigate more fine-grained morphological evolution of previously defined groups, concluding that relationships within Arcellinida are more consistent with general test and aperture shape than with test composition. We also discuss the implications of this phylogeny for interpretations of the Precambrian fossil record of testate amoebae. PMID:23499265

  14. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Acridoidea (Orthoptera: Caelifera) based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit sequences.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lijun; Shi, Jianping; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yulong; Li, Xinjiang; Yin, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of Acridoidea were examined using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit sequences (COI, COII and COIII, total 2970bp). Fourteen grasshopper species of thirteen genera from seven families were sequenced to obtain mitochondrial genes data, along with twenty-two grasshopper species were obtained from the GenBank nucleotide database. The purpose of this study is to infer the phylogenetic relationships among families within Acridoidea and testing the monophyly of Acridoidea and each families of it. Phylogenic trees were reconstructed using Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Maximum Parsimony (MP) methods with Tettigonioidea and Gryllotalpoidea as outgroups. The putative initiation codon for COI is CCG in thirteen studied species and ATC in Bryodema luctuosum luctuosum. The 2970 bp concatenated sequences included 1431 conserved sites, 1539 variable sites, and 1216 parsimony-informative sites, the nucleotide compositions were significantly biased toward A and T (68.8%). The resulted phylogenetic trees supported the monophyly of Acridoidea, but did not entirely agree with the traditional morphology-based taxonomic system of grasshoppers within Acridoidea. The monophyly of three families of Acrididae, Catantopidae and Arcypteridae were not supported; Gomphoceridae and Arcypteridae were recovered together as a monophyletic group because of closer phylogenetic relationships; Pyrgomorphidae and Chrotogonidae have the same closer relationships; Pneumoridae, Pyrgomorphidae and Chrotogonidae were the most basal groups; while the taxonomic status of Pamphagidae, which was revealed as a monophyletic group, was not clear in this analysis. Moreover, the results indicate that a phylogeny inferred from the combination of several genes is more reliable than that from only a single gene sequence, and the third codon positions of protein coding genes can improve the topology and node supports of the phylogenetic trees. PMID:26624048

  15. Structural and phylogenetic analysis of the rDNA intergenic spacer region of Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Ioannis A; Dimopoulou, Chrysoula D; Typas, Milton A

    2013-10-01

    The nuclear ribosomal intergenic spacer (IGS) region was structurally analyzed and exploited for molecular discrimination and phylogenetic analysis of vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) of Verticillium dahliae. A structural study of 201 available IGS sequences of the fungus was performed, and four classes of ubiquitous repetitive elements, organized in higher-order repetitive structures or composite blocks, were detected in a variable IGS subregion. This subregion was amplified from an international collection of 59 V. dahliae isolates covering all VCGs, together with nine representative V. albo-atrum and V. longisporum isolates, and sequenced. Structural and phylogenetic analyses of the sequences of this polymorphic IGS subregion were consistently informative and allowed the identification of two main lineages in V. dahliae, that is, clade I including VCGs 1A, 1B, 2A, 4B, and 3 and clade II containing VCGs 2B, 4A, and 6. Analysis of IGS sequences proved a highly suitable molecular tool for (a) rapid interspecific differentiation, (b) intraspecific discrimination among VCGs of V. dahliae, facilitating high-throughput VCG confirmation and prediction/profiling, and (c) phylogenetic analysis within and among V. dahliae VCGs.

  16. A revision and phylogenetic analysis of the spider genus Oxysoma Nicolet (Araneae: Anyphaenidae, Amaurobioidinae).

    PubMed

    Aisen, Santiago; Ramírez, Martín J

    2015-08-06

    We review the spider genus Oxysoma Nicolet, with most of its species endemic from the southern temperate forests in Chile and Argentina, and present a phylogenetic analysis including seven species, of which three are newly described in this study (O. macrocuspis new species, O. kuni new species, and O. losruiles new species, all from Chile), together with other 107 representatives of Anyphaenidae. New geographical records and distribution maps are provided for all species, with illustrations and reviewed diagnoses for the genus and the four previously known species (O. punctatum Nicolet, O. saccatum (Tullgren), O. longiventre (Nicolet) and O. itambezinho Ramírez). The phylogenetic analysis using cladistic methods is based on 264 previously defined characters plus one character that arises from this study. The three new species are closely related with Oxysoma longiventre, and this four species compose what we define as the Oxysoma longiventre species group. The phylogenetic analysis did not retrieve the monophyly of Oxysoma, which should be reevaluated in the future, together with the genus Tasata.

  17. Genotyping and Phylogenetic Analysis of Giardia duodenalis Isolates from Turkish Children

    PubMed Central

    Tamer, Gulden Sonmez; Kasap, Murat; Er, Doganhan Kadir

    2015-01-01

    Background Giardiasis is caused by the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis (synonyms: G. lamblia, G. intestinalis), which is one of the most frequent parasites that infect Turkish children. However, molecular characterization of G. duodenalis in Turkey is relatively scarce. The present work aimed at genotyping G. duodenalis isolates from Turkey using molecular techniques. Material/Methods In the present study, 145 fecal samples from children were collected to search for the presence of Giardia by microscopy and PCR screening. PCR generated a 384 bp fragment for β-giardin. The PCR products were sequenced and the sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by using PHYLIP. Results Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the sequences, assemblage A, B, and mixed subtypes were determined. Of 22 isolates, 11 were identified as assemblage A (50%), 7 were assemblage B (31.8%), and 4 were assemblage AB (18.2%). Association between G. duodenalis assemblages and the epidemiological data was analyzed. No correlation was found between symptoms and infection with specific assemblages (P>0.05), but we found statistically significant association between age and the assemblage AB (P=0.001). Conclusions The association between G. duodenalis and the epidemiologic data were analyzed. Since assemblage A is the more prevalent subgroup compared with assemblage B, this subgroup might be responsible for common Giardia infections in Turkey. This is the first study that included a detailed phylogenetic analysis of Giardia strains from Turkey. PMID:25689970

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of Choristoneura longicellana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and phylogenetic analysis of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Luo, A-Rong; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2016-10-10

    To better understand the diversity and phylogeny of Lepidoptera, the complete mitochondrial genome of Choristoneura longicellana (=Hoshinoa longicellana) was determined. It is a typical circular duplex molecule with 15,759bp in length, containing the standard metazoan set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and an A+T-rich region. All of the inferred tRNA secondary structures show the common cloverleaf pattern, with the exception of trnS1(AGN), which lacks the DHU arm. The rrnL of C. Longicellana is the longest in sequenced lepidopterans. C. Longicellana has the same gene order as all lepidopteran species currently available in GenBank. There are 5 overlapping regions ranging from 1bp to 8bp and 14 intergenic spacers ranging from 1bp to 48bp. In addition, there are four similar tandem macro-satellite regions with the lengths of 101bp, 98bp, 92bp, and 92bp respectively in the A+T-rich regions of C. longicellana. We sampled 89 species representing 13 superfamilies, and reconstructed their relationship among Lepidoptera by Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood analysis. The topology of the two phylogenetic analysis trees is identical roughly, except for Cossoidea in different locations, the positions of Cossoidea, Copromorphoidea, Gelechioidea, Zygaenoidea were not determined based the limited sampling. (Geometroidea+(Noctuoidea+Bombycoidea)) form the Macrolepidoptera "core". Pyraloidea group with the "core" Macrolepidoptera. Papilionoidea are not Macrolepidoptera. The Hesperiidae (represent Hesperioidea) is nested in the Papilionoidea, and closely related to Pieridae and Papilionidae. The well-known relationship of (Nymphalidae+(Riodinidae+Lycaenidae)) is recovered in this paper. PMID:27390085

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of algal symbionts associated with four North American amphibian egg masses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunsoo; Lin, Yuan; Kerney, Ryan; Blumenberg, Lili; Bishop, Cory

    2014-01-01

    Egg masses of the yellow-spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum form an association with the green alga "Oophila amblystomatis" (Lambert ex Wille), which, in addition to growing within individual egg capsules, has recently been reported to invade embryonic tissues and cells. The binomial O. amblystomatis refers to the algae that occur in A. maculatum egg capsules, but it is unknown whether this population of symbionts constitutes one or several different algal taxa. Moreover, it is unknown whether egg masses across the geographic range of A. maculatum, or other amphibians, associate with one or multiple algal taxa. To address these questions, we conducted a phylogeographic study of algae sampled from egg capsules of A. maculatum, its allopatric congener A. gracile, and two frogs: Lithobates sylvatica and L. aurora. All of these North American amphibians form associations with algae in their egg capsules. We sampled algae from egg capsules of these four amphibians from localities across North America, established representative algal cultures, and amplified and sequenced a region of 18S rDNA for phylogenetic analysis. Our combined analysis shows that symbiotic algae found in egg masses of four North American amphibians are closely related to each other, and form a well-supported clade that also contains three strains of free-living chlamydomonads. We designate this group as the 'Oophila' clade, within which the symbiotic algae are further divided into four distinct subclades. Phylogenies of the host amphibians and their algal symbionts are only partially congruent, suggesting that host-switching and co-speciation both play roles in their associations. We also established conditions for isolating and rearing algal symbionts from amphibian egg capsules, which should facilitate further study of these egg mass specialist algae. PMID:25393119

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of algal symbionts associated with four North American amphibian egg masses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunsoo; Lin, Yuan; Kerney, Ryan; Blumenberg, Lili; Bishop, Cory

    2014-01-01

    Egg masses of the yellow-spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum form an association with the green alga "Oophila amblystomatis" (Lambert ex Wille), which, in addition to growing within individual egg capsules, has recently been reported to invade embryonic tissues and cells. The binomial O. amblystomatis refers to the algae that occur in A. maculatum egg capsules, but it is unknown whether this population of symbionts constitutes one or several different algal taxa. Moreover, it is unknown whether egg masses across the geographic range of A. maculatum, or other amphibians, associate with one or multiple algal taxa. To address these questions, we conducted a phylogeographic study of algae sampled from egg capsules of A. maculatum, its allopatric congener A. gracile, and two frogs: Lithobates sylvatica and L. aurora. All of these North American amphibians form associations with algae in their egg capsules. We sampled algae from egg capsules of these four amphibians from localities across North America, established representative algal cultures, and amplified and sequenced a region of 18S rDNA for phylogenetic analysis. Our combined analysis shows that symbiotic algae found in egg masses of four North American amphibians are closely related to each other, and form a well-supported clade that also contains three strains of free-living chlamydomonads. We designate this group as the 'Oophila' clade, within which the symbiotic algae are further divided into four distinct subclades. Phylogenies of the host amphibians and their algal symbionts are only partially congruent, suggesting that host-switching and co-speciation both play roles in their associations. We also established conditions for isolating and rearing algal symbionts from amphibian egg capsules, which should facilitate further study of these egg mass specialist algae.

  1. Phylogenetic Analysis of Algal Symbionts Associated with Four North American Amphibian Egg Masses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunsoo; Lin, Yuan; Kerney, Ryan; Blumenberg, Lili; Bishop, Cory

    2014-01-01

    Egg masses of the yellow-spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum form an association with the green alga “Oophila amblystomatis” (Lambert ex Wille), which, in addition to growing within individual egg capsules, has recently been reported to invade embryonic tissues and cells. The binomial O. amblystomatis refers to the algae that occur in A. maculatum egg capsules, but it is unknown whether this population of symbionts constitutes one or several different algal taxa. Moreover, it is unknown whether egg masses across the geographic range of A. maculatum, or other amphibians, associate with one or multiple algal taxa. To address these questions, we conducted a phylogeographic study of algae sampled from egg capsules of A. maculatum, its allopatric congener A. gracile, and two frogs: Lithobates sylvatica and L. aurora. All of these North American amphibians form associations with algae in their egg capsules. We sampled algae from egg capsules of these four amphibians from localities across North America, established representative algal cultures, and amplified and sequenced a region of 18S rDNA for phylogenetic analysis. Our combined analysis shows that symbiotic algae found in egg masses of four North American amphibians are closely related to each other, and form a well-supported clade that also contains three strains of free-living chlamydomonads. We designate this group as the ‘Oophila’ clade, within which the symbiotic algae are further divided into four distinct subclades. Phylogenies of the host amphibians and their algal symbionts are only partially congruent, suggesting that host-switching and co-speciation both play roles in their associations. We also established conditions for isolating and rearing algal symbionts from amphibian egg capsules, which should facilitate further study of these egg mass specialist algae. PMID:25393119

  2. Additional EIPC Study Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W; Gotham, Douglas J.; Luciani, Ralph L.

    2014-12-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 14 topics was developed for further analysis. This paper brings together the earlier interim reports of the first 13 topics plus one additional topic into a single final report.

  3. Overview of chitin metabolism enzymes in Manduca sexta: Identification, domain organization, phylogenetic analysis and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Cao, Xiaolong; Chen, Yun-Ru; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Jiang, Haobo; Blissard, Gary W; Kanost, Michael R; Wang, Ping

    2015-07-01

    Chitin is one of the most abundant biomaterials in nature. The biosynthesis and degradation of chitin in insects are complex and dynamically regulated to cope with insect growth and development. Chitin metabolism in insects is known to involve numerous enzymes, including chitin synthases (synthesis of chitin), chitin deacetylases (modification of chitin by deacetylation) and chitinases (degradation of chitin by hydrolysis). In this study, we conducted a genome-wide search and analysis of genes encoding these chitin metabolism enzymes in Manduca sexta. Our analysis confirmed that only two chitin synthases are present in M. sexta as in most other arthropods. Eleven chitin deacetylases (encoded by nine genes) were identified, with at least one representative in each of the five phylogenetic groups that have been described for chitin deacetylases to date. Eleven genes encoding for family 18 chitinases (GH18) were found in the M. sexta genome. Based on the presence of conserved sequence motifs in the catalytic sequences and phylogenetic relationships, two of the M. sexta chitinases did not cluster with any of the current eight phylogenetic groups of chitinases: two new groups were created (groups IX and X) and their characteristics are described. The result of the analysis of the Lepidoptera-specific chitinase-h (group h) is consistent with its proposed bacterial origin. By analyzing chitinases from fourteen species that belong to seven different phylogenetic groups, we reveal that the chitinase genes appear to have evolved sequentially in the arthropod lineage to achieve the current high level of diversity observed in M. sexta. Based on the sequence conservation of the catalytic domains and on their developmental stage- and tissue-specific expression, we propose putative functions for each group in each category of enzymes. PMID:25616108

  4. In Silico Phylogenetic Analysis and Molecular Modelling Study of 2-Haloalkanoic Acid Dehalogenase Enzymes from Bacterial and Fungal Origin

    PubMed Central

    Satpathy, Raghunath; Konkimalla, V. B.; Ratha, Jagnyeswar

    2016-01-01

    2-Haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase enzymes have broad range of applications, starting from bioremediation to chemical synthesis of useful compounds that are widely distributed in fungi and bacteria. In the present study, a total of 81 full-length protein sequences of 2-haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase from bacteria and fungi were retrieved from NCBI database. Sequence analysis such as multiple sequence alignment (MSA), conserved motif identification, computation of amino acid composition, and phylogenetic tree construction were performed on these primary sequences. From MSA analysis, it was observed that the sequences share conserved lysine (K) and aspartate (D) residues in them. Also, phylogenetic tree indicated a subcluster comprised of both fungal and bacterial species. Due to nonavailability of experimental 3D structure for fungal 2-haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase in the PDB, molecular modelling study was performed for both fungal and bacterial sources of enzymes present in the subcluster. Further structural analysis revealed a common evolutionary topology shared between both fungal and bacterial enzymes. Studies on the buried amino acids showed highly conserved Leu and Ser in the core, despite variation in their amino acid percentage. Additionally, a surface exposed tryptophan was conserved in all of these selected models. PMID:26880911

  5. Piscine reovirus: Genomic and molecular phylogenetic analysis from farmed and wild salmonids collected on the Canada/US Pacific Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siah, Ahmed; Morrison, Diane B.; Fringuelli, Elena; Savage, Paul S.; Richmond, Zina; Purcell, Maureen K.; Johns, Robert; Johnson, Stewart C.; Sakasida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Piscine reovirus (PRV) is a double stranded non-enveloped RNA virus detected in farmed and wild salmonids. This study examined the phylogenetic relationships among different PRV sequence types present in samples from salmonids in Western Canada and the US, including Alaska (US), British Columbia (Canada) and Washington State (US). Tissues testing positive for PRV were partially sequenced for segment S1, producing 71 sequences that grouped into 10 unique sequence types. Sequence analysis revealed no identifiable geographical or temporal variation among the sequence types. Identical sequence types were found in fish sampled in 2001, 2005 and 2014. In addition, PRV positive samples from fish derived from Alaska, British Columbia and Washington State share identical sequence types. Comparative analysis of the phylogenetic tree indicated that Canada/US Pacific Northwest sequences formed a subgroup with some Norwegian sequence types (group II), distinct from other Norwegian and Chilean sequences (groups I, III and IV). Representative PRV positive samples from farmed and wild fish in British Columbia and Washington State were subjected to genome sequencing using next generation sequencing methods. Individual analysis of each of the 10 partial segments indicated that the Canadian and US PRV sequence types clustered separately from available whole genome sequences of some Norwegian and Chilean sequences for all segments except the segment S4. In summary, PRV was genetically homogenous over a large geographic distance (Alaska to Washington State), and the sequence types were relatively stable over a 13 year period.

  6. Piscine Reovirus: Genomic and Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis from Farmed and Wild Salmonids Collected on the Canada/US Pacific Coast

    PubMed Central

    Siah, Ahmed; Morrison, Diane B.; Fringuelli, Elena; Savage, Paul; Richmond, Zina; Johns, Robert; Purcell, Maureen K.; Johnson, Stewart C.; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Piscine reovirus (PRV) is a double stranded non-enveloped RNA virus detected in farmed and wild salmonids. This study examined the phylogenetic relationships among different PRV sequence types present in samples from salmonids in Western Canada and the US, including Alaska (US), British Columbia (Canada) and Washington State (US). Tissues testing positive for PRV were partially sequenced for segment S1, producing 71 sequences that grouped into 10 unique sequence types. Sequence analysis revealed no identifiable geographical or temporal variation among the sequence types. Identical sequence types were found in fish sampled in 2001, 2005 and 2014. In addition, PRV positive samples from fish derived from Alaska, British Columbia and Washington State share identical sequence types. Comparative analysis of the phylogenetic tree indicated that Canada/US Pacific Northwest sequences formed a subgroup with some Norwegian sequence types (group II), distinct from other Norwegian and Chilean sequences (groups I, III and IV). Representative PRV positive samples from farmed and wild fish in British Columbia and Washington State were subjected to genome sequencing using next generation sequencing methods. Individual analysis of each of the 10 partial segments indicated that the Canadian and US PRV sequence types clustered separately from available whole genome sequences of some Norwegian and Chilean sequences for all segments except the segment S4. In summary, PRV was genetically homogenous over a large geographic distance (Alaska to Washington State), and the sequence types were relatively stable over a 13 year period. PMID:26536673

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Pallisentis celatus (Acanthocephala) with phylogenetic analysis of acanthocephalans and rotifers.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ting Shuang; Nie, Pin

    2013-07-01

    Acanthocephalans are a small group of obligate endoparasites. They and rotifers are recently placed in a group called Syndermata. However, phylogenetic relationships within classes of acanthocephalans, and between them and rotifers, have not been well resolved, possibly due to the lack of molecular data suitable for such analysis. In this study, the mitochondrial (mt) genome was sequenced from Pallisentis celatus (Van Cleave, 1928), an acanthocephalan in the class Eoacanthocephala, an intestinal parasite of rice-field eel, Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793), in China. The complete mt genome sequence of P. celatus is 13 855 bp long, containing 36 genes including 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) as reported for other acanthocephalan species. All genes are encoded on the same strand and in the same direction. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that acanthocephalans are closely related with a clade containing bdelloids, which then correlates with the clade containing monogononts. The class Eoacanthocephala, containing P. celatus and Paratenuisentis ambiguus (Van Cleave, 1921) was closely related to the Palaeacanthocephala. It is thus indicated that acanthocephalans may be just clustered among groups of rotifers. However, the resolving of phylogenetic relationship among all classes of acanthocephalans and between them and rotifers may require further sampling and more molecular data.

  8. Molecular cloning, phylogenetic analysis and heat shock response of Babesia gibsoni heat shock protein 90.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Masahiro; Tsuboi, Yoshihiro; Taniyama, Yusuke; Uchida, Naohiro; Sato, Reeko; Nakamura, Kensuke; Ohta, Hiroshi; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-09-01

    The Babesia gibsoni heat shock protein 90 (BgHSP90) gene was cloned and sequenced. The length of the gene was 2,610 bp with two introns. This gene was amplified from cDNA corresponding to full length coding sequence (CDS) with an open reading frame of 2,148 bp. A phylogenetic analysis of the CDS of HSP90 gene showed that B. gibsoni was most closely related to B. bovis and Babesia sp. BQ1/Lintan and lies within a phylogenetic cluster of protozoa. Moreover, mRNA transcription profile for BgHSP90 exposed to high temperature were examined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. BgHSP90 levels were elevated when the parasites were incubated at 43°C for 1 hr. PMID:27149891

  9. Whole genome sequencing as a tool for phylogenetic analysis of clinical strains of Mitis group streptococci.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, L H; Dargis, R; Højholt, K; Christensen, J J; Skovgaard, O; Justesen, U S; Rosenvinge, F S; Moser, C; Lukjancenko, O; Rasmussen, S; Nielsen, X C

    2016-10-01

    Identification of Mitis group streptococci (MGS) to the species level is challenging for routine microbiology laboratories. Correct identification is crucial for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis, identification of treatment failure, and/or infection relapse. Eighty MGS from Danish patients with infective endocarditis were whole genome sequenced. We compared the phylogenetic analyses based on single genes (recA, sodA, gdh), multigene (MLSA), SNPs, and core-genome sequences. The six phylogenetic analyses generally showed a similar pattern of six monophyletic clusters, though a few differences were observed in single gene analyses. Species identification based on single gene analysis showed their limitations when more strains were included. In contrast, analyses incorporating more sequence data, like MLSA, SNPs and core-genome analyses, provided more distinct clustering. The core-genome tree showed the most distinct clustering. PMID:27325438

  10. The phylogenetic position of Rhopalura ophiocomae (Orthonectida) based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Hanelt, B; Van Schyndel, D; Adema, C M; Lewis, L A; Loker, E S

    1996-11-01

    The Orthonectida is a small, poorly known phylum of parasites of marine invertebrates. Their phylogenetic placement is obscure; they have been considered to be multicellular protozoans, primitive animals at a "mesozoan" grade of organization, or secondarily simplified flatworm-like organisms. The best known species in the phylum, Rhopalura ophiocomae, was collected on San Juan Island, Wash. and a complete 18S rDNA sequence was obtained. Using the models of minimum evolution and parsimony, phylogenetic analyses were undertaken and the results lend support to the following hypotheses about orthonectids: (1) orthonectids are more closely aligned with triploblastic metazoan taxa than with the protist or diploblastic metazoan taxa considered in this analysis; (2) orthonectids are not derived members of the phylum Platyhelminthes; and (3) orthonectids and rhombozoans are not each other's closest relatives, thus casting further doubt on the validity of the phylum Mesozoa previously used to encompass both groups. PMID:8896370

  11. Molecular cloning, phylogenetic analysis and heat shock response of Babesia gibsoni heat shock protein 90

    PubMed Central

    YAMASAKI, Masahiro; TSUBOI, Yoshihiro; TANIYAMA, Yusuke; UCHIDA, Naohiro; SATO, Reeko; NAKAMURA, Kensuke; OHTA, Hiroshi; TAKIGUCHI, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The Babesia gibsoni heat shock protein 90 (BgHSP90) gene was cloned and sequenced. The length of the gene was 2,610 bp with two introns. This gene was amplified from cDNA corresponding to full length coding sequence (CDS) with an open reading frame of 2,148 bp. A phylogenetic analysis of the CDS of HSP90 gene showed that B. gibsoni was most closely related to B. bovis and Babesia sp. BQ1/Lintan and lies within a phylogenetic cluster of protozoa. Moreover, mRNA transcription profile for BgHSP90 exposed to high temperature were examined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. BgHSP90 levels were elevated when the parasites were incubated at 43°C for 1 hr. PMID:27149891

  12. Whole genome sequencing as a tool for phylogenetic analysis of clinical strains of Mitis group streptococci.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, L H; Dargis, R; Højholt, K; Christensen, J J; Skovgaard, O; Justesen, U S; Rosenvinge, F S; Moser, C; Lukjancenko, O; Rasmussen, S; Nielsen, X C

    2016-10-01

    Identification of Mitis group streptococci (MGS) to the species level is challenging for routine microbiology laboratories. Correct identification is crucial for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis, identification of treatment failure, and/or infection relapse. Eighty MGS from Danish patients with infective endocarditis were whole genome sequenced. We compared the phylogenetic analyses based on single genes (recA, sodA, gdh), multigene (MLSA), SNPs, and core-genome sequences. The six phylogenetic analyses generally showed a similar pattern of six monophyletic clusters, though a few differences were observed in single gene analyses. Species identification based on single gene analysis showed their limitations when more strains were included. In contrast, analyses incorporating more sequence data, like MLSA, SNPs and core-genome analyses, provided more distinct clustering. The core-genome tree showed the most distinct clustering.

  13. The phylogenetic position of Rhopalura ophiocomae (Orthonectida) based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Hanelt, B; Van Schyndel, D; Adema, C M; Lewis, L A; Loker, E S

    1996-11-01

    The Orthonectida is a small, poorly known phylum of parasites of marine invertebrates. Their phylogenetic placement is obscure; they have been considered to be multicellular protozoans, primitive animals at a "mesozoan" grade of organization, or secondarily simplified flatworm-like organisms. The best known species in the phylum, Rhopalura ophiocomae, was collected on San Juan Island, Wash. and a complete 18S rDNA sequence was obtained. Using the models of minimum evolution and parsimony, phylogenetic analyses were undertaken and the results lend support to the following hypotheses about orthonectids: (1) orthonectids are more closely aligned with triploblastic metazoan taxa than with the protist or diploblastic metazoan taxa considered in this analysis; (2) orthonectids are not derived members of the phylum Platyhelminthes; and (3) orthonectids and rhombozoans are not each other's closest relatives, thus casting further doubt on the validity of the phylum Mesozoa previously used to encompass both groups.

  14. Whole genome analysis of diverse Chlamydia trachomatis strains identifies phylogenetic relationships masked by current clinical typing

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Simon R.; Clarke, Ian N.; Seth-Smith, Helena M. B.; Solomon, Anthony W.; Cutcliffe, Lesley T.; Marsh, Peter; Skilton, Rachel J.; Holland, Martin J.; Mabey, David; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Lewis, David A.; Spratt, Brian G.; Unemo, Magnus; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Brunham, Robert; de Vries, Henry J.C.; Morré, Servaas A.; Speksnijder, Arjen; Bébéar, Cécile M.; Clerc, Maïté; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Parkhill, Julian; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for both trachoma and sexually transmitted infections causing substantial morbidity and economic cost globally. Despite this, our knowledge of its population and evolutionary genetics is limited. Here we present a detailed whole genome phylogeny from representative strains of both trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) biovars from temporally and geographically diverse sources. Our analysis demonstrates that predicting phylogenetic structure using the ompA gene, traditionally used to classify Chlamydia, is misleading because extensive recombination in this region masks true relationships. We show that in many instances ompA is a chimera that can be exchanged in part or whole, both within and between biovars. We also provide evidence for exchange of, and recombination within, the cryptic plasmid, another important diagnostic target. We have used our phylogenetic framework to show how genetic exchange has manifested itself in ocular, urogenital and LGV C. trachomatis strains, including the epidemic LGV serotype L2b. PMID:22406642

  15. Phylogenetic and pathotypical analysis of two virulent Newcastle disease viruses isolated from domestic ducks in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shouping; Wang, Xiaoting; Zhao, Changguang; Liu, Dehua; Hu, Yanxin; Zhao, Jixun; Zhang, Guozhong

    2011-01-01

    Two velogenic Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) obtained from outbreaks in domestic ducks in China were characterized in this study. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both strains clustered with the class II viruses, with one phylogenetically close to the genotype VII NDVs and the other closer to genotype IX. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein confirmed that both isolates contained the virulent motif (112)RRQK/RRF(117) at the cleavage site. The two NDVs had severe pathogenicity in fully susceptible chickens, resulting in 100% mortality. One of the isolates also demonstrated some pathogenicity in domestic ducks. The present study suggests that more than one genotype of NDV circulates in domestic ducks in China and viral transmission may occur among chickens and domestic ducks.

  16. Molecular cytogenetic characterisation and phylogenetic analysis of the seven cultivated Vigna species (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    She, C-W; Jiang, X-H; Ou, L-J; Liu, J; Long, K-L; Zhang, L-H; Duan, W-T; Zhao, W; Hu, J-C

    2015-01-01

    The genomic organisation of the seven cultivated Vigna species, V. unguiculata, V. subterranea, V. angularis, V. umbellata, V. radiata, V. mungo and V. aconitifolia, was determined using sequential combined PI and DAPI (CPD) staining and dual-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with 5S and 45S rDNA probes. For phylogenetic analyses, comparative genomic in situ hybridisation (cGISH) onto somatic chromosomes and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of 45S rDNA were used. Quantitative karyotypes were established using chromosome measurements, fluorochrome bands and rDNA FISH signals. All species had symmetrical karyotypes composed of only metacentric or metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes. Distinct heterochromatin differentiation was revealed by CPD staining and DAPI counterstaining after FISH. The rDNA sites among all species differed in their number, location and size. cGISH of V. umbellata genomic DNA to the chromosomes of all species produced strong signals in all centromeric regions of V. umbellata and V. angularis, weak signals in all pericentromeric regions of V. aconitifolia, and CPD-banded proximal regions of V. mungo var. mungo. Molecular phylogenetic trees showed that V. angularis and V. umbellata were the closest relatives, and V. mungo and V. aconitifolia were relatively closely related; these species formed a group that was separated from another group comprising V. radiata, V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis and V. subterranea. This result was consistent with the phylogenetic relationships inferred from the heterochromatin and cGISH patterns; thus, fluorochrome banding and cGISH are efficient tools for the phylogenetic analysis of Vigna species.

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of New Zealand earthworms (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae) reveals ancient clades and cryptic taxonomic diversity.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Thomas R; James, Sam; Allwood, Julia; Bartlam, Scott; Howitt, Robyn; Prada, Diana

    2011-01-01

    We have constructed the first ever phylogeny for the New Zealand earthworm fauna (Megascolecinae and Acanthodrilinae) including representatives from other major continental regions. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed from 427 base pairs from the mitochondrial large subunit (16S) rRNA gene and 661 base pairs from the nuclear large subunit (28S) rRNA gene. Within the Acanthodrilinae we were able to identify a number of well-supported clades that were restricted to continental landmasses. Estimates of nodal support for these major clades were generally high, but relationships among clades were poorly resolved. The phylogenetic analyses revealed several independent lineages in New Zealand, some of which had a comparable phylogenetic depth to monophyletic groups sampled from Madagascar, Africa, North America and Australia. These results are consistent with at least some of these clades having inhabited New Zealand since rifting from Gondwana in the Late Cretaceous. Within the New Zealand Acanthodrilinae, major clades tended to be restricted to specific regions of New Zealand, with the central North Island and Cook Strait representing major biogeographic boundaries. Our field surveys of New Zealand and subsequent identification has also revealed extensive cryptic taxonomic diversity with approximately 48 new species sampled in addition to the 199 species recognized by previous authors. Our results indicate that further survey and taxonomic work is required to establish a foundation for future biogeographic and ecological research on this vitally important component of the New Zealand biota.

  18. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis of true morels (Morchella) reveals high levels of endemics in Turkey relative to other regions of Europe.

    PubMed

    Taskin, Hatira; Büyükalaca, Saadet; Hansen, Karen; O'Donnell, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to better understand how the phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella) in Turkey compares with species found in other regions of the world. The current research builds on our recently published surveys of 10 Turkish provinces and the northern hemisphere in which DNA sequence data from 247 and 562 collections respectively were analyzed phylogenetically. Herein we report on phylogenetic analyses of 243 additional collections made in spring 2009 and 2010 from eight additional provinces in the Aegean, Black Sea, central Anatolia, eastern Anatolia and Marmara regions of Turkey. Our analysis revealed that five species within the Esculenta clade (yellow morels) and 15 species within the Elata clade (black morels) were present in Turkey. Our preliminary results also indicate that M. anatolica, recently described from a collection in Muğla province in the Aegean region of Turkey, is a closely related sister of M. rufobrunnea; these two species comprise a separate evolutionary lineage from the Esculenta and Elata clades. Nine species of Morchella currently are known only from Turkey, four species were present in Turkey and other European countries and seven species might have been introduced to Turkey anthropogenically. Three of the putatively exotic species in Turkey appear to be endemic to western North America; they are nested within a clade of fire-adapted morels that dates to the late Oligocene, 25 000 000 y ago. Our results indicate that there are roughly twice as many Morchella species in Turkey compared with the other regions of Europe sampled. Knowledge of Morchella species diversity and their biogeographic distribution are crucial for formulating informed conservation policies directed at preventing species loss and ensuring that annual morel harvests are sustainable and ecologically sound.

  19. Multigene analysis of phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of primate sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura).

    PubMed

    Light, Jessica E; Reed, David L

    2009-02-01

    Cospeciation between hosts and parasites offers a unique opportunity to use information from parasites to infer events in host evolutionary history. Although lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) are known to cospeciate with their hosts and have frequently served as important markers to infer host evolutionary history, most molecular studies are based on only one or two markers. Resulting phylogenies may, therefore, represent gene histories (rather than species histories), and analyses of multiple molecular markers are needed to increase confidence in the results of phylogenetic analyses. Herein, we phylogenetically examine nine molecular markers in primate sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) and we use these markers to estimate divergence times among louse lineages. Individual and combined analyses of these nine markers are, for the most part, congruent, supporting relationships hypothesized in previous studies. Only one marker, the nuclear protein-coding gene Histone 3, has a significantly different tree topology compared to the other markers. The disparate evolutionary history of this marker, however, has no significant effect on topology or nodal support in the combined phylogenetic analyses. Therefore, phylogenetic results from the combined data set likely represent a solid hypothesis of species relationships. Additionally, we find that simultaneous use of multiple markers and calibration points provides the most reliable estimates of louse divergence times, in agreement with previous studies estimating divergences among species. Estimates of phylogenies and divergence times also allow us to verify the results of [Reed, D.L., Light, J.E., Allen, J.M., Kirchman, J.J., 2007. Pair of lice lost or parasites regained: the evolutionary history of anthropoid primate lice. BMC Biol. 5, 7.]; there was probable contact between gorilla and archaic hominids roughly 3 Ma resulting in a host switch of Pthirus lice from gorillas to archaic hominids. Thus, these results provide

  20. Phylogenetic and Molecular Clock Analysis of Dengue Serotype 1 and 3 from New Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Afreen, Nazia; Naqvi, Irshad H.; Broor, Shobha; Ahmed, Anwar; Parveen, Shama

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever is the most prevalent arboviral disease in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The present report describes molecular detection and serotyping of dengue viruses in acute phase blood samples collected from New Delhi, India. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analysis of dengue virus serotype 1 and 3 strains were also investigated. Dengue virus infection was detected in 68.87% out of 604 samples tested by RT-PCR between 2011 & 2014. Dengue serotype 1 was detected in 25.48% samples, dengue serotype 2 in 79.56% samples and dengue serotype 3 in 11.29% samples. Dengue serotype 4 was not detected. Co-infection by more than one dengue serotype was detected in 18.26% samples. Envelope gene of 29 DENV-1 and 14 DENV-3 strains were sequenced in the study. All the DENV-1 strains grouped with the American African genotype. All DENV-3 strains were found to belong to Genotype III. Nucleotide substitution rates of dengue 1 and 3 viruses were determined in the study. Time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of dengue 1 viruses was determined to be 132 years. TMRCA of DENV-3 viruses was estimated to be 149 years. Bayesian skyline plots were constructed for Indian DENV-1 and 3 strains which showed a decrease in population size since 2005 in case of DENV- 1 strains while no change was observed in recent years in case of DENV-3 strains. The study also revealed a change in the dominating serotype in Delhi, India in recent years. The study will be helpful in formulating control strategies for the outbreaks. In addition, it will also assist in tracking the movement and evolution of this emerging virus. PMID:26536458

  1. Phylogenetic and Molecular Clock Analysis of Dengue Serotype 1 and 3 from New Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Afreen, Nazia; Naqvi, Irshad H; Broor, Shobha; Ahmed, Anwar; Parveen, Shama

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever is the most prevalent arboviral disease in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The present report describes molecular detection and serotyping of dengue viruses in acute phase blood samples collected from New Delhi, India. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analysis of dengue virus serotype 1 and 3 strains were also investigated. Dengue virus infection was detected in 68.87% out of 604 samples tested by RT-PCR between 2011 & 2014. Dengue serotype 1 was detected in 25.48% samples, dengue serotype 2 in 79.56% samples and dengue serotype 3 in 11.29% samples. Dengue serotype 4 was not detected. Co-infection by more than one dengue serotype was detected in 18.26% samples. Envelope gene of 29 DENV-1 and 14 DENV-3 strains were sequenced in the study. All the DENV-1 strains grouped with the American African genotype. All DENV-3 strains were found to belong to Genotype III. Nucleotide substitution rates of dengue 1 and 3 viruses were determined in the study. Time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of dengue 1 viruses was determined to be 132 years. TMRCA of DENV-3 viruses was estimated to be 149 years. Bayesian skyline plots were constructed for Indian DENV-1 and 3 strains which showed a decrease in population size since 2005 in case of DENV- 1 strains while no change was observed in recent years in case of DENV-3 strains. The study also revealed a change in the dominating serotype in Delhi, India in recent years. The study will be helpful in formulating control strategies for the outbreaks. In addition, it will also assist in tracking the movement and evolution of this emerging virus.

  2. Appropriate sampling for intracellular amino acid analysis in five phylogenetically different yeasts.

    PubMed

    Bolten, Christoph J; Wittmann, Christoph

    2008-11-01

    Methanol quenching and fast filtration, the two most common sampling protocols in microbial metabolome analysis, were validated for intracellular amino acid analysis in phylogenetically different yeast strains comprising Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia pastoris, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. With only few exceptions for selected amino acids, all yeasts exhibited negligible metabolite leakage during quenching with 60% cold buffered methanol. Slightly higher leakage was observed with increasing methanol content in the quenching solution. Fast filtration resulted in identical levels for intracellular amino acids in all strains tested. The results clearly demonstrate the validity of both approaches for leakage-free sampling of amino acids in yeast.

  3. Datamonkey 2010: a suite of phylogenetic analysis tools for evolutionary biology.

    PubMed

    Delport, Wayne; Poon, Art F Y; Frost, Simon D W; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L

    2010-10-01

    Datamonkey is a popular web-based suite of phylogenetic analysis tools for use in evolutionary biology. Since the original release in 2005, we have expanded the analysis options to include recently developed algorithmic methods for recombination detection, evolutionary fingerprinting of genes, codon model selection, co-evolution between sites, identification of sites, which rapidly escape host-immune pressure and HIV-1 subtype assignment. The traditional selection tools have also been augmented to include recent developments in the field. Here, we summarize the analyses options currently available on Datamonkey, and provide guidelines for their use in evolutionary biology. Availability and documentation: http://www.datamonkey.org.

  4. Molecular Taxonomic Evidence for Two Distinct Genotypes of Mycobacterium yongonense via Genome-Based Phylogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byoung-Jun; Kim, Bo-Ram; Lee, So-Young; Kim, Ga-Na; Kook, Yoon-Hoh; Kim, Bum-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we introduced a distinct Mycobacterium intracellulare INT-5 genotype, distantly related to other genotypes of M. intracellulare (INT-1 to -4). The aim of this study is to determine the exact taxonomic status of the M. intracellulare INT-5 genotype via genome-based phylogenetic analysis. To this end, genome sequences of the two INT-5 strains, MOTT-H4Y and MOTT-36Y were compared with M. intracellulare ATCC 13950T and Mycobacterium yongonense DSM 45126T. Our phylogenetic analysis based on complete genome sequences, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of 35 target genes, and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis indicated that the two INT-5 strains were more closely related to M. yongonense DSM 45126T than the M. intracellulare strains. These results suggest their taxonomic transfer from M. intracellulare into M. yongonense. Finally, we selected 5 target genes (argH, dnaA, deaD, hsp65, and recF) and used SNPs for the identification of M. yongonese strains from other M. avium complex (MAC) strains. The application of the SNP analysis to 14 MAC clinical isolates enabled the selective identification of 4 M. yongonense clinical isolates from the other MACs. In conclusion, our genome-based phylogenetic analysis showed that the taxonomic status of two INT-5 strains, MOTT-H4Y and MOTT-36Y should be revised into M. yongonense. Our results also suggest that M. yongonense could be divided into 2 distinct genotypes (the Type I genotype with the M. parascrofulaceum rpoB gene and the Type II genotype with the M. intracellulare rpoB gene) depending on the presence of the lateral gene transfer of rpoB from M. parascrofulaceum. PMID:27031100

  5. Phylogenetic Analysis and Epidemic History of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 2 in Tunisia, North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rajhi, Mouna; Ghedira, Kais; Chouikha, Anissa; Djebbi, Ahlem; Cheikh, Imed; Ben Yahia, Ahlem; Sadraoui, Amel; Hammami, Walid; Azouz, Msaddek; Ben Mami, Nabil; Triki, Henda

    2016-01-01

    HCV genotype 2 (HCV-2) has a worldwide distribution with prevalence rates that vary from country to country. High genetic diversity and long-term endemicity were suggested in West African countries. A global dispersal of HCV-2 would have occurred during the 20th century, especially in European countries. In Tunisia, genotype 2 was the second prevalent genotype after genotype 1 and most isolates belong to subtypes 2c and 2k. In this study, phylogenetic analyses based on the NS5B genomic sequences of 113 Tunisian HCV isolates from subtypes 2c and 2k were carried out. A Bayesian coalescent-based framework was used to estimate the origin and the spread of these subtypes circulating in Tunisia. Phylogenetic analyses of HCV-2c sequences suggest the absence of country-specific or time-specific variants. In contrast, the phylogenetic grouping of HCV-2k sequences shows the existence of two major genetic clusters that may represent two distinct circulating variants. Coalescent analysis indicated a most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of Tunisian HCV-2c around 1886 (1869–1902) before the introduction of HCV-2k in 1901 (1867–1931). Our findings suggest that the introduction of HCV-2c in Tunisia is possibly a result of population movements between Tunisia and European population following the French colonization. PMID:27100294

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of the Trypanosoma genus based on the heat-shock protein 70 gene.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Jorge; Fernández-Calienes, Aymé; Montalvo, Ana Margarita; Maes, Ilse; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Büscher, Philippe; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Van der Auwera, Gert

    2016-09-01

    Trypanosome evolution was so far essentially studied on the basis of phylogenetic analyses of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) and glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) genes. We used for the first time the 70kDa heat-shock protein gene (hsp70) to investigate the phylogenetic relationships among 11 Trypanosoma species on the basis of 1380 nucleotides from 76 sequences corresponding to 65 strains. We also constructed a phylogeny based on combined datasets of SSU-rDNA, gGAPDH and hsp70 sequences. The obtained clusters can be correlated with the sections and subgenus classifications of mammal-infecting trypanosomes except for Trypanosoma theileri and Trypanosoma rangeli. Our analysis supports the classification of Trypanosoma species into clades rather than in sections and subgenera, some of which being polyphyletic. Nine clades were recognized: Trypanosoma carassi, Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma grayi, Trypanosoma lewisi, T. rangeli, T. theileri, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanozoon. These results are consistent with existing knowledge of the genus' phylogeny. Within the T. cruzi clade, three groups of T. cruzi discrete typing units could be clearly distinguished, corresponding to TcI, TcIII, and TcII+V+VI, while support for TcIV was lacking. Phylogenetic analyses based on hsp70 demonstrated that this molecular marker can be applied for discriminating most of the Trypanosoma species and clades. PMID:27180897

  7. Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis reveals the pattern and tempo of bony fish evolution

    PubMed Central

    Broughton, Richard E.; Betancur-R., Ricardo; Li, Chenhong; Arratia, Gloria; Ortí, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Over half of all vertebrates are “fishes”, which exhibit enormous diversity in morphology, physiology, behavior, reproductive biology, and ecology. Investigation of fundamental areas of vertebrate biology depend critically on a robust phylogeny of fishes, yet evolutionary relationships among the major actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages have not been conclusively resolved. Although a consensus phylogeny of teleosts has been emerging recently, it has been based on analyses of various subsets of actinopterygian taxa, but not on a full sample of all bony fishes. Here we conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic study on a broad taxonomic sample of 61 actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages (with a chondrichthyan outgroup) using a molecular data set of 21 independent loci. These data yielded a resolved phylogenetic hypothesis for extant Osteichthyes, including 1) reciprocally monophyletic Sarcopterygii and Actinopterygii, as currently understood, with polypteriforms as the first diverging lineage within Actinopterygii; 2) a monophyletic group containing gars and bowfin (= Holostei) as sister group to teleosts; and 3) the earliest diverging lineage among teleosts being Elopomorpha, rather than Osteoglossomorpha. Relaxed-clock dating analysis employing a set of 24 newly applied fossil calibrations reveals divergence times that are more consistent with paleontological estimates than previous studies. Establishing a new phylogenetic pattern with accurate divergence dates for bony fishes illustrates several areas where the fossil record is incomplete and provides critical new insights on diversification of this important vertebrate group. PMID:23788273

  8. Molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of Dengue virus type-1 and 2 isolated in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Muhd Hasyim; Rahman, Md. Mostafizur; Hussin, Salasawati

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Detection of different serotypes of dengue virus and provide information on origin, distribution and genotype of the virus. Methods: Dengue virus serotypes identified as DEN-1 and DEN-2 were amplified and sequenced with E gene. The consensus sequences were aligned with references E gene sequences of globally available GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using Neighbor-joining and Kimura 2-parameter model to construct phylogenetic tree. Results: A total of 53 dengue virus isolates were positive, of which 38 (71.7%) were DENV-1 and 15 (28.3%) were DENV-2. Phylogenetic tree of DENV-1 and DENV-2 showed that the isolates were clustered in genotype I and cosmopolitan genotype, respectively considered the predominant genotypes in Southeast Asian countries. The molecular epidemiology genotype I DENV-1 and cosmopolitan genotype DENV-2 have been co-circulating in Klang Valley areas, Malaysia without shifting of genotype. Conclusion: The study reveals that DENV-1 and DENV-2 have been circulating in Malaysia. The isolates are clustered in genotype 1 and cosmopolitian genotype, respectively. The study results would help in planning for prevention and control of dengue virus in Malaysia. PMID:26150855

  9. The Green Clade grows: A phylogenetic analysis of Aplastodiscus (Anura; Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Berneck, Bianca V M; Haddad, Célio F B; Lyra, Mariana L; Cruz, Carlos A G; Faivovich, Julián

    2016-04-01

    Green tree frogs of the genus Aplastodiscus occur in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes of South America. The genus comprises 15 medium-sized species placed in three species groups diagnosed mainly by cloacal morphology. A phylogenetic analysis was conducted to: (1) test the monophyly of these species groups; (2) explore the phylogenetic relationships among putative species; and (3) investigate species boundaries. The dataset included eight mitochondrial and nuclear gene fragments for up to 6642 bp per specimen. The results strongly support the monophyly of Aplastodiscus and of the A. albofrenatus and A. perviridis groups. Aplastodiscus sibilatus is the sister taxon of all other species of Aplastodiscus, making the A. albosignatus Group non-monophyletic as currently defined. At least six unnamed species are recognized for Aplastodiscus, increasing the diversity of the genus by 40%. A fourth species group, the A. sibilatus Group is recognized. Aplastodiscus musicus is transferred from the A. albofrenatus Group to the A. albosignatus Group, and A. callipygius is considered a junior synonym of A. albosignatus. Characters related to external cloacal morphology reveal an interesting evolutionary pattern of parallelisms and reversions, suggesting an undocumented level of complexity. We analyze, in light of our phylogenetic results, the evolution of reproductive biology and chromosome morphology in Aplastodiscus.

  10. A broadscale phylogenetic analysis of group II intron RNAs and intron-encoded reverse transcriptases.

    PubMed

    Simon, Dawn M; Kelchner, Scot A; Zimmerly, Steven

    2009-12-01

    Group II introns are self-splicing RNAs that are frequently assumed to be the ancestors of spliceosomal introns. They are widely distributed in bacteria and are also found in organelles of plants, fungi, and protists. In this study, we present a broadscale phylogenetic analysis of group II introns using sequence data from both the conserved RNA structure and the intron-encoded reverse transcriptase (RT). Two similar phylogenies are estimated for the RT open reading frame (ORF), based on either amino acid or nucleotide sequence, whereas one phylogeny is produced for the RNA. In making these estimates, we confronted nearly all the classic challenges to phylogenetic inference, including positional saturation, base composition heterogeneity, short internodes with low support, and sensitivity to taxon sampling. Although the major lineages are well-defined, robust resolution of topology is not possible between these lineages. The approximately unbiased (AU) and Shimodaira-Hasegawa topology tests indicated that the RT ORF and RNA ribozyme data sets are in significant conflict under a variety of models, revealing the possibility of imperfect coevolution between group II introns and their intron-encoded ORFs. The high level of sequence divergence, large timescale, and limited number of alignable characters in our study are representative of many RTs and group I introns, and our results suggest that phylogenetic analyses of any of these sequences could suffer from the same sources of error and instability identified in this study.

  11. Phylogenetic Analysis and Epidemic History of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 2 in Tunisia, North Africa.

    PubMed

    Rajhi, Mouna; Ghedira, Kais; Chouikha, Anissa; Djebbi, Ahlem; Cheikh, Imed; Ben Yahia, Ahlem; Sadraoui, Amel; Hammami, Walid; Azouz, Msaddek; Ben Mami, Nabil; Triki, Henda

    2016-01-01

    HCV genotype 2 (HCV-2) has a worldwide distribution with prevalence rates that vary from country to country. High genetic diversity and long-term endemicity were suggested in West African countries. A global dispersal of HCV-2 would have occurred during the 20th century, especially in European countries. In Tunisia, genotype 2 was the second prevalent genotype after genotype 1 and most isolates belong to subtypes 2c and 2k. In this study, phylogenetic analyses based on the NS5B genomic sequences of 113 Tunisian HCV isolates from subtypes 2c and 2k were carried out. A Bayesian coalescent-based framework was used to estimate the origin and the spread of these subtypes circulating in Tunisia. Phylogenetic analyses of HCV-2c sequences suggest the absence of country-specific or time-specific variants. In contrast, the phylogenetic grouping of HCV-2k sequences shows the existence of two major genetic clusters that may represent two distinct circulating variants. Coalescent analysis indicated a most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of Tunisian HCV-2c around 1886 (1869-1902) before the introduction of HCV-2k in 1901 (1867-1931). Our findings suggest that the introduction of HCV-2c in Tunisia is possibly a result of population movements between Tunisia and European population following the French colonization.

  12. Phylogenetic Analysis and Epidemic History of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 2 in Tunisia, North Africa.

    PubMed

    Rajhi, Mouna; Ghedira, Kais; Chouikha, Anissa; Djebbi, Ahlem; Cheikh, Imed; Ben Yahia, Ahlem; Sadraoui, Amel; Hammami, Walid; Azouz, Msaddek; Ben Mami, Nabil; Triki, Henda

    2016-01-01

    HCV genotype 2 (HCV-2) has a worldwide distribution with prevalence rates that vary from country to country. High genetic diversity and long-term endemicity were suggested in West African countries. A global dispersal of HCV-2 would have occurred during the 20th century, especially in European countries. In Tunisia, genotype 2 was the second prevalent genotype after genotype 1 and most isolates belong to subtypes 2c and 2k. In this study, phylogenetic analyses based on the NS5B genomic sequences of 113 Tunisian HCV isolates from subtypes 2c and 2k were carried out. A Bayesian coalescent-based framework was used to estimate the origin and the spread of these subtypes circulating in Tunisia. Phylogenetic analyses of HCV-2c sequences suggest the absence of country-specific or time-specific variants. In contrast, the phylogenetic grouping of HCV-2k sequences shows the existence of two major genetic clusters that may represent two distinct circulating variants. Coalescent analysis indicated a most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of Tunisian HCV-2c around 1886 (1869-1902) before the introduction of HCV-2k in 1901 (1867-1931). Our findings suggest that the introduction of HCV-2c in Tunisia is possibly a result of population movements between Tunisia and European population following the French colonization. PMID:27100294

  13. Histological data in a combined phylogenetic analysis of scleractinian reef corals.

    PubMed

    Cordie, David R; Budd, Ann F

    2016-04-01

    Scleractinian systematics have undergone rapid changes due to increased use of molecular phylogenetics and new perspectives on skeletal morphology from micromorphology and microstructure. Despite this increase in characters there are still unresolved clades in the phylogeny, indicating that more characters are needed. This study investigates a new source of morphological data within the soft tissue of Indo-Pacific scleractinian corals. Features of tissue layers, especially cnidocytes, are described in hematoxylin and eosin stained thin sections. Based on this new histological data source, a combined analysis with mitochondrial DNA and skeletal data is performed using parsimony and Bayesian analysis. Parsimony analysis yields three most-parsimonious trees similar to trees based on Bayesian analysis. Character maps are also produced that show origination of histomorphological traits at deep nodes within the phylogeny. In general, both analyses retain the previously designated families Lobophylliidae and Merulinidae, but some genera are found to be paraphyletic. Nonetheless, the combined analysis produces a highly resolved and well-supported phylogeny, which could lead to more effective use of biological conservation metrics based on evolutionary distinctiveness. These results show for the first time that inclusion of histomorphological characters improves the resolution of phylogenetic analyses of reef corals. PMID:26843148

  14. Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Infidum similis, Including Morphological Data and Estimation of its Genome Size.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Salazar, Elizabeth A; Rosas-Valdez, Rogelio; Gregory, T Ryan; Violante-González, Juan

    2016-08-01

    :   Infidum similis Travassos, 1916 (Dicrocoeliidae: Leipertrematinae) was found in the gall bladder of Leptophis diplotropis Günther, 1872 from El Podrido, Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico. A phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of the 28S ribosomal RNA using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses was carried out to assess its phylogenetic position within suborder Xiphidiata, alongside members of the superfamilies Gorgoderoidea and Plagiorchoidea. The phylogenetic trees showed that the genus is most-closely related to the Plagiorchoidea rather than to the Gorgoderoidea, in keeping with previous taxonomic designations. Phylogenies obtained from ML and BI analysis of the 28S rDNA gene revealed a well supported clade in which Choledocystus hepaticus (Lutz, 1928) Sullivan, 1977 is sister to I. similis. On the other hand, a tree obtained using a partial sequence of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mtDNA gene (ML and BI analysis), with species supposed to be closely related to I. similis according to 28S, does not support this relatedness. Based on the independence of Infidum from the subfamily Leipertrematinae Yamaguti, 1958 , our results clearly demonstrated that the genus corresponds to a different family and with species closely related to C. hepaticus within Plagiorchoidea. New data are presented about the tegumental surface of I. similis by scanning electron microscopy as well as the estimation of its haploid genome size using Feulgen Image Analysis Densitometry of sperm nuclei as part of the characterization of this species. This is the first genome size estimated for a member of Plagiorchiida, and these data will provide a new source of knowledge on helminth diversity and evolutionary studies. This constitutes the first host record, and new geographical distribution, for this species in Mexico. PMID:26998629

  15. [Topological Conflicts in Phylogenetic Analysis of Different Regions of the Sable (Martes zibellina L.) Mitochondrial Genome].

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, B A; Derenko, M V; Denisova, G A; Litvinov, A N

    2015-08-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of different regions of the mitochondrial genome of the sable showed the presence of several topologies of phylogenetic trees, but the most statistically significant topology is A-BC, which was obtained as a result of the analysis of the mitochondrial genome as a whole, as well as of the individual CO1, ND4, and ND5 genes. Analysis of the intergroup divergence of the mtDNA haplotypes (Dxy) indicated that the maximum Dxy values between A and BC groups were accompanied by minimum differences between B and C groups only for six genes showing the A-BC topology (12S rRNA; CO1, CO2, ND4, ND5, and CYTB). It is assumed that the topological conflicts observed in the analysis of individual sable mtDNA genes are associated with the uneven distribution of mutations along the mitochondrial genome and the mitochondrial tree. This may be due to random causes, as well as the nonuniform effect of selection. PMID:26601491

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of the Australian rosella parrots (Platycercus) reveals discordance among molecules and plumage.

    PubMed

    Shipham, Ashlee; Schmidt, Daniel J; Joseph, Leo; Hughes, Jane M

    2015-10-01

    Relationships and species limits among the colourful Australian parrots known as rosellas (Platycercus) are contentious because of poorly understood patterns of parapatry, sympatry and hybridization as well as complex patterns of geographical replacement of phenotypic forms. Two subgenera are, however, conventionally recognised: Platycercus comprises the blue-cheeked crimson rosella complex (Crimson Rosella P. elegans and Green Rosella P. caledonicus), and Violania contains the remaining four currently recognised species (Pale-headed Rosella P. adscitus, Eastern Rosella P. eximius, Northern Rosella P. venustus, and Western Rosella P. icterotis). We used phylogenetic analysis of ten loci (one mitochondrial, eight autosomal and one z-linked) and several individuals per nominal species primarily to examine relationships within the subgenera, especially the relationships and species limits within Violania. Of these, P. adscitus and P. eximius have long been considered sister species or conspecific due to a morphology-based hybrid zone and an early phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The multilocus phylogenetic analysis presented here supports an alternative hypothesis aligning P. adscitus and P. venustus as sister species. Using divergence rates published in other avian studies, we estimated the divergence between P. venustus and P. adscitus at 0.0148-0.6124MYA and that between the P. adscitus/P. venustus ancestor and P. eximius earlier at 0.1617-1.0816MYA, both within the Pleistocene. Discordant topologies among gene and species trees are discussed and proposed to be the result of historical gene flow and/or incomplete lineage sorting (ILS). In particular, we suggest that discordance between mitochondrial and nuclear data may be the result of asymmetrical mitochondrial introgression from P. adscitus into P. eximius. The biogeographical implications of our findings are discussed relative to similarly distributed groups

  17. Molecular Epidemiology and Phylogenetic Analysis of Human Adenovirus Caused an Outbreak in Taiwan during 2011

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yung-Cheng; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Kuei-Hsiang; Chu, Pei-Yu; Wang, Chu-Feng; Lin, Jih-Hui; Liu, Hsin-Fu

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of adenovirus has been surveyed in Taiwan in 2011. To better understand the evolution and epidemiology of adenovirus in Taiwan, full-length sequence of hexon and fiber coapsid protein was analyzed using series of phylogenetic and dynamic evolution tools. Six different serotypes were identified in this outbreak and the species B was predominant (HAdV-3, 71.50%; HAdV-7, 15.46%). The most frequent diagnosis was acute tonsillitis (54.59%) and bronchitis (47.83%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that hexon protein gene sequences were highly conserved for HAdV-3 and HAdV-7 circulation in Taiwan. However, comparison of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and phylogenetic trees of fiber gene in HAdV-7 clearly indicated that the predominant genotype in Taiwan has shifted from 7b to 7d. Several positive selection sites were observed in hexon protein. The estimated nucleotide substitution rates of hexon protein of HAdV-3 and HAdV-7 were 0.234×10-3 substitutions/site/year (95% HPD: 0.387~0.095×10-3) and 1.107×10-3 (95% HPD: 0. 541~1.604) respectively; those of the fiber protein of HAdV-3 and HAdV-7 were 1.085×10-3 (95% HPD: 1.767~0.486) and 0.132×10-3 (95% HPD: 0.283~0.014) respectively. Phylodynamic analysis by Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) suggested that using individual gene to evaluate the effective population size might possibly cause miscalculation. In summary, the virus evolution is ongoing, and continuous surveillance of this virus evolution will contribute to the control of the epidemic. PMID:25992619

  18. Analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of red deer subspecies in XinJiang, China.

    PubMed

    Jia, Bin; Li, Ren-Yan; Zhao, Zong-Sheng; Yan, Gen-Qiang; Xi, Ji-Feng; Blair, Hugh T; Li, Da-Quan; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Zhao, Xi-Tang

    2011-08-01

    Polymorphisms for seven microsatellite loci in three red deer subspecies (9 populations) found in XinJiang were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 12% nondenaturation polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the Sanguinetti silver staining method. Numbers of alleles, average effective numbers of alleles (E) and the average rate of homozygosity, allelic frequencies of seven microsatellite loci, polymorphism information content (PIC), mean heterozygosity (H) and genetic distances among the populations were calculated for each population. Dendrograms were constructed based on genetic distances by the neighbor-joining method (NJ), utilizing molecular evolutionary genetics analysis software PHYLIP (3.6). The phylogenetic tree was constructed based on allelic frequencies using maximum likelihood (ML); the bootstrap value was estimated by bootstrap test in the tree. Lastly, phylogenesis was analyzed. The results showed that four of the seven microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic, but BMS2508 and Celjp0023 showed no polymorphism and BM5004 was a neutral polymorphism. It is our conclusion that the four microsatellite loci are effective DNA markers for the analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among the three red deer subspecies. The mean PIC, H and E-values across the microsatellite loci were 0.5393, 0.5736 and 2.64, which showed that these microsatellite loci are effective DNA markers for the genetic analysis of red deer. C.e. songaricus populations from Regiment 104, 151 and Hami are clustered together. C.e. yarkandensis populations from Regiment 35, Xaya and Alaer are clustered together. These two clusters also cluster together. Lastly, C.e. sibiricus populations from Burqin, Regiment 188 and the first two clusters were clustered together. The phylogenetic relationship among different red deer populations is consistent with the known origin, history of breeding and geographic distributions of populations. PMID:21794008

  19. Phylogenetic Analysis Supports Horizontal Transmission as a Driving Force of the Spread of Avian Bornaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Schmidt, Volker; Rinder, Monika; Legler, Marko; Twietmeyer, Sönke; Schwemmer, Phillip; Corman, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Avian bornaviruses are a genetically diverse group of viruses initially discovered in 2008. They are known to infect several avian orders. Bornaviruses of parrots and related species (Psittaciformes) are causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease, a chronic and often fatal neurologic disease widely distributed in captive psittacine populations. Although knowledge has considerably increased in the past years, many aspects of the biology of avian bornaviruses are still undiscovered. In particular, the precise way of transmission remains unknown. Aims and Methods In order to collect further information on the epidemiology of bornavirus infections in birds we collected samples from captive and free-ranging aquatic birds (n = 738) and Passeriformes (n = 145) in Germany and tested them for the presence of bornaviruses by PCR assays covering a broad range of known bornaviruses. We detected aquatic bird bornavirus 1 (ABBV-1) in three out of 73 sampled free-ranging mute swans (Cygnus olor) and one out of 282 free-ranging Eurasian oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus). Canary bornavirus 1 (CnBV-1), CnBV-2 and CnBV-3 were detected in four, six and one out of 48 captive common canaries (Serinus canaria forma domestica), respectively. In addition, samples originating from 49 bornavirus-positive captive Psittaciformes were used for determination of parrot bornavirus 2 (PaBV-2) and PaBV-4 sequences. Bornavirus sequences compiled during this study were used for phylogenetic analysis together with all related sequences available in GenBank. Results of the Study Within ABBV-1, PaBV-2 and PaBV-4, identical or genetically closely related bornavirus sequences were found in parallel in various different avian species, suggesting that inter-species transmission is frequent relative to the overall transmission of these viruses. Our results argue for an important role of horizontal transmission, but do not exclude the additional possibility of vertical transmission

  20. Nibea coibor growth hormone gene: its phylogenetic significance, microsatellite variation and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dianchang; Shao, Yanqing; Jiang, Shigui; Li, Jianzhu; Xu, Xinping

    2009-09-15

    The growth hormone (GH) gene has been characterized for a number of fishes and used to establish phylogenetic relationships and as a candidate gene for studies of genetic variation in connection with growth traits. In this study, we report the genomic structure of Nibea coibor GH (designated as ncGH) including its 5'-flanking region, being cloned by homology-cloning and chromosome walking methods. The ncGH gene spans approximately 3.0 kb and consists of six exons and five introns, as found for all cloned teleost GH genes with the exception of carps and catfish. The 5'-flanking region contains consensus sequences for a TATA box, a CRE, a pit-1alpha, a TRE, two HNF-3, a ERE and a GRE. Five microsatellites are identified in the ncGH gene and three of them are polymorphic marker. The open reading frame (ORF) of ncGH is 615 bp in length encoding a polypeptide of 204 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 23.04 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 7.79. The precursor of ncGH consists of a 17 amino-acid signal peptide and a 187 amino-acid mature peptide. The four Cys residues are located at conserved positions (Cys(69), Cys(177), Cys(194) and Cys(202)), and One possible site for N-glycosylation (Asn-X-Ser/Thr motif) is present at Asn(201). The coding region sequence of ncGH is used to align with the sequences of 18 other species from Percoidei and one species from Anabantoidei using Clustal X. A matrix of 612 bp was used to construct the phylogenetic trees using neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. The phylogenetic trees by two methods are identical in most of the clades with high bootstrap support. Every family all forms independent monophyly on the phylogenetic trees, in the family, the different species also forms the monophyly according to the different genera. The results are also identical to those from morphological data, and demonstrated that the GH gene is very suitable for phylogenetic relationship analysis of Percoidei. To validate the

  1. Analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequences increases phylogenetic resolution of bears (Ursidae), a mammalian family that experienced rapid speciation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Li; Li, Yi-Wei; Ryder, Oliver A; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite the small number of ursid species, bear phylogeny has long been a focus of study due to their conservation value, as all bear genera have been classified as endangered at either the species or subspecies level. The Ursidae family represents a typical example of rapid evolutionary radiation. Previous analyses with a single mitochondrial (mt) gene or a small number of mt genes either provide weak support or a large unresolved polytomy for ursids. We revisit the contentious relationships within Ursidae by analyzing complete mt genome sequences and evaluating the performance of both entire mt genomes and constituent mtDNA genes in recovering a phylogeny of extremely recent speciation events. Results This mitochondrial genome-based phylogeny provides strong evidence that the spectacled bear diverged first, while within the genus Ursus, the sloth bear is the sister taxon of all the other five ursines. The latter group is divided into the brown bear/polar bear and the two black bears/sun bear assemblages. These findings resolve the previous conflicts between trees using partial mt genes. The ability of different categories of mt protein coding genes to recover the correct phylogeny is concordant with previous analyses for taxa with deep divergence times. This study provides a robust Ursidae phylogenetic framework for future validation by additional independent evidence, and also has significant implications for assisting in the resolution of other similarly difficult phylogenetic investigations. Conclusion Identification of base composition bias and utilization of the combined data of whole mitochondrial genome sequences has allowed recovery of a strongly supported phylogeny that is upheld when using multiple alternative outgroups for the Ursidae, a mammalian family that underwent a rapid radiation since the mid- to late Pliocene. It remains to be seen if the reliability of mt genome analysis will hold up in studies of other difficult phylogenetic

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of parasitic trematodes of the genus Euclinostomum found in Trichopsis and Betta fish.

    PubMed

    Senapin, S; Phiwsaiya, K; Laosinchai, P; Kowasupat, C; Ruenwongsa, P; Panijpan, B

    2014-06-01

    Many species of fish in the world are infected with digenean trematodes belonging to the genera Clinostomum and Euclinostomum. In this study, metacercariae, identified as Euclinostomum sp. on the basis of morphological characteristics and molecular data, were taken from 3 osphronemid fish- Trichopsis vittata , Trichopsis schalleri, and Betta imbellis, in Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis based on a mitochondrial gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) and 2 nuclear genes (18S rDNA and ITS-internal transcribed spacer) of these Euclinostomum parasites indicated a clear distinction from those belonging to the Clinostomum genus. These are the first records of partial mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences of an Euclinostomum sp.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique (2011-2016).

    PubMed

    Mapaco, Lourenço P; Monjane, Iolanda V A; Nhamusso, Antonieta E; Viljoen, Gerrit J; Dundon, William G; Achá, Sara J

    2016-10-01

    The complete sequence of the fusion (F) protein gene from 11 Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique between 2011 and 2016 has been generated. The F gene cleavage site motif for all 11 isolates was (112)RRRKRF(117) indicating that the viruses are virulent. A phylogenetic analysis using the full F gene sequence revealed that the viruses clustered within genotype VIIh and showed a higher similarity to NDVs from South Africa, China and Southeast Asia than to viruses previously described in Mozambique in 1994, 1995 and 2005. The identification of these new NDVs has important implications for Newcastle disease management and control in Mozambique.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique (2011-2016).

    PubMed

    Mapaco, Lourenço P; Monjane, Iolanda V A; Nhamusso, Antonieta E; Viljoen, Gerrit J; Dundon, William G; Achá, Sara J

    2016-10-01

    The complete sequence of the fusion (F) protein gene from 11 Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique between 2011 and 2016 has been generated. The F gene cleavage site motif for all 11 isolates was (112)RRRKRF(117) indicating that the viruses are virulent. A phylogenetic analysis using the full F gene sequence revealed that the viruses clustered within genotype VIIh and showed a higher similarity to NDVs from South Africa, China and Southeast Asia than to viruses previously described in Mozambique in 1994, 1995 and 2005. The identification of these new NDVs has important implications for Newcastle disease management and control in Mozambique. PMID:27277578

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of parasitic trematodes of the genus Euclinostomum found in Trichopsis and Betta fish.

    PubMed

    Senapin, S; Phiwsaiya, K; Laosinchai, P; Kowasupat, C; Ruenwongsa, P; Panijpan, B

    2014-06-01

    Many species of fish in the world are infected with digenean trematodes belonging to the genera Clinostomum and Euclinostomum. In this study, metacercariae, identified as Euclinostomum sp. on the basis of morphological characteristics and molecular data, were taken from 3 osphronemid fish- Trichopsis vittata , Trichopsis schalleri, and Betta imbellis, in Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis based on a mitochondrial gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) and 2 nuclear genes (18S rDNA and ITS-internal transcribed spacer) of these Euclinostomum parasites indicated a clear distinction from those belonging to the Clinostomum genus. These are the first records of partial mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences of an Euclinostomum sp. PMID:24490744

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of Pythium insidiosum Thai strains using cytochrome oxidase II (COX II) DNA coding sequences and internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS).

    PubMed

    Kammarnjesadakul, Patcharee; Palaga, Tanapat; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Mendoza, Leonel; Krajaejun, Theerapong; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch; Tongchusak, Songsak; Denduangboripant, Jessada; Chindamporn, Ariya

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the phylogenetic relationship among Pythium insidiosum isolates in Thailand, we investigated the genomic DNA of 31 P. insidiosum strains isolated from humans and environmental sources from Thailand, and two from North and Central America. We used PCR to amplify the partial COX II DNA coding sequences and the ITS regions of these isolates. The nucleotide sequences of both amplicons were analyzed by the Bioedit program. Phylogenetic analysis using genetic distance method with Neighbor Joining (NJ) approach was performed using the MEGA4 software. Additional sequences of three other Pythium species, Phytophthora sojae and Lagenidium giganteum were employed as outgroups. The sizes of the COX II amplicons varied from 558-564 bp, whereas the ITS products varied from approximately 871-898 bp. Corrected sequence divergences with Kimura 2-parameter model calculated for the COX II and the ITS DNA sequences ranged between 0.0000-0.0608 and 0.0000-0.2832, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis using both the COX II and the ITS DNA sequences showed similar trees, where we found three sister groups (A(TH), B(TH), and C(TH)) among P. insidiosum strains. All Thai isolates from clinical cases and environmental sources were placed in two separated sister groups (B(TH) and C(TH)), whereas the Americas isolates were grouped into A(TH.) Although the phylogenetic tree based on both regions showed similar distribution, the COX II phylogenetic tree showed higher resolution than the one using the ITS sequences. Our study indicates that COX II gene is the better of the two alternatives to study the phylogenetic relationships among P. insidiosum strains. PMID:20818919

  7. Genome-wide identification and phylogenetic analysis of the SBP-box gene family in melons.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y; Guo, J W; Bade, R; Men, Z H; Hasi, A

    2014-10-27

    The SBP-box gene family is specific to plants and encodes a class of zinc finger-containing transcription factors with a broad range of functions. Although SBP-box genes have been identified in numerous plants, including green algae, moss, silver birch, snapdragon, Arabidopsis, rice, and maize, there is little information concerning SBP-box genes, or the corresponding miR156/157, function in melon. Using the highly conserved sequence of the Arabidopsis thaliana SBP-box domain protein as a probe of information sequence, the genome-wide protein database of melon was explored to obtain 13 SBP-box protein sequences, which were further divided into 4 groups, based on phylogenetic analysis. A further analysis centered on the melon SBP-box genetic family's phylogenetic evolution, sequence similarities, gene structure, and miR156 target sequence was also conducted. Analysis of all the expression patterns of melon SBP-box family genes showed that the SBP-box genes were detected in 7 kinds of tissue, and fruit had the highest expression level. CmSBP11 tends to present its specific expression in melon fruit and root. CmSBP09 expression was the highest in flower. Overall, the molecular evolution and expression pattern of the melon SBP-box gene family, revealed by these results, suggest its function differentiation that followed gene duplication.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of human parvovirus B19, indicating two subgroups of genotype 1 in Vietnamese patients.

    PubMed

    Toan, Nguyen L; Duechting, Anja; Kremsner, Peter G; Song, Le H; Ebinger, Martin; Aberle, Susanne; Binh, Vu Q; Duy, Dinh Ng; Torresi, Joseph; Kandolf, Reinhard; Bock, C-Thomas

    2006-10-01

    Recently, three distinct genotypes (1, 2 and 3) of human parvovirus B19 (B19) have been identified. However, the characteristics and distribution of B19 genotypes in Vietnam have not been investigated. Phylogenetic analysis using 49 subgenomic NS1/VP1u regions and two coding NS1-VP1/VP2 regions has been applied to investigate the prevalence of B19 genotypes in Vietnamese patients co-infected with Hepatitis B virus. Genetic analysis of the subgenomic NS1/VP1u region of B19 revealed that two genotypes of B19 were identified in these populations, with predominance of genotype 1 (47/49, 96 %) followed by genotype 2 (2/49, 4 %), but not genotype 3. Further, phylogenetic analysis of subgenomic B19 genomes revealed two major subgroups within genotype 1 (B19-1A and B19-1B) with an estimated nucleotide difference of >5 % between each subgroup, forming different branches. The mean percentage of amino acid variation between subgroup B19-1A and B19-1B was >2 % of the NS1, VP1 and VP2 proteins. Our results indicated that two of the three known genotypes of B19 were present in Vietnamese patients, with genotype 1 predominating, and that this genotype can be classified into at least two subgroups, B19-1A and B19-1B.

  9. A bootstrap based analysis pipeline for efficient classification of phylogenetically related animal miRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong; Gu, Xun

    2007-01-01

    Background Phylogenetically related miRNAs (miRNA families) convey important information of the function and evolution of miRNAs. Due to the special sequence features of miRNAs, pair-wise sequence identity between miRNA precursors alone is often inadequate for unequivocally judging the phylogenetic relationships between miRNAs. Most of the current methods for miRNA classification rely heavily on manual inspection and lack measurements of the reliability of the results. Results In this study, we designed an analysis pipeline (the Phylogeny-Bootstrap-Cluster (PBC) pipeline) to identify miRNA families based on branch stability in the bootstrap trees derived from overlapping genome-wide miRNA sequence sets. We tested the PBC analysis pipeline with the miRNAs from six animal species, H. sapiens, M. musculus, G. gallus, D. rerio, D. melanogaster, and C. elegans. The resulting classification was compared with the miRNA families defined in miRBase. The two classifications were largely consistent. Conclusion The PBC analysis pipeline is an efficient method for classifying large numbers of heterogeneous miRNA sequences. It requires minimum human involvement and provides measurements of the reliability of the classification results. PMID:17341314

  10. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the evolution and diversification of cyclins in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhaowu; Wu, Yuliang; Jin, Jialu; Yan, Jun; Kuang, Shuzhen; Zhou, Mi; Zhang, Yuexuan; Guo, An-Yuan

    2013-03-01

    Cyclins are a family of diverse proteins that play fundamental roles in regulating cell cycle progression in Eukaryotes. Cyclins have been identified from protists to higher Eukaryotes, while its evolution remains vague and the findings turn out controversial. Current classification of cyclins is mainly based on their functions, which may not be appropriate for the systematic evolutionary analysis. In this work, we performed comparative and phylogenetic analysis of cyclins to investigate their classification, origin and evolution. Cyclins originated in early Eukaryotes and evolved from protists to plants, fungi and animals. Based on the phylogenetic tree, cyclins can be divided into three major groups designated as the group I, II and III with different functions and features. Group I plays key roles in cell cycle, group II varied in actions are kingdom (plant, fungi and animal) specific, and group III functions in transcription regulation. Our results showed that the dominating cyclins (group I) diverged from protists to plants, fungi and animals, while divergence of the other cyclins (groups II and III) has occurred in protists. We also discussed the evolutionary relationships between cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and found that the cyclins have undergone divergence in protists before the divergence of animal CDKs. This reclassification and evolutionary analysis of cyclins might facilitate understanding eukaryotic cell cycle control.

  11. A Phylogenetic Analysis of 34 Chloroplast Genomes Elucidates the Relationships between Wild and Domestic Species within the Genus Citrus.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Caballero, Jose; Alonso, Roberto; Ibañez, Victoria; Terol, Javier; Talon, Manuel; Dopazo, Joaquin

    2015-08-01

    Citrus genus includes some of the most important cultivated fruit trees worldwide. Despite being extensively studied because of its commercial relevance, the origin of cultivated citrus species and the history of its domestication still remain an open question. Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis of the chloroplast genomes of 34 citrus genotypes which constitutes the most comprehensive and detailed study to date on the evolution and variability of the genus Citrus. A statistical model was used to estimate divergence times between the major citrus groups. Additionally, a complete map of the variability across the genome of different citrus species was produced, including single nucleotide variants, heteroplasmic positions, indels (insertions and deletions), and large structural variants. The distribution of all these variants provided further independent support to the phylogeny obtained. An unexpected finding was the high level of heteroplasmy found in several of the analyzed genomes. The use of the complete chloroplast DNA not only paves the way for a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within the Citrus genus but also provides original insights into other elusive evolutionary processes, such as chloroplast inheritance, heteroplasmy, and gene selection.

  12. A Phylogenetic Analysis of 34 Chloroplast Genomes Elucidates the Relationships between Wild and Domestic Species within the Genus Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell-Caballero, Jose; Alonso, Roberto; Ibañez, Victoria; Terol, Javier; Talon, Manuel; Dopazo, Joaquin

    2015-01-01

    Citrus genus includes some of the most important cultivated fruit trees worldwide. Despite being extensively studied because of its commercial relevance, the origin of cultivated citrus species and the history of its domestication still remain an open question. Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis of the chloroplast genomes of 34 citrus genotypes which constitutes the most comprehensive and detailed study to date on the evolution and variability of the genus Citrus. A statistical model was used to estimate divergence times between the major citrus groups. Additionally, a complete map of the variability across the genome of different citrus species was produced, including single nucleotide variants, heteroplasmic positions, indels (insertions and deletions), and large structural variants. The distribution of all these variants provided further independent support to the phylogeny obtained. An unexpected finding was the high level of heteroplasmy found in several of the analyzed genomes. The use of the complete chloroplast DNA not only paves the way for a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within the Citrus genus but also provides original insights into other elusive evolutionary processes, such as chloroplast inheritance, heteroplasmy, and gene selection. PMID:25873589

  13. Genome-wide analysis of the cyclin family in Arabidopsis and comparative phylogenetic analysis of plant cyclin-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanfang; Kong, Hongzhi; Sun, Yujin; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Wei; Altman, Naomi; DePamphilis, Claude W; Ma, Hong

    2004-06-01

    Cyclins are primary regulators of the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases, which are known to play critical roles in controlling eukaryotic cell cycle progression. While there has been extensive research on cell cycle mechanisms and cyclin function in animals and yeasts, only a small number of plant cyclins have been characterized functionally. In this paper, we describe an exhaustive search for cyclin genes in the Arabidopsis genome and among available sequences from other vascular plants. Based on phylogenetic analysis, we define 10 classes of plant cyclins, four of which are plant-specific, and a fifth is shared between plants and protists but not animals. Microarray and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses further provide expression profiles of cyclin genes in different tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis plants. Comparative phylogenetic studies of 174 plant cyclins were also performed. The phylogenetic results imply that the cyclin gene family in plants has experienced more gene duplication events than in animals. Expression patterns and phylogenetic analyses of Arabidopsis cyclin genes suggest potential gene redundancy among members belonging to the same group. We discuss possible divergence and conservation of some plant cyclins. Our study provides an opportunity to rapidly assess the position of plant cyclin genes in terms of evolution and classification, serving as a guide for further functional study of plant cyclins.

  14. Revised phylogenetic analysis of the Aetosauria (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia); assessing the effects of incongruent morphological character sets.

    PubMed

    Parker, William G

    2016-01-01

    Aetosauria is an early-diverging clade of pseudosuchians (crocodile-line archosaurs) that had a global distribution and high species diversity as a key component of various Late Triassic terrestrial faunas. It is one of only two Late Triassic clades of large herbivorous archosaurs, and thus served a critical ecological role. Nonetheless, aetosaur phylogenetic relationships are still poorly understood, owing to an overreliance on osteoderm characters, which are often poorly constructed and suspected to be highly homoplastic. A new phylogenetic analysis of the Aetosauria, comprising 27 taxa and 83 characters, includes more than 40 new characters that focus on better sampling the cranial and endoskeletal regions, and represents the most comprenhensive phylogeny of the clade to date. Parsimony analysis recovered three most parsimonious trees; the strict consensus of these trees finds an Aetosauria that is divided into two main clades: Desmatosuchia, which includes the Desmatosuchinae and the Stagonolepidinae, and Aetosaurinae, which includes the Typothoracinae. As defined Desmatosuchinae now contains Neoaetosauroides engaeus and several taxa that were previously referred to the genus Stagonolepis, and a new clade, Desmatosuchini, is erected for taxa more closely related to Desmatosuchus. Overall support for some clades is still weak, and Partitioned Bremer Support (PBS) is applied for the first time to a strictly morphological dataset demonstrating that this weak support is in part because of conflict in the phylogenetic signals of cranial versus postcranial characters. PBS helps identify homoplasy among characters from various body regions, presumably the result of convergent evolution within discrete anatomical modules. It is likely that at least some of this character conflict results from different body regions evolving at different rates, which may have been under different selective pressures. PMID:26819845

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of Gossypium L. using restriction fragment length polymorphism of repeated sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meiping; Rong, Ying; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Zhang, Yang; Stelly, David M; Zhang, Hong-Bin

    2015-10-01

    Cotton is the world's leading textile fiber crop and is also grown as a bioenergy and food crop. Knowledge of the phylogeny of closely related species and the genome origin and evolution of polyploid species is significant for advanced genomics research and breeding. We have reconstructed the phylogeny of the cotton genus, Gossypium L., and deciphered the genome origin and evolution of its five polyploid species by restriction fragment analysis of repeated sequences. Nuclear DNA of 84 accessions representing 35 species and all eight genomes of the genus were analyzed. The phylogenetic tree of the genus was reconstructed using the parsimony method on 1033 polymorphic repeated sequence restriction fragments. The genome origin of its polyploids was determined by calculating the diploid-polyploid restriction fragment correspondence (RFC). The tree is consistent with the morphological classification, genome designation and geographic distribution of the species at subgenus, section and subsection levels. Gossypium lobatum (D7) was unambiguously shown to have the highest RFC with the D-subgenomes of all five polyploids of the genus, while the common ancestor of Gossypium herbaceum (A1) and Gossypium arboreum (A2) likely contributed to the A-subgenomes of the polyploids. These results provide a comprehensive phylogenetic tree of the cotton genus and new insights into the genome origin and evolution of its polyploid species. The results also further demonstrate a simple, rapid and inexpensive method suitable for phylogenetic analysis of closely related species, especially congeneric species, and the inference of genome origin of polyploids that constitute over 70 % of flowering plants.

  16. Revised phylogenetic analysis of the Aetosauria (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia); assessing the effects of incongruent morphological character sets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Aetosauria is an early-diverging clade of pseudosuchians (crocodile-line archosaurs) that had a global distribution and high species diversity as a key component of various Late Triassic terrestrial faunas. It is one of only two Late Triassic clades of large herbivorous archosaurs, and thus served a critical ecological role. Nonetheless, aetosaur phylogenetic relationships are still poorly understood, owing to an overreliance on osteoderm characters, which are often poorly constructed and suspected to be highly homoplastic. A new phylogenetic analysis of the Aetosauria, comprising 27 taxa and 83 characters, includes more than 40 new characters that focus on better sampling the cranial and endoskeletal regions, and represents the most comprenhensive phylogeny of the clade to date. Parsimony analysis recovered three most parsimonious trees; the strict consensus of these trees finds an Aetosauria that is divided into two main clades: Desmatosuchia, which includes the Desmatosuchinae and the Stagonolepidinae, and Aetosaurinae, which includes the Typothoracinae. As defined Desmatosuchinae now contains Neoaetosauroides engaeus and several taxa that were previously referred to the genus Stagonolepis, and a new clade, Desmatosuchini, is erected for taxa more closely related to Desmatosuchus. Overall support for some clades is still weak, and Partitioned Bremer Support (PBS) is applied for the first time to a strictly morphological dataset demonstrating that this weak support is in part because of conflict in the phylogenetic signals of cranial versus postcranial characters. PBS helps identify homoplasy among characters from various body regions, presumably the result of convergent evolution within discrete anatomical modules. It is likely that at least some of this character conflict results from different body regions evolving at different rates, which may have been under different selective pressures. PMID:26819845

  17. Acid Rain Analysis by Standard Addition Titration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ophardt, Charles E.

    1985-01-01

    The standard addition titration is a precise and rapid method for the determination of the acidity in rain or snow samples. The method requires use of a standard buret, a pH meter, and Gran's plot to determine the equivalence point. Experimental procedures used and typical results obtained are presented. (JN)

  18. Phylogenetic analysis in Myrcia section Aulomyrcia and inferences on plant diversity in the Atlantic rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Staggemeier, Vanessa Graziele; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Forest, Félix; Lucas, Eve

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Myrcia section Aulomyrcia includes ∼120 species that are endemic to the Neotropics and disjunctly distributed in the moist Amazon and Atlantic coastal forests of Brazil. This paper presents the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group and this phylogeny is used as a basis to evaluate recent classification systems and to test alternative hypotheses associated with the history of this clade. Methods Fifty-three taxa were sampled out of the 120 species currently recognized, plus 40 outgroup taxa, for one nuclear marker (ribosomal internal transcribed spacer) and four plastid markers (psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF, trnQ-rpS16 and ndhF). The relationships were reconstructed based on Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. Additionally, a likelihood approach, ‘geographic state speciation and extinction’, was used to estimate region- dependent rates of speciation, extinction and dispersal, comparing historically climatic stable areas (refugia) and unstable areas. Key Results Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences indicate that Myrcia and Marlierea are polyphyletic, and the internal groupings recovered are characterized by combinations of morphological characters. Phylogenetic relationships support a link between Amazonian and north-eastern species and between north-eastern and south-eastern species. Lower extinction rates within glacial refugia suggest that these areas were important in maintaining diversity in the Atlantic forest biodiversity hotspot. Conclusions This study provides a robust phylogenetic framework to address important ecological questions for Myrcia s.l. within an evolutionary context, and supports the need to unite taxonomically the two traditional genera Myrcia and Marlierea in an expanded Myrcia s.l. Furthermore, this study offers valuable insights into the diversification of plant species in the highly impacted Atlantic forest of South America; evidence is presented that the lowest extinction rates are found inside

  19. Comparative Analysis of Begonia Plastid Genomes and Their Utility for Species-Level Phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Nicola; Harrison, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent, rapid radiations make species-level phylogenetics difficult to resolve. We used a multiplexed, high-throughput sequencing approach to identify informative genomic regions to resolve phylogenetic relationships at low taxonomic levels in Begonia from a survey of sixteen species. A long-range PCR method was used to generate draft plastid genomes to provide a strong phylogenetic backbone, identify fast evolving regions and provide informative molecular markers for species-level phylogenetic studies in Begonia. PMID:27058864

  20. Comparative Analysis of Begonia Plastid Genomes and Their Utility for Species-Level Phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Nicola; Harrison, Richard J; Kidner, Catherine A

    2016-01-01

    Recent, rapid radiations make species-level phylogenetics difficult to resolve. We used a multiplexed, high-throughput sequencing approach to identify informative genomic regions to resolve phylogenetic relationships at low taxonomic levels in Begonia from a survey of sixteen species. A long-range PCR method was used to generate draft plastid genomes to provide a strong phylogenetic backbone, identify fast evolving regions and provide informative molecular markers for species-level phylogenetic studies in Begonia.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Begonia Plastid Genomes and Their Utility for Species-Level Phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Nicola; Harrison, Richard J; Kidner, Catherine A

    2016-01-01

    Recent, rapid radiations make species-level phylogenetics difficult to resolve. We used a multiplexed, high-throughput sequencing approach to identify informative genomic regions to resolve phylogenetic relationships at low taxonomic levels in Begonia from a survey of sixteen species. A long-range PCR method was used to generate draft plastid genomes to provide a strong phylogenetic backbone, identify fast evolving regions and provide informative molecular markers for species-level phylogenetic studies in Begonia. PMID:27058864

  2. Electrophoretic analysis of Allium alien addition lines.

    PubMed

    Peffley, E B; Corgan, J N; Horak, K E; Tanksley, S D

    1985-12-01

    Meiotic pairing in an interspecific triploid of Allium cepa and A. fistulosum, 'Delta Giant', exhibits preferential pairing between the two A. cepa genomes, leaving the A. fistulosum genome as univalents. Multivalent pairing involving A. fistulosum chromosomes occurs at a low level, allowing for recombination between the genomes. Ten trisomies were recovered from the backcross of 'Delta Giant' x A. cepa cv., 'Temprana', representing a minimum of four of the eight possible alien addition lines. The alien addition lines possessed different A. fistulosum enzyme markers. Those markers, Adh-1, Idh-1 and Pgm-1 reside on different A. fistulosum chromosomes, whereas Pgi-1 and Idh-1 may be linked. Diploid, trisomic and hyperploid progeny were recovered that exhibited putative pink root resistance. The use of interspecific plants as a means to introgress A. fistulosum genes into A. cepa appears to be successful at both the trisomic and the diploid levels. If introgression can be accomplished using an interspecific triploid such as 'Delta Giant' to generate fertile alien addition lines and subsequent fertile diploids, or if introgression can be accomplished directly at the diploid level, this will have accomplished gene flow that has not been possible at the interspecific diploid level.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Mitochondrial Genomes of Five Aphid Species (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Huang, Xiao-Lei; Qiao, Ge-Xia

    2013-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are of great interest in exploring molecular evolution, phylogenetics and population genetics. Only two mitogenomes have been previously released in the insect group Aphididae, which consists of about 5,000 known species including some agricultural, forestry and horticultural pests. Here we report the complete 16,317 bp mitogenome of Cavariella salicicola and two nearly complete mitogenomes of Aphis glycines and Pterocomma pilosum. We also present a first comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes of aphids. Results showed that aphid mitogenomes share conserved genomic organization, nucleotide and amino acid composition, and codon usage features. All 37 genes usually present in animal mitogenomes were sequenced and annotated. The analysis of gene evolutionary rate revealed the lowest and highest rates for COI and ATP8, respectively. A unique repeat region exclusively in aphid mitogenomes, which included variable numbers of tandem repeats in a lineage-specific manner, was highlighted for the first time. This region may have a function as another origin of replication. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on protein-coding genes and the stem-loop structures of control regions confirmed a sister relationship between Cavariella and pterocommatines. Current evidence suggest that pterocommatines could be formally transferred into Macrosiphini. Our paper also offers methodological instructions for obtaining other Aphididae mitochondrial genomes. PMID:24147014

  4. Identification, phylogenetic evolutionary analysis of GDQY orf virus isolated from Qingyuan City, Guangdong Province, southern China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Chaohui; Liao, Meiying; Wang, Han; Luo, Xiaohong; Shao, Jing; Xu, Ying; Li, Wei; Hao, Wenbo; Luo, Shuhong

    2015-01-25

    Infection with the orf virus (ORFV) leads to contagious ecthyma, also called contagious pustular dermatitis, which usually affects sheep, goats and other small ruminants. It has a great distribution throughout the world and has also been reported to infect humans. Though many strains have been isolated from differing parts of mainland China, rarely has any strain been reported from the southern provinces of China. We studied a case of orf virus infection that occurred at Qingyuan City, Guangdong Province in southern China. An orf virus strain, GDQY, was successfully isolated and identified through cell culture techniques and transmission electron microscopy. Complete genes of ORFV011, ORFV059, ORFV106 and ORFV107 were amplified for the sequence analysis based on their nucleotide or amino acid level. In order to discuss the genetic variation, precise sequences were used to compare to other reference strains isolated from different districts or countries. Phylogenetic trees based on those strains were built up and evolutionary distances were calculated based on the alignment of their complete sequences. The typical structure of the orf virus was observed in cell-culture suspensions inoculated with GDQY, and the full-length of four genes was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that GDQY is homologous to FJ-DS and CQ/WZ on ORFV011 nucleotides. ORFV059 may be more variable than ORFV011 based on the comparison between GDQY and other isolates. Genetic studies of ORFV106 and 107 are reported for the first time in the presented study.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences based on k-word and rough set theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun; Yang, Yan; Jia, Meiduo; Zhang, Yingying; Yu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Changzhong

    2014-03-01

    Among alignment-free methods for sequence comparison, the model of k-word frequencies is a well-developed one. However, most existing word-based methods neglect relationships among k-word frequencies, while a few others focus on the correlation of k-words but ignore the word frequency itself. In this paper, we propose a new k-word method which succeeds in conquering the two problems. By means of characteristic sequences of a DNA sequence, we construct a 3×2k dimensional complete word-based vector. Then we present a feature selection scheme based on rough set theory (RST) to extract the most informative k-words and use only these selected features to represent the DNA sequence. To evaluate the effectiveness of our method, we test it by phylogenetic analysis on three datasets. The first one is used as a training set, by which 869 top ranked k-words are selected. The other two are used as the testing set. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can capture more important information and is more efficient for molecular phylogenetic analysis.

  6. A phylogenetic analysis of Prunus and the Amygdaloideae (Rosaceae) using ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Wen, J

    2001-01-01

    The economically important plum or cherry genus (PRUNUS:) and the subfamily Amygdaloideae of the Rosaceae have a controversial taxonomic history due to the lack of a phylogenetic framework. Phylogenetic analysis using the ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) was conducted to construct the evolutionary history and evaluate the historical classifications of PRUNUS: and the Amygdaloideae. The analyses suggest two major groups within the Amygdaloideae: (1) PRUNUS: s.l. (sensu lato) and MADDENIA:, and (2) EXOCHORDA:, Oemleria, and PRINSEPIA: The ITS phylogeny supports the recent treatment of including EXOCHORDA: (formerly in the Spiraeoideae) in the Amygdaloideae. MADDENIA: is found to be nested within PRUNUS: s.l. in the parsimony and distance analyses, but basal to PRUNUS: s.l. in the maximum likelihood analysis. Within PRUNUS:, two major groups are recognizable: (1) the AMYGDALUS:-PRUNUS: group, and (2) the CERASUS:-LAUROCERASUS:-PADUS: group. The clades in the ITS phylogeny are not congruent with most subgeneric groups in the widely used classification of PRUNUS: by Rehder. A broadly defined PRUNUS: is supported. PMID:11159135

  7. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of novel cytochrome P450 1A genes from ungulate species.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Kawai, Yusuke; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Muroya, Tarou; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2010-09-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to understand the biological response of wild and domestic ungulates to different environmental pollutants such as dioxin-like compounds, cDNAs encoding for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 were cloned and characterized. Four novel CYP1A cDNA fragments from the livers of four wild ungulates (elephant, hippopotamus, tapir and deer) were identified. Three fragments from hippopotamus, tapir and deer were classified as CYP1A2, and the other fragment from elephant was designated as CYP1A1/2. The deduced amino acid sequences of these fragment CYP1As showed identities ranging from 76 to 97% with other animal CYP1As. The phylogenetic analysis of these fragments showed that both elephant and hippopotamus CYP1As made separate branches, while tapir and deer CYP1As were located beside that of horse and cattle respectively in the phylogenetic tree. Analysis of dN/dS ratio among the identified CYP1As indicated that odd toed ungulate CYP1A2s were exposed to different selection pressure.

  8. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of novel cytochrome P450 1A genes from ungulate species.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Kawai, Yusuke; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Muroya, Tarou; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2010-09-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to understand the biological response of wild and domestic ungulates to different environmental pollutants such as dioxin-like compounds, cDNAs encoding for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 were cloned and characterized. Four novel CYP1A cDNA fragments from the livers of four wild ungulates (elephant, hippopotamus, tapir and deer) were identified. Three fragments from hippopotamus, tapir and deer were classified as CYP1A2, and the other fragment from elephant was designated as CYP1A1/2. The deduced amino acid sequences of these fragment CYP1As showed identities ranging from 76 to 97% with other animal CYP1As. The phylogenetic analysis of these fragments showed that both elephant and hippopotamus CYP1As made separate branches, while tapir and deer CYP1As were located beside that of horse and cattle respectively in the phylogenetic tree. Analysis of dN/dS ratio among the identified CYP1As indicated that odd toed ungulate CYP1A2s were exposed to different selection pressure. PMID:20448415

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of HDV isolates from HBsAg positive patients in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In spite of a high occurrence of Hepatitis Delta in the province of Sindh in Pakistan, no genetic study of Hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) isolates from this region was carried out. The aim of this study is to analyze the genetic proximity within local HDV strains, and relationship with other clades of HDV, using phylogenetic analysis. Results Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of the Hepatitis Delta Antigen (HDAg) R0 region obtained in this study, showed considerable diversity among the local strains with a potential subgroup formation within clade I. The multiple sequence alignment of predicted amino acids within clade I showed many uncommon amino acid substitutions within some conserved regions that are crucial for replication and assembly of HDV. Conclusions The studied strains showed a range of genetic diversity within HDV clade I. There is clustering of sequences into more than one group, along with formation of potential subgroup within clade I. Clustering shows the genetic closeness of strains and indicates a common origin of spread of HDV infection. Further phylogeny-based studies may provide more information about subgroup formation within clade I and may be used as an effective tool in checking and/or preventing the spread of hepatitis D virus infection in this region. PMID:22894717

  10. Structure, expression and phylogenetic analysis of the gene encoding actin I in Pneumocystis carinii.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, L D; McDowell, J M; Tidwell, R R; Meagher, R B; Dykstra, C C

    1994-07-01

    Actin is a major component of the cytoskeleton and one of the most abundant proteins found in eukaryotic cells. Comparative sequence analysis shows that this essential gene has been highly conserved throughout eukaryotic evolution making it useful for phylogenetic analysis. Complete cDNA clones for the actin-encoding gene were isolated and characterized from Pneumocystis carinii purified from immunosuppressed rat lungs. The nucleotide sequence encodes a protein of 376 amino acids. The predicted actin protein of P. carinii shares a high degree of conservation to other known actins. Only one major actin gene was found in P. carinii. The P. carinii actin sequence was compared with 30 other actin sequences. Gene phylogenies constructed using both neighbor-joining and protein parsimony methods places the P. carinii actin sequence closest to the majority of the fungi. Since the phylogenetic relationship of P. carinii to fungi and protists has been questioned, these data on the actin gene phylogeny support the grouping of P. carinii with the fungi.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of chloroplast matK gene from Zingiberaceae for plant DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Dhivya; Sarma, Rajeev Kumar; Sathishkumar, Ramalingam

    2008-01-01

    MaturaseK gene (MatK) of chloroplast is highly conserved in plant systematics which is involved in Group II intron splicing. The size of the gene is 1500 bp in length, located with in the intron of trnK. In the present study, matK gene from Zingiberaceae was taken for the analysis of variants, parsimony site, patterns, transition/tranversion rates and phylogeny. The family of Zingiberaceae comprises 47 genera with medicinal values. The matK gene sequence have been obtained from genbank and used for the analysis. The sequence alignments were performed by Clustal X, transition/transversion rates were predicted by MEGA and phylogenetic analyses were carried out by PHYLIP package. The result indicates that the Zingiberaceae genus Afromonum, Alpinia, Globba, Curcuma and Zingiber shows polyphylogeny. The overall variants between the species are 24% and transition/transversion rate is 1.54. Phylogenetic tree was designed to identify the ideal regions that could be used for defining the inter and intera-generic relationships. From this study it could be concluded that the matK gene is a good candidate for DNA barcoding of plant family Zingiberaceae. PMID:19052662

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 in pigeons in Japan

    PubMed Central

    MASE, Masaji; KANEHIRA, Katsushi

    2015-01-01

    To understand the epidemiology of Avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1) in pigeons in Japan, phylogenetic analysis was comprehensively conducted based on partial fusion protein gene using isolate from the surveillance of this virus with previously known Japanese pigeon strains. This surveillance was conducted using feces obtained from domestic pigeons collected in 40 prefectures throughout Japan from June 2011 to March 2013. From a total of 1,021 samples, a single virus (APMV1/pigeon/Japan/Kanagawa/2013: JP/Kanagawa-pg/2013) was isolated. All Japanese pigeon APMV-1 strains were clustered into a single genetic lineage, which was termed VIb/1 by phylogenetic analysis based on the F gene including the sequence of the cleavage site. These APMV-1 strains were further subdivided into four subgroups identified over 4 separate timeframes: 1984–1995 (group 1), 1995–2000 (group 2), 2001–2007 (group 3) and the novel subgroup isolated in 2013 (group 4). Each subgroup has specific amino acid motifs at a cleavage site of the F protein, namely, 112GRQKR-F117(except for one strain), 112RRKKR-F117, 112RRQKR-F117 and 112RRQKR-F117, respectively. Our data suggest that Japanese APMV-1 strains from pigeons were diverse and reinforced the possibility that there were multiple introduction routes from foreign countries into Japan. PMID:25797040

  13. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) mitochondrial genome and a phylogenetic analysis with related species.

    PubMed

    Nishibori, M; Tsudzuki, M; Hayashi, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yasue, H

    2002-01-01

    Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) has been classically grouped in Galliformes Phasianidae Coturnix, based on morphologic features and biochemical evidence. Since the blue-breasted quail has the smallest body size among the species of Galliformes, in addition to a short generation time and an excellent reproductive performance, it is a possible model fowl for breeding and physiological studies of the Coturnix japonica (Japanese quail) and Gallus gallus domesticus (chicken), which are classified in the same family as blue-breasted quail. However, since its phylogenetic position in the family Phasianidae has not been determined conclusively, the sequence of the entire blue-breasted quail mitochondria (mt) genome was obtained to provide genetic information for phylogenetic analysis in the present study. The blue-breasted quail mtDNA was found to be a circular DNA of 16,687 base pairs (bp) with the same genomic structure as the mtDNAs of Japanese quail and chicken, though it is smaller than Japanese quail and chicken mtDNAs by 10 bp and 88 bp, respectively. The sequence identity of all mitochondrial genes, including those for 12S and 16S ribosomal RNAs, between blue-breasted quail and Japanese quail ranged from 84.5% to 93.5%; between blue-breasted quail and chicken, sequence identity ranged from 78.0% to 89.6%. In order to obtain information on the phylogenetic position of blue-breasted quail in Galliformes Phasianidae, the 2,184 bp sequence comprising NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and cytochrome b genes available for eight species in Galliformes [Japanese quail, chicken, Gallus varius (green junglefowl), Bambusicola thoracica (Chinese bamboo partridge), Pavo cristatus (Indian peafowl), Perdix perdix (gray partridge), Phasianus colchicus (ring-neck pheasant), and Tympanchus phasianellus (sharp-tailed grouse)] together with that of Aythya americana (redhead) were examined using a maximum likelihood (ML) method. The ML analyses on the first/second codon positions

  14. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) mitochondrial genome and a phylogenetic analysis with related species.

    PubMed

    Nishibori, M; Tsudzuki, M; Hayashi, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yasue, H

    2002-01-01

    Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) has been classically grouped in Galliformes Phasianidae Coturnix, based on morphologic features and biochemical evidence. Since the blue-breasted quail has the smallest body size among the species of Galliformes, in addition to a short generation time and an excellent reproductive performance, it is a possible model fowl for breeding and physiological studies of the Coturnix japonica (Japanese quail) and Gallus gallus domesticus (chicken), which are classified in the same family as blue-breasted quail. However, since its phylogenetic position in the family Phasianidae has not been determined conclusively, the sequence of the entire blue-breasted quail mitochondria (mt) genome was obtained to provide genetic information for phylogenetic analysis in the present study. The blue-breasted quail mtDNA was found to be a circular DNA of 16,687 base pairs (bp) with the same genomic structure as the mtDNAs of Japanese quail and chicken, though it is smaller than Japanese quail and chicken mtDNAs by 10 bp and 88 bp, respectively. The sequence identity of all mitochondrial genes, including those for 12S and 16S ribosomal RNAs, between blue-breasted quail and Japanese quail ranged from 84.5% to 93.5%; between blue-breasted quail and chicken, sequence identity ranged from 78.0% to 89.6%. In order to obtain information on the phylogenetic position of blue-breasted quail in Galliformes Phasianidae, the 2,184 bp sequence comprising NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and cytochrome b genes available for eight species in Galliformes [Japanese quail, chicken, Gallus varius (green junglefowl), Bambusicola thoracica (Chinese bamboo partridge), Pavo cristatus (Indian peafowl), Perdix perdix (gray partridge), Phasianus colchicus (ring-neck pheasant), and Tympanchus phasianellus (sharp-tailed grouse)] together with that of Aythya americana (redhead) were examined using a maximum likelihood (ML) method. The ML analyses on the first/second codon positions

  15. On combining protein sequences and nucleic acid sequences in phylogenetic analysis: the homeobox protein case.

    PubMed

    Agosti, D; Jacobs, D; DeSalle, R

    1996-01-01

    Amino acid encoding genes contain character state information that may be useful for phylogenetic analysis on at least two levels. The nucleotide sequence and the translated amino acid sequences have both been employed separately as character states for cladistic studies of various taxa, including studies of the genealogy of genes in multigene families. In essence, amino acid sequences and nucleic acid sequences are two different ways of character coding the information in a gene. Silent positions in the nucleotide sequence (first or third positions in codons that can accrue change without changing the identity of the amino acid that the triplet codes for) may accrue change relatively rapidly and become saturated, losing the pattern of historical divergence. On the other hand, non-silent nucleotide alterations and their accompanying amino acid changes may evolve too slowly to reveal relationships among closely related taxa. In general, the dynamics of sequence change in silent and non-silent positions in protein coding genes result in homoplasy and lack of resolution, respectively. We suggest that the combination of nucleic acid and the translated amino acid coded character states into the same data matrix for phylogenetic analysis addresses some of the problems caused by the rapid change of silent nucleotide positions and overall slow rate of change of non-silent nucleotide positions and slowly changing amino acid positions. One major theoretical problem with this approach is the apparent non-independence of the two sources of characters. However, there are at least three possible outcomes when comparing protein coding nucleic acid sequences with their translated amino acids in a phylogenetic context on a codon by codon basis. First, the two character sets for a codon may be entirely congruent with respect to the information they convey about the relationships of a certain set of taxa. Second, one character set may display no information concerning a phylogenetic

  16. Phylogeny.fr: robust phylogenetic analysis for the non-specialist

    PubMed Central

    Dereeper, A.; Guignon, V.; Blanc, G.; Audic, S.; Buffet, S.; Chevenet, F.; Dufayard, J.-F.; Guindon, S.; Lefort, V.; Lescot, M.; Gascuel, O.

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses are central to many research areas in biology and typically involve the identification of homologous sequences, their multiple alignment, the phylogenetic reconstruction and the graphical representation of the inferred tree. The Phylogeny.fr platform transparently chains programs to automatically perform these tasks. It is primarily designed for biologists with no experience in phylogeny, but can also meet the needs of specialists; the first ones will find up-to-date tools chained in a phylogeny pipeline to analyze their data in a simple and robust way, while the specialists will be able to easily build and run sophisticated analyses. Phylogeny.fr offers three main modes. The ‘One Click’ mode targets non-specialists and provides a ready-to-use pipeline chaining programs with recognized accuracy and speed: MUSCLE for multiple alignment, PhyML for tree building, and TreeDyn for tree rendering. All parameters are set up to suit most studies, and users only have to provide their input sequences to obtain a ready-to-print tree. The ‘Advanced’ mode uses the same pipeline but allows the parameters of each program to be customized by users. The ‘A la Carte’ mode offers more flexibility and sophistication, as users can build their own pipeline by selecting and setting up the required steps from a large choice of tools to suit their specific needs. Prior to phylogenetic analysis, users can also collect neighbors of a query sequence by running BLAST on general or specialized databases. A guide tree then helps to select neighbor sequences to be used as input for the phylogeny pipeline. Phylogeny.fr is available at: http://www.phylogeny.fr/ PMID:18424797

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of Primula section Primula reveals rampant non-monophyly among morphologically distinct species.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Lebuhn, Alexander N; de Vos, Jurriaan M; Keller, Barbara; Conti, Elena

    2012-10-01

    The type section of Primula (Primulaceae), here considered to include seven species, is phylogenetically quite isolated in its genus. Although its species are popular ornamentals, traditional medicinal plants and model organisms for the study of heterostyly, the section has not yet been studied from a phylogenetic or evolutionary perspective. Using phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ITS and plastid data from all species and subspecies, we find that widespread Primula elatior is genetically heterogeneous and non-monophyletic to most if not all of the other ingroup taxa. The Genealogical Sorting Index (GSI) indicates that the assumption of all currently accepted species being independent lineages is consistent with the data. It is possible that P. elatior in its current circumscription may represents the disjointed remnant of an ancestral species from which the other recognized species diverged. However, based on available data, the alternative possibility of introgression explaining the non-monophyly of this species cannot be excluded. Species trees show P. elatior and P. veris as sister species. Primula vulgaris and P. juliae are closely related, while, in contrast to previous assumptions, P. renifolia does not appear to be a close relative of P. megaseifolia. With the section's isolation from the rest of the genus and very short internal branches, our dataset also presents a case study of the confounding effects of different branch length priors on the Bayesian estimation of resulting branch length estimates. Experimental runs using different priors confirm the problem of resulting estimates varying by orders of magnitude, while topology and relative branch lengths seem unaffected.

  18. A Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis of the Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) Based on Mitochondrial CO1 Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Marcelo V.; Cairns, Stephen D.; Stolarski, Jarosław; Blair, David; Miller, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Classical morphological taxonomy places the approximately 1400 recognized species of Scleractinia (hard corals) into 27 families, but many aspects of coral evolution remain unclear despite the application of molecular phylogenetic methods. In part, this may be a consequence of such studies focusing on the reef-building (shallow water and zooxanthellate) Scleractinia, and largely ignoring the large number of deep-sea species. To better understand broad patterns of coral evolution, we generated molecular data for a broad and representative range of deep sea scleractinians collected off New Caledonia and Australia during the last decade, and conducted the most comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis to date of the order Scleractinia. Methodology Partial (595 bp) sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene were determined for 65 deep-sea (azooxanthellate) scleractinians and 11 shallow-water species. These new data were aligned with 158 published sequences, generating a 234 taxon dataset representing 25 of the 27 currently recognized scleractinian families. Principal Findings/Conclusions There was a striking discrepancy between the taxonomic validity of coral families consisting predominantly of deep-sea or shallow-water species. Most families composed predominantly of deep-sea azooxanthellate species were monophyletic in both maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses but, by contrast (and consistent with previous studies), most families composed predominantly of shallow-water zooxanthellate taxa were polyphyletic, although Acroporidae, Poritidae, Pocilloporidae, and Fungiidae were exceptions to this general pattern. One factor contributing to this inconsistency may be the greater environmental stability of deep-sea environments, effectively removing taxonomic “noise” contributed by phenotypic plasticity. Our phylogenetic analyses imply that the most basal extant scleractinians are azooxanthellate solitary corals from deep

  19. Phylogeny.fr: robust phylogenetic analysis for the non-specialist.

    PubMed

    Dereeper, A; Guignon, V; Blanc, G; Audic, S; Buffet, S; Chevenet, F; Dufayard, J-F; Guindon, S; Lefort, V; Lescot, M; Claverie, J-M; Gascuel, O

    2008-07-01

    Phylogenetic analyses are central to many research areas in biology and typically involve the identification of homologous sequences, their multiple alignment, the phylogenetic reconstruction and the graphical representation of the inferred tree. The Phylogeny.fr platform transparently chains programs to automatically perform these tasks. It is primarily designed for biologists with no experience in phylogeny, but can also meet the needs of specialists; the first ones will find up-to-date tools chained in a phylogeny pipeline to analyze their data in a simple and robust way, while the specialists will be able to easily build and run sophisticated analyses. Phylogeny.fr offers three main modes. The 'One Click' mode targets non-specialists and provides a ready-to-use pipeline chaining programs with recognized accuracy and speed: MUSCLE for multiple alignment, PhyML for tree building, and TreeDyn for tree rendering. All parameters are set up to suit most studies, and users only have to provide their input sequences to obtain a ready-to-print tree. The 'Advanced' mode uses the same pipeline but allows the parameters of each program to be customized by users. The 'A la Carte' mode offers more flexibility and sophistication, as users can build their own pipeline by selecting and setting up the required steps from a large choice of tools to suit their specific needs. Prior to phylogenetic analysis, users can also collect neighbors of a query sequence by running BLAST on general or specialized databases. A guide tree then helps to select neighbor sequences to be used as input for the phylogeny pipeline. Phylogeny.fr is available at: http://www.phylogeny.fr/

  20. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of molecular and morphological data highlights uncertainty in the relationships of fossil and living species of Elopomorpha (Actinopterygii: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Dornburg, Alex; Friedman, Matt; Near, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Elopomorpha is one of the three main clades of living teleost fishes and includes a range of disparate lineages including eels, tarpons, bonefishes, and halosaurs. Elopomorphs were among the first groups of fishes investigated using Hennigian phylogenetic methods and continue to be the object of intense phylogenetic scrutiny due to their economic significance, diversity, and crucial evolutionary status as the sister group of all other teleosts. While portions of the phylogenetic backbone for Elopomorpha are consistent between studies, the relationships among Albula, Pterothrissus, Notacanthiformes, and Anguilliformes remain contentious and difficult to evaluate. This lack of phylogenetic resolution is problematic as fossil lineages are often described and placed taxonomically based on an assumed sister group relationship between Albula and Pterothrissus. In addition, phylogenetic studies using morphological data that sample elopomorph fossil lineages often do not include notacanthiform or anguilliform lineages, potentially introducing a bias toward interpreting fossils as members of the common stem of Pterothrissus and Albula. Here we provide a phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences sampled from multiple nuclear genes that include representative taxa from Albula, Pterothrissus, Notacanthiformes and Anguilliformes. We integrate our molecular dataset with a morphological character matrix that spans both living and fossil elopomorph lineages. Our results reveal substantial uncertainty in the placement of Pterothrissus as well as all sampled fossil lineages, questioning the stability of the taxonomy of fossil Elopomorpha. However, despite topological uncertainty, our integration of fossil lineages into a Bayesian time calibrated framework provides divergence time estimates for the clade that are consistent with previously published age estimates based on the elopomorph fossil record and molecular estimates resulting from traditional node-dating methods.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of the sharpshooter genus Subrasaca Young, 1977 (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Cicadellini).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Roberta Dos Santos; Mejdalani, Gabriel; Cavichioli, Rodney R

    2015-01-01

    The South American sharpshooter genus Subrasaca comprises 14 species. Some species of this genus are quite common in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. In this paper, a phylogenetic analysis of Subrasaca, based on a matrix of 20 terminal taxa and 72 morphological characters of the head, thorax, and male and female genitalia, is presented. The analysis yielded six equally most parsimonious trees (197 steps, CI = 0.6091, RI = 0.5722, and RC = 0.3486). The results suggest that Subrasaca is a monophyletic taxon, although the genus branch is not robust. The clade showing the highest bootstrap and Bremer scores is formed by species with longitudinal dark brown to black stripes on the forewings (Subrasacabimaculata, Subrasacaconstricta, Subrasacacurvovittata, and Subrasacaflavolineata), followed by Subrasacaatronasa + Subrasacaaustera. PMID:25829841

  3. A revision and phylogenetic analysis of Stoiba Spaeth 1909 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Chulwoo; Chaboo, Caroline S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Stoiba Spaeth, 1909 is revised with a phylogenetic analysis of 38 adult morphological characters for nine Stoiba species and 11 outgroup species (Mesomphaliini, Ischyrosonychini, and Hemisphaerotini). Four Cuban species of Stoiba were not sampled. Parsimony analysis located the four most parsimonious trees. The strict consensus (CI=0.59, RI=0.78, Steps=83) resolved the monophyly of Stoiba. The monophyly of Stoiba is supported by pale yellow antennae, antennomere VII broader than its length, and rounded basal line of pronotum. An illustrated key to ten species of Stoiba is provided along with a distribution map of 11 species. Stoiba rufa Blake is synonymized with Stoiba swartzii (Thunberg) by a morphological comparison which includes female genitalia. PMID:23129988

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of the sharpshooter genus Subrasaca Young, 1977 (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Cicadellini).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Roberta Dos Santos; Mejdalani, Gabriel; Cavichioli, Rodney R

    2015-01-01

    The South American sharpshooter genus Subrasaca comprises 14 species. Some species of this genus are quite common in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. In this paper, a phylogenetic analysis of Subrasaca, based on a matrix of 20 terminal taxa and 72 morphological characters of the head, thorax, and male and female genitalia, is presented. The analysis yielded six equally most parsimonious trees (197 steps, CI = 0.6091, RI = 0.5722, and RC = 0.3486). The results suggest that Subrasaca is a monophyletic taxon, although the genus branch is not robust. The clade showing the highest bootstrap and Bremer scores is formed by species with longitudinal dark brown to black stripes on the forewings (Subrasacabimaculata, Subrasacaconstricta, Subrasacacurvovittata, and Subrasacaflavolineata), followed by Subrasacaatronasa + Subrasacaaustera.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of the sharpshooter genus Subrasaca Young, 1977 (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Cicadellini)

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Roberta dos Santos; Mejdalani, Gabriel; Cavichioli, Rodney R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The South American sharpshooter genus Subrasaca comprises 14 species. Some species of this genus are quite common in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. In this paper, a phylogenetic analysis of Subrasaca, based on a matrix of 20 terminal taxa and 72 morphological characters of the head, thorax, and male and female genitalia, is presented. The analysis yielded six equally most parsimonious trees (197 steps, CI = 0.6091, RI = 0.5722, and RC = 0.3486). The results suggest that Subrasaca is a monophyletic taxon, although the genus branch is not robust. The clade showing the highest bootstrap and Bremer scores is formed by species with longitudinal dark brown to black stripes on the forewings (Subrasaca bimaculata, Subrasaca constricta, Subrasaca curvovittata, and Subrasaca flavolineata), followed by Subrasaca atronasa + Subrasaca austera. PMID:25829841

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of Indian rabies virus isolates targeting the complete glycoprotein gene.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Susan; Singh, Rajendra; Singh, K P; Manjunatha Reddy, G B; Anjaneya; Ravi Kumar, G V P P S; Sumithra, T G; Singh, R P

    2015-12-01

    Rabies a fatal viral zoonosis is endemic in India. There is no report on phylogenetic study of Indian rabies virus isolates based on the complete G gene. In the present study, a total of 25 rabies positive brain samples collected during 2001-2014 from North India (UP, MP, Delhi, Rajasthan), South India (Kerala and Karnataka) and Gujarat states belonging to six different host species were subjected to G gene amplification by RT-PCR as three overlapping fragments of 881 bp, 991 bp and 618 bp. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all Indian rabies virus isolates are genetically closely related with Arctic-like 1a lineage viruses. However, two distinct clusters were identified namely, India South and India North. All the Indian rabies isolates had 95.5-100% homology related to geography, but not to host species. Deduced amino acids on comparison revealed two amino acid changes, aa 356 in ECTO; N→K and aa 458; M→I, which were found to distinguish between the India South and India North isolates.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of Indian rabies virus isolates targeting the complete glycoprotein gene.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Susan; Singh, Rajendra; Singh, K P; Manjunatha Reddy, G B; Anjaneya; Ravi Kumar, G V P P S; Sumithra, T G; Singh, R P

    2015-12-01

    Rabies a fatal viral zoonosis is endemic in India. There is no report on phylogenetic study of Indian rabies virus isolates based on the complete G gene. In the present study, a total of 25 rabies positive brain samples collected during 2001-2014 from North India (UP, MP, Delhi, Rajasthan), South India (Kerala and Karnataka) and Gujarat states belonging to six different host species were subjected to G gene amplification by RT-PCR as three overlapping fragments of 881 bp, 991 bp and 618 bp. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all Indian rabies virus isolates are genetically closely related with Arctic-like 1a lineage viruses. However, two distinct clusters were identified namely, India South and India North. All the Indian rabies isolates had 95.5-100% homology related to geography, but not to host species. Deduced amino acids on comparison revealed two amino acid changes, aa 356 in ECTO; N→K and aa 458; M→I, which were found to distinguish between the India South and India North isolates. PMID:26427850

  8. Comparative and phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial genomes in basal hymenopterans

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sheng-Nan; Tang, Pu; Wei, Shu-Jun; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The Symphyta is traditionally accepted as a paraphyletic group located in a basal position of the order Hymenoptera. Herein, we conducted a comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes in the Symphyta by describing two newly sequenced ones, from Trichiosoma anthracinum, representing the first mitochondrial genome in family Cimbicidae, and Asiemphytus rufocephalus, from family Tenthredinidae. The sequenced lengths of these two mitochondrial genomes were 15,392 and 14,864 bp, respectively. Within the sequenced region, trnC and trnY were rearranged to the upstream of trnI-nad2 in T. anthracinum, while in A. rufocephalus all sequenced genes were arranged in the putative insect ancestral gene arrangement. Rearrangement of the tRNA genes is common in the Symphyta. The rearranged genes are mainly from trnL1 and two tRNA clusters of trnI-trnQ-trnM and trnW-trnC-trnY. The mitochondrial genomes of Symphyta show a biased usage of A and T rather than G and C. Protein-coding genes in Symphyta species show a lower evolutionary rate than those of Apocrita. The Ka/Ks ratios were all less than 1, indicating purifying selection of Symphyta species. Phylogenetic analyses supported the paraphyly and basal position of Symphyta in Hymenoptera. The well-supported phylogenetic relationship in the study is Tenthredinoidea + (Cephoidea + (Orussoidea + Apocrita)). PMID:26879745

  9. Evolutionary relationships among Magnetospirillum strains inferred from phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, J G; Kawaguchi, R; Sakaguchi, T; Thornhill, R H; Matsunaga, T

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the evolutionary relationships between two facultatively anaerobic Magnetospirillum strains (AMB-1 and MGT-1) and fastidious, obligately microaerophilic species, such as Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum, using a molecular phylogenetic approach. Genomic DNA from strains MGT-1 and AMB-1 was used as a template for amplification of the genes coding for 16S rRNA (16S rDNA) by the polymerase chain reaction. Amplified DNA fragments were sequenced (1,424 bp) and compared with sequences for M. magnetotacticum MS-1 and Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1. Phylogenetic analysis of the aligned 16S rDNA sequences indicated that the two new magnetic spirilla, AMB-1 and MGT-1, lie within the alpha subdivision (alpha-1) of the eubacterial group Proteobacteria and are closely related to Rhodospirillum fulvum and to several endosymbiotic bacteria. Strains AMB-1, MGT-1, and MS-1 formed a cluster, termed group I, in which they were more closely related to each other than to group II, which contained M. gryphiswaldense MSR-1. Group I strains were also physiologically distinct from strain MSR-1. Sequence alignment studies allowed elucidation of genus-specific regions of the 16S rDNA, and oligonucleotide primers complementary to two of these regions were used to develop a specific polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of magnetic spirilla in natural samples. Images PMID:7691800

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of Bacillus P450 monooxygenases and evaluation of their activity towards steroids.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Toshiki; Shibata, Daisuke; Kino, Kuniki

    2009-11-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) open reading frames (ORFs) identified in genome sequences of Bacillus species are potential resources for new oxidation biocatalysts. Phylogenetic analysis of 29 Bacillus P450 ORFs revealed that the P450s consist of a limited number of P450 families, CYP102, CYP106, CYP107, CYP109, CYP134, CYP152, and CYP197. Previously, we identified the catalytic activities of three P450s of Bacillus subtilis towards steroids by rapid substrate screening using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR/MS). Here, we further applied this method to evaluate the activity of Bacillus cereus P450s towards steroids. Five P450 genes were cloned from B. cereus ATCC 10987 based on its genomic sequence and were expressed in Escherichia coli. These P450s were reacted with a mixture of 30 compounds that mainly included steroids, and the reaction mixtures were analyzed using FT-ICR/MS. We found that BCE_2659 (CYP106) catalyzed the monooxygenation of methyltestosterone, progesterone, 11-ketoprogesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, and chlormadinone acetate. BCE_2654 (CYP107) monooxygenated testosterone enanthate, and BCE_3250 (CYP109) monooxygenated testosterone and compactin. Based on the phylogenetic relationship and the known substrate specificities including ones identified in this study, we discuss the catalytic potential of Bacillus P450s towards steroids.

  11. Molecular typing and phylogenetic analysis of classical swine fever virus isolates from Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Nimisha; Ravishankar, Chintu; Rajasekhar, R; Sumod, K; Sumithra, T G; John, Koshy; Mini, M; Ravindran, Reghu; Shaji, Shiju; Aishwarya, J

    2015-12-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically important disease of pigs caused by CSF virus (CSFV) belonging to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. The disease is endemic in many countries including India. A comprehensive study was carried out to assess the type of CSFV circulating in the South Indian state of Kerala. During the period 2013-2014, clinical samples were collected from 19 suspected CSF outbreaks of domestic pigs in different districts of Kerala. The samples were tested using nested reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) targeting the E2 gene and RT-PCR for 5'UTR of the virus. Partial 5' UTR and E2 gene regions of six CSFV isolates were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the CSFV isolates belonged to subgroup 2.2. The isolates showed close resemblance to the other CSFV isolates circulating in India. It was also observed that the CSFV viruses from Kannur district were distinct from those circulating in the other districts as evidenced by their divergence from other Kerala isolates in the phylogenetic tree. Close relationship was seen to the CSFV isolates from South East Asian countries. PMID:26645036

  12. Spatial and phylogenetic analysis of vesicular stomatitis virus over-wintering in the United States.

    PubMed

    Perez, Andres M; Pauszek, Steven J; Jimenez, Daniel; Kelley, William N; Whedbee, Zachary; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2010-03-01

    From 2004 through 2006, 751 vesicular stomatitis (VS) outbreaks caused by vesicular stomatitis virus serotype New Jersey (VSNJV) were reported in nine states of the southwestern United States. The normal model of the spatial scan statistic and phylogenetic techniques were used to assess whether the spatial and genetic relations among VSNJV outbreaks were consistent with the hypothesis that VSNJV over-wintered in specific regions of the southwestern United States infected in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Use of the spatial scan statistic led to the identification of two clusters of outbreaks for which the Euclidean distance to the nearest outbreak reported in the previous or following year, whichever was shorter, was significantly (P<0.01) shorter than the epidemic's (2004-2006) mean. Clusters were centered at Colorado and Wyoming and included 375 and 21 outbreaks, respectively. Results were supported by the phylogenetic analysis of 49 VSV samples collected from 2004 through 2006 in the United States and 10 VSV samples originated from Mexico. These findings, which were displayed using a publicly accessible web-based system referred to as the FMD BioPortal, were consistent with over-wintering of specific sub-lineages of VSNJV in a limited geographical region of the United States affected by a VS epidemic in 2005 and 2006.

  13. XplorSeq: A software environment for integrated management and phylogenetic analysis of metagenomic sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Daniel N

    2008-01-01

    Background Advances in automated DNA sequencing technology have accelerated the generation of metagenomic DNA sequences, especially environmental ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) sequences. As the scale of rDNA-based studies of microbial ecology has expanded, need has arisen for software that is capable of managing, annotating, and analyzing the plethora of diverse data accumulated in these projects. Results XplorSeq is a software package that facilitates the compilation, management and phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences. XplorSeq was developed for, but is not limited to, high-throughput analysis of environmental rRNA gene sequences. XplorSeq integrates and extends several commonly used UNIX-based analysis tools by use of a Macintosh OS-X-based graphical user interface (GUI). Through this GUI, users may perform basic sequence import and assembly steps (base-calling, vector/primer trimming, contig assembly), perform BLAST (Basic Local Alignment and Search Tool; [1-3]) searches of NCBI and local databases, create multiple sequence alignments, build phylogenetic trees, assemble Operational Taxonomic Units, estimate biodiversity indices, and summarize data in a variety of formats. Furthermore, sequences may be annotated with user-specified meta-data, which then can be used to sort data and organize analyses and reports. A document-based architecture permits parallel analysis of sequence data from multiple clones or amplicons, with sequences and other data stored in a single file. Conclusion XplorSeq should benefit researchers who are engaged in analyses of environmental sequence data, especially those with little experience using bioinformatics software. Although XplorSeq was developed for management of rDNA sequence data, it can be applied to most any sequencing project. The application is available free of charge for non-commercial use at . PMID:18840282

  14. 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis confirms the close relationship between the genera Xanthobacter, Azorhizobium, and Aquabacter and reveals a lack of phylogenetic coherence among Xanthobacter species

    SciTech Connect

    Rainey, F.A.; Wiegel, J.

    1996-04-01

    A comparative 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis was used to investigate the phylogenetic position of members of the genus Xanthobacter. We determined 16S rDNA sequence data for the type strains of the three Xanthobacter species and five additional Xanthobacter strains. The close relationship between the genera Xanthobacter, Azorhizobium, and Aquabacter previously demonstrated by DNA-rRNA hybridization studies was confirmed. The results of our phylogenetic analysis indicate that members of the genera Xanthobacter, Azorhizobium, and Aquabacter are intermixed and that there is no clear genetic cluster consisting of the Xanthobacter species. A comparison of the Xanthobacter sequences with the 16S rDNA sequences available from environmental clone studies indicated that members of this genus have not been detected by nonculturing approaches.

  15. Revision and phylogenetic analysis of the orb-weaving spider genus Glenognatha Simon, 1887 (Araneae, Tetragnathidae).

    PubMed

    Cabra-García, Jimmy; Brescovit, Antonio D

    2016-01-01

    A taxonomic revision and phylogenetic analysis of the spider genus Glenognatha Simon, 1887 is presented. This analysis is based on a data set including 24 Glenognatha species plus eight outgroups representing three related tetragnathine genera and one metaine as the root. These taxa were scored for 78 morphological characters. Parsimony was used as the optimality criterion and a sensitivity analysis was performed using different character weighting concavities. Seven unambiguous synapomorphies support the monophyly of Glenognatha. Some internal clades within the genus are well-supported and its relationships are discussed. Glenognatha as recovered includes 27 species, four of them only known from males. A species identification key and distribution maps are provided for all. New morphological data are also presented for thirteen previously described species. Glenognatha has a broad distribution occupying the Neartic, Afrotropic, Indo-Malaya, Oceania and Paleartic regions, but is more diverse in the Neotropics. The following eleven new species are described: G. vivianae n. sp., G. caaguara n. sp., G. boraceia n. sp. and G. timbira n. sp. from southeast Brazil, G. caparu n. sp., G. januari n. sp. and G. camisea n. sp. from the Amazonian region, G. mendezi n. sp., G. florezi n. sp. and G. patriceae n. sp. from northern Andes and G. gouldi n. sp. from Southern United States and central Mexico. Females of G. minuta Banks, 1898, G. gaujoni Simon, 1895 and G. gloriae (Petrunkevitch, 1930) and males of G. globosa (Petrunkevitch, 1925) and G. hirsutissima (Berland, 1935) are described for the first time. Three new combinations are proposed in congruence with the phylogenetic results: G. argyrostilba (O. P.-Cambridge, 1876) n. comb., G. dentata (Zhu & Wen, 1978) n. comb. and G. tangi (Zhu, Song & Zhang, 2003) n. comb., all previously included in Dyschiriognatha Simon, 1893. The following taxa are newly synonymized: Dyschiriognatha montana Simon, 1897, Glenognatha mira Bryant

  16. Phylogenetic Analysis of Rhinosporidium seeberi’s 18S Small-Subunit Ribosomal DNA Groups This Pathogen among Members of the Protoctistan Mesomycetozoa Clade

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Roger A.; Ajello, Libero; Taylor, John W.; Arseculeratne, Sarath N.; Mendoza, Leonel

    1999-01-01

    For the past 100 years the phylogenetic affinities of Rhinosporidium seeberi have been controversial. Based on its morphological features, it has been classified as a protozoan or as a member of the kingdom Fungi. We have amplified and sequenced nearly a full-length 18S small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence from R. seeberi. Using phylogenetic analysis, by parsimony and distance methods, of R. seeberi’s 18S SSU rDNA and that of other eukaryotes, we found that this enigmatic pathogen of humans and animals clusters with a novel group of fish parasites referred to as the DRIP clade (Dermocystidium, rossete agent, Ichthyophonus, and Psorospermium), near the animal-fungal divergence. Our phylogenetic analyses also indicate that R. seeberi is the sister taxon of the two Dermocystidium species used in this study. This molecular affinity is remarkable since members of the genus Dermocystidium form spherical structures in infected hosts, produce endospores, have not been cultured, and possess mitochondria with flat cristae. With the addition of R. seeberi to this clade, the acronym DRIP is no longer appropriate. We propose to name this monophyletic clade Mesomycetozoa to reflect the group’s phylogenetic association within the Eucarya. PMID:10449446

  17. Lipase genes in Mucor circinelloides: identification, sub-cellular location, phylogenetic analysis and expression profiling during growth and lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Zan, Xinyi; Tang, Xin; Chu, Linfang; Zhao, Lina; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Song, Yuanda

    2016-10-01

    Lipases or triacylglycerol hydrolases are widely spread in nature and are particularly common in the microbial world. The filamentous fungus Mucor circinelloides is a potential lipase producer, as it grows well in triacylglycerol-contained culture media. So far only one lipase from M. circinelloides has been characterized, while the majority of lipases remain unknown in this fungus. In the present study, 47 potential lipase genes in M. circinelloides WJ11 and 30 potential lipase genes in M. circinelloides CBS 277.49 were identified by extensive bioinformatics analysis. An overview of these lipases is presented, including several characteristics, sub-cellular location, phylogenetic analysis and expression profiling of the lipase genes during growth and lipid accumulation. All of these proteins contained the consensus sequence for a classical lipase (GXSXG motif) and were divided into four types including α/β-hydrolase_1, α/β-hydrolase_3, class_3 and GDSL lipase (GDSL) based on gene annotations. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that class_3 family and α/β-hydrolase_3 family were the conserved lipase family in M. circinelloides. Additionally, some lipases also contained a typical acyltransferase motif of H-(X) 4-D, and these lipases may play a dual role in lipid metabolism, catalyzing both lipid hydrolysis and transacylation reactions. The differential expression of all lipase genes were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR, and the expression profiling were analyzed to predict the possible biological roles of these lipase genes in lipid metabolism in M. circinelloides. We preliminarily hypothesized that lipases may be involved in triacylglycerol degradation, phospholipid synthesis and beta-oxidation. Moreover, the results of sub-cellular localization, the presence of signal peptide and transcriptional analyses of lipase genes indicated that four lipase in WJ11 most likely belong to extracellular lipases with a signal peptide. These findings provide a platform

  18. Multilocus Sequence Analysis for the Assessment of Phylogenetic Diversity and Biogeography in Hyphomonas Bacteria from Diverse Marine Environments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guizhen; Liu, Yang; Sun, Fengqin; Shao, Zongze

    2014-01-01

    Hyphomonas, a genus of budding, prosthecate bacteria, are primarily found in the marine environment. Seven type strains, and 35 strains from our collections of Hyphomonas, isolated from the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Arctic Ocean, South China Sea and the Baltic Sea, were investigated in this study using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The phylogenetic structure of these bacteria was evaluated using the 16S rRNA gene, and five housekeeping genes (leuA, clpA, pyrH, gatA and rpoD) as well as their concatenated sequences. Our results showed that each housekeeping gene and the concatenated gene sequence all yield a higher taxonomic resolution than the 16S rRNA gene. The 42 strains assorted into 12 groups. Each group represents an independent species, which was confirmed by virtual DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) estimated from draft genome sequences. Hyphomonas MLSA interspecies and intraspecies boundaries ranged from 93.3% to 96.3%, similarity calculated using a combined DDH and MLSA approach. Furthermore, six novel species (groups I, II, III, IV, V and XII) of the genus Hyphomonas exist, based on sequence similarities of the MLSA and DDH values. Additionally, we propose that the leuA gene (93.0% sequence similarity across our dataset) alone could be used as a fast and practical means for identifying species within Hyphomonas. Finally, Hyphomonas' geographic distribution shows that strains from the same area tend to cluster together as discrete species. This study provides a framework for the discrimination and phylogenetic analysis of the genus Hyphomonas for the first time, and will contribute to a more thorough understanding of the biological and ecological roles of this genus. PMID:25019154

  19. Phylogenetic Analysis of a Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Fermentation Metagenome Reveals New Insights into Its Bacterial and Fungal Community Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Illeghems, Koen; De Vuyst, Luc; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Weckx, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of the community diversity of a single spontaneous cocoa bean box fermentation sample through a metagenomic approach involving 454 pyrosequencing. Several sequence-based and composition-based taxonomic profiling tools were used and evaluated to avoid software-dependent results and their outcome was validated by comparison with previously obtained culture-dependent and culture-independent data. Overall, this approach revealed a wider bacterial (mainly γ-Proteobacteria) and fungal diversity than previously found. Further, the use of a combination of different classification methods, in a software-independent way, helped to understand the actual composition of the microbial ecosystem under study. In addition, bacteriophage-related sequences were found. The bacterial diversity depended partially on the methods used, as composition-based methods predicted a wider diversity than sequence-based methods, and as classification methods based solely on phylogenetic marker genes predicted a more restricted diversity compared with methods that took all reads into account. The metagenomic sequencing analysis identified Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus as the prevailing species. Also, the presence of occasional members of the cocoa bean fermentation process was revealed (such as Erwinia tasmaniensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Oenococcus oeni). Furthermore, the sequence reads associated with viral communities were of a restricted diversity, dominated by Myoviridae and Siphoviridae, and reflecting Lactobacillus as the dominant host. To conclude, an accurate overview of all members of a cocoa bean fermentation process sample was revealed, indicating the superiority of metagenomic sequencing over previously used techniques. PMID:22666442

  20. Multilocus sequence analysis for the assessment of phylogenetic diversity and biogeography in hyphomonas bacteria from diverse marine environments.

    PubMed

    Li, Chongping; Lai, Qiliang; Li, Guizhen; Liu, Yang; Sun, Fengqin; Shao, Zongze

    2014-01-01

    Hyphomonas, a genus of budding, prosthecate bacteria, are primarily found in the marine environment. Seven type strains, and 35 strains from our collections of Hyphomonas, isolated from the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Arctic Ocean, South China Sea and the Baltic Sea, were investigated in this study using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The phylogenetic structure of these bacteria was evaluated using the 16S rRNA gene, and five housekeeping genes (leuA, clpA, pyrH, gatA and rpoD) as well as their concatenated sequences. Our results showed that each housekeeping gene and the concatenated gene sequence all yield a higher taxonomic resolution than the 16S rRNA gene. The 42 strains assorted into 12 groups. Each group represents an independent species, which was confirmed by virtual DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) estimated from draft genome sequences. Hyphomonas MLSA interspecies and intraspecies boundaries ranged from 93.3% to 96.3%, similarity calculated using a combined DDH and MLSA approach. Furthermore, six novel species (groups I, II, III, IV, V and XII) of the genus Hyphomonas exist, based on sequence similarities of the MLSA and DDH values. Additionally, we propose that the leuA gene (93.0% sequence similarity across our dataset) alone could be used as a fast and practical means for identifying species within Hyphomonas. Finally, Hyphomonas' geographic distribution shows that strains from the same area tend to cluster together as discrete species. This study provides a framework for the discrimination and phylogenetic analysis of the genus Hyphomonas for the first time, and will contribute to a more thorough understanding of the biological and ecological roles of this genus.

  1. Using Phylogenetic Analysis to Detect Market Substitution of Atlantic Salmon for Pacific Salmon: An Introductory Biology Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Erica; Gogarten, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    We describe a laboratory exercise developed for the cell and molecular biology quarter of a year-long majors' undergraduate introductory biology sequence. In an analysis of salmon samples collected by students in their local stores and restaurants, DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used to detect market substitution of Atlantic salmon…

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Lensia (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Siphonophora), based on the species morphology.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Eric Y; Ribeiro, Guilherme C; Oliveira, Otto M P

    2016-01-01

    Siphonophores are poorly studied despite their abundance and ecological importance in marine ecosystems. The genus Lensia Totton, 1932 contains the highest number of species within Siphonophora, but systematic studies of these organisms are scarce in the literature. This study presents a phylogenetic analysis for fifteen species of Lensia based on morphological data. The material for this study was obtained during two oceanographic campaigns made along the southeastern Brazilian coast. A total of twenty two characters of the anterior nectophore morphology were scored. The shortest trees were searched using parsimony (under different weighting regimes). All analyses provided the same topology: (M. kochi (D. dispar + D. bojani) (L. leloupi (L. havock (L. conoidea (L. subtilis; L. meteori; L. hardy; L. fowleri; (L. subtiloides (L. hotspur; L. cossack; L. campanella)); (L. multicristata (L. hunter (L. lelouveteau + L. grimaldii))). The monophyly of the genus Lensia is supported by the hydroecium measuring up to 1/4 the height of the nectosac. PMID:27395688

  3. W-IQ-TREE: a fast online phylogenetic tool for maximum likelihood analysis

    PubMed Central

    Trifinopoulos, Jana; Nguyen, Lam-Tung; von Haeseler, Arndt; Minh, Bui Quang

    2016-01-01

    This article presents W-IQ-TREE, an intuitive and user-friendly web interface and server for IQ-TREE, an efficient phylogenetic software for maximum likelihood analysis. W-IQ-TREE supports multiple sequence types (DNA, protein, codon, binary and morphology) in common alignment formats and a wide range of evolutionary models including mixture and partition models. W-IQ-TREE performs fast model selection, partition scheme finding, efficient tree reconstruction, ultrafast bootstrapping, branch tests, and tree topology tests. All computations are conducted on a dedicated computer cluster and the users receive the results via URL or email. W-IQ-TREE is available at http://iqtree.cibiv.univie.ac.at. It is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. PMID:27084950

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of Newcastle disease virus isolates occurring in India during 1989-2013.

    PubMed

    Desingu, P A; Singh, S D; Dhama, K; Karthik, K; Vinodh Kumar, O R; Malik, Y S

    2016-06-01

    The study details characterization of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates recovered from commercial poultry flocks (chicken) and wild birds (crane) of India during the time period from 1989 to 2013. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the NDV isolates belongs to class II, genotype XIIIa and a chicken isolate (108/BAREILLY/AD-IVRI/91) was of genotype VI, where it showed diversity of 3 % from the other viruses belonging to same genotype. Another chicken isolate (75/RAMPUR/AD-IVRI/89) grouped in genotype III and showed 4 % diversity with viruses of genotype III. The crane origin NDV identified as of genotype II corresponding to the vaccine virus. This appears to be the first report about existence of genotype XIIIa and its ancestral viruses are circulating in India for the last two decades in different species of birds. Furthermore, genetically distinct viruses belonging to genotypes II, III and VI are also circulating in India. PMID:27366774

  5. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis E viruses from mongooses in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nidaira, Minoru; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Ogura, Go; Taira, Katsuya; Okano, Shou; Kudaka, Jun; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Mishiro, Shunji; Nakamura, Masaji

    2012-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has previously been reported in wild mongooses on Okinawa Island; to date however, only one HEV RNA sequence has been identified in a mongoose. Hence, this study was performed to detect HEV RNA in 209 wild mongooses on Okinawa Island. Six (2.9%) samples tested positive for HEV RNA. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 6 HEV RNAs belonged to genotype 3 and were classified into groups A and B. In group B, mongoose-derived HEV sequences were very similar to mongoose HEV previously detected on Okinawa Island, as well as to those of a pig. This investigation emphasized the possibility that the mongoose is a reservoir animal for HEV on Okinawa Island.

  6. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of a new porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) strain in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; He, Kongwang; Wen, Libin; Fan, Hongjie

    2015-12-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the etiological agent associated with several pig diseases that are collectively referred to as porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD). Unfortunately, PCV2 has had a serious economic impact on the swine industry. In this study, we report the genome sequence of a novel PCV2 isolate (JS2015) identified in pigs in Jiang Su, China. The complete DNA sequence was 1766 nucleotides long with an A+T content of 52.7%. It lacked a guanine (G) at nucleotide position 1045 compared to other reference PCV2 strains with a sequence length of 1766 nucleotides. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate JS2015 was most closely related to members of the PCV2d (AY181946) lineage. Our data provide insight into the epidemiology of porcine circovirus and may facilitate further study of the origin and evolution of PCV2. PMID:26395090

  7. A Polyglot Approach to Bioinformatics Data Integration: A Phylogenetic Analysis of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Reisman, Steven; Hatzopoulos, Thomas; Läufer, Konstantin; Thiruvathukal, George K.; Putonti, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    As sequencing technologies continue to drop in price and increase in throughput, new challenges emerge for the management and accessibility of genomic sequence data. We have developed a pipeline for facilitating the storage, retrieval, and subsequent analysis of molecular data, integrating both sequence and metadata. Taking a polyglot approach involving multiple languages, libraries, and persistence mechanisms, sequence data can be aggregated from publicly available and local repositories. Data are exposed in the form of a RESTful web service, formatted for easy querying, and retrieved for downstream analyses. As a proof of concept, we have developed a resource for annotated HIV-1 sequences. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted for >6,000 HIV-1 sequences revealing spatial and temporal factors influence the evolution of the individual genes uniquely. Nevertheless, signatures of origin can be extrapolated even despite increased globalization. The approach developed here can easily be customized for any species of interest. PMID:26819543

  8. A Polyglot Approach to Bioinformatics Data Integration: A Phylogenetic Analysis of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Reisman, Steven; Hatzopoulos, Thomas; Läufer, Konstantin; Thiruvathukal, George K; Putonti, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    As sequencing technologies continue to drop in price and increase in throughput, new challenges emerge for the management and accessibility of genomic sequence data. We have developed a pipeline for facilitating the storage, retrieval, and subsequent analysis of molecular data, integrating both sequence and metadata. Taking a polyglot approach involving multiple languages, libraries, and persistence mechanisms, sequence data can be aggregated from publicly available and local repositories. Data are exposed in the form of a RESTful web service, formatted for easy querying, and retrieved for downstream analyses. As a proof of concept, we have developed a resource for annotated HIV-1 sequences. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted for >6,000 HIV-1 sequences revealing spatial and temporal factors influence the evolution of the individual genes uniquely. Nevertheless, signatures of origin can be extrapolated even despite increased globalization. The approach developed here can easily be customized for any species of interest. PMID:26819543

  9. W-IQ-TREE: a fast online phylogenetic tool for maximum likelihood analysis.

    PubMed

    Trifinopoulos, Jana; Nguyen, Lam-Tung; von Haeseler, Arndt; Minh, Bui Quang

    2016-07-01

    This article presents W-IQ-TREE, an intuitive and user-friendly web interface and server for IQ-TREE, an efficient phylogenetic software for maximum likelihood analysis. W-IQ-TREE supports multiple sequence types (DNA, protein, codon, binary and morphology) in common alignment formats and a wide range of evolutionary models including mixture and partition models. W-IQ-TREE performs fast model selection, partition scheme finding, efficient tree reconstruction, ultrafast bootstrapping, branch tests, and tree topology tests. All computations are conducted on a dedicated computer cluster and the users receive the results via URL or email. W-IQ-TREE is available at http://iqtree.cibiv.univie.ac.at It is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome and phylogenetic analysis of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Peng, Rui; Zeng, Bo; Meng, Xiuxiang; Yue, Bisong; Zhang, Zhihe; Zou, Fangdong

    2007-08-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, was determined by the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction (LA-PCR) with conserved primers and primer walking sequence methods. The complete mitochondrial DNA is 16,805 nucleotides in length and contains two ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and one control region. The total length of the 13 protein-coding genes is longer than the American black bear, brown bear and polar bear by 3 amino acids at the end of ND5 gene. The codon usage also followed the typical vertebrate pattern except for an unusual ATT start codon, which initiates the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5) gene. The molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed on the sequences of 12 concatenated heavy-strand encoded protein-coding genes, and suggested that the giant panda is most closely related to bears. PMID:17499457

  11. Generalized frequency coding: a method of preparing polymorphic multistate characters for phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, E N; Gutberlet, R L

    2001-04-01

    A new method of coding polymorphic multiistate characters for phylogenetic analysis is presented. By dividing such characters into subcharacters, their frequency distributions can be represented with discrete states. Differential weighting is used to counter the effect of representing one character with multiple characters. The new method, generalized frequency coding (GFC), is potentially superior to previously used methods in that it incorporates more information and is applicable to both qualitative and quantitative characters. When applied to a previously published data set that includes both types of polymorphic multistate characters, the method performed well, as assessed with g1 and nonparametric bootstrap statistics and giving results congruent with those of other studies. The data set was also used to compare GFC with both gap-weighting and Manhattan distance step matrix coding. On these grounds and for philosophical reasons, we consider GFC to be a better estimator of phylogeny. PMID:12116926

  12. A Polyglot Approach to Bioinformatics Data Integration: A Phylogenetic Analysis of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Reisman, Steven; Hatzopoulos, Thomas; Läufer, Konstantin; Thiruvathukal, George K; Putonti, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    As sequencing technologies continue to drop in price and increase in throughput, new challenges emerge for the management and accessibility of genomic sequence data. We have developed a pipeline for facilitating the storage, retrieval, and subsequent analysis of molecular data, integrating both sequence and metadata. Taking a polyglot approach involving multiple languages, libraries, and persistence mechanisms, sequence data can be aggregated from publicly available and local repositories. Data are exposed in the form of a RESTful web service, formatted for easy querying, and retrieved for downstream analyses. As a proof of concept, we have developed a resource for annotated HIV-1 sequences. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted for >6,000 HIV-1 sequences revealing spatial and temporal factors influence the evolution of the individual genes uniquely. Nevertheless, signatures of origin can be extrapolated even despite increased globalization. The approach developed here can easily be customized for any species of interest.

  13. A database for the taxonomic and phylogenetic identification of the genus Bradyrhizobium using multilocus sequence analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Biological nitrogen fixation, with an emphasis on the legume-rhizobia symbiosis, is a key process for agriculture and the environment, allowing the replacement of nitrogen fertilizers, reducing water pollution by nitrate as well as emission of greenhouse gases. Soils contain numerous strains belonging to the bacterial genus Bradyrhizobium, which establish symbioses with a variety of legumes. However, due to the high conservation of Bradyrhizobium 16S rRNA genes - considered as the backbone of the taxonomy of prokaryotes - few species have been delineated. The multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) methodology, which includes analysis of housekeeping genes, has been shown to be promising and powerful for defining bacterial species, and, in this study, it was applied to Bradyrhizobium, species, increasing our understanding of the diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Description Classification of bacteria of agronomic importance is relevant to biodiversity, as well as to biotechnological manipulation to improve agricultural productivity. We propose the construction of an online database that will provide information and tools using MLSA to improve phylogenetic and taxonomic characterization of Bradyrhizobium, allowing the comparison of genomic sequences with those of type and representative strains of each species. Conclusion A database for the taxonomic and phylogenetic identification of the Bradyrhizobium, genus, using MLSA, will facilitate the use of biological data available through an intuitive web interface. Sequences stored in the on-line database can be compared with multiple sequences of other strains with simplicity and agility through multiple alignment algorithms and computational routines integrated into the database. The proposed database and software tools are available at http://mlsa.cnpso.embrapa.br, and can be used, free of charge, by researchers worldwide to classify Bradyrhizobium, strains; the database and software can be applied to

  14. [Phylogenetic relationships and intraspecific variation of D-genome Aegilops L. as revealed by RAPD analysis].

    PubMed

    Goriunova, S V; Kochieva, E Z; Chikida, N N; Pukhal'skiĭ, V A

    2004-05-01

    RAPD analysis was carried out to study the genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of polyploid Aegilops species, which contain the D genome as a component of the alloploid genome, and diploid Aegilops tauschii, which is a putative donor of the D genome for common wheat. In total, 74 accessions of six D-genome Aegilops species were examined. The highest intraspecific variation (0.03-0.21) was observed for Ae. tauschii. Intraspecific distances between accessions ranged 0.007-0.067 in Ae. cylindrica, 0.017-0.047 in Ae. vavilovii, and 0.00-0.053 in Ae. juvenalis. Likewise, Ae. ventricosa and Ae. crassa showed low intraspecific polymorphism. The among-accession difference in alloploid Ae. ventricosa (genome DvNv) was similar to that of one parental species, Ae. uniaristata (N), and substantially lower than in the other parent, Ae. tauschii (D). The among-accession difference in Ae. cylindrica (CcDc) was considerably lower than in either parent, Ae. tauschii (D) or Ae. caudata (C). With the exception of Ae. cylindrica, all D-genome species--Ae. tauschii (D), Ae. ventricosa (DvNv), Ae. crassa (XcrDcrl and XcrDcrlDcr2), Ae. juvenalis (XjDjUj), and Ae. vavilovii (XvaDvaSva)--formed a single polymorphic cluster, which was distinct from clusters of other species. The only exception, Ae. cylindrica, did not group with the other D-genome species, but clustered with Ae. caudata (C), a donor of the C genome. The cluster of these two species was clearly distinct from the cluster of the other D-genome species and close to a cluster of Ae. umbellulata (genome U) and Ae. ovata (genome UgMg). Thus, RAPD analysis for the first time was used to estimate and to compare the interpopulation polymorphism and to establish the phylogenetic relationships of all diploid and alloploid D-genome Aegilops species.

  15. Multilocus molecular and phylogenetic analysis of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Weigl, Stefania; Tarallo, Viviana Domenica; Parisi, Antonio; Traversa, Donato; Otranto, Domenico

    2011-08-01

    This study reports a combined analysis of mitochondrial and ribosomal DNA target regions of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Mediterranean region. A ∼900 bp long fragment of the mitochondrial DNA encompassing regions within cytb and nd1 gene and the complete ITS2 ribosomal region (∼500 bp) were sequenced and characterized for Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus papatasi, and Sergentomyia minuta, captured in two sites of southern Italy. From one to eight mitochondrial haplotypes and from one to three ITS2 sequence types were found for the examined specimens according to the different sand fly species. The mean interspecific difference in the mitochondrial sequences was of 16.1%, with an overall intraspecific nucleotide variation from 0.1 to 2.8%. A higher interspecific difference (mean 25.1%) was recorded for the ITS2 sequence, with an overall intraspecific nucleotide variation up to 4.9%. The sequence types alignment of ITS2 region showed that all phlebotomine specimens possessed a split 5.8S rRNA, consisting of a mature 5.8S rRNA and a 2S rRNA separated by a short transcribed spacer. Phylogenetic analysis of the Phlebotomus spp. sequences, herein determined and of those available in GenBank™ were concordant in clustering P. neglectus, P. perfiliewi and P. papatasi with the same species collected from different geographic areas of the Mediterranean basin in four main clades for mtDNA and ITS2, respectively. This study demonstrates the utility of multilocus sequencing, provides a dataset for the molecular identification of the most prevalent phlebotomine sand flies in southern Europe and defines the phylogenetic relationships among species examined.

  16. Phylogenetic Analysis of Local-Scale Tree Soil Associations in a Lowland Moist Tropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Schreeg, Laura A.; Kress, W. John; Erickson, David L.; Swenson, Nathan G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Local plant-soil associations are commonly studied at the species-level, while associations at the level of nodes within a phylogeny have been less well explored. Understanding associations within a phylogenetic context, however, can improve our ability to make predictions across systems and can advance our understanding of the role of evolutionary history in structuring communities. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we quantified evolutionary signal in plant-soil associations using a DNA sequence-based community phylogeny and several soil variables (e.g., extractable phosphorus, aluminum and manganese, pH, and slope as a proxy for soil water). We used published plant distributional data from the 50-ha plot on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Republic of Panamá. Our results suggest some groups of closely related species do share similar soil associations. Most notably, the node shared by Myrtaceae and Vochysiaceae was associated with high levels of aluminum, a potentially toxic element. The node shared by Apocynaceae was associated with high extractable phosphorus, a nutrient that could be limiting on a taxon specific level. The node shared by the large group of Laurales and Magnoliales was associated with both low extractable phosphorus and with steeper slope. Despite significant node-specific associations, this study detected little to no phylogeny-wide signal. We consider the majority of the ‘traits’ (i.e., soil variables) evaluated to fall within the category of ecological traits. We suggest that, given this category of traits, phylogeny-wide signal might not be expected while node-specific signals can still indicate phylogenetic structure with respect to the variable of interest. Conclusions Within the BCI forest dynamics plot, distributions of some plant taxa are associated with local-scale differences in soil variables when evaluated at individual nodes within the phylogenetic tree, but they are not detectable by phylogeny-wide signal. Trends

  17. An improved model for whole genome phylogenetic analysis by Fourier transform.

    PubMed

    Yin, Changchuan; Yau, Stephen S-T

    2015-10-01

    and demonstrates that the improved DFT dissimilarity measure is an efficient and effective similarity measure of DNA sequences. Due to its high efficiency and accuracy, the proposed DFT similarity measure is successfully applied on phylogenetic analysis for individual genes and large whole bacterial genomes.

  18. An improved model for whole genome phylogenetic analysis by Fourier transform.

    PubMed

    Yin, Changchuan; Yau, Stephen S-T

    2015-10-01

    and demonstrates that the improved DFT dissimilarity measure is an efficient and effective similarity measure of DNA sequences. Due to its high efficiency and accuracy, the proposed DFT similarity measure is successfully applied on phylogenetic analysis for individual genes and large whole bacterial genomes. PMID:26151589

  19. [Phylogenetic and Bioinformatics Analysis of Replicase Gene Sequence of Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus].

    PubMed

    Liang, Chaoqiong; Meng, Yan; Luo, Laixin; Liu, Pengfei; Li, Jianqiang

    2015-11-01

    kD proteins of tested CGMMV isolates. The current results that there was no significant difference between the replicase gene sequences, it was stable and conservative for intra-species and clearly difference for inter-species. CGMMV-No. 1, CGMMV-No. 3, CGMMV-No. 4 and CGMMV-No. 5 had. a close genetic relationship with Shandong and Liangning isolates (Accession No. KJ754195 and EF611826), they are potentially originate from the same source. CGMMV-No. 2 was closer with Korea isolate. High sequence similarity of tested samples were gathered for a class in phylogenetic tree. It didn't show regularity of the bioinformatics analysis results of 129 kD and 57 kD proteins of tested CGMMV isolates. There was no corresponding relationship among the molecular phylogeny and the bioinformatics analysis of the tested CGMMV isolates. PMID:26951006

  20. Prevalence and Phylogenetic Analysis of Human Bocaviruses 1-4 in Pediatric Patients with Various Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Min; Zhu, Runan; Qian, Yuan; Deng, Jie; Wang, Fang; Sun, Yu; Dong, Huijin; Liu, Liying; Jia, Liping; Zhao, Linqing

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Viral infections caused by human bocaviruses 1–4 (HBoV1-4) are more complicated than previously believed. A retrospective, large-scale study was undertaken to explore the prevalence of HBoV1-4 in pediatric patients with various infectious diseases and delineate their phylogenetic characteristics. Methods Clinical samples from four specimen types, including 4,941 respiratory, 2,239 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 2,619 serum, and 1,121 fecal specimens, collected from pediatric patients with various infectious diseases were screened for HBoV1-4. A 690-nt fragment in each specimen was then amplified and sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. Clinical characteristics of HBoV-positive patients with different specimen types available were evaluated. Results Approximately 1.2% of patients were confirmed as HBoV-positive, with the highest positive rate in patients with gastrointestinal infection (2.2%), followed by respiratory (1.65%), central nervous system (0.8%), and hematological infections (0.2%). A single genetic lineage of HBoV1 circulated among children over the 8-year period, while a new cluster of HBoV2, via intra-genotype recombination between HBoV2A and HBoV2B, was prevalent. Some patients had HBoV1-positive respiratory and serum specimens or fecal specimens. Several cases became HBoV1-positive following the appearance of respiratory infection, while several cases were positive for HBoV2 only in CSF and serum specimens, rather than respiratory specimens. Conclusions A single genetic lineage of HBoV1 is speculated as a viral pathogen of respiratory infection and causes both comorbid infection and acute gastroenteritis. Additionally, a new cluster of HBoV2 is prevalent in China, which may infect the host through sites other than the respiratory tract. PMID:27490242

  1. Back to Basics – The Influence of DNA Extraction and Primer Choice on Phylogenetic Analysis of Activated Sludge Communities

    PubMed Central

    Kirkegaard, Rasmus H.; Nielsen, Per H.

    2015-01-01

    DNA extraction and primer choice have a large effect on the observed community structure in all microbial amplicon sequencing analyses. Although the biases are well known, no comprehensive analysis has been conducted in activated sludge communities. In this study we systematically explored the impact of a number of parameters on the observed microbial community: bead beating intensity, primer choice, extracellular DNA removal, and various PCR settings. In total, 176 samples were subjected to 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, and selected samples were investigated through metagenomics and metatranscriptomics. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization was used as a DNA extraction-independent method for qualitative comparison. In general, an effect on the observed community was found on all parameters tested, although bead beating and primer choice had the largest effect. The effect of bead beating intensity correlated with cell-wall strength as seen by a large increase in DNA from Gram-positive bacteria (up to 400%). However, significant differences were present at lower phylogenetic levels within the same phylum, suggesting that additional factors are at play. The best primer set based on in silico analysis was found to underestimate a number of important bacterial groups. For 16S rRNA gene analysis in activated sludge we recommend using the FastDNA SPIN Kit for Soil with four times the normal bead beating and V1-3 primers. PMID:26182345

  2. Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of HTLV-1 in a segregated population in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rafatpanah, Houshang; Torkamani, Mahmood; Valizadeh, Narges; Vakili, Rosita; Meshkani, Baratali; Khademi, Hassan; Gerayli, Sina; Mozhgani, Sayed Hamid Reza; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim

    2016-07-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is an important health issue that affects a variety of endemic areas. The Khorasan province, mainly its capital Mashhad in northeastern Iran, was reported to be as one of these endemic regions. Torbat-e Heydarieh, a large city Southwest border to Mashhad with a segregated population was investigated for the prevalence and associated risk factors of HTLV-1 infection in 400 randomly selected individuals. Blood samples were tested for the presence of HTLV-1 antibodies via the ELISA method and then were confirmed by an Immunoblot test. For the presence of HTLV-1 in lymphocytes of infected subjects, PCR was performed on LTR and TAX regions. DNA sequencing of LTR fragment was also carried out to determine the phylogenetic of HTLV-1, using the Maximum likelihood method. HTLV-1 sero-reactivity (sero-prevalence) among the study population was 2% (8/400), of which 1.25% had HTLV-1 provirus in lymphocytes (actual prevalence). HTLV-1 infection was significantly associated with the age, marital status, and history of blood transfusion (P < 0.05). However, there were no statistical differences between HTLV-1 infection, and gender, surgery, and hospitalization. In regression analysis, age showed the most significant correlation with the infection (P = 0.006, OR = 4.33). Based on our phylogenetic study, the HTLV-1 prevalent sequence type of Torbat-e Heydarieh belongs to the cosmopolitan subtype A. HTLV-1 prevalence in Torbat-e Heydarieh (1.25%) is low comparing to those of both Mashhad (2-3%) and Neishabour (3.5-5%) in the province of Khorasan. Thus, traveling mobility and population mixing such as marriage, bureaucratic affairs, occupation, and economic activities could be the usual routs of HTLV-1 new wave of spreading in this segregated city.

  3. Genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis of K88- and F18-positive porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Sara M; Danzeisen, Jessica L; Isaacson, Richard E; Seemann, Torsten; Achtman, Mark; Johnson, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    Porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) continues to result in major morbidity and mortality in the swine industry via postweaning diarrhea. The key virulence factors of ETEC strains, their serotypes, and their fimbrial components have been well studied. However, most studies to date have focused on plasmid-encoded traits related to colonization and toxin production, and the chromosomal backgrounds of these strains have been largely understudied. Here, we generated the genomic sequences of K88-positive and F18-positive porcine ETEC strains and examined the phylogenetic distribution of clinical porcine ETEC strains and their plasmid-associated genetic content. The genomes of porcine ETEC strains UMNK88 and UMNF18 were both found to contain remarkable plasmid complements containing known virulence factors, potential novel virulence factors, and antimicrobial resistance-associated elements. The chromosomes of these strains also possessed several unique genomic islands containing hypothetical genes with similarity to classical virulence factors, although phage-associated genomic islands dominated the accessory genomes of these strains. Phylogenetic analysis of 78 clinical isolates associated with neonatal and porcine diarrhea revealed that a limited subset of porcine ETEC lineages exist that generally contain common toxin and fimbrial profiles, with many of the isolates belonging to the ST10, ST23, and ST169 multilocus sequencing types. These lineages were generally distinct from existing human ETEC database isolates. Overall, most porcine ETEC strains appear to have emerged from a limited subset of E. coli lineages that either have an increased propensity to carry plasmid-encoded virulence factors or have the appropriate ETEC core genome required for virulence. PMID:22081385

  4. Computational bacterial genome-wide analysis of phylogenetic profiles reveals potential virulence genes of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Frank Po-Yen; Lan, Ruiting; Sintchenko, Vitali; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Kong, Fanrong; Coiera, Enrico

    2011-04-04

    The phylogenetic profile of a gene is a reflection of its evolutionary history and can be defined as the differential presence or absence of a gene in a set of reference genomes. It has been employed to facilitate the prediction of gene functions. However, the hypothesis that the application of this concept can also facilitate the discovery of bacterial virulence factors has not been fully examined. In this paper, we test this hypothesis and report a computational pipeline designed to identify previously unknown bacterial virulence genes using group B streptococcus (GBS) as an example. Phylogenetic profiles of all GBS genes across 467 bacterial reference genomes were determined by candidate-against-all BLAST searches,which were then used to identify candidate virulence genes by machine learning models. Evaluation experiments with known GBS virulence genes suggested good functional and model consistency in cross-validation analyses (areas under ROC curve, 0.80 and 0.98 respectively). Inspection of the top-10 genes in each of the 15 virulence functional groups revealed at least 15 (of 119) homologous genes implicated in virulence in other human pathogens but previously unrecognized as potential virulence genes in GBS. Among these highly-ranked genes, many encode hypothetical proteins with possible roles in GBS virulence. Thus, our approach has led to the identification of a set of genes potentially affecting the virulence potential of GBS, which are potential candidates for further in vitro and in vivo investigations. This computational pipeline can also be extended to in silico analysis of virulence determinants of other bacterial pathogens.

  5. Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of HTLV-1 in a segregated population in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rafatpanah, Houshang; Torkamani, Mahmood; Valizadeh, Narges; Vakili, Rosita; Meshkani, Baratali; Khademi, Hassan; Gerayli, Sina; Mozhgani, Sayed Hamid Reza; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim

    2016-07-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is an important health issue that affects a variety of endemic areas. The Khorasan province, mainly its capital Mashhad in northeastern Iran, was reported to be as one of these endemic regions. Torbat-e Heydarieh, a large city Southwest border to Mashhad with a segregated population was investigated for the prevalence and associated risk factors of HTLV-1 infection in 400 randomly selected individuals. Blood samples were tested for the presence of HTLV-1 antibodies via the ELISA method and then were confirmed by an Immunoblot test. For the presence of HTLV-1 in lymphocytes of infected subjects, PCR was performed on LTR and TAX regions. DNA sequencing of LTR fragment was also carried out to determine the phylogenetic of HTLV-1, using the Maximum likelihood method. HTLV-1 sero-reactivity (sero-prevalence) among the study population was 2% (8/400), of which 1.25% had HTLV-1 provirus in lymphocytes (actual prevalence). HTLV-1 infection was significantly associated with the age, marital status, and history of blood transfusion (P < 0.05). However, there were no statistical differences between HTLV-1 infection, and gender, surgery, and hospitalization. In regression analysis, age showed the most significant correlation with the infection (P = 0.006, OR = 4.33). Based on our phylogenetic study, the HTLV-1 prevalent sequence type of Torbat-e Heydarieh belongs to the cosmopolitan subtype A. HTLV-1 prevalence in Torbat-e Heydarieh (1.25%) is low comparing to those of both Mashhad (2-3%) and Neishabour (3.5-5%) in the province of Khorasan. Thus, traveling mobility and population mixing such as marriage, bureaucratic affairs, occupation, and economic activities could be the usual routs of HTLV-1 new wave of spreading in this segregated city. PMID:26680556

  6. Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of canine kobuviruses in diarrhoetic dogs in northeast China

    PubMed Central

    LI, Chunqiu; WEI, Shan; GUO, Donghua; WANG, Zhihui; GENG, Yufei; WANG, Enyu; ZHAO, Xiwen; SU, Mingjun; WANG, Xinyu; SUN, Dongbo

    2015-01-01

    Canine kobuviruses (CaKVs) are newly recognized picornaviruses that have been recently detected in dogs in the U.S.A., Italy, U.K., the Republic of Korea and Tanzania. To trace the evolution of CaKV strains, a total of 201 fecal samples from rectal swabs of diarrheic dogs, which were obtained from May 2014 to April 2015 in northeast China, were detected by reverse transcription-PCR targeting a partial (504 bp) fragment of the 3D gene. Furthermore, a phylogenetic analysis of the CaKV strains identified in northeast China was conducted based on the partial 3D gene sequence. The results indicated that 36 fecal samples (17.91%, 36/201) were positive for CaKV, in which the co-infection rates of canine coronavirus, canine parvovirus-2 and canine bocavirus were 58.33%, 41.67%, and 11.11%, respectively. Sequence comparison of the partial 3D gene revealed nucleotide homologies of 94.4–100%, 95.6–98.6%, 94.3–97.6%, 94.4–96.3% and 93.3–95.1% within the 36 Chinese CaKV strains, and between the 36 Chinese CaKV strains and four CaKV reference strains from South Korea, Italy, U.S.A. and Tanzania, respectively. A phylogenetic tree revealed that the 36 Chinese CaKV strains formed one specific CaKV lineage with CaKVs that have recently been identified in other countries. The 36 Chinese CaKV strains were closely related to CaKV reference strains from Asia and Europe, but differed genetically from CaKV reference strains from North America and Africa. This study provides evidence that CaKVs circulate in diarrhoetic dogs in China and that they exhibit substantial genetic diversity and high co-infection rates with other enteric viruses. PMID:26256044

  7. Analysis of phylogenetic signal in protostomial intron patterns using Mutual Information.

    PubMed

    Hill, Natascha; Leow, Alexander; Bleidorn, Christoph; Groth, Detlef; Tiedemann, Ralph; Selbig, Joachim; Hartmann, Stefanie

    2013-06-01

    Many deep evolutionary divergences still remain unresolved, such as those among major taxa of the Lophotrochozoa. As alternative phylogenetic markers, the intron-exon structure of eukaryotic genomes and the patterns of absence and presence of spliceosomal introns appear to be promising. However, given the potential homoplasy of intron presence, the phylogenetic analysis of this data using standard evolutionary approaches has remained a challenge. Here, we used Mutual Information (MI) to estimate the phylogeny of Protostomia using gene structure data, and we compared these results with those obtained with Dollo Parsimony. Using full genome sequences from nine Metazoa, we identified 447 groups of orthologous sequences with 21,732 introns in 4,870 unique intron positions. We determined the shared absence and presence of introns in the corresponding sequence alignments and have made this data available in "IntronBase", a web-accessible and downloadable SQLite database. Our results obtained using Dollo Parsimony are obviously misled through systematic errors that arise from multiple intron loss events, but extensive filtering of data improved the quality of the estimated phylogenies. Mutual Information, in contrast, performs better with larger datasets, but at the same time it requires a complete data set, which is difficult to obtain for orthologs from a large number of taxa. Nevertheless, Mutual Information-based distances proved to be useful in analyzing this kind of data, also because the estimation of MI-based distances is independent of evolutionary models and therefore no pre-definitions of ancestral and derived character states are necessary.

  8. Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of a Novel Starch Synthase in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hanmei; Yu, Guiling; Wei, Bin; Wang, Yongbin; Zhang, Junjie; Hu, Yufeng; Liu, Yinghong; Yu, Guowu; Zhang, Huaiyu; Huang, Yubi

    2015-01-01

    Starch is an important reserve of carbon and energy in plants, providing the majority of calories in the human diet and animal feed. Its synthesis is orchestrated by several key enzymes, and the amount and structure of starch, affecting crop yield and quality, are determined mainly by starch synthase (SS) activity. To date, five SS isoforms, including SSI-IV and Granule Bound Starch Synthase (GBSS) have been identified and their physiological functions have been well characterized. Here, we report the identification of a new SS isoform in maize, designated SSV. By searching sequenced genomes, SSV has been found in all green plants with conserved sequences and gene structures. Our phylogenetic analysis based on 780 base pairs has suggested that SSIV and SSV resulted from a gene duplication event, which may have occurred before the algae formation. An expression profile analysis of SSV in maize has indicated that ZmSSV is mainly transcribed in the kernel and ear leaf during the grain filling stage, which is partly similar to other SS isoforms. Therefore, it is likely that SSV may play an important role in starch biosynthesis. Subsequent analysis of SSV function may facilitate understanding the mechanism of starch granules formation, number and structure. PMID:26635839

  9. Structural and Phylogenetic Analysis of Laccases from Trichoderma: A Bioinformatic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cázares-García, Saila Viridiana; Vázquez-Garcidueñas, Ma. Soledad; Vázquez-Marrufo, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The genus Trichoderma includes species of great biotechnological value, both for their mycoparasitic activities and for their ability to produce extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Although activity of extracellular laccase has previously been reported in Trichoderma spp., the possible number of isoenzymes is still unknown, as are the structural and functional characteristics of both the genes and the putative proteins. In this study, the system of laccases sensu stricto in the Trichoderma species, the genomes of which are publicly available, were analyzed using bioinformatic tools. The intron/exon structure of the genes and the identification of specific motifs in the sequence of amino acids of the proteins generated in silico allow for clear differentiation between extracellular and intracellular enzymes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the common ancestor of the genus possessed a functional gene for each one of these enzymes, which is a characteristic preserved in T. atroviride and T. virens. This analysis also reveals that T. harzianum and T. reesei only retained the intracellular activity, whereas T. asperellum added an extracellular isoenzyme acquired through horizontal gene transfer during the mycoparasitic process. The evolutionary analysis shows that in general, extracellular laccases are subjected to purifying selection, and intracellular laccases show neutral evolution. The data provided by the present study will enable the generation of experimental approximations to better understand the physiological role of laccases in the genus Trichoderma and to increase their biotechnological potential. PMID:23383142

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of avian poxviruses among free-ranging birds of Virginia.

    PubMed

    Adams, Cary J; Feldman, Sanford H; Sleeman, Jonathan M

    2005-12-01

    Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify a portion of the avian poxvirus core 4b gene of infected free-ranging birds that presented at the Wildlife Center of Virginia during the 2003 and early 2004 years. The species of bird infected were a great blue heron (Ardea herodias), two American crows (Corvus brachyrhyncos), two American robins (Turdus migratorius), two mourning doves (Zenaida macroura), a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), a blue-gray gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea), a northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos), a house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus), and a northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Phylogenetic analysis was performed using the consensus sequences determined for each avian case in Virginia in combination with avian poxvirus core 4b gene sequence from isolates previously described in Europe and that of vaccinia virus. Alignment of DNA sequences identified areas of point mutations and, in the case of a single mourning dove, the incorporation of a triplet of nucleotides. Maximum-likelihood analysis grouped the 2003-2004 Virginia avian poxviruses into a clade distinct from those reported in European free-ranging birds, with the exception of a single case in a mourning dove that clustered within one European clade. The cladogram that resulted from our analysis of the European isolates is in agreement with those previously published. This study identified a distinct clade of avian poxvirus unique from four clades previously described and associated with epornitics in free-ranging birds, where the core 4b gene DNA sequence has been the basis of comparison.

  11. Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Archaeal Intron-Containing Genes Coding for rRNA Obtained from a Deep-Subsurface Geothermal Water Pool

    PubMed Central

    Takai, Ken; Horikoshi, Koki

    1999-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analysis of a naturally occurring microbial community in a deep-subsurface geothermal environment indicated that the phylogenetic diversity of the microbial population in the environment was extremely limited and that only hyperthermophilic archaeal members closely related to Pyrobaculum were present. All archaeal ribosomal DNA sequences contained intron-like sequences, some of which had open reading frames with repeated homing-endonuclease motifs. The sequence similarity analysis and the phylogenetic analysis of these homing endonucleases suggested the possible phylogenetic relationship among archaeal rRNA-encoded homing endonucleases. PMID:10584021

  12. Simultaneous analysis of five molecular markers provides a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis for the living bony-tongue fishes (Osteoglossomorpha: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Lavoué, Sébastien; Sullivan, John P

    2004-10-01

    Fishes of the Superorder Osteoglossomorpha (the "bonytongues") constitute a morphologically heterogeneous group of basal teleosts, including highly derived subgroups such as African electric fishes, the African butterfly fish, and Old World knifefishes. Lack of consensus among hypotheses of osteoglossomorph relationships advanced during the past 30 years may be due in part to the difficulty of identifying shared derived characters among the morphologically differentiated extant families of this group. In this study, we present a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for this group, based on the analysis of more than 4000 characters from five molecular markers (the mitochondrial cytochrome b, 12S and 16S rRNA genes, and the nuclear genes RAG2 and MLL). Our taxonomic sampling includes one representative of each extant non-mormyrid osteoglossomorph genus, one representative for the monophyletic family Mormyridae, and four outgroup taxa within the basal Teleostei. Maximum parsimony analysis of combined and equally weighted characters from the five molecular markers and Bayesian analysis provide a single, well-supported, hypothesis of osteoglossomorph interrelationships and show the group to be monophyletic. The tree topology is the following: (Hiodon alosoides, (Pantodon buchholzi, (((Osteoglossum bicirrhosum, Scleropages sp.), (Arapaima gigas, Heterotis niloticus)), ((Gymnarchus niloticus, Ivindomyrus opdenboschi), ((Notopterus notopterus, Chitala ornata), (Xenomystus nigri, Papyrocranus afer)))))). We compare our results with previously published phylogenetic hypotheses based on morpho-anatomical data. Additionally, we explore the consequences of the long terminal branch length for the taxon Pantodon buchholzi in our phylogenetic reconstruction and we use the obtained phylogenetic tree to reconstruct the evolutionary history of electroreception in the Notopteroidei.

  13. The Combination of Phylogenetic Analysis with Epidemiological and Serological Data to Track HIV-1 Transmission in a Sexual Transmission Case

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Ma, Yanling; Yang, Chaojun; Yang, Li; Chen, Huichao; Dong, Lijuan; Dai, Jie; Jia, Manhong; Lu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the linkage of HIV transmission from a man to a woman through unprotected sexual contact without disclosing his HIV-positive status. Methods Combined with epidemiological information and serological tests, phylogenetic analysis was used to test the a priori hypothesis of HIV transmission from the man to the woman. Control subjects, infected with HIV through heterosexual intercourse, from the same location were also sampled. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using the consensus gag, pol and env sequences obtained from blood samples of the man, the woman and the local control subjects. The env quasispecies of the man, the woman, and two controls were also obtained using single genome amplification and sequencing (SGA/S) to explore the paraphyletic relationship by phylogenetic analysis. Results Epidemiological information and serological tests indicated that the man was infected with HIV-1 earlier than the woman. Phylogenetic analyses of the consensus sequences showed a monophyletic cluster for the man and woman in all three genomic regions. Furthermore, gag sequences of the man and woman shared a unique recombination pattern from subtype B and C, which was different from those of CRF07_BC or CRF08_BC observed in the local samples. These indicated that the viral sequences from the two subjects display a high level of similarity. Further, viral quasispecies from the man exhibited a paraphyletic relationship with those from the woman in the Bayesian and maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogenetic trees of the env region, which supported the transmission direction from the man to the woman. Conclusions In the context of epidemiological and serological evidence, the results of phylogenetic analyses support the transmission from the man to the woman. PMID:25807147

  14. [Isolation, phylogenetic analysis and developmental expression parttern of AmphiRab23b in amphioxus].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Wei; Lin, Yu-Shuang; Chen, Dong-Yan; Zhang, Hong-Wei

    2009-12-01

    The hedgehog (Hh) pathway plays an important role during the embryonic development and is related to the progression of cancers. Rab23 is a crucial functional molecule in Hh pathway. However, there is no report about amphioxus Rab23 up to now except the annotations of two isoforms in the genome of Florida lancelet (Branchiostoma floridae). Here a 2062 bp full-length cDNA sequence of the Rab23, AmphiRab23b, was isolated from Chinese amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri), which included the UTRs and an open reading frame of 714 bp, encoding a protein of 237 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that AmphiRab23b falled outside the vertebrate clade. But sequence analysis indicated that this putative AmphiRab23b protein contained a specific Rab23_lke domain, which implied that Rab23 gene was functional conservative during evolution. And its developmental expression pattern showed that AmphiRab23b was expressed in the differentiating neural plate and alimentary canal, as the same as the expression pattern of the homologous vertebrate genes, which suggested that AmphiRab23b may function in the development of nervous system and alimentary canal.

  15. The long and winding road of molecular data in phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Díaz, Edna

    2014-01-01

    The use of molecules and reactions as evidence, markers and/or traits for evolutionary processes has a history more than a century long. Molecules have been used in studies of intra-specific variation and studies of similarity among species that do not necessarily result in the analysis of phylogenetic relations. Promoters of the use of molecular data have sustained the need for quantification as the main argument to make use of them. Moreover, quantification has allowed intensive statistical analysis, as a condition and a product of increasing automation. All of these analyses are subject to the methodological anxiety characteristic of a community in search of objectivity (Suárez-Díaz and Anaya-Munoz, Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci 39:451–458, 2008). It is in this context that scientists compared and evaluated protein and nucleic acid sequence data with other types of molecular data – including immunological, electrophoretic and hybridization data. This paper argues that by looking at longterm historical processes, such as the use of molecular evidence in evolutionary biology, we gain valuable insights into the history of science. In that sense, it accompanies a growing concern among historians for big-pictures of science that incorporate the fruitful historical research on local cases of the last decades.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis based evolutionary study of 16S rRNA in known Pseudomonas sp

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Arindam; Nandi, Suvodip; Bhattacharya, Indrabrata; Roy, Mithu De; Mandal, Tanusri; Dutta, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Molecular evolution analysis of 16S rRNA sequences of native Pseudomonas strains and different fluorescent pseudomonads were conducted on the basis of Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 5.2 (MEGA5.2). Topological evaluations show common origin for native strains with other known strains with available sequences at GenBank database. Phylogenetic affiliation of different Pseudomonas sp based on 16S rRNA gene shows that molecular divergence contributes to the genetic diversity of Pseudomonas sp. Result indicate direct dynamic interactions with the rhizospheric pathogenic microbial community. The selection pressure acting on 16S rRNA gene was related to the nucleotide diversity of Pseudomonas sp in soil rhizosphere community among different agricultural crops. Besides, nucleotide diversity among the whole population was very low and tajima test statistic value (D) was also slightly positive (Tajima׳s test statistics D value 0.351). This data indicated increasing trends of infection of soil-borne pathogens under gangetic-alluvial regions of West Bengal due to high degree of nucleotide diversity with decreased population of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria like fluorescent Pseudomonads in soil. PMID:26664032

  17. Molecular and Phylogenetic Analysis of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1: First Report in Iraqi Cattle.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Mohammed A; Al-Shammari, Ahmed M; Odisho, Shoni M; Yaseen, Nahi Y

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to provide the first molecular characterization of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) in Iraq. BPV is a widely spread oncogenic virus in Iraqi cattle and is associated with the formation of both benign and malignant lesions, resulting in notable economic losses in dairy and beef cattle. In the current study, 140 cutaneous papilloma specimens were collected from cattle in central Iraq. These samples were submitted to histopathological examination, PCR, and sequencing analysis. The histopathology revealed that the main lesion type among the specimens was fibropapilloma. BPV-1 DNA was detected in 121 of the samples (86.42%) in Iraqi cattle as the main causative agent for the disease. A partial sequence for the E2, L2 genes, and complete sequence for the E5 gene were deposited in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of BPV-1 and showed that the origin of infection may be imported European cattle. Obtaining a complete E5 gene sequence enabled us to perform structural predictions. This study presents the first report of BPV-1 infection in the Iraqi cattle and contributes to extending the knowledge of the origin of the spread of this disease. The results of this study will aid in the development of appropriate control measures and therapeutic strategies. PMID:27413374

  18. Molecular and Phylogenetic Analysis of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1: First Report in Iraqi Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Mohammed A.; Al-Shammari, Ahmed M.; Odisho, Shoni M.; Yaseen, Nahi Y.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to provide the first molecular characterization of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) in Iraq. BPV is a widely spread oncogenic virus in Iraqi cattle and is associated with the formation of both benign and malignant lesions, resulting in notable economic losses in dairy and beef cattle. In the current study, 140 cutaneous papilloma specimens were collected from cattle in central Iraq. These samples were submitted to histopathological examination, PCR, and sequencing analysis. The histopathology revealed that the main lesion type among the specimens was fibropapilloma. BPV-1 DNA was detected in 121 of the samples (86.42%) in Iraqi cattle as the main causative agent for the disease. A partial sequence for the E2, L2 genes, and complete sequence for the E5 gene were deposited in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of BPV-1 and showed that the origin of infection may be imported European cattle. Obtaining a complete E5 gene sequence enabled us to perform structural predictions. This study presents the first report of BPV-1 infection in the Iraqi cattle and contributes to extending the knowledge of the origin of the spread of this disease. The results of this study will aid in the development of appropriate control measures and therapeutic strategies. PMID:27413374

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Marmota himalayana (Rodentia: Sciuridae) and phylogenetic analysis within Rodentia.

    PubMed

    Chao, Q J; Li, Y D; Geng, X X; Zhang, L; Dai, X; Zhang, X; Li, J; Zhang, H J

    2014-04-14

    This is the first report of a complete mitochondrial genome sequence from Himalayan marmot (Marmota himalayana, class Marmota). We determined the M. himalayana mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence by using long-PCR methods and a primer-walking sequencing strategy with genus-specific primers. The complete mt genome of M. himalayana was 16,443 bp in length and comprised 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a typical control region (CR). Gene order and orientation were identical to those in mt genomes of most vertebrates. The heavy strand showed an overall A+T content of 63.49%. AT and GC skews for the mt genome of the M. himalayana were 0.012 and -0.300, respectively, indicating a nucleotide bias against T and G. The control region was 997 bp in size and displayed some unusual features, including absence of repeated motifs and two conserved sequence blocks (CSB2 and CSB3), which is consistent with observations from two other rodent species, Sciurus vulgaris and Myoxus glis. Phylogenetic analysis of complete mt DNA sequences without the control region including 30 taxa of Rodentia was performed with Maximum-Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI) methods and provided strong support for Sciurognathi polyphyly and Hystricognathi monophyly. This analysis also provided evidence that M. himalayana mt DNA was closely related to that from Sciurus vulgaris (Sciuridae) and was similar to mt DNA from Myoxus glis.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of VP2 gene of canine parvovirus and comparison with Indian and world isolates.

    PubMed

    Kaur, G; Chandra, M; Dwivedi, P N

    2016-03-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) causes hemorrhagic enteritis, especially in young dogs, leading to high morbidity and mortality. It has four main antigenic types CPV-2, CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c. Virus protein 2 (VP2) is the main capsid protein and mutations affecting VP2 gene are responsible for the evolution of various antigenic types of CPV. Full length VP2 gene from field isolates was amplified and cloned for sequence analysis. The sequences were submitted to the GenBank and were assigned Acc. Nos., viz. KP406928.1 for P12, KP406927.1 for P15, KP406930.1 for P32, KP406926.1 for Megavac-6 and KP406929.1 for NobivacDHPPi. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the samples were forming a separate clad with vaccine strains. When the samples were compared with the world and Indian isolates, it was observed that samples formed a separate node indicating regional genetic variation in CPV. PMID:26982475

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of VP2 gene of canine parvovirus and comparison with Indian and world isolates.

    PubMed

    Kaur, G; Chandra, M; Dwivedi, P N

    2016-03-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) causes hemorrhagic enteritis, especially in young dogs, leading to high morbidity and mortality. It has four main antigenic types CPV-2, CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c. Virus protein 2 (VP2) is the main capsid protein and mutations affecting VP2 gene are responsible for the evolution of various antigenic types of CPV. Full length VP2 gene from field isolates was amplified and cloned for sequence analysis. The sequences were submitted to the GenBank and were assigned Acc. Nos., viz. KP406928.1 for P12, KP406927.1 for P15, KP406930.1 for P32, KP406926.1 for Megavac-6 and KP406929.1 for NobivacDHPPi. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the samples were forming a separate clad with vaccine strains. When the samples were compared with the world and Indian isolates, it was observed that samples formed a separate node indicating regional genetic variation in CPV.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate and invertebrate Delta/Serrate/LAG-2 (DSL) proteins.

    PubMed

    Lissemore, J L; Starmer, W T

    1999-03-01

    Delta/Serrate/LAG-2 (DSL) proteins are putative transmembrane signaling molecules that regulate cell differentiation in metazoans. DSL proteins are characterized by the presence of a motif unique to these proteins, the DSL motif, and a variable number of tandemly repeated copies of an epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) motif. We have completed a phylogenetic analysis of 15 DSL proteins from eight species. Our findings reveal that at least one gene duplication occurred prior to the divergence of the Drosophila melanogaster and vertebrate lineages, with subsequent duplications in vertebrates. The three known Caenorhabditis elegans proteins likely arose by two independent duplications in the nematode lineage. Analysis of EGF repeats suggests that EGF 2 has been conserved among DSL proteins in vertebrates and D. melanogaster. The sequences of two EGF repeats have been perfectly conserved in vertebrate orthologs: EGF 2 in Delta and EGF 15 in Jagged/Serrate. Finally, the linear order of EGF repeats has been conserved in the vertebrate Jagged/Serrate orthologs and vertebrate Delta orthologs.

  3. Population studies of 17 equine STR for forensic and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    van de Goor, L H P; van Haeringen, W A; Lenstra, J A

    2011-12-01

    As a consequence of the close integration of horses into human society, equine DNA analysis has become relevant for forensic purposes. However, the information content of the equine Short Tandem Repeat (STR) loci commonly used for the identification or paternity testing has so far not been fully characterized. Population studies were performed for 17 polymorphic STR loci (AHT4, AHT5, ASB2, ASB17, ASB23, CA425, HMS1, HMS2, HMS3, HMS6, HMS7, HTG4, HTG6, HTG7, HTG10, LEX3 and VHL20) including 8641 horses representing 35 populations. The power of parental exclusion, polymorphic information content, expected and observed heterozygosity and probability of identity were calculated, showing that the set of 17 STRs has sufficient discriminating power for forensic analysis in almost all breeds. We also explored the reliability of individual assignment tests in identifying the correct breeds of origin for unknown samples. The overall proportion of individuals correctly assigned to a population was 97.2%. Finally, we demonstrate the phylogenetic signal of the 17 STR. We found three clusters of related breeds: (i) the cold-blooded draught breeds Haflinger, Dutch draft and Friesian; (ii) the pony breeds Shetland and Miniature horse with the Falabella, Appaloosa and Icelandic; and (iii) The Warmblood riding breeds, together with the hot-blooded Standard-bred, Thoroughbred and Arabian. PMID:22035004

  4. Phylogenetic Microarray Analysis of a Microbial Community Performing Reductive Dechlorination at a TCE-contaminated Site

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Patrick K. H.; Warnecke, F.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Macbeth, Tamzen W.; Conrad, Mark E.; Andersen, Gary L.; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A high-density phylogenetic microarray (PhyloChip) was applied to track bacterial and archaeal populations through different phases of remediation at Ft. Lewis, WA, a trichloroethene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater site. Biostimulation with whey, and bioaugmentation with a Dehalococcoides-containing enrichment culture were strategies implemented to enhance dechlorination. As a measure of species richness, over 1300 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected in DNA from groundwater samples extracted during different stages of treatment and in the bioaugmentation culture. In order to determine active members within the community, 16S rRNA from samples were analyzed by microarray and ~600 OTUs identified. A cDNA clone library of the expressed 16S rRNA corroborated the observed diversity and activity of some of the phyla. Principle component analysis of the treatment plot samples revealed that the microbial populations were constantly changing during the course of the study. Dynamic analysis of the archaeal population showed significant increases in methanogens at the later stages of treatment that correlated with increases in methane concentrations of over two orders of magnitude. Overall, the PhyloChip analyses in this study have provided insights into the microbial ecology and population dynamics at the TCE-contaminated field site useful for understanding the in situ reductive dechlorination processes. PMID:22091783

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of cellulolytic enzyme genes from representative lineages of termites and a related cockroach.

    PubMed

    Todaka, Nemuri; Inoue, Tetsushi; Saita, Kanako; Ohkuma, Moriya; Nalepa, Christine A; Lenz, Michael; Kudo, Toshiaki; Moriya, Shigeharu

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between xylophagous termites and the protists resident in their hindguts is a textbook example of symbiosis. The essential steps of lignocellulose degradation handled by these protists allow the host termites to thrive on a wood diet. There has never been a comprehensive analysis of lignocellulose degradation by protists, however, as it has proven difficult to establish these symbionts in pure culture. The trends in lignocellulose degradation during the evolution of the host lineage are also largely unknown. To clarify these points without any cultivation technique, we performed meta-expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis of cDNA libraries originating from symbiotic protistan communities in four termite species and a wood-feeding cockroach. Our results reveal the establishment of a degradation system with multiple enzymes at the ancestral stage of termite-protistan symbiosis, especially GHF5 and 7. According to our phylogenetic analyses, the enzymes comprising the protistan lignocellulose degradation system are coded not only by genes innate to the protists, but also genes acquired by the protists via lateral transfer from bacteria. This gives us a fresh perspective from which to understand the evolutionary dynamics of symbiosis.

  6. The metagenomics RAST server - a public resource for the automatic phylogenetic and functional analysis of metagenomes.

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, F.; Paarmann, D.; D'Souza, M.; Olson, R.; Glass, E. M.; Kubal, M.; Paczian, T.; Stevens, R.; Wilke, A.; Wilkening, J.; Edwards, R. A.; Rodriguez, A.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Chicago; San Diego State Univ.

    2008-09-19

    Random community genomes (metagenomes) are now commonly used to study microbes in different environments. Over the past few years, the major challenge associated with metagenomics shifted from generating to analyzing sequences. High-throughput, low-cost next-generation sequencing has provided access to metagenomics to a wide range of researchers. A high-throughput pipeline has been constructed to provide high-performance computing to all researchers interested in using metagenomics. The pipeline produces automated functional assignments of sequences in the metagenome by comparing both protein and nucleotide databases. phylogenetic and functional summaries of the metagenomes are generated, and tools for comparative metagenomics are incorporated into the standard views. user access is controlled to ensure data privacy, but the collaborative environment underpinning the service provides a framework for sharing databasets between multiple users. In the metagenomics RAST, all users retain full control of their data, and everything is available for download in a variety of formats. The open-source metagenomics RAST service provides a new paradigm for the annotation and analysis of metagenomes. With built-in support for multiple data sources and a back end that houses abstract data types, the metagenomics RAST is stable, extensible, and freely available to all researchers. This service has removed one of the primary bottlenecks in metagenome sequence analysis--the available of high-performance computing for annotating the data.

  7. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of morphologically similar naked amoebae using small subunit ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Sims, Gary P; Aitken, Robert; Rogerson, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Fan-shaped, naked amoebae are commonly encountered in samples from freshwater and marine habitats suggesting that they are an important component of the microbial food web. However, there are considerable problems in both detecting these amoebae and identifying them, given their morphological similarity. In this study we used restriction analysis and partial sequence analysis of the small-subunit 18S ribosomal RNA gene to examine the phylogenetic relationships between nine "fan-shaped" Vannella and Platyamoeba species. The molecular phylogeny showed that the marine Vannella and Platyamoeba isolates are closely related, whereas the freshwater isolates are disparate. Thus, the current reliance on the fine structure of the cell coat (glycocalyx) used to separate these genera is not justified. The study also highlights sequence elements that might be targeted by fluorescent probes for the direct detection of these amoebae in field samples. The molecular data were also used to aid the identification of three unknown fan-shaped isolates. All three unknowns resembled Vannella or Platyamoeba. However, one of the strains (a small < 10 microm, benthic, fan-shaped amoeba) probably represents a new genus.

  8. Phylogenetic microarray analysis of a microbial community performing reductive dechlorination at a TCE-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Lee, Patrick K H; Warnecke, F; Brodie, Eoin L; Macbeth, Tamzen W; Conrad, Mark E; Andersen, Gary L; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2012-01-17

    A high-density phylogenetic microarray (PhyloChip) was applied to track bacterial and archaeal populations through different phases of remediation at Ft. Lewis, WA, a trichloroethene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater site. Biostimulation with whey, and bioaugmentation with a Dehalococcoides-containing enrichment culture were strategies implemented to enhance dechlorination. As a measure of species richness, over 1300 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected in DNA from groundwater samples extracted during different stages of treatment and in the bioaugmentation culture. In order to determine active members within the community, 16S rRNA from samples were analyzed by microarray and ∼600 OTUs identified. A cDNA clone library of the expressed 16S rRNA corroborated the observed diversity and activity of some of the phyla. Principle component analysis of the treatment plot samples revealed that the microbial populations were constantly changing during the course of the study. Dynamic analysis of the archaeal population showed significant increases in methanogens at the later stages of treatment that correlated with increases in methane concentrations of over 2 orders of magnitude. Overall, the PhyloChip analyses in this study have provided insights into the microbial ecology and population dynamics at the TCE-contaminated field site useful for understanding the in situ reductive dechlorination processes.

  9. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent acyltransferase of Exiguobacterium acetylicum.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Narayanan; Smith, Colby; Mazhawidza, Williard

    2009-01-01

    The pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent family of enzymes is a very diverse group of proteins that metabolize small molecules like amino acids and sugars, and synthesize cofactors for other metabolic pathways through transamination, decarboxylation, racemization, and substitution reactions. In this study we employed degenerated primer-based PCR amplification, using genomic DNA isolated from the soil bacterium Exiguobacterium acetylicum strain SN as template. We revealed the presence of a PLP-dependent family of enzymes, such as PLP-dependent acyltransferase, and similarity to 8-amino-7-oxononoate synthase. Sequencing analysis and multiple alignment of the thymidine-adenine-cloned PCR amplicon revealed PLP-dependent family enzymes with specific confering codes and consensus amino acid residues specific to this group of functional proteins. Amino acid residues common to the majority of PLP-dependent enzymes were also revealed by the Lasergene MegAlign software. A phylogenetic tree was constructed. Its analysis revealed a close relationship of E. acetylicum to other bacteria isolated from extreme environments suggesting similarities in anabolic adaptability and evolutionary development. PMID:20158163

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial protein coding genes confirms the reciprocal paraphyly of Hexapoda and Crustacea

    PubMed Central

    Carapelli, Antonio; Liò, Pietro; Nardi, Francesco; van der Wath, Elizabeth; Frati, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Background The phylogeny of Arthropoda is still a matter of harsh debate among systematists, and significant disagreement exists between morphological and molecular studies. In particular, while the taxon joining hexapods and crustaceans (the Pancrustacea) is now widely accepted among zoologists, the relationships among its basal lineages, and particularly the supposed reciprocal paraphyly of Crustacea and Hexapoda, continues to represent a challenge. Several genes, as well as different molecular markers, have been used to tackle this problem in molecular phylogenetic studies, with the mitochondrial DNA being one of the molecules of choice. In this study, we have assembled the largest data set available so far for Pancrustacea, consisting of 100 complete (or almost complete) sequences of mitochondrial genomes. After removal of unalignable sequence regions and highly rearranged genomes, we used nucleotide and inferred amino acid sequences of the 13 protein coding genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among major lineages of Pancrustacea. The analysis was performed with Bayesian inference, and for the amino acid sequences a new, Pancrustacea-specific, matrix of amino acid replacement was developed and used in this study. Results Two largely congruent trees were obtained from the analysis of nucleotide and amino acid datasets. In particular, the best tree obtained based on the new matrix of amino acid replacement (MtPan) was preferred over those obtained using previously available matrices (MtArt and MtRev) because of its higher likelihood score. The most remarkable result is the reciprocal paraphyly of Hexapoda and Crustacea, with some lineages of crustaceans (namely the Malacostraca, Cephalocarida and, possibly, the Branchiopoda) being more closely related to the Insecta s.s. (Ectognatha) than two orders of basal hexapods, Collembola and Diplura. Our results confirm that the mitochondrial genome, unlike analyses based on morphological data or nuclear

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of Bunyamwera and Ngari viruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus) isolated in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Odhiambo, C; Venter, M; Lwande, O; Swanepoel, R; Sang, R

    2016-01-01

    Orthobunyaviruses, tri-segmented, negative-sense RNA viruses, have long been associated with mild to severe human disease in Africa, but not haemorrhagic fever. However, during a Rift Valley fever outbreak in East Africa in 1997-1998, Ngari virus was isolated from two patients and antibody detected in several others with haemorrhagic fever. The isolates were used to identify Ngari virus as a natural Orthobunyavirus reassortant. Despite their potential to reassort and cause severe human disease, characterization of orthobunyaviruses is hampered by paucity of genetic sequences. Our objective was to obtain complete gene sequences of two Bunyamwera virus and three Ngari virus isolates from recent surveys in Kenya and to determine their phylogenetic positioning within the Bunyamwera serogroup. Newly sequenced Kenyan Bunyamwera virus isolates clustered closest to a Bunyamwera virus isolate from the same locality and a Central African Republic isolate indicating that similar strains may be circulating regionally. Recent Kenyan Ngari isolates were closest to the Ngari isolates associated with the 1997-1998 haemorrhagic fever outbreak. We observed a temporal/geographical relationship among Ngari isolates in all three gene segments suggesting a geographical/temporal association with genetic diversity. These sequences in addition to earlier sequences can be used for future analyses of this neglected but potentially deadly group of viruses.

  12. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the VP4 gene of human rotaviruses isolated in Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Espínola, E E; Amarilla, A; Arbiza, J; Parra, G I

    2008-01-01

    Nucleotide and amino acid analyzes of the VP4 gene of human rotaviruses isolated both in Paraguay and worldwide were carried out in order to increase our knowledge about the complex pattern of evolution of this virus in nature. Paraguayan strains bearing the P[8] genotype were grouped in the lineages P[8]-1, P[8]-2, and P[8]-3. Regardless of the year of detection, all of the G4 and G9 strains were related to lineage P[8]-3, whereas the G1 strains were related to the three lineages detected in Paraguay; this fact reinforces the notion of the existence of constraints within specific populations of rotavirus strains except for the G1 strains. In addition, we propose a phylogenetic classification for the P[4] strains in five different lineages (i.e. P[4]-1 to P[4]-5). The findings presented in this paper reinforce the importance of a continuous surveillance of rotavirus strains in order to predict the possible variants that will circulate in a country, and ultimately improve current vaccination programs.

  13. Evidence of transoceanic dispersion of the genus Vanilla based on plastid DNA phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Bouetard, Anthony; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Gigant, Rodolphe; Bory, Séverine; Pignal, Marc; Besse, Pascale; Grisoni, Michel

    2010-05-01

    The phylogeny and the biogeographical history of the genus Vanilla was investigated using four chloroplastic genes (psbB, psbC; psaB and rbcL), on 47 accessions of Vanilla chosen from the ex situ CIRAD collection maintained in Reunion Island and additional sequences from GenBank. Bayesian methods provided a fairly well supported reconstruction of the phylogeny of the Vanilloideae sub-family and more particularly of the genus Vanilla. Three major phylogenetic groups in the genus Vanilla were differentiated, which is in disagreement with the actual classification in two sections (Foliosae and Aphyllae) based on morphological traits. Recent Bayesian relaxed molecular clock methods allowed to test the two main hypotheses of the phylogeography of the genus Vanilla. Early radiation of the Vanilla genus and diversification by vicariance consecutive to the break-up of Gondwana, 95 million years ago (Mya), was incompatible with the admitted age of origin of Angiosperm. Based on the Vanilloideae age recently estimated to 71 million years ago (Mya), we conclude that the genus Vanilla would have appeared approximately 34 Mya in South America, when continents were already separated. Nevertheless, whatever the two extreme scenarios tested, at least three long distance migration events are needed to explain the present distribution of Vanilla species in tropical areas. These transoceanic dispersions could have occurred via transoceanic passageway such as the Rio Grande Ridge and the involvement of floating vegetation mats and migratory birds.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that sociality is associated with reduced effectiveness of selection.

    PubMed

    Settepani, Virginia; Bechsgaard, Jesper; Bilde, Trine

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of sociality in spiders is associated with female bias, reproductive skew and an inbreeding mating system, factors that cause a reduction in effective population size and increase effects of genetic drift. These factors act to decrease the effectiveness of selection, thereby increasing the fixation probability of deleterious mutations. Comparative studies of closely related species with contrasting social traits and mating systems provide the opportunity to test consequences of low effective population size on the effectiveness of selection empirically. We used phylogenetic analyses of three inbred social spider species and seven outcrossing subsocial species of the genus Stegodyphus, and compared dN/dS ratios and codon usage bias between social Inbreeding and subsocial outcrossing mating systems to assess the effectiveness of selection. The overall results do not differ significantly between the social inbreeding and outcrossing species, but suggest a tendency for lower codon usage bias and higher dN/dS ratios in the social inbreeding species compared with their outcrossing congeners. The differences in dN/dS ratio and codon usage bias between social and subsocial species are modest but consistent with theoretical expectations of reduced effectiveness of selection in species with relatively low effective population size. The modest differences are consistent with relatively recent evolution of social mating systems. Additionally, the short terminal branches and lack of speciation of the social lineages, together with low genetic diversity lend support for the transient state of permanent sociality in spiders. PMID:26843931

  15. Comparative genomic analysis of a neurotoxigenic Clostridium species using partial genome sequence: Phylogenetic analysis of a few conserved proteins involved in cellular processes and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Alam, Syed Imteyaz; Dixit, Aparna; Tomar, Arvind; Singh, Lokendra

    2010-04-01

    Clostridial organisms produce neurotoxins, which are generally regarded as the most potent toxic substances of biological origin and potential biological warfare agents. Clostridium tetani produces tetanus neurotoxin and is responsible for the fatal tetanus disease. In spite of the extensive immunization regimen, the disease is an important cause of death especially among neonates. Strains of C. tetani have not been genetically characterized except the complete genome sequencing of strain E88. The present study reports the genetic makeup and phylogenetic affiliations of an environmental strain of this bacterium with respect to C. tetani E88 and other clostridia. A shot gun library was constructed from the genomic DNA of C. tetani drde, isolated from decaying fish sample. Unique clones were sequenced and sequences compared with its closest relative C. tetani E88. A total of 275 clones were obtained and 32,457 bases of non-redundant sequence were generated. A total of 150 base changes were observed over the entire length of sequence obtained, including, additions, deletions and base substitutions. Of the total 120 ORFs detected, 48 exhibited closest similarity to E88 proteins of which three are hypothetical proteins. Eight of the ORFs exhibited similarity with hypothetical proteins from other organisms and 10 aligned with other proteins from unrelated organisms. There is an overall conservation of protein sequences among the two strains of C. tetani and. Selected ORFs involved in cellular processes and metabolism were subjected to phylogenetic analysis. PMID:19527791

  16. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the swine leukocyte antigen 3 gene from Korean native pigs.

    PubMed

    Chung, H Y; Choi, Y C; Park, H N

    2015-05-18

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships between pig breeds, compared the genetic similarity between humans and pigs, and provided basic genetic information on Korean native pigs (KNPs), using genetic variants of the swine leukocyte antigen 3 (SLA-3) gene. Primers were based on sequences from GenBank (accession Nos. AF464010 and AF464009). Polymerase chain reaction analysis amplified approximately 1727 bp of segments, which contained 1086 bp of coding regions and 641 bp of the 3'- and 5'-untranslated regions. Bacterial artificial chromosome clones of miniature pigs were used for sequencing the SLA-3 genomic region, which was 3114 bp in total length, including the coding (1086 bp) and non-coding (2028 bp) regions. Sequence analysis detected 53 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), based on a minor allele frequency greater than 0.01, which is low compared with other pig breeds, and the results suggest that there is low genetic variability in KNPs. Comparative analysis revealed that humans possess approximately three times more genetic variation than do pigs. Approximately 71% of SNPs in exons 2 and 3 were detected in KNPs, and exon 5 in humans is a highly polymorphic region. Newly identified sequences of SLA-3 using KNPs were submitted to GenBank (accession No. DQ992512-18). Cluster analysis revealed that KNPs were grouped according to three major alleles: SLA-3*0502 (DQ992518), SLA-3*0302 (DQ992513 and DQ992516), and SLA-3*0303 (DQ992512, DQ992514, DQ992515, and DQ992517). Alignments revealed that humans have a relatively close genetic relationship with pigs and chimpanzees. The information provided by this study may be useful in KNP management.

  17. Computational identification and phylogenetic analysis of the oil-body structural proteins, oleosin and caleosin, in castor bean and flax.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Kumar, Dhinesh; Cho, Young-Yeol; Hyun, Hae-Nam; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2013-02-25

    Oil bodies (OBs) are the intracellular particles derived from oilseeds. These OBs store lipids as a carbon resource, and have been exploited for a variety of industrial applications including biofuels. Oleosin and caleosin are the common OB structural proteins which are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and OB-based pharmaceutical formations via stabilizing OBs. Although the draft whole genome sequence information for Ricinus communis L. (castor bean) and Linum usitatissimum L. (flax), important oil seed plants, is available in public database, OB-structural proteins in these plants are poorly indentified. Therefore, in this study, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis including analysis of the genome sequence, conserved domains and phylogenetic relationships to identify OB structural proteins in castor bean and flax genomes. Using comprehensive analysis, we have identified 6 and 15 OB-structural proteins from castor bean and flax, respectively. A complete overview of this gene family in castor bean and flax is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny and conserved motifs, resulting in the presence of central hydrophobic regions with proline knot motif, providing an evolutionary proof that this central hydrophobic region had evolved from duplications in the primitive eukaryotes. In addition, expression analysis of L-oleosin and caleosin genes using quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that seed contained their maximum expression, except that RcCLO-1 expressed maximum in cotyledon. Thus, our comparative genomics analysis of oleosin and caleosin genes and their putatively encoded proteins in two non-model plant species provides insights into the prospective usage of gene resources for improving OB-stability.

  18. Additive interaction in survival analysis: use of the additive hazards model.

    PubMed

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise; Marott, Jacob Louis; Diderichsen, Finn

    2012-09-01

    It is a widely held belief in public health and clinical decision-making that interventions or preventive strategies should be aimed at patients or population subgroups where most cases could potentially be prevented. To identify such subgroups, deviation from additivity of absolute effects is the relevant measure of interest. Multiplicative survival models, such as the Cox proportional hazards model, are often used to estimate the association between exposure and risk of disease in prospective studies. In Cox models, deviations from additivity have usually been assessed by surrogate measures of additive interaction derived from multiplicative models-an approach that is both counter-intuitive and sometimes invalid. This paper presents a straightforward and intuitive way of assessing deviation from additivity of effects in survival analysis by use of the additive hazards model. The model directly estimates the absolute size of the deviation from additivity and provides confidence intervals. In addition, the model can accommodate both continuous and categorical exposures and models both exposures and potential confounders on the same underlying scale. To illustrate the approach, we present an empirical example of interaction between education and smoking on risk of lung cancer. We argue that deviations from additivity of effects are important for public health interventions and clinical decision-making, and such estimations should be encouraged in prospective studies on health. A detailed implementation guide of the additive hazards model is provided in the appendix.

  19. Phylogenetic sequence analysis, recombinant expression, and tissue distribution of a channel catfish estrogen receptor beta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, Zhenfang; Gale, William L.; Chang, Xiaotian; Langenau, David; Patino, Reynaldo; Maule, Alec G.; Densmore, Llewellyn D.

    2000-01-01

    An estrogen receptor β (ERβ) cDNA fragment was amplified by RT-PCR of total RNAextracted from liver and ovary of immature channel catfish. This cDNA fragment was used to screen an ovarian cDNA library made from an immature female fish. A clone was obtained that contained an open reading frame encoding a 575-amino-acid protein with a deduced molecular weight of 63.9 kDa. Maximum parsimony and Neighbor Joining analyses were used to generate a phylogenetic classification of channel catfish ERβ on the basis of 25 full-length teleost and tetrapod ER sequences. The consensus tree obtained indicated the existence of two major vertebrate ER subtypes, α and β. Within each subtype, and in accordance with established phylogenetic relationships, teleost and tetrapod ER were monophyletic confirming the results of a previous analysis (Z. Xiaet al., 1999, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 113, 360–368). Extracts of COS-7 cells transfectedwith channel catfish ERβ cDNA bound estrogen with high affinity (Kd = 0.21 nM) and specificity. The affinity of channel catfish ERβ for estrogen was higher than previously reported for channel catfish ERα. As determined by qualitative RT-PCR, the tissue distributions of ERα and ERβ were similar but not identical. Both ER subtypes were present in ovary and testis. ERα was found in all other tissues examined from juvenile and mature fish of both sexes. ERβ was also found in most tissues except, in most cases, whole blood and head kidney. Interestingly, the pattern of expression of ER subtypes in head kidney always corresponded to the pattern in whole blood. In conclusion, we isolated a channel catfish ERβ with ligand-binding affinity and tissue expression patterns different from ERα. Also, we confirmed the validity of our previously proposed general classification scheme for vertebrate ER into α and β subtypes and within each subtype, into teleost and tetrapod clades.

  20. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Rhizobium sullae isolated from Algerian Hedysarum flexuosum.

    PubMed

    Aliliche, Khadidja; Beghalem, Hamida; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Chriki, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Isolates from root nodules of Hedysarum flexuosum, sampled from north region of Algeria, were analyzed on the basis of their phenotypic and molecular characteristics. They were tested for their tolerance to NaCl, pH, temperatures, antibiotics and heavy metals resistance. Interestingly, the isolate Hf_04N appeared resistant to ZnCl2 (50 μg/mL) and grew at high saline concentration up to 9 %. The phylogenetic positions of five isolates were studied by comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA, recA, nifH and nodD genes. There were grouped close to the Rhizobium sullae type strain in relation to their 16S rRNA, recA and nifH genes-based phylogenies. By contrast, the tree of nodD gene was not congruent with ribosomal, housekeeping and nitrogen fixation genes. We suggest that our strains have a novel nodD gene. The detection of conserved domains of NodD protein and nitrogenase reductase enzyme, confirm their ability to nodulate and fix nitrogen.

  1. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Rhizobium sullae isolated from Algerian Hedysarum flexuosum.

    PubMed

    Aliliche, Khadidja; Beghalem, Hamida; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Chriki, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Isolates from root nodules of Hedysarum flexuosum, sampled from north region of Algeria, were analyzed on the basis of their phenotypic and molecular characteristics. They were tested for their tolerance to NaCl, pH, temperatures, antibiotics and heavy metals resistance. Interestingly, the isolate Hf_04N appeared resistant to ZnCl2 (50 μg/mL) and grew at high saline concentration up to 9 %. The phylogenetic positions of five isolates were studied by comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA, recA, nifH and nodD genes. There were grouped close to the Rhizobium sullae type strain in relation to their 16S rRNA, recA and nifH genes-based phylogenies. By contrast, the tree of nodD gene was not congruent with ribosomal, housekeeping and nitrogen fixation genes. We suggest that our strains have a novel nodD gene. The detection of conserved domains of NodD protein and nitrogenase reductase enzyme, confirm their ability to nodulate and fix nitrogen. PMID:27034287

  2. Identification, molecular and phylogenetic analysis of poxvirus in skin lesions of southern right whale.

    PubMed

    Fiorito, Carla; Palacios, Carlos; Golemba, Marcelo; Bratanich, Ana; Argüelles, Maria Belen; Fazio, Ana; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Lombardo, Daniel

    2015-10-16

    Poxvirus skin disease has been reported in several species of cetaceans, principally in odontocetes, and a single report in mysticetes. Southern right whales Eubalaena australis in Peninsula Valdes, Argentina, show a variety of skin lesions of unknown etiology, and the number of these lesions has increased in recent years. Samples from dead whales were taken in order to establish the etiology of these lesions. One calf and one adult presented ring-type lesions, characterized by a circumscribed and slightly raised area of skin. Lesions were histologically characterized by the presence of microvesicles and vacuolated cells in the stratum spinosum, along with hyperplasia of the stratum corneum and eosinophilic inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells. Transmission electron microscopy showed aggregations of virions with typical poxvirus morphology. PCR of cetacean poxvirus (CPV) DNA polymerase, DNA topoisomerase I and parapoxvirus DNA polymerase gene fragments was done, and confirmed the presence of poxvirus in one sample. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the detected poxvirus belongs to the CPV-2 group. This is the first confirmed report of poxvirus in southern right whales in Argentina.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of rubella viruses identified in Uganda, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Namuwulya, Prossy; Abernathy, Emily; Bukenya, Henry; Bwogi, Josephine; Tushabe, Phionah; Birungi, Molly; Seguya, Ronald; Kabaliisa, Theopista; Alibu, Vincent P; Kayondo, Jonathan K; Rivailler, Pierre; Icenogle, Joseph; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas

    2014-12-01

    Molecular data on rubella viruses are limited in Uganda despite the importance of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Routine rubella vaccination, while not administered currently in Uganda, is expected to begin by 2015. The World Health Organization recommends that countries without rubella vaccination programs assess the burden of rubella and CRS before starting a routine vaccination program. Uganda is already involved in integrated case-based surveillance, including laboratory testing to confirm measles and rubella, but molecular epidemiologic aspects of rubella circulation have so far not been documented in Uganda. Twenty throat swab or oral fluid samples collected from 12 districts during routine rash and fever surveillance between 2003 and 2012 were identified as rubella virus RNA positive and PCR products encompassing the region used for genotyping were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the 20 sequences identified 19 genotype 1G viruses and 1 genotype 1E virus. Genotype-specific trees showed that the Uganda viruses belonged to specific clusters for both genotypes 1G and 1E and grouped with similar sequences from neighboring countries. Genotype 1G was predominant in Uganda. More epidemiological and molecular epidemiological data are required to determine if genotype 1E is also endemic in Uganda. The information obtained in this study will assist the immunization program in monitoring changes in circulating genotypes.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of Epicauta chinensis (Coleoptera: Meloidae) and phylogenetic analysis among Coleopteran insects.

    PubMed

    Du, Chao; He, Shilin; Song, Xuhao; Liao, Qi; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong

    2016-03-10

    The blister beetle is an important resource insect due to its defensive substance cantharidin, which was widely used in pharmacology and plant protection. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Epicauta chinensis Laporte (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidae: Meloidae). The circular genome is 15,717 bp long, encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs and 22 tRNAs and containing a A+T-rich region with gene arrangement identical to other Coleopteran species. Twelve PCGs start with typical ATN codon, while ATP8 gene initiate with GTT for first report in Insecta. All PCGs terminate with conventional stop codon TAA or TAG. All tRNAs in E. chinensis are predicted to fold into typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except tRNA-Ser(AGN), in which the dihydrouracil arm (DHU arm) could not form stable stem-loop structure. The secondary structure of lrRNA and srRNA comprises 48 helices and 32 helices respectively. The 1101 bp A+T-rich region contains a 15 bp poly-T stretch and microsatellite-like repeats rather than large tandem repetitive sequences. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 13 PCGs of 45 Coleopteran species, show that E. chinensis grouped with Tenebrionidae species. It also support the topology of (((Chrysomelidae+Curculionoidea)+(Cucujoidea+Cleroidea))+Tenebrionoidea) within Cucujiformia.

  5. HIV-1 phylogenetic analysis shows HIV-1 transits through the meninges to brain and peripheral tissues.

    PubMed

    Lamers, Susanna L; Gray, Rebecca R; Salemi, Marco; Huysentruyt, Leanne C; McGrath, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Brain infection by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been investigated in many reports with a variety of conclusions concerning the time of entry and degree of viral compartmentalization. To address these diverse findings, we sequenced HIV-1 gp120 clones from a wide range of brain, peripheral and meningeal tissues from five patients who died from several HIV-1 associated disease pathologies. High-resolution phylogenetic analysis confirmed previous studies that showed a significant degree of compartmentalization in brain and peripheral tissue subpopulations. Some intermixing between the HIV-1 subpopulations was evident, especially in patients that died from pathologies other than HIV-associated dementia. Interestingly, the major tissue harboring virus from both the brain and peripheral tissues was the meninges. These results show that (1) HIV-1 is clearly capable of migrating out of the brain, (2) the meninges are the most likely primary transport tissues, and (3) infected brain macrophages comprise an important HIV reservoir during highly active antiretroviral therapy.

  6. Predicting MicroRNA Biomarkers for Cancer Using Phylogenetic Tree and Microarray Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiuying

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are shown to be involved in the initiation and progression of cancers in the literature, and the expression of miRNAs is used as an important cancer prognostic tool. The aim of this study is to predict high-confidence miRNA biomarkers for cancer. We adopt a method that combines miRNA phylogenetic structure and miRNA microarray data analysis to discover high-confidence miRNA biomarkers for colon, prostate, pancreatic, lung, breast, bladder and kidney cancers. There are 53 miRNAs selected through this method that either have potential to involve a single cancer's development or to involve several cancers' development. These miRNAs can be used as high-confidence miRNA biomarkers of these seven investigated cancers for further experiment validation. miR-17, miR-20, miR-106a, miR-106b, miR-92, miR-25, miR-16, miR-195 and miR-143 are selected to involve a single cancer's development in these seven cancers. They have the potential to be useful miRNA biomarkers when the result can be confirmed by experiments. PMID:27213352

  7. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of a novel parvovirus isolated from chickens in Guangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bin; Xie, Zhixun; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Liji; Xie, Zhiqin; Huang, Li; Fan, Qin; Luo, Sisi; Huang, Jiaoling; Zhang, Yanfang; Zeng, Tingting; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Leyi

    2016-11-01

    A previously unidentified chicken parvovirus (ChPV) strain, associated with runting-stunting syndrome (RSS), is now endemic among chickens in China. To explore the genetic diversity of ChPV strains, we determined the first complete genome sequence of a novel ChPV isolate (GX-CH-PV-7) identified in chickens in Guang Xi, China, and showed moderate genome sequence similarity to reference strains. Analysis showed that the viral genome sequence is 86.4 %-93.9 % identical to those of other ChPVs. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses showed that this newly emergent GX-CH-PV-7 is closely related to Gallus gallus enteric parvovirus isolate ChPV 798 from the USA, indicating that they may share a common ancestor. The complete DNA sequence is 4612 bp long with an A+T content of 56.66 %. We determined the first complete genome sequence of a previously unidentified ChPV strain to elucidate its origin and evolutionary status. PMID:27503240

  8. The phylogenetic and recombinational analysis of beak and feather disease virus Taiwan isolates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shr-Wei; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Chin, Chien-Yu; Tang, Pin-Chi; Liu, Pan-Chen; Wang, Chi-Young

    2016-11-01

    Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) is an avian circovirus, and it has a single-stranded DNA genome. It causes a fatal disease in parrots called psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD). After screening of samples collected from Taiwan using PCR, complete genome sequences of isolates from 21 samples from various species of parrot were obtained. The nucleotide sequences of the replication-associated protein gene (rep) and the amino acid sequences of the replication-associated protein (Rep) were more conserved than the nucleotide sequences of the capsid protein gene (cp) and the amino acid sequences of the capsid protein (CP). In Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, the topology of the complete genome sequence was similar to that of the rep gene alone. Recombination events were identified in Taiwan isolates. Recombination hot spots were mainly located in the intergenic region between the 3' ends of the rep and cp genes and at the 5' end of the cp gene. The 5' end and the middle of the rep gene were found to be recombination cold spots. Despite the overall negative selection that was observed for the rep and cp genes, one and 18 positive selected sites were found for the rep and cp gene, respectively. PMID:27388370

  9. Integration of Morphological Data into Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis: Toward the Identikit of the Stylasterid Ancestor.

    PubMed

    Puce, Stefania; Pica, Daniela; Schiaparelli, Stefano; Negrisolo, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Stylasteridae is a hydroid family including 29 worldwide-distributed genera, all provided with a calcareous skeleton. They are abundant in shallow and deep waters and represent an important component of marine communities. In the present paper, we studied the evolution of ten morphological characters, currently used in stylasterid taxonomy, using a phylogenetic approach. Our results indicate that stylasterid morphology is highly plastic and that many events of independent evolution and reversion have occurred. Our analysis also allows sketching a possible identikit of the stylasterid ancestor. It had calcareous skeleton, reticulate-granular coenosteal texture, polyps randomly arranged, gastrostyle, and dactylopore spines, while lacking a gastropore lip and dactylostyles. If the ancestor had single or double/multiple chambered gastropore tube is uncertain. These data suggest that the ancestor was similar to the extant genera Cyclohelia and Stellapora. Our investigation is the first attempt to integrate molecular and morphological information to clarify the stylasterid evolutionary scenario and represents the first step to infer the stylasterid ancestor morphology. PMID:27537333

  10. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola gigantica from western Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kei; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Allamanda, Puttik; Wibowo, Putut Eko; Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Sodirun; Guswanto, Azirwan; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-10-01

    Fasciola gigantica and aspermic (hybrid) Fasciola flukes are thought to be distributed in Southeast Asian countries. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of these flukes from unidentified ruminants in western Java, Indonesia, and to determine their distribution history into the area. Sixty Fasciola flukes from western Java were identified as F. gigantica based on the nucleotide sequences of the nuclear phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold) genes. The flukes were then analyzed phylogenetically based on the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene, together with Fasciola flukes from other Asian countries. All but one F. gigantica fluke were classified in F. gigantica haplogroup C, which mainly contains nad1 haplotypes detected in flukes from Thailand, Vietnam, and China. A population genetic analysis suggested that haplogroup C spread from Thailand to the neighboring countries including Indonesia together with domestic ruminants, such as the swamp buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. The swamp buffalo is one of the important definitive hosts of Fasciola flukes in Indonesia, and is considered to have been domesticated in the north of Thailand. The remaining one fluke displayed a novel nad1 haplotype that has never been detected in the reference countries. Therefore, the origin of the fluke could not be established. No hybrid Fasciola flukes were detected in this study, in contrast to neighboring Asian countries. PMID:27266482

  11. Predicting MicroRNA Biomarkers for Cancer Using Phylogenetic Tree and Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsiuying

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are shown to be involved in the initiation and progression of cancers in the literature, and the expression of miRNAs is used as an important cancer prognostic tool. The aim of this study is to predict high-confidence miRNA biomarkers for cancer. We adopt a method that combines miRNA phylogenetic structure and miRNA microarray data analysis to discover high-confidence miRNA biomarkers for colon, prostate, pancreatic, lung, breast, bladder and kidney cancers. There are 53 miRNAs selected through this method that either have potential to involve a single cancer’s development or to involve several cancers’ development. These miRNAs can be used as high-confidence miRNA biomarkers of these seven investigated cancers for further experiment validation. miR-17, miR-20, miR-106a, miR-106b, miR-92, miR-25, miR-16, miR-195 and miR-143 are selected to involve a single cancer’s development in these seven cancers. They have the potential to be useful miRNA biomarkers when the result can be confirmed by experiments. PMID:27213352

  12. Genomic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Zika virus circulating in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qing; Liu, Zhong-Yu; Han, Jian-Feng; Jiang, Tao; Li, Xiao-Feng; Qin, Cheng-Feng

    2016-09-01

    The rapid spread and potential link with birth defects have made Zika virus (ZIKV) a global public health problem. The virus was discovered 70years ago, yet the knowledge about its genomic structure and the genetic variations associated with current ZIKV explosive epidemics remains not fully understood. In this review, the genome organization, especially conserved terminal structures of ZIKV genome were characterized and compared with other mosquito-borne flaviviruses. It is suggested that major viral proteins of ZIKV share high structural and functional similarity with other known flaviviruses as shown by sequence comparison and prediction of functional motifs in viral proteins. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all ZIKV strains circulating in the America form a unique clade within the Asian lineage. Furthermore, we identified a series of conserved amino acid residues that differentiate the Asian strains including the current circulating American strains from the ancient African strains. Overall, our findings provide an overview of ZIKV genome characterization and evolutionary dynamics in the Americas and point out critical clues for future virological and epidemiological studies. PMID:27156653

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of rubella viruses identified in Uganda, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Namuwulya, Prossy; Abernathy, Emily; Bukenya, Henry; Bwogi, Josephine; Tushabe, Phionah; Birungi, Molly; Seguya, Ronald; Kabaliisa, Theopista; Alibu, Vincent P; Kayondo, Jonathan K; Rivailler, Pierre; Icenogle, Joseph; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas

    2014-12-01

    Molecular data on rubella viruses are limited in Uganda despite the importance of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Routine rubella vaccination, while not administered currently in Uganda, is expected to begin by 2015. The World Health Organization recommends that countries without rubella vaccination programs assess the burden of rubella and CRS before starting a routine vaccination program. Uganda is already involved in integrated case-based surveillance, including laboratory testing to confirm measles and rubella, but molecular epidemiologic aspects of rubella circulation have so far not been documented in Uganda. Twenty throat swab or oral fluid samples collected from 12 districts during routine rash and fever surveillance between 2003 and 2012 were identified as rubella virus RNA positive and PCR products encompassing the region used for genotyping were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the 20 sequences identified 19 genotype 1G viruses and 1 genotype 1E virus. Genotype-specific trees showed that the Uganda viruses belonged to specific clusters for both genotypes 1G and 1E and grouped with similar sequences from neighboring countries. Genotype 1G was predominant in Uganda. More epidemiological and molecular epidemiological data are required to determine if genotype 1E is also endemic in Uganda. The information obtained in this study will assist the immunization program in monitoring changes in circulating genotypes. PMID:24700073

  14. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analysis of Taiwan Blue Pheasant (Lophura swinhoii).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lichun; Wang, Gaochao; Peng, Rui; Peng, Quekun; Zou, Fangdong

    2014-04-10

    The Swinhoe's Pheasant (Lophura swinhoii) is an endemic and most endangered species to Taiwan, China. It belongs to the genus Lophura, family Phasianidae. To further investigate the evolutionary history of L. swinhoii, we determined its complete mitochondrial genome and reconstructed a single, robust phylogenetic tree. Our results showed that L. swinhoii is clustered with Lophura nycthemera and forms a sister group of Lophura ignita. The genus Lophura is strongly supported as the sister taxon of the genus Crossoptilon. The molecular clock analysis showed that the genetic divergence of L. swinhoii occurred in 2.71 (1.31-4.22) Mya. The most common ancestor of L. swinhoii might have migrated from mainland of South East Asia to Taiwan Island by the land bridge at 2.71 Mya ago. Taiwan Island is separated from the mainland by the sea (Taiwan Strait) and formed a separate island at around 2.5 Mya because of the transgression and regression. Therefore, geographical isolation and climate change may accelerate the evolution of L. swinhoii. In this study, we propose a biogeographic hypothesis for speciation of the L. swinhoii based on known events of the geographic and geological history of South East Asia and southeast China, which would benefit the understanding of evolutionary history of L. swinhoii as well as other galliform birds.

  15. Molecular Techniques for Detection, Species Differentiation, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Microsporidia

    PubMed Central

    Franzen, Caspar; Müller, Andreas

    1999-01-01

    Microsporidia are obligate intracellular protozoan parasites that infect a broad range of vertebrates and invertebrates. These parasites are now recognized as one of the most common pathogens in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. For most patients with infectious diseases, microbiological isolation and identification techniques offer the most rapid and specific determination of the etiologic agent. This is not a suitable procedure for microsporidia, which are obligate intracellular parasites requiring cell culture systems for growth. Therefore, the diagnosis of microsporidiosis currently depends on morphological demonstration of the organisms themselves. Although the diagnosis of microsporidiosis and identification of microsporidia by light microscopy have greatly improved during the last few years, species differentiation by these techniques is usually impossible and transmission electron microscopy may be necessary. Immunfluorescent-staining techniques have been developed for species differentiation of microsporidia, but the antibodies used in these procedures are available only at research laboratories at present. During the last 10 years, the detection of infectious disease agents has begun to include the use of nucleic acid-based technologies. Diagnosis of infection caused by parasitic organisms is the last field of clinical microbiology to incorporate these techniques and molecular techniques (e.g., PCR and hybridization assays) have recently been developed for the detection, species differentiation, and phylogenetic analysis of microsporidia. In this paper we review human microsporidial infections and describe and discuss these newly developed molecular techniques. PMID:10194459

  16. How did pygmy shrews colonize Ireland? Clues from a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Mascheretti, Silvia; Rogatcheva, Margarita B; Gündüz, Islam; Fredga, Karl; Searle, Jeremy B

    2003-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate as to how Ireland attained its present fauna; we help to inform this debate with a molecular study of one species. A 1110 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was sequenced in 74 specimens of the pygmy shrew, Sorex minutus, collected from throughout its western Palaearctic range. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences revealed several well-supported lineages. Most of the 65 haplotypes belonged to a northern lineage, which ranged from Britain in the west to Lake Baikal in the east. The other lineages were largely limited to Iberia, Italy and the Balkans. One exception, however, was a lineage found in both Ireland and Andorra. This affinity, and the large difference between the mitochondrial sequences of Irish and British individuals, suggest that pygmy shrews did not colonize Ireland via a land connection from Britain, as has been previously supposed, but instead were introduced by boat from southwest continental Europe. All the Irish pygmy shrews analysed were identical or very similar in cytochrome b sequence, suggesting an extreme founding event. PMID:12908980

  17. Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals the Global Migration of Seasonal Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Martha I; Simonsen, Lone; Viboud, Cecile; Miller, Mark A; Holmes, Edward C

    2007-01-01

    The winter seasonality of influenza A virus in temperate climates is one of the most widely recognized, yet least understood, epidemiological patterns in infectious disease. Central to understanding what drives the seasonal emergence of this important human pathogen is determining what becomes of the virus during the non-epidemic summer months. Herein, we take a step towards elucidating the seasonal emergence of influenza virus by determining the evolutionary relationship between populations of influenza A virus sampled from opposite hemispheres. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 487 complete genomes of human influenza A/H3N2 viruses collected between 1999 and 2005 from Australia and New Zealand in the southern hemisphere, and a representative sub-sample of viral genome sequences from 413 isolates collected in New York state, United States, representing the northern hemisphere. We show that even in areas as relatively geographically isolated as New Zealand's South Island and Western Australia, global viral migration contributes significantly to the seasonal emergence of influenza A epidemics, and that this migration has no clear directional pattern. These observations run counter to suggestions that local epidemics are triggered by the climate-driven reactivation of influenza viruses that remain latent within hosts between seasons or transmit at low efficiency between seasons. However, a complete understanding of the seasonal movements of influenza A virus will require greatly expanded global surveillance, particularly of tropical regions where the virus circulates year-round, and during non-epidemic periods in temperate climate areas. PMID:17941707

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of kindlins suggests subfunctionalization of an ancestral unduplicated kindlin into three paralogs in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ammad Aslam; Janke, Axel; Shimokawa, Takashi; Zhang, Hongquan

    2011-01-01

    Kindlin proteins represent a newly discovered family of evolutionarily conserved FERM domain-containing proteins. This family includes three highly conserved proteins: Kindlin-1, Kindlin-2 and Kindlin-3. All three Kindlin proteins are associated with focal adhesions and are involved in integrin activation. The FERM domain of each Kindlin is bipartite and plays a key role in integrin activation. We herein explore for the first time the evolutionary history of these proteins. The phylogeny of the Kindlins suggests a single ancestral Kindlin protein present in even the earliest metazoan ie, hydra. This protein then underwent duplication events in insects and also experienced genome duplication in vertebrates, leading to the Kindlin family. A comparative study of the Kindlin paralogs showed that Kindlin-2 is the slowest evolving protein among the three family members. The analysis of synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions in orthologous Kindlin sequences in different species showed that all three Kindlins have been evolving under the influence of purifying selection. The expression pattern of Kindlins along with phylogenetic studies supports the subfunctionalization model of gene duplication.

  19. Integration of Morphological Data into Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis: Toward the Identikit of the Stylasterid Ancestor

    PubMed Central

    Puce, Stefania; Pica, Daniela; Schiaparelli, Stefano; Negrisolo, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Stylasteridae is a hydroid family including 29 worldwide-distributed genera, all provided with a calcareous skeleton. They are abundant in shallow and deep waters and represent an important component of marine communities. In the present paper, we studied the evolution of ten morphological characters, currently used in stylasterid taxonomy, using a phylogenetic approach. Our results indicate that stylasterid morphology is highly plastic and that many events of independent evolution and reversion have occurred. Our analysis also allows sketching a possible identikit of the stylasterid ancestor. It had calcareous skeleton, reticulate-granular coenosteal texture, polyps randomly arranged, gastrostyle, and dactylopore spines, while lacking a gastropore lip and dactylostyles. If the ancestor had single or double/multiple chambered gastropore tube is uncertain. These data suggest that the ancestor was similar to the extant genera Cyclohelia and Stellapora. Our investigation is the first attempt to integrate molecular and morphological information to clarify the stylasterid evolutionary scenario and represents the first step to infer the stylasterid ancestor morphology. PMID:27537333

  20. Nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of a new potexvirus: Malva mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Côté, Fabien; Paré, Christine; Majeau, Nathalie; Bolduc, Marilène; Leblanc, Eric; Bergeron, Michel G; Bernardy, Michael G; Leclerc, Denis

    2008-01-01

    A filamentous virus isolated from Malva neglecta Wallr. (common mallow) and propagated in Chenopodium quinoa was grown, cloned and the complete nucleotide sequence was determined (GenBank accession # DQ660333). The genomic RNA is 6858 nt in length and contains five major open reading frames (ORFs). The genomic organization is similar to members and the viral encoded proteins shared homology with the group of the Potexvirus genus in the Flexiviridae family. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship with narcissus mosaic virus (NMV), scallion virus X (ScaVX) and, to a lesser extent, to Alstroemeria virus X (AlsVX) and pepino mosaic virus (PepMV). A novel putative pseudoknot structure is predicted in the 3'-UTR of a subgroup of potexviruses, including this newly described virus. The consensus GAAAA sequence is detected at the 5'-end of the genomic RNA and experimental data strongly suggest that this motif could be a distinctive hallmark of this genus. The name Malva mosaic virus is proposed. PMID:18054524

  1. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS AND AUTECOLOGY OF SPORE-FORMING BACTERIA FROM HYPERSALINE ENVIRONMENTS.

    PubMed

    Gladka, G V; Romanovskaya, V A; Tashyreva, H O; Tashyrev, O B

    2015-01-01

    Multi-resistant to extreme factors spore-forming bacteria of Bacillus genus are isolated from hypersaline environments of the Crimea (Ukraine) and the Dead Sea (Israel). Phylogenetic analysis showed distinction of dominating extremophilic culturable species in studied regions. In Crimean environments they are B. mojavensis and B. simplex, in the Dead Sea ecosystem--B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii, B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. simplex. Isolates are simultaneously halotolerant and resistant to UV radiation. Strains isolated from the Dead Sea and the Crimea environments were resistant to UV: LD90 and LD99.99 made 100-170 J/m2 and 750-1500 J/m2 respectively. Spores showed higher UV-resistance (LD99.99-2500 J/m2) than the vegetative cells. However the number of spores made 0.02-0.007% of the whole cell population, and should not significantly affect the UV LD99.99 value. Isolates of both environments were halotolerant in the range of 0.1-10% NaCl and thermotolerant in the range of 20-50 °C, and didn't grow at 15 °C. Survival strategy of spore-forming bacteria from hypersaline environments under high UV radiation level can be performed by spore formation which minimize cell damage as well as efficient DNA-repair systems that remove damages. PMID:26829837

  2. New gammaproteobacteria associated with blood-feeding leeches and a broad phylogenetic analysis of leech endosymbionts.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Susan L; Budinoff, Rebecca B; Siddall, Mark E

    2005-09-01

    Many monophagous animals have coevolutionary relationships with bacteria that provide unavailable nutrients to the host. Frequently, these microbial partners are vertically inherited and reside in specialized structures or tissues. Here we report three new lineages of bacterial symbionts of blood-feeding leeches, one from the giant Amazonian leech, Haementeria ghilianii, and two others from Placobdelloides species. These hosts each possess a different mycetome or esophageal organ morphology where the bacterial cells are located. DNA sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes and fluorescent in situ hybridization placed these symbionts in two separate clades in the class Gammaproteobacteria. We also conducted a broad phylogenetic analysis of the herein-reported DNA sequences as well as others from bacterial symbionts reported elsewhere in the literature, including alphaproteobacterial symbionts from the leech genus Placobdella as well as Aeromonas veronii from the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, and a Rickettsia sp. detected in Hemiclepsis marginata. Combined, these results indicate that blood-feeding leeches have forged bacterial partnerships at least five times during their evolutionary history.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of canine parvovirus isolates from Sichuan and Gansu provinces of China in 2011.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Guo, H-C; Wei, Y-Q; Shu, L; Wang, J; Li, J-S; Cao, S-Z; Sun, S-Q

    2015-02-01

    Canine parvovirus causes serious disease in dogs. Study of the genetic variation in emerging CPV strains is important for disease control strategy. The antigenic property of CPV is connected with specific amino acid changes, mainly in the capsid protein VP2. This study was carried out to characterize VP2 gene of CPV viruses from two provinces of China in 2011. The complete VP2 genes of the CPV-positive samples were amplified and sequenced. Genetic analysis based on the VP2 genes of CPV was conducted. All of the isolates screened and sequenced in this study were typed as CPV-2a except GS-K11 strain, which was typed as CPV-2b. Sequence comparison showed nucleotide identities of 98.8-100% among CPV strains, whereas the Aa similarities were 99.6-100%. Compared with the reference strains, there are three distinctive amino acid changes at VP2 gene residue 267, 324 and 440 of the strains isolated in this study. Of the 27 strains, fourteen (51.85%) had the 267 (Phe-Tyr) and 440 (Thr-Ala) substitution, all the 27 (100%) had 324 (Tyr-Ile) substitution. Phylogenetically, all of the strains isolated in this study formed a major monophyletic cluster together with one South Korean isolate, two Thailand isolates and four Chinese former isolates.

  4. Genomic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Zika virus circulating in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qing; Liu, Zhong-Yu; Han, Jian-Feng; Jiang, Tao; Li, Xiao-Feng; Qin, Cheng-Feng

    2016-09-01

    The rapid spread and potential link with birth defects have made Zika virus (ZIKV) a global public health problem. The virus was discovered 70years ago, yet the knowledge about its genomic structure and the genetic variations associated with current ZIKV explosive epidemics remains not fully understood. In this review, the genome organization, especially conserved terminal structures of ZIKV genome were characterized and compared with other mosquito-borne flaviviruses. It is suggested that major viral proteins of ZIKV share high structural and functional similarity with other known flaviviruses as shown by sequence comparison and prediction of functional motifs in viral proteins. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all ZIKV strains circulating in the America form a unique clade within the Asian lineage. Furthermore, we identified a series of conserved amino acid residues that differentiate the Asian strains including the current circulating American strains from the ancient African strains. Overall, our findings provide an overview of ZIKV genome characterization and evolutionary dynamics in the Americas and point out critical clues for future virological and epidemiological studies.

  5. Phylogenetic inferences in Avena based on analysis of FL intron2 sequences.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yuan-Ying; Wei, Yu-Ming; Baum, Bernard R; Yan, Ze-Hong; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Dai, Shou-Fen; Zheng, You-Liang

    2010-09-01

    The development and application of molecular methods in oats has been relatively slow compared with other crops. Results from the previous analyses have left many questions concerning species evolutionary relationships unanswered, especially regarding the origins of the B and D genomes, which are only known to be present in polyploid oat species. To investigate the species and genome relationships in genus Avena, among 13 diploid (A and C genomes), we used the second intron of the nuclear gene FLORICAULA/LEAFY (FL int2) in seven tetraploid (AB and AC genomes), and five hexaploid (ACD genome) species. The Avena FL int2 is rather long, and high levels of variation in length and sequence composition were found. Evidence for more than one copy of the FL int2 sequence was obtained for both the A and C genome groups, and the degree of divergence of the A genome copies was greater than that observed within the C genome sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the FL int2 sequences resulted in topologies that contained four major groups; these groups reemphasize the major genomic divergence between the A and C genomes, and the close relationship among the A, B, and D genomes. However, the D genome in hexaploids more likely originated from a C genome diploid rather than the generally believed A genome, and the C genome diploid A. clauda may have played an important role in the origination of both the C and D genome in polyploids.

  6. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola gigantica from western Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kei; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Allamanda, Puttik; Wibowo, Putut Eko; Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Sodirun; Guswanto, Azirwan; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-10-01

    Fasciola gigantica and aspermic (hybrid) Fasciola flukes are thought to be distributed in Southeast Asian countries. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of these flukes from unidentified ruminants in western Java, Indonesia, and to determine their distribution history into the area. Sixty Fasciola flukes from western Java were identified as F. gigantica based on the nucleotide sequences of the nuclear phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold) genes. The flukes were then analyzed phylogenetically based on the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene, together with Fasciola flukes from other Asian countries. All but one F. gigantica fluke were classified in F. gigantica haplogroup C, which mainly contains nad1 haplotypes detected in flukes from Thailand, Vietnam, and China. A population genetic analysis suggested that haplogroup C spread from Thailand to the neighboring countries including Indonesia together with domestic ruminants, such as the swamp buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. The swamp buffalo is one of the important definitive hosts of Fasciola flukes in Indonesia, and is considered to have been domesticated in the north of Thailand. The remaining one fluke displayed a novel nad1 haplotype that has never been detected in the reference countries. Therefore, the origin of the fluke could not be established. No hybrid Fasciola flukes were detected in this study, in contrast to neighboring Asian countries.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Epicauta chinensis (Coleoptera: Meloidae) and phylogenetic analysis among Coleopteran insects.

    PubMed

    Du, Chao; He, Shilin; Song, Xuhao; Liao, Qi; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong

    2016-03-10

    The blister beetle is an important resource insect due to its defensive substance cantharidin, which was widely used in pharmacology and plant protection. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Epicauta chinensis Laporte (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidae: Meloidae). The circular genome is 15,717 bp long, encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs and 22 tRNAs and containing a A+T-rich region with gene arrangement identical to other Coleopteran species. Twelve PCGs start with typical ATN codon, while ATP8 gene initiate with GTT for first report in Insecta. All PCGs terminate with conventional stop codon TAA or TAG. All tRNAs in E. chinensis are predicted to fold into typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except tRNA-Ser(AGN), in which the dihydrouracil arm (DHU arm) could not form stable stem-loop structure. The secondary structure of lrRNA and srRNA comprises 48 helices and 32 helices respectively. The 1101 bp A+T-rich region contains a 15 bp poly-T stretch and microsatellite-like repeats rather than large tandem repetitive sequences. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 13 PCGs of 45 Coleopteran species, show that E. chinensis grouped with Tenebrionidae species. It also support the topology of (((Chrysomelidae+Curculionoidea)+(Cucujoidea+Cleroidea))+Tenebrionoidea) within Cucujiformia. PMID:26707213

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial populations in waters of the former Texcoco Lake, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Jan-Roblero, Janet; Magos, Xochitl; Fernández, Luis; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Le Borgne, Sylvie

    2004-12-01

    Molecular techniques were used to compare the compositions of the bacterial communities of the 2 following lagoons from the former soda Texcoco Lake, Mexico: the restored Facultativa lagoon and the Nabor Carrillo lagoon. Ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) revealed that bacterial communities of the 2 lagoons were different and presented a relatively low diversity. Clone libraries of 16S rDNA genes were constructed, and significant phylotypes were distinguished by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). A representative clone from each phylotype was partially sequenced. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analyses based on ribosomal sequences revealed that the Facultativa lagoon harbored mainly gamma- and beta-Proteobacteria, low G+C Gram-positive bacteria, and several members of the Halobacteriaceae family of archaea. The Nabor Carrillo lagoon mainly included typical halophilic and alkaliphilic low G+C Gram-positive bacteria, gamma-Proteobacteria, and beta-Proteobacteria similar to those found in other soda lakes. Several probably noncultured new bacterial species were detected. Three strains were isolated from the Nabor Carrillo lagoon, their partial 16S rDNA sequences were obtained. On this basis, they were identified as Halomonas magadiensis (H1), Halomonas eurihalina (H2), and Staphylococcus sciuri (H3). This is the first study that uses molecular techniques to investigate potential genetic diversity in the Texcoco lakes. In this preliminary evaluation, we infer the presence of alkalophilic, halophilic, or haloalkaliphilic bacteria potentially useful for biotechnology.

  9. Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) cathemerium gene sequences for phylogenetic analysis of malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Wiersch, S C; Maier, W A; Kampen, H

    2005-05-01

    The DNA sequence information on avian malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium is quite limited. At present, sequences of only 6 out of 34 valid species are available. However, sequence data of avian malaria parasites are particularly important with regard to the resolution of the phylogenetic relationships of the most virulent human malaria agent, Plasmodium falciparum. The question as to whether P. falciparum originates from avian or from mammalian parasites would contribute to our understanding of its biology and would probably facilitate the interpretation of experimental results. To add to the body of molecular data, we sequenced three genes (cytochrome b, 18 SSU rRNA, caseinolytic protease C) of different organellar origin of one of the most widespread avian malaria parasites, Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) cathemerium, which once used to be an important laboratory in vivo model in human malaria research. The analysis of the new P. cathemerium sequences in direct comparison with the rodent parasite P. berghei and the four human malaria parasites by pairwise distance calculation do not suggest a closer relationship of P. cathemerium to P. falciparum than to the other species involved.

  10. A phylogenetic analysis of sleep architecture in mammals: the integration of anatomy, physiology, and ecology.

    PubMed

    Lesku, John A; Roth, Timothy C; Amlaner, Charles J; Lima, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    Among mammalian species, the time spent in the two main "architectural" states of sleep--slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep--varies greatly. Previous comparative studies of sleep architecture found that larger mammals, those with bigger brains, and those with higher absolute basal metabolic rates (BMR) tended to engage in less SWS and REM sleep. Species experiencing a greater risk of predation also exhibited less SWS and REM sleep. In all cases, however, these studies lacked a formal phylogenetic and theoretical framework and used mainly correlational analyses. Using independent contrasts and an updated data set, we extended existing approaches with path analysis to examine the integrated influence of anatomy, physiology, and ecology on sleep architecture. Path model structure was determined by nonmutually exclusive hypotheses for the function of sleep. We found that species with higher relative BMRs engage in less SWS, whereas species with larger relative brain masses engage in more REM sleep. REM sleep was the only sleep variable strongly influenced by predation risk; mammals sleeping in riskier environments engage in less REM sleep. Overall, we found support for some hypotheses for the function of sleep, such as facilitating memory consolidation or learning, but not others, such as energy conservation.

  11. Molecular cloning, phylogenetic analysis and expression of beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) interleukin 6.

    PubMed

    St-Laurent, G; Archambault, D

    2000-01-31

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a cytokine produced primarily by the monocytes/macrophages with regulatory effects in hematopoiesis, acute phase response, and multiple aspects of the immune response. IL-6 exerts its activity through its binding to specific high affinity receptors at the surface of target cells. As yet, no molecular data have been reported for the beluga whale IL-6. In this study, we cloned and determined the entire beluga whale IL-6-encoding cDNA sequence by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) sequencing, and analysed its genetic relationship with those from several mammalian species including human, rodent, ruminant, carnivore and other marine species. The identity levels of beluga whale IL-6 nucleic and deduced amino acid sequences with those from these mammalian species ranged from 62.3 to 97.3%, and 42.9 to 95.6%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequences showed that the beluga whale IL-6 was most closely related to that of the killer whale. Thereafter, beluga whale IL-6-encoding sequence was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli by using the pTHIOHisA expression vector for the production of a recombinant fusion protein. The immunogenicity of the recombinant fusion protein was then confirmed as determined by the production of a beluga whale IL-6-specific rabbit antiserum.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of the main neutralization and hemagglutination determinants of all human adenovirus prototypes as a basis for molecular classification and taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Madisch, Ijad; Harste, Gabi; Pommer, Heidi; Heim, Albert

    2005-12-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases. The neutralization epsilon determinant (loops 1 and 2) and the hemagglutination gamma determinant are relevant for the taxonomy of HAdV. Precise type identification of HAdV prototypes is crucial for detection of infection chains and epidemiology. epsilon and gamma determinant sequences of all 51 HAdV were generated to propose molecular classification criteria. Phylogenetic analysis of epsilon determinant sequences demonstrated sufficient genetic divergence for molecular classification, with the exception of HAdV-15 and HAdV-29, which also cannot be differentiated by classical cross-neutralization. Precise sequence divergence criteria for typing (<2.5% from loop 2 prototype sequence and <2.4% from loop 1 sequence) were deduced from phylogenetic analysis. These criteria may also facilitate identification of new HAdV prototypes. Fiber knob (gamma determinant) phylogeny indicated a two-step model of species evolution and multiple intraspecies recombination events in the origin of HAdV prototypes. HAdV-29 was identified as a recombination variant of HAdV-15 (epsilon determinant) and a speculative, not-yet-isolated HAdV prototype (gamma determinant). Subanalysis of molecular evolution in hypervariable regions 1 to 6 of the epsilon determinant indicated different selective pressures in subclusters of species HAdV-D. Additionally, gamma determinant phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that HAdV-8 did not cluster with -19 and -37 in spite of their having the same tissue tropism. The phylogeny of HAdV-E4 suggested origination by interspecies recombination between HAdV-B (hexon) and HAdV-C (fiber), as in simian adenovirus 25, indicating additional zoonotic transfer. In conclusion, molecular classification by systematic sequence analysis of immunogenic determinants yields new insights into HAdV phylogeny and evolution.

  13. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Main Neutralization and Hemagglutination Determinants of All Human Adenovirus Prototypes as a Basis for Molecular Classification and Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Madisch, Ijad; Harste, Gabi; Pommer, Heidi; Heim, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases. The neutralization ɛ determinant (loops 1 and 2) and the hemagglutination γ determinant are relevant for the taxonomy of HAdV. Precise type identification of HAdV prototypes is crucial for detection of infection chains and epidemiology. ɛ and γ determinant sequences of all 51 HAdV were generated to propose molecular classification criteria. Phylogenetic analysis of ɛ determinant sequences demonstrated sufficient genetic divergence for molecular classification, with the exception of HAdV-15 and HAdV-29, which also cannot be differentiated by classical cross-neutralization. Precise sequence divergence criteria for typing (<2.5% from loop 2 prototype sequence and <2.4% from loop 1 sequence) were deduced from phylogenetic analysis. These criteria may also facilitate identification of new HAdV prototypes. Fiber knob (γ determinant) phylogeny indicated a two-step model of species evolution and multiple intraspecies recombination events in the origin of HAdV prototypes. HAdV-29 was identified as a recombination variant of HAdV-15 (ɛ determinant) and a speculative, not-yet-isolated HAdV prototype (γ determinant). Subanalysis of molecular evolution in hypervariable regions 1 to 6 of the ɛ determinant indicated different selective pressures in subclusters of species HAdV-D. Additionally, γ determinant phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that HAdV-8 did not cluster with -19 and -37 in spite of their having the same tissue tropism. The phylogeny of HAdV-E4 suggested origination by interspecies recombination between HAdV-B (hexon) and HAdV-C (fiber), as in simian adenovirus 25, indicating additional zoonotic transfer. In conclusion, molecular classification by systematic sequence analysis of immunogenic determinants yields new insights into HAdV phylogeny and evolution. PMID:16306598

  14. Phylogenetic and Comparative Sequence Analysis of Thermostable Alpha Amylases of kingdom Archea, Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Huma, Tayyaba; Maryam, Arooma; Rehman, Shahid Ur; Qamar, Muhammad Tahir Ul; Shaheen, Tayyaba; Haque, Asma; Shaheen, Bushra

    2014-01-01

    Alpha amylase family is generally defined as a group of enzymes that can hydrolyse and transglycosylase α-(1, 4) or α-(1, 6) glycosidic bonds along with the preservation of anomeric configuration. For the comparative analysis of alpha amylase family, nucleotide sequences of seven thermo stable organisms of Kingdom Archea i.e. Pyrococcus furiosus (100-105°C), Kingdom Prokaryotes i.e. Bacillus licheniformis (90-95°C), Geobacillus stearothermophilus (75°C), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (72°C), Bacillus subtilis (70°C) and Bacillus KSM K38 (55°C) and Eukaryotes i.e. Aspergillus oryzae (60°C) were selected from NCBI. Primary structure composition analysis and Conserved sequence analysis were conducted through Bio Edit tools. Results from BioEdit shown only three conserved regions of base pairs and least similarity in MSA of the above mentioned alpha amylases. In Mega 5.1 Phylogeny of thermo stable alpha amylases of Kingdom Archea, Prokaryotes and Eukaryote was handled by Neighbor-Joining (NJ) algorithm. Mega 5.1 phylogenetic results suggested that alpha amylases of thermo stable organisms i.e. Pyrococcus furiosus (100-105°C), Bacillus licheniformis (90-95°C), Geobacillus stearothermophilus (75°C) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (72°C) are more distantly related as compared to less thermo stable organisms. By keeping in mind the characteristics of most thermo stable alpha amylases novel and improved features can be introduced in less thermo stable alpha amylases so that they become more thermo tolerant and productive for industry. PMID:25187685

  15. Phylogenetic and Comparative Sequence Analysis of Thermostable Alpha Amylases of kingdom Archea, Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Huma, Tayyaba; Maryam, Arooma; Rehman, Shahid Ur; Qamar, Muhammad Tahir Ul; Shaheen, Tayyaba; Haque, Asma; Shaheen, Bushra

    2014-01-01

    Alpha amylase family is generally defined as a group of enzymes that can hydrolyse and transglycosylase α-(1, 4) or α-(1, 6) glycosidic bonds along with the preservation of anomeric configuration. For the comparative analysis of alpha amylase family, nucleotide sequences of seven thermo stable organisms of Kingdom Archea i.e. Pyrococcus furiosus (100-105°C), Kingdom Prokaryotes i.e. Bacillus licheniformis (90-95°C), Geobacillus stearothermophilus (75°C), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (72°C), Bacillus subtilis (70°C) and Bacillus KSM K38 (55°C) and Eukaryotes i.e. Aspergillus oryzae (60°C) were selected from NCBI. Primary structure composition analysis and Conserved sequence analysis were conducted through Bio Edit tools. Results from BioEdit shown only three conserved regions of base pairs and least similarity in MSA of the above mentioned alpha amylases. In Mega 5.1 Phylogeny of thermo stable alpha amylases of Kingdom Archea, Prokaryotes and Eukaryote was handled by Neighbor-Joining (NJ) algorithm. Mega 5.1 phylogenetic results suggested that alpha amylases of thermo stable organisms i.e. Pyrococcus furiosus (100-105°C), Bacillus licheniformis (90-95°C), Geobacillus stearothermophilus (75°C) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (72°C) are more distantly related as compared to less thermo stable organisms. By keeping in mind the characteristics of most thermo stable alpha amylases novel and improved features can be introduced in less thermo stable alpha amylases so that they become more thermo tolerant and productive for industry.

  16. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of termites (Isoptera) illuminates key aspects of their evolutionary biology.

    PubMed

    Inward, Daegan J G; Vogler, Alfried P; Eggleton, Paul

    2007-09-01

    The first comprehensive combined molecular and morphological phylogenetic analysis of the major groups of termites is presented. This was based on the analysis of three genes (cytochrome oxidase II, 12S and 28S) and worker characters for approximately 250 species of termites. Parsimony analysis of the aligned dataset showed that the monophyly of Hodotermitidae, Kalotermitidae and Termitidae were well supported, while Termopsidae and Rhinotermitidae were both paraphyletic on the estimated cladogram. Within Termitidae, the most diverse and ecologically most important family, the monophyly of Macrotermitinae, Foraminitermitinae, Apicotermitinae, Syntermitinae and Nasutitermitinae were all broadly supported, but Termitinae was paraphyletic. The pantropical genera Termes, Amitermes and Nasutitermes were all paraphyletic on the estimated cladogram, with at least 17 genera nested within Nasutitermes, given the presently accepted generic limits. Key biological features were mapped onto the cladogram. It was not possible to reconstruct the evolution of true workers unambiguously, as it was as parsimonious to assume a basal evolution of true workers and subsequent evolution of pseudergates, as to assume a basal condition of pseudergates and subsequent evolution of true workers. However, true workers were only found in species with either separate- or intermediate-type nests, so that the mapping of nest habit and worker type onto the cladogram were perfectly correlated. Feeding group evolution, however, showed a much more complex pattern, particularly within the Termitidae, where it proved impossible to estimate unambiguously the ancestral state within the family (which is associated with the loss of worker gut flagellates). However, one biologically plausible optimization implies an initial evolution from wood-feeding to fungus-growing, proposed as the ancestral condition within the Termitidae, followed by the very early evolution of soil-feeding and subsequent re

  17. Structural and phylogenetic analysis of the MHC class I-like Fc receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Kandil, Eman; Ishibashi, Teruo; Kasahara, Masanori

    1995-06-01

    The intestinal epithelium of neonatal mice and rats expresses an Fc receptor that mediates selective uptake of IgG in mothers`milk. This receptor (FcRn), which helps newborn animals to acquire passive immunity, is an MHC class I-like heterodimer made up of a heavy chain and {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin. In the present study, we determined the genomic structure of a mouse gene (FcRn) encoding the heavy of FcRn. The overall exon-intron organization of the Fcrn gene was similar to that of the Fcrn gene, thus providing structural evidence that Fcrn os a bona fide class I gene. The 5{prime}-flanking region of the Fcrn gene contained the binding motifs for two cytokine-inducible transcription factors, NF-IL6 and NF1. However, regulatory elements found in MHC class I genes (enhancer A, enhancer B, and the IFN response element) were absent. Phylogenetic tree analysis suggested that, like the MICA, AZGP1, and CD1 genes, the Fcrn gene diverged form MHC class I genes after the emergence of amphibians but before the split of placental and marsupial mammals. Consistent with this result, Southern blot analysis with a mouse Fcrn cDNA probe detected cross-hybridizing bands in various mammalian species and chickens. Sequence analysis of the Fcrn gene isolated from eight mouse strains showed that the membrane-distal domain of FcRn has at least three amino acid variants. The fact that Fcrn is a single copy gene indicates that it is expressed in both the neonatal intestine and the fetal yolk sac. 74 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Phylogenetic Analysis and Molecular Evolution Patterns in the MIR482-MIR1448 Polycistron of Populus L

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jia-Ping; Diao, Shu; Zhang, Bing-Yu; Niu, Bao-Qing; Wang, Qing-Ling; Wan, Xian-Chong; Luo, You-Qing

    2012-01-01

    The microRNAs (miRNAs) miR482 and miR1448 are disease resistance-related miRNAs; the former is ubiquitously distributed in seed plants whereas the latter has only been reported in Populus trichocarpa. The precursor and mature sequences of poplar miR1448 are highly homologous to those of poplar miR482, and these two miRNAs are located in one transcript as a polycistron. Therefore, we hypothesized that the MIR1448 gene may have evolved from the MIR482 gene in poplar. However, the molecular evolution patterns of this process remain unclear. In this study, utilizing cloning and Blast analysis in NCBI ESTs and whole-genome shotgun contigs (WGS) dataset, we determined that the MIR482-MIR1448 polycistron is a family-specific clustered miRNA in Salicaceae. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis illustrated that MIR1448 is the product of a tandem duplication event from MIR482. Nucleotide substitution analysis revealed that both MIR482 and MIR1448 have more rapid evolution ratios than ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes, and that compensatory mutations that occurred in the stem region of the secondary structure were the main mechanisms that drove the evolution of these MIRNA genes. Furthermore, by comparing the substitution patterns in the miRNA-target complexes of miR482 and miR1448, we inferred that co-evolution between miRNAs and their targets was the major force that drove the “duplicated MIR482” evolve to MIR1448. We propose a novel miRNA-target pairing pattern called the “frameshift targeted mechanism” to explain the gain of target genes by miR1448. The results also imply that the major role of miR482 was in resistance to disease or other stresses via NBS-LRR proteins, whereas the biological functions of miR1448 are more diverse. PMID:23094096

  19. Towards a better understanding of Apis mellifera and Varroa destructor microbiomes: introducing 'phyloh' as a novel phylogenetic diversity analysis tool.

    PubMed

    Sandionigi, A; Vicario, S; Prosdocimi, E M; Galimberti, A; Ferri, E; Bruno, A; Balech, B; Mezzasalma, V; Casiraghi, M

    2015-07-01

    The study of diversity in biological communities is an intriguing field. Huge amount of data are nowadays available (provided by the innovative DNA sequencing techniques), and management, analysis and display of results are not trivial. Here, we propose for the first time the use of phylogenetic entropy as a measure of bacterial diversity in studies of microbial community structure. We then compared our new method (i.e. the web tool phyloh) for partitioning phylogenetic diversity with the traditional approach in diversity analyses of bacteria communities. We tested phyloh to characterize microbiome in the honeybee (Apis mellifera, Insecta: Hymenoptera) and its parasitic mite varroa (Varroa destructor, Arachnida: Parasitiformes). The rationale is that the comparative analysis of honeybee and varroa microbiomes could open new perspectives concerning the role of the parasites on honeybee colonies health. Our results showed a dramatic change of the honeybee microbiome when varroa occurs, suggesting that this parasite is able to influence host microbiome. Among the different approaches used, only the entropy method, in conjunction with phylogenetic constraint as implemented in phyloh, was able to discriminate varroa microbiome from that of parasitized honeybees. In conclusion, we foresee that the use of phylogenetic entropy could become a new standard in the analyses of community structure, in particular to prove the contribution of each biological entity to the overall diversity.

  20. Study of Clinical Survival and Gene Expression in a Sample of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma by Parsimony Phylogenetic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nalbantoglu, Sinem; Abu-Asab, Mones; Tan, Ming; Zhang, Xuemin; Cai, Ling; Amri, Hakima

    2016-07-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the rapidly growing forms of pancreatic cancer with a poor prognosis and less than 5% 5-year survival rate. In this study, we characterized the genetic signatures and signaling pathways related to survival from PDAC, using a parsimony phylogenetic algorithm. We applied the parsimony phylogenetic algorithm to analyze the publicly available whole-genome in silico array analysis of a gene expression data set in 25 early-stage human PDAC specimens. We explain here that the parsimony phylogenetics is an evolutionary analytical method that offers important promise to uncover clonal (driver) and nonclonal (passenger) aberrations in complex diseases. In our analysis, parsimony and statistical analyses did not identify significant correlations between survival times and gene expression values. Thus, the survival rankings did not appear to be significantly different between patients for any specific gene (p > 0.05). Also, we did not find correlation between gene expression data and tumor stage in the present data set. While the present analysis was unable to identify in this relatively small sample of patients a molecular signature associated with pancreatic cancer prognosis, we suggest that future research and analyses with the parsimony phylogenetic algorithm in larger patient samples are worthwhile, given the devastating nature of pancreatic cancer and its early diagnosis, and the need for novel data analytic approaches. The future research practices might want to place greater emphasis on phylogenetics as one of the analytical paradigms, as our findings presented here are on the cusp of this shift, especially in the current era of Big Data and innovation policies advocating for greater data sharing and reanalysis. PMID:27428255

  1. A Phylogenetic Analysis of Greek Isolates of Aspergillus Species Based on Morphology and Nuclear and Mitochondrial Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Krimitzas, Antonios; Kouvelis, Vassili N.; Kapsanaki-Gotsi, Evangelia; Typas, Milton A.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus species originating from Greece were examined by morphological and molecular criteria to explore the diversity of this genus. The phylogenetic relationships of these species were determined using sequences from the ITS and IGS region of the nuclear rRNA gene complex, two nuclear genes (β-tubulin (benA) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2)) and two mitochondrial genes (small rRNA subunit (rns) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (cox1)) and, where available, related sequences from databases. The morphological characters of the anamorphs and teleomorphs, and the single gene phylogenetic trees, differentiated and placed the species examined in the well-supported sections of Aenei, Aspergillus, Bispori, Candidi, Circumdati, Clavati, Cremei, Flavi, Flavipedes, Fumigati, Nidulantes, Nigri, Restricti, Terrei, Usti, and Zonati, with few uncertainties. The combined use of the three commonly employed nuclear genes (benA, rpb2, and ITS), the IGS region, and two less often used mitochondrial gene sequences (rns and cox1) as a single unit resolved several taxonomic ambiguities. A phylogenetic tree was inferred using Neighbour-Joining, Maximum Parsimony, and Bayesian methods. The strains examined formed seven well-supported clades within the genus Aspergillus. Altogether, the concatenated nuclear and mitochondrial sequences offer additional tools for an improved understanding of phylogenetic relationships within this genus. PMID:23762830

  2. Comparative Genomic and Phylogenetic Analysis of the First Usutu Virus Isolate from a Human Patient Presenting with Neurological Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Gaibani, Paolo; Cavrini, Francesca; Gould, Ernest A.; Rossini, Giada; Pierro, Anna; Landini, Maria Paola; Sambri, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex, that circulates among mosquitoes and birds. We describe and analyze the complete genome sequence of the first USUV strain isolated from an immunocompromised patient with neuroinvasive disease. This USUV isolate showed an overall nucleotide identity of 99% and 96%, respectively, with the genomes of isolates from Europe and Africa. Comparison of the human USUV complete polyprotein sequence with bird-derived strains, showed two unique amino acid substitutions. In particular, one substitution (S595G) was situated in the DIII domain of the viral Envelope protein that is recognized by flavivirus neutralizing antibodies. An additional amino acid substitution (D3425E) was identified in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain of the NS5 protein. This substitution is remarkable since E3425 is highly conserved among the other USUV isolates that were not associated with human infection. However, a similar substitution was observed in Japanese encephalitis and in West Nile viruses isolated from humans. Phylogenetic analysis of the human USUV strain revealed a close relationship with an Italian strain isolated in 2009. Analysis of synonymous nucleotide substitutions (SNSs) among the different USUV genomes showed a specific evolutionary divergence among different countries. In addition, 15 SNSs were identified as unique in the human isolate. We also identified four specific nucleotide substitutions in the 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) in the human isolate that were not present in the other USUV sequences. Our analyses provide the basis for further experimental studies aimed at defining the effective role of these mutations in the USUV genome, their potential role in the development of viral variants pathogenic for humans and their evolution and dispersal out of Africa. PMID:23741387

  3. Evolution of anaerobic ciliates from the gastrointestinal tract: phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal repeat from Nyctotherus ovalis and its relatives.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, A H; van Alen, T A; Sprakel, V S; Hackstein, J H; Vogels, G D

    1998-09-01

    The 18S and 5.8S rDNA genes and the internal transcribed spacers ITS-1 and ITS-2 of ciliates living in the hindgut of frogs, millipedes, and cockroaches were analyzed in order to study the evolution of intestinal protists. All ciliates studied here belong to the genus Nycrotherus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these ciliates from a monophyletic group that includes the distantly related anaerobic free-living heterotrichous ciliates Metopus palaeformis and Metopus contortus. The intestinal ciliates from the different vertebrate and invertebrate hosts are clearly divergent at the level of their rDNA repeats. This argues for the antiquity of the associations and a predominantly vertical transmission. This mode of transmission seems to be controlled primarily by the behavior of the host. The different degrees of divergence between ciliates living in different strains of one and the same cockroach species most likely reflect the different geographical origins of the hosts. In addition, host switches must have occurred during the evolution of cockroaches, since identical ciliates were found only in distantly related hosts. These phenomena prevent the reconstruction of potential cospeciation events.

  4. Molecular and phylogenetic characterizations of an Eimeria krijgsmanni Yakimoff & Gouseff, 1938 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) mouse intestinal protozoan parasite by partial 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Takeo, Toshinori; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Maeda, Hiroki; Kusakisako, Kodai; Matsui, Toshihiro; Mochizuki, Masami; Matsuo, Tomohide

    2014-08-01

    Previously, we characterized an undocumented strain of Eimeria krijgsmanni by morphological and biological features. Here, we present a detailed molecular phylogenetic analysis of this organism. Namely, 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) sequences of E. krijgsmanni were analyzed to incorporate this species into a comprehensive Eimeria phylogeny. As a result, partial 18S rDNA sequence from E. krijgsmanni was successfully determined, and two different types, Type A and Type B, that differed by 1 base pair were identified. E. krijgsmanni was originally isolated from a single oocyst, and thus the result show that the two types might have allelic sequence heterogeneity in the 18S rDNA. Based on phylogenetic analyses, the two types of E. krijgsmanni 18S rDNA formed one of two clades among murine Eimeria spp.; these Eimeria clades reflected morphological similarity among the Eimeria spp. This is the third molecular phylogenetic characterization of a murine Eimeria spp. in addition to E. falciformis and E. papillata.

  5. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of some species of the Dendropsophus microcephalus group (Anura, Hylidae) in the light of phylogenetic inferences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dendropsophus is a monophyletic anuran genus with a diploid number of 30 chromosomes as an important synapomorphy. However, the internal phylogenetic relationships of this genus are poorly understood. Interestingly, an intriguing interspecific variation in the telocentric chromosome number has been useful in species identification. To address certain uncertainties related to one of the species groups of Dendropsophus, the D. microcephalus group, we carried out a cytogenetic analysis combined with phylogenetic inferences based on mitochondrial sequences, which aimed to aid in the analysis of chromosomal characters. Populations of Dendropsophus nanus, Dendropsophus walfordi, Dendropsophus sanborni, Dendropsophus jimi and Dendropsophus elianeae, ranging from the extreme south to the north of Brazil, were cytogenetically compared. A mitochondrial region of the ribosomal 12S gene from these populations, as well as from 30 other species of Dendropsophus, was used for the phylogenetic inferences. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Results The species D. nanus and D. walfordi exhibited identical karyotypes (2n = 30; FN = 52), with four pairs of telocentric chromosomes and a NOR located on metacentric chromosome pair 13. In all of the phylogenetic hypotheses, the paraphyly of D. nanus and D. walfordi was inferred. D. sanborni from Botucatu-SP and Torres-RS showed the same karyotype as D. jimi, with 5 pairs of telocentric chromosomes (2n = 30; FN = 50) and a terminal NOR in the long arm of the telocentric chromosome pair 12. Despite their karyotypic similarity, these species were not found to compose a monophyletic group. Finally, the phylogenetic and cytogenetic analyses did not cluster the specimens of D. elianeae according to their geographical occurrence or recognized morphotypes. Conclusions We suggest that a taxonomic revision of the taxa D. nanus and D. walfordi is quite necessary. We also

  6. A phylogenetic analysis of the Gruiformes (Aves) based on morphological characters, with an emphasis on the rails (Rallidae)

    PubMed Central

    C.Livezey, B.

    1998-01-01

    The order Gruiformes, for which even familial composition remains controversial, is perhaps the least well understood avian order from a phylogenetic perspective. The history of the systematics of the order is presented, and the ecological and biogeographic characteristics of its members are summarized. Using cladistic techniques, phylogenetic relationships among fossil and modern genera of the Gruiformes were estimated based on 381 primarily osteological characters; relationships among modern species of Grues (Psophiidae, Aramidae, Gruidae, Heliornithidae and Rallidae) were assessed based on these characters augmented by 189 characters of the definitive integument. A strict consensus tree for 20,000 shortest trees compiled for the matrix of gruiform genera (length = 967, CI = 0.517) revealed a number of nodes common to the solution set, many of which were robust to bootstrapping and had substantial support (Bremer) indices. Robust nodes included those supporting: a sister relationship between the Pedionomidae and Turnicidae; monophyly of the Gruiformes exclusive of the Pedionomidae and Turnicidae; a sister relationship between the Cariamidae and Phorusrhacoidea; a sister relationship between a clade comprising Eurypyga and Messelornis and one comprising Rhynochetos and Aptornis; monophyly of the Grues (Psophiidae, Aramidae, Gruidae, Heliornithidae and Rallidae); monophyly of a clade (Gruoidea) comprising (in order of increasingly close relationship) Psophia, Aramus, Balearica and other Gruidae, with monophyly of each member in this series confirmed; a sister relationship between the Heliornithidae and Rallidae; and monophyly of the Rallidae exclusive of Himantornis. Autapomorphic divergence was comparatively high for Pedionomus, Eurypyga, Psophia, Himantornis and Fulica; extreme autapomorphy, much of which is unique for the order, characterized the extinct, flightless Aptornis. In the species-level analysis of modern Grues, special efforts were made to limit the

  7. Utility of a Phylogenetic Perspective in Structural Analysis of CYP72A Enzymes from Flowering Plants

    PubMed Central

    Prall, Wil; Hendy, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Plant adaptation to external pressures depends on functional diversity in cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. CYPs contain structural domains necessary for the characteristic P450 fold that allows monooxygenation, but they also have great variation in substrate binding affinity. Plant genomes typically contain hundreds of CYPs that contribute to essential functions and species-specific metabolism. The CYP72A subfamily is conserved in angiosperms but its contribution to physiological functions is largely unknown. With genomic information available for many plants, a focused analysis of CYP subfamily diversity is important to understand the contributions of these enzymes to plant evolution. This study examines the extent to which independent gene duplication and evolution have contributed to structural diversification of CYP72A enzymes in different plant lineages. CYP72A genes are prevalent across angiosperms, but the number of genes within each genome varies greatly. The prevalence of CYP72As suggest that the last common ancestor of flowering plants contained a CYP72A sequence, but gene duplication and retention has varied greatly for this CYP subfamily. Sequence comparisons show that CYP72As are involved in species-specific metabolic functions in some plants while there is likely functional conservation between closely related species. Analysis of structural and functional domains within groups of CYP72As reveals clade-specific residues that contribute to functional constraints within subsets of CYP72As. This study provides a phylogenetic framework that allows comparisons of structural features within subsets of the CYP72A subfamily. We examined a large number of sequences from a broad collection of plant species to detect patterns of functional conservation across the subfamily. The evolutionary relationships between CYPs in plant genomes are an important component in understanding the evolution of biochemical diversity in plants. PMID:27669508

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of Dengue virus 1 isolated from South Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Drumond, Betania Paiva; da Silva Fagundes, Luiz Gustavo; Rocha, Raissa Prado; Fumagalli, Marcilio Jorge; Araki, Carlos Shigueru; Colombo, Tatiana Elisa; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Castilho, Thiago Elias; da Silveira, Nelson José Freitas; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a major worldwide public health problem, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Primary infection with a single Dengue virus serotype causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness called dengue fever. However, a subset of patients who experience secondary infection with a different serotype can progress to a more severe form of the disease, called dengue hemorrhagic fever. The four Dengue virus serotypes (1–4) are antigenically and genetically distinct and each serotype is composed of multiple genotypes. In this study we isolated one Dengue virus 1 serotype, named BR/Alfenas/2012, from a patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever in Alfenas, South Minas Gerais, Brazil and molecular identification was performed based on the analysis of NS5 gene. Swiss mice were infected with this isolate to verify its potential to induce histopathological alterations characteristic of dengue. Liver histopathological analysis of infected animals showed the presence of inflammatory infiltrates, hepatic steatosis, as well as edema, hemorrhage and necrosis focal points. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses based on the envelope gene provided evidence that the isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 belongs to genotype V, lineage I and it is probably derived from isolates of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 showed two unique amino acids substitutions (SER222THRE and PHE306SER) when compared to other Brazilian isolates from the same genotype/lineage. Molecular models were generated for the envelope protein indicating that the amino acid alteration PHE 306 SER could contribute to a different folding in this region located within the domain III. Further genetic and animal model studies using BR/Alfenas/2012 and other isolates belonging to the same lineage/genotype could help determine the relation of these genetic alterations and dengue hemorrhagic fever in a susceptible population. PMID:26887252

  9. Silicateins, the major biosilica forming enzymes present in demosponges: protein analysis and phylogenetic relationship.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Boreiko, Alexandra; Wang, Xiaohong; Belikov, Sergey I; Wiens, Matthias; Grebenjuk, Vladislav A; Schlossmacher, Ute; Schröder, Heinz C

    2007-06-15

    Silicateins are enzymes, which are restricted to sponges (phylum Porifera), that mediate the catalytic formation of biosilica from monomeric silicon compounds. The silicatein protein is compartmented in the sponges in the axial filaments which reside in the axial canals of the siliceous spicules. In the present study silicatein has been isolated from the freshwater sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis where it occurs in isoforms with sizes of 23 kDa, 24 kDa and 26 kDa. Since the larger protein is glycosylated we posit that it is a processed form of one of the smaller size forms. The silicatein isoforms are post-translationally modified by phosphorylation; at least four isoforms exist with pI's of 5.4, of 5.2, of 4.9 and of 4.7. Surprisingly silicatein not only mediates polymerization of silicate, but also displays proteolytic activity which is specific for cathepsin L enzymes, thus underscoring the high relationship of the silicateins to cathepsin L. The cDNAs from L. baicalensis for silicatein and cathepsin L, as well as the respective genes, were cloned. It was found that the five introns present in the sponge genes are highly conserved up to human cathepsin L. This analysis has been completed by sequencing of two silicatein genes (both for silicatein-alpha and -beta) and of cathepsin L from another demosponge, Suberites domuncula. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis with these new sequences shed new light upon the evolution of cathepsin L and silicatein families which occurred at the base of the metazoan phyla. It is concluded, that in parallel with the emergence of these enzymes at first the number of introns increased, especially in the coding region of the mature enzyme. Later in evolution the number of introns decreased again. We postulate that modification of the catalytic triad, especially of its first amino acid, is a suitable target for a chemical modulation of enzyme function of the silicateins/cathepsin L.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of Dengue virus 1 isolated from South Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Drumond, Betania Paiva; Fagundes, Luiz Gustavo da Silva; Rocha, Raissa Prado; Fumagalli, Marcilio Jorge; Araki, Carlos Shigueru; Colombo, Tatiana Elisa; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Castilho, Thiago Elias; da Silveira, Nelson José Freitas; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a major worldwide public health problem, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Primary infection with a single Dengue virus serotype causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness called dengue fever. However, a subset of patients who experience secondary infection with a different serotype can progress to a more severe form of the disease, called dengue hemorrhagic fever. The four Dengue virus serotypes (1-4) are antigenically and genetically distinct and each serotype is composed of multiple genotypes. In this study we isolated one Dengue virus 1 serotype, named BR/Alfenas/2012, from a patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever in Alfenas, South Minas Gerais, Brazil and molecular identification was performed based on the analysis of NS5 gene. Swiss mice were infected with this isolate to verify its potential to induce histopathological alterations characteristic of dengue. Liver histopathological analysis of infected animals showed the presence of inflammatory infiltrates, hepatic steatosis, as well as edema, hemorrhage and necrosis focal points. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses based on the envelope gene provided evidence that the isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 belongs to genotype V, lineage I and it is probably derived from isolates of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 showed two unique amino acids substitutions (SER222THRE and PHE306SER) when compared to other Brazilian isolates from the same genotype/lineage. Molecular models were generated for the envelope protein indicating that the amino acid alteration PHE 306 SER could contribute to a different folding in this region located within the domain III. Further genetic and animal model studies using BR/Alfenas/2012 and other isolates belonging to the same lineage/genotype could help determine the relation of these genetic alterations and dengue hemorrhagic fever in a susceptible population. PMID:26887252

  11. Enteroviral infection outbreak in the Republic of Belarus: principal characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of etiological agents.

    PubMed

    Amvrosieva, Tamara V; Paklonskaya, Natallia V; Biazruchka, Aliaksei A; Kazinetz, Olga N; Bohush, Zoya F; Fisenko, Elena G

    2006-06-01

    For the last decade enterovirus outbreaks were registered in all of six districts of Belarus. Two of them, reported in 1997 (in Gomel) and in 2003 (in Minsk), were the most extensive and involved 461 and 1,351 patients respectively. Virus ECHO 30 was identified as the dominant etiologic agent of the outbreak in 1997 whereas co-circulation of ECHO 30, ECHO 6 and Coxsackievirus B5 took place in 2003. Analysis of clinical manifestations during the Minsk outbreak revealed unusually high rate of severe clinical forms of infection including aseptic meningitis, encephalitis and myocardial disorders. Epidemiologic observation was ordinary for enterovirus epidemics in temperate climates: the peak of the outbreak was recorded during summer-autumn period of 2003, and 0-14 years old children predominated. Data from the case-control study indicated that illness was associated with drinking water from community water system. Also the laboratory examination demonstrated contamination of different water samples with the epidemic virus serotypes and sequence analysis showed high level of genetic similarity between waterborne and clinical isolates. For these reasons the outbreak should be classified as a waterborne one. Phylogenetic reconstruction showed that all Belarusian ECHO 30 isolates belong to the major genotype of ECHO 30 which has been circulating for last 15 years in Europe and North America. Viral agents of 2003 were very similar and substantially differed from isolates of 1997. Comparison of nucleotide sequences of isolates from myocarditis patients revealed their considerable genetic similarity with ECHO 30 isolates from patients with aseptic meningitis and from water. The results of the study draw attention to the importance of virological control of tap and bottled water as a relevant measure aimed at reduction of epidemiological risks.

  12. An Insight into the Triabin Protein Family of American Hematophagous Reduviids: Functional, Structural and Phylogenetic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Vargas, María J; Santibáñez-López, Carlos E; Corzo, Gerardo

    2016-02-15

    A transcriptomic analysis of the saliva of T. pallidipennis together with a short proteomic analysis were carried out to reveal novel primary structures of the lipocalin/triabin protein families in this reduviid. Although triabins share some structural characteristics to lipocalins and they are classified as in the calcyn/lipocalin superfamily, triabins differ from lipocalins in the direction of β-strands in the general conformation of the β-barrel. The triabin protein family encompasses a wide variety of proteins, which disrupt the hemostasis of warm-blooded animals. Likewise, the function of proteins classified as triabins includes proteins that are carriers of small molecules, protease inhibitors, binders of specific cell-surface receptors as well as proteins that form complexes with other macromolecules. For example, triabin and pallidipin from the saliva of T. pallidipennis are thrombin and platelet aggregation inhibitors, respectively; triplatin from T. infestans binds to thromboxane A2; and nitrophorin from Rhodnius prolixus carries nitric oxide. Therefore, based on 42 new transcriptome sequences of triabins from the salivary glands of T. pallidipennis reported at present, and on triabin sequences of other American hematophagous reduviids already reported in the literature, subfamilies of triabins were proposed following phylogenetic analyses and functional characterization of triabin members. Eight subfamilies of proteins were recognized with known functions, which were the nitrophorin and amine binding proteins, Rhodnius prolixus aggregation inhibitor, triafestin, triatin, dipetalodipin and pallidipin, triplatin and infestilin, dimiconin and triabin, and procalin subfamilies. Interestingly, 70% of the analyzed sequences came from these eight subfamilies because there was no biological function associated with them, implying the existence of a vast number of proteins with potential novel biological activities.

  13. An Insight into the Triabin Protein Family of American Hematophagous Reduviids: Functional, Structural and Phylogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Vargas, María J.; Santibáñez-López, Carlos E.; Corzo, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    A transcriptomic analysis of the saliva of T. pallidipennis together with a short proteomic analysis were carried out to reveal novel primary structures of the lipocalin/triabin protein families in this reduviid. Although triabins share some structural characteristics to lipocalins and they are classified as in the calcyn/lipocalin superfamily, triabins differ from lipocalins in the direction of β-strands in the general conformation of the β-barrel. The triabin protein family encompasses a wide variety of proteins, which disrupt the hemostasis of warm-blooded animals. Likewise, the function of proteins classified as triabins includes proteins that are carriers of small molecules, protease inhibitors, binders of specific cell-surface receptors as well as proteins that form complexes with other macromolecules. For example, triabin and pallidipin from the saliva of T. pallidipennis are thrombin and platelet aggregation inhibitors, respectively; triplatin from T. infestans binds to thromboxane A2; and nitrophorin from Rhodnius prolixus carries nitric oxide. Therefore, based on 42 new transcriptome sequences of triabins from the salivary glands of T. pallidipennis reported at present, and on triabin sequences of other American hematophagous reduviids already reported in the literature, subfamilies of triabins were proposed following phylogenetic analyses and functional characterization of triabin members. Eight subfamilies of proteins were recognized with known functions, which were the nitrophorin and amine binding proteins, Rhodnius prolixus aggregation inhibitor, triafestin, triatin, dipetalodipin and pallidipin, triplatin and infestilin, dimiconin and triabin, and procalin subfamilies. Interestingly, 70% of the analyzed sequences came from these eight subfamilies because there was no biological function associated with them, implying the existence of a vast number of proteins with potential novel biological activities. PMID:26891325

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of Dengue virus 1 isolated from South Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Drumond, Betania Paiva; Fagundes, Luiz Gustavo da Silva; Rocha, Raissa Prado; Fumagalli, Marcilio Jorge; Araki, Carlos Shigueru; Colombo, Tatiana Elisa; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Castilho, Thiago Elias; da Silveira, Nelson José Freitas; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a major worldwide public health problem, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Primary infection with a single Dengue virus serotype causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness called dengue fever. However, a subset of patients who experience secondary infection with a different serotype can progress to a more severe form of the disease, called dengue hemorrhagic fever. The four Dengue virus serotypes (1-4) are antigenically and genetically distinct and each serotype is composed of multiple genotypes. In this study we isolated one Dengue virus 1 serotype, named BR/Alfenas/2012, from a patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever in Alfenas, South Minas Gerais, Brazil and molecular identification was performed based on the analysis of NS5 gene. Swiss mice were infected with this isolate to verify its potential to induce histopathological alterations characteristic of dengue. Liver histopathological analysis of infected animals showed the presence of inflammatory infiltrates, hepatic steatosis, as well as edema, hemorrhage and necrosis focal points. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses based on the envelope gene provided evidence that the isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 belongs to genotype V, lineage I and it is probably derived from isolates of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 showed two unique amino acids substitutions (SER222THRE and PHE306SER) when compared to other Brazilian isolates from the same genotype/lineage. Molecular models were generated for the envelope protein indicating that the amino acid alteration PHE 306 SER could contribute to a different folding in this region located within the domain III. Further genetic and animal model studies using BR/Alfenas/2012 and other isolates belonging to the same lineage/genotype could help determine the relation of these genetic alterations and dengue hemorrhagic fever in a susceptible population.

  15. [Molecular diagnosis and phylogenetic analysis of the first MERS case in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Bayrakdar, Fatma; Altaş, Ayşe Başak; Korukluoğlu, Gülay; Topal, Selmur

    2015-07-01

    , followed by sequence analysis of 204 nucleotide part of N gene. Phylogenetic tree of N gene was obtained with the use of MEGA6 software. N gene was chosen as it comprised a two aminoacid deletion in the corresponding published sequence from the patient treated in London, United Kingdom. There was no nucleotide or aminoacid change in our isolate, namely ANK/1079/2014 when compared with human Betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012 reference strain found in Genbank database. The target gene regions selected in our study (UpE, ORF1a, ORF1b, N and RdRp) which were also recommended by WHO, shown to have high specificity and sensitivity for the diagnosis and confirmation of MERS-CoV, and also recommended by WHO. The previous studies indicated that, the viral genomes detected in the earliest cases of humans (clade A) are genetically distinct from the others (clade B) which were isolated from dromedary camels and humans. In our study, according to phylogenetic analysis of partial N gene segment, isolate ANK/1079/2014 has taken place within clade A. In conclusion, MERS-CoV appears to have limited circulation in Arabian Peninsula and Middle-Eastern countries, it should be considered in mind that travel-related cases may export the virus outside these regions leading autochtonous infections in the other parts of the world. PMID:26313282

  16. Web-Based Phylogenetic Assignment Tool for Analysis of Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Profiles of Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Angela D.; Smith, Dan J.; Benson, Barbara J.; Triplett, Eric W.

    2003-01-01

    Culture-independent DNA fingerprints are commonly used to assess the diversity of a microbial community. However, relating species composition to community profiles produced by community fingerprint methods is not straightforward. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) is a community fingerprint method in which phylogenetic assignments may be inferred from the terminal restriction fragment (T-RF) sizes through the use of web-based resources that predict T-RF sizes for known bacteria. The process quickly becomes computationally intensive due to the need to analyze profiles produced by multiple restriction digests and the complexity of profiles generated by natural microbial communities. A web-based tool is described here that rapidly generates phylogenetic assignments from submitted community T-RFLP profiles based on a database of fragments produced by known 16S rRNA gene sequences. Users have the option of submitting a customized database generated from unpublished sequences or from a gene other than the 16S rRNA gene. This phylogenetic assignment tool allows users to employ T-RFLP to simultaneously analyze microbial community diversity and species composition. An analysis of the variability of bacterial species composition throughout the water column in a humic lake was carried out to demonstrate the functionality of the phylogenetic assignment tool. This method was validated by comparing the results generated by this program with results from a 16S rRNA gene clone library. PMID:14602639

  17. Web-based phylogenetic assignment tool for analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles of microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Kent, Angela D; Smith, Dan J; Benson, Barbara J; Triplett, Eric W

    2003-11-01

    Culture-independent DNA fingerprints are commonly used to assess the diversity of a microbial community. However, relating species composition to community profiles produced by community fingerprint methods is not straightforward. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) is a community fingerprint method in which phylogenetic assignments may be inferred from the terminal restriction fragment (T-RF) sizes through the use of web-based resources that predict T-RF sizes for known bacteria. The process quickly becomes computationally intensive due to the need to analyze profiles produced by multiple restriction digests and the complexity of profiles generated by natural microbial communities. A web-based tool is described here that rapidly generates phylogenetic assignments from submitted community T-RFLP profiles based on a database of fragments produced by known 16S rRNA gene sequences. Users have the option of submitting a customized database generated from unpublished sequences or from a gene other than the 16S rRNA gene. This phylogenetic assignment tool allows users to employ T-RFLP to simultaneously analyze microbial community diversity and species composition. An analysis of the variability of bacterial species composition throughout the water column in a humic lake was carried out to demonstrate the functionality of the phylogenetic assignment tool. This method was validated by comparing the results generated by this program with results from a 16S rRNA gene clone library.

  18. Networks in a Large-Scale Phylogenetic Analysis: Reconstructing Evolutionary History of Asparagales (Lilianae) Based on Four Plastid Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Mark W.; Kim, Joo-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis aims to produce a bifurcating tree, which disregards conflicting signals and displays only those that are present in a large proportion of the data. However, any character (or tree) conflict in a dataset allows the exploration of support for various evolutionary hypotheses. Although data-display network approaches exist, biologists cannot easily and routinely use them to compute rooted phylogenetic networks on real datasets containing hundreds of taxa. Here, we constructed an original neighbour-net for a large dataset of Asparagales to highlight the aspects of the resulting network that will be important for interpreting phylogeny. The analyses were largely conducted with new data collected for the same loci as in previous studies, but from different species accessions and greater sampling in many cases than in published analyses. The network tree summarised the majority data pattern in the characters of plastid sequences before tree building, which largely confirmed the currently recognised phylogenetic relationships. Most conflicting signals are at the base of each group along the Asparagales backbone, which helps us to establish the expectancy and advance our understanding of some difficult taxa relationships and their phylogeny. The network method should play a greater role in phylogenetic analyses than it has in the past. To advance the understanding of evolutionary history of the largest order of monocots Asparagales, absolute diversification times were estimated for family-level clades using relaxed molecular clock analyses. PMID:23544071

  19. High-resolution phylogenetic analysis of residual bacterial species of fouled membranes after NaOCl cleaning.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Ronald R; Hori, Tomoyuki; Inaba, Tomohiro; Matsuo, Kazuyuki; Habe, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    Biofouling is one of the major problems during wastewater treatment using membrane bioreactors (MBRs). In this regard, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has been widely used to wash fouled membranes for maintenance and recovery purposes. Advanced chemical and biological characterization was conducted in this work to evaluate the performance of aqueous NaOCl solutions during washing of polyacrylonitrile membranes. Fouled membranes from MBR operations supplemented with artificial wastewater were washed with 0.1% and 0.5% aqueous NaOCl solutions for 5, 10 and 30 min. The changes in organics composition on the membrane surface were directly monitored by an attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectrometer. In addition, high-throughput Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes was applied to detect any residual microorganisms. Results from ATR-FT-IR analysis indicated the complete disappearance of functional groups representing different fouling compounds after at least 30 min of treatment with 0.1% NaOCl. However, the biomolecular survey revealed the presence of residual bacteria even after 30 min of treatment with 0.5% NaOCl solution. Evaluation of microbial diversity of treated samples using Chao1, Shannon and Simpson reciprocal indices showed an increase in evenness while no significant decline in richness was observed. These implied that only the population of dominant species was mainly affected. The high-resolution phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of numerous operational taxonomic units (OTUs) whose close relatives exhibit halotolerance. Some OTUs related to thermophilic and acid-resistant strains were also identified. Finally, the taxonomic analysis of recycled membranes that were previously washed with NaOCl also showed the presence of numerous halotolerant-related OTUs in the early stage of fouling. This further suggested the possible contribution of such chemical tolerance on their survival against NaOCl washing, which in turn

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus), with phylogenetic analysis in phasianidae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tai-Cheng; Sha, Tao; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Pavo cristatus, known as the Indian peafowl, is endemic to India and Sri Lanka and has been domesticated for its ornamental and food value. However, its phylogenetic status is still debated. Here, to clarify the phylogenetic status of P. cristatus within Phasianidae, we analyzed its mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome was determined using 34 pairs of primers. Our data show that the mtDNA genome of P. cristatus is 16,686 bp in length. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of P. cristatus was performed along with 22 complete mtDNA genomes belonging to other species in Phasianidae using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods, where Aythya americana and Anas platyrhynchos were used as outgroups. Our results show that P. critatus has its closest genetic affinity with Pavo muticus and belongs to clade that contains Gallus, Bambusicola and Francolinus.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus), with phylogenetic analysis in phasianidae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tai-Cheng; Sha, Tao; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Pavo cristatus, known as the Indian peafowl, is endemic to India and Sri Lanka and has been domesticated for its ornamental and food value. However, its phylogenetic status is still debated. Here, to clarify the phylogenetic status of P. cristatus within Phasianidae, we analyzed its mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome was determined using 34 pairs of primers. Our data show that the mtDNA genome of P. cristatus is 16,686 bp in length. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of P. cristatus was performed along with 22 complete mtDNA genomes belonging to other species in Phasianidae using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods, where Aythya americana and Anas platyrhynchos were used as outgroups. Our results show that P. critatus has its closest genetic affinity with Pavo muticus and belongs to clade that contains Gallus, Bambusicola and Francolinus. PMID:24409883

  2. A case of relapsed chromoblastomycosis due to Fonsecaea monophora: antifungal susceptibility and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Daboit, Tatiane Caroline; Magagnin, Cibele Massotti; Heidrich, Daiane; Castrillón, Mauricio Ramírez; Mendes, Sandra Denise Camargo; Vettorato, Gerson; Valente, Patrícia; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia

    2013-08-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous mycosis. The management of this infection continues to be challenging because there is no consensus on the therapeutic regimen. We report here a case of a 69-year-old male patient with cauliflower-like lesions on his left leg and foot. He had already been treated with itraconazole at a dose of 200 mg/day for 5 months, with mycological cure for all the affected areas. However, the lesions relapsed at both sites, and treatment with itraconazole was resumed at the dose previously used. Initially, direct mycological examination, cultural, and microculture slide observation were performed. Afterward, sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 region of the fungal DNA and evaluation of its susceptibility to antifungal agents alone and in combination were performed. In direct mycological examination, the presence of sclerotic cells was verified, and the fungus was identified as Fonsecaea based on cultural and microscopic examinations. Identification as Fonsecaea monophora was confirmed after sequencing of the ITS region and phylogenetic analysis. The isolate was susceptible to itraconazole and terbinafine. The combinations of amphotericin B and terbinafine and terbinafine and voriconazole were synergistic. The use of drugs for which the causative agent is susceptible to singly or in combination may be an alternative for the treatment of mycosis. Furthermore, the identification of the agent by molecular techniques is important for epidemiological purposes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of relapsed chromoblastomycosis caused by F. monophora in Brazil. PMID:23645135

  3. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the Pyrgilauda ruficollis (Aves,Passeridae) complete mitochondrial genome

    PubMed Central

    MA, Yong-Gui; HUANG, Yuan; LEI, Fu-Min

    2014-01-01

    In this study, both long PCR and conserved primers walking sequencing methods were used to determine the complete sequence of the of Pyrgilauda ruficollis mitochondrial genome (KC836121). The results showed that the complete mitochondrial genome of P. ruficollis is 1 6909 bp in length with 55.0% A+T content, harboring the typical 37 genes. The mitogenome had the same gene order with that of Podoces hendersoni. All protein coding genes started with ATG codon, except ND3 with GTG. For the stop codon usage, most genes terminate with codons TAA or TAG, but ND5 terminated with AGA, while ND1 and COI genes with AGG, and both the genes COIII and ND4 have an incomplete termination codon (T). The secondary structures of 22 tRNA genes were also predicted, showing that all tRNAs can form typical clover-leaf secondary structures, except for the tRNASer (AGN) which loses the DHU arm, while tRNAPhe harbor an extra nucleotide inserted in the TψC arm. The predicted secondary structures of 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA exhibit 47 helices in 4 domains and 60 helices in 6 domains respectively. The control region of P. ruficollis with the length of 1 305 bp was located between tRNAGlu and tRNAPhe, and typical domains of which could be found as other bird groups. Using the data from 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes, results of a final phylogenetic analysis strongly supports the traditional view that P. ruficollis is closely related with Passeridae and Fringillidae. PMID:24668650

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of β-defensin-like genes of Bothrops, Crotalus and Lachesis snakes.

    PubMed

    Correa, Poliana G; Oguiura, Nancy

    2013-07-01

    Defensins are components of the vertebrate innate immune system; they comprise a diverse group of small cationic antimicrobial peptides. Among them, β-defensins have a characteristic β-sheet-rich fold plus six conserved cysteines with particular spacing and intramolecular bonds. They have been fully studied in mammals, but there is little information about them in snakes. Using a PCR approach, we described 13 β-defensin-like sequences in Bothrops and Lachesis snakes. The genes are organized in three exons and two introns, with exception of B.atrox_defensinB_01 which has only two exons. They show high similarities in exon 1, intron 1 and intron 2, but exons 2 and 3 have undergone accelerated evolution. The theoretical translated sequences encode a pre-β-defensin-like molecule with a conserved signal peptide and a mature peptide. The signal peptides are leucine-rich and the mature β-defensin-like molecules have a size around 4.5 kDa, a net charge from +2 to +11, and the conserved cysteine motif. Phylogenetic analysis was done using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses, and all resulted in similar topologies with slight differences. The genus Bothrops displayed two separate lineages. The reconciliation of gene trees and species tree indicated eight to nine duplications and 23 to 29 extinctions depending on the gene tree used. Our results together with previously published data indicate that the ancestral β-defensin-like gene may have three exons in vertebrates and that their evolution occurred according to a birth-and-death model. PMID:23500066

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of Austrian canine distemper virus strains from clinical samples from dogs and wild carnivores.

    PubMed

    Benetka, V; Leschnik, M; Affenzeller, N; Möstl, K

    2011-04-01

    Austrian field cases of canine distemper (14 dogs, one badger [Meles meles] and one stone marten [Martes foina]) from 2002 to 2007 were investigated and the case histories were summarised briefly. Phylogenetic analysis of fusion (F) and haemagglutinin (H) gene sequences revealed different canine distemper virus (CDV) lineages circulating in Austria. The majority of CDV strains detected from 2002 to 2004 were well embedded in the European lineage. One Austrian canine sample detected in 2003, with a high similarity to Hungarian sequences from 2005 to 2006, could be assigned to the Arctic group (phocine distemper virus type 2-like). The two canine sequences from 2007 formed a clearly distinct group flanked by sequences detected previously in China and the USA on an intermediate position between the European wildlife and the Asia-1 cluster. The Austrian wildlife strains (2006 and 2007) could be assigned to the European wildlife group and were most closely related to, yet clearly different from, the 2007 canine samples. To elucidate the epidemiological role of Austrian wildlife in the transmission of the disease to dogs and vice versa, H protein residues related to receptor and host specificity (residues 530 and 549) were analysed. All samples showed the amino acids expected for their host of origin, with the exception of a canine sequence from 2007, which had an intermediate position between wildlife and canine viral strains. In the period investigated, canine strains circulating in Austria could be assigned to four different lineages reflecting both a high diversity and probably different origins of virus introduction to Austria in different years.

  6. Detecting the symplesiomorphy trap: a multigene phylogenetic analysis of terebelliform annelids

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background For phylogenetic reconstructions, conflict in signal is a potential problem for tree reconstruction. For instance, molecular data from different cellular components, such as the mitochondrion and nucleus, may be inconsistent with each other. Mammalian studies provide one such case of conflict where mitochondrial data, which display compositional biases, support the Marsupionta hypothesis, but nuclear data confirm the Theria hypothesis. Most observations of compositional biases in tree reconstruction have focused on lineages with different composition than the majority of the lineages under analysis. However in some situations, the position of taxa that lack compositional bias may be influenced rather than the position of taxa that possess compositional bias. This situation is due to apparent symplesiomorphic characters and known as "the symplesiomorphy trap". Results Herein, we report an example of the sympleisomorphy trap and how to detect it. Worms within Terebelliformia (sensu Rouse & Pleijel 2001) are mainly tube-dwelling annelids comprising five 'families': Alvinellidae, Ampharetidae, Terebellidae, Trichobranchidae and Pectinariidae. Using mitochondrial genomic data, as well as data from the nuclear 18S, 28S rDNA and elongation factor-1α genes, we revealed incongruence between mitochondrial and nuclear data regarding the placement of Trichobranchidae. Mitochondrial data favored a sister relationship between Terebellidae and Trichobranchidae, but nuclear data placed Trichobranchidae as sister to an Ampharetidae/Alvinellidae clade. Both positions have been proposed based on morphological data. Conclusions Our investigation revealed that mitochondrial data of Ampharetidae and Alvinellidae exhibited strong compositional biases. However, these biases resulted in a misplacement of Trichobranchidae, rather than Alvinellidae and Ampharetidae. Herein, we document that Trichobranchidae was apparently caught in the symplesiomorphy trap suggesting that in

  7. Phylogenetic and molecular analysis of food-borne shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Elisabeth; Mellmann, Alexander; Semmler, Torsten; Stoeber, Helen; Wieler, Lothar H; Karch, Helge; Kuebler, Nikole; Fruth, Angelika; Harmsen, Dag; Weniger, Thomas; Tietze, Erhard; Schmidt, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Seventy-five food-associated Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains were analyzed by molecular and phylogenetic methods to describe their pathogenic potential. The presence of the locus of proteolysis activity (LPA), the chromosomal pathogenicity island (PAI) PAI ICL3, and the autotransporter-encoding gene sabA was examined by PCR. Furthermore, the occupation of the chromosomal integration sites of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), selC, pheU, and pheV, as well as the Stx phage integration sites yehV, yecE, wrbA, z2577, and ssrA, was analyzed. Moreover, the antibiotic resistance phenotypes of all STEC strains were determined. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed, and sequence types (STs) and sequence type complexes (STCs) were compared with those of 42 hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS)-associated enterohemorrhagic E. coli (HUSEC) strains. Besides 59 STs and 4 STCs, three larger clusters were defined in this strain collection. Clusters A and C consist mostly of highly pathogenic eae-positive HUSEC strains and some related food-borne STEC strains. A member of a new O26 HUS-associated clone and the 2011 outbreak strain E. coli O104:H4 were found in cluster A. Cluster B comprises only eae-negative food-borne STEC strains as well as mainly eae-negative HUSEC strains. Although food-borne strains of cluster B were not clearly associated with disease, serotypes of important pathogens, such as O91:H21 and O113:H21, were in this cluster and closely related to the food-borne strains. Clonal analysis demonstrated eight closely related genetic groups of food-borne STEC and HUSEC strains that shared the same ST and were similar in their virulence gene composition. These groups should be considered with respect to their potential for human infection.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of the Francisella-like endosymbionts of Dermacentor ticks.

    PubMed

    Scoles, Glen A

    2004-05-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts with significant homology to Francisella tularensis (gamma-proteobacteria) have been described from at least five species of ticks in three different genera, including two North American Dermacentor species [D. andersoni Stiles and D. variabilis (Say)]. The evolutionary relationships among the Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLE) from different hosts and between FLE and the arthropod-borne pathogen F. tularensis are not known. A 1,169-base fragment of the 16s rDNA and a 713-base fragment of the F. tularensis 17-kDa lipoprotein gene homolog of the FLE of six North American Dermacentor tick species [D. anderson, D. variabilis, D. albipictus (Packard), D. occidentalis Marx, D. hunteri Bishopp, and D. (Anocentor) nitens Neumann] and of Amblyomma maculatum Koch and Ornithodoros porcinus (Murry 1877, sensu Walton 1979) as outgroups, were subjected to phylogenetic analysis. These gene phylogenies were compared with a phylogeny of the same tick species constructed from a 435-base fragment of the tick mitochondrial 16s rDNA. Although the phylogenies of the FLE and their tick hosts are parallel at the genus level, the Dermacentor FLE are unresolved at the species level. The FLE and the Dermacentor ticks show little sign of co-speciation, possibly indicating that the association between these endosymbiont and the Dermacentor ticks is of a relatively recent origin. Several ticks were co-infected, either with two FLE with divergent 17-kDa lipoprotein gene sequences or with FLE and an unidentified species of spotted fever group rickettsia (alpha-proteobacteria). Infection with FLE does not seem to have precluded infection with either a second closely related gamma-proteobacterial symbiont or with a second less closely related alpha-proteobacterial symbiont.

  9. A new African fossil caprin and a combined molecular and morphological Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of caprini (Mammalia: Bovidae).

    PubMed

    Bibi, F; Vrba, E; Fack, F

    2012-09-01

    Given that most species that have ever existed on Earth are extinct, no evolutionary history can ever be complete without the inclusion of fossil taxa. Bovids (antelopes and relatives) are one of the most diverse clades of large mammals alive today, with over a hundred living species and hundreds of documented fossil species. With the advent of molecular phylogenetics, major advances have been made in the phylogeny of this clade; however, there has been little attempt to integrate the fossil record into the developing phylogenetic picture. We here describe a new large fossil caprin species from ca. 1.9-Ma deposits from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. To place the new species phylogenetically, we perform a Bayesian analysis of a combined molecular (cytochrome b) and morphological (osteological) character supermatrix. We include all living species of Caprini, the new fossil species, a fossil takin from the Pliocene of Ethiopia (Budorcas churcheri), and the insular subfossil Myotragus balearicus. The combined analysis demonstrates successful incorporation of both living and fossil species within a single phylogeny based on both molecular and morphological evidence. Analysis of the combined supermatrix produces superior resolution than with either the molecular or morphological data sets considered alone. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses of the data set are also compared and shown to produce similar results. The combined phylogenetic analysis indicates that the new fossil species is nested within Capra, making it one of the earliest representatives of this clade, with implications for molecular clock calibration. Geographical optimization indicates no less than four independent dispersals into Africa by caprins since the Pliocene.

  10. A Phylogenetic and Phenotypic Analysis of Salmonella enterica Serovar Weltevreden, an Emerging Agent of Diarrheal Disease in Tropical Regions.

    PubMed

    Makendi, Carine; Page, Andrew J; Wren, Brendan W; Le Thi Phuong, Tu; Clare, Simon; Hale, Christine; Goulding, David; Klemm, Elizabeth J; Pickard, Derek; Okoro, Chinyere; Hunt, Martin; Thompson, Corinne N; Phu Huong Lan, Nguyen; Tran Do Hoang, Nhu; Thwaites, Guy E; Le Hello, Simon; Brisabois, Anne; Weill, François-Xavier; Baker, Stephen; Dougan, Gordon

    2016-02-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden (S. Weltevreden) is an emerging cause of diarrheal and invasive disease in humans residing in tropical regions. Despite the regional and international emergence of this Salmonella serovar, relatively little is known about its genetic diversity, genomics or virulence potential in model systems. Here we used whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics analyses to define the phylogenetic structure of a diverse global selection of S. Weltevreden. Phylogenetic analysis of more than 100 isolates demonstrated that the population of S. Weltevreden can be segregated into two main phylogenetic clusters, one associated predominantly with continental Southeast Asia and the other more internationally dispersed. Subcluster analysis suggested the local evolution of S. Weltevreden within specific geographical regions. Four of the isolates were sequenced using long read sequencing to produce high quality reference genomes. Phenotypic analysis in Hep-2 cells and in a murine infection model indicated that S. Weltevreden were significantly attenuated in these models compared to the classical S. Typhimurium reference strain SL1344. Our work outlines novel insights into this important emerging pathogen and provides a baseline understanding for future research studies.

  11. A Phylogenetic and Phenotypic Analysis of Salmonella enterica Serovar Weltevreden, an Emerging Agent of Diarrheal Disease in Tropical Regions.

    PubMed

    Makendi, Carine; Page, Andrew J; Wren, Brendan W; Le Thi Phuong, Tu; Clare, Simon; Hale, Christine; Goulding, David; Klemm, Elizabeth J; Pickard, Derek; Okoro, Chinyere; Hunt, Martin; Thompson, Corinne N; Phu Huong Lan, Nguyen; Tran Do Hoang, Nhu; Thwaites, Guy E; Le Hello, Simon; Brisabois, Anne; Weill, François-Xavier; Baker, Stephen; Dougan, Gordon

    2016-02-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden (S. Weltevreden) is an emerging cause of diarrheal and invasive disease in humans residing in tropical regions. Despite the regional and international emergence of this Salmonella serovar, relatively little is known about its genetic diversity, genomics or virulence potential in model systems. Here we used whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics analyses to define the phylogenetic structure of a diverse global selection of S. Weltevreden. Phylogenetic analysis of more than 100 isolates demonstrated that the population of S. Weltevreden can be segregated into two main phylogenetic clusters, one associated predominantly with continental Southeast Asia and the other more internationally dispersed. Subcluster analysis suggested the local evolution of S. Weltevreden within specific geographical regions. Four of the isolates were sequenced using long read sequencing to produce high quality reference genomes. Phenotypic analysis in Hep-2 cells and in a murine infection model indicated that S. Weltevreden were significantly attenuated in these models compared to the classical S. Typhimurium reference strain SL1344. Our work outlines novel insights into this important emerging pathogen and provides a baseline understanding for future research studies. PMID:26867150

  12. A Phylogenetic and Phenotypic Analysis of Salmonella enterica Serovar Weltevreden, an Emerging Agent of Diarrheal Disease in Tropical Regions

    PubMed Central

    Makendi, Carine; Page, Andrew J.; Wren, Brendan W.; Le Thi Phuong, Tu; Clare, Simon; Hale, Christine; Goulding, David; Klemm, Elizabeth J.; Pickard, Derek; Okoro, Chinyere; Hunt, Martin; Thompson, Corinne N.; Phu Huong Lan, Nguyen; Tran Do Hoang, Nhu; Thwaites, Guy E.; Le Hello, Simon; Brisabois, Anne; Weill, François-Xavier; Baker, Stephen; Dougan, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden (S. Weltevreden) is an emerging cause of diarrheal and invasive disease in humans residing in tropical regions. Despite the regional and international emergence of this Salmonella serovar, relatively little is known about its genetic diversity, genomics or virulence potential in model systems. Here we used whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics analyses to define the phylogenetic structure of a diverse global selection of S. Weltevreden. Phylogenetic analysis of more than 100 isolates demonstrated that the population of S. Weltevreden can be segregated into two main phylogenetic clusters, one associated predominantly with continental Southeast Asia and the other more internationally dispersed. Subcluster analysis suggested the local evolution of S. Weltevreden within specific geographical regions. Four of the isolates were sequenced using long read sequencing to produce high quality reference genomes. Phenotypic analysis in Hep-2 cells and in a murine infection model indicated that S. Weltevreden were significantly attenuated in these models compared to the classical S. Typhimurium reference strain SL1344. Our work outlines novel insights into this important emerging pathogen and provides a baseline understanding for future research studies. PMID:26867150

  13. Phylogenetic Analysis and Structural Predictions of Human Adenovirus Penton Proteins as a Basis for Tissue-Specific Adenovirus Vector Design▿

    PubMed Central

    Madisch, Ijad; Hofmayer, Soeren; Moritz, Christian; Grintzalis, Alexander; Hainmueller, Jens; Pring-Akerblom, Patricia; Heim, Albert

    2007-01-01

    The penton base is a major capsid protein of human adenoviruses (HAdV) which forms the vertices of the capsid and interacts with hexon and fiber protein. Two hypervariable loops of the penton are exposed on the capsid surface. Sequences of these and 300 adjacent amino acid residues of all 51 HAdV and closely related simian adenoviruses were studied. Adjacent sequences and predicted overall secondary structure were conserved. Phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering corresponding to the HAdV species and recombination events in the origin of HAdV prototypes. All HAdV except serotypes 40 and 41 of species F exhibited an integrin binding RGD motif in the second loop. The lengths of the loops (HVR1 and RGD loops) varied significantly between HAdV species with the longest RGD loop observed in species C and the longest HVR1 in species B. Long loops may permit the insertion of motifs that modify tissue tropism. Genetic analysis of HAdV prime strain p17′H30, a neutralization variant of HAdV-D17, indicated the significance of nonhexon neutralization epitopes for HAdV immune escape. Fourteen highly conserved motifs of the penton base were analyzed by site-directed mutagenesis of HAdV-D8 and tested for sustained induction of early cytopathic effects. Thus, three new motifs essential for penton base function were identified additionally to the RGD site, which interacts with a secondary cellular receptor responsible for internalization. Therefore, our penton primary structure data and secondary structure modeling in combination with the recently published fiber knob sequences may permit the rational design of tissue-specific adenoviral vectors. PMID:17522221

  14. Missing Data and Influential Sites: Choice of Sites for Phylogenetic Analysis Can Be As Important As Taxon Sampling and Model Choice

    PubMed Central

    Shavit Grievink, Liat; Penny, David; Holland, Barbara R.

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic studies based on molecular sequence alignments are expected to become more accurate as the number of sites in the alignments increases. With the advent of genomic-scale data, where alignments have very large numbers of sites, bootstrap values close to 100% and posterior probabilities close to 1 are the norm, suggesting that the number of sites is now seldom a limiting factor on phylogenetic accuracy. This provokes the question, should we be fussy about the sites we choose to include in a genomic-scale phylogenetic analysis? If some sites contain missing data, ambiguous character states, or gaps, then why not just throw them away before conducting the phylogenetic analysis? Indeed, this is exactly the approach taken in many phylogenetic studies. Here, we present an example where the decision on how to treat sites with missing data is of equal importance to decisions on taxon sampling and model choice, and we introduce a graphical method for illustrating this. PMID:23471508

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of Aspergillus species using DNA sequences from four loci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA was isolated from representatives of Aspergillus species and sequences were determined for beta tubulin, calmodulin, ITS and lsu rDNA and RNA polymerase. The sequences were analyzed phylogenetically using PAUP* and MRBayes and species boundaries were assessed using genealogical concordance anal...

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of the true water bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): evidence from mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Jimeng; Li, Ming; Dong, Pengzhi; Cui, Ying; Xie, Qiang; Bu, Wenjun

    2009-01-01

    Background The true water bugs are grouped in infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) and are of great economic importance. The phylogenetic relationships within Nepomorpha and the taxonomic hierarchies of Pleoidea and Aphelocheiroidea are uncertain. Most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters without algorithmic assessment. In the latest study, the molecular markers employed in phylogenetic analyses were partial sequences of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA with a total length about 1 kb. Up to now, no mitochondrial genome of the true water bugs has been sequenced, which is one of the largest data sets that could be compared across animal taxa. In this study we analyzed the unresolved problems in Nepomorpha using evidence from mitochondrial genomes. Results Nine mitochondrial genomes of Nepomorpha and five of other hemipterans were sequenced. These mitochondrial genomes contain the commonly found 37 genes without gene rearrangements. Based on the nucleotide sequences of mt-genomes, Pleoidea is not a member of the Nepomorpha and Aphelocheiroidea should be grouped back into Naucoroidea. Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies of Nepomorpha were resolved robustly. Conclusion The mt-genome is an effective data source for resolving intraordinal phylogenetic problems at the superfamily level within Heteroptera. The mitochondrial genomes of the true water bugs are typical insect mt-genomes. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the mt-genomes, we propose the Pleoidea to be a separate heteropteran infraorder. The infraorder Nepomorpha consists of five superfamilies with the relationships (Corixoidea + ((Naucoroidea + Notonectoidea) + (Ochteroidea + Nepoidea))). PMID:19523246

  17. Using phylogenetic probes for quantification of stable isotope labeling and microbial community analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, Eoin L; DeSantis, Todd Z; Karaoz, Ulas; Andersen, Gary L

    2014-12-09

    Herein is described methods for a high-sensitivity means to measure the incorporation of stable isotope labeled substrates into RNA following stable isotope probing experiments (SIP). RNA is hybridized to a set of probes such as phylogenetic microarrays and isotope incorporation is quantified such as by secondary ion mass spectrometer imaging (NanoSIMS).

  18. Phylogenetic analysis and reconfiguration of genera in the cestode order Diphyllidea.

    PubMed

    Caira, Janine N; Marques, Fernando P L; Jensen, Kirsten; Kuchta, Roman; Ivanov, Veronica

    2013-07-01

    The generic boundaries of the Diphyllidea are reassessed based on parsimony and likelihood phylogenetic analyses of 28S rDNA (ribonucleic acid large subunit), 18S rDNA (ribonucleic acid small subunit), and COI (cytochrome oxidase subunit I) sequence data for 31 species representing morphological variation across the order. Trees resulting from these analyses yielded a number of well-supported clades that are congruent with unique morphological features mandating generic revision of the order and erection of at least two new genera. Species originally assigned to Echinobothriumvan Beneden, 1849 but bearing a corona of spines on the region of the scolex anterior to the bothria and posterior to the apical organ armature are transferred to Coronocestus n. gen.; members of this genus typically parasitize triakid sharks, although one report from a hemiscylliid shark exists. Species with lateral hooklets arranged in continuous bands, rather than in two distinct clusters, are transferred to Halysioncum n. gen.; all species parasitize batoids, mostly myliobatids and rhinopterids, but a few records also exist from arhynchobatids, rhinobatids, platyrhinids and urotrygonids. Our analyses support transfer of the five species originally assigned to MacrobothridiumKhalil and Abdul-Salam, 1989 owing to their lack of cephalic peduncle spines to Echinobothrium. As a consequence, Echinobothrium sensu stricto includes species both with and without spines on the cephalic peduncle, but all members of the genus possess lateral hooklets arranged in clusters on either side of the dorsal and ventral apical hooks. With respect to diphyllideans parasitizing catsharks, AhamulinaMarques, Jensen and Caira, 2012 is unique in possessing apical hooks but lacking lateral hooklets and DitrachybothridiumRees, 1959 is unique in entirely lacking scolex armature. By far the majority of species of Echinobothrium sensu stricto parasitize skates of the family Rajidae, guitarfish of the family Rhinobatidae

  19. [Genome-wide identification, phylogenetic analysis and expression profiling of the WOX family genes in Solanum lycopersicum].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxu; Liu, Cheng; Li, Wei; Zhang, Zenglin; Gao, Xiaoming; Zhou, Hui; Guo, Yongfeng

    2016-05-01

    Members of the plant-specific WOX transcription factor family have been reported to play important roles in cell to cell communication as well as other physiological and developmental processes. In this study, ten members of the WOX transcription factor family were identified in Solanum lycopersicum with HMMER. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree, maximum-likelihood tree and Bayesian-inference tree were constructed and similar topologies were shown using the protein sequences of the homeodomain. Phylogenetic study revealed that the 25 WOX family members from Arabidopsis and tomato fall into three clades and nine subfamilies. The patterns of exon-intron structures and organization of conserved domains in Arabidopsis and tomato were consistent based on the phylogenetic results. Transcriptome analysis showed that the expression patterns of SlWOXs were different in different tissue types. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis suggested that, as transcription factors, the SlWOX family members could be involved in a number of biological processes including cell to cell communication and tissue development. Our results are useful for future studies on WOX family members in tomato and other plant species. PMID:27232493

  20. Atlantic origin of the arctic biota? Evidence from phylogenetic and biogeographical analysis of the cheilostome bryozoan genus pseudoflustra.

    PubMed

    Kuklinski, Piotr; Taylor, Paul D; Denisenko, Nina V; Berning, Björn

    2013-01-01

    The intricate geological evolution of the Arctic Ocean is paralleled by complexities in the biogeographical and phylogenetical histories of the Arctic biota, including bryozoans. Here we present revised taxonomic descriptions for all known species of the bryozoan genus Pseudoflustra, and use the present-day distributions and phylogenetic relationships between these species to infer the historical biogeography of the genus. Nine species belonging to the genus Pseudoflustra are recognized in the Arctic and North Atlantic. One new species, previously identified as Ichthyaria aviculata, is described as Pseudoflustra radeki sp. nov. Another species, previously assigned to Smittoidea as S. perrieri, is transferred to Pseudoflustra. Biogeographical analysis of Pseudoflustra reveals that species distributions mostly match current patterns pertaining in the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. Distributions were probably shaped by recent geological history as present-day current directions in the Arctic Ocean are believed to have been similar for at least the last 120 000 years. Phylogenetic analysis of Pseudoflustra places the five Arctic-North Atlantic species in a clade crownward of a paraphyletic grouping of North Atlantic species. Given that the Arctic Ocean was fully glaciated until 18 000 years, the most likely explanation for this phylogeographical pattern is that species of Pseudoflustra colonized the Arctic relatively recently from North Atlantic sources. However, a fuller understanding of the origin of Pseudoflustra in the Arctic will require molecular and fossil data, neither of which are currently available.

  1. Identification of Tunisian Leishmania spp. by PCR amplification of cysteine proteinase B (cpb) genes and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Chaouch, Melek; Fathallah-Mili, Akila; Driss, Mehdi; Lahmadi, Ramzi; Ayari, Chiraz; Guizani, Ikram; Ben Said, Moncef; Benabderrazak, Souha

    2013-03-01

    Discrimination of the Old World Leishmania parasites is important for diagnosis and epidemiological studies of leishmaniasis. We have developed PCR assays that allow the discrimination between Leishmania major, Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum Tunisian species. The identification was performed by a simple PCR targeting cysteine protease B (cpb) gene copies. These PCR can be a routine molecular biology tools for discrimination of Leishmania spp. from different geographical origins and different clinical forms. Our assays can be an informative source for cpb gene studying concerning drug, diagnostics and vaccine research. The PCR products of the cpb gene and the N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase (nagt) Leishmania gene were sequenced and aligned. Phylogenetic trees of Leishmania based cpb and nagt sequences are close in topology and present the classic distribution of Leishmania in the Old World. The phylogenetic analysis has enabled the characterization and identification of different strains, using both multicopy (cpb) and single copy (nagt) genes. Indeed, the cpb phylogenetic analysis allowed us to identify the Tunisian Leishmania killicki species, and a group which gathers the least evolved isolates of the Leishmania donovani complex, that was originated from East Africa. This clustering confirms the African origin for the visceralizing species of the L. donovani complex. PMID:23228525

  2. Comparative analysis of DNA polymorphisms and phylogenetic relationships among Syzygium cumini Skeels based on phenotypic characters and RAPD technique

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jitendra P; Singh, AK; Bajpai, Anju; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen

    2014-01-01

    The Indian black berry (Syzygium cumini Skeels) has a great nutraceutical and medicinal properties. As in other fruit crops, the fruit characteristics are important attributes for differentiation were also determined for different accessions of S. cumini. The fruit weight, length, breadth, length: breadth ratio, pulp weight, pulp content, seed weight and pulp: seed ratio significantly varied in different accessions. Molecular characterization was carried out using PCR based RAPD technique. Out of 80 RAPD primers, only 18 primers produced stable polymorphisms that were used to examine the phylogenetic relationship. A sum of 207 loci were generated out of which 201 loci found polymorphic. The average genetic dissimilarity was 97 per cent among jamun accessions. The phylogenetic relationship was also determined by principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) that explained 46.95 per cent cumulative variance. The two-dimensional PCoA analysis showed grouping of the different accessions that were plotted into four sub-plots, representing clustering of accessions. The UPGMA (r = 0.967) and NJ (r = 0.987) dendrogram constructed based on the dissimilarity matrix revealed a good degree of fit with the cophenetic correlation value. The dendrogram grouped the accessions into three main clusters according to their eco-geographical regions which given useful insight into their phylogenetic relationships. PMID:24966521

  3. Discrimination and chemical phylogenetic study of seven species of Dendrobium using infrared spectroscopy combined with cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Congpei; He, Tao; Chun, Ze

    2013-04-01

    Dendrobium is a commonly used and precious herb in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The high biodiversity of Dendrobium and the therapeutic needs require tools for the correct and fast discrimination of different Dendrobium species. This study investigates Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by cluster analysis for discrimination and chemical phylogenetic study of seven Dendrobium species. Despite the general pattern of the IR spectra, different intensities, shapes, peak positions were found in the IR spectra of these samples, especially in the range of 1800-800 cm-1. The second derivative transformation and alcoholic extracting procedure obviously enlarged the tiny spectral differences among these samples. The results indicated each Dendrobium species had a characteristic IR spectra profile, which could be used to discriminate them. The similarity coefficients among the samples were analyzed based on their second derivative IR spectra, which ranged from 0.7632 to 0.9700, among the seven Dendrobium species, and from 0.5163 to 0.9615, among the ethanol extracts. A dendrogram was constructed based on cluster analysis the IR spectra for studying the chemical phylogenetic relationships among the samples. The results indicated that D. denneanum and D. crepidatum could be the alternative resources to substitute D. chrysotoxum, D. officinale and D. nobile which were officially recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In conclusion, with the advantages of high resolution, speediness and convenience, the experimental approach can successfully discriminate and construct the chemical phylogenetic relationships of the seven Dendrobium species.

  4. Data set for phylogenetic tree and RAMPAGE Ramachandran plot analysis of SODs in Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xia, Minxuan; Chen, Jie; Deng, Fenni; Yuan, Rui; Zhang, Xiaopei; Shen, Fafu

    2016-12-01

    The data presented in this paper is supporting the research article "Genome-Wide Analysis of Superoxide Dismutase Gene Family in Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum" [1]. In this data article, we present phylogenetic tree showing dichotomy with two different clusters of SODs inferred by the Bayesian method of MrBayes (version 3.2.4), "Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models" [2], Ramachandran plots of G. raimondii and G. arboreum SODs, the protein sequence used to generate 3D sructure of proteins and the template accession via SWISS-MODEL server, "SWISS-MODEL: modelling protein tertiary and quaternary structure using evolutionary information." [3] and motif sequences of SODs identified by InterProScan (version 4.8) with the Pfam database, "Pfam: the protein families database" [4]. PMID:27672674

  5. Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems of Desulfovibrio Vulgaris: Structural and Phylogenetic Analysis and Deduction of Putative Cognate Pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Weiwen; Culley, David E.; Wu, Gang; Brockman, Fred J.

    2006-01-20

    ABSTRACT-Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSTS) composed of sensory histidine kinases (HK) and response regulators (RR), constitute a key element of the mechanism by which bacteria sense and respond to changes in environments. A large number of TCSTSs including 59 putative HKs and 55 RRs were identified from the Desulfovibrio vulgaris genome, indicating their important roles in regulation of cellular metabolism. In this study, the structural and phylogenetic analysis of all putative TCSTSs in D. vulgaris was performed. The results showed D. vulgaris contained an unexpectedly large number of hybrid-type HKs, implying that multiple-step phosphorelay may be a common signal transduction mechanism in D. vulgaris. Most TCSTS components of D. vulgaris were found clustered into several subfamilies previously recognized in other bacteria and extensive co-evolution between D. vulgaris HKs and RRs was observed, suggesting that the concordance of HKs and RRs in cognate phylogenetic groups could be indicative of cognate TCSTSs...

  6. Data set for phylogenetic tree and RAMPAGE Ramachandran plot analysis of SODs in Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xia, Minxuan; Chen, Jie; Deng, Fenni; Yuan, Rui; Zhang, Xiaopei; Shen, Fafu

    2016-12-01

    The data presented in this paper is supporting the research article "Genome-Wide Analysis of Superoxide Dismutase Gene Family in Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum" [1]. In this data article, we present phylogenetic tree showing dichotomy with two different clusters of SODs inferred by the Bayesian method of MrBayes (version 3.2.4), "Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models" [2], Ramachandran plots of G. raimondii and G. arboreum SODs, the protein sequence used to generate 3D sructure of proteins and the template accession via SWISS-MODEL server, "SWISS-MODEL: modelling protein tertiary and quaternary structure using evolutionary information." [3] and motif sequences of SODs identified by InterProScan (version 4.8) with the Pfam database, "Pfam: the protein families database" [4].

  7. Computed Tomography Inspection and Analysis for Additive Manufacturing Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beshears, Ronald D.

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) inspection was performed on test articles additively manufactured from metallic materials. Metallic AM and machined wrought alloy test articles with programmed flaws were inspected using a 2MeV linear accelerator based CT system. Performance of CT inspection on identically configured wrought and AM components and programmed flaws was assessed using standard image analysis techniques to determine the impact of additive manufacturing on inspectability of objects with complex geometries.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of four nuclear protein-encoding genes largely corroborates the traditional classification of Bivalvia (Mollusca).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prashant P; González, Vanessa L; Kawauchi, Gisele Y; Andrade, Sónia C S; Guzmán, Alejandra; Collins, Timothy M; Glover, Emily A; Harper, Elizabeth M; Healy, John M; Mikkelsen, Paula M; Taylor, John D; Bieler, Rüdiger; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2012-10-01

    Revived interest in molluscan phylogeny has resulted in a torrent of molecular sequence data from phylogenetic, mitogenomic, and phylogenomic studies. Despite recent progress, basal relationships of the class Bivalvia remain contentious, owing to conflicting morphological and molecular hypotheses. Marked incongruity of phylogenetic signal in datasets heavily represented by nuclear ribosomal genes versus mitochondrial genes has also impeded consensus on the type of molecular data best suited for investigating bivalve relationships. To arbitrate conflicting phylogenetic hypotheses, we evaluated the utility of four nuclear protein-encoding genes-ATP synthase β, elongation factor-1α, myosin heavy chain type II, and RNA polymerase II-for resolving the basal relationships of Bivalvia. We sampled all five major lineages of bivalves (Archiheterodonta, Euheterodonta [including Anomalodesmata], Palaeoheterodonta, Protobranchia, and Pteriomorphia) and inferred relationships using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. To investigate the robustness of the phylogenetic signal embedded in the data, we implemented additional datasets wherein length variability and/or third codon positions were eliminated. Results obtained include (a) the clade (Nuculanida+Opponobranchia), i.e., the traditionally defined Protobranchia; (b) the monophyly of Pteriomorphia; (c) the clade (Archiheterodonta+Palaeoheterodonta); (d) the monophyly of the traditionally defined Euheterodonta (including Anomalodesmata); and (e) the monophyly of Heteroconchia, i.e., (Palaeoheterodonta+Archiheterodonta+Euheterodonta). The stability of the basal tree topology to dataset manipulation is indicative of signal robustness in these four genes. The inferred tree topology corresponds closely to those obtained by datasets dominated by nuclear ribosomal genes (18S rRNA and 28S rRNA), controverting recent taxonomic actions based solely upon mitochondrial gene phylogenies.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships within the family Halomonadaceae based on comparative 23S and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    de la Haba, Rafael R; Arahal, David R; Márquez, M Carmen; Ventosa, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    A phylogenetic study of the family Halomonadaceae was carried out based on complete 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA gene sequences. Several 16S rRNA genes of type strains were resequenced, and 28 new sequences of the 23S rRNA gene were obtained. Currently, the family includes nine genera (Carnimonas, Chromohalobacter, Cobetia, Halomonas, Halotalea, Kushneria, Modicisalibacter, Salinicola and Zymobacter). These genera are phylogenetically coherent except Halomonas, which is polyphyletic. This genus comprises two clearly distinguished clusters: group 1 includes Halomonas elongata (the type species) and the species Halomonas eurihalina, H. caseinilytica, H. halmophila, H. sabkhae, H. almeriensis, H. halophila, H. salina, H. organivorans, H. koreensis, H. maura and H. nitroreducens. Group 2 comprises the species Halomonas aquamarina, H. meridiana, H. axialensis, H. magadiensis, H. hydrothermalis, H. alkaliphila, H. venusta, H. boliviensis, H. neptunia, H. variabilis, H. sulfidaeris, H. subterranea, H. janggokensis, H. gomseomensis, H. arcis and H. subglaciescola. Halomonas salaria forms a cluster with Chromohalobacter salarius and the recently described genus Salinicola, and their taxonomic affiliation requires further study. More than 20 Halomonas species are phylogenetically not within the core constituted by the Halomonas sensu stricto cluster (group 1) or group 2 and, since their positions on the different phylogenetic trees are not stable, they cannot be recognized as additional groups either. In general, there is excellent agreement between the phylogenies based on the two rRNA gene sequences, but the 23S rRNA gene showed higher resolution in the differentiation of species of the family Halomonadaceae.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis and expression profiling of the pattern recognition receptors: Insights into molecular recognition of invading pathogens in Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiufeng; He, Yan; Cao, Xiaolong; Gunaratna, Ramesh T; Chen, Yun-ru; Blissard, Gary; Kanost, Michael R; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-07-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) detect microbial pathogens and trigger innate immune responses. Previous biochemical studies have elucidated the physiological functions of eleven PRRs in Manduca sexta but our understanding of the recognition process is still limited, lacking genomic perspectives. While 34 C-type lectin-domain proteins and 16 Toll-like receptors are reported in the companion papers, we present here 120 other putative PRRs identified through the genome annotation. These include 76 leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins, 14 peptidoglycan recognition proteins, 6 EGF/Nim-domain proteins, 5 β-1,3-glucanase-related proteins, 4 galectins, 4 fibrinogen-related proteins, 3 thioester proteins, 5 immunoglobulin-domain proteins, 2 hemocytins, and 1 Reeler. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis reveal the evolution history of a diverse repertoire of proteins for pathogen recognition. While functions of insect LRR proteins are mostly unknown, their structure diversification is phenomenal: In addition to the Toll homologs, 22 LRR proteins with a signal peptide are expected to be secreted; 18 LRR proteins lacking signal peptides may be cytoplasmic; 36 LRRs with a signal peptide and a transmembrane segment may be non-Toll receptors on the surface of cells. Expression profiles of the 120 genes in 52 tissue samples reflect complex regulation in various developmental stages and physiological states, including some likely by Rel family transcription factors via κB motifs in the promoter regions. This collection of information is expected to facilitate future biochemical studies detailing their respective roles in this model insect. PMID:25701384

  11. Characterization of the Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Globose Head Whiptail Cetonurus globiceps (Gadiformes: Macrouridae) and Its Phylogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaofeng; Tian, Peng; Lin, Rongcheng; Huang, Dingyong; Wang, Jianjia

    2016-01-01

    The particular environmental characteristics of deep water such as its immense scale and high pressure systems, presents technological problems that have prevented research to broaden our knowledge of deep-sea fish. Here, we described the mitogenome sequence of a deep-sea fish, Cetonurus globiceps. The genome is 17,137 bp in length, with a standard set of 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and two typical non-coding control regions. Additionally, a 70bp tRNAThr-tRNAPro intergenic spacer is present. The C. globiceps mitogenome exhibited strand-specific asymmetry in nucleotide composition. The AT-skew and GC-skew values in the whole genome of C. globiceps were 0 and -0.2877, respectively, revealing that the H-strand had equal amounts of A and T and that the overall nucleotide composition was C skewed. All of the tRNA genes could be folded into cloverleaf secondary structures, while the secondary structure of tRNASer(AGY) lacked a discernible dihydrouridine stem. By comparing this genome sequence with the recognition sites in teleost species, several conserved sequence blocks were identified in the control region. However, the GTGGG-box, the typical characteristic of conserved sequence block E (CSB-E), was absent. Notably, tandem repeats were identified in the 3' portion of the control region. No similar repetitive motifs are present in most of other gadiform species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 12 protein coding genes provided strong support that C. globiceps was the most derived in the clade. Some relationships however, are in contrast with those presented in previous studies. This study enriches our knowledge of mitogenomes of the genus Cetonurus and provides valuable information on the evolution of Macrouridae mtDNA and deep-sea fish. PMID:27093057

  12. Characterization of the Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Globose Head Whiptail Cetonurus globiceps (Gadiformes: Macrouridae) and Its Phylogenetic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaofeng; Tian, Peng; Lin, Rongcheng; Huang, Dingyong; Wang, Jianjia

    2016-01-01

    The particular environmental characteristics of deep water such as its immense scale and high pressure systems, presents technological problems that have prevented research to broaden our knowledge of deep-sea fish. Here, we described the mitogenome sequence of a deep-sea fish, Cetonurus globiceps. The genome is 17,137 bp in length, with a standard set of 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and two typical non-coding control regions. Additionally, a 70 bp tRNA(Thr)-tRNA(Pro) intergenic spacer is present. The C. globiceps mitogenome exhibited strand-specific asymmetry in nucleotide composition. The AT-skew and GC-skew values in the whole genome of C. globiceps were 0 and -0.2877, respectively, revealing that the H-strand had equal amounts of A and T and that the overall nucleotide composition was C skewed. All of the tRNA genes could be folded into cloverleaf secondary structures, while the secondary structure of tRNA(Ser(AGY)) lacked a discernible dihydrouridine stem. By comparing this genome sequence with the recognition sites in teleost species, several conserved sequence blocks were identified in the control region. However, the GTGGG-box, the typical characteristic of conserved sequence block E (CSB-E), was absent. Notably, tandem repeats were identified in the 3' portion of the control region. No similar repetitive motifs are present in most of other gadiform species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 12 protein coding genes provided strong support that C. globiceps was the most derived in the clade. Some relationships however, are in contrast with those presented in previous studies. This study enriches our knowledge of mitogenomes of the genus Cetonurus and provides valuable information on the evolution of Macrouridae mtDNA and deep-sea fish. PMID:27093057

  13. Sequence characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 gene in the Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana).

    PubMed

    Dai, Q X; Yao, Y F; Qi, Z C; Huang, Y; Ni, Q Y; Zhang, M W; Xu, H L

    2015-03-13

    In this study, the complete coding region sequence of an innate immune-related TLR4 gene was obtained from the Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) genome via PCR and direct sequencing. The sequence had a total length of 2481 bp, contained 3 complete exons, and encoded 826 amino acids (AAs); its isoelectric point was 5.703, and the molecular weight was 94.72 kDa. The high structure prediction showed that the protein was comprised of one extracellular region, one transmembrane region, and one intracellular region. There were 48 potential functional sites in the protein, including glycosylation, phosphorylation, and acetylation sites. A homology analysis among 9 primate species, including the Tibetan macaque, human, chimpanzee, gibbon, rhesus macaque, cynomolgus monkey, pig-tailed monkey, squirrel monkey, and small-eared galago, showed that the homology of the nucleotide and AA sequences ranged from 60.9-99.5% and 51.4- 99.0%, respectively. Higher variability was identified in the extracellular region of the TLR4 protein, and its variable sites accounted for 88.79% (AA) of the total variable sites. Additionally, the number of AAs at the 3' end of the intracellular region was notably different among the primate lineages. The phylogenetic tree based on TLR4 gene exons of 9 primate species showed that the Tibetan macaque clustered with the rhesus macaque, cynomolgus monkey, and pig-tailed monkey; it was most distant from the small-eared galago. This study will provide an important basis for further study on the expression, regulation, and polymorphism of the TLR4 gene and the relationship between polymorphisms and host disease susceptibility.

  14. Equine influenza outbreak in India (2008-09): virus isolation, sero-epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of HA gene.

    PubMed

    Virmani, Nitin; Bera, B C; Singh, B K; Shanmugasundaram, K; Gulati, B R; Barua, Sanjay; Vaid, R K; Gupta, A K; Singh, R K

    2010-07-14

    An outbreak of equine influenza (EI) was reported in India in June, 2008 after a gap of two decades. The outbreak started from Jammu and Kashmir (Katra), northern state of India and spread to the other parts of the country affecting equines in 11 states. The virus (H3N8) was isolated from nasal swabs obtained from clinical cases in various locations in the country including Katra (Jammu and Kashmir), Mysore (Karnataka) and Ahmedabad (Gujarat) using embryonated chicken eggs. The virus isolates were identified as H3N8 by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test titration with standard serum and by sequencing of full-length haemagglutinin (HA) gene and partial sequence of neuraminidase (NA) gene. Paired serum samples (n=271) showing more than fourfold rise in antibody titres tested from 11 states confirmed equine influenza. Serum samples (n=2517) of equines from 13 states of the country screened by HI test revealed 687 (26.85%) samples positive for antibodies to EI (H3N8). Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene confirmed the virus to be closely related to Clade 2 of the Florida sublineage in American lineage. Comparison of deduced amino acid sequence of HA gene with EIV isolates from various lineages showed substitutions in the antigenic regions C and D. HA1 gene sequence had highest amino acid identity to A/eq/Gansu/7/08 and A/eq/Hubei/6/08 isolates from China and Inner-Mongolia isolate, while the complete HA gene sequence was closest to A/eq/A/eq/Newmarket/5/03, A/eq/Bari/05 and A/eq/Kentucky/05/02 isolates. Recent outbreaks of Mongolia, China and India by clade 2 EI viruses imply their predominance in Asia in addition to Europe.

  15. Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis Sheds Light on the Diversity and Origin of the MLO Family of Integral Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kusch, Stefan; Pesch, Lina; Panstruga, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Mildew resistance Locus O (MLO) proteins are polytopic integral membrane proteins that have long been considered as plant-specific and being primarily involved in plant–powdery mildew interactions. However, research in the past decade has revealed that MLO proteins diverged into a family with several clades whose members are associated with different physiological processes. We provide a largely increased dataset of MLO amino acid sequences, comprising nearly all major land plant lineages. Based on this comprehensive dataset, we defined seven phylogenetic clades and reconstructed the likely evolution of the MLO family in embryophytes. We further identified several MLO peptide motifs that are either conserved in all MLO proteins or confined to one or several clades, supporting the notion that clade-specific diversification of MLO functions is associated with particular sequence motifs. In baker’s yeast, some of these motifs are functionally linked to transmembrane (TM) transport of organic molecules and ions. In addition, we attempted to define the evolutionary origin of the MLO family and found that MLO-like proteins with highly diverse membrane topologies are present in green algae, but also in the distinctly related red algae (Rhodophyta), Amoebozoa, and Chromalveolata. Finally, we discovered several instances of putative fusion events between MLO proteins and different kinds of proteins. Such Rosetta stone-type hybrid proteins might be instructive for future analysis of potential MLO functions. Our findings suggest that MLO is an ancient protein that possibly evolved in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes, and consolidated in land plants with a conserved topology, comprising seven TM domains and an intrinsically unstructured C-terminus. PMID:26893454

  16. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of two novel regio-specific flavonoid prenyltransferases from Morus alba and Cudrania tricuspidata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruishan; Chen, Ridao; Li, Jianhua; Liu, Xiao; Xie, Kebo; Chen, Dawei; Yin, Yunze; Tao, Xiaoyu; Xie, Dan; Zou, Jianhua; Yang, Lin; Dai, Jungui

    2014-12-26

    Prenylated flavonoids are attractive specialized metabolites with a wide range of biological activities and are distributed in several plant families. The prenylation catalyzed by prenyltransferases represents a Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the flavonoid skeleton in the biosynthesis of natural prenylated flavonoids and contributes to the structural diversity and biological activities of these compounds. To date, all identified plant flavonoid prenyltransferases (FPTs) have been identified in Leguminosae. In the present study two new FPTs, Morus alba isoliquiritigenin 3'-dimethylallyltransferase (MaIDT) and Cudrania tricuspidata isoliquiritigenin 3'-dimethylallyltransferase (CtIDT), were identified from moraceous plants M. alba and C. tricuspidata, respectively. MaIDT and CtIDT shared low levels of homology with the leguminous FPTs. MaIDT and CtIDT are predicted to be membrane-bound proteins with predicted transit peptides, seven transmembrane regions, and conserved functional domains that are similar to other homogentisate prenyltransferases. Recombinant MaIDT and CtIDT were able to regioselectively introduce dimethylallyl diphosphate into the A ring of three flavonoids with different skeleton types (chalcones, isoflavones, and flavones). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MaIDT and CtIDT are distantly related to their homologs in Leguminosae, which suggests that FPTs in Moraceae and Leguminosae might have evolved independently. MaIDT and CtIDT represent the first two non-Leguminosae FPTs to be identified in plants and could thus lead to the identification of additional evolutionarily varied FPTs in other non-Leguminosae plants and could elucidate the biosyntheses of prenylated flavonoids in various plants. Furthermore, MaIDT and CtIDT might be used for regiospecific prenylation of flavonoids to produce bioactive compounds for potential therapeutic applications due to their high efficiency and catalytic promiscuity.

  17. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of two novel regio-specific flavonoid prenyltransferases from Morus alba and Cudrania tricuspidata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruishan; Chen, Ridao; Li, Jianhua; Liu, Xiao; Xie, Kebo; Chen, Dawei; Yin, Yunze; Tao, Xiaoyu; Xie, Dan; Zou, Jianhua; Yang, Lin; Dai, Jungui

    2014-12-26

    Prenylated flavonoids are attractive specialized metabolites with a wide range of biological activities and are distributed in several plant families. The prenylation catalyzed by prenyltransferases represents a Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the flavonoid skeleton in the biosynthesis of natural prenylated flavonoids and contributes to the structural diversity and biological activities of these compounds. To date, all identified plant flavonoid prenyltransferases (FPTs) have been identified in Leguminosae. In the present study two new FPTs, Morus alba isoliquiritigenin 3'-dimethylallyltransferase (MaIDT) and Cudrania tricuspidata isoliquiritigenin 3'-dimethylallyltransferase (CtIDT), were identified from moraceous plants M. alba and C. tricuspidata, respectively. MaIDT and CtIDT shared low levels of homology with the leguminous FPTs. MaIDT and CtIDT are predicted to be membrane-bound proteins with predicted transit peptides, seven transmembrane regions, and conserved functional domains that are similar to other homogentisate prenyltransferases. Recombinant MaIDT and CtIDT were able to regioselectively introduce dimethylallyl diphosphate into the A ring of three flavonoids with different skeleton types (chalcones, isoflavones, and flavones). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MaIDT and CtIDT are distantly related to their homologs in Leguminosae, which suggests that FPTs in Moraceae and Leguminosae might have evolved independently. MaIDT and CtIDT represent the first two non-Leguminosae FPTs to be identified in plants and could thus lead to the identification of additional evolutionarily varied FPTs in other non-Leguminosae plants and could elucidate the biosyntheses of prenylated flavonoids in various plants. Furthermore, MaIDT and CtIDT might be used for regiospecific prenylation of flavonoids to produce bioactive compounds for potential therapeutic applications due to their high efficiency and catalytic promiscuity. PMID:25361766

  18. Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Two Novel Regio-specific Flavonoid Prenyltransferases from Morus alba and Cudrania tricuspidata*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruishan; Chen, Ridao; Li, Jianhua; Liu, Xiao; Xie, Kebo; Chen, Dawei; Yin, Yunze; Tao, Xiaoyu; Xie, Dan; Zou, Jianhua; Yang, Lin; Dai, Jungui

    2014-01-01

    Prenylated flavonoids are attractive specialized metabolites with a wide range of biological activities and are distributed in several plant families. The prenylation catalyzed by prenyltransferases represents a Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the flavonoid skeleton in the biosynthesis of natural prenylated flavonoids and contributes to the structural diversity and biological activities of these compounds. To date, all identified plant flavonoid prenyltransferases (FPTs) have been identified in Leguminosae. In the present study two new FPTs, Morus alba isoliquiritigenin 3′-dimethylallyltransferase (MaIDT) and Cudrania tricuspidata isoliquiritigenin 3′-dimethylallyltransferase (CtIDT), were identified from moraceous plants M. alba and C. tricuspidata, respectively. MaIDT and CtIDT shared low levels of homology with the leguminous FPTs. MaIDT and CtIDT are predicted to be membrane-bound proteins with predicted transit peptides, seven transmembrane regions, and conserved functional domains that are similar to other homogentisate prenyltransferases. Recombinant MaIDT and CtIDT were able to regioselectively introduce dimethylallyl diphosphate into the A ring of three flavonoids with different skeleton types (chalcones, isoflavones, and flavones). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MaIDT and CtIDT are distantly related to their homologs in Leguminosae, which suggests that FPTs in Moraceae and Leguminosae might have evolved independently. MaIDT and CtIDT represent the first two non-Leguminosae FPTs to be identified in plants and could thus lead to the identification of additional evolutionarily varied FPTs in other non-Leguminosae plants and could elucidate the biosyntheses of prenylated flavonoids in various plants. Furthermore, MaIDT and CtIDT might be used for regiospecific prenylation of flavonoids to produce bioactive compounds for potential therapeutic applications due to their high efficiency and catalytic promiscuity. PMID:25361766

  19. Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis Sheds Light on the Diversity and Origin of the MLO Family of Integral Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kusch, Stefan; Pesch, Lina; Panstruga, Ralph

    2016-03-01

    Mildew resistanceLocusO(MLO) proteins are polytopic integral membrane proteins that have long been considered as plant-specific and being primarily involved in plant-powdery mildew interactions. However, research in the past decade has revealed that MLO proteins diverged into a family with several clades whose members are associated with different physiological processes. We provide a largely increased dataset of MLO amino acid sequences, comprising nearly all major land plant lineages. Based on this comprehensive dataset, we defined seven phylogenetic clades and reconstructed the likely evolution of the MLO family in embryophytes. We further identified several MLO peptide motifs that are either conserved in all MLO proteins or confined to one or several clades, supporting the notion that clade-specific diversification of MLO functions is associated with particular sequence motifs. In baker's yeast, some of these motifs are functionally linked to transmembrane (TM) transport of organic molecules and ions. In addition, we attempted to define the evolutionary origin of the MLO family and found that MLO-like proteins with highly diverse membrane topologies are present in green algae, but also in the distinctly related red algae (Rhodophyta), Amoebozoa, and Chromalveolata. Finally, we discovered several instances of putative fusion events between MLO proteins and different kinds of proteins. Such Rosetta stone-type hybrid proteins might be instructive for future analysis of potential MLO functions. Our findings suggest that MLO is an ancient protein that possibly evolved in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes, and consolidated in land plants with a conserved topology, comprising seven TM domains and an intrinsically unstructured C-terminus. PMID:26893454

  20. Additivity in the Analysis and Design of HIV Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Jorissen, Robert N.; Kiran Kumar Reddy, G. S.; Ali, Akbar; Altman, Michael D.; Chellappan, Sripriya; Anjum, Saima G.; Tidor, Bruce; Schiffer, Celia A.; Rana, Tariq M.; Gilson, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    We explore the applicability of an additive treatment of substituent effects to the analysis and design of HIV protease inhibitors. Affinity data for a set of inhibitors with a common chemical framework were analyzed to provide estimates of the free energy contribution of each chemical substituent. These estimates were then used to design new inhibitors, whose high affinities were confirmed by synthesis and experimental testing. Derivations of additive models by least-squares and ridge-regression methods were found to yield statistically similar results. The additivity approach was also compared with standard molecular descriptor-based QSAR; the latter was not found to provide superior predictions. Crystallographic studies of HIV protease-inhibitor complexes help explain the perhaps surprisingly high degree of substituent additivity in this system, and allow some of the additivity coefficients to be rationalized on a structural basis. PMID:19193159

  1. Composition and phylogenetic analysis of vitellogenin coding sequences in the Indonesian coelacanth Latimeria menadoensis.

    PubMed

    Canapa, Adriana; Olmo, Ettore; Forconi, Mariko; Pallavicini, Alberto; Makapedua, Monica Daisy; Biscotti, Maria Assunta; Barucca, Marco

    2012-07-01

    The coelacanth Latimeria menadoensis, a living fossil, occupies a key phylogenetic position to explore the changes that have affected the genomes of the aquatic vertebrates that colonized dry land. This is the first study to isolate and analyze L. menadoensis mRNA. Three different vitellogenin transcripts were identified and their inferred amino acid sequences compared to those of other known vertebrates. The phylogenetic data suggest that the evolutionary history of this gene family in coelacanths was characterized by a different duplication event than those which occurred in teleosts, amniotes, and amphibia. Comparison of the three sequences highlighted differences in functional sites. Moreover, despite the presence of conserved sites compared with the other oviparous vertebrates, some sites were seen to have changed, others to be similar only to those of teleosts, and others still to resemble only to those of tetrapods.

  2. [Partial sequence homology of FtsZ in phylogenetics analysis of lactic acid bacteria].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Dong, Xiu-zhu

    2005-10-01

    FtsZ is a structurally conserved protein, which is universal among the prokaryotes. It plays a key role in prokaryote cell division. A partial fragment of the ftsZ gene about 800bp in length was amplified and sequenced and a partial FtsZ protein phylogenetic tree for the lactic acid bacteria was constructed. By comparing the FtsZ phylogenetic tree with the 16S rDNA tree, it was shown that the two trees were similar in topology. Both trees revealed that Pediococcus spp. were closely related with L. casei group of Lactobacillus spp. , but less related with other lactic acid cocci such as Enterococcus and Streptococcus. The results also showed that the discriminative power of FtsZ was higher than that of 16S rDNA for either inter-species or inter-genus and could be a very useful tool in species identification of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:16342751

  3. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF 16S RRNA GENE SEQUENCES REVEALS THE PREVALENCE OF MYCOBACTERIA SP., ALPHA-PROTEOBACTERIA, AND UNCULTURED BACTERIA IN DRINKING WATER MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have shown that culture-based methods tend to underestimate the densities and diversity of bacterial populations inhabiting water distribution systems (WDS). In this study, the phylogenetic diversity of drinking water bacteria was assessed using sequence analysis...

  4. Phylogenetic Analysis, Lineage-Specific Expansion and Functional Divergence of seed dormancy 4-Like Genes in Plants.

    PubMed

    Subburaj, Saminathan; Cao, Shuanghe; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    The rice gene seed dormancy 4 (OsSdr4) functions in seed dormancy and is a major factor associated with pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). Although previous studies of this protein family were reported for rice and other species, knowledge of the evolution of genes homologous to OsSdr4 in plants remains inadequate. Fifty four Sdr4-like (hereafter designated Sdr4L) genes were identified in nine plant lineages including 36 species. Phylogenetic analysis placed these genes in eight subfamilies (I-VIII). Genes from the same lineage clustered together, supported by analysis of conserved motifs and exon-intron patterns. Segmental duplications were present in both dicot and monocot clusters, while tandemly duplicated genes occurred only in monocot clusters indicating that both tandem and segmental duplications contributed to expansion of the grass I and II subfamilies. Estimation of the approximate ages of the duplication events indicated that ancestral Sdr4 genes evolved from a common angiosperm ancestor, about 160 million years ago (MYA). Moreover, diversification of Sdr4L genes in mono and dicot plants was mainly associated with genome-wide duplication and speciation events. Functional diverg